He, Guang-Ping
2005-01-01
Though it was proven that secure quantum sealing of a single classical bit is impossible in principle, here we propose an unconditionally secure quantum sealing protocol which seals a classical bit string. Any reader can obtain each bit of the sealed string with an arbitrarily small error rate, while reading the string is detectable. The protocol is simple and easy to be implemented. The possibility of using this protocol to seal a single bit in practical is also discussed.
Yang, S. -R. Eric; Schliemann, John; MacDonald, A. H.
2002-01-01
Bilayer quantum Hall systems can form collective states in which electrons exhibit spontaneous interlayer phase coherence. We discuss the possibility of using bilayer quantum dot many-electron states with this property to create two-level systems that have potential advantages as quantum bits.
Atomic physics: A milestone in quantum computing
Bartlett, Stephen D.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers require many quantum bits to perform complex calculations, but devices with more than a few bits are difficult to program. A device based on five atomic quantum bits shows a way forward. See Letter p.63
Bacon, D J; Whaley, K B
2001-01-01
Real quantum systems couple to their environment and lose their intrinsic quantum nature through the process known as decoherence. Here we present a method for minimizing decoherence by making it energetically unfavorable. We present a Hamiltonian made up solely of two-body interactions between four two-level systems (qubits) which has a two-fold degenerate ground state. This degenerate ground state has the property that any decoherence process acting on an individual physical qubit must supply energy from the bath to the system. Quantum information can be encoded into the degeneracy of the ground state and such supercoherent qubits will then be robust to local decoherence at low bath temperatures. We show that this quantum information can be universally manipulated using nearest neighbor interactions without destroying the supercoherence. We demonstrate this approach with an analysis of supercoherence in the context of a quantum dot proposal for a quantum computer.
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-01-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many…
Insecurity Of Imperfect Quantum Bit Seal
Chau, H. F.
2005-01-01
Quantum bit seal is a way to encode a classical bit quantum mechanically so that everyone can obtain non-zero information on the value of the bit. Moreover, such an attempt should have a high chance of being detected by an authorized verifier. Surely, a reader looks for a way to get the maximum amount of information on the sealed bit and at the same time to minimize her chance of being caught. And a verifier picks a sealing scheme that maximizes his chance of detecting any measurement of the ...
Oss, Stefano; Rosi, Tommaso
2015-04-01
We have developed an app for iOS-based smart-phones/tablets that allows a 3-D, complex phase-based colorful visualization of hydrogen atom wave functions. Several important features of the quantum behavior of atomic orbitals can easily be made evident, thus making this app a useful companion in introductory modern physics classes. There are many reasons why quantum mechanical systems and phenomena are difficult both to teach and deeply understand. They are described by equations that are generally hard to visualize, and they often oppose the so-called "common sense" based on the human perception of the world, which is built on mental images such as locality and causality. Moreover students cannot have direct experience of those systems and solutions, and generally do not even have the possibility to refer to pictures, videos, or experiments to fill this gap. Teachers often encounter quite serious troubles in finding out a sensible way to speak about the wonders of quantum physics at the high school level, where complex formalisms are not accessible at all. One should however consider that this is quite a common issue in physics and, more generally, in science education. There are plenty of natural phenomena whose models (not only at microscopic and atomic levels) are of difficult, if not impossible, visualization. Just think of certain kinds of waves, fields of forces, velocities, energy, angular momentum, and so on. One should also notice that physical reality is not the same as the images we make of it. Pictures (formal, abstract ones, as well as artists' views) are a convenient bridge between these two aspects.
A Simple Quantum Bit Commitment Protocol
Sheikholeslam, S Arash
2011-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new quantum bit commitment method which is secure against entanglement attacks. Some cheating strategies are discussed and shown to be ineffective against the proposed method.
Optimal bounds for quantum bit commitment
Chailloux, André
2011-01-01
Bit commitment is a fundamental cryptographic primitive with numerous applications. Quantum information allows for bit commitment schemes in the information theoretic setting where no dishonest party can perfectly cheat. The previously best-known quantum protocol by Ambainis achieved a cheating probability of at most 3/4[Amb01]. On the other hand, Kitaev showed that no quantum protocol can have cheating probability less than 1/sqrt{2} [Kit03] (his lower bound on coin flipping can be easily extended to bit commitment). Closing this gap has since been an important and open question. In this paper, we provide the optimal bound for quantum bit commitment. We first show a lower bound of approximately 0.739, improving Kitaev's lower bound. We then present an optimal quantum bit commitment protocol which has cheating probability arbitrarily close to 0.739. More precisely, we show how to use any weak coin flipping protocol with cheating probability 1/2 + eps in order to achieve a quantum bit commitment protocol with ...
Friesen, M; Eriksson, M A; Friesen, Mark; Joynt, Robert
2002-01-01
Quantum computers are analog devices; thus they are highly susceptible to accumulative errors arising from classical control electronics. Fast operation--as necessitated by decoherence--makes gating errors very likely. In most current designs for scalable quantum computers it is not possible to satisfy both the requirements of low decoherence errors and low gating errors. Here we introduce a hardware-based technique for pseudo-digital gate operation. We perform self-consistent simulations of semiconductor quantum dots, finding that pseudo-digital techniques reduce operational error rates by more than two orders of magnitude, thus facilitating fast operation.
Why quantum bit committment and quantum coin tossing are impossible?
Lo, H K
1996-01-01
There had been well known claims of ``provably unbreakable'' quantum protocols for bit commitment and coin tossing. However, we, and independently Mayers, showed that all proposed quantum bit commitment (and coin tossing) schemes are, in principle, insecure because the sender, Alice, can always cheat successfully by using an EPR-type of attack and delaying her measurements. One might wonder if secure quantum bit commitment and coin tossing protocols exist at all. Here we prove that an EPR-type of attack by Alice will, in principle, break {\\em any} realistic quantum bit commitment and {\\em ideal} coin tossing scheme. Therefore, provided that Alice has a quantum computer and is capable of storing quantum signals for an arbitrary length of time, all those schemes are insecure. Since bit commitment and coin tossing are useful primitives for building up more sophisticated protocols such as zero-knowledge proofs, our results cast very serious doubt on the security of quantum cryptography in the so-called ``post-col...
Quantum communication based on orthogonal states enables quantum bit commitment
He, Guang Ping
2011-01-01
For more than a decade, it was believed that unconditionally secure quantum bit commitment (QBC) is impossible. But basing on a formerly proposed quantum communication scheme using orthogonal states, here we build a QBC protocol in which the density matrices of the quantum states encoding the commitment do not satisfy a crucial condition on which the impossibility proofs of QBC are based. Thus unconditional security can be achieved. Our protocol is very feasible with currently available technology. It re-opens the venue for other "post-cold-war" multi-party cryptographic protocols, e.g., unconditionally secure quantum bit string commitment and quantum strong coin tossing with an arbitrarily small bias. This result also has a strong influence on the Clifton-Bub-Halvorson theorem which suggests that quantum theory could be characterized in terms of information-theoretic constraints.
Supersymmetric quantum mechanics for string-bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors develop possible versions of supersymmetric single particle quantum mechanics, with application to superstring-bit models in view. The authors focus principally on space dimensions d = 1,2,4,8, the transverse dimensionalities of superstring in 3, 4, 7, 10 space-time dimensions. These are the cases for which classical superstring makes sense, and also the values of d for which Hooke's force law is compatible with the simplest superparticle dynamics. The basic question they address is: when is it possible to replace such harmonic force laws with more general ones, including forces which vanish at large distances? This is an important question because forces between string-bits that do not fall off with distance will almost certainly destroy cluster decomposition. They show that the answer is affirmative for d = 1,2, negative for d = 8, and so far inconclusive for d = 4
Geneva University - Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects
2007-01-01
Ecole de physique Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél: (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Lundi 29 janvier 2007 COLLOQUE DE LA SECTION DE PHYSIQUE 17 heures - Auditoire Stueckelberg Superconducting flux quantum bits: fabricated quantum objects Prof. Hans Mooij / Kavli Institute of Nanoscience, Delft University of Technology The quantum conjugate variables of a superconductor are the charge or number of Cooper pairs, and the phase of the order parameter. In circuits that contain small Josephson junctions, these quantum properties can be brought forward. In Delft we study so-called flux qubits, superconducting rings that contain three small Josephson junctions. When a magnetic flux of half a flux quantum is applied to the loop, there are two states with opposite circulating current. For suitable junction parameters, a quantum superposition of those macroscopic states is possible. Transitions can be driven with resonant microwaves. These quantum ...
Quantum bit commitment with cheat sensitive binding and approximate sealing
Li, Yan-Bing; Xu, Sheng-Wei; Huang, Wei; Wan, Zhong-Jie
2014-01-01
This paper proposes a cheat sensitive quantum bit commitment (CSQBC) scheme based on single photons, in which Alice commits a bit to Bob. Here, Bob only can cheat the committed bit with probability close to $0$ with the increasing of used single photons' amount. And if Alice altered her committed bit after commitment phase, she will be detected with probability close to $1$ with the increasing of used single photons' amount. The scheme is easy to be realized with nowadays technology.
Power of one bit of quantum information in quantum metrology
Cable, Hugo; Gu, Mile; Modi, Kavan
2016-04-01
We present a model of quantum metrology inspired by the computational model known as deterministic quantum computation with one quantum bit (DQC1). Using only one pure qubit together with l fully mixed qubits we obtain measurement precision (defined as root-mean-square error for the parameter being estimated) at the standard quantum limit, which is typically obtained using the same number of uncorrelated qubits in fully pure states. In principle, the standard quantum limit can be exceeded using an additional qubit which adds only a small amount of purity. We show that the discord in the final state vanishes only in the limit of attaining infinite precision for the parameter being estimated.
Quantum bits and superposition of displaced Fock states of the cavity field
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arevalo A, L.M. [Centro de Investigaciones en Optica A.C., Prolongacion de Constitucion No. 607, Apdo. Postal 507, Aguascalientes (Mexico); Moya C, H. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)
2002-07-01
We study the effects of counter rotating terms in the interaction of quantized light with a two-level atom, by using the method of small rotations. We give an expression for the wave function of the composed system atom plus field and point out one initial wave function that generates a quantum bit of the electromagnetic field with arbitrary amplitudes. (Author)
Continuous operation of high bit rate quantum key distribution
Dixon, A R; Yuan, Z. L.; Dynes, J. F.; Sharpe, A. W.; Shields, A. J.
2010-01-01
We demonstrate a quantum key distribution with a secure bit rate exceeding 1 Mbit/s over 50 km fiber averaged over a continuous 36-hours period. Continuous operation of high bit rates is achieved using feedback systems to control path length difference and polarization in the interferometer and the timing of the detection windows. High bit rates and continuous operation allows finite key size effects to be strongly reduced, achieving a key extraction efficiency of 96% compared to keys of infi...
Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-01-01
Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a "quantum channel", quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of 100 million rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-meter optical fiber. The spinwave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon, and subjected to Bell-state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spinwave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the succe...
Why Quantum Bit Commitment And Ideal Quantum Coin Tossing Are Impossible
Lo, H K
1998-01-01
There had been well known claims of unconditionally secure quantum protocols for bit commitment. However, we, and independently Mayers, showed that all proposed quantum bit commitment schemes are, in principle, insecure because the sender, Alice, can almost always cheat successfully by using an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) type of attack and delaying her measurements. One might wonder if secure quantum bit commitment protocols exist at all. We answer this question by showing that the same type of attack by Alice will, in principle, break any bit commitment scheme. The cheating strategy generally requires a quantum computer. We emphasize the generality of this ``no-go theorem'': Unconditionally secure bit commitment schemes based on quantum mechanics---fully quantum, classical or quantum but with measurements---are all ruled out by this result. Since bit commitment is a useful primitive for building up more sophisticated protocols such as zero-knowledge proofs, our results cast very serious doubt on the secur...
Realizing ternary quantum switching networks without ancilla bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper investigates the synthesis of quantum networks built to realize ternary switching circuits in the absence of ancilla bits. The results we established are twofold. The first shows that ternary Swap, ternary NOT and ternary Toffoli gates are universal for the realization of arbitrary n x n ternary quantum switching networks without ancilla bits. The second result proves that all n x n quantum ternary networks can be generated by NOT, Controlled-NOT, Multiply-Two and Toffoli gates. Our approach is constructive
How to Convert a Flavor of Quantum Bit Commitment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Crepeau, Claude; Legare, Frédéric; Salvail, Louis
2001-01-01
In this paper we show how to convert a statistically binding but computationally concealing quantum bit commitment scheme into a computationally binding but statistically concealing QBC scheme. For a security parameter n, the construction of the statistically concealing scheme requires O(n2) exec......) executions of the statistically binding scheme. As a consequence, statistically concealing but computationally binding quantum bit commitments can be based upon any family of quantum one-way functions. Such a construction is not known to exist in the classical world....
Encrypting Binary Bits via Quantum Cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZENGGuihua
2004-01-01
A quantum cryptographic algorithm, which may be exploited to encrypt classic information is investigated theoretically in this paper. The proposed algorithm can prevent quantum attack strategy as well as classic attack strategy. A proof-in-principle of experimental demonstration, which exploits optical fibre communication technology and photon technology, is suggested.
Theoretical Study of Quantum Bit Rate in Free-Space Quantum Cryptography
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
MA Jing; ZHANG Guang-Yu; TAN Li-Ying
2006-01-01
The quantum bit rate is an important operating parameter in free-space quantum key distribution. We introduce the measuring factor and the sifting factor, and present the expressions of the quantum bit rate based on the ideal single-photon sources and the single-photon sources with Poisson distribution. The quantum bit rate is studied in the numerical simulation for the laser links between a ground station and a satellite in a low earth orbit. The results show that it is feasible to implement quantum key distribution between a ground station and a satellite in a low earth orbit.
A short impossibility proof of Quantum Bit Commitment
Chiribella, G.; D'Ariano, G. M.; Perinotti, P.; Schlingemann, D. M.; Werner, R. F.
2009-01-01
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment-bindingness tradeoff. A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in: G. M. D'Ariano, D. Kretschmann, D. Schlingemann, and R. F. Werner, Phys. Rev. A 76, 032328 (2007), in the Heisenberg picture and in a C*-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information are exch...
Cloning the entanglement of a pair of quantum bits
Lamoureux, Louis-Philippe; Navez, Patrick; Fiurasek, Jaromir; Cerf, Nicolas J
2003-01-01
It is shown that any quantum operation that perfectly clones the entanglement of all maximally-entangled qubit pairs cannot preserve separability. This ``entanglement no-cloning'' principle naturally suggests that some approximate cloning of entanglement is nevertheless allowed by quantum mechanics. We investigate a separability-preserving optimal cloning machine that duplicates all maximally-entangled states of two qubits, resulting in 0.285 bits of entanglement per clone, while a local clon...
Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories.
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-12-11
Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a "quantum channel," quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895-1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of ∼10(8) rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing. PMID:23144222
Quantum teleportation between remote atomic-ensemble quantum memories
Bao, Xiao-Hui; Xu, Xiao-Fan; Li, Che-Ming; Yuan, Zhen-Sheng; Lu, Chao-Yang; Pan, Jian-Wei
2012-01-01
Quantum teleportation and quantum memory are two crucial elements for large-scale quantum networks. With the help of prior distributed entanglement as a “quantum channel,” quantum teleportation provides an intriguing means to faithfully transfer quantum states among distant locations without actual transmission of the physical carriers [Bennett CH, et al. (1993) Phys Rev Lett 70(13):1895–1899]. Quantum memory enables controlled storage and retrieval of fast-flying photonic quantum bits with stationary matter systems, which is essential to achieve the scalability required for large-scale quantum networks. Combining these two capabilities, here we realize quantum teleportation between two remote atomic-ensemble quantum memory nodes, each composed of ∼108 rubidium atoms and connected by a 150-m optical fiber. The spin wave state of one atomic ensemble is mapped to a propagating photon and subjected to Bell state measurements with another single photon that is entangled with the spin wave state of the other ensemble. Two-photon detection events herald the success of teleportation with an average fidelity of 88(7)%. Besides its fundamental interest as a teleportation between two remote macroscopic objects, our technique may be useful for quantum information transfer between different nodes in quantum networks and distributed quantum computing. PMID:23144222
The quantum bit from relativity of simultaneity on an interferometer
Garner, Andrew J P; Dahlsten, Oscar C O
2014-01-01
The patterns of fringes produced by an interferometer have always been important testbeds for our best contemporary theories of physics. Historically, interference has been used to contrast quantum mechanics to classical physics, but recently experiments have been performed that test quantum theory against even more exotic alternatives. A physically motivated family of theories are those where the state space of a two-level system is given by a sphere of arbitrary dimension. This includes classical bits, and real, complex and quaternionic quantum theory. In this paper, we consider relativity of simultaneity (that observers may disagree about the order of events at different locations) as applied to a two-armed interferometer. We show that this forbids most interference phenomena more complicated than those of standard complex quantum theory. In this sense, special relativity itself can be used to explain why physics should be described by the rules of quantum theory in this setup. Moreover, our result has con...
Design of an SFQ Microwave Chopper for Controlling Quantum Bits
Matsuda, G; Yamanashi, Y; Yoshikawa, N.
2007-01-01
A microwave chopper using single-flux-quantum (SFQ) circuits is proposed for the control of quantum bits (qubits). The proposed microwave chopper is composed of a DC/SFQ converter, an SFQ switch and a band-pass filter (BPF). In operation, an externally applied microwave is input to a DC/SFQ converter to generate an SFQ pulse train, which is chopped at high speed by the SFQ switch. The SFQ pulse train is then filtered by the BPYA I to remove higher harmonics. The transient response, the amplit...
El-Orany, Faisal A A
2009-01-01
In this paper, we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of them includes a localized and/or a trapped atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchanging energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way, i.e. as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM), and with the atom-mode in the second waveguide via evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for the system and deduce the exact form for the wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional linear coupler, the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions, the system can yield the results of the two-m...
Reexamination of quantum bit commitment: The possible and the impossible
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. We give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed 'honest' strategy, so that 'anonymous state protocols', which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results, are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two-party protocols, which is applicable to more general situations, and an estimate about the continuity of the Stinespring dilation of a general quantum channel. The result also provides a natural characterization of protocols that fall outside the standard setting of unlimited available technology and thus may allow secure bit commitment. We present such a protocol whose security, perhaps surprisingly, relies on decoherence in the receiver's laboratory
Quantum bit commitment using Wheeler's delayed choice experiment
Cheung, Chi-Yee
2015-01-01
We construct a quantum bit commitment scheme using a double-slit setup similar to Wheeler's delayed choice experiment. Bob sends photons toward the double-slit, and Alice commits by determining either the slit from which each photon emerges (for $b=0$), or its landing position on a screen (for $b=1$). Since the photon's wave front expands at the speed of light, Alice cannot delay the detection indefinitely, or it would very soon be out of her control no matter how much resources she has.
Hybrid Qubit gates in circuit QED: A scheme for quantum bit encoding and information processing
Neto, O P de Sa
2011-01-01
Solid state superconducting devices coupled to coplanar transmission lines offer an exquisite architecture for quantum optical phenomena probing as well as for quantum computation implementation, being the object of intense theoretical and experimental investigation lately. In appropriate conditions the transmission line radiation modes can get strongly coupled to a superconducting device with only two levels -for that reason called artificial atom or qubit. Employing this system we propose a hybrid two-quantum bit gate encoding involving quantum electromagnetic field qubit states prepared in a coplanar transmission line capacitively coupled to a single charge qubit. Since dissipative effects are more drastic in the solid state qubit than in the field one, it can be employed for storage of information, whose efficiency against the action of an ohmic bath show that this encoding can be readily implemented with present day technology. We extend the investigation to generate entanglement between several solid st...
Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.
Single ion impact detection and scanning probe aligned ion implantation for quantum bit formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weis, Christoph D.
2011-10-04
Quantum computing and quantum information processing is a promising path to replace classical information processing via conventional computers which are approaching fundamental physical limits. Instead of classical bits, quantum bits (qubits) are utilized for computing operations. Due to quantum mechanical phenomena such as superposition and entanglement, a completely different way of information processing is achieved, enabling enhanced performance for certain problem sets. Various proposals exist on how to realize a quantum bit. Among them are electron or nuclear spins of defect centers in solid state systems. Two such candidates with spin degree of freedom are single donor atoms in silicon and nitrogen vacancy (NV) defect centers in diamond. Both qubit candidates possess extraordinary qualities which makes them promising building blocks. Besides certain advantages, the qubits share the necessity to be placed precisely in their host materials and device structures. A commonly used method is to introduce the donor atoms into the substrate materials via ion implantation. For this, focused ion beam systems can be used, or collimation techniques as in this work. A broad ion beam hits the back of a scanning probe microscope (SPM) cantilever with incorporated apertures. The high resolution imaging capabilities of the SPM allows the non destructive location of device areas and the alignment of the cantilever and thus collimated ion beam spot to the desired implant locations. In this work, this technique is explored, applied and pushed forward to meet necessary precision requirements. The alignment of the ion beam to surface features, which are sensitive to ion impacts and thus act as detectors, is demonstrated. The technique is also used to create NV center arrays in diamond substrates. Further, single ion impacts into silicon device structures are detected which enables deliberate single ion doping.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chiribella, Giulio, E-mail: gchiribella@mail.tsinghua.edu.cn [Center for Quantum Information, Institute for Interdisciplinary Information Sciences, Tsinghua University (China); D' Ariano, Giacomo Mauro, E-mail: dariano@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Perinotti, Paolo, E-mail: paolo.perinotti@unipv.it [QUIT group, Dipartimento di Fisica, via Bassi 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); INFN Gruppo IV, Sezione di Pavia, via Bassi, 6, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Schlingemann, Dirk, E-mail: d.schlingemann@tu-bs.de [ISI Foundation, Quantum Information Theory Unit, Viale S. Severo 65, 10133 Torino (Italy); Werner, Reinhard, E-mail: Reinhard.Werner@itp.uni-hannover.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Leibniz Universität Hannover, Appelstrasse 2, 30167 Hannover (Germany)
2013-06-17
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C{sup ⁎}-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
A short impossibility proof of quantum bit commitment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bit commitment protocols, whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone, are generally held to be impossible on the basis of a concealment–bindingness tradeoff (Lo and Chau, 1997 [1], Mayers, 1997 [2]). A strengthened and explicit impossibility proof has been given in D'Ariano et al. (2007) [3] in the Heisenberg picture and in a C⁎-algebraic framework, considering all conceivable protocols in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged. In the present Letter we provide a new impossibility proof in the Schrödinger picture, greatly simplifying the classification of protocols and strategies using the mathematical formulation in terms of quantum combs (Chiribella et al., 2008 [4]), with each single-party strategy represented by a conditioned comb. We prove that assuming a stronger notion of concealment—for each classical communication history, not in average—allows Alice's cheat to pass also the worst-case Bob's test. The present approach allows us to restate the concealment–bindingness tradeoff in terms of the continuity of dilations of probabilistic quantum combs with the metric given by the comb discriminability-distance.
Quantum information with Rydberg atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing....
Quantum synapse for cold atoms
Kouzaev, G A
2007-01-01
In this paper, the quantum synaptic effect is studied that arisen in the system of two crossed wires excited by the static (DC) and radio-frequency (RF) currents. The potential barrier between the two orthogonal atom streams is controlled electronically and the atoms can be transferred from one wire to another under certain critical values of the RF and DC currents. The results are interesting in the study of quantum interferometry and quantum registering of cold atoms.
Quantum Bit Commitment Revisited: the Possible and the Impossible
D'Ariano, G M; Schlingemann, D; Werner, R F; Ariano, Giacomo Mauro D'; Kretschmann, Dennis; Schlingemann, Dirk; Werner, Reinhard F.
2006-01-01
Bit commitment protocols whose security is based on the laws of quantum mechanics alone are generally held to be impossible. In this paper we give a strengthened and explicit proof of this result. We extend its scope to a much larger variety of protocols, which may have an arbitrary number of rounds, in which both classical and quantum information is exchanged, and which may include aborts and resets. Moreover, we do not consider the receiver to be bound to a fixed "honest" strategy, so that "anonymous state protocols", which were recently suggested as a possible way to beat the known no-go results are also covered. We show that any concealing protocol allows the sender to find a cheating strategy, which is universal in the sense that it works against any strategy of the receiver. Moreover, if the concealing property holds only approximately, the cheat goes undetected with a high probability, which we explicitly estimate. The proof uses an explicit formalization of general two party protocols, which is applic...
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yan, Qiurong, E-mail: yanqiurong@ncu.edu.cn [Department of Electronics Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China); State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Zhao, Baosheng [State Key Laboratory of Transient Optics and Photonics, Xi' an Institute of Optics and Precision Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xi' an 710119 (China); Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun [Department of Electronics Information Engineering, Nanchang University, Nanchang 330031 (China)
2014-10-15
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
Multi-bit quantum random number generation by measuring positions of arrival photons
Yan, Qiurong; Zhao, Baosheng; Liao, Qinghong; Zhou, Nanrun
2014-10-01
We report upon the realization of a novel multi-bit optical quantum random number generator by continuously measuring the arrival positions of photon emitted from a LED using MCP-based WSA photon counting imaging detector. A spatial encoding method is proposed to extract multi-bits random number from the position coordinates of each detected photon. The randomness of bits sequence relies on the intrinsic randomness of the quantum physical processes of photonic emission and subsequent photoelectric conversion. A prototype has been built and the random bit generation rate could reach 8 Mbit/s, with random bit generation efficiency of 16 bits per detected photon. FPGA implementation of Huffman coding is proposed to reduce the bias of raw extracted random bits. The random numbers passed all tests for physical random number generator.
A quantum speedup in machine learning: Finding a N-bit Boolean function for a classification
Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung
2013-01-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate sol...
A quantum logic gate between a solid-state quantum bit and a photon
Kim, Hyochul; Shen, Thomas C; Solomon, Glenn S; Waks, Edo; 10.1038/nphoton.2013.48
2013-01-01
Integrated quantum photonics provides a promising route towards scalable solid-state implementations of quantum networks, quantum computers, and ultra-low power opto-electronic devices. A key component for many of these applications is the photonic quantum logic gate, where the quantum state of a solid-state quantum bit (qubit) conditionally controls the state of a photonic qubit. These gates are crucial for development of robust quantum networks, non-destructive quantum measurements, and strong photon-photon interactions. Here we experimentally realize a quantum logic gate between an optical photon and a solid-state qubit. The qubit is composed of a quantum dot (QD) strongly coupled to a nano-cavity, which acts as a coherently controllable qubit system that conditionally flips the polarization of a photon on picosecond timescales, implementing a controlled-NOT (cNOT) gate. Our results represent an important step towards solid-state quantum networks and provide a versatile approach for probing QD-photon inter...
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics
Nagourney, Warren
2010-01-01
Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques
Andrist, Ruben S.; Wootton, James R.; Katzgraber, Helmut G.
2014-01-01
Current approaches for building quantum computing devices focus on two-level quantum systems which nicely mimic the concept of a classical bit, albeit enhanced with additional quantum properties. However, rather than artificially limiting the number of states to two, the use of d-level quantum systems (qudits) could provide advantages for quantum information processing. Among other merits, it has recently been shown that multi-level quantum systems can offer increased stability to external di...
Single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit using cavity quantum electrodynamics
Sun, Shuo; Waks, Edo
2016-07-01
We propose a method to perform single-shot optical readout of a quantum bit (qubit) using cavity quantum electrodynamics. We selectively couple the optical transitions associated with different qubit basis states to the cavity and utilize the change in cavity transmissivity to generate a qubit readout signal composed of many photons. We show that this approach enables single-shot optical readout even when the qubit does not have a good cycling transition, which is required for standard resonance fluorescence measurements. We calculate the probability that the measurement detects the correct qubit state using the example of a quantum-dot spin under various experimental conditions and demonstrate that it can exceed 0.99.
Atomic quantum systems in optical micro-structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: We combine state-of-the-art technology in micro-optics with the quantum optical techniques of laser cooling, laser trapping, and quantum control to open a new gateway for quantum information processing and matter wave optics with atomic systems. We use micro-fabricated optical systems to create light fields that allow us to trap and guide neutral atoms as a result of the optical dipole force experienced by the atoms. The realization of arrays of laser traps that can serve as registers for atomic quantum bits and as integrated waveguide structures for atom optics and atom interferometry has been achieved. This approach opens the possibility to scale, parallelize, and miniaturize systems for quantum information processing and atom optics. Currently we investigate the production of quantum-degenerate systems in pure optical trapping geometries and the coherent manipulation (1-qubit rotations, Ramsey-oscillations, spin-echo experiments) of internal qubit states for atoms trapped in arrays of dipole traps (author)
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution. (paper)
A quantum speedup in machine learning: finding an N-bit Boolean function for a classification
Yoo, Seokwon; Bang, Jeongho; Lee, Changhyoup; Lee, Jinhyoung
2014-10-01
We compare quantum and classical machines designed for learning an N-bit Boolean function in order to address how a quantum system improves the machine learning behavior. The machines of the two types consist of the same number of operations and control parameters, but only the quantum machines utilize the quantum coherence naturally induced by unitary operators. We show that quantum superposition enables quantum learning that is faster than classical learning by expanding the approximate solution regions, i.e., the acceptable regions. This is also demonstrated by means of numerical simulations with a standard feedback model, namely random search, and a practical model, namely differential evolution.
Quantum Simulation with Cold Atoms and Ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This lecture is about Quantum Simulation with Cold Atoms and Ions. The first part of the lecture deals with Quantum Computing, Quantum Simulation and Building Quantum Devices. In the next part Trapped Ions: in quantum computing and quantum simulation are discussed. In the next part the focus lies on Cold Atoms in Optical Lattices: optical lattices, atomic Hubbard models, hubbard toolbox. The next section is about: From STATIC to DYNAMICAL Gauge Field. After that, cold Atom Implementations of Dynamical Gauge Fields are discussed. And the last part deals with Quantum Link Models in 2D - Quantum Spin Ice. (nowak)
Tournet, J.; Gosselink, D.; Miao, G.-X.; Jaikissoon, M.; Langenberg, D.; McConkey, T. G.; Mariantoni, M.; Wasilewski, Z. R.
2016-06-01
The quest for a universal quantum computer has renewed interest in the growth of superconducting materials on semiconductor substrates. High-quality superconducting thin films will make it possible to improve the coherence time of superconducting quantum bits (qubits), i.e., to extend the time a qubit can store the amplitude and phase of a quantum state. The electrical losses in superconducting qubits highly depend on the quality of the metal layers the qubits are made from. Here, we report on the epitaxy of single-crystal Al (011) layers on GaAs (001) substrates. Layers with 110 nm thickness were deposited by means of molecular beam epitaxy at low temperature and monitored by in situ reflection high-energy electron diffraction performed simultaneously at four azimuths. The single-crystal nature of the layers was confirmed by ex situ high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Differential interference contrast and atomic force microscopy analysis of the sample’s surface revealed a featureless surface with root mean square roughness of 0.55 nm. A detailed in situ study allowed us to gain insight into the nucleation mechanisms of Al layers on GaAs, highlighting the importance of GaAs surface reconstruction in determining the final Al layer crystallographic orientation and quality. A highly uniform and stable GaAs (001)-(2× 4) reconstruction reproducibly led to a pure Al (011) phase, while an arsenic-rich GaAs (001)-(4× 4) reconstruction yielded polycrystalline films with an Al (111) dominant orientation. The near-atomic smoothness and single-crystal character of Al films on GaAs, in combination with the ability to trench GaAs substrates, could set a new standard for the fabrication of superconducting qubits.
On-chip microwave generator for manipulation of superconductive quantum bits
Yamanashi, Y; Asano, T; Yoshikawa, N.
2006-01-01
A new on-chip microwave generator for manipulating superconductive quantum bits (qubits) have been proposed. To perform practical quantum computation, on-chip microwave generators, which can be controlled by single flux quantum (SFQ) circuits, are desirable because multiple qubits can be driven simultaneously with high accuracy by an SFQ control circuit and the number of wires between qubits and room-temperature electronics can be reduced. The proposed on-chip microwave generator is composed ...
Single-passage read-out of atomic quantum memory
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fiurasek, J; Sherson, J; Opatrny, T; Polzik, Eugene Simon
2005-01-01
Retrieving quantum information, collective atomic spin systems, quantum memory Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb.......Retrieving quantum information, collective atomic spin systems, quantum memory Udgivelsesdato: 17 Feb....
Room temperature single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report room temperature operation of telecom wavelength single-photon detectors for high bit rate quantum key distribution (QKD). Room temperature operation is achieved using InGaAs avalanche photodiodes integrated with electronics based on the self-differencing technique that increases avalanche discrimination sensitivity. Despite using room temperature detectors, we demonstrate QKD with record secure bit rates over a range of fiber lengths (e.g., 1.26 Mbit/s over 50 km). Furthermore, our results indicate that operating the detectors at room temperature increases the secure bit rate for short distances
Bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption based on quantum perfect encryption
Wu, Chenmiao; Yang, Li
2016-08-01
A bit-oriented quantum public-key encryption scheme is presented. We use Boolean functions as private-key and randomly changed pairs of quantum state and classical string as public-keys. Following the concept of quantum perfect encryption, we prepare the public-key with Hadamard transformation and Pauli transformation. The quantum part of public-keys is various with different classical strings. In contrast to the typical classical public-key scheme, one private-key in our scheme corresponds to an exponential number of public-keys. We investigate attack to the private-key and prove that the public-key is a totally mixed state. So the adversary cannot acquire any information about private-key from measurement of the public-key. Then, the attack to encryption is analyzed. Since the trace distance between two different ciphertexts is zero, the adversary cannot distinguish between the two ciphertext states and also obtains nothing about plaintext and private-key. Thus, we have the conclusion that the proposed scheme is information-theoretically secure under an attack of the private-key and encryption.
A linear atomic quantum coupler
El-Orany, Faisal A. A.; Wahiddin, M. R. B.
2010-04-01
In this paper we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of which includes a localized atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchange of energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) and with the atom-mode system in the second waveguide via the evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for this system and deduce its wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional coupler the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit a long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions the system can yield the results of the two-mode JCM.
A linear atomic quantum coupler
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we develop the notion of the linear atomic quantum coupler. This device consists of two modes propagating into two waveguides, each of which includes a localized atom. These waveguides are placed close enough to allow exchange of energy between them via evanescent waves. Each mode interacts with the atom in the same waveguide in the standard way as the Jaynes-Cummings model (JCM) and with the atom-mode system in the second waveguide via the evanescent wave. We present the Hamiltonian for this system and deduce its wavefunction. We investigate the atomic inversions and the second-order correlation function. In contrast to the conventional coupler the atomic quantum coupler is able to generate nonclassical effects. The atomic inversions can exhibit a long revival-collapse phenomenon as well as subsidiary revivals based on the competition among the switching mechanisms in the system. Finally, under certain conditions the system can yield the results of the two-mode JCM.
Deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic quantum bits by a hybrid technique.
Takeda, Shuntaro; Mizuta, Takahiro; Fuwa, Maria; van Loock, Peter; Furusawa, Akira
2013-08-15
Quantum teleportation allows for the transfer of arbitrary unknown quantum states from a sender to a spatially distant receiver, provided that the two parties share an entangled state and can communicate classically. It is the essence of many sophisticated protocols for quantum communication and computation. Photons are an optimal choice for carrying information in the form of 'flying qubits', but the teleportation of photonic quantum bits (qubits) has been limited by experimental inefficiencies and restrictions. Main disadvantages include the fundamentally probabilistic nature of linear-optics Bell measurements, as well as the need either to destroy the teleported qubit or attenuate the input qubit when the detectors do not resolve photon numbers. Here we experimentally realize fully deterministic quantum teleportation of photonic qubits without post-selection. The key step is to make use of a hybrid technique involving continuous-variable teleportation of a discrete-variable, photonic qubit. When the receiver's feedforward gain is optimally tuned, the continuous-variable teleporter acts as a pure loss channel, and the input dual-rail-encoded qubit, based on a single photon, represents a quantum error detection code against photon loss and hence remains completely intact for most teleportation events. This allows for a faithful qubit transfer even with imperfect continuous-variable entangled states: for four qubits the overall transfer fidelities range from 0.79 to 0.82 and all of them exceed the classical limit of teleportation. Furthermore, even for a relatively low level of the entanglement, qubits are teleported much more efficiently than in previous experiments, albeit post-selectively (taking into account only the qubit subspaces), and with a fidelity comparable to the previously reported values. PMID:23955230
"Electronium": A Quantum Atomic Teaching Model.
Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John
2002-01-01
Outlines an alternative atomic model to the probability model, the descriptive quantum atomic model Electronium. Discusses the way in which it is intended to support students in learning quantum-mechanical concepts. (Author/MM)
Quantum Wires and Quantum Dots for Neutral Atoms
Schmiedmayer, Joerg
1998-01-01
By placing changeable nanofabricated structures (wires, dots, etc.) on an atom mirror one can design guiding and trapping potentials for atoms. These potentials are similar to the electrostatic potentials which trap and guide electrons in semiconductor quantum devices like quantum wires and quantum dots. This technique will allow the fabrication of nanoscale atom optical devices.
Quantum Encoder and Decoder for Secret Key Distribution with Check Bits
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Godhavari
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The focus of this study is to develop a novel method of encoding the qubits and use as secret key in public key cryptography. In BB 84 protocol, 50% of the random number (generated at source is used as secret key and the remaining bits are used as “check bits”. The check bits are used to detect the presence of eve as well as the nature of quantum channels. In this protocol, random qubits are encoded using different type of polarizations like horizontal, veritical and diagonal. In the proposed quantum encoder, basic quantum gates are used to encode the random secret key along with the check bits. Quantum key distribution, (a cryptographic mechanism relies on the inherent randomness of quantum mechanics and serves as an option to replace techniques made vulnerable by quantum computing. However, it is still subject to clever forms of eavesdropping and poses a significant challenge to implementation. To study the challenges, quantum circuits are first simulated using QCAD.
Quantum information. Unconditional quantum teleportation between distant solid-state quantum bits.
Pfaff, W; Hensen, B J; Bernien, H; van Dam, S B; Blok, M S; Taminiau, T H; Tiggelman, M J; Schouten, R N; Markham, M; Twitchen, D J; Hanson, R
2014-08-01
Realizing robust quantum information transfer between long-lived qubit registers is a key challenge for quantum information science and technology. Here we demonstrate unconditional teleportation of arbitrary quantum states between diamond spin qubits separated by 3 meters. We prepare the teleporter through photon-mediated heralded entanglement between two distant electron spins and subsequently encode the source qubit in a single nuclear spin. By realizing a fully deterministic Bell-state measurement combined with real-time feed-forward, quantum teleportation is achieved upon each attempt with an average state fidelity exceeding the classical limit. These results establish diamond spin qubits as a prime candidate for the realization of quantum networks for quantum communication and network-based quantum computing. PMID:25082696
How to build a 300 bit, 1 Gop quantum computer
Steane, A M
2004-01-01
Experimental methods for laser-control of trapped ions have reached sufficient maturity that it is possible to set out in detail a design for a large quantum computer based on such methods, without any major omissions or uncertainties. The main features of such a design are given, with a view to identifying areas for study. The machine is based on 13000 ions moved via 20 micron vacuum channels around a chip containing 160000 electrodes and associated classical control circuits; 1000 laser beam pairs are used to manipulate the hyperfine states of the ions and drive fluorescence for readout. The computer could run a quantum algorithm requiring 10^9 logical operations on 300 logical qubits, with a physical gate rate of 1 MHz and a logical gate rate of 8 kHz, using methods for quantum gates that have already been experimentally implemented. Routes for faster operation are discussed.
The quantum bit commitment a finite open system approach for a complete classification of protocols
D'Ariano, G M
2002-01-01
Mayers, Lo and Chau argued that all quantum bit commitment protocols are insecure, because there is no way to prevent an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) cheating attack. However, Yuen presented some protocols which challenged the previous impossibility argument. Up to now, it is still debated whether there exist or not unconditionally secure protocols. In this paper the above controversy is addressed. For such purpose, a complete classification of all possible bit commitment protocols is given, including all possible cheating attacks. Focusing on the simplest class of protocols (non-aborting and with complete and perfect verification), it is shown how naturally a game-theoretical situation arises. For these protocols, bounds for the cheating probabilities are derived, involving the two quantum operations encoding the bit values and their respective alternate Kraus decompositions. Such bounds are different from those given in the impossibility proof. The whole classification and analysis has been carried out usi...
Bekenstein, Jacob D.
1997-01-01
In some respects the black hole plays the same role in gravitation that the atom played in the nascent quantum mechanics. This analogy suggests that black hole mass $M$ might have a discrete spectrum. I review the physical arguments for the expectation that black hole horizon area eigenvalues are uniformly spaced, or equivalently, that the spacing between stationary black hole mass levels behaves like 1/M. This sort of spectrum has also emerged in a variety of formal approaches to black hole ...
Quantum machine using cold atoms
Ponomarev, Alexey; Hanggi, Peter
2009-01-01
For a machine to be useful in practice, it preferably has to meet two requirements: namely, (i) to be able to perform work under a load and (ii) its operational regime should ideally not depend on the time at which the machine is switched-on. We devise a minimal setup, consisting of two atoms only, for an ac-driven quantum motor which fulfills both these conditions. Explicitly, the motor consists of two different interacting atoms placed into a ring-shaped periodic optical potential -- an optical "bracelet" --, resulting from the interference of two counter-propagating Laguerre-Gauss laser beams. This bracelet is additionally threaded by a pulsating magnetic flux. While the first atom plays a role of a quantum "carrier", the second serves as a quantum "starter", which sets off the "carrier" into a steady rotational motion. For fixed zero-momentum initial conditions the asymptotic carrier velocity saturates to a unique, nonzero value which becomes increasingly independent on the starting time with increasing "...
Initialization by Measurement of a Superconducting Quantum Bit Circuit
Riste, D.; van Leeuwen, J. G.; Ku, H.S.; Lehnert, K. W.; DiCarlo, L.
2012-01-01
We demonstrate initialization by joint measurement of two transmon qubits in 3D circuit quantum electrodynamics. Homodyne detection of cavity transmission is enhanced by Josephson parametric amplification to discriminate the two-qubit ground state from single-qubit excitations nondestructively and with 98.1% fidelity. Measurement and postselection of a steady-state mixture with 4.7% residual excitation per qubit achieve 98.8% fidelity to the ground state, thus outperforming passive initializa...
Classical and Quantum Chaos in Atom Optics
Saif, Farhan
2006-01-01
The interaction of an atom with an electromagnetic field is discussed in the presence of a time periodic external modulating force. It is explained that a control on atom by electromagnetic fields helps to design the quantum analog of classical optical systems. In these atom optical systems chaos may appear at the onset of external fields. The classical and quantum chaotic dynamics is discussed, in particular in an atom optics Fermi accelerator. It is found that the quantum dynamics exhibits ...
Efficient teleportation between remote single-atom quantum memories.
Nölleke, Christian; Neuzner, Andreas; Reiserer, Andreas; Hahn, Carolin; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2013-04-01
We demonstrate teleportation of quantum bits between two single atoms in distant laboratories. Using a time-resolved photonic Bell-state measurement, we achieve a teleportation fidelity of (88.0 ± 1.5)%, largely determined by our entanglement fidelity. The low photon collection efficiency in free space is overcome by trapping each atom in an optical cavity. The resulting success probability of 0.1% is almost 5 orders of magnitude larger than in previous experiments with remote material qubits. It is mainly limited by photon propagation and detection losses and can be enhanced with a cavity-based deterministic Bell-state measurement. PMID:25166964
Zero knowledge convincing protocol on quantum bit is impossible
Horodecki, Pawel; Horodecki, Michal; Horodecki, Ryszard
2000-01-01
Consider two parties: Alice and Bob and suppose that Bob is given a qubit system in a quantum state $\\phi$, unknown to him. Alice knows $\\phi$ and she is supposed to convince Bob that she knows $\\phi$ sending some test message. Is it possible for her to convince Bob providing him "zero knowledge" i. e. no information about $\\phi$ he has? We prove that there is no "zero knowledge" protocol of that kind. In fact it turns out that basing on Alice message, Bob (or third party - Eve - who can inte...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rashmi Pandey
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Quantum Dot Cellular Automata (QCA is an advanced nanotechnology that attempts to create general computational at the nano-scale by controlling the position of single electrons. Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA defines a new device architecture that permits the innovative design of digital systems. QCA technology has large potential in terms of high space density and power dissipation with the development of the faster computer with smaller size & low power consumption.QCA help us to overcome the limitations of CMOS technology. In this paper, A design 16-bit arithmetic logic unit (ALU based on the Quantum dot cellular automata (QCA is presented. The simulation result of 16 bit ALU is verified using QCA Designer tool.
