WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic products operation

  1. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for June 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-07-28

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, June, 1955. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  2. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-24

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Atomic Laboratories Products Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology, financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, and employee relations are discussed.

  3. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1953-04-22

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of March 1953. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  4. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1953-05-20

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  5. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-02-25

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of January 1954. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes the accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  6. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-05-21

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of April 1954. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  7. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, February 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCune, F.K.

    1954-03-23

    This is a progress report of the production reactors on the Hanford Reservation for the month of February 1951. This report takes each division (e.g., manufacturing, medical, accounting, occupational safety, security, reactor operations, etc.) of the site and summarizes its accomplishments and employee relations for that month.

  8. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for March 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-04-20

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, March, 1956. Metallurgy, reactor fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology; financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations, pile technology, safety and radiological sciences are discussed.

  9. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for February 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-02-21

    This is the monthly report for the Hanford Laboratories Operation, February, 1956. Metallurgy, reactors fuels, chemistry, dosimetry, separation processes, reactor technology financial activities, visits, biology operation, physics and instrumentation research, employee relations are discussed.

  10. Atomic Force Microscope Operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for animation (large file) This animation is a scientific illustration of the operation of NASA's Phoenix Mars Lander's Atomic Force Microscope, or AFM. The AFM is part of Phoenix's Microscopy, Electrochemistry, and Conductivity Analyzer, or MECA. The AFM is used to image the smallest Martian particles using a very sharp tip at the end of one of eight beams. The beam of the AFM is set into vibration and brought up to the surface of a micromachined silicon substrate. The substrate has etched in it a series of pits, 5 micrometers deep, designed to hold the Martian dust particles. The microscope then maps the shape of particles in three dimensions by scanning them with the tip. At the end of the animation is a 3D representation of the AFM image of a particle that was part of a sample informally called 'Sorceress.' The sample was delivered to the AFM on the 38th Martian day, or sol, of the mission (July 2, 2008). The image shows four round pits, only 5 microns in depth, that were micromachined into the silicon substrate. A Martian particle only one micrometer, or one millionth of a meter, across is held in the upper left pit. The rounded particle shown at the highest magnification ever seen from another world is a particle of the dust that cloaks Mars. Such dust particles color the Martian sky pink, feed storms that regularly envelop the planet and produce Mars' distinctive red soil. The AFM was developed by a Swiss-led consortium, with Imperial College London producing the silicon substrate that holds sampled particles. The Phoenix Mission is led by the University of Arizona, Tucson, on behalf of NASA. Project management of the mission is by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. Spacecraft development is by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver.

  11. High-Volume Non-Destructive Test Applications at the Hanford Atomic Products Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safety and efficiency of critical Hanford processes are assured with rapid, reliable, and automatic non-destructive tests. High-sensitive eddy-current and ultrasonic inspection systems are in routine use in the field and in manufacturing production processes to provide maximum quality assurance of large volumes of material in minimum inspection time. This paper describes inspection systems being used to ensure quality of Hanford's production nuclear-fuel manufacturing processes. Operated as regular in-line manufacturing equipment, these systems employ ultrasonic attenuation measurements to monitor grain structure of bare uranium fuel cores, ultrasonic and eddy- current techniques to ensure adequate bonding and thickness of 0.040 in aluminium cladding on canned elements, and novel wide-band, high-resolution ultrasonic inspection techniques to detect defects in the fuel end-weld closures. Combined eddy-current and ultrasonic tests are applied simultaneously to perform a complete fuel- element inspection on a nine-second cycle; defective elements are automatically segregated from the process stream. Emphasis is given to advanced ultrasonic test methods of inspecting thin-walled, fuel-sheath tubing. Special highly focused transducers are used with wide-band circuitry to generate pure shear waves in 0.015-in-thick wall tubing. Lamb and other complicated wave motions are excluded so that tests results are readily interpreted and reproduced. Novel, economical methods of producing defect standards have been developed, as have critically important methods of ensuring uniform operating characteristics of the transducers themselves. Automatic tubing inspection equipment has been developed, and results of its routine use in testing some 30 000 ft of tubing are summarized. Finally, eddy-current techniques developed specifically for inspecting installed heat-exchanger tubing are reviewed. The technique employs novel read-out features which plot defect indications as oscilloscope

  12. Spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata link extract: the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance and product properties

    OpenAIRE

    C. R. F. Souza; W. P. Oliveira

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance (accumulation rate, product recovery, elutriation and thermal efficiency) and product properties (moisture content, size distribution, flavonoid degradation and flow properties) during spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata Link extract are evaluated. The parameters studied were the position of the atomizer system (top spray or bottom spray), the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 an...

  13. Spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata link extract: the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance and product properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. F. Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance (accumulation rate, product recovery, elutriation and thermal efficiency and product properties (moisture content, size distribution, flavonoid degradation and flow properties during spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata Link extract are evaluated. The parameters studied were the position of the atomizer system (top spray or bottom spray, the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150oC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 100%. Higher accumulation rate values were obtained with the atomizer placed at the bottom of the bed. In this configuration, the accumulation rate increases with the increase in the Ws/Wmax ratio. The best drying performance was obtained for the top spray configuration.

  14. ATOMS AND CLIQUE SEPARATORS IN GRAPH PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijo S. Anand

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available We describe in the present work all minimal clique separators of the four standard products--Cartesian, strong, direct, and lexicographic--as well as all maximal atoms of the Cartesian, strong and lexicographic product, while we only partially describe maximal atoms of direct products. Typically, a product has no clique separator and so the product is a maximal atom.

  15. NIC atomic operation unit with caching and bandwidth mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemmert, Karl Scott; Underwood, Keith D.; Levenhagen, Michael J.

    2016-03-01

    A network interface controller atomic operation unit and a network interface control method comprising, in an atomic operation unit of a network interface controller, using a write-through cache and employing a rate-limiting functional unit.

  16. Operator product expansion algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Jan [CPHT, Ecole Polytechnique, Paris-Palaiseau (France)

    2014-07-01

    The Operator Product Expansion (OPE) is a theoretical tool for studying the short distance behaviour of products of local quantum fields. Over the past 40 years, the OPE has not only found widespread computational application in high-energy physics, but, on a more conceptual level, it also encodes fundamental information on algebraic structures underlying quantum field theories. I review new insights into the status and properties of the OPE within Euclidean perturbation theory, addressing in particular the topics of convergence and ''factorisation'' of the expansion. Further, I present a formula for the ''deformation'' of the OPE algebra caused by a quartic interaction. This formula can be used to set up a novel iterative scheme for the perturbative computation of OPE coefficients, based solely on the zeroth order coefficients (and renormalisation conditions) as initial input.

  17. Gulf operators resuming production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that Gulf of Mexico operators last week were gradually restoring production at installations struck by Hurricane Andrew. The Minerals Management Service continued receiving reports of more damage. By the end of the day Sept. 8, MMS had received reports of damage to 83 pipeline segments and 193 platforms and satellite installations. Damage reports listed 112 installations with structural damage, 13 platforms toppled and five leaning, and 30 satellite platforms toppled and 33 leaning. But despite the extent of damage the storm inflicted on oil and gas installations in the gulf, it pales in comparison to the misery and suffering the storm caused in Florida and Louisiana, an oil company official said

  18. Operator product expansion algebra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Jan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Hollands, Stefan [School of Mathematics, Cardiff University, Senghennydd Rd, Cardiff CF24 4AG (United Kingdom); Institut für Theoretische Physik, Universität Leipzig, Brüderstr. 16, Leipzig, D-04103 (Germany)

    2013-07-15

    We establish conceptually important properties of the operator product expansion (OPE) in the context of perturbative, Euclidean φ{sup 4}-quantum field theory. First, we demonstrate, generalizing earlier results and techniques of hep-th/1105.3375, that the 3-point OPE, =Σ{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup C}}}}, usually interpreted only as an asymptotic short distance expansion, actually converges at finite, and even large, distances. We further show that the factorization identity C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2A{sub 3}{sup B}}}}=Σ{sub C}C{sub A{sub 1A{sub 2}{sup C}}}C{sub CA{sub 3}{sup B}} is satisfied for suitable configurations of the spacetime arguments. Again, the infinite sum is shown to be convergent. Our proofs rely on explicit bounds on the remainders of these expansions, obtained using refined versions, mostly due to Kopper et al., of the renormalization group flow equation method. These bounds also establish that each OPE coefficient is a real analytic function in the spacetime arguments for non-coinciding points. Our results hold for arbitrary but finite loop orders. They lend support to proposals for a general axiomatic framework of quantum field theory, based on such “consistency conditions” and akin to vertex operator algebras, wherein the OPE is promoted to the defining structure of the theory.

  19. The Production Operational Management Concept

    OpenAIRE

    Roxana STEFANESCU

    2005-01-01

    Production Operations Management must ensure the quality of functional stability of production considering the input variables, environment disturbances as well as market requests dynamics. That is why operations management takes action over structural components, system input variables, production system variables as well as production system functions.

  20. Programming a multicore architecture without coherency and atomic operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, Jochem H.; Bekooij, Marco J.G.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2014-01-01

    It is hard to reason about the state of a multicore system-on-chip, because operations on memory need multiple cycles to complete, since cores communicate via an interconnect like a network-on-chip. To simplify programming, atomicity is required, by means of atomic read-modify-write (RMW) operations

  1. User cognition in product operation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Daily a large number of everyday consumer products are being used. Unfortunately part of this usage is not successful. One of the causes of failure lies in the cognitive aspects of product use, users do not know how to operate the product or try to use it in a way which is not successful. Ideally, t

  2. Schwinger pair production with ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasper, V.; Hebenstreit, F.; Oberthaler, M. K.; Berges, J.

    2016-09-01

    We consider a system of ultracold atoms in an optical lattice as a quantum simulator for electron-positron pair production in quantum electrodynamics (QED). For a setup in one spatial dimension, we investigate the nonequilibrium phenomenon of pair production including the backreaction leading to plasma oscillations. Unlike previous investigations on quantum link models, we focus on the infinite-dimensional Hilbert space of QED and show that it may be well approximated by experiments employing Bose-Einstein condensates interacting with fermionic atoms. Numerical calculations based on functional integral techniques give a unique access to the physical parameters required to realize QED phenomena in a cold atom experiment. In particular, we use our approach to consider quantum link models in a yet unexplored parameter regime and give bounds for their ability to capture essential features of the physics. The results suggest a paradigmatic change towards realizations using coherent many-body states for quantum simulations of high-energy particle physics phenomena.

  3. Soft Rough Approximation Operators on a Complete Atomic Boolean Lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Heba I. Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    The concept of soft sets based on complete atomic Boolean lattice, which can be seen as a generalization of soft sets, is introduced. Some operations on these soft sets are discussed, and new types of soft sets such as full, keeping infimum, and keeping supremum are defined and supported by some illustrative examples. Two pairs of new soft rough approximation operators are proposed and the relationship among soft set is investigated, and their related properties are given. We show that Järvin...

  4. Multichannel optical atomic magnetometer operating in unshielded environment

    CERN Document Server

    Bevilacqua, Giuseppe; Chessa, Piero; Dancheva, Yordanka

    2016-01-01

    A multi-channel atomic magnetometer operating in an unshielded environment is described and characterised. The magnetometer is based on D1 optical pumping and D2 polarimetry of Cs vapour contained in gas-buffered cells. Several technical implementations are described and discussed in detail. The demonstrated sensitivity of the setup is 100fT/Hz^1/2 when operating in the difference mode.

  5. Operating an atom interferometer beyond its linear range

    CERN Document Server

    Merlet, Sébastien; Bodart, Quentin; Clairon, Andre; Landragin, Arnaud; Santos, Franck Pereira Dos; Rouchon, Pierre

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we show that an atom interferometer inertial sensor, when associated to the auxiliary measurement of external vibrations, can be operated beyond its linear range and still keep a high acceleration sensitivity. We propose and compare two measurement procedures (fringe fitting and nonlinear lock) that can be used to extract the mean phase of the interferometer when the interferometer phase fluctuations exceed $2\\pi$. Despite operating in the urban environment of inner Paris without any vibration isolation, the use of a low noise seismometer for the measurement of ground vibrations allows our atom gravimeter to reach at night a sensitivity as good as $5.5\\times10^{-8}$g at 1 s. Robustness of the measurement to large vibration noise is also demonstrated by the ability of our gravimeter to operate during an earthquake with excellent sensitivity. Our high repetition rate allows for recovering the true low frequency seismic vibrations, ensuring proper averaging. Such techniques open new perspectives f...

  6. Phase contrast and operation regimes in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Sergio [Departament de Disseny i Programació de Sistemes Electrònics, UPC—Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya Av. Bases, 61, 08242 Manresa (Barcelona) (Spain)

    2014-04-07

    In amplitude modulation atomic force microscopy the attractive and the repulsive force regimes induce phase shifts above and below 90°, respectively. In the more recent multifrequency approach, however, multiple operation regimes have been reported and the theory should be revisited. Here, a theory of phase contrast in multifrequency atomic force microscopy is developed and discussed in terms of energy transfer between modes, energy dissipation and the kinetic energy and energy transfer associated with externally driven harmonics. The single frequency virial that controls the phase shift might undergo transitions in sign while the average force (modal virial) remains positive (negative)

  7. Soft Rough Approximation Operators on a Complete Atomic Boolean Lattice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heba I. Mustafa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of soft sets based on complete atomic Boolean lattice, which can be seen as a generalization of soft sets, is introduced. Some operations on these soft sets are discussed, and new types of soft sets such as full, keeping infimum, and keeping supremum are defined and supported by some illustrative examples. Two pairs of new soft rough approximation operators are proposed and the relationship among soft set is investigated, and their related properties are given. We show that Järvinen's approximations can be viewed as a special case of our approximation. If , then our soft approximations coincide with crisp soft rough approximations (Feng et al. 2011.

  8. Certain free products of operator spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO; Mingchu

    2006-01-01

    Certain free products are introduced for operator spaces and dual operator spaces.It is shown that the free product of operator spaces does not preserve the injectivity. The linking C*-algebra of the full free product of two ternary rings of operators (simply, TRO's) is *-isomorphic to the full free product of the linking C*-algebras of the two TRO's. The operator space-reduced free product of the preduals of von Neumann algebras agrees with the predual of the reduced free product of the von Neumann algebras. Each of two operator spaces can be embedded completely isometrically into the reduced free product of the operator spaces. Finally, an example is presented to show that the C*-algebra-reduced free product of two C*-algebras may be contractively isomorphic to a proper subspace of their reduced free product as operator spaces.

  9. Product and Commutativity of Slant Toeplitz Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chaomei LIU; Yufeng LU

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,the product and commutativity of slant Toeplitz operators are discussed.We show that the product of kth1-order slant Toeplitz operators and kth2-order slant Toeplitz operators must be a (k1k2)th-order slant Toeplitz operator except for zero operators,and the commutativity and essential commutativity of two slant Toeplitz operators with different orders are the same.

  10. Approximation by max-product type operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bede, Barnabás; Gal, Sorin G

    2016-01-01

    This monograph presents a broad treatment of developments in an area of constructive approximation involving the so-called "max-product" type operators. The exposition highlights the max-product operators as those which allow one to obtain, in many cases, more valuable estimates than those obtained by classical approaches. The text considers a wide variety of operators which are studied for a number of interesting problems such as quantitative estimates, convergence, saturation results, localization, to name several. Additionally, the book discusses the perfect analogies between the probabilistic approaches of the classical Bernstein type operators and of the classical convolution operators (non-periodic and periodic cases), and the possibilistic approaches of the max-product variants of these operators. These approaches allow for two natural interpretations of the max-product Bernstein type operators and convolution type operators: firstly, as possibilistic expectations of some fuzzy variables, and secondly,...