Detecting relay attacks on RFID communication systems using quantum bits
Jannati, Hoda; Ardeshir-Larijani, Ebrahim
2016-08-01
RFID systems became widespread in variety of applications because of their simplicity in manufacturing and usability. In the province of critical infrastructure protection, RFID systems are usually employed to identify and track people, objects and vehicles that enter restricted areas. The most important vulnerability which is prevalent among all protocols employed in RFID systems is against relay attacks. Until now, to protect RFID systems against this kind of attack, the only approach is the utilization of distance-bounding protocols which are not applicable over low-cost devices such as RFID passive tags. This work presents a novel technique using emerging quantum technologies to detect relay attacks on RFID systems. Recently, it is demonstrated that quantum key distribution (QKD) can be implemented in a client-server scheme where client only requires an on-chip polarization rotator that may be integrated into a handheld device. Now we present our technique for a tag-reader scenario which needs similar resources as the mentioned QKD scheme. We argue that our technique requires less resources and provides lower probability of false alarm for the system, compared with distance-bounding protocols, and may pave the way to enhance the security of current RFID systems.
High efficiency Nondistortion Quantum Interrogation of atoms in quantum superpositions
Zhou, Xingxiang; Zhou, Zheng-Wei; Guo, Guang-Can; Feldman, Marc J.
2001-01-01
We consider the nondistortion quantum interrogation (NQI) of an atom prepared in a quantum superposition. By manipulating the polarization of the probe photon and making connections to interaction free measurements of opaque objects, we show that nondistortion interrogation of an atom in a quantum superposition can be done with efficiency approaching unity. However, if any component of the atom's superposition is completely transparent to the probe wave function, a nondistortion interrogation...
Quantum and classical coin-flipping protocols based on bit-commitment and their point games
Nayak, Ashwin; Sikora, Jamie; Tunçel, Levent
2015-01-01
We focus on a family of quantum coin-flipping protocols based on bit-commitment. We discuss how the semidefinite programming formulations of cheating strategies can be reduced to optimizing a linear combination of fidelity functions over a polytope. These turn out to be much simpler semidefinite programs which can be modelled using second-order cone programming problems. We then use these simplifications to construct their point games as developed by Kitaev. We also study the classical versio...
Deterministic quantum teleportation between distant atomic objects
Krauter, H.; D Salart; Muschik, C. A.; Petersen, J. M.; Shen, Heng; Fernholz, T.; Polzik, E. S.
2013-01-01
Quantum teleportation is a key ingredient of quantum networks and a building block for quantum computation. Teleportation between distant material objects using light as the quantum information carrier has been a particularly exciting goal. Here we demonstrate a new element of the quantum teleportation landscape, the deterministic continuous variable (cv) teleportation between distant material objects. The objects are macroscopic atomic ensembles at room temperature. Entanglement required for...
Atomic Quantum State Teleportation and Swapping
Kuzmich, A.; Polzik, E. S.
2000-01-01
A set of protocols for atomic quantum state teleportation and swapping utilizing Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen light is proposed. The protocols are suitable for collective spin states of a macroscopic sample of atoms, i.e. for continuous atomic variables. Feasibility of experimental realization for teleportation of a gas sample of atoms is analyzed.
All-Optical Quantum Random Bit Generation from Intrinsically Binary Phase of Parametric Oscillators
Marandi, Alireza; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L; Byer, Robert L
2012-01-01
True random number generators (RNGs) are desirable for applications ranging from cryptogra- phy to computer simulations. Quantum phenomena prove to be attractive for physical RNGs due to their fundamental randomness and immunity to attack [1]- [5]. Optical parametric down conversion is an essential element in most quantum optical experiments including optical squeezing [9], and generation of entangled photons [10]. In an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), photons generated through spontaneous down conversion of the pump initiate the oscillation in the absence of other inputs [11, 12]. This quantum process is the dominant effect during the oscillation build-up, leading to selection of one of the two possible phase states above threshold in a degenerate OPO [13]. Building on this, we demonstrate a novel all-optical quantum RNG in which the photodetection is not a part of the random process, and no post processing is required for the generated bit sequence. We implement a synchronously pumped twin degenerate O...
Specht, Holger P; Reiserer, Andreas; Uphoff, Manuel; Figueroa, Eden; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2011-01-01
The faithful storage of a quantum bit of light is essential for long-distance quantum communication, quantum networking and distributed quantum computing. The required optical quantum memory must, first, be able to receive and recreate the photonic qubit and, second, store an unknown quantum state of light better than any classical device. These two requirements have so far been met only by ensembles of material particles storing the information in collective excitations. Recent developments, however, have paved the way for a new approach in which the information exchange happens between single quanta of light and matter. This single-particle approach allows one to address the material qubit and thus has fundamental advantages for realistic implementations: First, to combat inevitable losses and finite efficiencies, it enables a heralding mechanism that signals the successful storage of a photon by means of state detection. Second, it allows for individual qubit manipulations, opening up avenues for in situ p...
Hybrid quantum systems of atoms and ions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In recent years, ultracold atoms have emerged as an exceptionally controllable experimental system to investigate fundamental physics, ranging from quantum information science to simulations of condensed matter models. Here we go one step further and explore how cold atoms can be combined with other quantum systems to create new quantum hybrids with tailored properties. Coupling atomic quantum many-body states to an independently controllable single-particle gives access to a wealth of novel physics and to completely new detection and manipulation techniques. We report on recent experiments in which we have for the first time deterministically placed a single ion into an atomic Bose Einstein condensate. A trapped ion, which currently constitutes the most pristine single particle quantum system, can be observed and manipulated at the single particle level. In this single-particle/many-body composite quantum system we show sympathetic cooling of the ion and observe chemical reactions of single particles in situ.
Atomically crafted spin lattices as model systems for quantum magnetism
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Low-dimensional quantum magnetism presents a seemingly unlimited source of rich, intriguing physics. Yet, because realistic experimental representations are difficult to come by, the field remains predominantly theoretical. In recent years, artificial spin structures built through manipulation of magnetic atoms in a scanning tunnelling microscope have developed into a promising testing ground for experimental verification of theoretical models. Here, we present an overview of available tools and discuss recent achievements as well as future avenues. Moreover, we show new observations on magnetic switching in a bistable bit that can be used to extrapolate information on the magnetisation of the microscope tip. (topical review)
Quantum teleportation with atoms: quantum process tomography
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The performance of a quantum teleportation algorithm implemented on an ion trap quantum computer is investigated. First the algorithm is analysed in terms of the teleportation fidelity of six input states evenly distributed over the Bloch sphere. Furthermore, a quantum process tomography of the teleportation algorithm is carried out which provides almost complete knowledge about the algorithm
Individual Atoms in their Quantum Ground State
Schwartz, Eyal; Sompet, Pimonpan; Fung, Yin Hsien; Andersen, Mikkel F.
2016-05-01
An ultimate control of pure quantum states is an excellent platform for various quantum science and engineering. In this work, we perform quantum manipulation of individual Rubidium atoms in a tightly focus optical tweezer in order to cool them into their vibrational ground state via Raman sideband cooling. Our experimental scheme involves a combination of Raman sideband transitions and optical pumping of the atoms that couples two magnetic field sublevels indifferent to magnetic noise thus providing a much longer atomic coherence time compared to previous cooling schemes. By installing most of the atoms in their ground state, we managed to achieve two-dimensional cooling on the way to create a full nil entropy quantum state of single atoms and single molecules. We acknowledge the Marsden Fund, CORE and DWC for their support.
Fresch, B.; Verduijn, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rogge, S.; Remacle, F.
2012-07-01
We show that a single atom transistor (SAT) addressed by a pulsed gate voltage is a physical realization of an Oracle that can calculate the four one-bit Boolean functions, the logical output being encoded in a measurable current. The algorithm relies on the quasi-classical parallelism that arises from the linearity of the kinetic scheme used to describe incoherent electron transport through two levels of the SAT. We demonstrate that one of the four one-bit Boolean functions can be identified by a single current measurement. The generalization of the algorithm to n bit functions is also discussed.
Artificial Atoms: from Quantum Physics to Applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The primary objective of this workshop is to survey the most recent advances of technologies enabling single atom- and artificial atom-based devices. These include the assembly of artificial molecular structures with magnetic dipole and optical interactions between engineered atoms embedded in solid-state lattices. The ability to control single atoms in diamond or similar solids under ambient operating conditions opens new perspectives for technologies based on nanoelectronics and nanophotonics. The scope of the workshop is extended towards the physics of strong coupling between atoms and radiation field modes. Beyond the traditional atom-cavity systems, artificial dipoles coupled to microwave radiation in circuit quantum electrodynamics is considered. All these technologies mutually influence each other in developing novel devices for sensing at the quantum level and for quantum information processing.
Hwang, Won-Young; Su, Hong-Yi; Bae, Joonwoo
2016-07-01
We study N-dimensional measurement-device-independent quantum-key-distribution protocol where one checking state is used. Only assuming that the checking state is a superposition of other N sources, we show that the protocol is secure in zero quantum-bit-error-rate case, suggesting possibility of the protocol. The method may be applied in other quantum information processing.
A Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
Cheuk, Lawrence W.; Nichols, Matthew A.; Okan, Melih; Gersdorf, Thomas; Ramasesh, Vinay V.; Bakr, Waseem S.; Lompe, Thomas; Zwierlein, Martin W.
2015-01-01
Strongly interacting fermions define the properties of complex matter at all densities, from atomic nuclei to modern solid state materials and neutron stars. Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have emerged as a pristine platform for the study of many-fermion systems. Here we realize a quantum gas microscope for fermionic $^{40}$K atoms trapped in an optical lattice, which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high-resolu...
Atomic spin chains as testing ground for quantum magnetism
Otte, Sander
2015-03-01
The field of quantum magnetism aims to capture the rich emergent physics that arises when multiple spins interact, in terms of elementary models such as the spin 1/2 Heisenberg chain. Experimental platforms to verify these models are rare and generally do not provide the possibility to detect spin correlations locally. In my lab we use low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy to design and build artificial spin lattices with atomic precision. Inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy enables us to identify the ground state and probe spin excitations as a function of system size, location inside the lattice and coupling parameter values. Two types of collective excitations that play a role in many dynamic magnetic processes are spin waves (magnons) and spinons. Our experiments enable us to study both types of excitations. First, we have been able to map the standing spin wave modes of a ferromagnetic bit of six atoms, and to determine their role in the collective reversal process of the bit (Spinelli et al., Nature Materials 2014). More recently, we have crafted antiferromagnetic spin 1/2 XXZ chains, which allow us to observe spinon excitations, as well as the stepwise transition to a fully aligned phase beyond the critical magnetic field (Toskovic et al., in preparation). These findings create a promising experimental environment for putting quantum magnetic models to the test. Research funded by NWO and FOM.
MEMS-Based Optical Beam Steering System for Quantum Information Processing in 2D Atomic Systems
Knoernschild, Caleb; Kim, Changsoon; Liu, Bin; Lu, Felix P.; Kim, Jungsang
2007-01-01
In order to provide scalability to quantum information processors utilizing trapped atoms or ions as quantum bits (qubits), the capability to address multiple individual qubits in a large array is needed. Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) technology can be used to create a flexible and scalable optical system to direct the necessary laser beams to multiple qubit locations. We developed beam steering optics using controllable MEMS mirrors that enable one laser beam to address multiple qub...
Twin-SET architecture for increased fault-tolerance during quantum-bit readout
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: In order to access the computational result stored in a quantum computer, the state of a quantum-bit (qubit) needs to be read out. Various solid-state quantum computer proposals link-directly on indirectly-the state of a qubit to the charge state of a quantum system. In particular, in the Kane architecture the spin-state of a particular 31P donor is translated to the charge-state of an artificial molecule formed by this donor and a reference donor. Single-electron transistors (SETs) have been shown to be particularly suitable for quantum-state readout in terms of sensitivity, low back-action, and speed (ie radio-frequency driven SETs, rf-SET). However, SETs are susceptible to random charge noise, which can lead to spurious signals in the SET output during readout. Here, we describe an architecture in which the charge-state of a metallic double-dot can be detected using two SETs: one on either side of the double-dot. This twin-SET architecture allows significant reduction of random charge noise by correlating the output of two independent detectors. Measurements carried out in a 3He/4He dilution refrigerator at millikelvin temperatures clearly demonstrated charge transfer on the double-dot with random charge noise being suppressed by correlating both SET outputs
Quantum magnetism through atomic assembly
Spinelli, A.
2015-01-01
This thesis presents an experimental study of magnetic structures, composed of only a few atoms. Those structures are first built atom-by-atom and then locally probed, both with a low-temperature STM. The technique that we use to assemble them is vertical atom manipulation, while to study their phy
On the impossibility of non-static quantum bit commitment between two parties
Li, Qin; Long, Dong-Yang; Chan, W H; Wu, Chun-Hui
2011-01-01
Recently, Choi \\emph{et al}. proposed an assumption on Mayers-Lo-Chau (MLC) no-go theorem that the state of the entire quantum system is invariable to both participants before the unveiling phase. This means that the theorem is only applicable to static quantum bit commitment (QBC). This paper find that the assumption is unnecessary and the MLC no-go theorem can be applied to not only static QBC, but also non-static one. A non-static QBC protocol proposed by Choi \\emph{et al.} is briefly reviewed and analyzed to work as a supporting example. In addition, a novel way to prove the impossibility of the two kinds of QBC is given.
Quantum metrology with cold atomic ensembles
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mitchell Morgan W.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum metrology uses quantum features such as entanglement and squeezing to improve the sensitivity of quantum-limited measurements. Long established as a valuable technique in optical measurements such as gravitational-wave detection, quantum metrology is increasingly being applied to atomic instruments such as matter-wave interferometers, atomic clocks, and atomic magnetometers. Several of these new applications involve dual optical/atomic quantum systems, presenting both new challenges and new opportunities. Here we describe an optical magnetometry system that achieves both shot-noise-limited and projection-noise-limited performance, allowing study of optical magnetometry in a fully-quantum regime [1]. By near-resonant Faraday rotation probing, we demonstrate measurement-based spin squeezing in a magnetically-sensitive atomic ensemble [2-4]. The versatility of this system allows us also to design metrologically-relevant optical nonlinearities, and to perform quantum-noise-limited measurements with interacting photons. As a first interaction-based measurement [5], we implement a non-linear metrology scheme proposed by Boixo et al. with the surprising feature of precision scaling better than the 1/N “Heisenberg limit” [6].
Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Paz, I.G. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Frazão, H.M. [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Profa. Cinobelina Elvas, CEP 64900-000, Bom Jesus, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Nemes, M.C. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Av. Amazonas 7675, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510-000 (Brazil)
2014-04-01
The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.
Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.
Quantum State Reconstruction Using Atom Optics
Varcoe, B. T. H.; Sang, R. T.; MacGillivray, W. R.; Stadage, M C
1999-01-01
We present a novel technique in which the total internal quantum state of an atom may be reconstructed via the measurement of the momentum transferred to an atom following its interaction with a near resonant travelling wave laser beam. We present the first such measurement and demonstrate the feasibility of the technique.
Quantum Repeaters and Atomic Ensembles
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borregaard, Johannes
that can exist between remote quantum systems called entanglement. These correlations are exploited to detect eavesdroppers and construct unconditionally secure communication channels, enhance the sensitivity in various metrology schemes and construct powerful quantum computers, which can solve extremely...... with integrated error detection, which greatly enhances the performance of the gates at the expense of a finite but possible small failure probability. Such gates may facilitate fault tolerant quantum computation or high rate entanglement distribution. In the final part of the thesis, we describe our work on room......During the last couple of decades, quantum mechanics has moved from being primarily a theory describing the behaviour of microscopical particles in advanced experiments to being the foundation of a novel technology. One of the cornerstones in this new quantum technology is the strong correlations...
Quantum atom optics with bosons and fermions
Aspect, Alain; Boiron, Denis; Westbrook, Christoph I
2008-01-01
English version of "Optique atomique quantique : après les bosons, les fermions" International audience Atom optics, a field which takes much inspiration from traditional optics, has advanced to the point that some of the fundamental experiments of quantum optics, involving photon correlations, have found atomic analogs. We discuss some recent experiments on atom bunching and anti-bunching as well as some prospects for extending them to the field of many body physics.
Implementation of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol in optical fibers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We demonstrate experimentally the feasibility of a two-state quantum bit commitment protocol, which is both concealing and partially binding, assuming technological limitations. The security of this protocol is based on the lack of long-term stable quantum memories. We use a polarization-encoding scheme and optical fiber as a quantum channel. The measurement probability for the commitment is obtained and the optimal cheating strategy demonstrated. The average success rates for an honest player in the case where the measurements are performed using equal bases are 93.4%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 96.7%, when the diagonal basis is measured. The rates for the case when the measurements are performed in different bases are 52.9%, when the rectilinear basis is measured, and 55.4% when the diagonal basis is measured. The average success rates for the optimal cheating strategy are 80% and 73.8%, which are way below the success rates of an honest player. Using a strict numerical validity criterion, we show that, for these experimental values, the protocol is secure. (paper)
Implementation of energy efficient single flux quantum digital circuits with sub-aJ/bit operation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We report the first experimental demonstration of recently proposed energy efficient single flux quantum logic, eSFQ. This logic can represent the next generation of RSFQ logic, eliminating the dominant static power dissipation associated with a dc bias current distribution and providing over two orders of magnitude efficiency improvement over conventional RSFQ logic. We further demonstrate that the introduction of passive phase shifters allows the reduction of dynamic power dissipation by about 20%, reaching ∼0.8 aJ/bit operation. Two types of demonstration eSFQ circuit, shift registers and demultiplexers (deserializers), were implemented using the standard HYPRES 4.5 kA cm−2 fabrication process. In this paper, we present eSFQ circuit design and demonstrate the viability and performance metrics of eSFQ circuits through simulations and experimental testing. (paper)
Quantum Correlations Among Superradiant Bose–Einstein Condensate Atoms
Taşgın, Mehmet Emre; Öztop, B.; Oktel, M. Ö.; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür Esat
2009-01-01
Quantum correlations among atoms in superradiant Bose–Einstein condensates are discussed. It is shown that atoms in the superradiant atomic condensate can exhibit continuous variable quantum entanglement analogous to Einstein–Podolsky–Rosen (EPR)type quantum correlations. Comparison to quantum entanglement in the Dicke model in thermal equilibrium is provided.
Williams, J M
1999-01-01
In the particle in the box problem, the particle is not in both boxes at the same time as some would have you believe. It is a set definition situation with the two boxes being part of a set that also contains a particle. Set and subset differences are explored. Atomic electron orbitals can be mimicked by roulette wheel probability; thus ELECTRONIC ROULETTE. 0 and 00 serve as boundary limits and are on opposite sides of the central core - a point that quantum physics ignores. Considering a stray marble on the floor as part of the roulette wheel menage is taking assumptions a bit too far. Likewise, the attraction between a positive and negative charge at distance does not make the negative charge part of the positive charge's orbital system. This, of course, is contrary to the stance of current quantum physics methodology that carries this orbital association a bit too far.
Resonant quantum transitions in trapped antihydrogen atoms
Amole, C; Baquero-Ruiz, M; Bertsche, W; Bowe, P D; Butler, E; Capra, A; Cesar, C L; Charlton, M; Deller, A; Donnan, P H; Eriksson, S; Fajans, J; Friesen, T; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Gutierrez, A; Hangst, J S; Hardy, W N; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Isaac, C A; Jonsell, S; Kurchaninov, L; Little, A; Madsen, N; McKenna, J T K; Menary, S; Napoli, S C; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Pusa, P; Rasmussen, C Ø; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Shields, C R; Silveira, D M; Stracka, S; So, C; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S
2012-01-01
The hydrogen atom is one of the most important and influential model systems in modern physics. Attempts to understand its spectrum are inextricably linked to the early history and development of quantum mechanics. The hydrogen atom’s stature lies in its simplicity and in the accuracy with which its spectrum can be measured1 and compared to theory. Today its spectrum remains a valuable tool for determining the values of fundamental constants and for challenging the limits of modern physics, including the validity of quantum electrodynamics and—by comparison with measurements on its antimatter counterpart, antihydrogen—the validity of CPT (charge conjugation, parity and time reversal) symmetry. Here we report spectroscopy of a pure antimatter atom, demonstrating resonant quantum transitions in antihydrogen. We have manipulated the internal spin state2, 3 of antihydrogen atoms so as to induce magnetic resonance transitions between hyperfine levels of the positronic ground state. We used resonant microwave...
Shahriar, M. S.; Pati, G. S.; Salit, K.
2006-01-01
Recently, we have shown that for conditions under which the so-called light-shift imbalance induced blockade (LSIIB) occurs, the collective excitation of an ensemble of a multi-level atom can be treated as a closed two level system. In this paper, we describe how such a system can be used as a quantum bit (qubit) for quantum communication and quantum computing. Specifically, we show how to realize a C-NOT gate using the collective qubit and an easily accessible ring cavity, via an extension o...
Cold atom quantum sensors for space
Singh, Yeshpal
2016-07-01
Quantum sensors based on cold atoms offer the opportunity to perform highly accurate measurements of physical phenomena related to time, gravity and rotation. The deployment of such technologies in the microgravity environment of space may enable further enhancement of their performance, whilst permitting the detection of these physical phenomena over much larger scales than is possible with a ground-based instrument. In this talk, I will present an overview of the activities of the UK National Quantum Hub in Sensors and Metrology in developing cold atoms technology for space. Our activities are focused in two main areas: optical clocks and atom interferometers. I will also discuss our contributions to recent initiatives including STE-QUEST and AI-GOAT, the ESA/NASA initiative aiming at an atom interferometer gravitational wave detector in space.
A quantum gas microscope for ytterbium atoms
Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-05-01
In this talk, I report on the development of a quantum gas microscope for ytterbium (Yb) atoms. By using a dual molasses technique in which 399 nm molasses beams of the broad singlet transition are applied for fluorescence imaging and 556 nm molasses beams of the narrow intercombination transition are applied for cooling during the imaging, we successfully demonstrate site-resolved imaging of individual bosonic 174 Yb atoms in a two-dimensional optical lattice with a lattice constant of 266 nm.We also apply a high resolution laser spectroscopy using the ultranarrow intercombination transition between the 1 S0 and 3 P2 states to manipulate an atom distribution in an optical lattice. We expect the demonstrated technique will similarly work for other isotopes of Yb atoms. We are also developing a different mode of an Yb quantum gas microscope.
Experimental Implementation of Hogg's Algorithm on a Three-Quantum-bit NMR Quantum Computer
Peng, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiwen; Fang, Ximing; Feng, Mang; Liu, Maili; Gao, Kelin
2001-01-01
Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with three-qubit sample, we have experimentally implemented the highly structured algorithm for the 1-SAT problem proposed by Hogg. A simplified temporal averaging procedure was employed to the three-qubit spin pseudo-pure state. The algorithm was completed with only a single evaluation of structure of the problem and the solutions were found with probability 100%, which outperform both unstructured quantum and the best classical search algori...
Experimental Implementation of Hogg's Algorithm on a Three-Quantum-bit NMR Quantum Computer
Peng, X; Fang, X; Feng, M; Liu, M; Gao, K; Peng, Xinhua; Zhu, Xiwen; Fang, Ximing; Feng, Mang; Liu, Maili; Gao, Kelin
2002-01-01
Using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques with three-qubit sample, we have experimentally implemented the highly structured algorithm for the 1-SAT problem proposed by Hogg. A simplified temporal averaging procedure was employed to the three-qubit spin pseudo-pure state. The algorithm was completed with only a single evaluation of structure of the problem and the solutions were found with probability 100%, which outperform both unstructured quantum and the best classical search algorithm.
Storing Quantum Information via Atomic Dark Resonances
Caruso, Filippo
2010-01-01
In this thesis, after a brief review of some concepts of Quantum Optics, we analyze a three-level atomic system in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and we investigate the propagation of a gaussian pulse along a cigar-shaped cloud of both cold and hot atoms in EIT regime. In particular, we show that it is possible to amplify a slow propagating pulse without population inversion. We also analyze the regime of anomalous light propagation showing that it is possible to observe superluminal energy propagation. In these conditions, it is possible to imprint reversibly ('write') the information carried by the photons onto the atoms, specifically as a coherent pattern of atomic spins, and later the information stored in the atomic spins can be transferred back ('read') to the light field, implementing in this way a quantum memory. Besides, we analyze the propagation of a quantum field in an EIT medium sustaining dark state polaritons (DSP) in a quasi-particle picture. Here, the decohe...
A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope
Yang, Fan; Taylor, Stephen F; Turner, Richard W; Lev, Benjamin L
2016-01-01
Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides a 100x improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity over previous atomic scanning probe magnetometers. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnet...
Quantum Phonon Optics: Coherent and Squeezed Atomic Displacements
Hu, X; Nori, Franco
1996-01-01
In this paper we investigate coherent and squeezed quantum states of phonons. The latter allow the possibility of modulating the quantum fluctuations of atomic displacements below the zero-point quantum noise level of coherent states. The expectation values and quantum fluctuations of both the atomic displacement and the lattice amplitude operators are calculated in these states---in some cases analytically. We also study the possibility of squeezing quantum noise in the atomic displacement u...
Quantum electronics for atomic physics and telecommunication
Nagourney, Warren G
2014-01-01
Nagourney provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics and other related areas (including telecommunications). The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, optical cavities, lasers, non-linear optics, modulation techniques and fibre optics, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics, such as the enhancement of non-linear processes in a build-up cavity or periodically poled waveguide, impedance matching into a cavity and astigmatism in ring cavities.
Electronic Conduction through Atomic Chains, Quantum Well and Quantum Wire
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charge transport is dynamically and strongly linked with atomic structure, in nanostructures. We report our ab-initio calculations on electronic transport through atomic chains and the model calculations on electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates in presence of random impurity potential in a quantum well and in a quantum wire. We computed synthesis and ballistic transport through; (a) C and Si based atomic chains attached to metallic electrodes, (b) armchair (AC), zigzag (ZZ), mixed, rotated-AC and rotated-ZZ geometries of small molecules made of 2S, 6C and 4H atoms attaching to metallic electrodes, and (c) carbon atomic chain attached to graphene electrodes. Computed results show that synthesis of various atomic chains are practically possible and their transmission coefficients are nonzero for a wide energy range. The ab-initio calculations on electronic transport have been performed with the use of Landauer-type scattering formalism formulated in terms of Grben's functions in combination with ground-state DFT. The electron-electron and electron-phonon scattering rates have been calculated as function of excitation energy both at zero and finite temperatures for disordered 2D and 1D systems. Our model calculations suggest that electron scattering rates in a disordered system are mainly governed by effective dimensionality of a system, carrier concentration and dynamical screening effects.
量子比特的密度矩阵表示%Representation of Density Matrix in Quantum bit
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李静
2011-01-01
At first, the concept of quantum bit, the density matrix and Bloch vector were introduced.Then by using the outer product------mathematical tools, the density matrix of single quantum bit, the mixedstate quantum bit and the related properties were discussed. Based on the matrix operator theory, the pure states, mixed states; entangle state, the superposition states and the density matrix were analysed. The researching results contributed to the deep understanding of quantum theory.%介绍了量子比特、密度矩阵和Bloch向量的概念,然后借助外积这一数学工具给出了单量子比特和混合态量子比特的密度矩阵表示及其相关性质,以矩阵及算子理论为基础,对纯态、混合态、缠绕态及叠加态的密度矩阵表示进行了分析,所得结果有助于加深理解量子理论.
Storing Quantum Information via Atomic Dark Resonances
Caruso, Filippo
2010-01-01
In this thesis, after a brief review of some concepts of Quantum Optics, we analyze a three-level atomic system in the conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), and we investigate the propagation of a gaussian pulse along a cigar-shaped cloud of both cold and hot atoms in EIT regime. In particular, we show that it is possible to amplify a slow propagating pulse without population inversion. We also analyze the regime of anomalous light propagation showing that it is possib...
Quantum nonlinear optics using single atom
Bhattacharya, Arkabrata
2012-01-01
[ANGLÈS] In this thesis we tried to investigate the non-linear effects introduced by a generalized interaction of a two-level atom coupled to two photons. Scattering matrices were used to calculate the non-linear effects introduced and the dependence of outgoing frequencies of quantum light on these effects was found. It was seen as quite opposed to typical classical theories, that the non-linear susceptibility for an atom dictates very precise output frequencies from it. As a next step this ...
Kaiser, F.; Aktas, D.; Fedrici, B.; Lunghi, T.; Labonté, L.; Tanzilli, S.
2016-06-01
We demonstrate an experimental method for measuring energy-time entanglement over almost 80 nm spectral bandwidth in a single shot with a quantum bit error rate below 0.5%. Our scheme is extremely cost-effective and efficient in terms of resources as it employs only one source of entangled photons and one fixed unbalanced interferometer per phase-coded analysis basis. We show that the maximum analysis spectral bandwidth is obtained when the analysis interferometers are properly unbalanced, a strategy which can be straightforwardly applied to most of today's experiments based on energy-time and time-bin entanglement. Our scheme has therefore a great potential for boosting bit rates and reducing the resource overhead of future entanglement-based quantum key distribution systems.
Controlling Atomic, Solid-State and Hybrid Systems for Quantum Information Processing
Gullans, Michael John
Quantum information science involves the use of precise control over quantum systems to explore new technologies. However, as quantum systems are scaled up they require an ever deeper understanding of many-body physics to achieve the required degree of control. Current experiments are entering a regime which requires active control of a mesoscopic number of coupled quantum systems or quantum bits (qubits). This thesis describes several approaches to this goal and shows how mesoscopic quantum systems can be controlled and utilized for quantum information tasks. The first system we consider is the nuclear spin environment of GaAs double quantum dots containing two electrons. We show that the through appropriate control of dynamic nuclear polarization one can prepare the nuclear spin environment in three distinct collective quantum states which are useful for quantum information processing with electron spin qubits. We then investigate a hybrid system in which an optical lattice is formed in the near field scattering off an array of metallic nanoparticles by utilizing the plasmonic resonance of the nanoparticles. We show that such a system would realize new regimes of dense, ultra-cold quantum matter and can be used to create a quantum network of atoms and plasmons. Finally we investigate quantum nonlinear optical systems. We show that the intrinsic nonlinearity for plasmons in graphene can be large enough to make a quantum gate for single photons. We also consider two nonlinear optical systems based on ultracold gases of atoms. In one case, we demonstrate an all-optical single photon switch using cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED) and slow light. In the second case, we study few photon physics in strongly interacting Rydberg polariton systems, where we demonstrate the existence of two and three photon bound states and study their properties.
Soliton Atom Laser with Quantum State Transfer Property
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Xiong-Jun; JING Hui; GE Mo-Lin
2006-01-01
@@ We study the nonlinear effects in the quantum states transfer technique from photons to matter waves in the three-level case, which may provide the formation of a soliton atom laser with nonclassical atoms. The validity of quantum transfer mechanism is confirmed in the presence of the intrinsic nonlinear atomic interactions. The accompanied frequency chirp effect is shown to have no influence on the grey solitons formed by the output atom laser and the possible quantum depletion effect is also briefly discussed.
Quantum Effects at Low Energy Atom-Molecule Interface
Deb, B.; Rakshit, A.; Hazra, J.; Chakraborty, D.
2013-01-01
Quantum interference effects in inter-conversion between cold atoms and diatomic molecules are analysed. Within the framework of Fano's theory, continuum-bound anisotropic dressed state formalism of atom-molecule quantum dynamics is presented. This formalism is applicable in photo- and magneto-associative strong-coupling regimes. The significance of Fano effect in ultracold atom-molecule transitions is discussed. Quantum effects at low energy atom-molecule interface are important for explorin...
Quantum Gas Microscope for Fermionic Atoms
Okan, Melih; Cheuk, Lawrence; Nichols, Matthew; Lawrence, Katherine; Zhang, Hao; Zwierlein, Martin
2016-05-01
Strongly interacting fermions define the properties of complex matter throughout nature, from atomic nuclei and modern solid state materials to neutron stars. Ultracold atomic Fermi gases have emerged as a pristine platform for the study of many-fermion systems. In this poster we demonstrate the realization of a quantum gas microscope for fermionic 40 K atoms trapped in an optical lattice and the recent experiments which allows one to probe strongly correlated fermions at the single atom level. We combine 3D Raman sideband cooling with high- resolution optics to simultaneously cool and image individual atoms with single lattice site resolution at a detection fidelity above 95%. The imaging process leaves the atoms predominantly in the 3D motional ground state of their respective lattice sites, inviting the implementation of a Maxwell's demon to assemble low-entropy many-body states. Single-site resolved imaging of fermions enables the direct observation of magnetic order, time resolved measurements of the spread of particle correlations, and the detection of many-fermion entanglement. NSF, AFOSR-PECASE, AFOSR-MURI on Exotic Phases of Matter, ARO-MURI on Atomtronics, ONR, a Grant from the Army Research Office with funding from the DARPA OLE program, and the David and Lucile Packard Foundation.
Quantum sized gold nanoclusters with atomic precision.
Qian, Huifeng; Zhu, Manzhou; Wu, Zhikun; Jin, Rongchao
2012-09-18
Gold nanoparticles typically have a metallic core, and the electronic conduction band consists of quasicontinuous energy levels (i.e. spacing δ ≪ k(B)T, where k(B)T is the thermal energy at temperature T (typically room temperature) and k(B) is the Boltzmann constant). Electrons in the conduction band roam throughout the metal core, and light can collectively excite these electrons to give rise to plasmonic responses. This plasmon resonance accounts for the beautiful ruby-red color of colloidal gold first observed by Faraday back in 1857. On the other hand, when gold nanoparticles become extremely small (plasmonic gold nanoparticles, researchers often refer to the ultrasmall nanoparticles as nanoclusters. In this Account, we chose several typical sizes of gold nanoclusters, including Au(25)(SR)(18), Au(38)(SR)(24), Au(102)(SR)(44), and Au(144)(SR)(60), to illustrate the novel properties of metal nanoclusters imparted by quantum size effects. In the nanocluster size regime, many of the physical and chemical properties of gold nanoparticles are fundamentally altered. Gold nanoclusters have discrete electronic energy levels as opposed to the continuous band in plasmonic nanoparticles. Quantum-sized nanoparticles also show multiple optical absorption peaks in the optical spectrum versus a single surface plasmon resonance (SPR) peak at 520 nm for spherical gold nanocrystals. Although larger nanocrystals show an fcc structure, nanoclusters often have non-fcc atomic packing structures. Nanoclusters also have unique fluorescent, chiral, and magnetic properties. Due to the strong quantum confinement effect, adding or removing one gold atom significantly changes the structure and the electronic and optical properties of the nanocluster. Therefore, precise atomic control of nanoclusters is critically important: the nanometer precision typical of conventional nanoparticles is not sufficient. Atomically precise nanoclusters are represented by molecular formulas (e.g. Au
Cold atom quantum emulation of ultrafast processes
Rajagopal, Shankari; Geiger, Zachary; Fujiwara, Kurt; Singh, Kevin; Senaratne, Ruwan; Weld, David
2016-05-01
Pulsed lasers are an invaluable probe of fast electron dynamics in condensed matter systems. However, despite tremendous progress, physical limitations on lasers and a lack of exact theoretical models still limit the exploration of ultrafast processes in solids. We discuss a possible complementary approach, in which lattice-trapped cold neutral atoms driven far from equilibrium are used as a quantum emulator of ultrafast physics at sub-cycle timescales. The cold atom context is in many ways a natural choice for such experiments: equilibration timescales are more than ten orders of magnitude slower than those in solids, and strong driving forces are easily produced and manipulated. Our experimental approach uses ultracold strontium in optical traps. Multiple stable isotopes and a long-lived metastable state provide control over interaction strengths, while a narrow-linewidth transition expands the typical cold-atom toolbox of readout techniques. We discuss initial efforts in quantum emulation of tunnel ionization and development of a platform for more complicated endeavors, including the study of multiple-pulse sequences and recollision processes. We acknowledge support from the NSF GRFP, the AFOSR, the ARO and DURIP program, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, and the University of California Office of the President.
Bohr's Creation of his Quantum Atom
Heilbron, John
2013-04-01
Fresh letters throw new light on the content and state of Bohr's mind before and during his creation of the quantum atom. His mental furniture then included the atomic models of the English school, the quantum puzzles of Continental theorists, and the results of his own studies of the electron theory of metals. It also included the poetry of Goethe, plays of Ibsen and Shakespeare, novels of Dickens, and rhapsodies of Kierkegaard and Carlyle. The mind that held these diverse ingredients together oscillated between enthusiasm and dejection during the year in which Bohr took up the problem of atomic structure. He spent most of that year in England, which separated him for extended periods from his close-knit family and friends. Correspondence with his fianc'ee, Margrethe Nørlund, soon to be published, reports his ups and downs as he adjusted to J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford, the English language, and the uneven course of his work. In helping to smooth out his moods, Margrethe played an important and perhaps an enabling role in his creative process.
Atomic spin chain realization of a model for quantum criticality
Toskovic, R.; Berg, R. van den; Spinelli, A.; Eliens, I. S.; Toorn, B. van den; Bryant, B.; Caux, J. -S.; Otte, A. F.
2016-01-01
The ability to manipulate single atoms has opened up the door to constructing interesting and useful quantum structures from the ground up. On the one hand, nanoscale arrangements of magnetic atoms are at the heart of future quantum computing and spintronic devices; on the other hand, they can be used as fundamental building blocks for the realization of textbook many-body quantum models, illustrating key concepts such as quantum phase transitions, topological order or frustration. Step-by-st...
Non-Abelian geometric quantum memory with an atomic ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study a quantum information storage scheme based on an atomic ensemble with near (also exact) three-photon resonance electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Each 4-level-atom is coupled to two classical control fields and a quantum probe field. Quantum information is adiabatically stored in the associated dark polariton manifold. An intrinsic nontrivial topological structure is discovered in our quantum memory implemented through the symmetric collective atomic excitations with a hidden SU(3) dynamical symmetry. By adiabatically changing the Rabi frequencies of two classical control fields, the quantum state can be retrieved up to a non-Abelian holonomy and thus decoded from the final state in a purely geometric way
Quantum algorithmic information theory
Svozil, Karl
1995-01-01
The agenda of quantum algorithmic information theory, ordered `top-down,' is the quantum halting amplitude, followed by the quantum algorithmic information content, which in turn requires the theory of quantum computation. The fundamental atoms processed by quantum computation are the quantum bits which are dealt with in quantum information theory. The theory of quantum computation will be based upon a model of universal quantum computer whose elementary unit is a two-port interferometer capa...
Enhancing the Capacity and Performance of Collective Atomic Quantum Memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Present schemes involving the quantum nondemolition interaction between atomic samples and off-resonant light pulses allow us to store quantum information corresponding to a single harmonic oscillator (mode) in one multiatomic system. We discuss the possibility of involving several coherences of each atom so that the atomic sample can store information contained in several quantum modes. This is achieved by the coupling of different magnetic sublevels of the relevant hyperfine level by additional Raman pulses. This technique allows us to design not only the quantum nondemolition coupling, but also beam splitterlike and two-mode squeezerlike interactions between light and collective atomic spin
Apparatus for fermion atomic clock, atom interferometry and quantum pumping experiments
Ivory, M. K.; Ziltz, A.; Field, J.; Aubin, S.
2010-03-01
We present the current state of an apparatus designed to create and manipulate ultracold bosonic and fermionic Rb and K isotopes for a fermion atomic clock, atom interferometry, microwave trapping, and quantum pumping experiments. Quantum pumping is a phenomenon which can precisely control bias-less flow of single electrons in a circuit. Using ultracold atoms on atom chips, we can test theoretical predictions which have not yet been verified due to experimental difficulties in solid state systems. The apparatus design consists of a magneto-optical trap, magnetic transport system, atom chip, and optical dipole trap. We have demonstrated basic laser cooling and trapping and are working towards transport of the collected atoms to the atom chip for cooling to quantum degeneracy. Once quantum degeneracy is achieved at the chip, micro-magnetic reservoirs of ultracold atoms connected by a 1D ``wire'' create a circuit for various quantum pumping schemes. These schemes are also more broadly applicable to atomtronics experiments.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present projects for future space missions using new quantum devices based on ultracold atoms. They will enable fundamental physics experiments testing quantum physics, physics beyond the standard model of fundamental particles and interactions, special relativity, gravitation and general relativity
Quantum storage based on collective excitations in atomic ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The authors reviews a new protocol of quantum memory based on the quasi-pin wave excitation of the Λ systems fixed the sites of lattice. This protocol tries to avoid the disadvantage of the quantum memory scheme based on free atom ensemble, the quantum decoherence induced by the quantum leakage of collective state. Especially, authors discover a universal dynamic symmetry hidden in various ensemble based quantum storage scheme. To understand the significance of this work exactly, authors also give a brief introduction to our systematical studies on collective symmetric excitons in quantum ensemble, which is the necessary to propose the present scheme for quantum memory. (author)
Quantum Effects at Low Energy Atom-Molecule Interface
Deb, B; Hazra, J; Chakraborty, D
2013-01-01
Quantum interference effects in inter-conversion between cold atoms and diatomic molecules are analysed. Within the framework of Fano's theory, continuum-bound anisotropic dressed state formalism of atom-molecule quantum dynamics is presented. This formalism is applicable in photo- and magneto-associative strong-coupling regimes. The significance of Fano effect in ultracold atom-molecule transitions is discussed. Quantum effects at low energy atom-molecule interface are important for exploring coherent phenomena in hither-to unexplored parameter regimes.
Quantum optics and cavity QED Quantum network with individual atoms and photons
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rempe G.
2013-08-01
Full Text Available Quantum physics allows a new approach to information processing. A grand challenge is the realization of a quantum network for long-distance quantum communication and large-scale quantum simulation. This paper highlights a first implementation of an elementary quantum network with two fibre-linked high-finesse optical resonators, each containing a single quasi-permanently trapped atom as a stationary quantum node. Reversible quantum state transfer between the two atoms and entanglement of the two atoms are achieved by the controlled exchange of a time-symmetric single photon. This approach to quantum networking is efficient and offers a clear perspective for scalability. It allows for arbitrary topologies and features controlled connectivity as well as, in principle, infinite-range interactions. Our system constitutes the largest man-made material quantum system to date and is an ideal test bed for fundamental investigations, e.g. quantum non-locality.
Quantum Teleportation of High-dimensional Atomic Momenta State
Qurban, Misbah; Abbas, Tasawar; Rameez-ul-Islam; Ikram, Manzoor
2016-06-01
Atomic momenta states of the neutral atoms are known to be decoherence resistant and therefore present a viable solution for most of the quantum information tasks including the quantum teleportation. We present a systematic protocol for the teleportation of high-dimensional quantized momenta atomic states to the field state inside the cavities by applying standard cavity QED techniques. The proposal can be executed under prevailing experimental scenario.
Generation and storage of quantum states using cold atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Josse, Vincent; Cviklinski, Jean; Bramati, Alberto; Pinard, Michel; Giacobino, Elisabeth
Cold cesium or rubidium atomic samples have a good potential both for generation and storage of nonclassical states of light. Generation of nonclassical states of light is possible through the high non-linearity of cold atomic samples excited close to a resonance line. Quadrature squeezing, polar......, polarization squeezing and entanglement have been demonstrated. Quantum state storage is made possible by the presence of long-lived angular momentum in the ground state. Cold atoms are thus a promising resource in quantum information....
Theory of Cold Atoms: Basics of Quantum Statistics
Yukalov, V. I.
2013-01-01
The aim of this Tutorial is to present the basic mathematical techniques required for an accurate description of cold trapped atoms, both Bose and Fermi. The term {\\it cold} implies that considered temperatures are low, such that quantum theory is necessary, even if temperatures are finite. And the term {\\it atoms} means that the considered particles are structureless, being defined by their masses and mutual interactions. Atoms are {\\it trapped} in the sense that they form a finite quantum s...