  11. Systematic heavy element atomic data production for fusion applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The presentation summarises and illustrates a series of steps which have been implemented for handling heavy elements in magnetic confinement fusion plasma models and spectroscopic diagnostics. The primary objective of establishing an adequate complete baseline of data, within the constraints of available computer systems, has been achieved by semi-automatic scripted operation of atomic structure codes, making use of promotional rules and exploiting resolution levels. The whole is optimised for available distributed computer resources with respect to total radiated power. These methods are used for the three key production steps of specific ion data for emissivity calculation, electron impact ionisation data and di-electronic recombination data, the delivery being to standard ADAS data formats. Assembly in terms of emissivity coefficients, feature emissivity coefficients, effective recombination and ionisation coefficients follows, enabling the ionisation state and radiation emission characteristics of any heavy element in fusion plasma to be generated. In a further step, techniques using superstages, combined with extension of collisional-radiative coefficient types, deliver atomic data in a compressed form which is allowing progress with current generation 2-D plasma transport models. (author)

  12. Tables of Products of Tensor Operators and Stevens Operators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindgård, Per-Anker

    1975-01-01

    Numerical tables of products of tensor (Racah) operators, Rl,m(J), and Stevens operators Olm(J), working within a J-multiplet are given as a function of X=J(J+1). Examples of the use of the tables, such as the calculation of commutation relations and thermal averages are given....

  13. Graduate Student Project: Operations Management Product Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, Lynn

    2007-01-01

    An operations management product project is an effective instructional technique that fills a void in current operations management literature in product planning. More than 94.1% of 286 graduates favored the project as a learning tool, and results demonstrate the significant impact the project had in predicting student performance. The author…

  14. Safety and Mission Assurance (SMA) Automated Task Order Management System (ATOMS) Operation Manual

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Shawn; Fikes, Lou A.

    2016-01-01

    This document describes operational aspects of the ATOMS system. The information provided is limited to the functionality provided by ATOMS and does not include information provided in the contractor's proprietary financial and task management system.

  15. Radiological safety experience in nuclear fuel cycle operations at Bhabha Atomic Research Center, Trombay, Mumbai, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Activities at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai, cover nuclear fuel cycle operations based on natural uranium as the fuel. The facilities include: plant for purification and production of nuclear grade uranium metal, fuel fabrication, research reactor operation, fuel reprocessing and radioactive waste management in each stage. Comprehensive radiation protection programmes for assessment and monitoring of radiological impact of these operations, both in occupational and public environment, have been operating in BARC since beginning. These programmes, based on the 1990 ICRP Recommendations as prescribed by national regulatory body, the Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB), are being successfully implemented by the Health, Safety and Environment Group, BARC. Radiation Hazards Control Units attached to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities provide radiation safety surveillance to the various operations. The radiation monitoring programme consists of measurement and control of external exposures by thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), hand-held and installed instruments, and internal exposures by bioassay and direct whole body counting using shadow shield counter for beta gamma emitters and phoswich detector based system for plutonium. In addition, an environmental monitoring programme is in place to assess public exposures resulting from the operation of these facilities. The programme involves analysis of various matrices in the environment such as bay water, salt, fish, sediment and computation of resulting public exposures. Based on the operating experience in these plants, improved educating and training programmes for plant operators, have been designed. This, together with the application of new technologies have brought down individual as well as average doses of occupational workers. The environmental releases remain a small fraction of the authorised limits. The operating health physics experience in some of these facilities is discussed in this paper

  16. Operation of the computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gillis, J. R.; Gruenbaum, P. E.

    1995-01-01

    A computer model for microenvironment atomic oxygen exposure has been developed to extend atomic oxygen modeling capability to include shadowing and reflections. The model uses average exposure conditions established by the direct exposure model and extends the application of these conditions to treat surfaces of arbitrary shape and orientation.

  17. Product service systems: exploring service operations strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Colen, Pieter; Lambrecht, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to shed light on the operational principles that can be applied when offering integrated solutions of both products and services, i.e. product-service systems (PSS). Manufacturing companies that start pursuing a service oriented strategy face many new challenges. We investigate which well-known operational principles can be of merit to these companies and how these principles can be put to action. Design/methodology/approach - The paper reports ...

  18. Operational management in pot plant production.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leutscher, K.J.

    1995-01-01

    Operational management in pot plant production was investigated by means of system analysis and simulation. A theoretical framework for operational decision-making consisted of elaboration decisions, progress decisions, and adoption decisions. This framework was incorporated in a pot plant nursery m

  19. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    CERN Document Server

    Monahan, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  20. Locally-smeared operator product expansions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monahan, Christopher; Orginos, Kostantinos

    2014-12-01

    We propose a "locally-smeared Operator Product Expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of locally-smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements of smeared degrees of freedom, determined numerically using the gradient flow, to non-local operators in the continuum. The nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale prevents a simple connection to the standard operator product expansion and therefore requires the construction of a two-scale formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach using the example of real scalar field theory.

  1. An Analysis of the Stationary Operation of Atomic Clocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraas, Martin

    2016-09-01

    We develop an abstract model of atomic clocks that fully describes the dynamics of repeated synchronization between a classical oscillator and a quantum reference. We prove existence of a stationary state of the model and study its dependence on the control scheme, the interrogation time and the stability of the oscillator. For unbiased atomic clocks, we derive a fundamental bound on atomic clocks long time stability for a given local oscillator noise. In particular, we show that for a local oscillator noise with integrated frequency variance scaling as {T^α} for short times T, the optimal clock time variance scales as {F^{-(α +1)/(α +2)}} with respect to the quantum Fisher information, F, associated to the quantum reference. In an attempt to prove the bounds without the unbiasedness assumption, we derive a new Cramer-Rao type inequality.

  2. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Ommen, J.R.; Kooijman, D.; De Niet, M.; Talebi, M.; Goulas, A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO2) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an activ

  3. Production of ultra slow antiprotons, its application to atomic collisions and atomic spectroscopy - ASACUSA project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Atomic Spectroscopy And Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons (ASACUSA) project aims at studying collision dynamics with slow antiprotons and high precision spectroscopy of antiprotonic atoms. To realize these purposes, the production of high quality ultra slow antiproton beams is essential, which is achieved by the combination of antiproton decelerator (AD) from 3 GeV to 5 MeV, a radio frequency quadrupole (RFQ) decelerator from 5 MeV to 50 keV, and finally an electromagnetic trap from 50 keV to 10 eV. From the atomic physics point of view, an antiproton is an extremely heavy electron and/or a negatively charged proton, i.e., the antiproton is a unique tool to shed light on collision dynamics from the other side of the world. In addition to this fundamentally important feature, the antiproton has also a big practical advantage, i.e., it annihilates with the target nuclei emitting several energetic pions, which provides high detection efficiency with very good time resolution. Many-body effects which are of great importance to several branches of science will be studied through ionization and antiprotonic atom formation processes under single collision conditions. Various antiprotonic atoms including protonium (p anti-p) are expected to be meta-stable in vacuum, which is never true for those in dense media except for antiprotonic helium. High precision spectroscopy of protonium will for the first time become feasible benefited by this meta-stability. The present review reports briefly the production scheme of ultra slow antiproton beams and several topics proposed in the ASACUSA project

  4. Optimizing the production of metastable calcium atoms in a magneto-optical trap

    CERN Document Server

    Gruenert, J; Gruenert, Jan; Hemmerich, Andreas

    2001-01-01

    We investigate the production of long lived metastable (3P2, n=4) calcium atoms in a magneto-optical trap operating on the 1S0 to 1P1 transition at 423 nm. For excited 1P1-atoms a weak decay channel into the triplet states 3P2 and 3P1 exists via the singlet 1D2 (n=3) state. The undesired 3P1-atoms decay back to the ground state within 0.4 ms and can be fully recaptured if the illuminated trap volume is sufficiently large. We obtain a flux of above 10^10 atoms/s into the 3P2-state. We find that our MOT life time of 23 ms is mainly limited by this loss channel and thus the 3P2-production is not hampered by inelasic collisions. If we close the loss channel by repumping the 1D2-atoms with a 671 nm laser back into the MOT cycling transition, a non-exponential 72 ms trap decay is observed indicating the presence of inelastic two-body collisions between 1S0 and 1P1 atoms.

  5. Atomic Decomposition and Boundedness Criterion of Operators on Multi-parameter Hardy Spaces of Homogeneous Type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guo Zhen LU; Ya Yuan XIAO

    2012-01-01

    The main purpose of this paper is to derive a new (p,q)-atomic decomposition on the multi-parameter Hardy space Hp(X1 × X2) for 0 < p0 < p ≤ 1 for some po and all 1 < q < ∞,where X1 × X2 is the product of two spaces of homogeneous type in the sense of Coifman and Weiss.This decomposition converges in both Lq(x1× X2) (for 1 < q < ∞) and Hardy space Hp(X1 × X2) (for 0 < p ≤ 1).As an application,we prove that an operator T,which is bounded on Lq(X1 × X2) for some 1 < q < ∞,is bounded from Hp(X1 × X2) to Lp(X1 × X2) if and only ifT is bounded uniformly on all (p,q)-product atoms in Lp(X1 × X2).The similar boundedness criterion from Hp(X1 × X2) to Hp(X1 × X2) is also obtained.

  6. Operational Monitoring of Data Production at KNMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Vegte, John; Kwidama, Anecita; van Moosel, Wim; Oosterhof, Rijk; de Wit de Wit, Ronny; Klein Ikkink, Henk Jan; Som de Cerff, Wim; Verhoef, Hans; Koutek, Michal; Duin, Frank; van der Neut, Ian; verhagen, Robert; Wollerich, Rene

    2016-04-01

    Within KNMI a new fully automated system for monitoring the KNMI operational data production systems is being developed: PRISMA (PRocessflow Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring Application). Currently the KNMI operational (24/7) production systems consist of over 60 applications, running on different hardware systems and platforms. They are interlinked for the production of numerous data products, which are delivered to internal and external customers. Traditionally these applications are individually monitored by different applications or not at all; complicating root cause and impact analysis. Also, the underlying hardware and network is monitored via an isolated application. Goal of the PRISMA system is to enable production chain monitoring, which enables root cause analysis (what is the root cause of the disruption) and impact analysis (what downstream products/customers will be effected). The PRISMA system will make it possible to reduce existing monitoring applications and provides one interface for monitoring the data production. For modeling and storing the state of the production chains a graph database is used. The model is automatically updated by the applications and systems which are to be monitored. The graph models enables root cause and impact analysis. In the PRISMA web interface interaction with the graph model is accomplished via a graphical representation. The presentation will focus on aspects of: • Modeling real world computers, applications, products to a conceptual model; • Architecture of the system; • Configuration information and (real world) event handling of the to be monitored objects; • Implementation rules for root cause and impact analysis. • How PRISMA was developed (methodology, facts, results) • Presentation of the PRISMA system as it now looks and works

  7. Operation of plant to produce Mo-99 from fission products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As it is well known, the production of Mo-99/Tc-99m generators has an outstanding place in radioisotope programs of the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission. The basic raw material is Mo-99 from fission of U-235. In 1985 the production plant of this radionuclide began to operate, according to an adaptation of the method that was developed in Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The present work describes the target irradiation conditions in the reactor RA-3 (mini plates of U/Al alloy with 90% enriched uranium), the flow diagram and the operative conditions of the production process. The containment, filtration and removal conditions of the generated fission gases and the disposal of liquid and solid wastes are also analyzed. On the basis of the experience achieved in the development of more than twenty production processes, process efficiency is analyzed, taking into account the theoretical evaluation resulting from the application of the computer program 'Origin'(ORML) to the conditions of our case. The purity characteristics of the final product are reported (Zr-95 0,1 ppm; Nb-95 1 ppm; Ru-103 20 ppm; I-131 10 ppm) as well as the chemical characteristics that make it suitable to be used in the production of Mo-99/I c-99m generators. (Author)

  8. The Lorentz anomaly via operator product expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fredenhagen, Stefan, E-mail: stefan.fredenhagen@aei.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut für Gravitationsphysik, Albert-Einstein-Institut Am Mühlenberg 1, 14476 Golm (Germany); Hoppe, Jens, E-mail: hoppe@kth.se; Hynek, Mariusz, E-mail: mkhynek@kth.se [Department of Mathematics, Royal Institute of Technology, KTH 100 44 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2015-10-15

    The emergence of a critical dimension is one of the most striking features of string theory. One way to obtain it is by demanding closure of the Lorentz algebra in the light-cone gauge quantisation, as discovered for bosonic strings more than forty years ago. We give a detailed derivation of this classical result based on the operator product expansion on the Lorentzian world-sheet.

  9. OPERATING STABILITY OF MINERAL WOOL PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perfilov Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Creating an effective insulation envelope of the building is possible only using high-quality materials, preserving their characteristics both in the early stages of operation, and for the whole billing period. It is an important opportunity to assess the thermal insulation properties and predict its changes over time directly in the conditions of the construction site. The products based on mineral fibers (rock and glass wool, basalt fiber are the most widely used type of insulating materials in the domestic construction. Therefore, the operational stability valuation methods must be primarily created for this group of products. The methodology for assessing the thermal insulation properties includes two main components: testing equipment and methodology for assessing the operational stability. The authors tested the methodology of the accelerated testing and prediction of durability for mineral wool products of laminated, corrugated and volume-oriented structures. The test results give good convergence with the methods recommended by the building regulations. Application of thermal insulation materials are an effective way to form the thermal envelope of the building, reducing energy costs and increasing the durability of building structures. The material properties are determined by their structure, which is formed during the technological impacts.

  10. Realization of Toffoli gate operation using four-level atoms in cavity QED system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tang Shi-Qing; Zhang Deng-Yu; Xie Li-Jun; Zhan Xiao-Gui; Gao Feng

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a scheme for realization of a three-qubit Toffoli gate operation using three four-level atoms by a selective atom-field interaction in a cavity quantum electrodynamics system. In the proposed protocol, the quantum information is encoded on the stable ground states of atoms, and atomic spontaneous emission is negligible as the large atom-cavity detuning effectively suppresses the spontaneous decay of the atoms. The influence of the dissipation on fidelity and success probability of the three-qubit Toffoli gate is also discussed. The scheme can also be applied to realize an N-qubit Toffoli gate and the interaction time required does not rise with increasing the number of qubits.

  11. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury

  12. Production optimization of remotely operated gas wells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juell, Aleksander

    2012-07-01

    From the introduction: The Remote Operations in Oklahoma Intended for Education (ROOKIE) project is a remote field laboratory constructed as a part of this research project. ROOKIE was initiated to provide data in research on production optimization of low productivity gas wells. In addition to this, ROOKIE is used as a teaching tool. Much of the remote operations technology used in the ROOKIE project has been used by the industry for several decades. The first use of remote data acquisition in Oklahoma was in 1989, as described by Luppens [7]. Even though this, for the most part, is old technology, the ROOKIE project is the first remote operations project set up with research and teaching as the main focus. This chapter will discuss the process of establishing the remote field laboratory and the data storage facilities. Results from the project will also be discussed. All testing, instrumentation installation, and modifications to the wells discussed in this chapter was performed by the author. The communication system between the well and NTNU, and the storage database was installed and configured by the author.(Author)

  13. Pair production processes by nuclear decay and in muonic atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Nikolay A. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Harman, Zoltan [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Saupfercheckweg 1, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); ExtreMe Matter Institute (EMMI), Planckstrasse 1, 64291 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    The pair production process by γ-emission of nuclei has been investigated so far both theoretically and experimentally. But, in all works only the production of a free electron and positron was considered. The case when an electron is ''born'' in a bound state of atom has been neglected as a relatively small effect. We investigate this bound-free pair conversion process for different multipolarities of nuclear γ decay. We use a relativistic description of the electron and positron wave functions as it is necessary for heavy elements. It appears that the contribution of this bound-free process for bare heavy ions at low γ-energies close to 2m{sub e}c{sup 2} gives a contribution comparable to or stronger than the free-free process and that it may be the dominant electromagnetic decay channel in case of E0 nuclear transitions. We also investigate the similar bound-free pair production process in electromagnetic muonic transitions in muonic atoms. In this case, all matrix elements can be calculated exactly. Photon energies have the same order as the γ-energies in the nuclear case, so one expects a similar dominance of the bound-free process over the free-free process at low transition energies (for transitions between excited muonic states). Our calculations have confirmed this behaviour.