Quantum phase transition and entanglement in Li atom system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
2008-01-01
By use of the exact diagonalization method, the quantum phase transition and en- tanglement in a 6-Li atom system are studied. It is found that entanglement appears before the quantum phase transition and disappears after it in this exactly solvable quantum system. The present results show that the von Neumann entropy, as a measure of entanglement, may reveal the quantum phase transition in this model.
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weber, Bernhard
2008-11-03
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Distribution of quantum information between an atom and two photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The construction of networks consisting of optically interconnected processing units is a promising way to scale up quantum information processing systems. To store quantum information, single trapped atoms are among the most proven candidates. By placing them in high finesse optical resonators, a bidirectional information exchange between the atoms and photons becomes possible with, in principle, unit efficiency. Such an interface between stationary and ying qubits constitutes a possible node of a future quantum network. The results presented in this thesis demonstrate the prospects of a quantum interface consisting of a single atom trapped within the mode of a high-finesse optical cavity. In a two-step process, we distribute entanglement between the stored atom and two subsequently emitted single photons. The long atom trapping times achieved in the system together with the high photon collection efficiency of the cavity make the applied protocol in principle deterministic, allowing for the creation of an entangled state at the push of a button. Running the protocol on this quasi-stationary quantum interface, the internal state of the atom is entangled with the polarization state of a single emitted photon. The entanglement is generated by driving a vacuum-stimulated Raman adiabatic passage between states of the coupled atom-cavity system. In a second process, the atomic part of the entangled state is mapped onto a second emitted photon using a similar technique and resulting in a polarization-entangled two-photon state. To verify and characterize the photon-photon entanglement, we measured a violation of a Bell inequality and performed a full quantum state tomography. The results prove the prior atom-photon entanglement and demonstrate a quantum information transfer between the atom and the two emitted photons. This reflects the advantages of a high-finesse cavity as a quantum interface in future quantum networks. (orig.)
Optical spin control in charged quantum dots with a single Mn atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In semiconductor quantum dots spins bear good prospects as basic elements for new quantum hardware such as quantum bits. In a single quantum dot containing a single Mn atom charged by an electron (hole) the excitation by laser light causes the formation of a trion complex, i.e. a positively or negatively charged exciton. The trion spin, like the carrier spin in the non-excited state, is coupled to the Mn spin via the exchange interaction. This coupling allows for the manipulation of the optically not directly accessible Mn spin via spin flip processes of either the electron (hole) or the trion and thus ultimately for the manipulation of the Mn spin by laser light. We consider a charged CdTe quantum dot doped with a single Mn atom and focus on electron and light hole processes as heavy holes do not induce spin flips. Starting from a well defined initial state we show that the six Mn spin states can be set by a series of ultrashort laser pulses. Thus besides the electron (hole)/trion spin also the Mn spin may be used as a basis for controlled operations in the field of spintronics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Superadditivity effects of communication capacities are known in the case of discrete variable quantum channels. We describe the continuous variable analog of one of these effects in the framework of Gaussian multiple access channels (MACs). Classically, superadditivity-type effects are strongly restricted: For example, adding resources to one sender is never advantageous to other senders in sending their respective information to the receiver. We show that this rule can be surpassed using quantum resources, giving rise to a type of truly quantum superadditivity. This is illustrated here for two examples of experimentally feasible Gaussian MACs.
Quantum computing with trapped ions, atoms and light
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider experimental issues relevant to quantum computing, and discuss the best way to achieve the essential requirements of reliable quantum memory and gate operations. Nuclear spins in trapped ions or atoms are a very promising candidate for the qubits. We estimate the parameters required to couple atoms using light via cavity QED in order to achieve quantum gates. We briefly comment on recent improvements to the Cirac-Zoller method for coupling trapped ions via their vibrational degree of freedom. Error processes result in a trade-off between quantum gate speed and failure probability. A useful quantum computer does appear to be feasible using a combination of ion trap and optical methods. The best understood method to stabilize a large computer relies on quantum error correction. The essential ideas of this are discussed, and recent estimates of the noise requirements in a quantum computing device are given
Quantum Network of Atom Clocks: A Possible Implementation with Neutral Atoms
Kómár, P.; Topcu, T.; Kessler, E. M.; Derevianko, A.; Vuletić, V.; Ye, J.; Lukin, M. D.
2016-08-01
We propose a protocol for creating a fully entangled Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type state of neutral atoms in spatially separated optical atomic clocks. In our scheme, local operations make use of the strong dipole-dipole interaction between Rydberg excitations, which give rise to fast and reliable quantum operations involving all atoms in the ensemble. The necessary entanglement between distant ensembles is mediated by single-photon quantum channels and collectively enhanced light-matter couplings. These techniques can be used to create the recently proposed quantum clock network based on neutral atom optical clocks. We specifically analyze a possible realization of this scheme using neutral Yb ensembles.
The quantum measurement problem as a witness to "It from bit"
Srikanth, R
2006-01-01
A conceptual difficulty in the foundations of quantum mechanics is the quantum measurement problem (QMP), essentially concerned with the apparent non-unitarity of the measurement process and the classicality of macroscopic systems. In an information theoretic approach proposed by us earlier (Quantum Information Processing 2, 153, 2003), which we clarify and elaborate here, QMP is understood to signal a fundamental finite resolution of quantum states, or, equivalently, a discreteness of Hilbert space. This was motivated by the notion that physical reality is a manifestation of information stored and discrete computations performed at a deeper, sub-physical layer. This model entails that states of sufficiently complex, entangled systems will be unresolvable, or, {\\em computationally unstable}. Wavefunction collapse is postulated as an error preventive response to such computational instability. In effect, sufficiently complex systems turn classical because of the finiteness of the computational resources availa...
Cottet, Audrey
2002-01-01
Il existe des projets d'ordinateurs quantiques pour résoudre certains problèmes difficiles, comme la factorisation des grands nombres, beaucoup plus rapidement qu'avec un ordinateur classique. L'unité de base de l'ordinateur quantique est un système quantique à deux niveaux nommé bit quantique, qui doit satisfaire des critères très stricts. Parmi les nombreux systèmes proposés pour réaliser un bit quantique, les circuits électroniques sont des candidats intéressants en raison de leur grande i...
All-Optical Quantum Random Bit Generation from Intrinsically Binary Phase of Parametric Oscillators
Marandi, Alireza; Leindecker, Nick C.; Vodopyanov, Konstantin L.; Byer, Robert L.
2012-01-01
True random number generators (RNGs) are desirable for applications ranging from cryptogra- phy to computer simulations. Quantum phenomena prove to be attractive for physical RNGs due to their fundamental randomness and immunity to attack [1]- [5]. Optical parametric down conversion is an essential element in most quantum optical experiments including optical squeezing [9], and generation of entangled photons [10]. In an optical parametric oscillator (OPO), photons generated through spontaneo...
Quantum Monte Carlo for atoms and molecules
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The diffusion quantum Monte Carlo with fixed nodes (QMC) approach has been employed in studying energy-eigenstates for 1--4 electron systems. Previous work employing the diffusion QMC technique yielded energies of high quality for H2, LiH, Li2, and H2O. Here, the range of calculations with this new approach has been extended to include additional first-row atoms and molecules. In addition, improvements in the previously computed fixed-node energies of LiH, Li2, and H2O have been obtained using more accurate trial functions. All computations were performed within, but are not limited to, the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. In our computations, the effects of variation of Monte Carlo parameters on the QMC solution of the Schroedinger equation were studied extensively. These parameters include the time step, renormalization time and nodal structure. These studies have been very useful in determining which choices of such parameters will yield accurate QMC energies most efficiently. Generally, very accurate energies (90--100% of the correlation energy is obtained) have been computed with single-determinant trail functions multiplied by simple correlation functions. Improvements in accuracy should be readily obtained using more complex trial functions
Projection postulate and atomic quantum Zeno effect
Beige, A; Beige, Almut; Hegerfeldt, Gerhard C
1995-01-01
The projection postulate has been used to predict a slow-down of the time evolution of the state of a system under rapidly repeated measurements, and ultimately a freezing of the state. To test this so-called quantum Zeno effect an experiment was performed by Itano et al. (Phys. Rev. A 41, 2295 (1990)) in which an atomic-level measurement was realized by means of a short laser pulse. The relevance of the results has given rise to controversies in the literature. In particular the projection postulate and its applicability in this experiment have been cast into doubt. In this paper we show analytically that for a wide range of parameters such a short laser pulse acts as an effective level measurement to which the usual projection postulate applies with high accuracy. The corrections to the ideal reductions and their accumulation over n pulses are calculated. Our conclusion is that the projection postulate is an excellent pragmatic tool for a quick and simple understanding of the slow-down of time evolution in ...
Nanophotonic quantum computer based on atomic quantum transistor
Andrianov, S. N.; Moiseev, S. A.
2015-10-01
We propose a scheme of a quantum computer based on nanophotonic elements: two buses in the form of nanowaveguide resonators, two nanosized units of multiatom multiqubit quantum memory and a set of nanoprocessors in the form of photonic quantum transistors, each containing a pair of nanowaveguide ring resonators coupled via a quantum dot. The operation modes of nanoprocessor photonic quantum transistors are theoretically studied and the execution of main logical operations by means of them is demonstrated. We also discuss the prospects of the proposed nanophotonic quantum computer for operating in high-speed optical fibre networks.
Quantum electrodynamics of high-Z few-electron atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A relatively new area in the field of Atomic Physics and Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is the precise theoretical and experimental study of high-Z few-electron atoms. Comparison of theory and experiment for the transition rates and energy splittings of these systems provides a fundamental test of the theory of strongly bound electrons. This reviews the quantum electrodynamics of high-Z few-electron atoms based on perturbation theory in the Furry bound interaction picture. A complete overview of the theory is given, from the basic equations to the numerical results for the energy splittings, with attention focused on the Lamb shift in two-electron atoms as an example
Manipulating collective quantum states of ultracold atoms by probing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wade, Andrew Christopher James
2015-01-01
The field of cold gases has grown dramatically over the past few decades. The exquisite experimental control of their environment and properties has lead to landmark achievements, and has motivated the pursuit of quantum technologies with ultracold atoms. At the same time, the theory of...... measurements on quantum systems has grown into a well established field. Experimental demonstrations of nondestructive continuous measurements on individual quantum systems now occur in many laboratories. Such experiments with ultracold atoms have shown great progress, but the exploitation of the quantum...... nature of the measurement interaction and backaction is yet to be realised. This dissertation is concerned with ultracold atoms and their control via fully quantum mechanical probes. Nonclassical, squeezed and entangled states of matter and single photon sources are important for fundamental studies and...
Atom-based coherent quantum-noise cancellation in optomechanics
Bariani, F; Singh, S; Vengalattore, M; Meystre, P
2015-01-01
We analyze a quantum force sensor that uses coherent quantum noise cancellation (CQNC) to beat the Standard Quantum Limit (SQL). This sensor, which allows for the continuous, broad-band detection of feeble forces, is a hybrid dual-cavity system comprised of a mesoscopic mechanical resonator optically coupled to an ensemble of ultracold atoms. In contrast to the stringent constraints on dissipation typically associated with purely optical schemes of CQNC, the dissipation rate of the mechanical resonator only needs to be matched to the decoherence rate of the atomic ensemble -- a condition that is experimentally achievable even for the technologically relevant regime of low frequency mechanical resonators with large quality factors. The modular nature of the system further allows the atomic ensemble to aid in the cooling of the mechanical resonator, thereby combining atom-mediated state preparation with sensing deep in the quantum regime.
Quantum Algebraic Symmetries in Nuclei, Molecules and Atomic Clusters
Bonatsos, Dennis; Daskaloyannis, C.
1999-01-01
Various applications of quantum algebraic techniques in nuclear structure physics and in molecular physics are briefly reviewed and a recent application of these techniques to the structure of atomic clusters is discussed in more detail.
Generation of Exotic Quantum States of a Cold Atomic Ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christensen, Stefan Lund
. Furthermore, the nonclassical properties of the created state is inferred through the use of atomic quadrature quasi-probability distributions. The second generated state is a collective-single-excitation state — the atomic equivalent of a single photon. This state is created by the detection of a heralding......Over the last decades quantum effects have become more and more controllable, leading to the implementations of various quantum information protocols. These protocols are all based on utilizing quantum correlation. In this thesis we consider how states of an atomic ensemble with such correlations...... can be created and characterized. First we consider a spin-squeezed state. This state is generated by performing quantum non-demolition measurements of the atomic population difference. We show a spectroscopically relevant noise reduction of -1.7dB, the ensemble is in a many-body entangled state...
Quantum Atomic Clock Synchronization: An Entangled Concept of Nonlocal Simultaneity
Abrams, D.; Dowling, J.; Williams, C.; Jozsa, R.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that two spatially separated parties (Alice and Bob) can utilize shared prior quantum entanglement, as well as a classical information channel, to establish a synchronized pair of atomic clocks.
The Quantum Atomic Model "Electronium": A Successful Teaching Tool.
Budde, Marion; Niedderer, Hans; Scott, Philip; Leach, John
2002-01-01
Focuses on the quantum atomic model Electronium. Outlines the Bremen teaching approach in which this model is used, and analyzes the learning of two students as they progress through the teaching unit. (Author/MM)
Early Atomic Models - From Mechanical to Quantum (1904-1913)
Baily, Charles
2012-01-01
A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson’s mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880’s, to the myriad “corpuscular” atoms he p...
Equivalence of a Bit Pixel Image to a Quantum Pixel Image
Ortega, Laurel Carlos; Dong, Shi-Hai; Cruz-Irisson, M.
2015-11-01
We propose a new method to transform a pixel image to the corresponding quantum-pixel using a qubit per pixel to represent each pixels classical weight in a quantum image matrix weight. All qubits are linear superposition, changing the coefficients level by level to the entire longitude of the gray scale with respect to the base states of the qubit. Classically, these states are just bytes represented in a binary matrix, having code combinations of 1 or 0 at all pixel locations. This method introduces a qubit-pixel image representation of images captured by classical optoelectronic methods. Supported partially by the project 20150964-SIP-IPN, Mexico
Polarization states encoded by phase modulation for high bit rate quantum key distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present implementation of quantum cryptography with polarization code by wave-guide type phase modulator. At four different low input voltages of the phase modulator, coder encodes pulses into four different polarization states, 45o, 135o linearly polarized or right, left circle polarized, while the decoder serves as the complementary polarizers
Quantum-Classical Connection for Hydrogen Atom-Like Systems
Syam, Debapriyo; Roy, Arup
2011-01-01
The Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum theory specifies the rules of quantization for circular and elliptical orbits for a one-electron hydrogen atom-like system. This article illustrates how a formula connecting the principal quantum number "n" and the length of the major axis of an elliptical orbit may be arrived at starting from the quantum…
Test of the quantumness of atom-atom correlations in a bosonic gas
Ivanov, D.; Wallentowitz, S.
2006-01-01
It is shown how the quantumness of atom-atom correlations in a trapped bosonic gas can be made observable. Application of continuous feedback control of the center of mass of the atomic cloud is shown to generate oscillations of the spatial extension of the cloud, whose amplitude can be directly used as a characterization of atom-atom correlations. Feedback parameters can be chosen such that the violation of a Schwarz inequality for atom-atom correlations can be tested at noise levels much hi...
Heralded atomic-ensemble quantum memory for photon polarization states
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the mapping of quantum states between single photons and an atomic ensemble. In particular, we demonstrate a heralded quantum memory based on the mapping of a photon polarization state onto a single collective-spin excitation (magnon) shared between two atomic ensembles. The polarization fidelity above 90(2)% for any input polarization far exceeds the classical limit of 2/3. The process also constitutes a quantum non-destructive probe that detects and regenerates a photon without measuring its polarization.
Quantum beats in fluorescence for multi-level atomic system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
For Λ-type three-level atomic systems we have clarified using diagram that (1) it is impossible to observe quantum beats due to the ground state sublevels by measuring the time dependence of the fluorescence intensity, and (2) why it is physically possible to observe and how we can observe quantum beats in the ground state sublevels by using fluorescence. Generalization of the results shows that we can determine from which state (the ground state or the excited state) the quantum beats are originated. Analytical result is shown for four-level atomic systems.
Quantum electrodynamics with 1D arti cial atoms
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Javadi, Alisa
A 1D atom, a single quantum emitter coupled to a single optical mode, exhibits rich quantum electrodynamic (QED) e_ects and is thought to be the key ingredient for many applications in quantuminformation processing. Single quantum dots (QD) in photonic-crystal waveguides (PCW) constitute a robust...... photons as expected from the theory. The value of g(2)(0) is around 1.08. The results con_rm the observation of an on-chip giant optical nonlinearity and the 1D atom behavior. Another direction in this thesis has been to investigate the e_ect of Anderson localization on the electrodynamics of QDs in PCWs...
Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom
Tiecke, T G; de Leon, N P; Liu, L R; Vuletić, V; Lukin, M D
2014-01-01
In analogy to transistors in classical electronic circuits, a quantum optical switch is an important element of quantum circuits and quantum networks. Operated at the fundamental limit where a single quantum of light or matter controls another field or material system, it may enable fascinating applications such as long-distance quantum communication, distributed quantum information processing and metrology, and the exploration of novel quantum states of matter. Here, by strongly coupling a photon to a single atom trapped in the near field of a nanoscale photonic crystal cavity, we realize a system where a single atom switches the phase of a photon, and a single photon modifies the atom's phase. We experimentally demonstrate an atom-induced optical phase shift that is nonlinear at the two-photon level, a photon number router that separates individual photons and photon pairs into different output modes, and a single-photon switch where a single "gate" photon controls the propagation of a subsequent probe fiel...
Quantum turbulence in atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weakly interacting, dilute atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) have proved to be an attractive context for the study of nonlinear dynamics and quantum effects at the macroscopic scale. Recently, weakly interacting, dilute atomic BECs have been used to investigate quantum turbulence both experimentally and theoretically, stimulated largely by the high degree of control which is available within these quantum gases. In this article we motivate the use of weakly interacting, dilute atomic BECs for the study of turbulence, discuss the characteristic regimes of turbulence which are accessible, and briefly review some selected investigations of quantum turbulence and recent results. We focus on three stages of turbulence – the generation of turbulence, its steady state and its decay – and highlight some fundamental questions regarding our understanding in each of these regimes
Towards Quantum Turbulence in Cold Atomic Fermionic Superfluids
Bulgac, Aurel; Wlazłowski, Gabriel
2016-01-01
Fermionic superfluids provide a new realization of quantum turbulence, accessible to both experiment and theory, yet relevant to both cold atoms and nuclear astrophysics. In particular, the strongly interacting Fermi gas realized in cold-atom experiments is closely related to dilute neutron matter in the neutron star crust. Unlike the liquid superfluids 4He (bosons) and 3He (fermions), where quantum turbulence has been studied in laboratory for decades, quantum gases, and in particular superfluid Fermi gases stand apart for a number of reasons. Fermi gases admit a rather reliable microscopic description based on density functional theory which describes both static and dynamical phenomena. Cold atom experiments demonstrate exquisite control over particle number, spin polarization, density, temperature, and interacting strength. Topological defects such as domain walls and quantized vortices, which lie at the heart of quantum turbulence, can be created and manipulated with time-dependent external potentials, a...
Farrera Soler, Pau
2013-01-01
In quantum repeater schemes for long distance quantum communication, quantum memories (QMs) play a vital role. For these applications, QMs need to be connected to the fiber optics network. However most QMs operate at wavelengths where the absorption in optical fibers is high. Therefore, their connection to a quantum frequency converter (QFC) to telecom wavelengths is required. In this work we convert an heralded single photon emitted by a rubidium atomic ensemble QM, using a QFC implemented w...
Ultracold-atom quantum simulator for attosecond science
Sala, Simon; Saenz, Alejandro
2013-01-01
A quantum simulator based on ultracold optically trapped atoms for simulating the physics of atoms and molecules in ultrashort intense laser fields is introduced. The slowing down by about 13 orders of magnitude allows to watch in slow motion the tunneling and recollision processes that form the heart of attosecond science. The extreme flexibility of the simulator promises a deeper understanding of strong-field physics, especially for many-body systems beyond the reach of classical computers. The quantum simulator can experimentally straightforwardly be realized and is shown to recover the ionization characteristics of atoms in the different regimes of laser-matter interaction.
Measuring the quantum statistics of an atom laser beam
Bradley, A. S.; Olsen, M. K.; Haine, S. A.; Hope, J. J.
2006-01-01
We propose and analyse a scheme for measuring the quadrature statistics of an atom laser beam using extant optical homodyning and Raman atom laser techniques. Reversal of the normal Raman atom laser outcoupling scheme is used to map the quantum statistics of an incoupled beam to an optical probe beam. A multimode model of the spatial propagation dynamics shows that the Raman incoupler gives a clear signal of de Broglie wave quadrature squeezing for both pulsed and continuous inputs. Finally, ...
Quantum algebraic symmetries in atomic clusters and nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atomic clusters are known to exhibit magic numbers analogous to but different from the magic numbers of atomic nuclei. In addition, atomic clusters offer the opportunity for observing supershells, which in nuclei cannot be seen because of the small number of particles present. It is shown that magic numbers and supershells in alkali clusters can be described well in terms of the 3-dimensional q-deformed harmonic oscillator, characterized by the uq(3) including soq(3) quantum algebraic symmetry
Atomically precise, coupled quantum dots fabricated by cleaved edge overgrowth
Wegscheider, W.; Schedelbeck, G.; Bichler, M.; Abstreiter, G.
Recent progress in the fabrication of quantum dots by molecular beam epitaxy along three directions in space is reviewed. The optical properties of different sample structures consisting of individual quantum dots, pairs of coupled dots as well as of linear arrays of dots are studied by microscopic photoluminescence spectroscopy. The high degree of control over shape, composition and position of the 7×7×7 nm3 size GaAs quantum dots, which form at the intesection of three orthogonal quantum wells, allows a detailed investigation of the influence of coupling between almost identical zero-dimensional objects. In contrast to the inhomogeneously broadened quantum well and quantum wire signals originating from the complex twofold cleaved edge overgrowth structure, the photoluminescence spetrum of an individual quantum dot exhibits a single sharp line (full width at half maximum denomination "artificial atoms" for the quantum dots. It is further demonstrated that an "artifical molecule", characterized by the existence of bonding and antibonding states can be assembled from two of such "artificial atoms". The coupling strength between the "artificial atoms" is adjusted by the "interatomic" distance and is reflected in the energetic separation of the bonding and antibonding levels and the linewidths of the corresponding interband transitions.
Relativistic quantum similarities in atoms in position and momentum spaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A study of different quantum similarity measures and their corresponding quantum similarity indices is carried out for the atoms from H to Lr (Z=1-103). Relativistic effects in both position and momentum spaces have been studied by comparing the relativistic values to the non-relativistic ones. We have used the atomic electron density in both position and momentum spaces obtained within relativistic and non-relativistic numerical-parameterized optimized effective potential approximations. -- Highlights: → Quantum similarity measures and indices in electronic structure of atoms. → Position and momentum electronic densities. → Similarity of relativistic and non-relativistic densities. → Similarity of core and valence regions of different atoms. → Dependence with Z along the Periodic Table.
Scalable quantum information processing with photons and atoms
Pan, Jian-Wei
Over the past three decades, the promises of super-fast quantum computing and secure quantum cryptography have spurred a world-wide interest in quantum information, generating fascinating quantum technologies for coherent manipulation of individual quantum systems. However, the distance of fiber-based quantum communications is limited due to intrinsic fiber loss and decreasing of entanglement quality. Moreover, probabilistic single-photon source and entanglement source demand exponentially increased overheads for scalable quantum information processing. To overcome these problems, we are taking two paths in parallel: quantum repeaters and through satellite. We used the decoy-state QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon source, and used the measurement-device-independent QKD protocol to close the loophole of imperfect photon detectors--two main loopholes in quantum cryptograph. Based on these techniques, we are now building world's biggest quantum secure communication backbone, from Beijing to Shanghai, with a distance exceeding 2000 km. Meanwhile, we are developing practically useful quantum repeaters that combine entanglement swapping, entanglement purification, and quantum memory for the ultra-long distance quantum communication. The second line is satellite-based global quantum communication, taking advantage of the negligible photon loss and decoherence in the atmosphere. We realized teleportation and entanglement distribution over 100 km, and later on a rapidly moving platform. We are also making efforts toward the generation of multiphoton entanglement and its use in teleportation of multiple properties of a single quantum particle, topological error correction, quantum algorithms for solving systems of linear equations and machine learning. Finally, I will talk about our recent experiments on quantum simulations on ultracold atoms. On the one hand, by applying an optical Raman lattice technique, we realized a two-dimensional spin-obit (SO
Quantum noise property in coherent atomic system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Jun-xiang; WANG Hai-hong; CAI Jin; GAO Jiang-rui
2006-01-01
The coherent superposition of atomic states leads to the characteristic change of interacting lights because of the coupling between the lights and atoms.In this paper,the noise spectrum of the quantified light interacting with the atoms is studied under the condition of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT).It is shown that the noise spectrum displays a double M-shape noise profile resulted from the conversion of phase noise of probe beam.A squeezing of 0.3 dB can be observed at the detuning of probe light at the proper parameters of atoms and coupling beam.
Room-temperature quantum bit storage exceeding 39 minutes using ionized donors in silicon-28.
Saeedi, Kamyar; Simmons, Stephanie; Salvail, Jeff Z; Dluhy, Phillip; Riemann, Helge; Abrosimov, Nikolai V; Becker, Peter; Pohl, Hans-Joachim; Morton, John J L; Thewalt, Mike L W
2013-11-15
Quantum memories capable of storing and retrieving coherent information for extended times at room temperature would enable a host of new technologies. Electron and nuclear spin qubits using shallow neutral donors in semiconductors have been studied extensively but are limited to low temperatures (≲10 kelvin); however, the nuclear spins of ionized donors have the potential for high-temperature operation. We used optical methods and dynamical decoupling to realize this potential for an ensemble of phosphorous-31 donors in isotopically purified silicon-28 and observed a room-temperature coherence time of over 39 minutes. We further showed that a coherent spin superposition can be cycled from 4.2 kelvin to room temperature and back, and we report a cryogenic coherence time of 3 hours in the same system. PMID:24233718
Theory of cold atoms: basics of quantum statistics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The aim of this tutorial is to present the basic mathematical techniques required for an accurate description of cold trapped atoms, both Bose and Fermi. The term cold implies that considered temperatures are low, such that quantum theory is necessary, even if temperatures are finite. The term atoms means that the considered particles are structureless, being defined by their masses and mutual interactions. Atoms are trapped in the sense that they form a finite quantum system, though their number can be very large, allowing for the use of the methods of statistical mechanics. This tutorial is the first of several, giving general mathematical techniques for both types of particle statistics. The following tutorials will be devoted separately to Bose atoms and Fermi atoms. Carefully explaining basic techniques is important in order to avoid the numerous misconceptions which propagate in the literature. (tutorial)
Single-Atom Gating of Quantum State Superpositions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moon, Christopher
2010-04-28
The ultimate miniaturization of electronic devices will likely require local and coherent control of single electronic wavefunctions. Wavefunctions exist within both physical real space and an abstract state space with a simple geometric interpretation: this state space - or Hilbert space - is spanned by mutually orthogonal state vectors corresponding to the quantized degrees of freedom of the real-space system. Measurement of superpositions is akin to accessing the direction of a vector in Hilbert space, determining an angle of rotation equivalent to quantum phase. Here we show that an individual atom inside a designed quantum corral1 can control this angle, producing arbitrary coherent superpositions of spatial quantum states. Using scanning tunnelling microscopy and nanostructures assembled atom-by-atom we demonstrate how single spins and quantum mirages can be harnessed to image the superposition of two electronic states. We also present a straightforward method to determine the atom path enacting phase rotations between any desired state vectors. A single atom thus becomes a real-space handle for an abstract Hilbert space, providing a simple technique for coherent quantum state manipulation at the spatial limit of condensed matter.
Quantum Phases of Atom-Molecule Mixtures of Fermionic Atoms
Lopez, Nicolas; Tsai, Shan-Wen
2009-11-01
Cold atom experiments have observed atom-molecule mixtures by tuning the interactions between particles.footnotetextM.L. Olsen, J. D. Perreault, T. D. Cumby, and D. S. Jin, Phys. Rev. A 80, 030701(R) (2009) We study many particle interactions by examaning a simple model that describes the destruction of fermionic atom pairs to form single bosonic molecules and vice versa. A set of functional Renomalization Group equationsfootnotetextR. Shankar, Rev. Mod. Phys., Vol 66 No. 1, January 1994^,footnotetextS.W. Tsai, A.H. Castro Neto, R. Shankar, D.K. Campbell, Phys. Rev. B 72, 054531 (2005) describing these processes are set up and solved numerically. The Self Energy of the fermions are attained as a function of frequency and we search for frequency dependent instabilities that could denote a transition from a disordered liquid to a BCS phase. (Financial support from NSF DMR-084781 and UC-Lab Fees Research Program.)
Grodecka, A.; Weber, C; Machnikowski, P.; Knorr, A.
2007-01-01
We study the influence of the environment on an optically induced rotation of a single electron spin in a charged semiconductor quantum dot. We analyze the decoherence mechanisms resulting from the dynamical lattice response to the charge evolution induced in a trion-based optical spin control scheme. Moreover, we study the effect of the finite trion lifetime and of the imperfections of the unitary evolution such as off-resonant excitations and the nonadiabaticity of the driving. We calculate...
Multi-million atom electronic structure calculations for quantum dots
Usman, Muhammad
Quantum dots grown by self-assembly process are typically constructed by 50,000 to 5,000,000 structural atoms which confine a small, countable number of extra electrons or holes in a space that is comparable in size to the electron wavelength. Under such conditions quantum dots can be interpreted as artificial atoms with the potential to be custom tailored to new functionality. In the past decade or so, these nanostructures have attracted significant experimental and theoretical attention in the field of nanoscience. The new and tunable optical and electrical properties of these artificial atoms have been proposed in a variety of different fields, for example in communication and computing systems, medical and quantum computing applications. Predictive and quantitative modeling and simulation of these structures can help to narrow down the vast design space to a range that is experimentally affordable and move this part of nanoscience to nano-Technology. Modeling of such quantum dots pose a formidable challenge to theoretical physicists because: (1) Strain originating from the lattice mismatch of the materials penetrates deep inside the buffer surrounding the quantum dots and require large scale (multi-million atom) simulations to correctly capture its effect on the electronic structure, (2) The interface roughness, the alloy randomness, and the atomistic granularity require the calculation of electronic structure at the atomistic scale. Most of the current or past theoretical calculations are based on continuum approach such as effective mass approximation or k.p modeling capturing either no or one of the above mentioned effects, thus missing some of the essential physics. The Objectives of this thesis are: (1) to model and simulate the experimental quantum dot topologies at the atomistic scale; (2) to theoretically explore the essential physics i.e. long range strain, linear and quadratic piezoelectricity, interband optical transition strengths, quantum confined
Quasieigenstate coalescence in an atom-cavity quantum composite.
Choi, Youngwoon; Kang, Sungsam; Lim, Sooin; Kim, Wookrae; Kim, Jung-Ryul; Lee, Jai-Hyung; An, Kyungwon
2010-04-16
We report the first direct observation of an exceptional point (EP) in an open quantum composite of a single atom and a high-Q cavity mode. The atom-cavity coupling constant was made a continuous variable by utilizing the multisublevel nature of a single rubidium atom when it is optimally coupled to the cavity mode. The spectroscopic properties of quasieigenstates of the atom-cavity composite were experimentally investigated near the EP. Branch-point singularity of quasieigenenergies was observed and its 4pi symmetry was demonstrated. Consequently, the cavity transmission at the quasieigenstate was observed to exhibit a critical behavior at the EP. PMID:20481988
Machine Learning for Quantum Mechanical Properties of Atoms in Molecules
Rupp, Matthias; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole
2015-01-01
We introduce machine learning models of quantum mechanical observables of atoms in molecules. Instant out-of-sample predictions for proton and carbon nuclear chemical shifts, atomic core level excitations, and forces on atoms reach accuracies on par with density functional theory reference. Locality is exploited within non-linear regression via local atom-centered coordinate systems. The approach is validated on a diverse set of 9k small organic molecules. Linear scaling is demonstrated for saturated polymers with up to sub-mesoscale lengths.
Composite particle and field theory in atomic quantum Hall effect
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhao Bo; Chen Zeng-Bing
2005-01-01
In this paper, we explore the composite particle description of the atomic quantum Hall (QH) effect. We further give the Chern-Simon-Gross-Pitaevskii (CSGP) effective theory for the atomic Hall liquid, which is the counterpart of Chern-Simon theory in electron Hall effect. What we obtained is equivalent to the Laughlin wavefunction approach.Our results show that in terms of composite particles, the atomic Hall effect is really the same as the electronic QH effect. The CSGP effective theory would shed new light on the atomic QH effect.
Pattern formation of quantum jumps with Rydberg atoms
Lee, Tony E
2012-01-01
We study the nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum jumps in a one-dimensional chain of atoms. Each atom is driven on a strong transition to a short-lived state and on a weak transition to a metastable state. We choose the metastable state to be a Rydberg state so that when an atom jumps to the Rydberg state, it inhibits or enhances jumps in the neighboring atoms. This leads to rich spatiotemporal dynamics that are visible in the fluorescence of the strong transition. It also allows one to dissipatively prepare Rydberg crystals.
Generation of atom-light entanglement in an optical cavity for quantum enhanced atom interferometry
Haine, Simon A.; Lau, Wing Yung Sarah
2016-02-01
We theoretically investigate the generation of atom-light entanglement via Raman superradiance in an optical cavity, and show how this can be used to enhance the sensitivity of atom interferometry. We model a realistic optical cavity, and show that by careful temporal shaping of the optical local oscillator used to measure the light emitted from the cavity, information in the optical mode can be combined with the signal from the atom interferometer to reduce the quantum noise, and thus increase the sensitivity. It was found in Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 053002 (2013), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.053002 that an atomic "seed" was required in order to reduce spontaneous emission and allow for single mode behavior of the device. In this paper we find that the optical cavity reduces the need for an atomic seed, which allows for stronger atom-light correlations and a greater level of quantum enhancement.
Autonomous quantum thermal machines in atom-cavity systems
Mitchison, Mark T; Prior, Javier; Woods, Mischa P; Plenio, Martin B
2016-01-01
An autonomous quantum thermal machine comprising a trapped atom or ion placed inside an optical cavity is proposed and analysed. Such a machine can operate as a heat engine whose working medium is the quantised atomic motion, or as an absorption refrigerator which cools without any work input. Focusing on the refrigerator mode, we predict that it is possible with state-of-the-art technology to cool a trapped ion almost to its motional ground state using a thermal light source such as sunlight. We nonetheless find that a laser or similar reference system is necessary to stabilise the cavity frequencies. Furthermore, we establish a direct and heretofore unacknowledged connection between the abstract theory of quantum absorption refrigerators and practical sideband cooling techniques. We also highlight and clarify some assumptions underlying several recent theoretical studies on self-contained quantum engines and refrigerators. Our work indicates that cavity quantum electrodynamics is a promising and versatile e...
Quantum interface between an electrical circuit and a single atom
Kielpinski, D; Woolley, M J; Milburn, G J; Taylor, J M
2011-01-01
We show how to bridge the divide between atomic systems and electronic devices by engineering a coupling between the motion of a single ion and the quantized electric field of a resonant circuit. Our method can be used to couple the internal state of an ion to the quantized circuit with the same speed as the internal-state coupling between two ions. All the well-known quantum information protocols linking ion internal and motional states can be converted to protocols between circuit photons and ion internal states. Our results enable quantum interfaces between solid state qubits, atomic qubits, and light, and lay the groundwork for a direct quantum connection between electrical and atomic metrology standards.
Quantum Walks With Neutral Atoms: Quantum Interference Effects of One and Two Particles
Robens, Carsten; Meschede, Dieter; Alberti, Andrea
2015-01-01
We report on the state of the art of quantum walk experiments with neutral atoms in state-dependent optical lattices. We demonstrate a novel state-dependent transport technique enabling the control of two spin-selective sublattices in a fully independent fashion. This transport technique allowed us to carry out a test of single-particle quantum interference based on the violation of the Leggett-Garg inequality and, more recently, to probe two-particle quantum interference effects with neutral atoms cooled into the motional ground state. These experiments lay the groundwork for the study of discrete-time quantum walks of strongly interacting, indistinguishable particles to demonstrate quantum cellular automata of neutral atoms.
Implementing quantum electrodynamics with ultracold atomic systems
Kasper, V; Jendrzejewski, F; Oberthaler, M K; Berges, J
2016-01-01
We discuss the experimental engineering of model systems for the description of QED in one spatial dimension via a mixture of bosonic $^{23}$Na and fermionic $^6$Li atoms. The local gauge symmetry is realized in an optical superlattice, using heteronuclear boson-fermion spin-changing interactions which preserve the total spin in every local collision. We consider a large number of bosons residing in the coherent state of a Bose-Einstein condensate on each link between the fermion lattice sites, such that the behavior of lattice QED in the continuum limit can be recovered. The discussion about the range of possible experimental parameters builds, in particular, upon experiences with related setups of fermions interacting with coherent samples of bosonic atoms. We determine the atomic system's parameters required for the description of fundamental QED processes, such as Schwinger pair production and string breaking. This is achieved by benchmark calculations of the atomic system and of QED itself using function...
Quantum Monte Carlo approaches to nuclear and atomic physics
Carlson, J.; Gandolfi, Stefano; Gezerlis, Alexandros
2012-01-01
Quantum Monte Carlo methods have proven to be valuable in the study of strongly correlated quantum systems, particularly nuclear physics and cold atomic gases. Historically, such ab initio simulations have been used to study properties of light nuclei, including spectra and form factors, low-energy scattering, and high-momentum properties including inclusive scattering and one- and two-body momentum distributions. More recently they have been used to study the properties of homogeneous and in...
Topological quantum memory interfacing atomic and superconducting qubits
Xue, ZhengYuan; Yin, ZhangQi; Chen, Yan; Wang, ZiDan; Zhu, ShiLiang
2016-06-01
We propose a scheme to manipulate a topological spin qubit which is realized with cold atoms in a one-dimensional optical lattice. In particular, by introducing a quantum opto-electro-mechanical interface, we are able to first transfer a superconducting qubit state to an atomic qubit state and then to store it into the topological spin qubit. In this way, an efficient topological quantum memory could be constructed for the superconducting qubit. Therefore, we can consolidate the advantages of both the noise resistance of the topological qubits and the scalability of the superconducting qubits in this hybrid architecture.
Estimation of atomic interaction parameters by quantum measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kiilerich, Alexander Holm; Mølmer, Klaus
Quantum systems, ranging from atomic systems to field modes and mechanical devices are useful precision probes for a variety of physical properties and phenomena. Measurements by which we extract information about the evolution of single quantum systems yield random results and cause a back action...... on the system. This back action may be favourable as it randomly quenches the system and triggers a transient evolution with temporal signal correlations which may depend more strongly than the steady state on the desired physical properties. To identify the quantitative performance of quantum...
Quantum Logic with Cavity Photons From Single Atoms
Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Rubenok, Allison; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Marshall, Graham D.; Sparrow, Chris; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Kuhn, Axel; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
2016-07-01
We demonstrate quantum logic using narrow linewidth photons that are produced with an a priori nonprobabilistic scheme from a single 87Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity. We use a controlled-not gate integrated into a photonic chip to entangle these photons, and we observe nonclassical correlations between photon detection events separated by periods exceeding the travel time across the chip by 3 orders of magnitude. This enables quantum technology that will use the properties of both narrow-band single photon sources and integrated quantum photonics.
Nonequilibrium Atom-Dielectric Forces Mediated by a Quantum Field
Behunin, Ryan Orson; Hu, Bei-Lok
2011-01-01
In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-grainin...
Real-time quantum feedback control with cold alkali atoms
Geremia, J. M.
2007-01-01
This chapter describes recent experiments involving continuous measurement and quantum feedback control of collective spin in a cloud of cold alkali atoms. While measurement by itself can generate entanglement between different atoms in the sample by virtue of conditional spin-squeezing, the squeezed state produced in any individual instance of the measurement is randomly distributed. Incorporating real-time feedback control into the observation process suppresses the statistical dispersion o...
Quantum state control of trapped Holmium atoms
Hostetter, James; Yip, Christopher; Milner, William; Booth, Donald; Collett, Jeffrey; Saffman, Mark
2016-05-01
Neutral Holmium with its large number of hyperfine ground states provides a promising approach for collective encoding of a multi-qubit register. A prerequisite for collective encoding is the ability to prepare different states in the 128 state hyperfine ground manifold. We report progress towards optical pumping and control of the hyperfine Zeeman state of trapped Ho atoms. Atoms are transferred from a 410.5 nm MOT into a 455 nm optical dipole trap. The atoms can be optically pumped using light driving the ground 6s2 , F = 11 to 6 s 6 p ,F' = 11 transition together with a F = 10 to F' = 11 repumper. Microwave fields are then used to drive transitions to hyperfine levels with 4 <= F <= 11 . Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.
Quantum dot systems: artificial atoms with tunable properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Quantum dots - also called zero-dimensional electron systems or artificial atoms - are physical objects where the constituent electrons are confined in a small spatial region, leading to discrete eigenvalues for the energies of the confined electrons. Large quantum dots offer a dense energy spectrum comparable to that of metallic grains, whereas small quantum dots more closely resemble atoms in their electronic properties. Quantum dots can be linked to leads by tunnel barriers, hence permitting electrical transport measurements: Coulomb blockade and single-electron charging effects are observed due to the repulsive electron electron interaction on the quantum dot site. Usually fabricated by conventional semiconductor growth and processing technology, the advantage is that both simple and also more complex quantum dot systems can be designed to purpose, acting as model systems with in-situ tunable parameters such as the number of confined electrons in the quantum dot and the strength of the tunnel coupling to the leads, electrostatically controlled by the applied voltages to gate electrodes. With increasing the tunnel coupling to the leads, the virtual occupation of the quantum dot from the leads becomes more and more important -- the simple description of electrical transport by single-electron tunneling events breaks down. The basic physics is described by the Kondo physics based on the Anderson impurity model. A system consisting of strongly electrostatically coupled quantum dots with separate leads to each quantum dot represent another realization of the Anderson impurity model. Experiments to verify the analogy are presented. The experimental data embedded within this tutorial have been obtained with Alexander Huebel, Matthias Keller, Joerg Schmid, David Quirion, Armin Welker, Ulf Wilhelm, and Klaus von Klitzing. (author)
Quantum stability and magic lengths of metal atom wires
Cui, Ping; Choi, Jin-Ho; Lan, Haiping; Cho, Jun-Hyung; Niu, Qian; Yang, Jinlong; Zhang, Zhenyu
2016-06-01
Metal atom wires represent an important class of nanomaterials in the development of future electronic devices and other functional applications. Using first-principles calculations within density functional theory, we carry out a systematic study of the quantum stability of freestanding atom wires consisting of prototypical metal elements with s -, s p -, and s d -valence electrons. We explore how the quantum mechanically confined motion and local bonding of the valence electrons in these different wire systems can dictate their overall structural stability and find that the formation energy of essentially all the wires oscillates with respect to their length measured by the number n of atoms contained in the wires, establishing the existence of highly preferred (or magic) lengths. Furthermore, different wire classes exhibit distinctively different oscillatory characteristics and quantum stabilities. Alkali metal wires possessing an unpaired s valence electron per atom exhibit simple damped even-odd oscillations. In contrast, Al and Ga wires containing three s2p1 valence electrons per atom generally display much larger and undamped even-odd energy oscillations due to stronger local bonding of the p orbitals. Among the noble metals, the s -dominant Ag wires behave similarly to the linear alkali metal wires, while Au and Pt wires distinctly prefer to be structurally zigzagged due to strong relativistic effects. These findings are discussed in connection with existing experiments and should also be instrumental in future experimental realization of different metal atom wires in freestanding or supported environments with desirable functionalities.
Techniques to measure quantum criticality in cold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe how rescaling experimental data obtained from cold atom density profiles can reveal signatures of quantum criticality. We identify a number of important questions which can be answered by analyzing experimental data in this manner. We show that such experiments can distinguish different universality classes and that the signatures are robust against temperature, noise, and finite system size.