  14. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  15. Education for Production and Operations Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kavan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The Department of Mechanical Engineering Enterprise Management at the Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of the Czech Technical University in Prague has its own doctoral programme, and runs postgraduate and master's courses. The Department is engaged in a great deal of research in the field of marketing, financial and mainly operations management. A new Production and Operations Management programme was started in 1997. The programme consists of: Management of Change and the Importance of Innovations, Forecasting and Operations Strategy, Design of Work Systems, Total Quality Management and Inventory Control, Material Requirements Planning and Just-In-Time Systems, Logistics and Practical exercises. The study programme is organised in two stages, winter and summer semesters. The study programme has a strong international orientation. The teaching goal is to prepare students for dealing with real-world settings and implementing the most effective up-to-date practices. The Department aspires to lead in research, and in developing modern concepts and tools. Research is being conducted in the mechanical engineering industry under a grant from the EU LEONARDO programme. We invite you to email with questions or to schedule a visit to the Department at any time.

  16. Fabrication of atomized uranium dispersion targets for fission mo production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Moonsoo; Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jong Man; Kim, Chang Kyu; Lee, Jong Hyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    Among radioisotopes for medical diagnosis, Tc-99m is most widely used. Mo-99 produced from nuclear fission of uranium in research reactors is the key radioisotopes for Tc-99m generators. Generally, major producers of Mo-99 still use targets containing highly enriched uranium (HEU). However, the international non-proliferation policy emphasizes the minimization of the use of HEU in medical radioisotopes production nowadays. Therefore, low enriched uranium (LEU) targets have been developed by casting and crushing of UAl{sub 2} compounds. The UAl{sub 2} particle dispersed target has a lower U-235 density when compared to HEU targets. In order to improve the low production efficiency of LEU targets, target designers try to develop high uranium density targets with LEU. KAERI has proposed that high density uranium alloys, instead of UAl{sub 2}, can be used as dispersing particles in an aluminum matrix. While it is very difficult to fabricate uranium alloys powder by grinding or crushing, spherical powder of uranium alloys can be produced easily by centrifugal atomization. Mini-size targets with 3, 6, and 9 g-U/cc were fabricated in this study to investigate the feasibility of high density targets with atomized uranium particles. The microstructural changes after thermal treatments were observed to analyze the interaction behavior of uranium particles and aluminum matrix.

  17. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  18. Computer programs in BASIC language for atomic absorption flame spectroscopy. Part 1. Operating instructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These instructions describe how to use three BASIC language programs to process data from atomic absorption spectrophotometers operated in the flame mode. These programs will also control an automatic sampler if desired. The instructions cover loading the programs, responding to computer prompts, choosing among various options for processing the data, operating the automatic sampler, and producing reports. How the programs differ is also explained. Examples of computer/operator dialogue are presented for typical cases

  19. An adaptive immune optimization algorithm with dynamic lattice searching operation for fast optimization of atomic clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xia; Wu, Genhua

    2014-08-01

    Geometrical optimization of atomic clusters is performed by a development of adaptive immune optimization algorithm (AIOA) with dynamic lattice searching (DLS) operation (AIOA-DLS method). By a cycle of construction and searching of the dynamic lattice (DL), DLS algorithm rapidly makes the clusters more regular and greatly reduces the potential energy. DLS can thus be used as an operation acting on the new individuals after mutation operation in AIOA to improve the performance of the AIOA. The AIOA-DLS method combines the merit of evolutionary algorithm and idea of dynamic lattice. The performance of the proposed method is investigated in the optimization of Lennard-Jones clusters within 250 atoms and silver clusters described by many-body Gupta potential within 150 atoms. Results reported in the literature are reproduced, and the motif of Ag61 cluster is found to be stacking-fault face-centered cubic, whose energy is lower than that of previously obtained icosahedron.

  20. Production of Fine Metallic Powders by Hybrid Atomization Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Kazumi; Liu, Yunzhong; Kakisawa, Hideki; Halada, Kohmei

    Hybrid Atomization is a recently developed powder-making process that combines effectively free-fall gas atomization and centrifugal atomization. This technique can produce very fine spherical powders with mean diameters of around 10 micrometers, and in high yields. The present report discusses the concept and basic principles of hybrid atomization. Process experiments were carried out and the optimal processing conditions were obtained. The results show that the influences of processing parameters and optimum conditions differ greatly between the proposed and the conventional atomization processes. A new correlation of atomization equation applicable to hybrid atomization is proposed and discussed.

  1. Multimode Raman light-atom interface in warm atomic ensemble as multiple three-mode quantum operations

    CERN Document Server

    Parniak, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the properties of a Raman quantum light-atom interface in long atomic ensemble and its applications as a quantum memory or two-mode squeezed state generator. We include both Stokes and anti-Stokes scattering and the effects of Doppler broadening in buffer gas assuming frequent velocity-averaging collisions. We find the Green functions describing multimode transformation from input to output fields of photons and atomic excitations. Proper mode basis is found via singular value decomposition. It reveals that triples of modes are coupled by a transformation equivalent to a combination of two beamsplitters and a two-mode squeezing operation. We analyze the possible transformations on an example of warm rubidium-87 vapor. We find that the fidelity of the mapping of a single excitation between the memory and light is strictly limited by the fractional contribution of the Stokes scattering in predominantly anti-Stokes process. The model we present bridges the gap between the Stokes only and anti-Stokes o...

  2. Review of fission product plateout investigations at General Atomic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The status of fission product plateout studies at General Atomic is reviewed and suggestions are offered for future work. The deposition, or plateout, of condensible radionuclides in the primary circuits of gas-cooled reactors affects shielding requirements, maintenance procedures, and plant availability as well as representing a significant radiological source and/or sink for certain hypothetical accidents. Physical models and computer codes used to describe these plateout phenomena for reactor analysis are presented along with their limitations and possible refinements. The review includes portions of the recent AIPA study which sought to quantify the effects of uncertainties in input parameters on plateout code predictions. Major emphasis is placed upon the design methods verification program to assess the validity of plateout predictions by comparison of calculated behavior with experimental transport data

  3. TRIGA International - History of Training Research Isotope production General Atomics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRIGA conceived at GA in 1956 by a distinguished group of scientists including Edward Teller and Freeman Dyson. First TRIGA reactor Mk-1 was commissioned on 3 may 1958 at G.A. Characteristic feature of TRIGA reactors is inherent safety: Sitting can be confinement or conventional building. TRIGA reactors are the most prevalent in the world: 67 reactors in 24 countries. Steady state powers up to 14 MWt, pulsing up to 22,000 MWt. To enlarge the scope of its manufactured products, CERCA engaged in a Joint Venture with General Atomics, and in July 1995 a new Company was founded: TRIGA INTERNATIONAL SAS (50% GA, 50% CERCA; Head Office: Paris (France); Sales offices: GA San Diego (Ca, USA) and CERCA Lyon (France); Manufacturing plant: CERCA Romans. General Atomics ID: founded in 1955 at San Diego, California, by General Dynamics; status: Privately held corporation; owners: Neal and Linden Blue; business: High technology research, design, manufacturing, and production for industry and Government in the U.S. and overseas; locations: U.S., Germany, Japan, Australia, Thailand, Morocco; employees: 5,000. TRIGA's ID: CERCA is a subsidiary of AREVA, born in November 05, 1957. Activities: fuel manufacture for research reactor, equipment and components for high-energy physics, radioactive sources and reference sources; plants locations: Romans and Pierrelatte (France); total strength: 180. Since the last five years TRIGA has manufactured and delivered more than 800 fuel elements with a door to door service. TRIGA International has the experience to manufacture all types of TRIGA fuel: standard fuel elements, instrumented fuel elements, fuel followed control rods, geometry: 37.3 mm (1.47 in.), 35.8 mm (1.4 in), 13 mm (0.5 in), chemical Composition: U w% 8.5, 12, 20, 30 and 45 w/o, erbium and no erbium. TRIGA International is on INL's approved vendor list (ISO 9000/NQA) and is ready to meet any TRIGA fuel needs either in the US or worldwide

  4. Operation and maintenance experience at the General Atomic Company's TRIGA reactor facility at San Diego, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the startup of the original 250 kW TRIGA Mark I reactor in 1958, General Atomic Company has accumulated nearly 24 years of operation and maintenance experience with this type of reactor. In addition to the nearly 24 years of experience gained on the Mark I, GA has operated the 1.5 MW Advanced Prototype Test Reactor (Mark F) for 22 years and operated a 2 MW below-ground TRIGA Mark III for five years. Information obtained from normal and abnormal operation are presented. (author)

  5. Air-Cleaning Operational Experience in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The details of the operational experience gathered in the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre on various aspects of the problem associated with the control of pollutants from the operation of nuclear facilities housed therein form the subject of this report. A short account of the standards for radioactive gaseous waste management and the general practices concerning the prevention and control of air contamination is given. Studies on airborne radioactivity and the operational experience of the ventilation systems connected with some of the installations at Trombay are reviewed. The cost aspects of a typical ventilation system of an operating plant are presented. (author)

  6. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, January 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-02-21

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for January 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  7. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-09-17

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department report plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities, and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  8. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-04-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for March 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  9. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, March 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-04-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for March 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  10. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, June 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-07-26

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for June 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  11. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for May 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-06-21

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May, 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  12. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, October 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-11-24

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for October 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  13. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, December 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-01-25

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  14. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, July 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-08-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  15. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, September 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-10-27

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for September 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  16. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-09-27

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Sciences, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  17. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, October 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-11-30

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer works for October, 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  18. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, October 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-11-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for October 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services. Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  19. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, June 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-07-22

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for June 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  20. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-09-18

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August, 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  1. Monthly report Hanford Atomic Products Operation, July 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-08-20

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services Departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  2. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for September 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-10-25

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for September 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  3. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, July 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-08-26

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  4. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1953-06-19

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  5. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, November 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-12-30

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for November 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  6. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, August 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-09-28

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for August 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Sciences, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  7. Hanford Atomic Products Operation, monthly report, July 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-08-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for July, 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  8. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for December 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-01-30

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  9. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report for April 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-05-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for April 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  10. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-06-23

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  11. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, April 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1956-05-21

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for April 1956. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the technical, design and project sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the financial department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Service departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  12. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, May 1954

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-06-22

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for May 1954. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Science, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  13. Hanford Atomic Products Operation monthly report, December 1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1954-01-22

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for December 1953. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summaries work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  14. Hanford Atomic Products for Operation monthly report, February 1955

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1955-03-18

    This document presents a summary of work and progress at the Hanford Engineer Works for February 1955. The report is divided into sections by department. A plant wide general summary is included at the beginning of the report, after which the departmental summaries begin. The Manufacturing Department reports plant statistics, and summaries for the Metal Preparation, Reactor and Separation sections. The Engineering Department`s section summarizes work for the Technical, Design, and Project Sections. Costs for the various departments are presented in the Financial Department`s summary. The Medical, Radiological Sciences, Utilities and General Services, Employee and Public Relations, and Community Real Estate and Services departments have sections presenting their monthly statistics, work, progress, and summaries.

  15. Recursive Construction of Operator Product Expansion Coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Jan; Hollands, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula involves just the OPE coefficients themselves but no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula requires no further UV-renormalization, i.e., it is completely well-defined from the start. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV- and IR-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features of the identity, is given for the example of massive, Euclidean theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space. It relies on the renormalization group flow equation method and is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes neither explicit reference to the renormalization group flow, nor to perturbation theory, and we conjecture that it also holds non-perturbatively. Our identity can be applied constructively because it gives a novel recursive algorithm for the computation of OPE coefficients to arbitrary (finite) perturbation order in terms of the zeroth order coefficients corresponding to the underlying free field theory, which in turn are trivial to obtain. We briefly illustrate the relation of this method to more standard methods for computing the OPE in some simple examples.

  16. Recursive construction of operator product expansion coefficients

    CERN Document Server

    Holland, J

    2014-01-01

    We derive a novel formula for the derivative of operator product expansion (OPE) coefficients with respect to a coupling constant. The formula only involves the OPE coefficients themselves, and no further input, and is in this sense self-consistent. Furthermore, unlike other formal identities of this general nature in quantum field theory (such as the formal expression for the Lagrangian perturbation of a correlation function), our formula is completely well-defined from the start, i.e. requires no further UV-renormalization. This feature is a result of a cancelation of UV-divergences between various terms in our identity. Our proof, and an analysis of the features, of our identity is given for the example of massive, Euclidean $\\varphi^4$ theory in 4 dimensional Euclidean space, and relies heavily on the framework of the renormalization group flow equations. It is valid to arbitrary, but finite orders in perturbation theory. The final formula, however, makes no explicit reference to the renormalization group...

  17. Continuous production of nanostructured particles using spatial atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ommen, J. Ruud van, E-mail: j.r.vanommen@tudelft.nl; Kooijman, Dirkjan; Niet, Mark de; Talebi, Mojgan; Goulas, Aristeidis [Department of Chemical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Julianalaan 136, 2628 BL Delft (Netherlands)

    2015-03-15

    In this paper, the authors demonstrate a novel spatial atomic layer deposition (ALD) process based on pneumatic transport of nanoparticle agglomerates. Nanoclusters of platinum (Pt) of ∼1 nm diameter are deposited onto titania (TiO{sub 2}) P25 nanoparticles resulting to a continuous production of an active photocatalyst (0.12–0.31 wt. % of Pt) at a rate of about 1 g min{sup −1}. Tuning the precursor injection velocity (10–40 m s{sup −1}) enhances the contact between the precursor and the pneumatically transported support flows. Decreasing the chemisorption temperature (from 250 to 100 °C) results in more uniform distribution of the Pt nanoclusters as it decreases the reaction rate as compared to the rate of diffusion into the nanoparticle agglomerates. Utilizing this photocatalyst in the oxidation reaction of Acid Blue 9 showed a factor of five increase of the photocatalytic activity compared to the native P25 nanoparticles. The use of spatial particle ALD can be further expanded to deposition of nanoclusters on porous, micron-sized particles and to the production of core–shell nanoparticles enabling the robust and scalable manufacturing of nanostructured powders for catalysis and other applications.

  18. "Pseudo-invariant Eigen-operator" Method for Deriving Energy-Gap of an Atom-Cavity Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian with Atomic Centre-of-Mass Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; TANG Xu-Bing

    2006-01-01

    Using the "Pseudo-invariant eigen-operator" method we find the energy-gap of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian model of an atom-cavity system. This model takes the atomic centre-of-mass motion into account. The supersymmetric structure is involved in the Hamiltonian of an atom-cavity system. By selecting suitable supersymmetric generators and using supersymmetric transformation the Hamiltonian is diagonalized and energy eigenvectors are obtained.

  19. On Monotone Product of Operator Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Ming WU; Li Guang WANG

    2007-01-01

    In this note, we give complete descriptions of the structure of the monotone product of two yon Neumann algebras and two C*-algebras. We show that the monotone product of two simple yon Neumann algebras and C*-algebras aren't simple again. We also show that the monotone product of two hyperfinite von Neumann algebras is again hyperfinite and determine the type of the monotone product of two factors.

  20. Dynamic Modeling for the Design and Cyclic Operation of an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) Reactor

    OpenAIRE

    Curtisha D. Travis; Raymond A. Adomaitis

    2013-01-01

    A laboratory-scale atomic layer deposition (ALD) reactor system model is derived for alumina deposition using trimethylaluminum and water as precursors. Model components describing the precursor thermophysical properties, reactor-scale gas-phase dynamics and surface reaction kinetics derived from absolute reaction rate theory are integrated to simulate the complete reactor system. Limit-cycle solutions defining continuous cyclic ALD reactor operation are computed with a fixed point algorithm ...

  1. Compactness of Product Operators on the Bergman Space

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Fa WANG; Pei De LIU

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we study the compactness of the product of a composition operator with another one's adjoint on the Bergman space. Some necessary and sufficient conditions for such operators to be compact are given.

  2. Weyl-Ordered Operator Product Formula Derived by Technique of Integration Within Weyl-Ordered Product of Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Based on the explicit Weyl-ordered form of Wigner operator and the technique of integration within Weyl-ordered product of operators we derive the Weyl-ordered operator product formula. The formula is then generalized to the entangled form with the help of entangled state representations.

  3. Production of genuine entangled states of four atomic qubits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Guiyun; Kuang Leman, E-mail: lmkuang@hunnu.edu.c [Key Laboratory of Low-Dimensional Quantum Structures and Quantum Control of Ministry of Education, and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha 410081 (China)

    2009-08-28

    We propose an optical scheme to generate genuine entangled states of four atomic qubits in optical cavities using a single-photon source, beam splitters and single-photon detectors. We demonstrate how to generate deterministically 16 orthonormal and independent genuine entangled states of four atomic qubits. It is found that the 16 genuine entangled states form a new type of representation of the four-atomic-qubit system, i.e. the genuine entangled-state representation. This representation brings a new interesting insight into better understanding of multipartite entanglement.

  4. Productions of hollow atoms from solids irradiated by high intensity laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, K.; Sasaki, A.; Zhidkov, A. [Advanced Photon Research Center, Kansai Research Establishment, Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst. (Japan)

    2001-07-01

    The production of hollow atoms through the collisions of fast electrons with a solid is studied. These electrons are produced by high-intensity short-pulse laser irradiation on a solid. The inner-shell ionization and excitation processes by the fast electron impact are investigated. It is found that ionization processes give more significant contribution to the production of hollow atoms. (orig.)

  5. Improving livestock production through co-operative societies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Umaru

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the positive role livestock Co-operatives can play in enhancing animal production. Livestock Co-operative Societies such as those for Artificial insemination, Dairy, Beef and Poultry production have been discussed. The paper also dwells on the benefits derivable from such organisations. The practice of Co-operative Societies in livestock production has been applied by different countries in different livestock sub-sectors. This paper concludes that establishing such Co-operatives will significantly improve livestock production in Nigeria.

  6. A new exact quantum mechanical rovibrational kinetic energy operator for penta-atomic systems in internal coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光巨; 李玉学

    1999-01-01

    The concrete molecule-fixed (MF) kinetic energy operator for penta-atomic molecules is expressed in terms of the parameterδ, the matrix element G?, and angular momentum operator (?). The applications of the operator are also discussed. Finally, a general compact form of kinetic energy operator suitable for calculating the rovibrational spectra of polyatomie molecules is presented.

  7. Advances in the production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, P.A.; De Villiers, W.Y.Z.; Jarvis, N.V. [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1997-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) owns and operates the 20 MW research reactor, SAFARI-1. Utilisation of the reactor has in recent years changed from research and materials testing to the production of isotopes. The most important breakthrough achieved in recent years is the production of high quality fission 99Mo. This has been produced routinely since April 1993 and supplied to clients across the world. A capability for the reliable production of 1000 Ci of 99Mo per week (calibrated for six days after production) has been proven. The AEC has also established facilities to produce its own 99mTc generators together with a most of radiopharmaceutical kits for diagnostic nuclear medicine purposes. The production of {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I (tellurium oxide route) has been operational for many years. Applications include therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP for bone cancer pain palliation, {sup 13`}I-Lipiodol for liver cancer and {sup 131}I capsules for thyroid treatment. Facilities for the production of other isotopes such as {sup 131}I (from fission), {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S are in various stages of completion. Extensive analytical methods and equipment have been developed and are routinely used to certify the quality of exported isotopes. Irradiation and encapsulation of {sup 192}Ir is also performed routinely at the AEC. Modern facilities allow for the production of isotopes such as {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La on an ad hoc basis. Quality assurance procedures based on ISO9000 were developed for all aspects of the production of the various isotopes. Documentation, such as Drug Master Files, required by authorities in various countries has also been submitted and accepted 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  8. Operation and Control of Enzymatic Biodiesel Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Nordblad, Mathias;

    This work explores the control of biodiesel production via an enzymatic catalyst. The process involves the transesterification of oils/fats with an alcohol (usually methanol or ethanol), using enzymatic catalysts to generate mono-alkyl esters (the basis of biodiesel) and glycerol as by......-product. Current literature indicates that enzymatic processing of oils and fats to produce biodiesel is technically feasible and developments in immobilization technology indicate that enzyme catalysts can become cost effective compared to chemical processing. However, with very few exceptions, enzyme technology...... is not currently used in commercial-scale biodiesel production. This is mainly due to non-optimized process designs, which do not use the full potential of the catalysts in a cost-efficient way. Furthermore is it unclear what process variables need to be monitored and controlled to ensure optimal economics...

  9. SOME ROUGH OPERATORS ON PRODUCT SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Jiecheng; Wang Silei

    2001-01-01

    In this survery report, we shall mainly summarize some recent progress, interesting problems and typi cal methods used in the theory related to rough Marcinkiewicz integrals and rough singular integrals on product spaces. In addition, we give new proofs for some known results.

  10. Dynamic Modeling for the Design and Cyclic Operation of an Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Curtisha D. Travis

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available A laboratory-scale atomic layer deposition (ALD reactor system model is derived for alumina deposition using trimethylaluminum and water as precursors. Model components describing the precursor thermophysical properties, reactor-scale gas-phase dynamics and surface reaction kinetics derived from absolute reaction rate theory are integrated to simulate the complete reactor system. Limit-cycle solutions defining continuous cyclic ALD reactor operation are computed with a fixed point algorithm based on collocation discretization in time, resulting in an unambiguous definition of film growth-per-cycle (gpc. A key finding of this study is that unintended chemical vapor deposition conditions can mask regions of operation that would otherwise correspond to ideal saturating ALD operation. The use of the simulator for assisting in process design decisions is presented.

  11. Four kinds of raising and lowering operators of n-dimensional hydrogen atom and isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宇峰; 曾谨言

    1997-01-01

    The factorization of the radial Schrodinger equation of n-dimensional (n≥2) hydrogen atoms and isotropic harmonic oscillators was investigated and four kinds of raising and lowering operators were derived.The relation between n -dimensional (n≥2) and one-dimensional hydrogen atoms and harmonic oscillators was discussed.

  12. Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Carsten P.

    Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope......Calibrated atomic force microscope measurements of vickers hardness indentations and tip production and characterisation for scanning tunelling microscope...

  13. The operation and production in Penaeid farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ludi parwadani aji

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Penaeid prawn demand in the world market has brought about a dramatic raise in the price of prawns, so, the aquaculture prawn industry also increase. Prawn farming can be divided by intensive, semi intensive or extensive culture system. Extensive culture system has low stocking densities, whereas, intensive culture (very high stocking densities has highest level of environmental control such as recirculation system and stable ecological system. Predation and disease is the major obstacles in culture system. To deal with predation, farmers use net for covering the ponds and fencing the ponds. Disease organism such as parasites, bacteria, fungal and viruses may be eliminated through sterilization of the water. The commercial diets made from squid and white fish meal may replace fresh diet in semi-intensive culture as fish diet has a problem with preservation. Moreover, maintaining water quality such as dissolve oxygen, pH, nitrogen (ammonia and ammonium and temperature is very important to support productivity and profitability in prawn farming. The most prominent aims at harvest are to pack the prawn in a way that avoids physical damage, minimize the quantity of prawn left on the bottom of pond, and directly chill prawn. Therefore, good management of water quality, feeding, disease, predation, and harvesting is important in prawn culture.

  14. Production of heavy ion beams for atomic physics studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A laboratory for research in atomic physics of ions has been set up around a 2 MV tandem Van de Graaff accelerator designed and built indegenously. Mass analysed negatively charged heavy ion beams from a directly extracted duoplasmatron ion source are injected through various ion-optical elements into the accelerating tube. A gas stripper at the high voltage dome changes the negative ions into positive ions which are subsequently accelerated. The high energy end of the accelerator consists of quadrupole focussing magnets and an analysing magnet. A pair of insulated tantalum slits provide corona feedback and stabilize the energy of the accelerator. A beam resolution of 5 keV at 1 MeV proton energy has been measured. A number of experiments are presently being planned to utilize the accelerator in the field of basic research in atomic physics. These include beam-foil spectroscopic measurements involving detection of decay photon/electrons, ion-induced X-ray emission, analytical applications and radiation damage studies. Electron spectrometers which are in the stage of testing include cylindrical mirror analyser and parallel plate analyser. On the accelerator front, efforts are underway to develop a new sputter ion source and computer automation for improving stability and reliability. The salient features of the accelerator and the instrumentation developed for carrying out experiments in atomic physics are reported. (author). 14 refs., 17 figs

  15. Matrix Product Operators, Matrix Product States, and ab initio Density Matrix Renormalization Group algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio DMRG algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab-initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational par...

  16. Operability and flexibility of a milk production line

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2007-01-01

    The operability and flexibility of an existing milk treatment process are investigated through flowsheet modelling and simulation. From the flowsheet simulation, a process operating region was determined using incoming milk flow viscosity and heat exchanger pressure drop as characteristic...... parameters. The operability and flexibility of the nominal operating points were evaluated with a minimization of the process pasteurization and cooling temp. through vertex enumeration. The simulation procedure provides a quantitative method for developing a flexible process in dairy industry applications....... The established process operability and flexibility analysis framework and and flowsheet simulation can be adapted to other liquid food productions....

  17. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI\\muP facility

    CERN Document Server

    Traykov, E; De, S; Dermois, O C; Huisman, L; Jungmann, K; Kruithof, W; Mol, A J; Onderwater, C J G; Rogachevskiy, A; Silva, M da Silva e; Sohani, M; Versolato, O; Willmann, L; Wilschut, H W

    2007-01-01

    The structures for the TRI$\\mu$P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides will be produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atom in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample that will allow precision measurements. The TRI$\\mu$P facility consists of a chain of several separate units: A production target followed by a magnetic separator produces fast radioactive isotopes. The separator is commissioned and is operating. Various modes to produce radioactive particles have been tested for optimal production. A thermal ionizer stops the fast products and transports the nuclides as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher. This allows one to collect and transport the ions via a drift tube and a low energy beam line into a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The ions are neutralized in the MOT chamber and will be transported to a second trap for $\\beta$...

  18. Production of fractional atomic layer standards of niobium and vanadium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To produce such standards a modified Pierce-type electron-beam-gun evaporation system with a thickness monitor was used. An ''accurate'' Nb standard of 0.1 monolayer deposit thickness was prepared by evaporation under controlled conditions. Nb standards of 1.1 q, 0.11, and 0.011 monolayers were produced in a single evaporation. These standards were then calibrated to the ''accurate'' standard. The errors quoted do not include those associated with the monitor itself. The relative accuracy of the standards was verified by Rutherford backscattering and ion micro-probe measurements. Standards of Nb and V on single-crystal Si substrates were produced. The very thin fractional-atomic-layer targets were used in an experiment which yielded valuable information for the fusion power program. This experiment is briefly described. The method of fabrication of the targets, and the techniques used to determine the target thicknesses are described

  19. Largest Experimental Facility for Acetylene Production in Operation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Scientists from the CAS Institute of Plasma Physics (IPP) completed in early November, 2004, a 2-megawatt experimental facility for acetylene production by coal plasma pyrolysis. The successful operation of the largest installation of the kind in the world confirms a new method for the large-scale industrialization of acetylene production.

  20. CMS Monte Carlo production operations in a distributed computing environment

    CERN Document Server

    Mohapatra, A; Khomich, A; Lazaridis, C; Hernández, J M; Caballero, J; Hof, C; Kalinin, S; Flossdorf, A; Abbrescia, M; De Filippis, N; Donvito, G; Maggi, G; My, S; Pompili, A; Sarkar, S; Maes, J; Van Mulders, P; Villella, I; De Weirdt, S; Hammad, G; Wakefield, S; Guan, W; Lajas, J A S; Elmer, P; Evans, D; Fanfani, A; Bacchi, W; Codispoti, G; Van Lingen, F; Kavka, C; Eulisse, G

    2008-01-01

    Monte Carlo production for the CMS experiment is carried out in a distributed computing environment; the goal of producing 30M simulated events per month in the first half of 2007 has been reached. A brief overview of the production operations and statistics is presented.

  1. Locally smeared operator product expansions in scalar field theory

    CERN Document Server

    Monahan, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new "locally smeared operator product expansion" (sOPE) to decompose non-local operators in terms of a basis of smeared operators. The sOPE formally connects nonperturbative matrix elements determined numerically using lattice field theory to matrix elements of non-local operators in the continuum. These nonperturbative matrix elements do not suffer from power-divergent mixing on the lattice, which significantly complicates calculations of quantities such as the moments of parton distribution functions, provided the smearing scale is kept fixed in the continuum limit. The presence of this smearing scale complicates the connection to the Wilson coefficients of the standard operator product expansion and requires the construction of a suitable formalism. We demonstrate the feasibility of our approach with examples in real scalar field theory.

  2. STUDY ON PRODUCTION SYSTEM OPERATION REGULARITY OF FULLY MECHANQZED SUBLEVEL CAVING MINING AND STQUENTIAL OPERATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李学忠; 王新淮; 陈永文

    1998-01-01

    According to a lot of practical data in Liujialiang Mine and reliability theory and result of computer simulation, operation regularity of fully mechanized sublevel caving mining production system in the condition of gently inclined complicated geological structure and production shortcomings are found out and reliability of system and output of the working face are predicted finally.

  3. Collisional production of metastable hydrogen atoms from cold H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have investigated the production of metastable H(22S) coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules by electron impact. Two detectors have analysed the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight through localized quenching of H(22S) in H(22P) and Lyman-a detection.

  4. Bromine atom production and chain propagation during springtime Arctic ozone depletion events in Barrow, Alaska

    OpenAIRE

    Thompson, Chelsea R.; Shepson, Paul B.; Liao, Jin; Huey, L. Greg; Cantrell, Chris; Flocke, Frank; Orlando, John

    2016-01-01

    Ozone depletion events (ODEs) in the Arctic are primarily controlled by a bromine radical-catalyzed destruction mechanism that depends on the efficient production and recycling of Br atoms. Numerous laboratory and modeling studies have suggested the importance of heterogeneous recycling of Br through HOBr reaction with bromide on saline surfaces. However, the gas-phase regeneration of bromine atoms through BrO-BrO radical reactions has been assumed to be an efficient, if not dominant, pa...