Long-distance quantum networks using ultra-cold atoms
Solmeyer, Neal; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-05-01
The generation of entanglement between distantly located quantum memories via frequency converted single photons could enable many applications in quantum networking, including quantum teleportation, distributed quantum computing and potentially distributed precision timing. A quantum network with three or more nodes has yet to be demonstrated and moreover hybrid networks leverage advantages of different platforms. With an existing memory at the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), based on weak Raman scattering in a Rb magneto-optical trap, we are building a second node at the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), connected to ARL by a 13 km optical fiber. The second node will be a higher photon-rate node based on Rydberg excitations of a Rb ensemble in an optical dipole trap (N. Solmeyer et al., arXiv:1511.00025) and the first node will be upgraded to a Rydberg system soon. In the near term, we plan to generate entanglement between the second and a third node, based on a similar experimental setup, 100 m away at the JQI. For the ARL-JQI link we are presently working on quantum frequency conversion from IR photons to telecom wavelengths. Separately, we are pursuing frequency conversion from 493 nm photons to 780 nm to be used in a hybrid quantum network between ions and neutral atoms.
Early atomic models - from mechanical to quantum (1904-1913)
Baily, C.
2013-01-01
A complete history of early atomic models would fill volumes, but a reasonably coherent tale of the path from mechanical atoms to the quantum can be told by focusing on the relevant work of three great contributors to atomic physics, in the critically important years between 1904 and 1913: J.J. Thomson, Ernest Rutherford and Niels Bohr. We first examine the origins of Thomson's mechanical atomic models, from his ethereal vortex atoms in the early 1880's, to the myriad "corpuscular" atoms he proposed following the discovery of the electron in 1897. Beyond qualitative predictions for the periodicity of the elements, the application of Thomson's atoms to problems in scattering and absorption led to quantitative predictions that were confirmed by experiments with high-velocity electrons traversing thin sheets of metal. Still, the much more massive and energetic α-particles being studied by Rutherford were better suited for exploring the interior of the atom, and careful measurements on the angular dependence of their scattering eventually allowed him to infer the existence of an atomic nucleus. Niels Bohr was particularly troubled by the radiative instability inherent to any mechanical atom, and succeeded in 1913 where others had failed in the prediction of emission spectra, by making two bold hypotheses that were in contradiction to the laws of classical physics, but necessary in order to account for experimental facts.
Charged oscillator quantum state generation with Rydberg atoms
Stevenson, Robin; Hofferberth, Sebastian; Lesanovsky, Igor
2016-01-01
We explore the possibility of engineering quantum states of a charged mechanical oscillator by coupling it to a stream of atoms in superpositions of high-lying Rydberg states. Our scheme relies on the driving of a two-phonon resonance within the oscillator by coupling it to an atomic two-photon transition. This approach effectuates a controllable open system dynamics on the oscillator that permits the creation of squeezed and other non-classical states. We show that these features are robust to thermal noise arising from a coupling of the oscillator with the environment. The possibility to create non-trivial quantum states of mechanical systems, provided by the proposed setup, is central to applications such as sensing and metrology and moreover allows the exploration of fundamental questions concerning the boundary between classical and quantum mechanical descriptions of macroscopic objects.
Liquid quantum droplets of ultracold magnetic atoms
Ferrier-Barbut, Igor; Wenzel, Matthias; Kadau, Holger; Pfau, Tilman
2016-01-01
The simultaneous presence of two competing inter-particle interactions can lead to the emergence of new phenomena in a many-body system. Among others, such effects are expected in dipolar Bose-Einstein condensates, subject to dipole-dipole interaction and short-range repulsion. Magnetic quantum gases and in particular Dysprosium gases, offering a comparable short-range contact and a long-range dipolar interaction energy, remarkably exhibit such emergent phenomena. In addition an effective cancellation of mean-field effects of the two interactions results in a pronounced importance of quantum-mechanical beyond mean-field effects. For a weakly-dominant dipolar interaction the striking consequence is the existence of a new state of matter equilibrated by the balance between weak mean-field attraction and beyond mean-field repulsion. Though exemplified here in the case of dipolar Bose gases, this state of matter should appear also with other microscopic interactions types, provided a competition results in an eff...
The quantum beat principles and applications of atomic clocks
Major, F
2007-01-01
This work attempts to convey a broad understanding of the physical principles underlying the workings of these quantum-based atomic clocks, with introductory chapters placing them in context with the early development of mechanical clocks and the introduction of electronic time-keeping as embodied in the quartz-controlled clocks. While the book makes no pretense at being a history of atomic clocks, it nevertheless takes a historical perspective in its treatment of the subject. Intended for nonspecialists with some knowledge of physics or engineering, The Quantum Beat covers a wide range of salient topics relevant to atomic clocks, treated in a broad intuitive manner with a minimum of mathematical formalism. Detailed descriptions are given of the design principles of the rubidium, cesium, hydrogen maser, and mercury ion standards; the revolutionary changes that the advent of the laser has made possible, such as laser cooling, optical pumping, the formation of "optical molasses," and the cesium "fountain" stand...
Quantum properties of atoms and ions and so positron diagnostics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper presents quantum mechanical methods (variational, cluster, of partial separation of variables and other) for description and calculation of wave functions and quantum characteristics of atoms and ions in different versions of the multielectron theory. Discussed are applicability of the approaches in use to the description of atoms and ions in ground and excited states, specific features of annihilation in positron atomic systems and other problems. Processes of positron moderation in gases and formation of controllable flows of low-energy positrons are investigated; experimental (original) observations of positron annihilation are described; an attempt is made to summarize and interpret data of theoretical and experimental investigations which form the fundamental basis of the new method of studying matter - positron diagnostics
Atomic density functions: atomic physics calculations analyzed with methods from quantum chemistry
Borgoo, Alex; Geerlings, P
2011-01-01
This contribution reviews a selection of findings on atomic density functions and discusses ways for reading chemical information from them. First an expression for the density function for atoms in the multi-configuration Hartree--Fock scheme is established. The spherical harmonic content of the density function and ways to restore the spherical symmetry in a general open-shell case are treated. The evaluation of the density function is illustrated in a few examples. In the second part of the paper, atomic density functions are analyzed using quantum similarity measures. The comparison of atomic density functions is shown to be useful to obtain physical and chemical information. Finally, concepts from information theory are introduced and adopted for the comparison of density functions. In particular, based on the Kullback--Leibler form, a functional is constructed that reveals the periodicity in Mendeleev's table. Finally a quantum similarity measure is constructed, based on the integrand of the Kullback--L...
Photonic Quantum Logic with Narrowband Light from Single Atoms
Rubenok, Allison; Holleczek, Annemarie; Barter, Oliver; Dilley, Jerome; Nisbet-Jones, Peter B. R.; Langfahl-Klabes, Gunnar; Kuhn, Axel; Sparrow, Chris; Marshall, Graham D.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.; Poulios, Konstantinos; Matthews, Jonathan C. F.
Atom-cavity sources of narrowband photons are a promising candidate for the future development of quantum technologies. Likewise, integrated photonic circuits have established themselves as a fore-running contender in quantum computing, security, and communication. Here we report on recent achievements to interface these two technologies: Atom-cavity sources coupled to integrated photonic circuits. Using narrow linewidth photons emitted from a single 87 Rb atom strongly coupled to a high-finesse cavity we demonstrate the successful operation of an integrated control-not gate. Furthermore, we are able to verify the generation of post-selected entanglement upon successful operation of the gate. We are able to see non-classical correlations in detection events that are up to three orders of magnitude farther apart than the time needed for light to travel across the chip. Our hybrid approach will facilitate the future development of technologies that benefit from the advantages of both integrated quantum circuits and atom-cavity photon sources. Now at: National Physics Laboratory.
Efficient atomic quantum memory for photonic qubits in cavity QED
Yamada, H; Yamada, Hiroyuki; Yamamoto, Katsuji
2007-01-01
We investigate a scheme of atomic quantum memory to store photonic qubits of polarization in cavity QED. It is observed that the quantum-state swapping between a single-photon pulse and a $ \\Lambda $-type atom can be made via scattering in an optical cavity [T. W. Chen, C. K. Law, P. T. Leung, Phys. Rev. A {\\bf 69} (2004) 063810]. This swapping operates limitedly in the strong coupling regime for $ \\Lambda $-type atoms with equal dipole couplings. We extend this scheme in cavity QED to present a more feasible and efficient method for quantum memory combined with projective measurement. This method works without requiring such a condition on the dipole couplings. The fidelity is significantly higher than that of the swapping, and even in the moderate coupling regime it reaches almost unity by narrowing sufficiently the photon-pulse spectrum. This high performance is rather unaffected by the atomic loss, cavity leakage or detunings, while a trade-off is paid in the success probability for projective measurement...
Bounding quantum gravity inspired decoherence using atom interferometry
Minář, Jiří; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Hypothetical models have been proposed in which explicit collapse mechanisms prevent the superposition principle to hold at large scales. In particular, the model introduced by Ellis and co-workers [Phys. Lett. B ${\\bf 221}$, 113 (1989)] suggests that quantum gravity might be responsible for the collapse of the wavefunction of massive objects in spatial superpositions. We here consider a recent experiment reporting on interferometry with atoms delocalized over half a meter for timescale of a second [Nature ${\\bf 528}$, 530 (2015)] and show that the corresponding data strongly bound quantum gravity induced decoherence and rule it out in the parameter regime considered originally.
Quantum Optics 6 - Quantum Engineering of Atoms and Photons - Conference Materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The conference organized by Center for Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics and Warsaw University, sponsored by European Science Foundation, was held in Krynica (120 km south-east of Cracow), Poland, June 13-18 2005. This was the sixth conference of the cycle, the previous one was held in Koscielisko, Poland in 2001. This time the main subject of the conference was: Quantum Engineering of Atoms and Photons. The meeting was focused on the physics of ultracold quantum gases, which without doubts determines the frontiers of the modern atomic, molecular and optical physics. Special attention was also be given to quantum information processing, both from theoretical and experimental point of view, including possible realizations in ultracold quantum gases. The conference consisted of invited lectures and a poster session. Competition for the best poster was held, sponsored by Journal of Optics B and Journal of Physics B - for more on this, including the results of the competition visit. (author)
Quantum leakage of collective excitations of atomic ensemble induced by spatial motion
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI; Yng(李勇); YI; Su(易俗); YOU; Li(尤力); SUN; Changpu(孙昌璞)
2003-01-01
We generalize the conception of quantum leakage for the atomic collective excitation states. By making use of the atomic coherence state approach, we study the influence of the atomic spatial motion on the symmetric collective states of 2-level atomic ensemble due to inhomogeneous coupling. In the macroscopic limit, we analyze the quantum decoherence of the collective atomic state by calculating the quantum leakage for a very large ensemble at a finite temperature. Our investigations show that the fidelity of the atomic system will not be good in the case of atom number N →∞. Therefore, quantum leakage is an inevitable problem in using the atomic ensemble as a quantum information memory. The detailed calculations shed theoretical light on quantum processing using atomic ensemble collective qubit.
Construction of a single atom trap for quantum information protocols
Shea, Margaret E.; Baker, Paul M.; Gauthier, Daniel J.; Duke Physics Department Team
2016-05-01
The field of quantum information science addresses outstanding problems such as achieving fundamentally secure communication and solving computationally hard problems. Great progress has been made in the field, particularly using photons coupled to ions and super conducting qubits. Neutral atoms are also interesting for these applications and though the technology for control of neutrals lags behind that of trapped ions, they offer some key advantages: primarily coupling to optical frequencies closer to the telecom band than trapped ions or superconducting qubits. Here we report progress on constructing a single atom trap for 87 Rb. This system is a promising platform for studying the technical problems facing neutral atom quantum computing. For example, most protocols destroy the trap when reading out the neutral atom's state; we will investigate an alternative non-destructive state detection scheme. We detail the experimental systems involved and the challenges addressed in trapping a single atom. All of our hardware components are off the shelf and relatively inexpensive. Unlike many other systems, we place a high numerical aperture lens inside our vacuum system to increase photon collection efficiency. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support of the ARO through Grant # W911NF1520047.
Sequential double Auger decay in atoms: A quantum informatic analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We theoretically show that the process of inner-shell photoionization in an atom A, followed by the spontaneous sequential emission of two Auger electrons, produces various kinds of spin-entangled states of three flying electronic qubits. All properties of these states are completely pre-determined by the total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of four atomic species (i.e., A, A+*, A2+*, A3+) participating in this process in the Russell-Saunders coupling. These tripartite states are readily characterized experimentally by measuring only energies of the three emitted electrons, without requiring any entanglement witness or other such protocols.
Sequential double Auger decay in atoms: A quantum informatic analysis
Parida, S.; Chandra, N.
2009-05-01
We theoretically show that the process of inner-shell photoionization in an atom A, followed by the spontaneous sequential emission of two Auger electrons, produces various kinds of spin-entangled states of three flying electronic qubits. All properties of these states are completely pre-determined by the total spin quantum numbers of the electronic states of four atomic species (i.e., A, A, A, A) participating in this process in the Russell-Saunders coupling. These tripartite states are readily characterized experimentally by measuring only energies of the three emitted electrons, without requiring any entanglement witness or other such protocols.
Single-passage readout of atomic quantum memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A scheme for retrieving quantum information stored in collective atomic spin systems onto optical pulses is presented. Two off-resonant light pulses cross the atomic medium in two orthogonal directions and are interferometrically recombined in such a way that one of the outputs carries most of the information stored in the medium. In contrast to previous schemes our approach requires neither multiple passes through the medium nor feedback on the light after passing the sample, which makes the scheme very efficient. The price for that is some added noise which is, however, small enough for the method to beat the classical limits
Atom-loss-induced quantum optical bi-stability switch
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Bao-Jun; Cui Fu-Cheng
2012-01-01
We investigate the nonlinear dynamics of a system composed of a cigar-shaped Bose-Einstein condensate and an optical cavity with the two sides coupled dispersively.By adopting discrete-mode approximation for the condensate,taking atom loss as a necessary part of the model to analyze the evolution of the system,while using trial and errormethod to find out steady states of the system as a reference,numerical simulation demonstrates that with a constant pump,atom loss will trigger a quantum optical bi-stability switch,which predicts a new interesting phenomenon for experiments to verify.
Autonomous quantum thermal machines in atom-cavity systems
Mitchison, Mark T.; Huber, Marcus; Prior, Javier; Woods, Mischa P.; Plenio, Martin B.
2016-01-01
An autonomous quantum thermal machine comprising a trapped atom or ion placed inside an optical cavity is proposed and analysed. Such a machine can operate as a heat engine whose working medium is the quantised atomic motion, or as an absorption refrigerator which cools without any work input. Focusing on the refrigerator mode, we predict that it is possible with state-of-the-art technology to cool a trapped ion almost to its motional ground state using a thermal light source such as sunlight...
Quantum theory of ultracold atom-ion collisions
Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Julienne, Paul S; Simoni, Andrea
2008-01-01
We study atom-ion scattering in the ultracold regime. To this aim, an analytical model based on the multichannel quantum defect formalism is developed and compared to close-coupled numerical calculations. We investigate the occurrence of magnetic Feshbach resonances focusing on the specific 40Ca+ - Na system. The presence of several resonances at experimentally accessible magnetic fields should allow the atom-ion interaction to be precisely tuned. A fully quantum-mechanical study of charge exchange processes shows that charge-exchange rates should remain small even in the presence of resonance effects. Most of our results can be cast in a system-independent form and are important for the realization of the charge-neutral ultracold systems.
Rapid Cooling to Quantum Degeneracy with Dynamically Shaped Atom Traps
Roy, Richard; Bowler, Ryan; Gupta, Subhadeep
2016-01-01
We report on a general method for the rapid production of quantum degenerate gases. Using 174Yb, we achieve an experimental cycle time as low as (1.6-1.8) s for the production of Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) of (0.5-1) x 10^5 atoms. While laser cooling to 30\\muK proceeds in a standard way, evaporative cooling is highly optimized by performing it in an optical trap that is dynamically shaped by utilizing the time-averaged potential of a single laser beam moving rapidly in one dimension. We also produce large (>10^6) atom number BECs and successfully model the evaporation dynamics over more than three orders of magnitude in phase space density. Our method provides a simple and general approach to solving the problem of long production times of quantum degenerate gases.
Quantum entanglement for helium atom in the Debye plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lin, Yen-Chang, E-mail: linyc@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Applied Science and Engineering, Fu-Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Fang, Te-Kuei, E-mail: 051420@mail.fju.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Fu Jen Catholic University, New Taipei City 24205, Taiwan (China); Ho, Yew Kam, E-mail: ykho@pub.iams.sinica.edu.tw [Institute of Atomic and Molecular Sciences, Academia Sinica, P. O. Box 23-166, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)
2015-03-15
In the present work, we present an investigation on quantum entanglement of the two-electron helium atom immersed in weakly coupled Debye plasmas, modeled by the Debye-Hückel, or screened Coulomb, potential to mimic the interaction between two charged particles inside the plasma. Quantum entanglement is related to correlation effects in a multi-particle system. In a bipartite system, a measurement made on one of the two entangled particles affects the outcome of the other particle, even if such two particles are far apart. Employing wave functions constructed with configuration interaction B-spline basis, we have quantified von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for a series of He {sup 1,3}S{sup e} and {sup 1,3}P{sup o} states in plasma-embedded helium atom.
Quantum entanglement for helium atom in the Debye plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the present work, we present an investigation on quantum entanglement of the two-electron helium atom immersed in weakly coupled Debye plasmas, modeled by the Debye-Hückel, or screened Coulomb, potential to mimic the interaction between two charged particles inside the plasma. Quantum entanglement is related to correlation effects in a multi-particle system. In a bipartite system, a measurement made on one of the two entangled particles affects the outcome of the other particle, even if such two particles are far apart. Employing wave functions constructed with configuration interaction B-spline basis, we have quantified von Neumann entropy and linear entropy for a series of He 1,3Se and 1,3Po states in plasma-embedded helium atom
Quantum tunneling of oxygen atoms on very cold surfaces
Minissale, M.; Congiu, E.; Baouche, S.; Chaabouni, H.; Moudens, A.; Dulieu, F.; Accolla, M.; Cazaux, S.; Manico, G.; Pirronello, V.
2014-01-01
Any evolving system can change of state via thermal mechanisms (hopping a barrier) or via quantum tunneling. Most of the time, efficient classical mechanisms dominate at high temperatures. This is why an increase of the temperature can initiate the chemistry. We present here an experimental investigation of O-atom diffusion and reactivity on water ice. We explore the 6-25 K temperature range at sub-monolayer surface coverages. We derive the diffusion temperature law and observe the transition...
Bounding quantum gravity inspired decoherence using atom interferometry
Minář, Jiří; Sekatski, Pavel; Sangouard, Nicolas
2016-01-01
Hypothetical models have been proposed in which explicit collapse mechanisms prevent the superposition principle to hold at large scales. In particular, the model introduced by Ellis and co-workers [Phys. Lett. B ${\\bf 221}$, 113 (1989)] suggests that quantum gravity might be responsible for the collapse of the wavefunction of massive objects in spatial superpositions. We here consider a recent experiment reporting on interferometry with atoms delocalized over half a meter for timescale of a ...
Level rearrangement in exotic atoms and quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A presentation and a generalisation are given of the phenomenon of level rearrangement, which occurs when an attractive long-range potential is supplemented by a short-range attractive potential of increasing strength. This problem has been discovered in condensate-matter physics and has also been studied in the physics of exotic atoms. A similar phenomenon occurs in a situation inspired by quantum dots, where a short-range interaction is added to an harmonic confinement. (authors)
Quantum manifestations of chaos in elastic atom-surface scattering
Guantes, R.; Miret-Artés, Salvador; Borondo, Florentino
2001-01-01
Quantum manifestations of chaos in the diffraction of atoms from corrugated surfaces, for a range of initial conditions easily attainable in scattering experiments, are presented and discussed. The appearance of strong oscillations in diffraction patterns is shown to be directly related to the presence of classical chaos and threshold effects. We also show that the autocorrelation function for some of the collision S-matrix elements over incident angles is sensitive to the character, hyperbol...
Charge transport and localization in atomically coherent quantum dot solids
Whitham, Kevin; Yang, Jun; Savitzky, Benjamin H.; Kourkoutis, Lena F.; Wise, Frank; Hanrath, Tobias
2016-05-01
Epitaxial attachment of quantum dots into ordered superlattices enables the synthesis of quasi-two-dimensional materials that theoretically exhibit features such as Dirac cones and topological states, and have major potential for unprecedented optoelectronic devices. Initial studies found that disorder in these structures causes localization of electrons within a few lattice constants, and highlight the critical need for precise structural characterization and systematic assessment of the effects of disorder on transport. Here we fabricated superlattices with the quantum dots registered to within a single atomic bond length (limited by the polydispersity of the quantum dot building blocks), but missing a fraction (20%) of the epitaxial connections. Calculations of the electronic structure including the measured disorder account for the electron localization inferred from transport measurements. The calculations also show that improvement of the epitaxial connections will lead to completely delocalized electrons and may enable the observation of the remarkable properties predicted for these materials.
Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bonfanti@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.martinazzo@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-09-28
Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated.
Electronic Structure of Helium Atom in a Quantum Dot
Jayanta, K. Saha; Bhattacharyya, S.; T. K., Mukherjee
2016-03-01
Bound and resonance states of helium atom have been investigated inside a quantum dot by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set within the framework of stabilization method. To be specific, precise energy eigenvalues of bound 1sns (1Se) (n = 1-6) states and the resonance parameters i.e. positions and widths of 1Se states due to 2sns (n = 2-5) and 2pnp (n = 2-5) configurations of confined helium below N = 2 ionization threshold of He+ have been estimated. The two-parameter (Depth and Width) finite oscillator potential is used to represent the confining potential due to the quantum dot. It has been explicitly demonstrated that the electronic structural properties become sensitive functions of the dot size. It is observed from the calculations of ionization potential that the stability of an impurity ion within a quantum dot may be manipulated by varying the confinement parameters. A possibility of controlling the autoionization lifetime of doubly excited states of two-electron ions by tuning the width of the quantum cavity is also discussed here. TKM Gratefully Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. 37(3)/14/27/2014-BRNS from the Department of Atomic Energy, BRNS, Government of India. SB Acknowledges Financial Support under Grant No. PSW-160/14-15(ERO) from University Grants Commission, Government of India
Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. II. Sticking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Following our recent system-bath modeling of the interaction between a hydrogen atom and a graphene surface [Bonfanti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 143, 124703 (2015)], we present the results of converged quantum scattering calculations on the activated sticking dynamics. The focus of this study is the collinear scattering on a surface at zero temperature, which is treated with high-dimensional wavepacket propagations with the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. At low collision energies, barrier-crossing dominates the sticking and any projectile that overcomes the barrier gets trapped in the chemisorption well. However, at high collision energies, energy transfer to the surface is a limiting factor, and fast H atoms hardly dissipate their excess energy and stick on the surface. As a consequence, the sticking coefficient is maximum (∼0.65) at an energy which is about one and half larger than the barrier height. Comparison of the results with classical and quasi-classical calculations shows that quantum fluctuations of the lattice play a primary role in the dynamics. A simple impulsive model describing the collision of a classical projectile with a quantum surface is developed which reproduces the quantum results remarkably well for all but the lowest energies, thereby capturing the essential physics of the activated sticking dynamics investigated
Long-distance quantum communication with neutral atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The architecture proposed by Duan, Lukin, Cirac, and Zoller (DLCZ) for long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles is analyzed. Its fidelity and throughput in entanglement distribution, entanglement swapping, and quantum teleportation is derived within a framework that accounts for multiple excitations in the ensembles as well as loss and asymmetries in the channel. The DLCZ performance metrics that are obtained are compared to the corresponding results for the trapped-atom quantum communication architecture that has been proposed by a team from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and Northwestern University (MIT and NU). Both systems are found to be capable of high-fidelity entanglement distribution. However, the DLCZ scheme only provides conditional teleportation and repeater operation, whereas the MIT-NU architecture affords full Bell-state measurements on its trapped atoms. Moreover, it is shown that achieving unity conditional fidelity in DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation requires ideal photon-number resolving detectors. The maximum conditional fidelities for DLCZ teleportation and repeater operation that can be realized with nonresolving detectors are 1/2 and 2/3, respectively
An architecture for quantum computation with magnetically trapped Holmium atoms
Saffman, Mark; Hostetter, James; Booth, Donald; Collett, Jeffrey
2016-05-01
Outstanding challenges for scalable neutral atom quantum computation include correction of atom loss due to collisions with untrapped background gas, reduction of crosstalk during state preparation and measurement due to scattering of near resonant light, and the need to improve quantum gate fidelity. We present a scalable architecture based on loading single Holmium atoms into an array of Ioffe-Pritchard traps. The traps are formed by grids of superconducting wires giving a trap array with 40 μm period, suitable for entanglement via long range Rydberg gates. The states | F = 5 , M = 5 > and | F = 7 , M = 7 > provide a magic trapping condition at a low field of 3.5 G for long coherence time qubit encoding. The F = 11 level will be used for state preparation and measurement. The availability of different states for encoding, gate operations, and measurement, spectroscopically isolates the different operations and will prevent crosstalk to neighboring qubits. Operation in a cryogenic environment with ultra low pressure will increase atom lifetime and Rydberg gate fidelity by reduction of blackbody induced Rydberg decay. We will present a complete description of the architecture including estimates of achievable performance metrics. Work supported by NSF award PHY-1404357.
Quantum dynamics and entanglement in coherent transport of atomic population
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this work we look at the quantum dynamics of the process known as either transport without transit, or coherent transfer of atomic population, of a Bose–Einstein condensate from one well of a lattice potential to another, non-adjacent well, without macroscopic occupation of the well between the two. This process has previously been analysed and in this work we extend those analyses by considering the effects of quantum statistics on the dynamics and entanglement properties of the condensate modes in the two relevant wells. In order to do this, we go beyond the mean-field analysis of the Gross–Pitaevskii type approach and utilize the phase-space stochastic methods so well known in quantum optics. In particular, we use the exact positive-P representation where it is suitable, and the approximate truncated Wigner representation otherwise. We find strong agreement between the results of these two methods, with the mean-field dynamics not depending on the initial quantum states of the trapped condensate. We find that the entanglement properties do depend strongly on the initial quantum states, with quantitatively different results found for coherent and Fock states. Comparison of the two methods gives us confidence that the truncated Wigner representation delivers accurate results for this system and is thus a useful method as the collisional nonlinearity increases and the positive-P results fail to converge. (paper)
Influence of realistic atom wall potentials in quantum reflection traps
Madroñero, Javier; Friedrich, Harald
2007-02-01
We study the influence of atom-surface interactions close to the surface on the confinement properties in a recently proposed model [A. Jurisch and H. Friedrich, Phys. Lett. A 349, 230 (2006)] for quantum reflection traps and test the reliability of the sharp-step approximation used there. Accurate numerical calculations show a dependence of the surviving particle fraction on characteristic potential lengths determined by the behavior of the interaction in the limits r→0 and r→∞ of the atom-surface distance r . For interactions dominated by the retarded potential proportional to 1/r4 we find that the simplified sharp-step potential reproduces the behavior of the trapped atoms well, both qualitatively and quantitatively.
Atomically precise cluster catalysis towards quantum controlled catalysts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Catalysis of atomically precise clusters supported on a substrate is reviewed in relation to the type of reactions. The catalytic activity of supported clusters has generally been discussed in terms of electronic structure. Several lines of evidence have indicated that the electronic structure of clusters and the geometry of clusters on a support, including the accompanying cluster-support interaction, are strongly correlated with catalytic activity. The electronic states of small clusters would be easily affected by cluster–support interactions. Several studies have suggested that it is possible to tune the electronic structure through atomic control of the cluster size. It is promising to tune not only the number of cluster atoms, but also the hybridization between the electronic states of the adsorbed reactant molecules and clusters in order to realize a quantum-controlled catalyst. (review)
Approaching the quantum limit for plasmonics: linear atomic chains
Bryant, Garnett W.
2016-07-01
Optical excitations in atomic-scale materials can be strongly mixed, with contributions from both single-particle transitions and collective response. This complicates the quantum description of these excitations, because there is no clear way to define their quantization. To develop a quantum theory for these optical excitations, they must first be characterized so that single-particle-like and collective excitations can be identified. Linear atomic chains, such as atom chains on surfaces, linear arrays of dopant atoms in semiconductors, or linear molecules, provide ideal testbeds for studying collective excitations in small atomic-scale systems. We use exact diagonalization to study the many-body excitations of finite (10 to 25) linear atomic chains described by a simplified model Hamiltonian. Exact diagonalization results can be very different from the density functional theory (DFT) results usually obtained. Highly correlated, multiexcitonic states, strongly dependent on the electron–electron interaction strength, dominate the exact spectral and optical response but are not present in DFT excitation spectra. The ubiquitous presence of excitonic many-body states in the spectra makes it hard to identify plasmonic excitations. A combination of criteria involving a many-body state’s transfer dipole moment, balance, transfer charge, dynamical response, and induced-charge distribution do strongly suggest which many-body states should be considered as plasmonic. This analysis can be used to reveal the few plasmonic many-body states hidden in the dense spectrum of low-energy single-particle-like states and many higher-energy excitonic-like states. These excitonic states are the predominant excitation because of the many possible ways to develop local correlations.
A One-Dimensional Quantum Interface between a Few Atoms and Weak Light
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Béguin, Jean-Baptiste Sylvain
Quantum interfaces between light and the collective degrees of freedom of an ensemble of identical atoms have been proposed as a valuable and promising alternative to cavity quantum electrodynamics enhanced interaction with single particles. Many features of the quantum world (e. g. multipartite...... entanglement, squeezed states), which are central to the future developments of Quantum Information Science and Metrology, can be explored with mesoscopic collective states of atoms. An efficient quantum interface needs a high optical depth for the atomic ensemble and a measurement sensitivity limited by both...... the intrinsic quantum noise of light and the quantum projection noise of atoms. This was achieved in the past in a free space optical dipole trap ensemble of Nat ∼ 10^6 atoms, which triggered the operation of a collective Ramsey atomic clock assisted by entanglement. We have characterized and prepared...
Long lived quantum memory with nuclear atomic spins
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose store non-classical states of light into the macroscopic collective nuclear spin (1018 atoms) of a 3He vapor, using metastability exchange collisions. We show that these collisions currently used to transfer orientation from the metastable state 23S1 to the ground state state of 3He, may conserve quantum correlations and give a possible experimental scheme to perfectly map a squeezed vacuum field state onto a nuclear spin state, which should allow for extremely long storage times (hours). In addition to the apparent interest for quantum information, the scheme offers the intriguing possibility to create a long-lived non classical state for spins. During a metastability exchange collision an atom in the ground state state and an atom in the metastable triplet state 23S exchange their electronic spin variables. The ground state atom is then brought into the metastable state and vice-versa. A laser transition is accessible from the metastable state so that the metastable atoms are coupled with light. This, together with metastability exchange collisions, provides an effective coupling between ground state atoms and light. In our scheme, a coherent field and a squeezed vacuum field excite a Raman transition between Zeeman sublevels of the metastable state, after the system is prepared in the fully polarized state by preliminary optical pumping. According to the intensity of the coherent field, which acts as a control parameter, the squeezing of the field can be selectively transferred either to metastable or to ground state atoms. Once it is encoded in the purely nuclear spin of the ground state of 3He, which is 20 eV apart from the nearest excited state and interacts very little with the environment, the quantum state can survive for times as long as several hours. By lighting up only the coherent field in the same configuration as for the 'writing' phase, the nuclear spin memory can be 'read' after a long delay, the squeezing being transferred back to the
Quantum theory of an atom near partially reflecting walls
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We consider first a dielectric medium of identical two-state atoms coupled by the radiation field to an initially excited atom outside the dielectric. From the Schroedinger equation follows a delay-differential equation describing how the atom interacts with the dielectric by virtual photon exchanges. In the macroscopic limit of a continuous distribution of atoms in the dielectric, we derive a simpler delay-differential equation in which a Fresnel reflection coefficient appears. We apply our results to a model of an atom in a multimode Fabry-Perot resonator, and obtain a general delay-differential equation for the probability amplitude of the initially excited state. This equation predicts well-known Rabi oscillations when the round-trip photon propagation time is negligible compared with the inverse of the Rabi frequency and the mirrors are highly reflective. For low mirror reflectivities we recover Purcell's prediction that the emission rate is enhanced by the cavity Q factor. When the photon bounce time is large compared with the inverse Rabi frequency, Rabi oscillations do not occur. We discuss the Ewald-Oseen extinction theorem from the standpoint of quantum mechanics
Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics of Continuously Monitored Bose-Condensed Atoms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mark D. Lee
2015-09-01
Full Text Available We study cavity quantum electrodynamics of Bose-condensed atoms that are subjected to continuous monitoring of the light leaking out of the cavity. Due to a given detection record of each stochastic realization, individual runs spontaneously break the symmetry of the spatial profile of the atom cloud and this symmetry can be restored by considering ensemble averages over many realizations. We show that the cavity optomechanical excitations of the condensate can be engineered to target specific collective modes. This is achieved by exploiting the spatial structure and symmetries of the collective modes and light fields. The cavity fields can be utilized both for strong driving of the collective modes and for their measurement. In the weak excitation limit the condensate–cavity system may be employed as a sensitive phonon detector which operates by counting photons outside the cavity that have been selectively scattered by desired phonons.
Vector Dark Matter Detection using Quantum Jump of Atoms
Yang, Qiaoli
2016-01-01
Hidden sector $U(1)$ vector bosons created from inflationary fluctuations can be a substantial fraction of dark matter if their mass is around $10^{-5}$eV which is the order of the Lamb-shift between S wave and P wave in atoms. Due to the creation mechanism, the dark matter vector bosons are condensate with a very small velocity dispersion which makes their energy spectral density $\\rho_{cdm}/\\Delta E$ very high therefore boost the dark electric dipole transition rates in cooling atoms or ions if the energy gap between states equals the mass of vector bosons. The energy difference between quantum states in atoms can be tuned using the Zeeman effect. In addition, the excited state of atoms can be pumped into a highly excited state, order of eV above the ground state, with a tunable laser. The laser frequency is set so no other states will be excited. The highly excited state with a short lifetime then spontaneously emits photon which can be detected. Choices of target material are many depending on facility of...
Scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state to any node in a quantum communication network
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
宋克慧; 张为俊; 郭光灿
2002-01-01
We propose a scheme for teleporting an unknown atomic state. In order to realize the teleportation to any node ina quantum communication network, an n-atom Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is needed, which is utilizedas the quantum channel. From this n-atom GHZ state, two-node entanglement of processing and receiving teleportedstates can be obtained through the quantum logic gate manipulation. Finally, for the unequally weighted GHZ state,probabilistic teleportation is shown.
Single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases: a review of current progress
Ott, Herwig
2016-05-01
The recent advances in single atom detection and manipulation in experiments with ultracold quantum gases are reviewed. The discussion starts with the basic principles of trapping, cooling and detecting single ions and atoms. The realization of single atom detection in ultracold quantum gases is presented in detail and the employed methods, which are based on light scattering, electron scattering, field ionization and direct neutral particle detection are discussed. The microscopic coherent manipulation of single atoms in a quantum gas is also covered. Various examples are given in order to highlight the power of these approaches to study many-body quantum systems.
Information Entropy. and Squeezing of Quantum Fluctuations in a Two-Level Atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Peng; S. Swain
2000-01-01
We study the atomic squeezing in the language of the quantum information theory. A rigorous entropy uncertainty relation which suits for characterizing the squeezing of a two-level atoms is obtained, and a general definition of information entropy squeezing in the two-level atoms is given. The information entropy squeezing of two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode quantum field is examined. Our results show that the information entropy is a superior measure of the quantum uncertainty of atomic observable, also is a remarkable good precision measure of atomic squeezing. When the population difference of two-level atom is zero, the definition of atomic squeezing based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation is trivial, while the definition of information entropy squeezing of the atom based on the entropy uncertainty relation is valid and can provide full information on the atomic squeezing in any cases.
Clustering of ions at atomic dimensions in quantum plasmas
Shukla, Padma K.; Eliasson, Bengt; Eliasson
2013-08-01
By means of particle simulations of the equations of motion for ions interacting among themselves under the influence of newly discovered Shukla-Eliasson attractive force (SEAF) in a dense quantum plasma, we demonstrate that the SEAF can bring ions closer at atomic dimensions. We present simulation results of the dynamics of an ensemble of ions in the presence of the SEAF without and with confining external potentials and collisions between ions and degenerate electrons. Our particle simulations reveal that under the SEAF, ions attract each other, come closer, and form ionic clusters in the bath of degenerate electrons that shield ions. Furthermore, an external confining potential produces robust ion clusters that can have cigar- and ball-like shapes, which remain stable when the confining potential is removed. The stability of ion clusters is discussed. Our results may have applications to solid density plasmas (density exceeding 1023 per cm3), where the electrons will be degenerate and quantum forces due to the electron recoil effect caused by the overlapping of electron wave functions and electron tunneling through the Bohm potential, electron-exchange and electron-exchange and electron correlations associated with electron-1/2 spin effect, and the quantum statistical pressure of the degenerate electrons play a decisive role.
Electronic structure of helium atom in a quantum dot
Saha, Jayanta K; Mukherjee, T K
2015-01-01
Bound and resonance states of helium atom have been investigated inside a quantum dot by using explicitly correlated Hylleraas type basis set within the framework of stabilization method. To be specific, precise energy eigenvalues of bound 1sns (1Se) [n = 1-6] states and the resonance parameters i.e. positions and widths of 1Se states due to 2sns [n = 2-5] and 2pnp [n = 2-5] configuration of confined helium below N = 2 ionization threshold of He+ have been estimated. The two-parameter (Depth and Width) finite oscillator potential is used to represent the confining potential representing the quantum dot. It has been explicitly demonstrated that electronic structure properties become a sensitive function of the dot size. It is observed from the calculations of ionization potential that the stability of an impurity ion within quantum dot may be manipulated by varying the confinement parameters. A possibility of controlling the autoionization lifetime of doubly excited states of two-electron ions by tuning the wi...
Ultracold atoms in optical lattices simulating quantum many-body systems
Lewenstein, Maciej; Ahufinger, Verònica
2012-01-01
Quantum computers, though not yet available on the market, will revolutionize the future of information processing. Quantum computers for special purposes like quantum simulators are already within reach. The physics of ultracold atoms, ions and molecules offer unprecedented possibilities of control of quantum many body systems and novel possibilities of applications to quantum information processing and quantum metrology. Particularly fascinating is the possibility of usingultracold atoms in lattices to simulate condensed matter or even high energy physics.This book provides a complete and co
A total measure of multi-particle quantum correlations in atomic Schr\\"odinger cat states
Deb, Ram Narayan
2016-01-01
We propose a total measure of multi-particle quantum correlation in a system of N two-level atoms. We construct a parameter that encompasses all possible quantum correlations among N two-level atoms in arbitrary symmetric pure states and define its numerical value to be the total measure of the net atom-atom correlations. We use that parameter to quantify the total quantum correlations in atomic Schr$\\ddot{o}$dinger cat states, which are generated by the dispersive interaction in a cavity. We...
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with
Open quantum spin systems in semiconductor quantum dots and atoms in optical lattices
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwager, Heike
2012-07-04
In this Thesis, we study open quantum spin systems from different perspectives. The first part is motivated by technological challenges of quantum computation. An important building block for quantum computation and quantum communication networks is an interface between material qubits for storage and data processing and travelling photonic qubits for communication. We propose the realisation of a quantum interface between a travelling-wave light field and the nuclear spins in a quantum dot strongly coupled to a cavity. Our scheme is robust against cavity decay as it uses the decay of the cavity to achieve the coupling between nuclear spins and the travelling-wave light fields. A prerequiste for such a quantum interface is a highly polarized ensemble of nuclear spins. High polarization of the nuclear spin ensemble is moreover highly desirable as it protects the potential electron spin qubit from decoherence. Here we present the theoretical description of an experiment in which highly asymmetric dynamic nuclear spin pumping is observed in a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot. The second part of this Thesis is devoted to fundamental studies of dissipative spin systems. We study general one-dimensional spin chains under dissipation and propose a scheme to realize a quantum spin system using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice in which both coherent interaction and dissipation can be engineered and controlled. This system enables the study of non-equilibrium and steady state physics of open and driven spin systems. We find, that the steady state expectation values of different spin models exhibit discontinuous behaviour at degeneracy points of the Hamiltonian in the limit of weak dissipation. This effect can be used to dissipatively probe the spectrum of the Hamiltonian. We moreover study spin models under the aspect of state preparation and show that dissipation drives certain spin models into highly entangled state. Finally, we study a spin chain with
Atom Interferometry with Ultracold Quantum Gases in a Microgravity Environment
Williams, Jason; D'Incao, Jose; Chiow, Sheng-Wey; Yu, Nan
2015-05-01
Precision atom interferometers (AI) in space promise exciting technical capabilities for fundamental physics research, with proposals including unprecedented tests of the weak equivalence principle, precision measurements of the fine structure and gravitational constants, and detection of gravity waves and dark energy. Consequently, multiple AI-based missions have been proposed to NASA, including a dual-atomic-species interferometer that is to be integrated into the Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) onboard the International Space Station. In this talk, I will discuss our plans and preparation at JPL for the proposed flight experiments to use the CAL facility to study the leading-order systematics expected to corrupt future high-precision measurements of fundamental physics with AIs in microgravity. The project centers on the physics of pairwise interactions and molecular dynamics in these quantum systems as a means to overcome uncontrolled shifts associated with the gravity gradient and few-particle collisions. We will further utilize the CAL AI for proof-of-principle tests of systematic mitigation and phase-readout techniques for use in the next-generation of precision metrology experiments based on AIs in microgravity. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under a contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.
Valence atom with bohmian quantum potential: the golden ratio approach
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Putz Mihai V
2012-11-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The alternative quantum mechanical description of total energy given by Bohmian theory was merged with the concept of the golden ratio and its appearance as the Heisenberg imbalance to provide a new density-based description of the valence atomic state and reactivity charge with the aim of clarifying their features with respect to the so-called DFT ground state and critical charge, respectively. Results The results, based on the so-called double variational algorithm for chemical spaces of reactivity, are fundamental and, among other issues regarding chemical bonding, solve the existing paradox of using a cubic parabola to describe a quadratic charge dependency. Conclusions Overall, the paper provides a qualitative-quantitative explanation of chemical reactivity based on more than half of an electronic pair in bonding, and provide new, more realistic values for the so-called “universal” electronegativity and chemical hardness of atomic systems engaged in reactivity (analogous to the atoms-in-molecules framework.
Quantum nonlinearity with one atom dressed by two photons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The strong-coupling regime of cavity QED has proven to be a rich pond of optical phenomena at the level of single atoms and photons. We experimentally demonstrate that such a system exhibits a nonlinear intensity response when a single atom is made to interact not with one, but with two photons at the same time. This nonlinearity is explained by quantum mechanics and is expected to vanish in the limit of many intracavity atoms. It originates from the energy-level structure of the system, which consists of a ladder of doublets with anharmonic level splitting. The first doublet is visible in low-intensity spectroscopy, where it leads to the well-known vacuum-Rabi or normal-mode splitting. For stronger driving, we find a resonance stemming from excitation of the second doublet, at a frequency which is distinct from the normal modes because of the anharmonicity of the energy level spectrum. Since we access the resonance by driving a two-photon transition, we see a mainly quadratic response with respect to the probe intensity. Our experiment opens up new avenues for the controlled generation of multi-photon states
A telecom-wavelength atomic quantum memory in optical fiber for heralded polarization qubits
Jin, Jeongwan; Puigibert, Marcel li Grimau; Verma, Varun B; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-01-01
Photon-based quantum information processing promises new technologies including optical quantum computing, quantum cryptography, and distributed quantum networks. Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realization of these technologies. However, despite important success towards building elementary components compatible with this platform, including sources of entangled photons, efficient single photon detectors, and on-chip quantum circuits, a missing element has been atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of a telecom-wavelength photon. Here we demonstrate the quantum storage and retrieval of polarization states of heralded single-photons at telecom-wavelength by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage eff...
Nanophotonic quantum phase switch with a single atom
Tiecke, Tobias; Thompson, Jeffrey Douglas; de Leon, Nathalie Pulmones; Liu, L; Vuletić, V.; Lukin, Mikhail D.
2014-01-01
By analogy to transistors in classical electronic circuits, quantum optical switches are important elements of quantum circuits and quantum networks1, 2, 3. Operated at the fundamental limit where a single quantum of light or matter controls another field or material system4, such a switch may enable applications such as long-distance quantum communication5, distributed quantum information processing2 and metrology6, and the exploration of novel quantum states of matter7. Here, by strongly ...