  5. Evaluation of Operation Flexibility and Operation Selection in Multi-agent Based Production Scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Based on the concept of operation flexibility, we study the relationship amongmultiple operation sequences and provide a flexibility measure for operation sequences. Acriterion is proposed to prioritize each operation (rather than sequence). Under the multi-agentarchitecture the criterion can be used to guide the decision-making procedure during production scheduling so that there is an adequate flexibility at each decision point. Experimentalresults demonstrate the efficiency of the criterion when it is used as a scheduling heuristic.It can increase flexibility of manufacturing systems, and consequently improve the performance of the systems.

  6. Delta-ray production in ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, W.E.; Toburen, L.H.

    1980-07-01

    The stochastic energy concentrations randomly deposited in submicron volumes in and near the paths of charged particles is needed. Computational methods, especially Monte Carlo methods, required a comprehensive set of basic interaction cross sections for the primary and all secondary radiation products. Of particular importance for high LET radiations are the cross sections for the production of energetic secondary electrons, delta-rays, in primary ionizing events. In this paper, we review the present state of available data on the production of delta-rays by fast positive ions in collision with targets of biological interest. The systematics in the cross sections for proton ionization of molecular targets are discussed, indicating what scaling is possible and summarizing what can be concluded regarding the dependence of the mean delta-ray energies on the chemical makeup of the medium. A comparison of typical data is made with the binary-encounter approximation to illustrate the limitations of this theoretical treatment of the ionization process. A bibliography of relevant published works on this topic is included.

  7. Compact exponential product formulas and operator functional derivative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new scheme for deriving compact expressions of the logarithm of the exponential product is proposed and it is applied to several exponential product formulas. A generalization of the Dynkin endash Specht endash Wever (DSW) theorem on free Lie elements is given, and it is used to study the relation between the traditional method (based on the DSW theorem) and the present new scheme. The concept of the operator functional derivative is also proposed, and it is applied to ordered exponentials, such as time-evolution operators for time-dependent Hamiltonians. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  8. Study of the productivity evolution in the operation of CLAB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SKB shall every year, on behalf of the power companies, send SKI a cost calculation for spent fuel handling and dismantling of the Swedish nuclear power plants. SKI has tried to investigate the future impact which the growth of money in the Nuclear Waste Fund might give in relation to the change of consumer price index, CPI. The long term yield of the Fund has been related to the change of CPI, as the bigger part of the fund money has been invested in real interest rate bonds. The cost development has been studied by SKI with an index named 'KBS-3-index', which is a basket of weighted factor price indexes made out of the SKB programme. Since 1986 and up to 1998, the KBS-3-index has increased about 14% more than CPI. If this discrepancy should continue during the whole period when Fund money should be available, the Fund would be insufficient. But the difference between KBS-3-index and CPI might be eliminated due to a future productivity development. At the moment, SKI has no knowledge about future productivity development in the SKB programme. A closer analysis of the facilities operated by SKB is therefore important. Nearest to study is the productivity at the operation of CLAB, Central Interim Storage Facility for Spent Nuclear Fuel. The work in CLAB is receiving and storing of spent nuclear fuel and core components and reloading from normal to compact cassettes. The consumption of all production factors can be measured in money. Here the total production factors are defined as the sum of the annual operation costs and the sum of annuities for reinvestments during the year. The development for total productivity is slightly increasing. Normal for a new business is that the productivity rises sharply in the beginning. Here the productivity is slightly decreasing in the beginning, and then rising, sinking and at last a sharp rising. Project compact storing was finished in 1992, and relocation to compact cassettes started in 1993. This is said to be the reason for

  9. Modelling and operation of reactors for enzymatic biodiesel production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Price, Jason Anthony

    to increase profits while reducing operating cost, as well as meeting government and regulatory pressures for processes to be environmentally friendly and sustainable. Current applications of biocatalysts, more specifically, enzymes for large scale bulk production of chemicals have been successfully applied...... to the production of high fructose corn syrup, upgrading of fats and oils and biodiesel production to name a few. Despite these examples of industrial enzymatic applications, it is still not “clear cut” how to implement biocatalyst in industry and how best to optimize the processes. This is because the processing...... strategy is usually different to most traditional catalytic processes. In nature, enzymes operate at much lower substrate and product concentrations compared to most industrial chemical processes. What this means is that the natural conditions for biocatalysts are normally much different from conventional...

  10. Shifting from Production to Service to Experience-Based Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelis, Jannis; de Lima, Edson Pinheiro

    This chapter covers the shift in focus of value added business operations from ­production to services, and in turn, to experience-based operations where customer involvement itself becomes part of the offering. The shift has significant implications for how businesses are managed. The greater service focus affects the firm's unique value proposition, which necessitates considerations on strategy, supplier relations, post-sale offerings and so on. Meanwhile, the inclusion of customer ­experiences affect the way operations are designed and employed so that these are structurally systematically captured and capitalised.

  11. Operation of the computer model for direct atomic oxygen exposure of Earth satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassa, R. J.; Gruenbaum, P. E.; Gillis, J. R.; Hargraves, C. R.

    1995-01-01

    One of the primary causes of material degradation in low Earth orbit (LEO) is exposure to atomic oxygen. When atomic oxygen molecules collide with an orbiting spacecraft, the relative velocity is 7 to 8 km/sec and the collision energy is 4 to 5 eV per atom. Under these conditions, atomic oxygen may initiate a number of chemical and physical reactions with exposed materials. These reactions contribute to material degradation, surface erosion, and contamination. Interpretation of these effects on materials and the design of space hardware to withstand on-orbit conditions requires quantitative knowledge of the atomic oxygen exposure environment. Atomic oxygen flux is a function of orbit altitude, the orientation of the orbit plan to the Sun, solar and geomagnetic activity, and the angle between exposed surfaces and the spacecraft heading. We have developed a computer model to predict the atomic oxygen exposure of spacecraft in low Earth orbit. The application of this computer model is discussed.

  12. Research on operation optimization of multi-product pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Y.; Gong, J.; Kang, Z.; Yang, F. [Petroleum Univ., Beijing (China). College of Petroleum Engineering

    2004-07-01

    In order to operate complex, long-distance pipelines safely and efficiently while meeting energy demands, operators require offline optimization simulation software. This paper presented the newly developed STROBER software for simulating the operations of multi-product pipelines whose hydraulic characteristics vary continuously with batch movement in the pipeline. The software was based on a mathematical model that optimized the configuration of pumps in order to minimize the electricity costs associated with operating a multi-product pipeline. The energy conservation equation met the following restraining factors: the flow rate in an initial pumping station was as stable as possible for specific periods of time; the inlet and outlet pressures of the pumping stations and the pressures of some special points were within the preset limits; and, the off-take task was completed during a prescribed time. The optimization theory was solved using dynamic programming. The peak-to-valley ratio of electricity price was also taken into consideration in order to encourage pipeline companies to consume most electricity during off-peak periods of the electrical network. The STROBER software was successfully applied in the start-up and current operation of the LanZhou-ChengDu-ChongQing multi-product pipeline in China. This complex pipeline includes 13 off-take stations, 2 pressure-reducing stations and 4 pumping stations. The software provided off-take plans and information on pressure control. 8 refs., 2 tabs., 4 figs.

  13. Concept of Operations Visualization in Support of Ares I Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, James H.; Smith, Daid Alan

    2008-01-01

    Boeing was selected in 2007 to manufacture Ares I Upper Stage and Instrument Unit according to NASA's design which would require the use of the latest manufacturing and integration processes to meet NASA budget and schedule targets. Past production experience has established that the majority of the life cycle cost is established during the initial design process. Concept of Operations (CONOPs) visualizations/simulations help to reduce life cycle cost during the early design stage. Production and operation visualizations can reduce tooling, factory capacity, safety, and build process risks while spreading program support across government, academic, media and public constituencies. The NASA/Boeing production visualization (DELMIA; Digital Enterprise Lean Manufacturing Interactive Application) promotes timely, concurrent and collaborative producibility analysis (Boeing)while supporting Upper Stage Design Cycles (NASA). The DELMIA CONOPs visualization reduced overall Upper Stage production flow time at the manufacturing facility by over 100 man-days to 312.5 man-days and helped to identify technical access issues. The NASA/Boeing Interactive Concept of Operations (ICON) provides interactive access to Ares using real mission parameters, allows users to configure the mission which encourages ownership and identifies areas for improvement, allows mission operations or spacecraft detail to be added as needed, and provides an effective, low coast advocacy, outreach and education tool.

  14. The productive operating theatre and lean thinking systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasivisvanathan, R; Chekairi, A

    2014-11-01

    The concept of 'lean thinking' first originated in the manufacturing industry as a means of improving productivity whilst maintaining quality through eliminating wasteful processes. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how the principles of 'lean thinking' are relevant to healthcare and the operating theatre, with reference to our own institutional experience.

  15. Problem-Based Learning for Production and Operations Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanet, John J.; Barut, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we describe our application of "problem-based learning" in the teaching of production/operations management. We describe a study of the effectiveness of this approach and present the results and analysis of this study. We provide a collection of our experiences in using this method and conclude with some general…

  16. Three-cocycles and the operator product expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anomalous contributions to the Jacobi identity of chromoelectric fields and non-Abelian vector currents are calculated using a nonperturbative approach that combines operator product expansion and a generalization of the Bjorken-Johnson-Low limit. The failure of the Jacobi identity and the associated three-cocycles are discussed. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Composition of quantum operations and products of random matrices

    CERN Document Server

    Roga, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2011-01-01

    Spectral properties of evolution operators corresponding to random maps and quantized chaotic systems strongly interacting with an environment can be described by the ensemble of non-hermitian random matrices from the real Ginibre ensemble. We analyze evolution operators Psi=Psi_s...Psi_1 representing the composition of s random maps and demonstrate that their complex eigenvalues are asymptotically described by the law of Burda et al. obtained for a product of s independent random complex Ginibre matrices. Numerical data support the conjecture that the same results are applicable to characterize the distribution of eigenvalues of the s-th power of a random Ginibre matrix. Squared singular values of Psi are shown to be described by the Fuss-Catalan distribution of order s. Results obtained for products of random Ginibre matrices are also capable to describe the s-step evolution operator for a model deterministic dynamical system - a generalized quantum baker map subjected to strong interaction with an environm...

  18. Analysis of 2015 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2016-02-19

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted to process the meteorological tower data for the 2015 calendar year from both on-site meteorological towers.

  19. Analysis of 2014 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, Fernando J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-02-25

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted by KAPL to process the on-site data for the calendar year 2014.

  20. Monitoring operational data production applying Big Data tooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Som de Cerff, Wim; de Jong, Hotze; van den Berg, Roy; Bos, Jeroen; Oosterhoff, Rijk; Klein Ikkink, Henk Jan; Haga, Femke; Elsten, Tom; Verhoef, Hans; Koutek, Michal; van de Vegte, John

    2015-04-01

    Within the KNMI Deltaplan programme for improving the KNMI operational infrastructure an new fully automated system for monitoring the KNMI operational data production systems is being developed: PRISMA (PRocessflow Infrastructure Surveillance and Monitoring Application). Currently the KNMI operational (24/7) production systems consist of over 60 applications, running on different hardware systems and platforms. They are interlinked for the production of numerous data products, which are delivered to internal and external customers. All applications are individually monitored by different applications, complicating root cause and impact analysis. Also, the underlying hardware and network is monitored separately using Zabbix. Goal of the new system is to enable production chain monitoring, which enables root cause analysis (what is the root cause of the disruption) and impact analysis (what other products will be effected). The PRISMA system will make it possible to dispose all the existing monitoring applications, providing one interface for monitoring the data production. For modeling the production chain, the Neo4j Graph database is used to store and query the model. The model can be edited through the PRISMA web interface, but is mainly automatically provided by the applications and systems which are to be monitored. The graph enables us to do root case and impact analysis. The graph can be visualized in the PRISMA web interface on different levels. Each 'monitored object' in the model will have a status (OK, error, warning, unknown). This status is derived by combing all log information available. For collecting and querying the log information Splunk is used. The system is developed using Scrum, by a multi-disciplinary team consisting of analysts, developers, a tester and interaction designer. In the presentation we will focus on the lessons learned working with the 'Big data' tooling Splunk and Neo4J.

  1. Intelligent decision-making models for production and retail operations

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Zhaoxia

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of intelligent decision-making techniques and discusses their application in production and retail operations. Manufacturing and retail enterprises have stringent standards for using advanced and reliable techniques to improve decision-making processes, since these processes have significant effects on the performance of relevant operations and the entire supply chain. In recent years, researchers have been increasingly focusing attention on using intelligent techniques to solve various decision-making problems. The opening chapters provide an introduction to several commonly used intelligent techniques, such as genetic algorithm, harmony search, neural network and extreme learning machine. The book then explores the use of these techniques for handling various production and retail decision-making problems, such as production planning and scheduling, assembly line balancing, and sales forecasting.

  2. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms. PMID:27394094

  3. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R.

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  4. Matrix product operators, matrix product states, and ab initio density matrix renormalization group algorithms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Garnet Kin-Lic; Keselman, Anna; Nakatani, Naoki; Li, Zhendong; White, Steven R

    2016-07-01

    Current descriptions of the ab initio density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm use two superficially different languages: an older language of the renormalization group and renormalized operators, and a more recent language of matrix product states and matrix product operators. The same algorithm can appear dramatically different when written in the two different vocabularies. In this work, we carefully describe the translation between the two languages in several contexts. First, we describe how to efficiently implement the ab initio DMRG sweep using a matrix product operator based code, and the equivalence to the original renormalized operator implementation. Next we describe how to implement the general matrix product operator/matrix product state algebra within a pure renormalized operator-based DMRG code. Finally, we discuss two improvements of the ab initio DMRG sweep algorithm motivated by matrix product operator language: Hamiltonian compression, and a sum over operators representation that allows for perfect computational parallelism. The connections and correspondences described here serve to link the future developments with the past and are important in the efficient implementation of continuing advances in ab initio DMRG and related algorithms.

  5. Methods and apparatus of spatially resolved electroluminescence of operating organic light-emitting diodes using conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersam, Mark C. (Inventor); Pingree, Liam S. C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique which can concurrently monitor topography, charge transport, and electroluminescence with nanometer spatial resolution. This cAFM approach is particularly well suited for probing the electroluminescent response characteristics of operating organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) over short length scales.

  6. Assessing the Engagement, Learning, and Overall Experience of Students Operating an Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer with Remote Access Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasmus, Daniel J.; Brewer, Sharon E.; Cinel, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    The use of internet-based technologies in the teaching of laboratories has emerged as a promising education tool. This study evaluated the effectiveness of using remote access technology to operate an atomic absorption spectrophotometer in analyzing the iron content in a crude myoglobin extract. Sixty-two students were surveyed on their level of…

  7. Biohydrogen Production from Simple Carbohydrates with Optimization of Operating Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Petra; Osojnik-Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Djinovič, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen could be alternative energy carrier in the future as well as source for chemical and fuel synthesis due to its high energy content, environmentally friendly technology and zero carbon emissions. In particular, conversion of organic substrates to hydrogen via dark fermentation process is of great interest. The aim of this study was fermentative hydrogen production using anaerobic mixed culture using different carbon sources (mono and disaccharides) and further optimization by varying a number of operating parameters (pH value, temperature, organic loading, mixing intensity). Among all tested mono- and disaccharides, glucose was shown as the preferred carbon source exhibiting hydrogen yield of 1.44 mol H(2)/mol glucose. Further evaluation of selected operating parameters showed that the highest hydrogen yield (1.55 mol H(2)/mol glucose) was obtained at the initial pH value of 6.4, T=37 °C and organic loading of 5 g/L. The obtained results demonstrate that lower hydrogen yield at all other conditions was associated with redirection of metabolic pathways from butyric and acetic (accompanied by H(2) production) to lactic (simultaneous H(2) production is not mandatory) acid production. These results therefore represent an important foundation for the optimization and industrial-scale production of hydrogen from organic substrates. PMID:26970800

  8. Biohydrogen Production from Simple Carbohydrates with Optimization of Operating Parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muri, Petra; Osojnik-Črnivec, Ilja Gasan; Djinovič, Petar; Pintar, Albin

    2016-01-01

    Hydrogen could be alternative energy carrier in the future as well as source for chemical and fuel synthesis due to its high energy content, environmentally friendly technology and zero carbon emissions. In particular, conversion of organic substrates to hydrogen via dark fermentation process is of great interest. The aim of this study was fermentative hydrogen production using anaerobic mixed culture using different carbon sources (mono and disaccharides) and further optimization by varying a number of operating parameters (pH value, temperature, organic loading, mixing intensity). Among all tested mono- and disaccharides, glucose was shown as the preferred carbon source exhibiting hydrogen yield of 1.44 mol H(2)/mol glucose. Further evaluation of selected operating parameters showed that the highest hydrogen yield (1.55 mol H(2)/mol glucose) was obtained at the initial pH value of 6.4, T=37 °C and organic loading of 5 g/L. The obtained results demonstrate that lower hydrogen yield at all other conditions was associated with redirection of metabolic pathways from butyric and acetic (accompanied by H(2) production) to lactic (simultaneous H(2) production is not mandatory) acid production. These results therefore represent an important foundation for the optimization and industrial-scale production of hydrogen from organic substrates.

  9. Atomic clocks based on extened-cavity diode laser in multimode operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yim, Sin; Cho, D.

    2011-05-01

    We demonstrated the possibilities to develope an atomic clock based on coherent population trapping (CPT) without using a local oscillator and a modulator. Instead of using a modulator, we use two modes from a single extended-cavity diode laser in multimode operation. Two different types of feedback system are applied to stabilize a difference frequency between the two modes and eliminate the need for an extra frequency modulation. In the first type, we employ an electronic feedback using dispersion of the CPT resonance as an error signal. The two modes are phase locked with reference to a dispersion signal from a CPT resonance of 85Rb at 3.036 GHz ground hyperfine splitting. We use D1 transition at 794.8 nm with lin ⊥lin polarizations to obtain large-contrast CPT signal. Allan deviation of the beat frequency between the two modes is 1 ×10-10 at 200-s integration time. In the second type, we employ optoelectronic feedback to construct an opto-electronic oscillator (OEO). In an OEO, the beating signal between two modes is recovered by a fast photodiode, and its output is amplified and fed back to the laser diode by using a direct modulation of an injection current. When the OEO loop is closed, oscillation frequency depends on variations of the loop length. In order to stabilize an OEO loop length and thereby its oscillation frequency, CPT cell is inserted to play a role of microwave band pass filter. Allan deviation of the CPT-stabilized OEO is 2 ×10-10 at 100-s integration time.

  10. A co-operative mechanism of subthreshold pion production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a statistical model to study the pion production at subthreshold beam energies (< 290 MeV/A). This model involves the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. We also consider the formation of the fragments in the final channel along side the produced pion. Calculations performed within the model provide a good overall description of the experimental data over a wide range of beam energies and masses of the participating nuclei. Fragment formation in the final channel is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data. (orig.)

  11. Enhanced efficiency in the excitation of higher modes for atomic force microscopy and mechanical sensors operated in liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penedo, M., E-mail: mapenedo@imm.cnm.csic.es; Hormeño, S.; Fernández-Martínez, I.; Luna, M.; Briones, F. [IMM-Instituto de Microelectrónica de Madrid (CNM-CSIC), Isaac Newton 8, PTM, E-28760 Tres Cantos, Madrid (Spain); Raman, A. [Birck Nanotechnology Center and School of Mechanical Engineering, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47904 (United States)

    2014-10-27

    Recent developments in dynamic Atomic Force Microscopy where several eigenmodes are simultaneously excited in liquid media are proving to be an excellent tool in biological studies. Despite its relevance, the search for a reliable, efficient, and strong cantilever excitation method is still in progress. Herein, we present a theoretical modeling and experimental results of different actuation methods compatible with the operation of Atomic Force Microscopy in liquid environments: ideal acoustic, homogeneously distributed force, distributed applied torque (MAC Mode™), photothermal and magnetostrictive excitation. From the analysis of the results, it can be concluded that magnetostriction is the strongest and most efficient technique for higher eigenmode excitation when using soft cantilevers in liquid media.

  12. Exponential decay for products of Fourier integral operators

    CERN Document Server

    Anantharaman, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    This text contains an alternative presentation, and in certain cases an improvement, of the "hyperbolic dispersive estimate" that was proved by Anantharaman and Nonnenmacher and used to make progress towards the quantum unique ergodicity conjecture. The main statement is a sufficient condition to have exponential decay of the norm of a product of sub-unitary Fourier integral operators. The improved estimate will also be needed in future work of the author.

  13. Exponential decay for products of Fourier integral operators

    OpenAIRE

    Anantharaman, Nalini

    2010-01-01

    This text contains an alternative presentation, and in certain cases an improvement, of the ``hyperbolic dispersive estimate'' that was proved by Anantharaman and Nonnenmacher and used to make progress towards the quantum unique ergodicity conjecture. The main statement is a sufficient condition to have exponential decay of the norm of a product of sub-unitary Fourier integral operators. The improved estimate will also be needed in future work of the author.

  14. International academic production in operations management: a bibliometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Valdir Antonio Vitorino Filho; Silvio Roberto Ignácio Pires; Mário Sacomano Neto; Eliciane Maria da Silva; João Batista de Camargo Júnior; Jane Corrêa Alves Mendonça

    2015-01-01

    This article aims to examine the academic production about Operations Management in articles published in international journals indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge. The research evaluates publications from 2002 to 2012 and uses bibliometric techniques to investigate questions like: what are the authors who have most publications on the subject, what are the years, countries and journals in which the articles were published and, also, the presentation of the most co-cited authors in the reference...

  15. Production of antihydrogen at reduced magnetic field for anti-atom trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Boston, A; Bowe, P D; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Chartier, M; Deutsch, A; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Funakoshi, R; Gill, D R; Gomberoff, K; Hangst, J S; Hayano, R S; Hydomako, R; Jenkins, M J; Jørgensen, L V; Kurchaninov, L; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Page, R D; Povilus, A; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2008-01-01

    We have demonstrated production of antihydrogen in a 1$,$T solenoidal magnetic field. This field strength is significantly smaller than that used in the first generation experiments ATHENA (3$,$T) and ATRAP (5$,$T). The motivation for using a smaller magnetic field is to facilitate trapping of antihydrogen atoms in a neutral atom trap surrounding the production region. We report the results of measurements with the ALPHA (Antihydrogen Laser PHysics Apparatus) device, which can capture and cool antiprotons at 3$,$T, and then mix the antiprotons with positrons at 1$,$T. We infer antihydrogen production from the time structure of antiproton annihilations during mixing, using mixing with heated positrons as the null experiment, as demonstrated in ATHENA. Implications for antihydrogen trapping are discussed.

  16. Federal Environmental Regulations Impacting Hydrocarbon Exploration, Drilling, and Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carroll, Herbert B.; Johnson, William I.

    1999-04-27

    Waste handling and disposal from hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production are regulated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) through federal and state regulations and/or through implementation of federal regulations. Some wastes generated in these operations are exempt under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) but are not exempt under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA), and other federal environmental laws. Exempt wastes remain exempt only if they are not mixed with hazardous wastes or hazardous substances. Once mixture occurs, the waste must be disposed as a hazardous material in an approved hazardous waste disposal facility. Before the Clean Air Act as amended in 1990, air emissions from production, storage, steam generation, and compression facilities associated with hydrocarbon exploration, drilling, and production industry were not regulated. A critical proposed regulatory change which will significantly effect Class II injection wells for disposal of produced brine and injection for enhanced oil recovery is imminent. Federal regulations affecting hydrocarbon exploration, drilling and production, proposed EPA regulatory changes, and a recent significant US Court of Appeals decision are covered in this report. It appears that this industry will, in the future, fall under more stringent environmental regulations leading to increased costs for operators.

  17. Production of a planar squeezed state in a cold atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colangelo, Giorgio; Ciurana, Ferran Martin; Sewell, Robert J.; Mitchell, Morgan W.

    2016-05-01

    Production of squeezed states is of great interest for quantum metrology and allows production of exotic highly entangled spin states, a powerful resource for quantum simulators. However, while canonical variables such as quadratures of the radiation field can be squeezed in at most one component, a planar quantum squeezed (PQS) state, where two orthogonal spin components are simultaneously squeezed can be achieved due to the angular momentum commutation relations. Such states have recently attracted attention due to their potential applications in atomic interferometry and quantum information. Here we report the generation of a PQS state by coherently rotate the collective spin of a cold atomic ensemble of more than one million atoms . We induce spin squeezing through quantum non-demolition (QND) measurements and a coherent rotation by an external magnetic field that rotates a coherent spin state on a plane. This allows us to successively measure and squeeze two components of the atomic spin, while maintaining a large spin polarization (coherence) in the plane. We observe 3dB of spin squeezing and quantum enhanced sensitivity in the estimation of the magnetic field for any angle in the rotation plane, and detect entanglement by using generalized spin squeezing inequalities.

  18. Production of relativistic antihydrogen atoms by pair production with positron capture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Charles T.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Schmidt, Ivan

    1994-04-01

    A beam of relativistic antihydrogen atoms, the bound state (p¯e+), can be created by circulating the beam of an antiproton storage ring through an internal gas target. An antiproton that passes through the Coulomb field of a nucleus of charge Z will create e+e- pairs, and antihydrogen will form when a positron is created in a bound rather than a continuum state about the antiproton. The cross section for this process is calculated to be ~4Z2 pb for antiproton momenta above 6 GeV/c. The gas target of Fermilab Accumulator experiment E760 has already produced ~34 unobserved antihydrogen atoms, and a sample of ~760 is expected in 1995 from the successive experiment E835. No other source of antihydrogen exists. A simple method for detecting relativistic antihydrogen is proposed and a method outlined of measuring the antihydrogen Lamb shift to ~1%.

  19. Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope ⁸⁷Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiming; Hong, Yelong; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an extended cavity Faraday laser system using an antireflection-coated laser diode as the gain medium and the isotope (87)Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as the frequency selective device. Using this method, the laser wavelength works stably at the highest transmission peak of the isotope (87)Rb FADOF over the laser diode current from 55 to 140 mA and the temperature from 15°C to 35°C. Neither the current nor the temperature of the laser diode has significant influence on the output frequency. Compared with previous extended cavity laser systems operating at frequencies irrelevant to spectacular atomic transition lines, the laser system realized here provides a stable laser source with the frequency operating on atomic transitions for many practical applications. PMID:26371933

  20. Diode laser operating on an atomic transition limited by an isotope ⁸⁷Rb Faraday filter at 780 nm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Zhiming; Hong, Yelong; Luo, Bin; Chen, Jingbiao; Guo, Hong

    2015-09-15

    We demonstrate an extended cavity Faraday laser system using an antireflection-coated laser diode as the gain medium and the isotope (87)Rb Faraday anomalous dispersion optical filter (FADOF) as the frequency selective device. Using this method, the laser wavelength works stably at the highest transmission peak of the isotope (87)Rb FADOF over the laser diode current from 55 to 140 mA and the temperature from 15°C to 35°C. Neither the current nor the temperature of the laser diode has significant influence on the output frequency. Compared with previous extended cavity laser systems operating at frequencies irrelevant to spectacular atomic transition lines, the laser system realized here provides a stable laser source with the frequency operating on atomic transitions for many practical applications.

  1. On the Self-adjointness of the Product Operators of Two mth-Order Differential Operators on [0, +∞)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ye AN; Jiong SUN

    2004-01-01

    In the present paper, the self-adjointness of the product of two mth-order differential operators on [0, +∞) is studied. By means of the construction theory of self-adjoint operators and matrix computation, we obtain a sufficient and necessary condition to ensure that the product operator is self-adjoint, which extends the results in the second order case.

  2. Development of the process for production of UO2 powder by atomization of uranyl nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of direct conversion of uranyl nitrate hexahydrate (UNH) solution to ceramic grade uranium dioxide powders by thermal denitration in a furnace that combines atomization nozzle and a gas stirred bed is described. The main purpose of this work is to show that this alternative process is technically viable, specially if the recovery of the scrap generated in the nuclear fuel pellet production is required, without further generation of new liquid wastes. The steps for the development of the denitration unit as well as the characteristics of the final powders are described. Powder production experiments have been carried out for different atomization gas pressures and furnace upper section temperatures. Determination of impurity content, specific surface area, particle size and pore size distribution, density, U content, and O/U rate of uranium dioxide powders have been done; phase identification and morphology studies have also been performed. Sintered pellets have been studied by hydrostatic density determination and microstructure analyses. (author)

  3. Production of relativistic positronium in collisions of photons and electrons with nuclei and atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Gevorkyan, S R; Schiller, A; Serbo, V G; Tarasov, A V

    1998-01-01

    We consider the production of ultrarelativistic positronium (Ps) in $\\gamma A is an atom or a nucleus with charge $Ze$. For the photoproduction of para- and ortho-Ps and the electroproduction of para-Ps we obtain the most complete description compared with previous works. It includes high order $Z \\alpha$ corrections and polarization effects. The accuracy of the obtained cross sections is determined by omitted terms of the order of the inverse Ps Lorentz factor squared. The studied high order multi-photon electroproduction of ortho-Ps dominates for the collision of electrons with heavy atoms over the bremsstrahlung production from the electron via a virtual photon proposed by Holvik and Olsen. Our results complete and correct the studies of those authors.

  4. K-Vacancy Production in the Collision of Highly Charged Relativistic Ions With Heavy Atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Khabibullaev, P. K.

    2000-01-01

    A general expression for the cross section of the inelastic collision of relativistic highly charged ion with heavy (relativistic) atoms is obtained using the generalized eikonal approximation. In the ultrarelativistic limit, the obtained formula coincides with a known exact one. As an application of the obtained result, probability and cross section of the K-vacany production in the U92+ - U91+ collision are calculated.

  5. Scientometric Dimensions of Innovation Communication Productivity of the Chemistry Division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Kademani, B. S.; Surwase, Ganesh; Anil Sagar, *; Lalit Mohan; Gaderao, C. R.; Anil Kumar; Kalyane, V. L.; Prakasan, E.R.; Vijai Kumar, *

    2005-01-01

    Scientrometric analysis of 1733 papers published by the teams comprising total of 926 participating scientists at Chemistry Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) during 1970-1999 in the domains: Radiation & Photochemistry and Chemical Dynamics (649), Solid State Studies (558), Inorganic, Structural and Materials Chemistry (460) and Theoretical Chemistry (66) were analysed for yearwise productivity, authorship pattern and collaboration. The highest number of publicationsin a year we...

  6. Publication productivity of the Bio-organic division at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre : a scientometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Kademani, B. S.; Vijai Kumar, *; Anil Kumar; Anil Sagar, *; Lalit Mohan; Surwase, Ganesh; Gaderao, C. R.

    2005-01-01

    Attempts to analyse quantitatively 475 papers published by the Bio-Organic Division of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre during 1972–2002 in various domains like Synthesis (202), Bioorganic Chemistry (100), Biotechnology (70), Natural Products (53), Waste Management (30), Supra-molecular Chemistry (18) and Organic Spectroscopy (2). The highest number of publications in a year were 38 in 2001. The average number of publications per year was 15.3 and the highest collaboration coefficient 1.0 was fo...

  7. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI\\muP facility

    OpenAIRE

    Traykov, E.; Dammalapati, U.; De, S.; Dermois, O. C.; Huisman, L.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Mol, A. J.; Onderwater, C.J.G.(Van Swinderen Institute, University of Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands); Rogachevskiy, A.; Silva, M. da Silva e; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W.