Probabilistic Quantum Gates between Remote Atoms through Interference of Optical Frequency Qubits
Duan, L.-M.; Madsen, M. J.; Moehring, D. L.; Maunz, P.; Kohn Jr, R N; Monroe, C.
2006-01-01
We propose a scheme to perform probabilistic quantum gates on remote trapped atom qubits through interference of optical frequency qubits. The method does not require localization of the atoms to the Lamb-Dicke limit, and is not sensitive to interferometer phase instabilities. Such probabilistic gates can be used for scalable quantum computation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses
Di Lisi, Antonio; De Siena, Silvio; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David
2004-01-01
We introduce an efficient, quasideterministic scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum nondemolition measurements of total atomic populations and on adiabatic quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for ideal photodetection as well as in the presence of losses.
Cold atom quantum emulation with ultracold lithium and strontium
Rajagopal, Shankari; Senaratne, Ruwan; Geiger, Zachary; Fujiwara, Kurt; Singh, Kevin; Weld, David
2016-05-01
We discuss progress towards cold atom quantum emulation of nonequilibrium dynamics in optical lattices, focusing on quasiperiodic and strongly-driven systems using lithium and strontium. Tunable interactions in lithium Grant access to an added dimension of parameter space to explore in such systems, which could uncover rich physics. The high nuclear spin of fermionic strontium presents opportunities to study interactions in spin-dependent lattices and develop novel cooling techniques. We also describe construction of a single-site resolution imaging chamber for strontium, including a novel bio-inspired imaging scheme that makes use of a dark metastable state. We acknowledge support from the AFOSR, the ONR, the ARO and the PECASE and DURIP programs, the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation, the NSF GRFP, and the University of California Office of the President.
Cavity-based quantum networks with single atoms and optical photons
Reiserer, Andreas; Rempe, Gerhard
2015-10-01
Distributed quantum networks will allow users to perform tasks and to interact in ways which are not possible with present-day technology. Their implementation is a key challenge for quantum science and requires the development of stationary quantum nodes that can send and receive as well as store and process quantum information locally. The nodes are connected by quantum channels for flying information carriers, i.e., photons. These channels serve both to directly exchange quantum information between nodes and to distribute entanglement over the whole network. In order to scale such networks to many particles and long distances, an efficient interface between the nodes and the channels is required. This article describes the cavity-based approach to this goal, with an emphasis on experimental systems in which single atoms are trapped in and coupled to optical resonators. Besides being conceptually appealing, this approach is promising for quantum networks on larger scales, as it gives access to long qubit coherence times and high light-matter coupling efficiencies. Thus, it allows one to generate entangled photons on the push of a button, to reversibly map the quantum state of a photon onto an atom, to transfer and teleport quantum states between remote atoms, to entangle distant atoms, to detect optical photons nondestructively, to perform entangling quantum gates between an atom and one or several photons, and even provides a route toward efficient heralded quantum memories for future repeaters. The presented general protocols and the identification of key parameters are applicable to other experimental systems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)
Colloidal-quantum-dot photovoltaics using atomic-ligand passivation
Tang, Jiang
2011-09-18
Colloidal-quantum-dot (CQD) optoelectronics offer a compelling combination of solution processing and spectral tunability through quantum size effects. So far, CQD solar cells have relied on the use of organic ligands to passivate the surface of the semiconductor nanoparticles. Although inorganic metal chalcogenide ligands have led to record electronic transport parameters in CQD films, no photovoltaic device has been reported based on such compounds. Here we establish an atomic ligand strategy that makes use of monovalent halide anions to enhance electronic transport and successfully passivate surface defects in PbS CQD films. Both time-resolved infrared spectroscopy and transient device characterization indicate that the scheme leads to a shallower trap state distribution than the best organic ligands. Solar cells fabricated following this strategy show up to 6% solar AM1.5G power-conversion efficiency. The CQD films are deposited at room temperature and under ambient atmosphere, rendering the process amenable to low-cost, roll-by-roll fabrication. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.
Squeezed-light enhanced atom interferometry below the standard quantum limit
Szigeti, Stuart S; Lau, Wing Yung S; Hood, Samantha N; Haine, Simon A
2014-01-01
We investigate the prospect of enhancing the phase sensitivity of atom interferometers in the Mach-Zehnder configuration with squeezed light. Ultimately, this enhancement is achieved by transferring the quantum state of squeezed light to one or more of the atomic input beams, thereby allowing operation below the standard quantum limit. We analyze in detail three specific schemes that utilize (1) single-mode squeezed optical vacuum (i.e. low frequency squeezing), (2) two-mode squeezed optical vacuum (i.e. high frequency squeezing) transferred to both atomic inputs, and (3) two-mode squeezed optical vacuum transferred to a single atomic input. Crucially, our analysis considers incomplete quantum state transfer between the optical and atomic modes, and the effects of depleting the initially-prepared atomic source. Unsurprisingly, incomplete quantum state transfer degrades the sensitivity in all three schemes. We show that by measuring the transmitted photons and using information recycling [Phys. Rev. Lett. 110,...
Preparation of Genuinely Entangled Six-Atom State via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Wen; LIU Yi-Min; YIN Xiao-Feng; ZHANG Zhan-Jun
2011-01-01
A cavity quantum electrodynamics scheme for preparing a genuinely entangled state [A. Borras, et al., J. Phys. A 40 (2007) 13407] on six two-level atoms is proposed. In the scheme, the atom-cavity detuning is much bigger than the atom-cavity coupling strength and the necessary preparation time is much shorter than the Rydberg-atom lifespan. Hence the scheme has two distinct features, i.e., insensitive to the cavity decay and the atom radiation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
This paper introduces a latest experiment, where the preparation of ultraprecise quantum dots without error of even one atom and their integration were successfully made. In an experiment of In atoms (N=6), the observed spectral peak showed the quantum level, where free electronic state of InAs side as a substrate was formed by being trapped inside the potential well. In addition, it was suggested that there was surface electron accumulation layer on InAs substrate surface. When double quantum dot molecules were formed using two ultraprecise quantum dots (N=6), new molecule like electronic states of bonding and antibonding character were formed, through the interaction between electronic states in each quantum dot, as if the case of two hydrogen (H) atoms to form H2 molecule. The illustrated local electron density of state (electron existence probability distribution) image was visualized by utilizing the magnitude of differential conductance (dI/dV) in the tunnel current. This study also examined the trimers that used three ultraprecise quantum dots (N=6). It was shown that in the ultraprecise structure due to atomic manipulation, the circuit using electron effect has a potential to be operated at room temperature, by embedding the atomically manipulated atoms on the substrate side. (J.P.N.)
QUANTUM STATISTICS OF AN ATOM LASER IN THEPRESENCE OF A STRONG INPUT LIGHT
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JING HUI; MIAO YUAN-XIU; HAN YI-ANG
2001-01-01
Within the framework of quantum dynamical theory, we present a new method to control the quantum statistics of an atom laser by applying a powerful input light. Differing from the case in the rotating wave approximation, the non-classical properties can appear in the output atom laser beam with the evolution of time. By choosing a suitable phase of the input light, it is capable of realizing a steady and brighter output of coherent atom laser.
Controlling quantum coherence of atom laser by light with strong strength
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
景辉; 葛墨林
2002-01-01
A new method for controlling the quantum coherence of atom laser by applying input light with strong strength is presented within the framework of quantum dynamical theory. Unlike the case of rotating wave approximation(RWA), we show that the non-classical properties, such as sub-Poisson distribution and quadrature squeezed effect, can appear in the output atom laser beam with time. By choosing suitable initial RF phase, a steady and brighter output of squeezed coherent atom laser is also available.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities
Wang, Guan-yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our sch...
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities
Guan-Yu Wang; Qian Liu; Hai-Rui Wei; Tao Li; Qing Ai; Fu-Guo Deng
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our sch...
Artificial atom and quantum terahertz response in carbon nanotube quantum dots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Artificial atom behaviours have been observed in single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) quantum dots (QDs). Two-electron shell structures and the Zeeman splitting of single-particle states were revealed in single-electron transport measurements in low temperatures. To demonstrate that the charging energy of the dot lies in a terahertz (THz) range, the THz photon-assisted tunnelling was tested, and was really observed as a satellite Coulomb peak. Some satellite peaks moved as a frequency was changed, but other peaks did not move. We give possible models to explain the existence of two different satellite peaks.
Quantum control of d-dimensional quantum systems with application to alkali atomic spins
Merkel, Seth
In this dissertation I analyze Hamiltonian control of d-dimensional quantum systems as realized in alkali atomic spins. Alkali atoms provide an ideal platform for studies of quantum control due to the extreme precision with which the control fields are characterized as well as their isolation from their environment. In many cases, studies into the control of atomic spins restrict attention to a 2-dimesional subspace in order to consider qubit control. The geometry of quantum 2-level systems is much simpler than for any larger dimensional Hilbert space, and so control techniques for qubits often are not applicable to larger systems. In reality, atoms have many internal levels. It seems a shame to throw away most of our Hilbert space when it could in principle be used for encoding information and performing error correction. This work develops some of the tools necessary to control these large atomic spins. Quantum control theory has some very generic properties that have previously been explored in the literature, notably in the work from the Rabitz group. I provide a review of this literature, showing that while the landscape topology of quantum control problems is relatively independent of physical platform, different optimization techniques are required to find optimal controls depending on the particular control task. To this end I have developed two optimal control algorithms for finding unitary maps for the problems of: "state preparation" where we require only that a single fiducial state us taken to a particular target state and "unitary construction" where the entire map is specified. State mapping turns out to be a simple problem to solve and is amenable to a gradient search method. This protocol is not feasible for the task of finding full unitary maps, but I show how we can weave state mappings together to form full unitary maps. This construction of unitary maps is efficient in the dimension of the Hilbert space. The particular system I have used for
Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.;
2014-01-01
We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian...... manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory......, the atomic state is determined in a Bayesian manner from the measurement data, and we present an iterative protocol, which determines both the atomic state and the model parameters. As a new element in the treatment of observed quantum systems, we employ a Bayesian approach that conditions the atomic...
Caballero-Benitez, Santiago F.; Mekhov, Igor B.
2015-12-01
Quantum trapping potentials for ultracold gases change the landscape of classical properties of scattered light and matter. The atoms in a quantum many-body correlated phase of matter change the properties of light and vice versa. The properties of both light and matter can be tuned by design and depend on the interplay between long-range (nonlocal) interactions mediated by an optical cavity and short-range processes of the atoms. Moreover, the quantum properties of light get significantly altered by this interplay, leading the light to have nonclassical features. Further, these nonclassical features can be designed and optimised.
Proposal for a telecom quantum repeater with single atoms in optical cavities
Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Niemietz, Dominik; Ritter, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard
2016-05-01
Quantum repeaters hold the promise to enable long-distance quantum communication via entanglement generation over arbitrary distances. Single atoms in optical cavities have been shown to be ideally suited for the experimental realization of many tasks in quantum communication. To utilize these systems for a quantum repeater, it would be desirable to operate them at telecom wavelengths. We propose to use a cascaded scheme employing transitions at telecom wavelengths between excited states of alkali atoms for entanglement generation between a single photon at telecom wavelength and a single atom at the crossing point of two cavity modes. A cavity-assisted quantum gate can be used for entanglement swapping. We estimate the performance of these systems using numerical simulations based on experimental parameters obtained for CO2 laser-machined fiber cavities in our laboratory. Finally, we show that a quantum repeater employing the aforementioned scheme and current technology could outperform corresponding schemes based on direct transmission.
Spectroscopy of cold rubidium Rydberg atoms for applications in quantum information
Ryabtsev, I I; Tretyakov, D B; Entin, V M; Yakshina, E A
2016-01-01
Atoms in highly excited (Rydberg) states have a number of unique properties which make them attractive for applications in quantum information. These are large dipole moments, lifetimes and polarizabilities, as well as strong long-range interactions between Rydberg atoms. Experimental methods of laser cooling and precision spectroscopy enable the trapping and manipulation of single Rydberg atoms and applying them for practical implementation of quantum gates over qubits of a quantum computer based on single neutral atoms in optical traps. In this paper, we give a review of the experimental and theoretical work performed by the authors at the Rzhanov Institute of Semiconductor Physics SB RAS and Novosibirsk State University on laser and microwave spectroscopy of cold Rb Rydberg atoms in a magneto-optical trap and on their possible applications in quantum information. We also give a brief review of studies done by other groups in this area.
Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties. [Atomic clusters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Owen, R.K.
1990-12-01
Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) (0.1981), 0.1895(9) (0.1874(4)), 0.1530(34) (0.1599(73)), 0.1664(37) (0.1724(110)), 0.1613(43) (0.1675(110)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) (0.0203(12)), 0.0188(10) (0.0220(21)), 0.0247(8) (0.0310(12)), 0.0253(8) (0.0351(8)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.
Open-Loop Control in Quantum Optics: Two-Level Atom in Modulated Optical Field
Saifullah; Borisenok, Sergei
2008-01-01
The methods of mathematical control theory are widely used in the modern physics, but still they are less popular in quantum science. We will discuss the aspects of control theory, which are the most useful in applications to the real problems of quantum optics. We apply this technique to control the behavior of the two-level quantum particles (atoms) in the modulated external optical field in the frame of the so called "semi classical model", where quantum two-level atomic system (all other ...
Dynamic Polariton and Quantum State Swapping Between an Electromagnetic Field and Atomic Ensemble
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
汪凯戈; 杨国建
2002-01-01
We analyse a dynamical swapping of the quantum state in coupled harmonic oscillators. The result can be applied to the interaction of a single-mode field with atomic ensemble in the weak field case. Similar to the case of electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT), a dynamic polariton is formed. Therefore, the quantum state of the field can be completely mapped on to the atomic medium, and vice versa. Using this dynamical swapping and the adiabatic transfer in the EIT between the field and atomic ensemble, we propose a scheme in which both the quantum and the coherent information can be transferred from one field to another.
Bits of String and Bits of Branes
Bergman, Oren
1996-01-01
String-bit models are both an efficient way of organizing string perturbation theory, and a possible non-perturbative composite description of string theory. This is a summary of ideas and results of string-bit and superstring-bit models, as presented in the Strings '96 conference.
Clustering of Ions at Atomic-Dimensions in Quantum Plasmas
Shukla, P K
2012-01-01
By means of particle simulations of the equations of motion for ions interacting with the newly discovered Shukla-Eliasson (SE) force in a dense quantum plasma, we demonstrate that the SE force is powerful to bring ions closer at atomic dimensions. Specifically, we present simulation results on the dynamics of an ensemble of ions in the presence of the SE force without and with confining external potentials and collisions between the ions and degenerate electrons. Our particle simulations reveal that under the SE force, ions attract each other, come closer and form ionic clusters in the bath of degenerate electrons that shield the ions. Furthermore, an external confining potential produces robust ion clusters that can have cigar-like and ball-like shapes. The binding between the ions on account of the SE force may provide possibility of non-Coulombic explosions of ionic clusters for inertial confined fusion (ICF) schemes when high-energy density plasmas (density exceeding $10^{23}$ per cubic centimeters) are ...
Coherence and Fluctuations in the Interaction between Moving Atoms and a Quantum Field
Hu, B L; Raval, Alpan
1997-01-01
Mesoscopic physics deals with three fundamental issues: quantum coherence, fluctuations and correlations. Here we analyze these issues for atom optics, using a simplified model of an assembly of atoms (or detectors, which are particles with some internal degree of freedom) moving in arbitrary trajectories in a quantum field. Employing the influence functional formalism, we study the self-consistent effect of the field on the atoms, and their mutual interactions via coupling to the field. We derive the coupled Langevin equations for the atom assemblage and analyze the relation of dissipative dynamics of the atoms with the correlation and fluctuations of the quantum field. This provides a useful theoretical framework for analysing the coherent properties of atom-field systems.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zeng Ke; Fang Mao-Fa
2005-01-01
The entanglement properties of the system of two two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode vacuum field are explored. The quantum entanglement between two two-level atoms and a single-mode vacuum field is investigated by using the quantum reduced entropy; the quantum entanglement between two two-level atoms, and that between a single two-level atom and a single-mode vacuum field are studied in terms of the quantum relative entropy. The influences of the atomic dipole-dipole interaction on the quantum entanglement of the system are also discussed. Our results show that three entangled states of two atoms-field, atom-atom, and atom-field can be prepared via two two-level atoms interacting with a single-mode vacuum field.
Simulating accelerated atoms coupled to a quantum field
Del Rey M.; Porras D.; Martin-Martinez E.
2012-01-01
We show an analogy between static quantum emitters coupled to a single mode of a quantum field and accelerated Unruh-DeWitt detectors. We envision a way to simulate a variety of relativistic quantum field settings beyond the reach of current computational power, such as a high number of qubits coupled to a quantum field following arbitrary noninertial trajectories. Our scheme may be implemented with trapped ions and circuit QED setups. © 2012 American Physical Society.
Zohar, Erez; Reznik, Benni
2013-01-01
Quantum simulations of High Energy Physics, and especially of gauge theories, is an emerging and exciting direction in quantum simulations. However, simulations of such theories, compared to simulations of condensed matter physics, must satisfy extra restrictions, such as local gauge and Lorentz invariance. In this paper we discuss these special requirements, and present a new method for quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms. This method allows to include local gauge invariance as a \\emph{fundamental} symmetry of the atomic Hamiltonian, arising from natural atomic interactions and conservation laws (and not as a property of a low energy sector). This allows us to implement elementary gauge invariant interactions for three lattice gauge theories: compact QED (U(1)), SU(N) and Z_N, which can be used to build quantum simulators in 1+1 dimensions. We also present a new loop method, which uses the elementary interactions as building blocks in the effective construction of quantum simul...
Quantum random walks in a coherent atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We propose a scheme to realize the quantum random walk in a coherent five-level atomic system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). From optical Bloch equations describing the dynamics of the electromagnetic field and atomic population and coherence, we show that two circular-polarized components of a probe field display different dispersion properties and hence acquire different phase-shift modifications when passing through atomic cells. We demonstrate that the quantum coherence and interference owing to the EIT effect result in a low absorption of the probe field and hence provide a possibility of realizing a many-step phase-shift quantum random walk. The scheme may be used to experimentally highlight the characteristics of quantum random walk and lead to a promising application for quantum computation
Exact calculation of quantum mechanics for inelastic atom-molecule scattering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The time-dependent quantum mechanical method applied to inelastic atom-molecule scattering is presented and examined in interaction picture. The method is not only extremely accurate but also more efficient than the CC method
Nikulov, Alexey
2005-01-01
Formalism of the quantum mechanics developed for microscopic (atomic) level comes into collision with some logical difficulties on mesoscopic level. Some fundamental differences between application of its basic principles on microscopic and mesoscopic levels are accentuated.
Grover search algorithm with Rydberg-blockaded atoms: quantum Monte Carlo simulations
Petrosyan, David; Saffman, Mark; Mølmer, Klaus
2016-05-01
We consider the Grover search algorithm implementation for a quantum register of size N={2}k using k (or k+1) microwave- and laser-driven Rydberg-blockaded atoms, following the proposal by Mølmer et al (2011 J. Phys. B 44 184016). We suggest some simplifications for the microwave and laser couplings, and analyze the performance of the algorithm for up to k = 4 multilevel atoms under realistic experimental conditions using quantum stochastic (Monte Carlo) wavefunction simulations.
Microwave quantum optics with an artificial atom in one-dimensional open space
Hoi, Io-Chun; Wilson, C. M.; Johansson, Goran; Lindkvist, Joel; Peropadre, Borja; Palomaki, Tauno; Delsing, Per
2013-01-01
We address recent advances in microwave quantum optics with artificial atoms in one-dimensional (1D) open space. This field relies on the fact that the coupling between a superconducting artificial atom and propagating microwave photons in a 1D open transmission line can be made strong enough to observe quantum coherent effects, without using any cavity to confine the microwave photons. We investigate the scattering properties in such a system with resonant coherent microwaves. We observe the...
Lisi, A D; Illuminati, F; Vitali, D; Lisi, Antonio Di; Siena, Silvio De; Illuminati, Fabrizio; Vitali, David
2004-01-01
We introduce an efficient and robust scheme to generate maximally entangled states of two atomic ensembles. The scheme is based on quantum non-demolition measurements of total atomic populations and on quantum feedback conditioned by the measurements outputs. The high efficiency of the scheme is tested and confirmed numerically for photo-detection with ideal efficiency as well as in the presence of losses.
H atom in elliptically polarized microwaves: Semiclassical versus quantum resonant dynamics
Sacha, Krzysztof; Zakrzewski, Jakub
1998-01-01
The dynamics of Rydberg states of atomic hydrogen illuminated by resonant elliptically polarized microwaves is investigated both semiclassically and quantum mechanically in a simplified two-dimensional model of an atom. Semiclassical predictions for quasienergies of the system are found to be in a very good agreement with exact quantum data enabling a classification of possible types of motion and their dynamics with the change of the ellipticity of the microwaves. Particular attention is pai...
Teleportation of Atomic States via Cavity Quantum Electrodynamics
Guerra, E S
2004-01-01
In this article we discuss a scheme of teleportation of atomic states. The experimental realization proposed makes use of cavity Quatum Electrodynamics involving the interaction of Rydberg atoms with a micromaser cavity prepared in a coherent state. We start presenting a scheme to prepare atomic Bell states via the interaction of atoms with a cavity. In our scheme the cavity and some atoms play the role of auxiliary systems used to achieve the teleportation.
Gholibeigian, Hassan
2015-03-01
Iranian Philosopher, Mulla Sadra (1571-1640) in his theory of ``Substantial motion'' emphasized that ``the universe moves in its entity'', and ``the time is the fourth dimension of the universe'' This definition of space-time is proposed by him at three hundred years before Einstein. He argued that the time is magnitude of the motion (momentum) of the matter in its entity. In the other words, the time for each atom (body) is sum of the momentums of its involved fundamental particles. The momentum for each atom is different from the other atoms. In this methodology, by proposing some formulas, we can calculate the time for involved particles' momentum (time) for each atom in a second of the Eastern Time Zone (ETZ). Due to differences between these momentums during a second in ETZ, the time for each atom, will be different from the other atoms. This is the relativity in quantum physics. On the other hand, the God communicates with elementary particles via sub-particles (see my next paper) and transfers the packages (bit) of information and laws to them for processing and selection of their next step. Differences between packages like complexity and velocity of processing during the time, is the second variable in relativity of time for each atom which may be effective on the factor.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2013-01-01
Quantum simulations of High Energy Physics, and especially of gauge theories, is an emerging and exciting direction in quantum simulations. However, simulations of such theories, compared to simulations of condensed matter physics, must satisfy extra restrictions, such as local gauge and Lorentz invariance. In this paper we discuss these special requirements, and present a new method for quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms. This method allows to include local ga...
Classical aspects of quantum localization in microwave ionization of H atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wojcik, M.; Zakrzewski, J.; Rzazewski, K. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ul. Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)]|[Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, T12, E1, 4 place Jussieu, 75272 Paris Cedex 05 (France)]|[Center for Theoretical Physics and College of Sciences, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, Warszawa (Poland)
1995-10-01
It is shown that the main part of the differences between classical and quantum predictions concerning the microwave ionization of H-atom threshold frequency dependence, commonly explained as a manifestation of quantum localization, originates from the enhanced, in classical simulations, role of the Coulomb singularity. When the Coulomb potential is softened, classical simulations reproduce quantum predictions and experimental data satisfactorily. No interference, intrinsically important for localization phenomena, is necessary.
Quantum Effects of Uniform Bose Atomic Gases with Weak Attraction
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
CHENG Ze
2011-01-01
@@ We find that uniform Bose atomic gases with weak attraction can undergo a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer(BCS)condensation below a critical temperature.In the BCS condensation state,bare atoms with opposite wave vectors are bound into pairs,and unpaired bare atoms are transformed into a new kind of quasi-particles,i.e.the dressed atoms.The atom-pair system is a condensate or a superfluid and the dressed-atom system is a normal fluid.The critical temperature and the effective mass of dressed atoms are derived analytically.The transition from the BCS condensation state to the normal state is a first-order phase transition.%We find that uniform Bose atomic gases with weak attraction can undergo a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS)condensation below a critical temperature. In the BCS condensation state, bare atoms with opposite wave vectors are bound into pairs, and unpaired bare atoms are transformed into a new kind of quasi-particles, i.e. the dressed atoms. The atom-pair system is a condensate or a superfluid and the dressed-atom system is a normal fluid. The critical temperature and the effective mass of dressed atoms are derived analytically. The transition from the BCS condensation state to the normal state is a first-order phase transition.
Sanpera, A.; Kantian, A.; Sanchez-Palencia, L.; Zakrzewski, J.; Lewenstein, M.
2004-07-01
We investigate strongly interacting atomic Fermi-Bose mixtures in inhomogeneous and random optical lattices. We derive an effective Hamiltonian for the system and discuss its low temperature physics. We demonstrate the possibility of controlling the interactions at local level in inhomogeneous but regular lattices. Such a control leads to the achievement of Fermi glass, quantum Fermi spin-glass, and quantum percolation regimes involving bare and/or composite fermions in random lattices.
光纤信道压力对实际量子密钥分发误码率的影响%Influence of Fibre Channel Pressure on Actual Quantum Bit Error Rate
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
吴佳楠; 魏荣凯; 陈丽; 周成; 朱德新; 宋立军
2015-01-01
An actual peer to peer quantum key distribution experimental system of polarization encoding was built based on BB84 protocol under pressure testing conditions.Fibre channel pressure experiment about quantum key distribution was completed.The theoretical model of quantum bit error rate was established with positive operator valued measurement method.The research results show that under the same pressure,bit error rate increased with the increase of angle,the result was as theoretical arithmetic expected;and at the same angle,the bit error rate showed a gentle shock upward trend with the increase of pressure,and when the pressure exceeded a critical value,the bit error rate increased rapidly,approaching the limit,forcing the quantum key distribution system to reestablish a connection.%基于 BB84协议原理，构建压力环境下偏振编码的点对点实际量子密钥分发系统，进行光纤信道压力作用下的量子密钥分发实验，并采用半正定算子测量方法建立误码率分析模型。实验结果表明：相同作用力下，误码率随作用角度的增加而增大，与仿真结果相同；相同作用角下，误码率随作用力的增加呈平缓的震荡上升趋势，但当作用力超过某一临界值时，误码率会迅速提高，逼近极限值，迫使量子密钥分发系统重新建立连接。
Quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optics
Sangouard N.; Simon C.; De Riedmatten H.; Gisin N.
2009-01-01
The distribution of quantum states over long distances is limited by photon loss. Straightforward amplification as in classical telecommunications is not an option in quantum communication because of the no-cloning theorem. This problem could be overcome by implementing quantum repeater protocols, which create long-distance entanglement from shorter-distance entanglement via entanglement swapping. Such protocols require the capacity to create entanglement in a heralded fashion, to store it in...
Demonstration of a small programmable quantum computer with atomic qubits
Debnath, S.; Linke, N. M.; Figgatt, C.; Landsman, K. A.; Wright, K.; Monroe, C.
2016-08-01
Quantum computers can solve certain problems more efficiently than any possible conventional computer. Small quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on multiple quantum computing platforms, many specifically tailored in hardware to implement a particular algorithm or execute a limited number of computational paths. Here we demonstrate a five-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer that can be programmed in software to implement arbitrary quantum algorithms by executing any sequence of universal quantum logic gates. We compile algorithms into a fully connected set of gate operations that are native to the hardware and have a mean fidelity of 98 per cent. Reconfiguring these gate sequences provides the flexibility to implement a variety of algorithms without altering the hardware. As examples, we implement the Deutsch–Jozsa and Bernstein–Vazirani algorithms with average success rates of 95 and 90 per cent, respectively. We also perform a coherent quantum Fourier transform on five trapped-ion qubits for phase estimation and period finding with average fidelities of 62 and 84 per cent, respectively. This small quantum computer can be scaled to larger numbers of qubits within a single register, and can be further expanded by connecting several such modules through ion shuttling or photonic quantum channels.
Demonstration of a small programmable quantum computer with atomic qubits.
Debnath, S; Linke, N M; Figgatt, C; Landsman, K A; Wright, K; Monroe, C
2016-08-01
Quantum computers can solve certain problems more efficiently than any possible conventional computer. Small quantum algorithms have been demonstrated on multiple quantum computing platforms, many specifically tailored in hardware to implement a particular algorithm or execute a limited number of computational paths. Here we demonstrate a five-qubit trapped-ion quantum computer that can be programmed in software to implement arbitrary quantum algorithms by executing any sequence of universal quantum logic gates. We compile algorithms into a fully connected set of gate operations that are native to the hardware and have a mean fidelity of 98 per cent. Reconfiguring these gate sequences provides the flexibility to implement a variety of algorithms without altering the hardware. As examples, we implement the Deutsch-Jozsa and Bernstein-Vazirani algorithms with average success rates of 95 and 90 per cent, respectively. We also perform a coherent quantum Fourier transform on five trapped-ion qubits for phase estimation and period finding with average fidelities of 62 and 84 per cent, respectively. This small quantum computer can be scaled to larger numbers of qubits within a single register, and can be further expanded by connecting several such modules through ion shuttling or photonic quantum channels. PMID:27488798
Evaporative Cooling of Atoms to Quantum Degeneracy in an Optical Dipole Trap
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We discuss our experimental results on forced evaporative cooling of cold rubidium 87Rb atoms to quantum degeneracy in an Optical Dipole Trap. The atoms are first trapped and cooled in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) loaded from a continuous beam of cold atoms. More than 1010 atoms are trapped in the MOT and then about 108 atoms are transferred to a Quasi-Electrostatic Trap (QUEST) formed by tightly focused CO2 laser (λ = 10.6μm) beams intersecting at their foci in an orthogonal configuration in the horizontal plane. Before loading the atoms into the dipole trap, the phase-space density of the atomic ensemble was increased making use of sub-doppler cooling at large detuning and the temporal dark MOT technique. In a MOT the phase-space density of the atomic ensemble is six orders of magnitude less than what is required to achieve quantum degeneracy. After transferring atoms into the dipole trap efficiently, phase-space density increases by a factor of 103. Further increase in phase-space density to quantum degeneracy is achieved by forced evaporative cooling of atoms in the dipole trap. The evaporative cooling process involves a gradual reduction of the trap depth by ramping down the trapping laser intensity over a second. The temperature of the cold atomic cloud was measured by time-of-flight (TOF) technique. The spatial distribution of the atoms is measured using absorption imaging. We report results of evaporative cooling in a single beam and in a crossed double-beam dipole traps. Due to the large initial phase space density, and large initial number of atoms trapped, the quantum phase transition occurs after about 600 ms of evaporative cooling in our optimized crossed dipole trap
Popa, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamic Systems is intended for scientists and graduate students interested in the foundations of quantum mechanics and applied scientists interested in accurate atomic and molecular models. This is a reference to those working in the new field of relativistic optics, in topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles, and is based on 30 years of research. The novelty of this work consists of accurate connections between the properties of quantum equations and correspon
Multiscale quantum-defect theory for two interacting atoms in a symmetric harmonic trap
Chen, Yujun; Gao, Bo
2007-01-01
We present a multiscale quantum-defect theory (QDT) for two identical atoms in a symmetric harmonic trap that combines the quantum-defect theory for the van der Waals interaction [B. Gao, Phys. Rev. A \\textbf{64}, 010701(R) (2001)] at short distances with a quantum-defect theory for the harmonic trapping potential at large distances. The theory provides a systematic understanding of two atoms in a trap, from deeply bound molecular states and states of different partial waves, to highly excite...
Spin Squeezing and Entanglement with Room Temperature Atoms for Quantum Sensing and Communication
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Shen, Heng
magnetometer at room temperature is reported. Furthermore, using spin-squeezing of atomic ensemble, the sensitivity of magnetometer is improved. Deterministic continuous variable teleportation between two distant atomic ensembles is demonstrated. The fidelity of teleportating dynamically changing sequence of...... spin states surpasses a classical benchmark, demonstrating the true quantum teleportation....
Efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhang Jin; Ye Liu
2004-01-01
We present an efficient scheme for preparation of the multi-atom W state via cavity quantum electrodynamics.Involved in this scheme are n identical two-level atoms and a single-mode cavity field. Discussion indicates that this scheme can be realized easily by current technologies.
Quantum teleportation and computation with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Neutral atoms excited to Rydberg states can interact with each other via dipole–dipole interaction, which results in a physical phenomenon called the Rydberg blockade mechanism. The effect attracts much attention due to its potential applications in quantum computation and quantum simulation. Quantum teleportation has been the core protocol in quantum information science playing a key role in efficient long-distance quantum communication. Here, we first propose the implementation of a teleportation scheme with neutral atoms via Rydberg blockade, in which the entangled states of qubits can readily be prepared and the Bell state measurements just require single qubit operations without precise control of Rydberg interaction. The rapid experimental progress of coherent control of Rydberg excitation, optical trapping techniques and state-selective atomic detection promise the application of the teleportation scheme for scalable quantum computation and many-body quantum simulation using the protocol proposed by Gottesman and Chuang (1999 Nature 402 390) with Rydberg atoms in an optical lattice. (paper)
An integrated quantum repeater at telecom wavelength with single atoms in optical fiber cavities
Uphoff, Manuel; Brekenfeld, Manuel; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2016-03-01
Quantum repeaters promise to enable quantum networks over global distances by circumventing the exponential decrease in success probability inherent in direct photon transmission. We propose a realistic, functionally integrated quantum-repeater implementation based on single atoms in optical cavities. Entanglement is directly generated between the single-atom quantum memory and a photon at telecom wavelength. The latter is collected with high efficiency and adjustable temporal and spectral properties into a spatially well-defined cavity mode. It is heralded by a near-infrared photon emitted from a second, orthogonal cavity. Entanglement between two remote quantum memories can be generated via an optical Bell-state measurement, while we propose entanglement swapping based on a highly efficient, cavity-assisted atom-atom gate. Our quantum-repeater scheme eliminates any requirement for wavelength conversion such that only a single system is needed at each node. We investigate a particular implementation with rubidium and realistic parameters for Fabry-Perot cavities based on hbox {CO}_2 laser-machined optical fibers. We show that the scheme enables the implementation of a rather simple quantum repeater that outperforms direct entanglement generation over large distances and does not require any improvements in technology beyond the state of the art.
Quantum transport of bosonic cold atoms in double-well optical lattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We numerically investigate, using the time evolving block decimation algorithm, the quantum transport of ultracold bosonic atoms in a double-well optical lattice through slow and periodic modulation of the lattice parameters (intra- and inter-well tunneling, chemical potential, etc.). The transport of atoms does not depend on the rate of change of the parameters (as along as the change is slow) and can distribute atoms in optical lattices at the quantized level without involving external forces. The transport of atoms depends on the atom filling in each double well and the interaction between atoms. In the strongly interacting region, the bosonic atoms share the same transport properties as noninteracting fermions with quantized transport at the half filling and no atom transport at the integer filling. In the weakly interacting region, the number of the transported atoms is proportional to the atom filling. We show the signature of the quantum transport from the momentum distribution of atoms that can be measured in the time-of-flight image. A semiclassical transport model is developed to explain the numerically observed transport of bosonic atoms in the noninteracting and strongly interacting limits. The scheme may serve as an quantized battery for atomtronics applications.
Robust scheme for implemention of quantum phase gates for two atoms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zheng Shi-Biao
2009-01-01
We propose a scheme for implementing conditional quantum phase gates for two four-state atoms trapped in a cavity.The two ground states of the atoms are coupled through two Raman processes induced by the cavity mode and two classical fields.Under certain conditions nonresonant Raman processes lead to two-atom coupling and can be used to produce conditional phase gates.The scheme is insensitive to cavity decay,thermal photons,and atomic spontaneous emission.The scheme does not require individual addressing of the atoms.
A scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wu Tao; Ye Liu; Ni Zhi-Xiang
2006-01-01
In this paper, we propose a scheme for transferring an unknown atomic entangled state via cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). This scheme, which has a successful probability of 100 percent, does not require Bell-state measurement and performing any operations to reconstruct an initial state. Meanwhile, the scheme only involves atomfield interaction with a large detuning and does not require the transfer of quantum information between the atoms and cavity. Thus the scheme is insensitive to the cavity field states and cavity decay. This scheme can also be extended to transfer ring an entangled state of n-atom.
Continuous Measurement Quantum State Tomography of Atomic Ensembles
Riofrío, Carlos A
2011-01-01
Quantum state tomography is a fundamental tool in quantum information processing. It allows us to estimate the state of a quantum system by measuring different observables on many identically prepared copies of the system. This is, in general, a very time-consuming task that requires a large number of measurements. There are, however, systems in which the data acquisition can be done more efficiently. In fact, an ensemble of quantum systems can be prepared and manipulated by external fields while being continuously and collectively probed, producing enough information to estimate its state. This provides a basis for continuous measurement quantum tomography. In this protocol, an ensemble of identically prepared systems is collectively probed and controlled in a time-dependent manner to create an informationally complete continuous measurement record. The measurement history is then inverted to determine the state at the initial time. We use two different estimation methods: maximum likelihood and compressed s...
Atomic Quantum Simulations of Abelian and non-Abelian Gauge Theories
CERN. Geneva
2014-01-01
Using a Fermi-Bose mixture of ultra-cold atoms in an optical lattice, in a collaboration of atomic and particle physicists, we have constructed a quantum simulator for a U(1) gauge theory coupled to fermionic matter. The construction is based on quantum link models which realize continuous gauge symmetry with discrete quantum variables. At low energies, quantum link models with staggered fermions emerge from a Hubbard-type model which can be quantum simulated. This allows investigations of string breaking as well as the real-time evolution after a quench in gauge theories, which are inaccessible to classical simulation methods. Similarly, using ultracold alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices, we have constructed a quantum simulator for U(N) and SU(N) lattice gauge theories with fermionic matter based on quantum link models. These systems share qualitative features with QCD, including chiral symmetry breaking and restoration at non-zero temperature or baryon density. Unlike classical simulations, a quantum ...
Entanglement distillation for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories.
Li, Tao; Yang, Guo-Jian; Deng, Fu-Guo
2014-10-01
Atomic ensembles are effective memory nodes for quantum communication network due to the long coherence time and the collective enhancement effect for the nonlinear interaction between an ensemble and a photon. Here we investigate the possibility of achieving the entanglement distillation for nonlocal atomic ensembles by the input-output process of a single photon as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. We give an optimal entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for two-atomic-ensemble systems in a partially entangled pure state with known parameters and an efficient ECP for the systems in an unknown partially entangled pure state with a nondestructive parity-check detector (PCD). For the systems in a mixed entangled state, we introduce an entanglement purification protocol with PCDs. These entanglement distillation protocols have high fidelity and efficiency with current experimental techniques, and they are useful for quantum communication network with atomic-ensemble memories. PMID:25321967
Many-Body Quantum Optics with Decaying Atomic Spin States: ($\\gamma$, $\\kappa$) Dicke model
Gelhausen, Jan; Strack, Philipp
2016-01-01
We provide a theory for quantum-optical realizations of the open Dicke model with internal, atomic spin states subject to uncorrelated, single-site spontaneous emission with rate $\\gamma$. This introduces a second decay channel for excitations to irreversibly dissipate into the environment, in addition to the photon loss with rate $\\kappa$. We compute the mean-field non-equilibrium steady states for spin and photon observables in the long-time limit, $t\\rightarrow \\infty$. Although $\\gamma$ does not conserve the total angular momentum of the spin array, we argue that our solution is exact in the thermodynamic limit, for the number of atoms $N\\rightarrow \\infty$. In light of recent and upcoming experiments realizing superradiant phase transitions using internal atomic states with pinned atoms in optical lattices, our work lays the foundation for the pursuit of a new class of open quantum magnets coupled to quantum light.
Atomic-ensemble-based quantum repeater against general polarization and phase noise
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present a quantum repeater architecture based on atomic ensembles, which is free of polarization and phase noise. With only simple optical elements, we can obtain the uncorrupted entanglement in the noisy channel. Even if the channel suffers from the general polarization and phase noise, the fidelity of transmitted qubits in our protocol can be stable and have no dependence on the noise parameter, which is a significant advantage compared with previous protocols. Moveover, we can even improve the fidelity by using time delayers. The proposed quantum repeater is feasible and useful in the long-distance quantum entanglement distribution and may be promising in other quantum-information applications.
Decoherence for a quantum memory in an ensemble of cold atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Atomic ensembles are a promising candidate for various applications in quantum information science. In particular, Duan, Lukin Cirac and Zoller (DLCZ) have proposed a protocol allowing scalable long distance quantum communication using atomic ensembles and linear optics. The DLCZ protocol is a probabilistic scheme based upon the entanglement of atomic ensembles via the detection of single photons. The detection of a single photon in the forward scattered direction is uniquely correlated with a collective atomic excitation in the sample, due to a collective enhancement effect. This collective excitation can be in principle stored for a time up to the coherence time of the system, and then released by conversion into a photon. This quantum memory is mandatory for the DLCZ scheme to be scalable. Hence, the coherence time is a critical parameter for this system. Our initial steps towards the realization of the DLCZ protocol have been by way of observations of non-classical correlations between the emitted single photons and the collective atomic excitations. However, in all the experiments reported so far using cold atomic ensembles, the coherence times were extremely short (of the order of 100 ns), thus preventing to take advantage of the quantum memory. In this contribution we explore the cause of this rather fast decoherence process and present an experimental scheme to overcome this problem. First results show an improvement of more than one order of magnitude in the coherence time. Future work includes the entanglement of two spatially separated cold atomic ensembles. (author)
Ultracold atoms coupled to micro- and nanomechanical oscillators: towards hybrid quantum systems
Treutlein, Philipp
2009-05-01
Micro- and nanomechanical oscillators are presently approaching the quantum regime, driven by the continuous improvement of techniques to read out and cool mechanical motion. For trapped ultracold atoms, a rich toolbox of quantum control techniques already exists. By coupling mechanical oscillators to ultracold atoms, hybrid quantum systems could be formed, in which the atoms are used to cool, read out, and coherently manipulate the oscillators' state. In our work, we investigate different coupling mechanisms between ultracold atoms and mechanical oscillators. In a first experiment, we use atom-surface forces to couple the vibrations of a mechanical cantilever to the motion of a Bose-Einstein condensate in a magnetic microtrap on a chip. The atoms are trapped at sub-micrometer distance from the cantilever surface. We make use of the coupling to read out the cantilever vibrations with the atoms. Coupling via surface forces could be employed to couple atoms to molecular-scale oscillators such as carbon nanotubes. In a second experiment, we investigate coupling via a 1D optical lattice that is formed by a laser beam retroreflected from the cantilever tip. The optical lattice serves as a transfer rod which couples vibrations of the cantilever to the atoms and vice versa. Finally, we investigate magnetic coupling between the spin of ultracold atoms and the vibrations of a nanoscale cantilever with a magnetic tip. Theoretical investigations show that at low temperatures, the backaction of the atoms onto the cantilever is significant and the system represents a mechanical analog of cavity quantum electrodynamics in the strong coupling regime.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Guerlin, Christine; Brion, Etienne; Esslinger, Tilman;
2010-01-01
effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest......The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly...... couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e>via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the...
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with a Rydberg-blocked atomic ensemble
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The realization of a Jaynes-Cummings model in the optical domain is proposed for an atomic ensemble. The scheme exploits the collective coupling of the atoms to a quantized cavity mode and the nonlinearity introduced by coupling to high-lying Rydberg states. A two-photon transition resonantly couples the single-atom ground state |g> to a Rydberg state |e> via a nonresonant intermediate state |i>, but due to the interaction between Rydberg atoms only a single atom can be resonantly excited in the ensemble. This restricts the state space of the ensemble to the collective ground state |G> and the collectively excited state |E> with a single Rydberg excitation distributed evenly on all atoms. The collectively enhanced coupling of all atoms to the cavity field with coherent coupling strengths which are much larger than the decay rates in the system leads to the strong coupling regime of the resulting effective Jaynes-Cummings model. We use numerical simulations to show that the cavity transmission can be used to reveal detailed properties of the Jaynes-Cummings ladder of excited states and that the atomic nonlinearity gives rise to highly nontrivial photon emission from the cavity. Finally, we suggest that the absence of interactions between remote Rydberg atoms may, due to a combinatorial effect, induce a cavity-assisted excitation blockade whose range is larger than the typical Rydberg dipole-dipole interaction length.