    2007-01-01

    The structures for the TRI$\\mu$P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides are produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atoms in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample for precision measurements. In the TRI$\\mu$P facility a production target is followed by a magnetic separator, where radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse reaction kinematics. Separation ...

  8. Realization of Three-Qubit Controlled-Phase Gate Operation with Atoms in Cavity QED System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Shi-Qing; ZHANG Deng-Yu; XIE Li-Jun; ZHAN Xiao-Gui; GAO Feng

    2009-01-01

    We propose a scheme for realization of three-qubit controlled-phase gate via passing two three-level atoms through a high-Q optical cavity in a cavity QED system. In the presented protocol, the two stable ground states of the atoms act as the two controlling qubits and the zero- and one-photon Fock states of the cavity-field form the target qubit, and no auxiliary state or any measurement is required. The numerical simulation shows that the gate fidelities remain at a high level under the influence of the atomic spontaneous emission, the decay of the cavity mode and deviation of the coupling strength. The experimental feasibility of our proposal is also discussed.

  9. 12-hour-shift plant schedule improves operator productivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twelve-hour scheduling has been a mainstay of the petrochemical industry, is common in the papermill industry, and is relatively new to the nuclear utility industry. A review of industry experiences, research, and a federal Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) study of the 12-hour shift (NUREG/CR-4248) demonstrate that the advantages outweigh the disadvantages. The primary advantages are greater job satisfaction, fewer errors, and the better communications inherent in two shift turnovers versus three. Several companies that implemented the 12-hour shift found an increase in employee morale, no adverse effect on worker health, and no decline in safety. They experienced greater productivity, fewer operator errors, and better communication

  10. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) for CEO Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenchard, Mike; Heydorn, James

    2014-01-01

    Late in fiscal year 2011, the Crew Earth Observations (CEO) team was tasked to upgrade and replace its mission planning and mission operations software systems, which were developed in the Space Shuttle era of the 1980s and 1990s. The impetuses for this change were the planned transition of all workstations to the Windows 7 64-bit operating system and the desire for more efficient and effective use of Satellite Tool Kit (STK) software required for reliable International Space Station (ISS) Earth location tracking. An additional requirement of this new system was the use of the same SQL database of CEO science sites from the SMMS, which was also being developed. STK Integrated Message Production List Editor (SIMPLE) is the essential, all-in-one tool now used by CEO staff to perform daily ISS mission planning to meet its requirement to acquire astronaut photography of specific sites on Earth. The sites are part of a managed, long-term database that has been defined and developed for scientific, educational, and public interest. SIMPLE's end product is a set of basic time and location data computed for an operator-selected set of targets that the ISS crew will be asked to photograph (photography is typically planned 12 to 36 hours out). The CEO operator uses SIMPLE to (a) specify a payload operations planning period; (b) acquire and validate the best available ephemeris data (vectors) for the ISS during the planning period; (c) ingest and display mission-specific site information from the CEO database; (d) identify and display potential current dynamic event targets as map features; (e) compute and display time and location information for each target; (f) screen and select targets based on known crew availability constraints, obliquity constraints, and real-time evaluated constraints to target visibility due to illumination (sun elevation) and atmospheric conditions (weather); and finally (g) incorporate basic, computed time and location information for each selected

  11. Production of excited atomic hydrogen and deuterium from H2 and D2photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J.D.; Furst, J.E.; Gay, T.J.; Gould, H.; Kilcoyne, A.L.D.; Machacek, J.R.; Martin, F.; McLaughlin, K.W.; Sanz-Vicario, J.L.

    2006-09-17

    We have measured the production of both Ly alpha and H alphafluorescence from atomic H and D for the photodissociation of H2 and D2by linearly polarized photons with energies between 24 and 60 eV. In thisenergy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the productionof doubly excited molecular species which promptly autoionize ordissociate into two neutrals. Our data are compared with ab initiocalculations of the dissociation process, in which both doubly excitedstate production and prompt ionization (nonresonant) channels areconsidered. Agreement between our experimental data and that of earlierwork, and with our theoretical calculations, is qualitative atbest.

  12. Blended Hydrometeorological Products for the Research and Operational Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidder, S. Q.; Vonder Haar, T. H.; Forsythe, J.

    2013-12-01

    With advances in environmental parameter retrieval algorithms and their use of a wide array of satellite instruments, constantly changing views of Earth are possible. Enabling users to reap the benefits of this data requires good communication about the products. More and more, new near-realtime blended multisensor satellite products are becoming available to the weather forecaster, who must quickly decide whether the product is helpful or not. Research users of blended products can take more time to explore the suitability of these data for their applications, but communication and guidance from the data provider is essential. An effort under NASA's Making Earth Science Data Records for Use in Research Environments (MEaSUREs) program has reprocessed and extended the NASA Water Vapor Project (NVAP) dataset, which now includes data from 1988-2009. The new dataset is named NVAP-M and includes global grids of both total and layered precipitable water vapor, as well as data source codes for each grid box. NVAP-M is distributed to the weather and climate research community via the NASA Langley Atmospheric Science Data Center. The global (land and ocean) NVAP-M dataset features different product types designed to fit a variety of user needs on a variety of time scales, from weather case studies to studies of climate change and trends. In particular, a three-track approach focused on weather, climate and ocean applications was chosen. Challenges and lessons learned in communicating with the diverse user community for NVAP-M (e.g., hydrologists, weather and climate scientists, epidemiologists) will be presented. Close relatives of NVAP-M are the NOAA Operational Blended Total Precipitable Water and Blended Rain Rate products. These products are available hourly in near-real time to National Weather Service forecast offices and are valuable for precipitation analysis and forecasting. They are created from a composite of passive microwave instruments on board typically six

  13. The Effect of Nozzle Design and Operating Conditions on the Atomization and Distribution of Fuel Sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dana W

    1933-01-01

    The atomization and distribution characteristics of fuel sprays from automatic injection valves for compression-ignition engines were determined by catching the fuel drops on smoked-glass plates, and then measuring and counting the impressions made in the lampblack. The experiments were made in an air-tight chamber in which the air density was raised to values corresponding to engine conditions.

  14. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,mf=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,mf=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,mf=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The last chapter

  15. Operating the LCG and EGEE Production Grids for HEP

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2004-01-01

    In September 2003 the first LCG-1 service was put into production at most of the large Tier 1 sites and was quickly expanded up to 30 Tier 1 and Tier 2 sites by the end of the year. Several software upgrades were made and the LCG-2 service was put into production in time for the experiment data challenges that began in February 2004 and continued for several months. In particular LCG-2 introduced transparent access to mass storage and managed disk-only storage elements, and a first release of the Grid File Access library. Much valuable experience was gained during the data challenges in all aspects from the functionality and use of the middleware, to the deployment, maintenance, and operation of the services at many sites. Based on this experience a program of work to address the functional and operational issues is being implemented. The goal is to focus on essential areas such as data management and to build by the end of 2004 a basic grid system capable of handling the basic needs of LHC c...

  16. International academic production in operations management: a bibliometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Antonio Vitorino Filho

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to examine the academic production about Operations Management in articles published in international journals indexed in ISI Web of Knowledge. The research evaluates publications from 2002 to 2012 and uses bibliometric techniques to investigate questions like: what are the authors who have most publications on the subject, what are the years, countries and journals in which the articles were published and, also, the presentation of the most co-cited authors in the references. In total the study verified 110 articles and 4545 references to the term Operations Management, 6644 articles and 274 references to the term Production Management and 49 articles and 1250 references to the term Manufacturing Management. The research results show that (a there isn't a concentration of authors who have published several articles about the subjects; (b the years with the largest number of publications are 2007 and 2010, totaling 24,48 % of the total analyzed; (c the United States is the country which has the greatest number of publications, with 26,33% of all analyzed articles; (d Williamson (1975, Dyer and Singh (1998, Granovetter (1985 and Uzzi (1997 were identified as the most co-cited authors in the references.

  17. Production of quiescent collisionless plasma over a wide operating range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental study of waves and instabilities and their contribution to transport of particles and energy in a magnetized plasma device has been an integral part of the research dedicated towards the achievement of controlled nuclear fusion. However, it is quite difficult to study them comprehensively in complex systems like Tokamak, because of the noisy environment and small time and space scales involved. To study delicate effects like universal instabilities and its effect in anomalous diffusion, a number of linear devices with low noise plasma source have been designed in the past with varying degrees of success, however with several limitations. We report the production of quiescent magnetized plasma column over a wide operating range using multifilamentary source with low filament spacing in cusp geometry along with a flexible transition magnetic field region between the plasma source chamber and the main chamber. The new device has a much wider operating range and much greater flexibility than other existing quiescent plasma sources like Q machines etc. Quiescent magnetized plasma (δn/n ≤1%) is produced over a wide operating range by operating the system in low mirror ratio (Rm = Bmain/Bsource) configuration. Demonstrating the effectiveness of this method magnetized argon plasma with low density fluctuation δn/n≤1% have been produced in the pressure range ∼ 5 x 10-5 to 10-3 mbar, 109 to 1090 G magnetic field achieving a density of ∼ 1010 to 1012 cm-3 and temperature of ∼ 2 to 5 eV. The cause for the reduction in density fluctuation at lower mirror ratio is discussed. (author)

  18. Products pipelines facing major operational changes. Lead phasedown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teel, H.L.

    1985-06-01

    This paper studies the impact which the US Environmental Protection Agency's new standards for lead in gasoline will have on petroleum products pipelines. The options that refiners may exercise in their approach to lead phasedown are examined. Although most refiners will have little trouble complying with the 0.1 gm/gal standard, the authors express concern in the area of handling gasoline at 0.1 gm/gal if EPA specifies a minimum lead content necessary to protect those engines that require lead. For those pipelines that operate loading terminals, the handling of sub-grades will tax existing facilities. Alcohol storage tanks must be designed to prevent water entry from rain and snow. Additional mainline monitoring will be required. The types of fuels that multi-product pipelines will be asked to handle as a result of lead phasedown is uncertain at this time. But the authors are certain that the products pipeline business is in for challenging, interesting, and perhaps, even revolutionary times.

  19. Science serving people. International Atomic Energy Agency technical co-operation for development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brochure tells the story of how the IAEA is helping to harness knowledge to promote development and deliver real benefits to the poor. It demonstrates how nuclear science and technology applications are being employed to overcome the challenges of water scarcity, food insecurity, malnutrition, malaria, environmental degradation and many other problems. It also shows how the complementary development, safety, and security initiatives of the IAEA are fulfilling the 'Atoms for Peace' mandate of the Agency in the developing world

  20. Heuristics for production scheduling problem with machining and assembly operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.M. Khodke

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with production scheduling problem in an assembly flow shop, having parts machining followed by their subsequent assembly operations. Limited heuristics available on the problem, are based on unrealistic assumption that every part is processed on all machines. In this paper, two heuristics NEH_BB and Disjunctive are proposed to solve assembly flow shop scheduling problem where every part may not be processed on each machine. Exhaustive computational experiments are conducted with 60 trials each. The methods are found to be applicable to large size problems. The objective functions used for comparison are makespan and computational time. Disjunctive method takes very less computational time as compared to NEH_BB and hence claimed to be the better among available approaches for finding solution in assembly flow shop problems.

  1. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banuls, M.C.; Cirac, J.I. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik, Garching (Germany); Cichy, K. [Frankfurt am Main Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Poznan Univ. (Poland). Faculty of Physics; DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing (NIC); Jansen, K.; Saito, H. [DESY Zeuthen (Germany). John von Neumann-Institut fuer Computing (NIC)

    2015-10-15

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  2. Thermal evolution of the Schwinger model with Matrix Product Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, M C; Cirac, J I; Jansen, K; Saito, H

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate the suitability of tensor network techniques for describing the thermal evolution of lattice gauge theories. As a benchmark case, we have studied the temperature dependence of the chiral condensate in the Schwinger model, using matrix product operators to approximate the thermal equilibrium states for finite system sizes with non-zero lattice spacings. We show how these techniques allow for reliable extrapolations in bond dimension, step width, system size and lattice spacing, and for a systematic estimation and control of all error sources involved in the calculation. The reached values of the lattice spacing are small enough to capture the most challenging region of high temperatures and the final results are consistent with the analytical prediction by Sachs and Wipf over a broad temperature range.

  3. Investigation of the diffusion of atomic fission products in UC by density functional calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bévillon, Émile, E-mail: emile.bevillon@yahoo.fr [IRSN, SEMIC, DPAM, LETR, Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France); Ducher, Roland; Barrachin, Marc; Dubourg, Roland [IRSN, SEMIC, DPAM, LETR, Centre de Cadarache, 13115 Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)

    2013-03-15

    Activation energies of U and C atoms self-diffusion in UC, as well as activation energies of hetero-diffusion of fission products (FPs) are investigated by first-principles calculations. According to a previous study which showed a likely U site occupation was favoured for all the FPs, their diffusion is restricted to the uranium sublattice of UC in the present study. In this framework, long-range displacements are only possible through a concerted mechanism with a surrounding uranium vacancy. Using the apparent formation energies of the uranium vacancy defect calculated in our previous study and the classical approach used in UO{sub 2} by Andersson et al., the activation energies of the main fission products in the various stoichiometric domains have been calculated. The results are compared to those obtained with the five frequency model applied to two representative fission products, Xe and Zr. Interestingly, despite strong differences of formalism, both models provided similar activation energies.

  4. Investigation of the diffusion of atomic fission products in UC by density functional calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bévillon, Émile; Ducher, Roland; Barrachin, Marc; Dubourg, Roland

    2013-03-01

    Activation energies of U and C atoms self-diffusion in UC, as well as activation energies of hetero-diffusion of fission products (FPs) are investigated by first-principles calculations. According to a previous study which showed a likely U site occupation was favoured for all the FPs, their diffusion is restricted to the uranium sublattice of UC in the present study. In this framework, long-range displacements are only possible through a concerted mechanism with a surrounding uranium vacancy. Using the apparent formation energies of the uranium vacancy defect calculated in our previous study and the classical approach used in UO2 by Andersson et al., the activation energies of the main fission products in the various stoichiometric domains have been calculated. The results are compared to those obtained with the five frequency model applied to two representative fission products, Xe and Zr. Interestingly, despite strong differences of formalism, both models provided similar activation energies.

  5. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with Matrix Product Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2016-01-01

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the Matrix Product States (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the non-zero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chir...

  6. Chiral condensate in the Schwinger model with matrix product operators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bañuls, Mari Carmen; Cichy, Krzysztof; Jansen, Karl; Saito, Hana

    2016-05-01

    Tensor network (TN) methods, in particular the matrix product states (MPS) ansatz, have proven to be a useful tool in analyzing the properties of lattice gauge theories. They allow for a very good precision, much better than standard Monte Carlo (MC) techniques for the models that have been studied so far, due to the possibility of reaching much smaller lattice spacings. The real reason for the interest in the TN approach, however, is its ability, shown so far in several condensed matter models, to deal with theories which exhibit the notorious sign problem in MC simulations. This makes it prospective for dealing with the nonzero chemical potential in QCD and other lattice gauge theories, as well as with real-time simulations. In this paper, using matrix product operators, we extend our analysis of the Schwinger model at zero temperature to show the feasibility of this approach also at finite temperature. This is an important step on the way to deal with the sign problem of QCD. We analyze in detail the chiral symmetry breaking in the massless and massive cases and show that the method works very well and gives good control over a broad range of temperatures, essentially from zero to infinite temperature.