Adiabatic frequency conversion of quantum optical information in atomic vapor
Vewinger, Frank; Appel, Juergen; Figueroa, Eden; Lvovsky, A. I.
2006-01-01
We experimentally demonstrate a quantum communication protocol that enables frequency conversion and routing of quantum optical information in an adiabatic and thus robust way. The protocol is based on electromagnetically-induced transparency in systems with multiple excited levels: transfer and/or distribution of optical states between different signal modes is implemented by adiabatically changing the control fields. The proof-of-principle experiment is performed using the hyperfine levels ...
Quantum state transfer between atomic ensembles trapped in separate cavities via adiabatic passage
Zhang, Chun-Ling; Chen, Mei-Feng
2015-07-01
We propose a new approach for quantum state transfer (QST) between atomic ensembles separately trapped in two distant cavities connected by an optical fiber via adiabatic passage. The three-level Λ-type atoms in each ensemble dispersively interact with the nonresonant classical field and cavity mode. By choosing appropriate parameters of the system, the effective Hamiltonian describes two atomic ensembles interacting with “the same cavity mode” and has a dark state. Consequently, the QST between atomic ensembles can be implemented via adiabatic passage. Numerical calculations show that the scheme is robust against moderate fluctuations of the experimental parameters. In addition, the effect of decoherence can be suppressed effectively. The idea provides a scalable way to an atomic-ensemble-based quantum network, which may be reachable with currently available technology. Project supported by the Funding (type B) from the Fujian Education Department, China (Grant No. JB13261).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kurucz, Zoltan; Mølmer, Klaus
2010-01-01
We show that an ensemble of identical d-level atoms can be efficiently described by d-1 collective oscillator degrees of freedom in the vicinity of a product state with all atoms in the same, but otherwise arbitrary single-particle state. We apply our description to two different kinds of spin...... squeezing: (i) when each spin-F atom is individually squeezed without creating interatomic entanglement and (ii) when a particular collective atomic oscillator mode is squeezed via quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement and feedback. When combined in sequence, the order of the two methods is relevant in...... the final degree of squeezing. We also discuss the role of the two kinds of squeezing when multisublevel atoms are used as quantum memories for light....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that an ensemble of identical d-level atoms can be efficiently described by d-1 collective oscillator degrees of freedom in the vicinity of a product state with all atoms in the same, but otherwise arbitrary single-particle state. We apply our description to two different kinds of spin squeezing: (i) when each spin-F atom is individually squeezed without creating interatomic entanglement and (ii) when a particular collective atomic oscillator mode is squeezed via quantum nondemolition (QND) measurement and feedback. When combined in sequence, the order of the two methods is relevant in the final degree of squeezing. We also discuss the role of the two kinds of squeezing when multisublevel atoms are used as quantum memories for light.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-04-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology.
Universal quantum gates for photon-atom hybrid systems assisted by bad cavities.
Wang, Guan-Yu; Liu, Qian; Wei, Hai-Rui; Li, Tao; Ai, Qing; Deng, Fu-Guo
2016-01-01
We present two deterministic schemes for constructing a CNOT gate and a Toffoli gate on photon-atom and photon-atom-atom hybrid quantum systems assisted by bad cavities, respectively. They are achieved by cavity-assisted photon scattering and work in the intermediate coupling region with bad cavities, which relaxes the difficulty of their implementation in experiment. Also, bad cavities are feasible for fast quantum operations and reading out information. Compared with previous works, our schemes do not need any auxiliary qubits and measurements. Moreover, the schematic setups for these gates are simple, especially that for our Toffoli gate as only a quarter wave packet is used to interact the photon with each of the atoms every time. These atom-cavity systems can be used as the quantum nodes in long-distance quantum communication as their relatively long coherence time is suitable for multi-time operations between the photon and the system. Our calculations show that the average fidelities and efficiencies of our two universal hybrid quantum gates are high with current experimental technology. PMID:27067992
Quantum fluctuation effects on nuclear fragment and atomic cluster formation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ohnishi, Akira [Hokkaido Univ., Sapporo (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Randrup, J.
1997-05-01
We investigate the nuclear fragmentation and atomic cluster formation by means of the recently proposed quantal Langevin treatment. It is shown that the effect of the quantal fluctuation is in the opposite direction in nuclear fragment and atomic cluster size distribution. This tendency is understood through the effective classical temperature for the observables. (author)
Atomic quantum superposition state generation via optical probing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Negretti, Antonio;
2009-01-01
We analyze the performance of a protocol to prepare an atomic ensemble in a superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable states. The protocol relies on conditional measurements performed on a light field, which interacts with the atoms inside an optical cavity prior to detection, and we...
Teleportation of two-atom entangled state in resonant cavity quantum electrodynamics
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yang Zhen-Biao
2007-01-01
An alternative scheme is presented for teleportation of a two-atom entangled state in cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is based on the resonant atom-cavity field interaction. In the scheme, only one cavity is involved, and the number of the atoms needed to be detected is decreased compared with the previous scheme. Since the resonant atom-cavity field interaction greatly reduces the interaction time, the decoherence effect can be effectively suppressed during the teleportation process. The experimental feasibility of the scheme is discussed. The scheme can easily be generalized to the teleportation of N-atom Greeninger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states. The number of atoms needed to be detected does not increase as the number of the atoms in the GHZ state increases.
Quantum Statistical Behaviors of Interaction of an Atomic Bose-Einstein Condensate with Laser
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YU Zhao-Xian; JIAO Zhi-Yong
2001-01-01
We have investigated quantum statistical behaviors of photons and atoms in interaction of an atomic Bose Einstein condensate with quantized laser field. When the quantized laser field is initially prepared in a superposition state which exhibits holes in its photon-number distribution, while the atomic field is initially in a Fock state, it is found that there is energy exchange between photons and atoms. For the input and output states, the photons and atoms may exhibit the sub-Poissonian distribution. The input and output laser fields may exhibit quadrature squeezing, but for the atomic field, only the output state exhibits quadrature squeezing. It is shown that there exists the violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality, which means that the correlation between photons and atoms is nonclassical.``
Jeffrey H. Bergstrand; Egger, Peter
2011-01-01
Bilateral investment treaties (BITs) have proliferated over the past 50 years such that the number of pairs of countries with BITs is roughly as large as the number of country-pairs that belong to bilateral or regional preferential trade agreements (PTAs). The purpose of this study is to provide the first systematic empirical analysis of the economic determinants of BITs and of the likelihood of BITs between pairs of countries using a qualitative choice model, and in a manner consistent with ...
Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States
Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.
2016-06-01
This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.
Analyzing quantum jumps of one and two atoms strongly coupled to an optical cavity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Reick, Sebastian; Mølmer, Klaus; Alt, Wolfgang;
2010-01-01
We induce quantum jumps between the hyperfine ground states of one and two cesium atoms, strongly coupled to the mode of a high-finesse optical resonator, and analyze the resulting random telegraph signals. We identify experimental parameters to deduce the atomic spin state nondestructively from...... yields time-dependent probabilities for the atoms to be in one of the two hyperfine states. This analysis is extended to short time bins where a simple threshold analysis would not yield reasonable results. We discuss the effect of super-Poissonian photon number distributions caused by atomic motion....
Quantum Cloning of an Unknown 2-Atom State via Entangled Cluster States
Yu, L.-z.; Zhong, F.
2016-01-01
This paper presented a scheme for cloning a 2-atom state in the QED cavity with the help of Victor who is the state's preparer. The cloning scheme has two steps. In the first step, the scheme requires probabilistic teleportation of a 2-atom state that is unknown in advance, and uses a 4-atom cluster state as quantum channel. In the second step, perfect copies of the 2-atom entangled state may be realized with the assistance of Victor. The finding is that our scheme has two outstanding advantages: it is not sensitive to the cavity decay, and Bell state is easy to identify.
Box traps on an atom chip for one-dimensional quantum gases
van Es, J J P; van Amerongen, A H; Rétif, C; Whitlock, S; van Druten, N J
2009-01-01
We present the implementation of tailored trapping potentials for ultracold gases on an atom chip. We realize highly elongated traps with box-like confinement along the long, axial direction combined with conventional harmonic confinement along the two radial directions. The design, fabrication and characterization of the atom chip and the box traps is described. We load ultracold ($\\lesssim1 \\mu$K) clouds of $^{87}$Rb in a box trap, and demonstrate Bose-gas focusing as a means to characterize these atomic clouds in arbitrarily shaped potentials. Our results show that box-like axial potentials on atom chips are very promising for studies of one-dimensional quantum gases.
Entanglement and quantum state transfer between two atoms trapped in two indirectly coupled cavities
Zheng, Bin; Shen, Li-Tuo; Chen, Ming-Feng
2016-05-01
We propose a one-step scheme for implementing entanglement generation and the quantum state transfer between two atomic qubits trapped in two different cavities that are not directly coupled to each other. The process is realized through engineering an effective asymmetric X-Y interaction for the two atoms involved in the gate operation and an auxiliary atom trapped in an intermediate cavity, induced by virtually manipulating the atomic excited states and photons. We study the validity of the scheme as well as the influences of the dissipation by numerical simulation and demonstrate that it is robust against decoherence.
Quantum interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39 K atoms beyond gray molasses
Nath, Dipankar; Rajalakshmi, G; Unnikrishnan, C S
2013-01-01
We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39 K facilitated by formation of dark states due to the quantum interference of excitation amplitudes in the Raman configuration for the cooling and repumping lasers tuned around the D1 resonance. The temperature of about 12 {\\mu}K achieved in the two stage D2-D1 molasses is the lowest ever reported for 39 K and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with sub-natural linewidth (0.1{\\Gamma}) and Fano like profile, following the quantum features of 3-level coherently driven atomic system with complexities associated with optical pumping to dark states and Sisyphus effect in standing wave light fields, over and above the Raman quantum interference.
Site-resolved imaging of single atoms with a Faraday quantum gas microscope
Yamamoto, Ryuta; Kato, Kohei; Kuno, Takuma; Sakura, Yuto; Takahashi, Yoshiro
2016-01-01
We successfully demonstrate a quantum gas microscopy using the Faraday effect which has an inherently non-destructive nature. The observed Faraday rotation angle reaches 3.0(2) degrees for a single atom. We reveal the non-destructive feature of this Faraday imaging method by comparing the detuning dependence of the Faraday signal strength with that of the photon scattering rate. We determine the atom distribution with deconvolution analysis. We also demonstrate the absorption and the dark field Faraday imaging, and reveal the different shapes of the point spread functions for these methods, which are fully explained by theoretical analysis. Our result is an important first step towards an ultimate quantum non-demolition site-resolved imaging and furthermore opens up the possibilities for quantum feedback control of a quantum many-body system with a single-site resolution.
Accurate energies of the He atom with undergraduate quantum mechanics
Massé, Robert C.; Walker, Thad G.
2015-08-01
Estimating the energies and splitting of the 1s2s singlet and triplet states of helium is a classic exercise in quantum perturbation theory but yields only qualitatively correct results. Using a six-line computer program, the 1s2s energies calculated by matrix diagonalization using a seven-state basis improve the results to 0.4% error or better. This is an effective and practical illustration of the quantitative power of quantum mechanics, at a level accessible to undergraduate students.
Electrical control of a single Mn atom in a quantum dot
Léger, Yoan; Besombes, Lucien; Fernández Rossier, Joaquín; Maingault, Laurent; Mariette, Henri
2006-01-01
We report on the reversible electrical control of the magnetic properties of a single Mn atom in an individual quantum dot. Our device permits us to prepare the dot in states with three different electric charges, 0, +1e, and -1e which result in dramatically different spin properties, as revealed by photoluminescence. Whereas in the neutral configuration the quantum dot is paramagnetic, the electron-doped dot spin states are spin rotationally invariant and the hole-doped dot spins states are ...
Christen, J.; Bimberg, D.
1989-01-01
Our present knowledge of the atomic scale structural, chemical and electronic properties of semiconductor interfaces is inversely proportional to their importance for a whole generation of novel electronic and photonic quantum well devices. It is the purpose of this paper to demonstrate how wavelength- and time-resolved cathodoluminescence imaging (CLI) provides a one-to-one image of the crystallographic island structure of the heterointerfaces which are the boundaries of the quantum well. A ...
Quantum confined electronic states in atomically well-defined graphene nanostructures
Hämäläinen, Sampsa; Sun, Zhixiang; Boneschanscher, Mark P.; Uppstu, Andreas; Ijäs, Mari; Harju, Ari; Vanmaekelbergh, Daniël; Liljeroth, Peter
2011-01-01
Despite the enormous interest in the properties of graphene and the potential of graphene nanostructures in electronic applications, the study of quantum confined states in atomically well-defined graphene nanostructures remains an experimental challenge. Here, we study graphene quantum dots (GQDs) with well-defined edges in the zigzag direction, grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on an iridium(111) substrate, by low-temperature scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and spectroscopy (STS)...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A research of the spectrum of the energy operator of the hydrogen-like atom in quantum mechanics with non-negative quantum function of distribution (QFD) is carried out. As a principle spectral property of the Hamiltonian its essential spectrum has been established. We have not got the theoretical response on questions of the evaluation of numbers and quantities of eigenvalues, which do not belong the essential spectrum. A method of numerical searching to answer these questions has been proposed. (author)
The Hydrogen Atom: a Review on the Birth of Modern Quantum Mechanics
Nanni, Luca
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to retrace the steps that were made by scientists of XX century, like Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, Dirac, for the formulation of what today represents the modern quantum mechanics and that, within two decades, put in question the classical physics. In this context, the study of the electronic structure of hydrogen atom has been the main starting point for the formulation of the theory and, till now, remains the only real case for which the quantum equation...
Zhidkov, E P
2000-01-01
In the paper a research of spectrum of the energy operator of the hydrogen-like atom in quantum mechanics with non-negative quantum function of distribution (QFD) is carried out. As a principle spectral property of the Hamiltonian its essential spectrum has been established. We have not got the theoretical response on questions of the evaluation of numbers and quantities of eigenvalues, which do not belong the essential spectrum. A method of numerical searching to answer these questions has been proposed.
Robust and Efficient Quantum Repeater with Atomic Ensembles and Linear Optics
Zhao, Bo
2008-01-01
The work presented in this thesis is the theoretical and experimental investigation of long-distance quantum communication with atomic ensembles and linear optics. A robust and efficient quantum repeater architecture building on the original Duan-Lukin-Cirac-Zoller protocol (DLCZ) is proposed. The new architecture is based on two-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel-type interference, which relaxes the long distance stability requirements by about 7 orders of magnitude. Moreover, by exploiting the local gen...
Real-time shot-noise-limited differential photodetection for atomic quantum control
Ciurana, F Martin; Sewell, Robert J; Mitchell, M W
2016-01-01
We demonstrate high-efficiency, shot-noise-limited differential photodetection with real-time signal conditioning, suitable for feedback-based quantum control of atomic systems. The detector system has quantum efficiency of 0.92, is shot-noise limited from 7.4 x 10^5 to 3.7 x 10^8 photons per pulse, and provides real-time voltage-encoded output at up to 2.3 Mpulses per second.
Quantum gases: spin-polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Properties of atomic gases, spin-polarized hydrogen and deuterium, are discussed. The underlying ideas required for stabilizing these gases against recombination to the molecular form are presented and experimental techniques are briefly described. The consequences of the presence of a helium surface for Bose Einstein Condensation (BEC) are discussed. It is shown that interactions between atoms on the surface are required to achieve sufficiently high gas phase densities for BEC to occur. (Auth.)
Provably secure experimental bit string generation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Full text: Coin tossing is a cryptographic primitive in which two parties which do not trust each other desire to flip a coin. This is impossible using only classical communication. Non trivial coin tossing is possible using quantum communication, but it is possible to show that when tossing a single coin the amount of randomness of the coin is strongly limited. We showed that, on the contrary, if the parties want to toss many coins, then using quantum communication they can achieve arbitrarily high levels of randomness. We call this bit string generation. Based on these results we realized an experimental implementation of bit string generation in which a string of bits is obtained which provably more random than could be achieved using classical communication. This is thus the first demonstration of a fundamental new concept: the possibility of generating random bits with an adversary which is limited only by the laws of physics. (author)
Geometry-Induced Memory Effects in Isolated Quantum Systems: Cold-Atom Applications
Lai, Chen-Yen; Chien, Chih-Chun
2016-03-01
Memory effects result from the history-dependent behavior of a system, are abundant in our daily life, and have broad applications. Here, we explore the possibilities of generating memory effects in simple isolated quantum systems. By utilizing geometrical effects from a class of lattices supporting flatbands consisting of localized states, memory effects could be observed in ultracold atoms in optical lattices. As the optical lattice continuously transforms from a triangular lattice into a kagome lattice with a flatband, history-dependent density distributions manifest quantum memory effects even in noninteracting systems, including fermionic as well as bosonic systems, in the proper ranges of temperatures. Rapid growth of ultracold technology predicts a bright future for quantum memory-effect systems, and here two prototypical applications of geometry-induced quantum memory effects are proposed: A cold-atom-based accelerometer using an atomic differentiator to record the mechanical change rate of a coupled probe, and an atomic quantum memory cell for storing information with write-in and readout schemes.
Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoğlu, Özgür E
2016-01-01
We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003)SCIEAS0036-807510.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N+1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies. PMID:26871061
Türkpençe, Deniz; Müstecaplıoǧlu, Özgür E.
2016-01-01
We investigate scaling of work and efficiency of a photonic Carnot engine with a number of quantum coherent resources. Specifically, we consider a generalization of the "phaseonium fuel" for the photonic Carnot engine, which was first introduced as a three-level atom with two lower states in a quantum coherent superposition by M. O. Scully, M. Suhail Zubairy, G. S. Agarwal, and H. Walther [Science 299, 862 (2003), 10.1126/science.1078955], to the case of N +1 level atoms with N coherent lower levels. We take into account atomic relaxation and dephasing as well as the cavity loss and derive a coarse-grained master equation to evaluate the work and efficiency analytically. Analytical results are verified by microscopic numerical examination of the thermalization dynamics. We find that efficiency and work scale quadratically with the number of quantum coherent levels. Quantum coherence boost to the specific energy (work output per unit mass of the resource) is a profound fundamental difference of quantum fuel from classical resources. We consider typical modern resonator set ups and conclude that multilevel phaseonium fuel can be utilized to overcome the decoherence in available systems. Preparation of the atomic coherences and the associated cost of coherence are analyzed and the engine operation within the bounds of the second law is verified. Our results bring the photonic Carnot engines much closer to the capabilities of current resonator technologies.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2013-08-01
Quantum simulations of high-energy physics, and especially of gauge theories, is an emerging and exciting direction in quantum simulations. However, simulations of such theories, compared to simulations of condensed matter physics, must satisfy extra restrictions, such as local gauge invariance and relativistic structure. In this paper we discuss these special requirements, and present a method for quantum simulation of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms. This method allows us to include local gauge invariance as a fundamental symmetry of the atomic Hamiltonian, arising from natural atomic interactions and conservation laws (and not as a property of a low-energy sector). This allows us to implement elementary gauge invariant interactions for three lattice gauge theories: U(1) (compact QED), ZN and SU(N) (Yang-Mills), which can be used to build quantum simulators in 1+1 dimensions. We also present a loop method, which uses the elementary interactions as building blocks in the effective construction of quantum simulations for d+1 dimensional lattice gauge theories (d>1), but unlike in previous proposals, here gauge invariance and Gauss's law are natural symmetries, which do not have to be imposed as a constraint. We discuss in detail the quantum simulation of 2+1 dimensional compact QED and provide a numerical proof of principle. The simplicity of the already gauge-invariant elementary interactions of this model suggests it may be useful for future experimental realizations.
Physics of quantum fluids. New trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Provides an overview of the field of quantum fluids. Presents analogies and differences between polariton and atomic quantum fluids. With contributions from the major actors in the field. Explains a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics. The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.
Physics of quantum fluids. New trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bramati, Alberto [Paris Univ. (France). Laboratoire Kastler Brossel; Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), 75 - Paris (France); Modugno, Michele (eds.) [IKERBASQUE, Bilbao (Spain); Univ. del Pais Vasco, Bilbao (Spain). Dept. de Fisica Teorica e Historia de la Ciencia
2013-10-01
Provides an overview of the field of quantum fluids. Presents analogies and differences between polariton and atomic quantum fluids. With contributions from the major actors in the field. Explains a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics. The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.
Li, Tao; Deng, Fu-Guo
2015-01-01
Quantum repeater is one of the important building blocks for long distance quantum communication network. The previous quantum repeaters based on atomic ensembles and linear optical elements can only be performed with a maximal success probability of 1/2 during the entanglement creation and entanglement swapping procedures. Meanwhile, the polarization noise during the entanglement distribution process is harmful to the entangled channel created. Here we introduce a general interface between a polarized photon and an atomic ensemble trapped in a single-sided optical cavity, and with which we propose a high-efficiency quantum repeater protocol in which the robust entanglement distribution is accomplished by the stable spatial-temporal entanglement and it can in principle create the deterministic entanglement between neighboring atomic ensembles in a heralded way as a result of cavity quantum electrodynamics. Meanwhile, the simplified parity-check gate makes the entanglement swapping be completed with unity efficiency, other than 1/2 with linear optics. We detail the performance of our protocol with current experimental parameters and show its robustness to the imperfections, i.e., detuning and coupling variation, involved in the reflection process. These good features make it a useful building block in long distance quantum communication. PMID:26502993
Quantum phase transition in an atomic Bose gas with a Feshbach resonance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We show that in an atomic Bose gas near a Feshbach resonance a quantum phase transition occurs between a phase with only a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate and a phase with both an atomic and a molecular Bose-Einstein condensate. We show that the transition is characterized by an Ising order parameter. We also determine the phase diagram of the gas as a function of magnetic field and temperature: the quantum critical point extends into a line of finite temperature Ising transitions
Multiscale quantum-defect theory and its application to atomic spectrum
Fu, Haixiang; Li, Mingzhe; Tey, Meng Khoon; You, Li; Gao, Bo
2014-01-01
We present a multiscale quantum-defect theory based on the first analytic solution for a two-scale long range potential consisting of a Coulomb potential and a polarization potential. In its application to atomic structure, the theory extends the systematic understanding of atomic Rydberg states, as afforded by the standard single-scale quantum-defect theory, to a much greater range of energies to include the first few excited states and even the ground state. Such a level of understanding ha...
Popa, Alexandru
2013-01-01
Applications of Quantum and Classical Connections in Modeling Atomic, Molecular and Electrodynamical Systems is a reference on the new field of relativistic optics, examining topics related to relativistic interactions between very intense laser beams and particles. Based on 30 years of research, this unique book connects the properties of quantum equations to corresponding classical equations used to calculate the energetic values and the symmetry properties of atomic, molecular and electrodynamical systems. In addition, it examines applications for these methods, and for the calculation of
Not One Bit of de Sitter Information
Parikh, Maulik K.; van der Schaar, Jan Pieter
2008-01-01
We formulate the information paradox in de Sitter space in terms of the no-cloning principle of quantum mechanics. We show that energy conservation puts an upper bound on the maximum entropy available to any de Sitter observer. Combined with a general result on the average information in a quantum subsystem, this guarantees that an observer in de Sitter space cannot obtain even a single bit of information from the de Sitter horizon, thereby preventing any observable violations of the quantum ...
Quantum Tunneling of Oxygen Atoms on Very Cold Surfaces
Minissale, M.; Congiu, E.; Baouche, S.; Chaabouni, H.; Moudens, A.; Dulieu, F.; Accolla, M.; Cazaux, S.; Manico, G.; Pirronello, V.
2013-01-01
Any evolving system can change state via thermal mechanisms (hopping a barrier) or via quantum tunneling. Most of the time, efficient classical mechanisms dominate at high temperatures. This is why an increase of the temperature can initiate the chemistry. We present here an experimental investigati
Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2016-01-01
Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices. PMID:26684222
Quantum simulations of lattice gauge theories using ultracold atoms in optical lattices
Zohar, Erez; Cirac, J. Ignacio; Reznik, Benni
2016-01-01
Can high-energy physics be simulated by low-energy, non-relativistic, many-body systems such as ultracold atoms? Such ultracold atomic systems lack the type of symmetries and dynamical properties of high energy physics models: in particular, they manifest neither local gauge invariance nor Lorentz invariance, which are crucial properties of the quantum field theories which are the building blocks of the standard model of elementary particles. However, it turns out, surprisingly, that there are ways to configure an atomic system to manifest both local gauge invariance and Lorentz invariance. In particular, local gauge invariance can arise either as an effective low-energy symmetry, or as an exact symmetry, following from the conservation laws in atomic interactions. Hence, one could hope that such quantum simulators may lead to a new type of (table-top) experiments which will be used to study various QCD (quantum chromodynamics) phenomena, such as the confinement of dynamical quarks, phase transitions and other effects, which are inaccessible using the currently known computational methods. In this report, we review the Hamiltonian formulation of lattice gauge theories, and then describe our recent progress in constructing the quantum simulation of Abelian and non-Abelian lattice gauge theories in 1 + 1 and 2 + 1 dimensions using ultracold atoms in optical lattices.
Interaction between two SU(1 , 1) quantum systems and a two-level atom
Abdalla, M. Sebawe; Khalil, E. M.; Obada, A. S.-F.
2016-07-01
We consider a two-level atom interacting with two coupled quantum systems that can be represented in terms of su(1 , 1) Lie algebra. The wave function that is obtained using the evolution operator for the atom is initially in a superposition state and the coupled su(1 , 1) systems in a pair coherent Barut-Girardello coherent state. We then discuss atomic inversion, where more periods of revivals are observed and compared with a single su(1 , 1) quantum system. For entanglement and squeezing phenomena, the atomic angles coherence and phase as well as the detuning are effective parameters. The second-order correlation function displays Bunching and anti-Bunching behavior.
Interacting single atoms with nanophotonics for chip-integrated quantum networks
Alton, Daniel James
Underlying matter and light are their building blocks of tiny atoms and photons. The ability to control and utilize matter-light interactions down to the elementary single atom and photon level at the nano-scale opens up exciting studies at the frontiers of science with applications in medicine, energy, and information technology. Of these, an intriguing front is the development of quantum networks where N ≫ 1 single-atom nodes are coherently linked by single photons, forming a collective quantum entity potentially capable of performing quantum computations and simulations. Here, a promising approach is to use optical cavities within the setting of cavity quantum electrodynamics (QED). However, since its first realization in 1992 by Kimble et al., current proof-of-principle experiments have involved just one or two conventional cavities. To move beyond to N ≫ 1 nodes, in this thesis we investigate a platform born from the marriage of cavity QED and nanophotonics, where single atoms at ˜100 nm near the surfaces of lithographically fabricated dielectric photonic devices can strongly interact with single photons, on a chip. Particularly, we experimentally investigate three main types of devices: microtoroidal optical cavities, optical nanofibers, and nanophotonic crystal based structures. With a microtoroidal cavity, we realized a robust and efficient photon router where single photons are extracted from an incident coherent state of light and redirected to a separate output with high efficiency. We achieved strong single atom-photon coupling with atoms located ~100 nm near the surface of a microtoroid, which revealed important aspects in the atom dynamics and QED of these systems including atom-surface interaction effects. We present a method to achieve state-insensitive atom trapping near optical nanofibers, critical in nanophotonic systems where electromagnetic fields are tightly confined. We developed a system that fabricates high quality nanofibers with high
Microtrap arrays on magnetic film atom chips for quantum information science
Leung, V Y F; van Druten, N J; Spreeuw, R J C
2011-01-01
We present two different strategies for developing a quantum information science platform, based on our experimental results with magnetic microtrap arrays on a magnetic-film atom chip. The first strategy aims for mesoscopic ensemble qubits in a lattice of ~5 {\\mu}m period, so that qubits can be individually addressed and interactions can be mediated by Rydberg excitations. The second strategy aims for direct quantum simulators using sub-optical lattices of ~100 nm period. These would allow the realization of condensed matter inspired quantum many-body systems, such as Hubbard models in new parameter regimes. The two approaches raise quite different issues, some of which are identified and discussed.
The Hydrogen Atom: a Review on the Birth of Modern Quantum Mechanics
Nanni, Luca
2015-01-01
The purpose of this work is to retrace the steps that were made by scientists of XIX century, like Bohr, Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Pauli, Dirac, for the formulation of what today represents the modern quantum mechanics and that, within two decades, put in question the classical physics. In this context, the study of the electronic structure of hydrogen atom has been the main starting point for the formulation of the theory and, till now, remains the only real case for which the quantum equation of motion can be solved exactly. The results obtained by each theory will be discussed critically, highlighting limits and potentials that allowed the further development of the quantum theory.
Quantum beats in the field ionization of Rydberg atoms in the presence of magnetic fields
Gregoric, Vincent C.; Hastings, Hannah; Carroll, Thomas J.; Noel, Michael W.
2016-05-01
By exciting a coherent superposition and varying its phase evolution, quantum beats in the selective field ionization of Rydberg atoms have been observed. Here, we present a study exploring the effect of electric and magnetic fields on quantum beats. Beginning with a single excited state, a coherent superposition is created by a short electric field pulse in the presence of a static magnetic field. The resulting quantum beats are then observed in the field ionization spectrum. Additionally, millimeter-wave spectroscopy is used to probe the state populations in this superposition. This work is supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. 1205895 and No. 1205897.
Direct probe of anisotropy in atom-molecule collisions via quantum scattering resonances
Klein, Ayelet; Skomorowski, Wojciech; Żuchowski, Piotr S; Pawlak, Mariusz; Janssen, Liesbeth M C; Moiseyev, Nimrod; van de Meerakker, Sebastiaan Y T; van der Avoird, Ad; Koch, Christiane P; Narevicius, Edvardas
2016-01-01
Anisotropy is a fundamental property of particle interactions. It occupies a central role in cold and ultra-cold molecular processes, where long range forces have been found to significantly depend on orientation in ultra-cold polar molecule collisions. Recent experiments have demonstrated the emergence of quantum phenomena such as scattering resonances in the cold collisions regime due to quantization of the intermolecular degrees of freedom. Although these states have been shown to be sensitive to interaction details, the effect of anisotropy on quantum resonances has eluded experimental observation so far. Here, we directly measure the anisotropy in atom-molecule interactions via quantum resonances by changing the quantum state of the internal molecular rotor. We observe that a quantum scattering resonance at a collision energy of $k_B$ x 270 mK appears in the Penning ionization of molecular hydrogen with metastable helium only if the molecule is rotationally excited. We use state of the art ab initio and ...
Zhang, Weiping; Search, Chris P.; Pu, Han; Meystre, Pierre; Wright, Ewan M.
2002-01-01
We study the propagation of an atom laser beam through a spatial region with a magnetic field tuned to a Feshbach resonance. Tuning the magnetic field below the resonance produces an effective focusing Kerr medium that causes a modulational instability of the atomic beam. Under appropriate circumstances, this results in beam breakup and filamentation seeded by quasi-particle fluctuations, and in the generation of correlated atomic pairs.
Kuraptsev, A S
2016-01-01
On the basis of general theoretical results developed previously in [I. M. Sokolov et al., J. Exp. Theor. Phys. 112, 246 (2011)], we analyze spontaneous decay of a single atom inside cold atomic clouds under conditions when the averaged interatomic separation is less or comparable with the wavelength of quasi resonant radiation. Beyond the decay dynamics we analyze shifts of resonance as well as distortion of the spectral shape of the atomic transition.
Radio-Frequency Field-Induced Quantum Interference Effects in Cold Atoms
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
龙全; 周蜀渝; 周善钰; 王育竹
2001-01-01
We propose constructing a quantum interference configuration for cold atoms in a magneto-optical trap by applying a radio frequency field, which coherently couples adjacent Zeeman sublevels, in combination with a repumping laser field. One effect of this interference is that a dip exists in the absorption of the repumping light when the radio frequency is scanned. Our prediction has been indirectly detected through the fluorescence of cold atoms in a preliminary experiment.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
郑仕标
2003-01-01
We propose a quantum nondemolition measurement of the photon-number distribution for a weak cavity field with no more than two photons. The scheme is based on the resonant interaction of atoms with the cavity field, and thus the required interaction time is much shorter than that using dispersive interaction. This is important in view of decoherence. Our scheme can also be used to generate even and odd coherent states for a weak cavity field with resonant atoms.
Optimal preparation of quantum states on an atom-chip device
Lovecchio, C.; Schäfer, F.; Cherukattil, S.; Alı Khan, M.; Herrera, I.; Cataliotti, F. S.; Calarco, T.; Montangero, S.; Caruso, F.
2016-01-01
Atom chips provide compact and robust platforms towards the implementation of practical quantum technologies. A quick and faithful preparation of arbitrary input states for these devices is crucial but represents a challenging experimental task. This is especially difficult when the dynamical evolution is noisy and unavoidable setup imperfections have to be considered. Here, we experimentally prepare with very high fidelity nontrivial superpositions of internal states of a rubidium Bose-Einstein condensate realized on an atom chip.
Shaping quantum pulses of light via coherent atomic memory
Eisaman, M D; André, A; Massou, F; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D
2004-01-01
We describe a technique for generating pulses of light with controllable photon numbers, propagation direction, timing, and pulse shapes. The technique is based on preparation of an atomic ensemble in a state with a desired number of atomic spin excitations, which is later converted into a photon pulse. Spatio-temporal control over the pulses is obtained by exploiting long-lived coherent memory for photon states and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an optically dense atomic medium. Using photon counting experiments we observe generation and shaping of few-photon sub-Poissonian light pulses. We discuss prospects for controlled generation of high-purity n-photon Fock states using this technique.
Vector Dark Matter Detection using the Quantum Jump of Atoms
Yang, Qiaoli; Di, Haoran
2016-01-01
The hidden sector $U(1)$ vector bosons created from inflationary fluctuations can be a substantial fraction of dark matter if their mass is around $10^{-5}$eV. Due to the creation mechanism, the dark matter vector bosons are a condensate with a very small velocity dispersion, which makes their energy spectral density $\\rho_{cdm}/\\Delta E$ very high. Therefore, the dark electric dipole transition rate in atoms or ions is boosted if the energy gap between atomic states equals the mass of the ve...
Nonequilibrium forces between atoms and dielectrics mediated by a quantum field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this paper we give a first principles microphysics derivation of the nonequilibrium forces between an atom, treated as a three-dimensional harmonic oscillator, and a bulk dielectric medium modeled as a continuous lattice of oscillators coupled to a reservoir. We assume no direct interaction between the atom and the medium but there exist mutual influences transmitted via a common electromagnetic field. By employing concepts and techniques of open quantum systems we introduce coarse-graining to the physical variables--the medium, the quantum field, and the atom's internal degrees of freedom, in that order--to extract their averaged effects from the lowest tier progressively to the top tier. The first tier of coarse-graining provides the averaged effect of the medium upon the field, quantified by a complex permittivity (in the frequency domain) describing the response of the dielectric to the field in addition to its back action on the field through a stochastic forcing term. The last tier of coarse-graining over the atom's internal degrees of freedom results in an equation of motion for the atom's center of mass from which we can derive the force on the atom. Our nonequilibrium formulation provides a fully dynamical description of the atom's motion including back-action effects from all other relevant variables concerned. In the long-time limit we recover the known results for the atom-dielectric force when the combined system is in equilibrium or in a nonequilibrium stationary state.
Quantum turbulence in trapped atomic Bose-Einstein condensates
Tsatsos, Marios C.; Tavares, Pedro E. S.; Cidrim, André; Fritsch, Amilson R.; Caracanhas, Mônica A.; dos Santos, F. Ednilson A.; Barenghi, Carlo F.; Bagnato, Vanderlei S.
2016-03-01
Turbulence, the complicated fluid behavior of nonlinear and statistical nature, arises in many physical systems across various disciplines, from tiny laboratory scales to geophysical and astrophysical ones. The notion of turbulence in the quantum world was conceived long ago by Onsager and Feynman, but the occurrence of turbulence in ultracold gases has been studied in the laboratory only very recently. Albeit new as a field, it already offers new paths and perspectives on the problem of turbulence. Herein we review the general properties of quantum gases at ultralow temperatures paying particular attention to vortices, their dynamics and turbulent behavior. We review the recent advances both from theory and experiment. We highlight, moreover, the difficulties of identifying and characterizing turbulence in gaseous Bose-Einstein condensates compared to ordinary turbulence and turbulence in superfluid liquid helium and spotlight future possible directions.
Cavity quantum interferences with three-level atoms
Ceban, Victor; Macovei, Mihai A.
2016-05-01
We discuss quantum interference phenomena in a system consisting from a laser driven three-level ladder-type emitter possessing orthogonal transition dipoles and embedded in a leaking optical resonator. The cavity mean-photon number vanishes due to the destructive nature of the interference phenomena. The effect occurs for some particular parameter regimes which were identified. Furthermore, upper bare-state population inversion occurs as well.
Entropic corrected Newton's law of gravitation and the loop quantum black hole gravitational atom
Aragão, R. G. L.; Silva, C. A. S.
2016-07-01
One proposal by Verlinde is that gravity is not a fundamental, but an entropic force (Verlinde in JHEP 1104:029, 2011. arXiv:hep-th/1001.0785). Based on this new interpretation of the gravity, Verlinde has provide us with a way to derive the Newton's law of gravitation from the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy-area formula. On the other hand, since it has been demonstrated that this formula is susceptible to quantum gravity corrections, one may hope that such corrections could be inherited by Newton's law. In this sense, the entropic interpretation of Newton's law could be a prolific way in order to get verifiable or falsifiable quantum corrections to ordinary gravity in an observationally accessible regimes. On the other hand, loop quantum gravity is a theory that provide a scheme to approach the quantum properties of spacetime. From this theory, emerges a quantum corrected semiclassical black hole solution called loop quantum black hole or self-dual black hole. Among the interesting features of loop quantum black holes, is the fact that they give rise to a modified entropy-area relation where quantum gravity corrections are present. In this work, we obtain a quantum corrected Newton's law from the entropy-area relation given by loop quantum black holes by using the nonrelativistic Verlinde's approach. Moreover, in order to relate our results with the recent experimental activity, we consider the quantum mechanical properties of a huge gravitational atom consisting in a light neutral elementary particle in the presence of a loop quantum black hole.
Williams, Joel M.
1999-01-01
In the particle in the box problem, the particle is not in both boxes at the same time as some would have you believe. It is a set definition situation with the two boxes being part of a set that also contains a particle. Set and subset differences are explored. Atomic electron orbitals can be mimicked by roulette wheel probability; thus ELECTRONIC ROULETTE. 0 and 00 serve as boundary limits and are on opposite sides of the central core - a point that quantum physics ignores. Considering a st...
Synchronization of Active Atomic Clocks via Quantum and Classical Channels
Roth, Alexander
2016-01-01
Superradiant lasers based on atomic ensembles exhibiting ultra-narrow optical transitions can emit light of unprecedented spectral purity and may serve as active atomic clocks. We consider two frequency-detuned active atomic clocks, which are coupled in a cascaded setup, i.e. as master & slave lasers, and study the synchronization of the slave to the master clock. In a setup where both atomic ensembles are coupled to a common cavity mode such synchronization phenomena have been predicted by Xu et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 154101 (2014)] and experimentally observed by Weiner et al. [arXiv:1503.06464 (2015)]. Here we demonstrate that synchronization still occurs in cascaded setups but exhibits distinctly different phase diagrams. We study the characteristics of synchronization in comparison to the case of coupling through a common cavity. We also consider synchronization through a classical channel where light of the master laser is measured phase sensitively and the slave laser is injection locked by feed...
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms.
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A
2016-01-28
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement--correlations in the properties of microscopic systems--to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million (87)Rb atoms in their 'clock' states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source. PMID:26751056
Measurement noise 100 times lower than the quantum-projection limit using entangled atoms
Hosten, Onur; Engelsen, Nils J.; Krishnakumar, Rajiv; Kasevich, Mark A.
2016-01-01
Quantum metrology uses quantum entanglement—correlations in the properties of microscopic systems—to improve the statistical precision of physical measurements. When measuring a signal, such as the phase shift of a light beam or an atomic state, a prominent limitation to achievable precision arises from the noise associated with the counting of uncorrelated probe particles. This noise, commonly referred to as shot noise or projection noise, gives rise to the standard quantum limit (SQL) to phase resolution. However, it can be mitigated down to the fundamental Heisenberg limit by entangling the probe particles. Despite considerable experimental progress in a variety of physical systems, a question that persists is whether these methods can achieve performance levels that compare favourably with optimized conventional (non-entangled) systems. Here we demonstrate an approach that achieves unprecedented levels of metrological improvement using half a million 87Rb atoms in their ‘clock’ states. The ensemble is 20.1 ± 0.3 decibels (100-fold) spin-squeezed via an optical-cavity-based measurement. We directly resolve small microwave-induced rotations 18.5 ± 0.3 decibels (70-fold) beyond the SQL. The single-shot phase resolution of 147 microradians achieved by the apparatus is better than that achieved by the best engineered cold atom sensors despite lower atom numbers. We infer entanglement of more than 680 ± 35 particles in the atomic ensemble. Applications include atomic clocks, inertial sensors, and fundamental physics experiments such as tests of general relativity or searches for electron electric dipole moment. To this end, we demonstrate an atomic clock measurement with a quantum enhancement of 10.5 ± 0.3 decibels (11-fold), limited by the phase noise of our microwave source.
Telecom-Wavelength Atomic Quantum Memory in Optical Fiber for Heralded Polarization Qubits
Jin, Jeongwan; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Puigibert, Marcel. lí Grimau; Verma, Varun; Marsili, Francesco; Nam, Sae Woo; Oblak, Daniel; Tittel, Wolfgang
2015-10-01
Polarization-encoded photons at telecommunication wavelengths provide a compelling platform for practical realizations of photonic quantum information technologies due to the ease of performing single qubit manipulations, the availability of polarization-entangled photon-pair sources, and the possibility of leveraging existing fiber-optic links for distributing qubits over long distances. An optical quantum memory compatible with this platform could serve as a building block for these technologies. Here we present the first experimental demonstration of an atomic quantum memory that directly allows for reversible mapping of quantum states encoded in the polarization degree of freedom of a telecom-wavelength photon. We show that heralded polarization qubits at a telecom wavelength are stored and retrieved with near-unity fidelity by implementing the atomic frequency comb protocol in an ensemble of erbium atoms doped into an optical fiber. Despite remaining limitations in our proof-of-principle demonstration such as small storage efficiency and storage time, our broadband light-matter interface reveals the potential for use in future quantum information processing.
Quantum Correlation of Many Atoms in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In this letter, we have studied sub-Poissonian distributions and quantum correlation of atoms in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. It is found that there exists the sub-Poissonian distributions for spin-1 and spin-(-1) components, respectively. There may exist the violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. For the same atomic numbers, the regions that include violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality will shift rightwards with the increment of the Rabi frequency, whereas for the same Rabi frequency, the regions will shift leftwards with the increment of the atomic numbers.
Quantum Correlation of Many Atoms in Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensates
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
In this letter, we have studied sub-Poissonian distributions and quantum correlation of atoms in spinor Bose Einstein condensates. It is found that there exists the sub-Poissonian distributions for spin-1 and spin-(-1) components,respectively. There may exist the violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality. For the same atomic numbers, the regions that include violation of the Cauchy-Schwartz inequality will shift rightwards with the increment of the Rabi frequency,whereas for the same Rabi frequency, the regions will shift leftwards with the increment of the atomic numbers.
Quantum computing with atomic qubits and Rydberg interactions: Progress and challenges
Saffman, Mark
2016-01-01
We present a review of quantum computation with neutral atom qubits. After an overview of architectural options we examine Rydberg mediated gate protocols and fidelity for two- and multi-qubit interactions. We conclude with a summary of the current status and give an outlook for future progress.
Single atom doping for quantum device development in diamond and silicon
Weis, C.D.; Schuh, A.; Batra, A.; Persaud, A.; Rangelow, I.W.; Bokor, J.; Lo, C.C.; Cabrini, S.; Sideras-Haddad, E.; Fuchs, G.D.; Hanson, R.; Awschalom, D.D.; Schenkel, T.
2008-01-01
The ability to inject dopant atoms with high spatial resolution, flexibility in dopant species, and high single ion detection fidelity opens opportunities for the study of dopant fluctuation effects and the development of devices in which function is based on the manipulation of quantum states in si
Degrees of controllability for quantum systems and application to atomic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Precise definitions for different degrees of controllability for quantum systems are given, and necessary and sufficient conditions for each type of controllability are discussed. The results are applied to determine the degree of controllability for various atomic systems with degenerate energy levels and transition frequencies. (author)
Unitary quantum gases: from cold atoms to quark-gluon plasmas
van Heugten, J. J. R. M.
2013-01-01
We investigate the many-body properties of two distinct degenerate systems with strong interactions, namely that of a quark-gluon plasma and of an atomic Bose gas. In the first part of this thesis, the temperature dependence of the thermodynamic potential of quantum chromodynamics is studied. In par
Rydberg Excitation of Single Atoms for Applications in Quantum Information and Metrology
Hankin, Aaron Michael
With the advent of laser cooling and trapping, neutral atoms have become a foundational source of accuracy for applications in metrology and are showing great potential for their use as qubits in quantum information. In metrology, neutral atoms provide the most accurate references for the measurement of time and acceleration. The unsurpassed stability provided by these systems make neutral atoms an attractive avenue to explore applications in quantum information and computing. However, to fully investigate the field of quantum information, we require a method to generate entangling interactions between neutral-atom qubits. Recent progress in the use of highly-excited Rydberg states for strong dipolar interactions has shown great promise for controlled entanglement using the Rydberg blockade phenomenon. I report the use of singly-trapped cesium-133 atoms as qubits for applications in metrology and quantum information. Each atom provides a physical basis for a single qubit by encoding the required information into the ground-state hyperfine structure of cesium-133. Through the manipulation of these qubits with microwave and optical frequency sources, we demonstrate the capacity for arbitrary single-qubit control by driving qubit rotations in three orthogonal directions on the Bloch sphere. With this control, we develop an atom interferometer that far surpasses the force sensitivity of other approaches by applying the well-established technique of light-pulsed atom-matterwave interferometry to single atoms. Following this, we focus on two-qubit interactions using highly-excited Rydberg states. Through the development of a unique single-photon approach to Rydberg excitation using an ultraviolet laser at 319 nm, we observe the Rydberg blockade interaction between atoms separated by 6.6(3) μm. Motivated by the observation of Rydberg blockade, we study the application of Rydberg-dressed states for a quantum controlled-phase gate. Using a realistic simulation of the
Parniak, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech
2015-01-01
We analyze the properties of a Raman quantum light-atom interface in long atomic ensemble and its applications as a quantum memory or two-mode squeezed state generator. We include both Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering and the effects of Doppler broadening in buffer gas assuming frequent velocity-averaging collisions. We find the Green functions describing multimode transformation from input to output fields of photons and atomic excitations. Proper mode basis is found via singular value decomposition. It reveals that triples of modes are coupled by a transformation equivalent to a combination of two beamsplitters and a two-mode squeezing operation. We analyze the possible transformations on an example of warm rubidium-87 vapor. We find that the fidelity of the mapping of a single excitation between the memory and light is strictly limited by the fractional contribution of the Stokes scattering in predominantly anti-Stokes process. The model we present bridges the gap between the Stokes only and anti-Stokes o...
Physics of quantum fluids new trends and hot topics in atomic and polariton condensates
Modugno, Michele
2013-01-01
The study of quantum fluids, stimulated by the discovery of superfluidity in liquid helium, has experienced renewed interest after the observation of Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) in ultra-cold atomic gases and the observation a new type of quantum fluid with specific characteristics derived from its intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature. The main objective of this book is to take a snapshot of the state-of-the-art of this fast moving field with a special emphasis on the hot topics and new trends. Bringing together the most active specialists of the two areas (atomic and polaritonic quantum fluids), we expect that this book will facilitate the exchange and the collaboration between these two communities working on subjects with very strong analogies.
Electron quantum dynamics in atom-ion interaction
Sabzyan, H.; Jenabi, M. J.
2016-04-01
Electron transfer (ET) process and its dependence on the system parameters are investigated by solving two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically using split operator technique. Evolution of the electron wavepacket occurs from the one-electron species hydrogen atom to another bare nucleus of charge Z > 1. This evolution is quantified by partitioning the simulation box and defining regional densities belonging to the two nuclei of the system. It is found that the functional form of the time-variations of these regional densities and the extent of ET process depend strongly on the inter-nuclear distance and relative values of the nuclear charges, which define the potential energy surface governing the electron wavepacket evolution. Also, the initial electronic state of the single-electron atom has critical effect on this evolution and its consequent (partial) electron transfer depending on its spreading extent and orientation with respect to the inter-nuclear axis.
Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary superposition of atomic states
Chen, Qiong; Fang, Xi-Ming
2008-05-01
This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary multi-particle two-level atomic state between two parties or an arbitrary zero- and one-photon entangled state of multi-mode between two high-Q cavities in cavity QED. This scheme is based on the resonant interaction between atom and cavity and does not involve Bell-state measurement. It investigates the fidelity of this scheme and find out the case of this unity fidelity of this teleportation. Considering the practical case of the cavity decay, this paper finds that the condition of the unity fidelity is also valid and obtains the effect of the decay of the cavity on the successful probability of the teleportation.
Quantum teleportation of an arbitrary superposition of atomic states
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Chen Qiong; Fang Xi-Ming
2008-01-01
This paper proposes a scheme to teleport an arbitrary multi-particle two-level atomic state between two parties or an arbitrary zero- and one-photon entangled state of multi-mode between two high-Q cavities in cavity QED.This scheme is based on the resonant interaction between atom and cavity and does not involve Bell-state measurement.It investigates the fidelity of this scheme and find out the case of this unity fidelity of this teleportation.Considering the practical case of the cavity decay,this paper finds that the condition of the unity fidelity is also valid and obtains the effect of the decay of the cavity on the successful probability of the teleportation.
Dynamics and quantum entanglement of two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tian, Zehua; Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn
2014-11-15
In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the internal dynamics of both freely falling and static two-level atoms interacting with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. We find that the atomic transition rates depend on both the nature of de Sitter spacetime and the motion of atoms, interestingly the steady states for both cases are always driven to being purely thermal, regardless of the atomic initial states. This thermalization phenomenon is structurally similar to what happens to an elementary quantum system immersed in a thermal field, and thus reveals the thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. Besides, we find that the thermal baths will drive the entanglement shared by the freely falling atom (the static atom) and its auxiliary partner, a same two-level atom which is isolated from external fields, to being sudden death, and the proper time for the entanglement to be extinguished is computed. We also analyze that such thermalization and disentanglement phenomena, in principle, could be understood from the perspective of table-top simulation experiment.
Dynamics and quantum entanglement of two-level atoms in de Sitter spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
In the framework of open quantum systems, we study the internal dynamics of both freely falling and static two-level atoms interacting with quantized conformally coupled massless scalar field in de Sitter spacetime. We find that the atomic transition rates depend on both the nature of de Sitter spacetime and the motion of atoms, interestingly the steady states for both cases are always driven to being purely thermal, regardless of the atomic initial states. This thermalization phenomenon is structurally similar to what happens to an elementary quantum system immersed in a thermal field, and thus reveals the thermal nature of de Sitter spacetime. Besides, we find that the thermal baths will drive the entanglement shared by the freely falling atom (the static atom) and its auxiliary partner, a same two-level atom which is isolated from external fields, to being sudden death, and the proper time for the entanglement to be extinguished is computed. We also analyze that such thermalization and disentanglement phenomena, in principle, could be understood from the perspective of table-top simulation experiment
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zhou Bing-Ju; Liu Xiao-Juan; Zhou Qing-Ping; Liu Ming-Wei
2007-01-01
Based on the quantum information theory, we have investigated the entropy squeezing of a moving two-level atom interacting with the coherent field via the quantum mechanical channel of the two-photon process. The results are compared with those of atomic squeezing based on the Heisenberg uncertainty relation. The influences of the atomic motion and field-mode structure parameter on the atomic entropy squeezing and on the control of noise of the quantum mechanical channel via the two-photon process are examined. Our results show that the squeezed period,duration of optimal entropy squeezing of a two-level atom and the noise of the quantum mechanical channel can be controlled by appropriately choosing the atomic motion and the field-mode structure parameter, respectively. The quantum mechanical channel of two-photon process is an ideal channel for quantum information (atomic quantum state) transmission. Quantum information entropy is a remarkably accurate measure of the atomic squeezing.
Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle
2016-01-01
We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry. PMID:27440516
Interplay of classical and quantum dynamics in a thermal ensemble of atoms
Laskar, Arif Warsi; Mukherjee, Arunabh; Ghosh, Saikat
2016-01-01
In a thermal ensemble of atoms driven by coherent fields, how does evolution of quantum superposition compete with classical dynamics of optical pumping and atomic diffusion? Is it optical pumping that first prepares a thermal ensemble, with coherent superposition developing subsequently or is it the other way round: coherently superposed atoms driven to steady state via optical pumping? Using a stroboscopic probing technique, here we experimentally explore these questions. A 100 ns pulse is used to probe an experimentally simulated, closed three-level, lambda-like configuration in rubidium atoms, driven by strong coherent control and incoherent fields. Temporal evolution of probe transmission shows an initial overshoot with turn-on of control, resulting in a scenario akin to lasing without inversion (LWI). The corresponding rise time is dictated by coherent dynamics, with a distinct experimental signature of half-cycle Rabi flop in a thermal ensemble of atoms. Our results indicate that, in fact, optical pump...
Quantum coherent tractor beam effect for atoms trapped near a nanowaveguide
Sadgrove, Mark; Wimberger, Sandro; Nic Chormaic, Síle
2016-07-01
We propose several schemes to realize a tractor beam effect for ultracold atoms in the vicinity of a few-mode nanowaveguide. Atoms trapped near the waveguide are transported in a direction opposite to the guided mode propagation direction. We analyse three specific examples for ultracold 23Na atoms trapped near a specific nanowaveguide (i.e. an optical nanofibre): (i) a conveyor belt-type tractor beam effect, (ii) an accelerator tractor beam effect, and (iii) a quantum coherent tractor beam effect, all of which can effectively pull atoms along the nanofibre toward the light source. This technique provides a new tool for controlling the motion of particles near nanowaveguides with potential applications in the study of particle transport and binding as well as atom interferometry.
Entanglement of mixed quantum states for qubits and qudit in double photoionization of atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Highlights: • We study tripartite entanglement between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. • We study bipartite entanglement between any two subsystems of a tripartite system. • We have presented a quantitative application of entangled properties in Neon atom. - Abstract: Quantum entanglement and its paradoxical properties are genuine physical resources for various quantum information tasks like quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computer technology. The physical characteristic of the entanglement of quantum-mechanical states, both for pure and mixed, has been recognized as a central resource in various aspects of quantum information processing. In this article, we study the bipartite entanglement of one electronic qubit along with the ionic qudit and also entanglement between two electronic qubits. The tripartite entanglement properties also have been investigated between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. All these studies have been done for the single-step double photoionization from an atom following the absorption of a single photon without observing spin orbit interaction. The dimension of the Hilbert space of the qudit depends upon the electronic state of the residual photoion A2+. In absence of SOI, when Russell–Saunders coupling (L–S coupling) is applicable, dimension of the qudit is equal to the spin multiplicity of A2+. For estimations of entanglement and mixedness, we consider the Peres–Horodecki condition, concurrence, entanglement of formation, negativity, linear and von Neumann entropies. In case of L–S coupling, all the properties of a qubit–qudit system can be predicted merely with the knowledge of the spins of the target atom and the residual photoion
Entanglement of mixed quantum states for qubits and qudit in double photoionization of atoms
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, M., E-mail: bminakshi@yahoo.com [Department of Physics, Asansol Girls’ College, Asansol 713304 (India); Sen, S. [Department of Physics, Triveni Devi Bhalotia College, Raniganj 713347 (India)
2015-08-15
Highlights: • We study tripartite entanglement between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. • We study bipartite entanglement between any two subsystems of a tripartite system. • We have presented a quantitative application of entangled properties in Neon atom. - Abstract: Quantum entanglement and its paradoxical properties are genuine physical resources for various quantum information tasks like quantum teleportation, quantum cryptography, and quantum computer technology. The physical characteristic of the entanglement of quantum-mechanical states, both for pure and mixed, has been recognized as a central resource in various aspects of quantum information processing. In this article, we study the bipartite entanglement of one electronic qubit along with the ionic qudit and also entanglement between two electronic qubits. The tripartite entanglement properties also have been investigated between two electronic qubits and an ionic qudit. All these studies have been done for the single-step double photoionization from an atom following the absorption of a single photon without observing spin orbit interaction. The dimension of the Hilbert space of the qudit depends upon the electronic state of the residual photoion A{sup 2+}. In absence of SOI, when Russell–Saunders coupling (L–S coupling) is applicable, dimension of the qudit is equal to the spin multiplicity of A{sup 2+}. For estimations of entanglement and mixedness, we consider the Peres–Horodecki condition, concurrence, entanglement of formation, negativity, linear and von Neumann entropies. In case of L–S coupling, all the properties of a qubit–qudit system can be predicted merely with the knowledge of the spins of the target atom and the residual photoion.
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell’s inequality using two different atomic isotopes
Ballance, C. J.; Schäfer, V. M.; Home, J. P.; Szwer, D. J.; Webster, S. C.; Allcock, D. T. C.; Linke, N. M.; Harty, T. P.; Aude Craik, D. P. L.; Stacey, D. N.; Steane, A. M.; Lucas, D. M.
2015-12-01
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a ‘hybrid’ entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell’s inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits’ energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one 40Ca+ qubit and one 43Ca+ qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell’s inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing.
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic isotopes.
Ballance, C J; Schäfer, V M; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Aude Craik, D P L; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-12-17
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing (QIP). Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected or heralded entangled states involving pairs of photons, single photons and single atoms, or different nuclei in the solid state, have also been produced. Here we use a deterministic quantum logic gate to generate a 'hybrid' entangled state of two trapped-ion qubits held in different isotopes of calcium, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make a test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally entangled state of one (40)Ca(+) qubit and one (43)Ca(+) qubit, held 3.5 micrometres apart in the same ion trap, with 99.8 ± 0.6 per cent fidelity. We test the CHSH (Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt) version of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state and find that it is violated by 15 standard deviations; in this test, we close the detection loophole but not the locality loophole. Mixed-species quantum logic is a powerful technique for the construction of a quantum computer based on trapped ions, as it allows protection of memory qubits while other qubits undergo logic operations or are used as photonic interfaces to other processing units. The entangling gate mechanism used here can also be applied to qubits stored in different atomic elements; this would allow both memory and logic gate errors caused by photon scattering to be reduced below the levels required for fault-tolerant quantum error correction, which is an essential prerequisite for general-purpose quantum computing. PMID:26672554
Controlled Rephasing of Single Collective Spin Excitations in a Cold Atomic Quantum Memory
Albrecht, Boris; Farrera, Pau; Heinze, Georg; Cristiani, Matteo; de Riedmatten, Hugues
2015-10-01
We demonstrate active control of inhomogeneous dephasing and rephasing for single collective atomic spin excitations (spin waves) created by spontaneous Raman scattering in a quantum memory based on cold 87Rb atoms. The control is provided by a reversible external magnetic field gradient inducing an inhomogeneous broadening of the atomic hyperfine levels. We demonstrate experimentally that active rephasing preserves the single photon nature of the retrieved photons. Finally, we show that the control of the inhomogeneous dephasing enables the creation of time-separated spin waves in a single ensemble followed by a selective read-out in time. This is an important step towards the implementation of a functional temporally multiplexed quantum repeater node.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Wang, Jiao; Mouritzen, Anders Sørrig; Gong, Jiangbin
2009-01-01
Controlling the translational motion of cold atoms using optical lattice potentials is of both theoretical and experimental interest. By designing two on-resonance time sequences of kicking optical lattice potentials, a novel connection between two paradigms of nonlinear mapping systems, i.e. the...... sequences of control fields. Extensions of this study are also discussed. The results are intended to open up a new generation of cold-atom experiments of quantum nonlinear dynamics.......Controlling the translational motion of cold atoms using optical lattice potentials is of both theoretical and experimental interest. By designing two on-resonance time sequences of kicking optical lattice potentials, a novel connection between two paradigms of nonlinear mapping systems, i.e. the...
Quantum rekenen: Quantumcomputers en qubits
Hensen, B.J.; Hanson, R.
2013-01-01
De quantum computer is een computer gebaseerd op quantum bits, kortweg qubits. Dat zijn bits die fysiek gemaakt zijn van quantum systemen, met de speciale eigenschap dat ze in een superpositie tussen twee toestanden kunnen zijn.
A surface-patterned chip as a strong source of ultra-cold atoms for quantum technologies
Nshii C.C.; Vangeleyn M.; Cotter J.P.; Griffin P.F.; Hinds E.A.; Ironside C.N.; See P.; Sinclair A.G.; Riis E.; Arnold A.S.
2013-01-01
Laser cooled atoms are central to modern precision measurements. They are also increasingly important as an enabling technology for experimental cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information processing and matter wave interferometry. Although significant progress has been made in miniaturising atomic metrological devices, these are limited in accuracy by their use of hot atomic ensembles and buffer gases. Advances have also been made in producing portable apparatus that benefit from the...
Quantum Hall states of atomic Bose gases: Density profiles in single-layer and multilayer geometries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We describe the density profiles of confined atomic Bose gases in the high-rotation limit, in single-layer and multilayer geometries. We show that, in a local-density approximation, the density in a single layer shows a landscape of quantized steps due to the formation of incompressible liquids, which are analogous to fractional quantum Hall liquids for a two-dimensional electron gas in a strong magnetic field. In a multilayered setup we find different phases, depending on the strength of the interlayer tunneling t. We discuss the situation where a vortex lattice in the three-dimensional condensate (at large tunneling) undergoes quantum melting at a critical tunneling tc1. For tunneling well below tc1 one expects weakly coupled or isolated layers, each exhibiting a landscape of quantum Hall liquids. After expansion, this gives a radial density distribution with characteristic features (cusps) that provide experimental signatures of the quantum Hall liquids
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾徽徽; 王潮; 顾健; 陆臻
2016-01-01
The existing error bit in the side channel attacks of ECC is difficult to avoid, and can’t be modiifed quickly. In this paper, a new search algorithm based on the Grover quantum search algorithm is proposed, which combines the Grover quantum search algorithm and the meet in the middle attack, and applies it to the side channel attack for ECC. The algorithm can solve the key problem ofn which hasM error bit inO steps. Compared with classical search algorithm, the computational complexity is greatly reduced. The analysis said that the success rate of modifying ECC attack error bit is 1, and the algorithm can effectively reduce the computational complexity.%在现有的针对ECC的侧信道攻击中，密钥出现错误bit难以避免，且无法快速修正。文章将Grover量子搜索算法和中间相遇攻击相结合，提出了一种新的搜索算法——Grover量子中间相遇搜索算法，并将其应用于针对ECC的侧信道攻击中。该算法可以在O规模为N且存在M个错误bit的密钥，与传统搜索算法的计算复杂度O(N M+1)相比较，计算复杂度大幅度降低。通过对算法进行分析表明，该方法能够以成功率1修正ECC攻击中出现的错误bit。
Quantum Control of Atomic and Molecular Translational Motion
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Raizen, M.G.; Fink, M.
2005-08-25
Our research program focuses on the development of a method to cool atoms and molecules of any choice as long as they have a stable gaseous phase. Our approach starts with a very cold supersonic beam of He seeded with the molecules of choice. The internal temperature can reach 1 milliKelvin or less. The high center of mass velocity of the particles forming the beam will be reduced by elastically scattering the atoms/molecules from a very cold single crystal surface (20-40K), which moves in the beam direction. This will enable the continuous control of the mean velocity over a large range, after scattering, down to a few tens of m/s or even below as the crystal surface's velocity approaches v/2 of the impacting particles. We will use the decelerated particles as a source for a white-fringe matter-wave interferometer, where one reflector is a very cold surface of interest. The interference pattern will reveal the real part (via integral intensities) and the imaginary part (via phase shifts) of the scattering cross sections. This is particularly interesting for H{sub 2} and resonance structures. This interferometer set-up follows closely Prichard's arrangement.
Isotope Dependence and Quantum Effects on Atomic Hydrogen Diffusion in Liquid Water.
Walker, J A; Mezyk, S P; Roduner, E; Bartels, D M
2016-03-01
Relative diffusion coefficients were determined in water for the D, H, and Mu isotopes of atomic hydrogen by measuring their diffusion-limited spin-exchange rate constants with Ni(2+) as a function of temperature. H and D atoms were generated by pulse radiolysis of water and measured by time-resolved pulsed EPR. Mu atoms are detected by muonium spin resonance. To isolate the atomic mass effect from solvent isotope effect, we measured all three spin-exchange rates in 90% D2O. The diffusion depends on the atomic mass, demonstrating breakdown of Stokes-Einstein behavior. The diffusion can be understood using a combination of water "cavity diffusion" and "hopping" mechanisms, as has been proposed in the literature. The H/D isotope effect agrees with previous modeling using ring polymer molecular dynamics. The "quantum swelling" effect on muonium due to its larger de Broglie wavelength does not seem to slow its "hopping" diffusion as much as predicted in previous work. Quantum effects of both the atom mass and the water librations have been modeled using RPMD and a qTIP4P/f quantized flexible water model. These results suggest that the muonium diffusion is very sensitive to the Mu versus water potential used. PMID:26623663
Simulating Quantum Spin Models using Rydberg-Excited Atomic Ensembles in Magnetic Microtrap Arrays
Whitlock, Shannon; Hannaford, Peter
2016-01-01
We propose a scheme to simulate lattice spin models based on strong and long-range interacting Rydberg atoms stored in a large-spacing array of magnetic microtraps. Each spin is encoded in a collective spin state involving a single $nP$ Rydberg atom excited from an ensemble of ground-state alkali atoms prepared via Rydberg blockade. After the excitation laser is switched off the Rydberg spin states on neighbouring lattice sites interact via general isotropic or anisotropic spin-spin interactions. To read out the collective spin states we propose a single Rydberg atom triggered avalanche scheme in which the presence of a single Rydberg atom conditionally transfers a large number of ground-state atoms in the trap to an untrapped state which can be readily detected by site-resolved absorption imaging. Such a quantum simulator should allow the study of quantum spin systems in almost arbitrary two-dimensional configurations. This paves the way towards engineering exotic spin models, such as spin models based on tr...
A photon-photon quantum gate based on a single atom in an optical resonator.
Hacker, Bastian; Welte, Stephan; Rempe, Gerhard; Ritter, Stephan
2016-08-11
That two photons pass each other undisturbed in free space is ideal for the faithful transmission of information, but prohibits an interaction between the photons. Such an interaction is, however, required for a plethora of applications in optical quantum information processing. The long-standing challenge here is to realize a deterministic photon-photon gate, that is, a mutually controlled logic operation on the quantum states of the photons. This requires an interaction so strong that each of the two photons can shift the other's phase by π radians. For polarization qubits, this amounts to the conditional flipping of one photon's polarization to an orthogonal state. So far, only probabilistic gates based on linear optics and photon detectors have been realized, because "no known or foreseen material has an optical nonlinearity strong enough to implement this conditional phase shift''. Meanwhile, tremendous progress in the development of quantum-nonlinear systems has opened up new possibilities for single-photon experiments. Platforms range from Rydberg blockade in atomic ensembles to single-atom cavity quantum electrodynamics. Applications such as single-photon switches and transistors, two-photon gateways, nondestructive photon detectors, photon routers and nonlinear phase shifters have been demonstrated, but none of them with the ideal information carriers: optical qubits in discriminable modes. Here we use the strong light-matter coupling provided by a single atom in a high-finesse optical resonator to realize the Duan-Kimble protocol of a universal controlled phase flip (π phase shift) photon-photon quantum gate. We achieve an average gate fidelity of (76.2 ± 3.6) per cent and specifically demonstrate the capability of conditional polarization flipping as well as entanglement generation between independent input photons. This photon-photon quantum gate is a universal quantum logic element, and therefore could perform most existing two-photon operations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten's generalization to arbitrary dimension has afforded new insight into the correlated motion of quantum particles [Phys. Today 33, (7), 38 (1980)]. We have used a classically based method to understand the resultant dimensionality dependence of the ground-state energy of the helium atom in the approximation which regards the quantum fluctuations of the system as being harmonic oscillations about a classical, correlated state of minimum effective potential energy. Making an analogy with thermal systems, this provides a ''phase diagram'' of a single helium atom that features a first-order melting transition, with inverse dimensionality playing the role of temperature. Our approximation gives an understanding of the high-dimensionality behavior of the quantum solution found with a perturbation theory expansion in inverse dimensionality by Goodson and Herschbach [Phys. Rev. Lett. 58, 1628 (1987)]. From comparison with variational quantum ground-state solutions by Loeser and Herschbach [J. Chem. Phys. 84, 3882 (1986)] for atomic numbers 2, 3, and 6 we find that the harmonic description improves with decreasing nuclear charge
Dispersion forces II. Many-body effects, excited atoms, finite temperature and quantum friction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi [Imperial College London (United Kingdom). Quantum Optics and Laser Science
2012-07-01
Presents the unified theory of dispersion forces. Gives a thorough overview over recent results of dispersion forces. Deals with applied macroscopic quantum electrodynamics. Gives guidance to simulation of realistic material properties. In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contexts.
Entangled solitons and stochastic Q-bits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stochastic realization of the wave function in quantum mechanics with the inclusion of soliton representation of extended particles is discussed. Two-solitons configurations are used for constructing entangled states in generalized quantum mechanics dealing with extended particles, endowed with nontrivial spin S. Entangled solitons construction being introduced in the nonlinear spinor field model, the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) correlation is calculated and shown to coincide with the quantum mechanical one for the 1/2-spin particles. The concept of stochastic q-bits is used for quantum computing modelling
Interplay of classical and quantum dynamics in a thermal ensemble of atoms
Warsi Laskar, Arif; Singh, Niharika; Mukherjee, Arunabh; Ghosh, Saikat
2016-05-01
In a thermal ensemble of atoms driven by coherent fields, how does evolution of quantum superposition compete with classical dynamics of optical pumping and atomic diffusion? Is it optical pumping that first prepares a thermal ensemble, with coherent superposition developing subsequently or is it the other way round: coherently superposed atoms driven to steady state via optical pumping? Using a stroboscopic probing technique, here we experimentally explore these questions. A 100 ns pulse is used to probe an experimentally simulated, closed three-level, Λ-like configuration in rubidium atoms, driven by strong coherent (control) and incoherent fields. Temporal evolution of probe transmission shows an initial overshoot with turn-on of control, resulting in a scenario akin to lasing without inversion. The corresponding rise time is dictated by coherent dynamics, with a distinct experimental signature of half-cycle Rabi flop in a thermal ensemble of atoms. Our results indicate that, in fact, optical pumping drives the atoms to a steady state in a significantly longer time-scale that sustains superposed dark states. Eventual control turn-off leads to a sudden fall in transmission with an ubiquitous signature for identifying closed and open systems. Numerical simulations and toy-model predictions confirm our claims. These studies reveal new insights into a rich and complex dynamics associated with atoms in thermal ensemble, which are otherwise absent in state-prepared, cold atomic ensembles.
Chin, Cheng
2011-05-01
Recent cold atom researches are reaching out far beyond the realm that was conventionally viewed as atomic physics. Many long standing issues in other physics disciplines or in Gedanken-experiments are nowadays common targets of cold atom physicists. Two prominent examples will be discussed in this talk: BEC-BCS crossover and Efimov physics. Here, cold atoms are employed to emulate electrons in superconductors, and nucleons in nuclear reactions, respectively. The ability to emulate exotic or thought systems using cold atoms stems from the precisely determined, simple, and tunable interaction properties of cold atoms. New experimental tools have also been devised toward an ultimate goal: a complete control and a complete characterization of a few- or many-body quantum system. We are tantalizingly close to this major milestone, and will soon open new venues to explore new quantum phenomena that may (or may not!) exist in scientists' dreams.
Al-Khalili, Jim
2003-01-01
In this lively look at quantum science, a physicist takes you on an entertaining and enlightening journey through the basics of subatomic physics. Along the way, he examines the paradox of quantum mechanics--beautifully mathematical in theory but confoundingly unpredictable in the real world. Marvel at the Dual Slit experiment as a tiny atom passes through two separate openings at the same time. Ponder the peculiar communication of quantum particles, which can remain in touch no matter how far apart. Join the genius jewel thief as he carries out a quantum measurement on a diamond without ever touching the object in question. Baffle yourself with the bizzareness of quantum tunneling, the equivalent of traveling partway up a hill, only to disappear then reappear traveling down the opposite side. With its clean, colorful layout and conversational tone, this text will hook you into the conundrum that is quantum mechanics.
Quantum-interference-enhanced deep sub-Doppler cooling of 39K atoms in gray molasses
Nath, Dipankar; Easwaran, R. Kollengode; Rajalakshmi, G.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.
2013-11-01
We report enhanced sub-Doppler cooling of the bosonic atoms of 39K facilitated by formation of dark states with the cooling and repumping lasers tuned to the Raman resonance in Λ configuration near the D1 transition. A temperature of about 12 μK and phase-space density >2×10-5 is achieved in the two-stage D2-D1 molasses and spans a very large parameter region where quantum interference persists robustly. We also present results on enhanced radiation heating with a subnatural linewidth (0.07Γ) and a signature Fano-like profile of a coherently driven three-level atomic system. The optical Bloch equations relevant for the three-level atom in a bichromatic light field are solved with the method of continued fractions to show that cooling occurs only for a small velocity class of atoms, emphasizing the need for precooling in the D2 molasses stage.
Concept of a Contact Spectrum and Its Applications in Atomic Quantum Hall States.
He, Mingyuan; Zhang, Shaoliang; Chan, Hon Ming; Zhou, Qi
2016-01-29
A unique feature of ultracold atoms is the separation of length scales, r_{0}≪k_{F}^{-1}, where k_{F} and r_{0} are the Fermi momentum characterizing the average particle distance and the range of interaction between atoms, respectively. For s-wave scattering, Shina Tan discovered that such diluteness leads to universal thermodynamic relations governed by contact. Here, we show that the concept of contact can be generalized to an arbitrary partial-wave scattering. Contact of all partial-wave scatterings forms a contact spectrum, which establishes universal thermodynamic relations with notable differences from those in the presence of s-wave scattering alone. Such a contact spectrum is particularly useful for characterizing many-body correlations in atomic quantum Hall states (QHSs). It has an interesting connection with a special bipartite entanglement spectrum of QHSs and enables an intrinsic probe of atomic QHSs using short-range two-body correlations. PMID:26871339
The splitting of atomic orbitals with a common principal quantum number revisited: np vs. ns.
Katriel, Jacob
2012-04-14
Atomic orbitals with a common principal quantum number are degenerate, as in the hydrogen atom, in the absence of interelectronic repulsion. Due to the virial theorem, electrons in such orbitals experience equal nuclear attractions. Comparing states of several-electron atoms that differ by the occupation of orbitals with a common principal quantum number, such as 1s(2) 2s vs. 1s(2) 2p, we find that although the difference in energies, ΔE, is due to the interelectronic repulsion term in the Hamiltonian, the difference between the interelectronic repulsions, ΔC, makes a smaller contribution to ΔE than the corresponding difference between the nuclear attractions, ΔL. Analysis of spectroscopic data for atomic isoelectronic sequences allows an extensive investigation of these issues. In the low nuclear charge range of pertinent isoelectronic sequences, i.e., for neutral atoms and mildly positively charged ions, it is found that ΔC actually reverses its sign. About 96% of the nuclear attraction difference between the 6p (2)P and the 6s (2)S states of the Cs atom is cancelled by the corresponding interelectronic repulsion difference. From the monotonic increase of ΔE with Z it follows (via the Hellmann-Feynman theorem) that ΔL > 0. Upon increasing the nuclear charge along an atomic isoelectronic sequence with a single electron outside a closed shell from Z(c), the critical charge below which the outmost electron is not bound, to infinity, the ratio ΔC/ΔL increases monotonically from lim(Z→Z(c)(+))ΔC/ΔL=-1 to lim(Z→∞)ΔC/ΔL=1. These results should allow for a more nuanced discussion than is usually encountered of the crude electronic structure of many-electron atoms and the structure of the periodic table. PMID:22502506
Quantum treatment of two-stage sub-Doppler laser cooling of magnesium atoms
Brazhnikov, D V; Taichenachev, A V; Yudin, V I; Bonert, A E; Il'enkov, R Ya; Goncharov, A N
2015-01-01
The problem of deep laser cooling of $^{24}$Mg atoms is theoretically studied. We propose two-stage sub-Doppler cooling strategy using electro-dipole transition $3^3P_2$$\\to$$3^3D_3$ ($\\lambda$=383.9 nm). The first stage implies exploiting magneto-optical trap with $\\sigma^+$ and $\\sigma^-$ light beams, while the second one uses a lin$\\perp$lin molasses. We focus on achieving large number of ultracold atoms (T$_{eff}$ < 10 $\\mu$K) in a cold atomic cloud. The calculations have been done out of many widely used approximations and based on quantum treatment with taking full account of recoil effect. Steady-state average kinetic energies and linear momentum distributions of cold atoms are analysed for various light-field intensities and frequency detunings. The results of conducted quantum analysis have revealed noticeable differences from results of semiclassical approach based on the Fokker-Planck equation. At certain conditions the second cooling stage can provide sufficiently lower kinetic energies of atom...
The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust
Fraser, Gordon Murray
2012-01-01
It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were
Dicke-like quantum phase transition and vacuum entanglement with two coupled atomic ensembles
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2011-09-01
We study the coherent cooperative phenomena of the system composed of two interacting atomic ensembles in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, the system exhibits the Dicke-like quantum phase transition and entanglement behavior although the governing Hamiltonian is fundamentally different from the spin-boson Dicke Hamiltonian, offering the opportunity for investigating collective matter-light dynamics with pure matter waves. The model can be realized with two Bose-Einstein condensates or atomic ensembles trapped in two optical cavities coupled to each other. The interaction between the two separate samples is induced by virtual photon exchange.
Dicke-like quantum phase transition and vacuum entanglement with two coupled atomic ensembles
Zheng, Shi-Biao
2012-01-01
We study the coherent cooperative phenomena of the system composed of two interacting atomic ensembles in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, the system exhibits the Dicke-like quantum phase transition and entanglement behavior although the governing Hamiltonian is fundamentally different from the spin-boson Dicke Hamiltonian, offering the opportunity for investigating collective matter-light dynamics with pure matter waves. The model can be realized with two Bose-Einstein condensates or atomic ensembles trapped in two optical cavities coupled to each other. The interaction between the two separate samples is induced by virtual photon exchange.
Dicke-like quantum phase transition and vacuum entanglement with two coupled atomic ensembles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zheng Shibiao [Department of Physics, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China)
2011-09-15
We study the coherent cooperative phenomena of the system composed of two interacting atomic ensembles in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, the system exhibits the Dicke-like quantum phase transition and entanglement behavior although the governing Hamiltonian is fundamentally different from the spin-boson Dicke Hamiltonian, offering the opportunity for investigating collective matter-light dynamics with pure matter waves. The model can be realized with two Bose-Einstein condensates or atomic ensembles trapped in two optical cavities coupled to each other. The interaction between the two separate samples is induced by virtual photon exchange.
Dicke-like quantum phase transition and vacuum entanglement with two coupled atomic ensembles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We study the coherent cooperative phenomena of the system composed of two interacting atomic ensembles in the thermodynamic limit. Remarkably, the system exhibits the Dicke-like quantum phase transition and entanglement behavior although the governing Hamiltonian is fundamentally different from the spin-boson Dicke Hamiltonian, offering the opportunity for investigating collective matter-light dynamics with pure matter waves. The model can be realized with two Bose-Einstein condensates or atomic ensembles trapped in two optical cavities coupled to each other. The interaction between the two separate samples is induced by virtual photon exchange.
Love, literature and the quantum atom Niels Bohr's 1913 trilogy revisited
Aaserud, Finn
2013-01-01
Niels Bohr ranks with Einstein among the physicists of the 20th century. He rose to this status through his invention of the quantum theory of the atom and his leadership in its defense and development. He also ranks with Einstein in his humanism and his sense of responsibility to his science and the society that enabled him to create it. Our book presents unpublished excerpts from extensive correspondence between Bohr and his immediate family, and uses it to describe and analyze the psychological and cultural background to his invention. The book also contains a reprinting of the three papers of 1913 - the "Trilogy" - in which Bohr worked out the provisional basis of a quantum theory of the atom.
Manipulating the Quantum State of a Single Cooper Pair in a One-Atom Contact
Urbina, Cristian; Janvier, Camille; Tosi, Leandro; Girit, Çağlar; Stern, Michael; Bertet, Patrice; Vion, Denis; Joyez, Philippe; Esteve, Daniel; Goffman, Marcelo; Pothier, Hugues
2015-03-01
Superconducting qubits presently used in quantum information experiments are based on Josephson tunnel junctions. Nevertheless, these circuits exploit only partially the richness of the Josephson effect, as they overlook the existence of an internal, spin-like degree of freedom, inherent to all Josephson structures. Each conduction channel of a weak-link gives rise to a doublet of discrete subgap states (the Andreev bound states), which represents the two possible states of a localized Cooper pair. We spotlight these doublets with experiments on the simplest Josephson weak-link: a one-atom contact between two superconductors. The atomic contact is inserted in a superconducting loop coupled to a microwave resonator. This standard circuit-QED architecture allows performing single shot measurements of the state of a localized Cooper pair, and to manipulate coherently its quantum state, as illustrated by Rabi oscillations, Ramsey fringes and spin echoes.
State-dependent lattices for quantum computing with alkaline-earth-metal atoms
Daley, Andrew J; Zoller, Peter
2011-01-01
Recent experimental progress with Alkaline-Earth atoms has opened the door to quantum computing schemes in which qubits are encoded in long-lived nuclear spin states, and the metastable electronic states of these species are used for manipulation and readout of the qubits. Here we discuss a variant of these schemes, in which gate operations are performed in nuclear-spin-dependent optical lattices, formed by near-resonant coupling to the metastable excited state. This provides an alternative to a previous scheme [A. J. Daley, M. M. Boyd, J. Ye, and P. Zoller, Phys. Rev. Lett 101, 170504 (2008)], which involved independent lattices for different electronic states. As in the previous case, we show how existing ideas for quantum computing with Alkali atoms such as entanglement via controlled collisions can be freed from important technical restrictions. We also provide additional details on the use of collisional losses from metastable states to perform gate operations via a lossy blockade mechanism.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Recently, cesium atoms in optical lattices subjected to cycles of unequally spaced pulses have been found to show interesting behavior: they represent an experimental demonstration of a Hamiltonian ratchet mechanism, and they show strong variability of the dynamical localization lengths as a function of initial momentum. The behavior differs qualitatively from corresponding atomic systems pulsed with equal periods, which are a textbook implementation of a well-studied quantum chaos paradigm, the quantum δ-kicked rotor (δ-QKR). We investigate here the properties of the corresponding eigenstates (Floquet states) in the parameter regime of the recent experiments and compare them with those of the eigenstates of the δ-QKR at similar kicking strengths. We show that by studying the properties of the Floquet states we can shed light on the form of the observed ratchet current, as well as variations in the dynamical localization length
Probing an Excited-State Atomic Transition Using Hyperfine Quantum Beat Spectroscopy
Wade, Christopher G; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J
2014-01-01
We describe a method to observe the dynamics of an excited-state transition in a room temperature atomic vapor using hyperfine quantum beats. Our experiment using cesium atoms consists of a pulsed excitation of the D2 transition, and continuous-wave driving of an excited-state transition from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state to the 7S$_{1/2}$ state. We observe quantum beats in the fluorescence from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state which are modified by the driving of the excited-state transition. The Fourier spectrum of the beat signal yields evidence of Autler-Townes splitting of the 6P$_{3/2}$, F = 5 hyperfine level and Rabi oscillations on the excited-state transition. A detailed model provides qualitative agreement with the data, giving insight to the physical processes involved.
A quantum sensor for atom-surface interactions below 10 $\\mu$m
Sorrentino, F; Ferrari, G; Ivanov, V V; Poli, N; Schioppo, M; Tino, G M
2008-01-01
We report about the realization of a quantum device for force sensing at micrometric scale. We trap an ultracold $^{88}$Sr atomic cloud with a 1-D optical lattice, then we place the atomic sample close to a test surface using the same optical lattice as an elevator. We demonstrate precise positioning of the sample at the $\\mu$m scale. By observing the Bloch oscillations of atoms into the 1-D optical standing wave, we are able to measure the total force on the atoms along the lattice axis, with a spatial resolution of few microns. We also demonstrate a technique for transverse displacement of the atoms, allowing to perform measurements near either transparent or reflective test surfaces. In order to reduce the minimum distance from the surface, we compress the longitudinal size of the atomic sample by means of an optical tweezer. Such system is suited for studies of atom-surface interaction at short distance, such as measurement of Casimir force and search for possible non-Newtonian gravity effects.
Quantum motion of laser-driven atoms in a cavity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We investigate the quantum motion of coherently driven ultracold atoms in the field of a damped high-Q optical cavity mode. The laser field is chosen far detuned from the atomic transition but close to a cavity resonance, so that spontaneous emission is strongly suppressed but a coherent field builds up in the resonator by stimulated scattering. On one hand the shape of the atomic wave function determines the field dynamics via the magnitude of the scattering and the effective refractive index the atoms create for the mode. The mode intensity on the other hand determines the optical dipole force on the atoms. The system shows rich coupled atom-field dynamics including self-organization, self-trapping, cooling or heating. In the limit of deep trapping we are able to derive a system of closed, coupled equations for a finite set of atomic expectations values and the field. This allows to determine the self consistent ground state of the system as well as the eigenfrequencies and damping rates for excitations. (author)
Quantum treatment of two-stage sub-Doppler laser cooling of magnesium atoms
Prudnikov, O. N.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Bonert, A. E.; Il'enkov, R. Ya.; Goncharov, A. N.
2015-12-01
Deep laser cooling of 24Mg atoms has been theoretically studied. We propose a two-stage sub-Doppler cooling strategy using electrodipole transition 3 3P2→3 3D3 (λ =383.8 nm). The first stage implies exploiting magneto-optical trap with σ+ and σ- light beams, while at the second stage lin ⊥ lin molasses is used. We focus on achieving a large number of ultracold atoms (TeffPlanck equation. The second cooling stage allows achieving sufficiently lower kinetic energies of the atomic cloud as well as increased fraction of ultracold atoms at certain conditions compared to the first one. We hope that the obtained results can help in overcoming current experimental problems in deep cooling of 24Mg atoms by means of laser field. Cold magnesium atoms cooled in a large amount to several μ K are of huge interest to, for example, quantum metrology and to other many-body cold-atoms physics.
Tunneling theory for tunable open quantum systems of ultracold atoms in one-dimensional traps
Lundmark, Rikard; Forssén, Christian; Rotureau, Jimmy
2015-01-01
The creation of tunable open quantum systems is becoming feasible in current experiments with ultracold atoms in low-dimensional traps. In particular, the high degree of experimental control over these systems allows detailed studies of tunneling dynamics, e.g., as a function of the trapping geometry and the interparticle interaction strength. In order to address this exciting opportunity we present a theoretical framework for two-body tunneling based on the rigged Hilbert space formulation. ...
Optical Probe of Quantum Shot Noise Reduction at a Single-Atom Contact
Schneider, Natalia L; Berndt, Richard
2010-01-01
Visible and infra-red light emitted at a Ag-Ag(111) junction has been investigated from tunneling to single atom contact conditions with a scanning tunneling microscope. The light intensity varies in a highly nonlinear fashion with the conductance of the junction and exhibits a minimum at conductances close to the conductance quantum. The data are interpreted in terms of current noise at optical frequencies, which is characteristic of partially open transport channels.
Localised quantum states of atomic and molecular particles physisorbed on carbon-based nanoparticles
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kaprálová-Žďánská, Petra Ruth; Trachta, Michal; Bludský, Ota; Špirko, Vladimír
2014-01-01
Roč. 141, č. 11 (2014), "114702-1"-"114702-10". ISSN 0021-9606 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP205/11/0571; GA ČR GAP208/11/0436; GA ČR GAP208/10/0725 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : periodic structure * carbon nanostructures * graphene * quantum mechanics * physisorbed Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 2.952, year: 2014
Di Rocco, Héctor O.; Lanzini, Fernando
2016-04-01
The correction to the Coulomb repulsion between two electrons due to the exchange of a transverse photon, referred to as the Breit interaction, as well as the main quantum electrodynamics contributions to the atomic energies (self-energy and vacuum polarization), are calculated using the recently formulated relativistic screened hydrogenic model. Comparison with the results of multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock calculations and experimental X- ray energies is made.
Accurate atomic quantum defects from particle-particle random phase approximation
Yang, Yang; Yang, Weitao
2015-01-01
The accuracy of calculations of atomic Rydberg excitations cannot be judged by the usual measures, such as mean unsigned errors of many transitions. We show how to use quantum defect theory to (a) separate errors due to approximate ionization potentials, (b) extract smooth quantum defects to compare with experiment, and (c) quantify those defects with a few characteristic parameters. The particle-particle random phase approximation (pp-RPA) produces excellent Rydberg transitions that are an order of magnitude more accurate than those of time-dependent density functional theory with standard approximations. We even extract reasonably accurate defects from the lithium Rydberg series, despite the reference being open-shell. Our methodology can be applied to any Rydberg series of excitations with 4 transitions or more to extract the underlying threshold energy and characteristic quantum defect parameters. Our pp-RPA results set a demanding challenge for other excitation methods to match.
Site-controlled quantum dots fabricated using an atomic-force microscope assisted technique
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sakuma Y
2006-01-01
Full Text Available AbstractAn atomic-force microscope assisted technique is developed to control the position and size of self-assembled semiconductor quantum dots (QDs. Presently, the site precision is as good as ± 1.5 nm and the size fluctuation is within ± 5% with the minimum controllable lateral diameter of 20 nm. With the ability of producing tightly packed and differently sized QDs, sophisticated QD arrays can be controllably fabricated for the application in quantum computing. The optical quality of such site-controlled QDs is found comparable to some conventionally self-assembled semiconductor QDs. The single dot photoluminescence of site-controlled InAs/InP QDs is studied in detail, presenting the prospect to utilize them in quantum communication as precisely controlled single photon emitters working at telecommunication bands.
Hybrid quantum logic and a test of Bell's inequality using two different atomic species
Ballance, C J; Home, J P; Szwer, D J; Webster, S C; Allcock, D T C; Linke, N M; Harty, T P; Craik, D P L Aude; Stacey, D N; Steane, A M; Lucas, D M
2015-01-01
Entanglement is one of the most fundamental properties of quantum mechanics, and is the key resource for quantum information processing. Bipartite entangled states of identical particles have been generated and studied in several experiments, and post-selected entangled states involving pairs of photons, or single photons and single atoms, have also been produced. Here, we deterministically generate a "hybrid" entangled state of two different species of trapped-ion qubit, perform full tomography of the state produced, and make the first test of Bell's inequality with non-identical atoms. We use a laser-driven two-qubit quantum logic gate, whose mechanism is insensitive to the qubits' energy splittings, to produce a maximally-entangled state of one Ca40 qubit and one Ca43 qubit, held in the same ion trap, with 99.8(5)% fidelity. We make a test of Bell's inequality for this novel entangled state, and find that it is violated by 15 sigma. Mixed-species quantum logic is an essential technique for the construction...
Quantum theory for generation of nonclassical photon pairs by a medium with collective atomic memory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present the quantum theory for creation of collective atomic memory and generation of nonclassically correlated photon pairs from an ensemble via the protocol of Duan et al. [Nature (London) 414, 413 (2001)]. The temporal evolution of photon numbers, photon statistics, and cross-correlation between the Stokes and anti-Stokes fields is found by solving the equation of motion for atomic spin-wave excitations. We consider a low-finesse cavity model with collectively enhanced signal-to-noise ratio, which remains still considerably large in the free-space limit. Our results describe analytically the dependence of quantum correlations on spin decoherence time and time delay between the write and read lasers and reproduce the observed data very well including the generated pulse shapes, strong violation of Cauchy-Schwarz inequality and conditional generation of anti-Stokes single-photon pulse. The approach we developed may be used also for quantum description of storage and retrieval of quantum information, especially when the statistical properties of nonclassical pulses are studied
CP(N - 1) quantum field theories with alkaline-earth atoms in optical lattices
Laflamme, C.; Evans, W.; Dalmonte, M.; Gerber, U.; Mejía-Díaz, H.; Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U.-J.; Zoller, P.
2016-07-01
We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1 + 1) -d CP(N - 1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3 + 1) -d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and θ-vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N - 1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false θ-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.
CP(N-1) Quantum Field Theories with Alkaline-Earth Atoms in Optical Lattices
Laflamme, C; Dalmonte, M; Gerber, U; Mejía-Díaz, H; Bietenholz, W; Wiese, U -J; Zoller, P
2015-01-01
We propose a cold atom implementation to attain the continuum limit of (1+1)-d CP(N-1) quantum field theories. These theories share important features with (3+1)-d QCD, such as asymptotic freedom and $\\theta$ vacua. Moreover, their continuum limit can be accessed via the mechanism of dimensional reduction. In our scheme, the CP(N-1) degrees of freedom emerge at low energies from a ladder system of SU(N) quantum spins, where the N spin states are embodied by the nuclear Zeeman states of alkaline-earth atoms, trapped in an optical lattice. Based on Monte Carlo results, we establish that the continuum limit can be demonstrated by an atomic quantum simulation by employing the feature of asymptotic freedom. We discuss a protocol for the adiabatic state preparation of the ground state of the system, the real-time evolution of a false $\\theta$-vacuum state after a quench, and we propose experiments to unravel the phase diagram at non-zero density.
Quantum simulation of the Hubbard model with dopant atoms in silicon
Salfi, J.; Mol, J. A.; Rahman, R.; Klimeck, G.; Simmons, M. Y.; Hollenberg, L. C. L.; Rogge, S.
2016-04-01
In quantum simulation, many-body phenomena are probed in controllable quantum systems. Recently, simulation of Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonians using cold atoms revealed previously hidden local correlations. However, fermionic many-body Hubbard phenomena such as unconventional superconductivity and spin liquids are more difficult to simulate using cold atoms. To date the required single-site measurements and cooling remain problematic, while only ensemble measurements have been achieved. Here we simulate a two-site Hubbard Hamiltonian at low effective temperatures with single-site resolution using subsurface dopants in silicon. We measure quasi-particle tunnelling maps of spin-resolved states with atomic resolution, finding interference processes from which the entanglement entropy and Hubbard interactions are quantified. Entanglement, determined by spin and orbital degrees of freedom, increases with increasing valence bond length. We find separation-tunable Hubbard interaction strengths that are suitable for simulating strongly correlated phenomena in larger arrays of dopants, establishing dopants as a platform for quantum simulation of the Hubbard model.
... keep the flea population down. Wearing an insect repellent also may help. Ask your parents to apply one that contains 10%–30% ... A Chigger Bit Me! Hey! A Mosquito Bit Me! Hey! A Tick Bit Me! What ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An electron model is proposed explaining the physical reasons for its nonrelativistic quantum-mechanical behaviour, the origin of its own mechanical and magnetic momentum and field energy. As an example the main electron state in hydrogen atom is obtained
A surface-patterned chip as a strong source of ultra-cold atoms for quantum technologies
Nshii, C C; Cotter, J P; Griffin, P F; Hinds, E A; Ironside, C N; See, P; Sinclair, A G; Riis, E; Arnold, A S
2013-01-01
Laser cooled atoms are central to modern precision measurements. They are also increasingly important as an enabling technology for experimental cavity quantum electrodynamics, quantum information processing and matter wave interferometry. Although significant progress has been made in miniaturising atomic metrological devices, these are limited in accuracy by their use of hot atomic ensembles and buffer gases. Advances have also been made in producing portable apparatus that benefit from the advantages of atoms in the microKelvin regime. However, simplifying atomic cooling and loading using microfabrication technology has proved difficult. In this letter we address this problem, realising an atom chip that enables the integration of laser cooling and trapping into a compact apparatus. Our source delivers ten thousand times more atoms than previous magneto-optical traps with microfabricated optics and, for the first time, can reach sub-Doppler temperatures. Moreover, the same chip design offers a simple way t...
Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics
Quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms on graphene. I. System-bath modeling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bonfanti, Matteo, E-mail: matteo.bonfanti@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Jackson, Bret [Department of Chemistry, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003 (United States); Hughes, Keith H. [School of Chemistry, Bangor University, Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2UW (United Kingdom); Burghardt, Irene [Institute of Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Str. 7, 60438 Frankfurt/Main (Germany); Martinazzo, Rocco, E-mail: rocco.martinazzo@unimi.it [Dipartimento di Chimica, Università degli Studi di Milano, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy); Istituto di Scienze e Tecnologie Molecolari, Consiglio Nazionale delle Richerche, v. Golgi 19, 20133 Milano (Italy)
2015-09-28
An accurate system-bath model to investigate the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms chemisorbed on graphene is presented. The system comprises a hydrogen atom and the carbon atom from graphene that forms the covalent bond, and it is described by a previously developed 4D potential energy surface based on density functional theory ab initio data. The bath describes the rest of the carbon lattice and is obtained from an empirical force field through inversion of a classical equilibrium correlation function describing the hydrogen motion. By construction, model building easily accommodates improvements coming from the use of higher level electronic structure theory for the system. Further, it is well suited to a determination of the system-environment coupling by means of ab initio molecular dynamics. This paper details the system-bath modeling and shows its application to the quantum dynamics of vibrational relaxation of a chemisorbed hydrogen atom, which is here investigated at T = 0 K with the help of the multi-configuration time-dependent Hartree method. Paper II deals with the sticking dynamics.
Two-dimensional quantum hydrogen atom in circularly polarized microwaves: Global properties
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakrzewski, J.; Gebarowski, R.; Delande, D. [Instytut Fizyki Mariana Smoluchowskiego, Uniwersytet Jagiellonski, ulica Reymonta 4, 30-059 Krakow (Poland)]|[Laboratoire Kastler-Brossel, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, T12, E1, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)
1996-07-01
The ionization of hydrogen Rydberg atoms by {ital circularly} polarized microwaves is studied quantum mechanically in a model two-dimensional atom. We apply a combination of a transformation to the coordinate frame rotating with the field, with complex rotation approach and representation of the atomic subspace in a Sturmian-type basis. The diagonalization of resulting matrices allows us to treat exactly the ionization of atoms initially prepared in highly excited Rydberg states of principal quantum number {ital n}{sub 0}{approx_equal}60. Similarities and differences between ionization by circularly and linearly polarized microwaves are discussed with a particular emphasis on the high-frequency regime and on the localization phenomenon. The dependence of the ionization character on the initial state (circular, elliptical, or low angular momentum state) as well as on the helicity of the polarization is discussed in detail. It is shown that, in the high-frequency chaotic regime, close encounters with the nucleus do {ital not} play a major role in the ionization process. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Quantum information entropies of ultracold atomic gases in a harmonic trap
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Tutul Biswas; Tarun Kanti Ghosh
2011-10-01
The position and momentum space information entropies of weakly interacting trapped atomic Bose–Einstein condensates and spin-polarized trapped atomic Fermi gases at absolute zero temperature are evaluated. We ﬁnd that sum of the position and momentum space information entropies of these quantum systems containing atoms conﬁned in a $D(≤ 3)$-dimensional harmonic trap has a universal form as $S^{(D)}_t = N(a D − b ln N)$, where ∼ 2.332 and = 2 for interacting bosonic systems and a ∼ 1.982 and = 1 for ideal fermionic systems. These results obey the entropic uncertainty relation given by Beckner, Bialynicki-Birula and Myceilski.
Quantum well effect based on hybridization bandgap in deep subwavelength coupled meta-atoms
Chen, Yongqiang; Li, Yunhui; Wu, Qian; Jiang, Haitao; Zhang, Yewen; Chen, Hong
2015-09-01
In this paper, quantum well (QW) effect in a hybridization bandgap (HBG) structure via hiring deep subwavelength coupled meta-atoms is investigated. Subwavelength zero-index-metamaterial-based resonators acting as meta-atoms are side-coupled to a microstrip, forming the HBG structure. Both numerical and microwave experimental results confirm that, through properly hiring another set of meta-atoms, band mismatch between two HBGs can be introduced resulting in the HBG QW effect. Compared with the conventional QW structure based on Bragg interferences in photonic crystal, the device length of the proposed HBG QW structure can be reduced to only 1/4, demonstrating well the deep subwavelength property. Therefore, the above features make our design of HBG QW structures suitable to be utilized as multi-channel filters or multiplexers in microwave and optical communication system.
Simulations of quantum transport in nanoscale systems: application to atomic gold and silver wires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Mozos, J.L.; Ordejon, P.; Brandbyge, Mads; Taylor, Jeremy Philip; Stokbro, Kurt
2002-01-01
We present a first-principles method for studying the electronic transport through nanoscale atomic systems under non-equilibrium conditions. The method is based on density functional theory, and allows the calculation of the response of the system to an applied finite potential difference. The...... potential drop profile and induced electronic current (and therefore the conductance) are obtained from first principles. The method takes into account the atomic structure of both the nanoscale structure and the semi-infinite electrodes through which the potential is applied. Non-equilibrium Green......'s function techniques are used to calculate the quantum conductance. Here we apply the method to the study of the electronic transport in wires of gold and silver with atomic thickness. We show the results of our calculations, and compare with some of the abundant experimental data on these systems....
Freezing motion-induced dephasing in an atomic-ensemble quantum memory
Jiang, Yan; Bao, Xiao-Hui; Pan, Jian-Wei
2016-01-01
Motion-induced dephasing is a dominant decoherence mechanism for atom-gas quantum memories. In this paper, we develop a new coherent manipulation technique which enables arbitrary engineering of the spin-wave momentum with neglectable noise. By zeroing the spin-wave momentum, motion-induced dephasing can be frozen completely. We experimentally demonstrate this scheme with laser-cooled atoms in a DLCZ configuration. By applying the freezing pulses, memory lifetime gets extended significantly to the limit of atom cloud expansion and does not depend on the detection angle anymore. The observed high cross-correlation above 20 proves that high-fidelity memory operation is well preserved after coherent manipulation.
A scheme for conditional quantum phase gate via bimodal cavity and a Λ-type three-level atom
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Cai Jian-Wu; Fang Mao-Fa; Liao Xiang-Ping; Zheng Xiao-Juan
2006-01-01
We propose a scheme to implement a two-qubit conditional quantum phase gate for the intracavity field via a single three-level Λ-type atom driven by two modes in a high-Q cavity. The quantum information is encoded on the Fock states of the bimodal cavity. The gate's averaged fidelity is expected to reach 99.8%.
New approaches in deep laser cooling of magnesium atoms for quantum metrology
Prudnikov, O. N.; Brazhnikov, D. V.; Taichenachev, A. V.; Yudin, V. I.; Bonert, A. E.; Tropnikov, M. A.; Goncharov, A. N.
2016-09-01
Two approaches for solving the long-standing problem of deep laser cooling of neutral magnesium atoms are proposed. The first one uses optical molasses with orthogonal linear polarizations of light waves. The second approach involves a ‘nonstandard’ magneto-optical trap (NMOT) composed of light waves with elliptical polarizations (in general). Both the widely used semiclassical approach based on the Fokker–Planck equation and quantum treatment fully taking into account the recoil effect are employed for theoretical analysis. The results show the possibility of obtaining temperatures lower than 100 µK simultaneously with a large number of cold atoms ~106 ÷ 107. A new velocity-selective cooling technique allowing one to reach the microkelvin temperature range is also proposed. This technique may have some advantages over, for instance, the shallow-dipole-trap technique utilized by other authors. In the case of magnesium atoms this new technique may be used for obtaining a large number of ultracold atoms (T ~ 1 µK, N > 105). Such a large number of ultracold atoms is crucial issue for metrological and many other applications of cold atoms.
Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry with Bose-Einstein condensates
Abend, Sven; Gersemann, Matthias; Ahlers, Holger; Rasel, Ernst M.; Gebbe, Martina; Muentinga, Hauke; Laemmerzahl, Claus; Quantus Team
2015-05-01
Today's generation of inertial sensitive atom interferometers typically operate with sources of laser cooled atoms and thus their performance is limited by velocity spread and finite-size effects that impose systematic uncertainties. Ultra-cold sources such as a BEC or even delta-kick cooled atomic ensembles with extremely narrow velocity dispersion are able to overcome these limitations and are crucial for obtaining high-fidelity beam splitters. Atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate a BEC and perform delta-kick cooling in a fast and reliable away. We show a combination of such an ensemble generated in a miniaturized atom-chip setup with the application of low-loss Bragg beam splitting to perform inertial sensitive measurements. A specialty of this setup is the retro-reflection of the beam splitting light field from the atom-chip itself, serving as inertial reference in vacuum. This allows for a compact realization of a quantum gravimeter determining the local gravitational acceleration to the scale of local variations limited by seismic noise. This work is supported by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry for Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under grant numbers DLR 50 1131-1137 (QUANTUS-III).
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lohmann, Bernd [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N. [Moscow State Univ. (Russian Federation). Skobeltsyn Inst. of Nuclear Physics; Kleinpoppen, Hans
2013-07-01
Derives parameters for electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules calculated from theory. Delivers the quantum mechanical knowledge of atomic and molecular physics. Presents state-of-the-art experiments in atomic and molecular physics and related theoretical approaches. The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter. The feasibility of such perfect' and-or 'complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory. It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment 'complete'. The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases. This book captures the spirit of research in the direction of the complete experiment in atomic and molecular physics, considering some of the basic quantum processes: scattering, Auger decay and photo-ionization. It includes a description of the experimental methods used to realize, step by step, the complete experiment up to the level of the amplitudes and phases. The corresponding arsenal includes, beyond determining the total cross section, the observation of angle and spin resolved quantities, photon polarization and correlation parameters, measurements applying coincidence techniques, preparing initially polarized targets, and even more sophisticated methods. The 'complete' experiment is
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Derives parameters for electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules calculated from theory. Delivers the quantum mechanical knowledge of atomic and molecular physics. Presents state-of-the-art experiments in atomic and molecular physics and related theoretical approaches. The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter. The feasibility of such perfect' and-or 'complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory. It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment 'complete'. The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases. This book captures the spirit of research in the direction of the complete experiment in atomic and molecular physics, considering some of the basic quantum processes: scattering, Auger decay and photo-ionization. It includes a description of the experimental methods used to realize, step by step, the complete experiment up to the level of the amplitudes and phases. The corresponding arsenal includes, beyond determining the total cross section, the observation of angle and spin resolved quantities, photon polarization and correlation parameters, measurements applying coincidence techniques, preparing initially polarized targets, and even more sophisticated methods. The 'complete' experiment is, until today, hardly to perform
Not one bit of de Sitter information
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We formulate the information paradox in de Sitter space in terms of the no-cloning principle of quantum mechanics. We show that energy conservation puts an upper bound on the maximum entropy available to any de Sitter observer. Combined with a general result on the average information in a quantum subsystem, this guarantees that an observer in de Sitter space cannot obtain even a single bit of information from the de Sitter horizon, thereby preventing any observable violations of the quantum no-cloning principle. The result supports the notion of observer complementarity.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yamazaki, S.; Maeda, K.; Sugimoto, Y.; Abe, M.; Zobač, Vladimír; Pou, P.; Rodrigo, L.; Mutombo, Pingo; Perez, R.; Jelínek, Pavel; Morita, S.
2015-01-01
Roč. 15, č. 7 (2015), 4356-4363. ISSN 1530-6984 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-02079S Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : atomic manipulation * atomic switch * Si quantum dot * scanning tunneling microscopy Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 13.592, year: 2014
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XIONG De-Zhi; CHEN Hai-Xia; WANG Peng-Jun; YU Xu-Dong; GAO Feng; ZHANG Jing
2008-01-01
@@ We report on the attainment of quantum degeneracy of 40K by means of efficient thermal collisions with the evaporatively cooled 87Rb atoms.In a quadrupole-Ioffe configuration trap,potassium atoms are cooled to 0.5 times the Fermi temperature.We obtain up to 7.59 × 105 degenerate fermions 40K.
Schlosser, Malte; Gierl, Christian; Teichmann, Stephan; Tichelmann, Sascha; Birkl, Gerhard; 10.1088/1367-2630/14/12/123034
2013-01-01
Two-dimensional arrays of optical micro-traps created by microoptical elements present a versatile and scalable architecture for neutral atom quantum information processing, quantum simulation, and the manipulation of ultra-cold quantum gases. In this article, we demonstrate advanced capabilities of this approach by introducing novel techniques and functionalities as well as the combined operation of previously separately implemented functions. We introduce piezo-actuator based transport of atom ensembles over distances of more than one trap separation, examine the capabilities of rapid atom transport provided by acousto-optical beam steering, and analyze the adiabaticity limit for atom transport in these configurations. We implement a spatial light modulator with 8-bit transmission control for the per-site adjustment of the trap depth and the number of atoms loaded. We combine single-site addressing, trap depth control, and atom transport in one configuration for demonstrating the splitting of atom ensembles...
Multichannel quantum-defect theory for ultracold atom-ion collisions
Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Simoni, Andrea; Calarco, Tommaso; Julienne, Paul S.
2011-08-01
We develop an analytical model for ultracold atom-ion collisions using the multichannel quantum-defect formalism. The model is based on analytical solutions of the r-4 long-range potential and on the application of a frame transformation between asymptotic and molecular bases. This approach allows the description of atom-ion interaction in the ultracold domain in terms of only three parameters: the singlet and triplet scattering lengths, assumed to be independent of the relative motion angular momentum, and the lead dispersion coefficient of the asymptotic potential. We also introduce corrections to the scattering lengths that improve the accuracy of our quantum-defect model for higher-order partial waves, a particularly important result for an accurate description of shape and Feshbach resonances at finite temperature. The theory is applied to the system composed of a 40Ca+ ion and a Na atom, and compared with numerical coupled-channel calculations carried out using ab initio potentials. For this particular system, we investigate the spectrum of bound states, the rate of charge-transfer processes and the collision rates in the presence of magnetic Feshbach resonances at zero and finite temperature.
Multichannel quantum-defect theory for ultracold atom-ion collisions
Idziaszek, Zbigniew; Calarco, Tommaso; Julienne, Paul S
2011-01-01
We develop an analytical model for ultracold atom-ion collisions using the multichannel quantum-defect formalism. The model is based on the analytical solutions of the r^-4 long-range potential and on the application of a frame transformation between asymptotic and molecular bases. This approach allows the description of the atom-ion interaction in the ultracold domain in terms of three parameters only: the singlet and triplet scattering lengths, assumed to be independent of the relative motion angular momentum, and the lead dispersion coefficient of the asymptotic potential. We also introduce corrections to the scattering lengths that improve the accuracy of our quantum-defect model for higher order partial waves, a particularly important result for an accurate description of shape and Feshbach resonances at finite temperature. The theory is applied to the system composed of a 40Ca+ ion and a Na atom, and compared to numerical coupled-channel calculations carried out using ab initio potentials. For this part...
Multichannel quantum-defect theory for ultracold atom-ion collisions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Idziaszek, Zbigniew [Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, 00-681 Warsaw (Poland); Simoni, Andrea [Institut de Physique de Rennes, UMR 6251 du CNRS and Universite de Rennes 1, 35042 Rennes Cedex (France); Calarco, Tommaso [Institute of Quantum Information Processing, University of Ulm, D-89069 Ulm (Germany); Julienne, Paul S, E-mail: idziaszek@fuw.edu.pl [Joint Quantum Institute, NIST and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, MD 20899-8423 (United States)
2011-08-15
We develop an analytical model for ultracold atom-ion collisions using the multichannel quantum-defect formalism. The model is based on analytical solutions of the r{sup -4} long-range potential and on the application of a frame transformation between asymptotic and molecular bases. This approach allows the description of atom-ion interaction in the ultracold domain in terms of only three parameters: the singlet and triplet scattering lengths, assumed to be independent of the relative motion angular momentum, and the lead dispersion coefficient of the asymptotic potential. We also introduce corrections to the scattering lengths that improve the accuracy of our quantum-defect model for higher-order partial waves, a particularly important result for an accurate description of shape and Feshbach resonances at finite temperature. The theory is applied to the system composed of a {sup 40}Ca{sup +} ion and a Na atom, and compared with numerical coupled-channel calculations carried out using ab initio potentials. For this particular system, we investigate the spectrum of bound states, the rate of charge-transfer processes and the collision rates in the presence of magnetic Feshbach resonances at zero and finite temperature.
An effective quantum defect theory for the diamagnetic spectrum of a barium Rydberg atom
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A theoretical calculation is carried out to investigate the spectrum of a barium Rydberg atom in an external magnetic field. Using an effective approach incorporating quantum defect into the centrifugal term in the Hamiltonian, we reexamine the reported spectrum of the barium Rydberg atom in a magnetic field of 2.89 T [J. Phys. B 28 L537 (1995)]. Our calculation employs B-spline basis expansion and complex coordinate rotation techniques. For single photon absorption from the ground 6s2 to 6snp Rydberg states, the spectrum is not influenced by quantum defects of channels ns and nd. The calculation is in agreement with the experimental observations until the energy reaches E = −60 cm−1. Beyond this energy, closer to the threshold, the calculated and experimental results do not agree with each other. Possible reasons for their discrepancies are discussed. Our study affirms an energy range where the diamagnetic spectrum of the barium atom can be explained thoroughly using a hydrogen model potential. (rapid communication)
Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating.
Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland
2016-03-01
Since de Broglie's work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie's formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection. PMID:27034979
Performance of the density matrix functional theory in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules.
García-Revilla, Marco; Francisco, E; Costales, A; Martín Pendás, A
2012-02-01
The generalization to arbitrary molecular geometries of the energetic partitioning provided by the atomic virial theorem of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) leads to an exact and chemically intuitive energy partitioning scheme, the interacting quantum atoms (IQA) approach, that depends on the availability of second-order reduced density matrices (2-RDMs). This work explores the performance of this approach in particular and of the QTAIM in general with approximate 2-RDMs obtained from the density matrix functional theory (DMFT), which rests on the natural expansion (natural orbitals and their corresponding occupation numbers) of the first-order reduced density matrix (1-RDM). A number of these functionals have been implemented in the promolden code and used to perform QTAIM and IQA analyses on several representative molecules and model chemical reactions. Total energies, covalent intra- and interbasin exchange-correlation interactions, as well as localization and delocalization indices have been determined with these functionals from 1-RDMs obtained at different levels of theory. Results are compared to the values computed from the exact 2-RDMs, whenever possible. PMID:21943031
Quantum-trajectory simulations of a two-level atom cascaded to a cavity QED laser
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We use the quantum theory of cascaded open systems to calculate the transmitted photon flux for a weak beam of photons from a cavity QED laser strongly focused onto a single, resonant two-state atom in the narrow-bandwidth limit. We study the dependence of the transmitted flux on the quantum statistics of the incident light. Both bunched and antibunched light generated by the microlaser are considered as input. Working within and outside the semiclassical perturbative regime, we explicitly demonstrate that the normalized transmitted photon flux may coincide with the second-order correlation function of the incident bunched light, but not for incident antibunched light both of which are generated by a cavity QED laser. Interestingly, the thresholdless cavity QED laser is ideal for investigating statistical saturation effects by virtue of its small system size and the large quantum fluctuations accompanying it. It has the advantage of characterizing to a certain extent the quantum noise responsible for the statistical saturation. One can also easily vary the degree of antibunching of the incident light by manipulating the pumping rate of the laser
Applications of Quantum Theory of Atomic and Molecular Scattering to Problems in Hypersonic Flow
Malik, F. Bary
1995-01-01
The general status of a grant to investigate the applications of quantum theory in atomic and molecular scattering problems in hypersonic flow is summarized. Abstracts of five articles and eleven full-length articles published or submitted for publication are included as attachments. The following topics are addressed in these articles: fragmentation of heavy ions (HZE particles); parameterization of absorption cross sections; light ion transport; emission of light fragments as an indicator of equilibrated populations; quantum mechanical, optical model methods for calculating cross sections for particle fragmentation by hydrogen; evaluation of NUCFRG2, the semi-empirical nuclear fragmentation database; investigation of the single- and double-ionization of He by proton and anti-proton collisions; Bose-Einstein condensation of nuclei; and a liquid drop model in HZE particle fragmentation by hydrogen.
From quantum turbulence to statistical atom optics: new perspectives in speckle matter wave
Tavares, P E S; Telles, G D; Impens, F; Kaiser, R; Bagnato, V S
2016-01-01
Quantum Turbulence, the chaotic configuration of tangled quantized vortex lines, can be analyzed from the matter wave perspective in instead of the traditional fluid perspective. We report the observation of a remarkable similarity in between the dynamics of a freely expanding turbulent Bose-Einstein condensate and the propagation of an optical speckle pattern. Both follow very similar basic propagation characteristics. The second-order correlation is calculated and the typical correlation length of the two phenomena is used to substantiate the observations. The analogy between an expanding turbulent atomic condensate and a traveling optical speckle creates exciting prospects to investigate disordered quantum matter including the possibilities of a 3D speckle matter field.
Quantum-state tomography of a single nuclear spin qubit of an optically manipulated ytterbium atom
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Noguchi, Atsushi; Kozuma, Mikio [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 O-okayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Eto, Yujiro [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Ueda, Masahito [ERATO Macroscopic Quantum Control Project, JST, 2-11-16 Yayoi, Bunkyo-Ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan); Department of Physics, University of Tokyo, Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)
2011-09-15
A single Yb atom is loaded into a high-finesse optical cavity with a moving lattice, and its nuclear spin state is manipulated using a nuclear magnetic resonance technique. A highly reliable quantum state control with fidelity and purity greater than 0.98 and 0.96, respectively, is confirmed by the full quantum state tomography; a projective measurement with high speed (500 {mu}s) and high efficiency (0.98) is accomplished using the cavity QED technique. Because a hyperfine coupling is induced only when the projective measurement is operational, the long coherence times (T{sub 1}=0.49 s and T{sub 2}=0.10 s) are maintained.
Rydberg atoms in external fields as an example of open quantum systems with classical chaos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We examine the quantum spectra of hydrogen atoms in external magnetic and electric fields above the ionization threshold with respect to signatures of classical chaos characteristics of open systems. The spectra are obtained by calculating wavefunctions and photionization cross sections in the continuum region with the aid of the complex-coordinate-rotation method. We find that the photoionization cross sections exhibit strong Ericson fluctuations, a quantum feature characteristic of classically chaotic scattering, in energy-field regions where classical trajectory calculations reveal a fractal dependence of the classical ionization time on the initial conditions. We also compare the nearest-neighbour-spacing distributions of complex resonance energies with predictions of random-matrix theories and find that our results are well reproduced by a Ginibre distribution. (author)
Quantum storage of orbital angular momentum entanglement in an atomic ensemble.
Ding, Dong-Sheng; Zhang, Wei; Zhou, Zhi-Yuan; Shi, Shuai; Xiang, Guo-Yong; Wang, Xi-Shi; Jiang, Yun-Kun; Shi, Bao-Sen; Guo, Guang-Can
2015-02-01
Constructing a quantum memory for a photonic entanglement is vital for realizing quantum communication and network. Because of the inherent infinite dimension of orbital angular momentum (OAM), the photon's OAM has the potential for encoding a photon in a high-dimensional space, enabling the realization of high channel capacity communication. Photons entangled in orthogonal polarizations or optical paths had been stored in a different system, but there have been no reports on the storage of a photon pair entangled in OAM space. Here, we report the first experimental realization of storing an entangled OAM state through the Raman protocol in a cold atomic ensemble. We reconstruct the density matrix of an OAM entangled state with a fidelity of 90.3%±0.8% and obtain the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality parameter S of 2.41±0.06 after a programed storage time. All results clearly show the preservation of entanglement during the storage. PMID:25699427
The Quantum Black Hole as a Hydrogen Atom: Microstates Without Strings Attached
Hooft, Gerard t
2016-01-01
Applying an expansion in spherical harmonics, turns the black hole with its microstates into something about as transparent as the hydrogen atom was in the early days of quantum mechanics. It enables us to present a concise description of the evolution laws of these microstates, linking them to perturbative quantum field theory, in the background of the Schwarzschild metric. Three pieces of insight are obtained: One, we learn how the gravitational back reaction, whose dominant component can be calculated exactly, turns particles entering the hole, into particles leaving it, by exchanging the momentum- and position operators; two, we find out how this effect removes firewalls, both on the future and the past event horizon, and three, we discover that the presence of region II in the Penrose diagram forces a topological twist in the background metric, culminating in antipodal identification. Although a cut-off is required that effectively replaces the transverse coordinates by a lattice, the effect of such a cu...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Building upon the demonstration of coherent control and single-shot readout of the electron and nuclear spins of individual 31P atoms in silicon, we present here a systematic experimental estimate of quantum gate fidelities using randomized benchmarking of 1-qubit gates in the Clifford group. We apply this analysis to the electron and the ionized 31P nucleus of a single P donor in isotopically purified 28Si. We find average gate fidelities of 99.95% for the electron and 99.99% for the nuclear spin. These values are above certain error correction thresholds and demonstrate the potential of donor-based quantum computing in silicon. By studying the influence of the shape and power of the control pulses, we find evidence that the present limitation to the gate fidelity is mostly related to the external hardware and not the intrinsic behaviour of the qubit. (paper)
Atomic Layer Deposition of CdS Quantum Dots for Solid-State Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cells
Brennan, Thomas P.
2011-10-04
Functioning quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells have been fabricated using the vacuum deposition technique atomic layer deposition (ALD). Utilizing the incubation period of CdS growth by ALD on TiO 2, we are able to grow QDs of adjustable size which act as sensitizers for solid-state QDsensitized solar cells (ssQDSSC). The size of QDs, studied with transmission electron microscopy (TEM), varied with the number of ALD cycles from 1-10 nm. Photovoltaic devices with the QDs were fabricated and characterized using a ssQDSSC device architecture with 2,2\\',7,7\\'-tetrakis-(N,N-di-p methoxyphenylamine) 9,9\\'-spirobifluorene (spiro-OMeTAD) as the solid-state hole conductor. The ALD approach described here can be applied to fabrication of quantum-confined structures for a variety of applications, including solar electricity and solar fuels. Because ALD provides the ability to deposit many materials in very high aspect ratio substrates, this work introduces a strategy by which material and optical properties of QD sensitizers may be adjusted not only by the size of the particles but also in the future by the composition. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Quantum averaging and resonances: two-level atom in a one-mode classical laser field
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Amniat-Talab
2007-06-01
Full Text Available We use a nonperturbative method based on quantum averaging and an adapted from of resonant transformations to treat the resonances of the Hamiltonian of a two-level atom interacting with a one-mode classical field in Floquet formalism. We illustrate this method by extraction of effective Hamiltonians of the system in two regimes of weak and strong coupling. The results obtained in the strong-coupling regime, are valid in the whole range of the coupling constant for the one-photon zero-field resonance.
Photon-echo quantum memories in inhomogeneously broadened two-level atoms
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Here, we propose a solid-state quantum memory that does not require spectral holeburning, instead using strong rephasing pulses like traditional photon-echo techniques. The memory uses external broadening fields to reduce the optical depth and so switch off the collective atom-light interaction when desired. The proposed memory should allow operation with reasonable efficiency in a much broader range of material systems, for instance Er3+ doped crystals which have a transition at 1.5 μm. We present analytic theory supported by numerical calculations and initial experiments.
Spontaneous quantum Hall effect in an atomic spinor Bose-Fer mi mixture
Xu, Zhi-Fang; Li, Xiaopeng; Zoller, Peter; Liu, W. Vincent
2015-03-01
We study a mixture of spin-1 bosonic and spin-1/2 fermionic cold atoms, e.g., Rb-87 and Li-6,confined in a triangular optical lattice. With fermions at 3/4 filling, Fermi surface nesting leads to spontaneous formation of various spin textures of bosons in the ground state, such as collinear, coplanar and even non-coplanar spin orders. The phase diagram is mapped out with varying boson tunneling and Bose-Fermi interactions. Most significantly, in one non-coplanar state the mixture is found to exhibit spontaneous quantum Hall effect in fermions and crystalline superfluidity in bosons, both driven by interaction.
Atomic distribution in quantum dots-A ToF-SIMS study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The atomic distribution in the monolayer of two different Mn-doped CdS quantum dots (QDs) was studied first time with ToF-SIMS. The model Cd:Mn QDs were immobilized on Au substrate by use of a self-assembled monolayer via 1,10-decanedithiol. Morphological analysis by SPM and TEM indicates larger particle size of in situ synthesizing CdS:Mn. ToF-SIMS depth profile and 3D-images reveal that Mn atoms reside on the surface of in situ synthesizing CdS:Mn and are uniformly embedded in capped CdS:Mn. The results obtained by SPM, TEM, and ToF-SIMS are comparable, indicating that ToF-SIMS might find potential applications in surface and interface study of semiconductor nanocrystals
Ultrafast quantum nondemolition measurements based on a diamond-shaped artificial atom
Diniz, I.; Dumur, E.; Buisson, O.; Auffèves, A.
2013-03-01
We propose a quantum nondemolition (QND) readout scheme for a superconducting artificial atom coupled to a resonator in a circuit QED architecture, for which we estimate a very high measurement fidelity without Purcell effect limitations. The device consists of two transmons coupled by a large inductance, giving rise to a diamond-shaped artificial atom with a logical qubit and an ancilla qubit interacting through a cross-Kerr-like term. The ancilla is strongly coupled to a transmission line resonator. Depending on the qubit state, the ancilla is resonantly or dispersively coupled to the resonator, leading to a large contrast in the transmitted microwave signal amplitude. This original method can be implemented with a state-of-the-art Josephson parametric amplifier, leading to QND measurements in a few tens of nanoseconds with fidelity as large as 99.9%.
Variational average-atom in quantum plasmas (VAAQP) - Application to radiative properties
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
We present an application of the Variational Average-Atom in Quantum Plasmas (VAAQP) model and numerical code to dense plasmas radiative properties. We propose an approximate Detailed Configuration Accounting (DCA) approach starting from the variational model of configurations in jellium. This leads to a simplified model which is qualitatively different from those which usually stem from the atom in cell approach. It is also shown that, with some additional approximations, the DCA calculation can be handled by use of the Gaussian approximation to perform a statistical approach to the spectrum. Our purpose here is to show that this model provides a simple way to calculate the radiative properties and is likely to give realistic results. (authors)
Influence of the lighting on Fast Atom Diffraction studied via a semi-quantum approach
Gravielle, M S
2015-01-01
The influence of the collimating conditions of the incident beam on diffraction patterns produced by grazing scattering of fast atoms off crystal surfaces is studied within a semi-quantum approach, named Surface Initial Value Representation (SIVR) approximation. In this approach we incorporate a realistic description of the incident particle in terms of the collimating parameters, which determine the surface area that is coherently illuminated. The model is applied to He atoms colliding with a LiF(001) surface after passing through a rectangular aperture. As it was experimentally observed [1], SIVR spectra as a function of the azimuthal angle are very sensitive to the width of the collimating slit. We also found that the length of the collimating aperture affects polar angle distributions, introducing additional interference structures for the longer collimating slits.
Generation of high-frequency combs locked to atomic resonances by quantum phase modulation
Liu, Zuoye; Cavaletto, Stefano M; Harman, Zoltán; Keitel, Christoph H; Pfeifer, Thomas
2013-01-01
A general mechanism for the generation of frequency combs referenced to atomic resonances is put forward. The mechanism is based on the periodic phase control of a quantum system's dipole response. We develop an analytic description of the comb spectral structure, depending on both the atomic and the phase-control properties. We further suggest an experimental implementation of our scheme: Generating a frequency comb in the soft-x-ray spectral region, which can be realized with currently available techniques and radiation sources. The universality of this mechanism allows the generalization of frequency-comb technology to arbitrary frequencies, including the hard-x-ray regime by using reference transitions in highly charged ions.
Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L
2009-07-14
A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol. PMID:19603962
Multiphoton detachment with atom excitation: explicit three-step quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
A quantitative theory of multiphoton detachment with excitation of the residual atom, A- + Nω → A* + e, is developed. A fully quantum treatment explicitly casts the amplitude as a result of rescattering (or a three-step process), where the above-threshold detachment (ATD) is followed by continuum electron propagation in the laser field and subsequent excitation of the residual atom by laser-dressed electron impact. The contributions of all intermediate ATD channels add up coherently. All three stages of the process are described by simple expressions. The theoretical scheme is similar to that employed previously for the calculation of high harmonic generation and high-channel ATD by an intensive laser field. To illustrate the general approach, H- detachment with excitation of the residual H atom into 2s and 2p states is calculated for various numbers of absorbed photons, N. The oscillations in the angle-differential rates are qualitatively similar to those already known for the conventional ATD process without atom excitation. The rates summed over photoelectron emission angles exhibit non-monotonous dependence on the number of absorbed photons and are also qualitatively similar to known ATD patterns
Borgoo, A; Indelicato, P; De Proft, F; Geerlings, P; Indelicato, Paul
2007-01-01
A novel quantum similarity measure (QSM) is constructed based on concepts from information theory. In an application of QSM to atoms, the new QSM and its corresponding quantum similarity index (QSI) are evaluated throughout the periodic table, using the atomic electron densities and shape functions calculated in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The periodicity of Mendeleev's table is regained for the first time through the evaluation of a QSM. Evaluation of the information theory based QSI demonstrates, however, that the patterns of periodicity are lost due to the renormalization of the QSM, yielding chemically less appealing results for the QSI. A comparison of the information content of a given atom on top of a group with the information content of the elements in the subsequent rows reveals another periodicity pattern. Relativistic effects on the electronic density functions of atoms are investigated. Their importance is quantified in a QSI study by comparing for each atom, the density functions evaluated i...
Atom-chip based quantum gravimetry for the precise determination of absolute local gravity
Abend, S.
2015-12-01
We present a novel technique for the precise measurement of absolute local gravity based on cold atom interferometry. Atom interferometry utilizes the interference of matter waves interrogated by laser light to read out inertial forces. Today's generation of these devices typically operate with test mass samples, that consists of ensembles of laser cooled atoms. Their performance is limited by the velocity spread and finite-size of the test masses that impose systematic uncertainties at the level of a few μGal. Rather than laser cooled atoms we employ quantum degenerate ensembles, so called Bose-Einstein condensates, as ultra-sensitive probes for gravity. These sources offer unique properties in temperature as well as in ensemble size that will allow to overcome the current limitations with the next generation of sensors. Furthermore, atom-chip technologies offer the possibility to generate Bose-Einstein condensates in a fast and reliable way. We show a lab-based prototype that uses the atom-chip itself to retro-reflect the interrogation laser and thus serving as inertial reference inside the vacuum. With this setup it is possible to demonstrate all necessary steps to measure gravity, including the preparation of the source, spanning an interferometer as well as the detection of the output signal, within an area of 1 cm3 right below the atom-chip and to analyze relevant systematic effects. In the framework of the center of excellence geoQ a next generation device is under construction at the Institut für Quantenoptik, that will allow for in-field measurements. This device will feature a state-of-the-art atom-chip source with a high-flux of ultra-cold atoms at a repetition rate of 1-2 Hz. In cooperation with the Müller group at the Institut für Erdmessung the sensor will be characterized in the laboratory first, to be ultimately employed in campaigns to measure the Fennoscandian uplift at the level of 1 μGal. The presented work is part of the center of
High teleportation rates using cold-atom-ensemble-based quantum repeaters with Rydberg blockade
Solmeyer, Neal; Li, Xiao; Quraishi, Qudsia
2016-04-01
We present a simplified version of a repeater protocol in a cold neutral-atom ensemble with Rydberg excitations optimized for two-node entanglement generation and describe a protocol for quantum teleportation. Our proposal draws from previous proposals [B. Zhao et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052329 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052329; Y. Han et al., Phys. Rev. A 81, 052311 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevA.81.052311] that described efficient and robust protocols for long-distance entanglement with many nodes. Using realistic experimental values, we predict an entanglement generation rate of ˜25 Hz and a teleportation rate of ˜5 Hz . Our predicted rates match the current state-of-the-art experiments for entanglement generation and teleportation between quantum memories. With improved efficiencies we predict entanglement generation and teleportation rates of ˜7.8 and ˜3.6 kHz, respectively, representing a two-order-of-magnitude improvement over the currently realized values. Cold-atom ensembles with Rydberg excitations are promising candidates for repeater nodes because collective effects in the ensemble can be used to deterministically generate a long-lived ground-state memory which may be efficiently mapped onto a directionally emitted single photon.