  7. Weyl-Ordered Operator Moyal Bracket by Virtue of Method of Integral Within an Weyl Ordered Product of Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The Moyal bracket is an exemplification of Weyl's correspondence to formulate quantum mechancis in terms of Wigner function. Here we present a formalism of Weyl-ordered operator Moyal bracket by virtue of the method of integralwithin a Weyl ordered product of operators and the Weyl ordering operator formula.

  8. International Co-Operation on the Safety of Nuclear Power Plants within the Framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Director General has received from three Member States the following communications regarding international co-operation on the safety of nuclear power plants within the framework of the International Atomic Energy Agency: (i) Letter dated 17 May 1979 from the Federal Minister for Research and Development of the Federal Republic of Germany, together with the explanation of the proposal made by the Government of the Federal Republic of Germany; (ii) Letter dated 21 May 1979 from the Resident Representative of Brazil to the Agency; (iii) Letter dated 31 May 1979 from the Minister for Foreign Affairs of Sweden.

  9. Production of relativistic positronium in collisions of photons and electrons with nuclei and atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Gevorkyan, S. R.; Kuraev, E. A.; Schiller, A.; Serbo, V. G.; Tarasov, A. V.

    1998-01-01

    We consider the production of ultrarelativistic positronium (Ps) in $\\gamma A \\to Ps + A$ and $e A \\to Ps + e A$ processes where $A$ is an atom or a nucleus with charge $Ze$. For the photoproduction of para- and ortho-Ps and the electroproduction of para-Ps we obtain the most complete description compared with previous works. It includes high order $Z \\alpha$ corrections and polarization effects. The accuracy of the obtained cross sections is determined by omitted terms of the order of the in...

  10. Sum rules and other properties involving resonance projection operators. [for optical potential description of electron scattering from atoms and ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berk, A.; Temkin, A.

    1985-01-01

    A sum rule is derived for the auxiliary eigenvalues of an equation whose eigenspectrum pertains to projection operators which describe electron scattering from multielectron atoms and ions. The sum rule's right-hand side depends on an integral involving the target system eigenfunctions. The sum rule is checked for several approximations of the two-electron target. It is shown that target functions which have a unit eigenvalue in their auxiliary eigenspectrum do not give rise to well-defined projection operators except through a limiting process. For Hylleraas target approximations, the auxiliary equations are shown to contain an infinite spectrum. However, using a Rayleigh-Ritz variational principle, it is shown that a comparatively simple aproximation can exhaust the sum rule to better than five significant figures. The auxiliary Hylleraas equation is greatly simplified by conversion to a square root equation containing the same eigenfunction spectrum and from which the required eigenvalues are trivially recovered by squaring.

  11. 40 CFR 63.5345 - How do I distinguish between the two upholstery product process operations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... finishing line as you would for a typical section of leather. (4) After the finishing and drying process... upholstery product process operations? 63.5345 Section 63.5345 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... product process operations? (a) Product process operations that finish leather for use in automobile...

  12. Applications of Wigner's theorem to positive maps preserving norm of operator products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jinxiu

    2006-01-01

    We apply Wigner's theorem to positive maps on standard operator algebras that preserve norm of operator products or sum of singular values of operator products.It follows that such preservers are of the form (φ)(A)=UAU* with U either a unitary or antiunitary operator.

  13. Atomic mass dependence of hadron production in semi-inclusive deep inelastic lepton-nucleus scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Li-Hua; LIU Na; DUAN Chun-Gui

    2013-01-01

    Hadron production in lepton-nucleus deep inelastic scattering is studied in a quark energy loss model.The leading-order computations for hadron multiplicity ratios are presented and compared with the selected HERMES pions production data with the quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus by means of the hadron formation time.It is found that the obtained energy loss per unit length is 0.440±0.013 GeV/fm for an outgoing quark by the global fit.It is confirmed that the atomic mass number dependence of hadron attenuation is theoretically and experimentally in good agreement with the A2/3 power law for quark hadronization occurring outside the nucleus.

  14. Managing Variety in Configure-to-Order Products - An Operational Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myrodia, Anna; Hvam, Lars

    2014-01-01

    is to develop an operational method to analyze profitability of Configure-To-Order (CTO) products. The operational method consists of a four-step: analysis of product assortment, profitability analysis on configured products, market and competitor analysis and, product assortment scenarios analysis....... The proposed operational method is firstly developed based on both available literature and practitioners experience and subsequently tested on a company that produces CTO products. The results from this application are further discussed and opportunities for further research identified....

  15. Product polarization distribution: Stereodynamics of the reaction of atom H and radical NH

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The product angular momentum polarization of the reaction of H+NH is calculated via the quasiclassical trajectory method(QCT)based on the extended London-Eyring-Polanyi-Sato(LEPS)potential energy surface(PES)at a collision energy of 5.1 kcal/mol.The calculated results of the vector correlations are denoted by using the angular distribution functions.The polarization-dependent differential cross sections(PDDCSs)demonstrate that the rotational angular momentum of the product H2 is aligned and oriented along the direction perpendicular to the scattering plane.Vector correlation shows that the angular momentum of the product H2 is aligned in the plane perpendicular to the velocity vector.It suggests that the reaction proceeds preferentially when the reactant velocity vector lies in a plane containing all three atoms.The orientation and alignment of the product angular momentum affects the scattering direction of the product molecules.The polarization-dependent differential cross sections(PDDCSs)reveal that scattering is predominantly in the backward hemisphere.

  16. Cryogenic pellet production developments for long-pulse plasma operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meitner, S. J.; Baylor, L. R.; Combs, S. K.; Fehling, D. T.; McGill, J. M.; Duckworth, R. C.; McGinnis, W. D.; Rasmussen, D. A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, 1Bethel Valley Rd Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2014-01-29

    Long pulse plasma operation on large magnetic fusion devices require multiple forms of cryogenically formed pellets for plasma fueling, on-demand edge localized mode (ELM) triggering, radiative cooling of the divertor, and impurity transport studies. The solid deuterium fueling and ELM triggering pellets can be formed by extrusions created by helium cooled, twin-screw extruder based injection system that freezes deuterium in the screw section. A solenoid actuated cutter mechanism is activated to cut the pellets from the extrusion, inserting them into the barrel, and then fired by the pneumatic valve pulse of high pressure gas. Fuel pellets are injected at a rate up to 10 Hz, and ELM triggering pellets are injected at rates up to 20 Hz. The radiative cooling and impurity transport study pellets are produced by introducing impurity gas into a helium cooled section of a pipe gun where it deposits in-situ. A pneumatic valve is opened and propellant gas is released downstream where it encounters a passive punch which initially accelerates the pellet before the gas flow around the finishes the pellet acceleration. This paper discusses the various cryogenic pellet production techniques based on the twin-screw extruder, pipe gun, and pellet punch designs.

  17. Factors affecting research productivity of production and operations management groups: An empirical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper identifies factors that promote research productivity of production and operations management (POM groups of researchers in US business schools. In this study, research productivity of a POM group is defined as the number of articles published per POM professor in a specific period of time. The paper also examines factors that affect research quality, as measured by the number of articles published per POM professor in journals, which have been recognized in the POM literature as an elite set. The results show that three factors increase both the research productivity and the quality of the articles published by professors of a POM group. These factors are (a the presence of a POM research center, (b funding received from external sources for research purposes, and (c better library facilities. Doctoral students do assist in improving research quality and productivity, but they are not the driving force. These results have important implications for establishing policy guidelines for business schools. For example, real-world problems are funded by external sources and have a higher probability of publication. Furthermore, schools could place more emphasis on external funding, as most engineering schools do, since groups receiving external funding are more productive in terms of research.

  18. Operating Experience at the Yankee Atomic Electric Company Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of the Yankee plant began in November 1960 and since that time the station has generated over 2 x 109 kWh gross. The overall use factor from first generation of power in 1960 is just over 67%. The economic picture has also been very encouraging. The Yankee plant is not only continuing to demonstrate its ability to supply base-load power for the New England area but is also providing new information of benefit to the economics of all closed-cycle reactors. Problems have been encountered, some of a fairly significant nature, but every indication to date is that these are correctable and that plant operation will become even more dependable with continually improving economics as time goes on. (author)

  19. Integration of chemical product development, process design and operation based on a kilo-plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAN Yu; WU Zhihui; JIANG Yanbin

    2006-01-01

    Presented in this paper is an integrated approach of computer-aided product development, process design and operation analysis based on a kilo-plant. The implemented kilo-plant, as a research platform to manufacture product in kilogram-scale, was designed especially for fine and specialty chemicals. The characteristics of product synthesis, process operation and product quality control are investigated coupled with computer-aided monitoring, online modeling, simulation and operation process optimization. In this way, chemical product discovery, process design and operation are integrated in a systematic approach, in the aim to respond to rapid changing marketplace demands to new products.

  20. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  1. Wilson Coefficients in the Operator Product Expansion of Scalar Currents at Finite Temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Veliev, Elsen Veli; Aliev, Takhmassib M.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate operator product expansion for thermal correlation function of the two scalar currents. Due to breakdown of Lorentz invariance at finite temperature, more operators of the same dimension appear in the operator product expansion than at zero temperature. We calculated Wilson coefficients in the short distance expansion and obtain operator product expansion for thermal correlation function in terms of quark condensate, gluon condensate, quark energy density and glu...

  2. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRI{mu}P facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traykov, E. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)], E-mail: traykov@kvi.nl; Dammalapati, U.; De, S.; Dermois, O.C.; Huisman, L.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Mol, A.J.; Onderwater, C.J.G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; Silva e Silva, M. da; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H.W. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, Zernikelaan 25, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands)

    2008-10-15

    The structures for the TRI{mu}P facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides are produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atoms in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample for precision measurements. In the TRI{mu}P facility a production target is followed by a magnetic separator, where radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse reaction kinematics. Separation up to 99.95% could be achieved for {sup 21}Na. A novel transmitting thermal ionizing device was developed to stop the energetic isotopes. Some 50% of stopped {sup 21}Na could be extracted and transported as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher with 35% transmission efficiency. The ions are transported lossless via a drift tube and a low energy electrostatic beam line into the experimental setup. Such ions can be neutralized on hot metal foils and the resulting atoms can be stored in a magneto-optical trap. The functioning of that principle was demonstrated with stable Na extracted from the thermal ionizer, radioactive beams will follow next.

  3. Production and trapping of radioactive atoms at the TRIμP facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traykov, E.; Dammalapati, U.; De, S.; Dermois, O. C.; Huisman, L.; Jungmann, K.; Kruithof, W.; Mol, A. J.; Onderwater, C. J. G.; Rogachevskiy, A.; da Silva e Silva, M.; Sohani, M.; Versolato, O.; Willmann, L.; Wilschut, H. W.

    2008-10-01

    The structures for the TRIμP facility have been completed and commissioned. At the facility radioactive nuclides are produced to study fundamental interactions and symmetries. An important feature is the possibility to trap radioactive atoms in order to obtain and hold a pure substrate-free sample for precision measurements. In the TRIμP facility a production target is followed by a magnetic separator, where radioactive isotopes are produced in inverse reaction kinematics. Separation up to 99.95% could be achieved for 21Na. A novel transmitting thermal ionizing device was developed to stop the energetic isotopes. Some 50% of stopped 21Na could be extracted and transported as low energy singly charged ions into a radio frequency quadrupole cooler and buncher with 35% transmission efficiency. The ions are transported lossless via a drift tube and a low energy electrostatic beam line into the experimental setup. Such ions can be neutralized on hot metal foils and the resulting atoms can be stored in a magneto-optical trap. The functioning of that principle was demonstrated with stable Na extracted from the thermal ionizer, radioactive beams will follow next.

  4. Hydrated electron production by reaction of hydrogen atoms with hydroxide ions: A first-principles molecular dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvated electron production by reaction between the H atom and the hydroxide anion was studied using Density Functional Theory based first-principles molecular dynamics. The simulation reveals a complex mechanism, controlled by proton transfers in the coordination sphere of the hydroxide and by the diffusion of the H atom in its solvent cavity. We formulate the hypothesis, based on a coupling between classical and first-principles molecular dynamics, that these two processes give rise to a lag time for the reaction that would explain the H atom extremely small reactivity compared to other radical species. Furthermore, the reaction observed gives an original insight in excess electron solvation. (authors)

  5. Adiabatic mechanism of the multiply charged ion production by a laser field through ATI states of an atom

    CERN Document Server

    Kuchiev, M Yu

    1996-01-01

    ATI can be followed by an inelastic collision of the ionized electron with the parent atomic particle resulting in an excitation of the ion. It may be a continuum state excitation producing the doubly charged ion or a discrete state which also enhances the doubly charged ion production. Absorption of a few quanta above the atomic threshold is sufficient to make this mechanism work. As a result the two-electron processes can take place even in moderate fields. The example of two-electron excitations of He atoms in a 780 nm laser field with intensity above 10^{14}W/cm^2 is discussed

  6. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited-Chemical Company Annual review of operations, 1980-81

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Record production of heavy water was achieved: the plants at Glace Bay and Port Hawkesbury, Nova Scotia, produced a total of 560 megagrams. A shipment of 500 Mg was delivered on time to the Wolsung CANDU reactor in Korea. Energy conservation and waste heat utilization programs included the construction of a greenhouse at the Glace Bay site. Long-term protection of the La Prade site is essentially complete. The company has reorganized its marketing and engineering division and assumed a greater international role

  7. Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp

    2014-04-01

    In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (Δf) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the Δf(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the Δf signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f0 and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of Δf with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the Δf with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the Δf(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f0 drift. We present isosurfaces of the Δf minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO3(10overline{1}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.

  8. Frequency-modulated atomic force microscopy operation by imaging at the frequency shift minimum: The dip-df mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rode, Sebastian; Schreiber, Martin; Kühnle, Angelika; Rahe, Philipp, E-mail: rahe@uni-mainz.de [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Fachbereich Chemie, Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Duesbergweg 10-14, 55099 Mainz (Germany)

    2014-04-15

    In frequency modulated non-contact atomic force microscopy, the change of the cantilever frequency (Δf) is used as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Around the Δf(z) minimum, however, stable feedback operation is challenging using a standard proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback design due to the change of sign in the slope. When operated under liquid conditions, it is furthermore difficult to address the attractive interaction regime due to its often moderate peakedness. Additionally, the Δf signal level changes severely with time in this environment due to drift of the cantilever frequency f{sub 0} and, thus, requires constant adjustment. Here, we present an approach overcoming these obstacles by using the derivative of Δf with respect to z as the input signal for the topography feedback loop. Rather than regulating the absolute value to a preset setpoint, the slope of the Δf with respect to z is regulated to zero. This new measurement mode not only makes the minimum of the Δf(z) curve directly accessible, but it also benefits from greatly increased operation stability due to its immunity against f{sub 0} drift. We present isosurfaces of the Δf minimum acquired on the calcite CaCO{sub 3}(101{sup ¯}4) surface in liquid environment, demonstrating the capability of our method to image in the attractive tip-sample interaction regime.

  9. Pair production and annihilation via nuclear resonances in atoms and ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belov, Nikolay A.; Harman, Zoltan [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2014-07-01

    Processes connected with pair production and annihilation in atoms and ions are theoretically investigated. These include nuclear excitation by resonance positron annihilation (NERPA) and nuclear-resonant e{sup -}e{sup +} pair creation in heavy ion collisions. Possible experimental schemes are put forward for the observation of these reactions. NERPA is an alternative channel of positron-matter interaction, with potential relevance in cosmic ray studies, medical positron emission tomography research, in experimental investigations of nuclear chain reactions, and in star evolution simulations. It also constitutes a novel means for the energy-selective excitation of nuclei. In heavy ion collisions, the Coulomb-excited nucleus may decay by a creation of a free-free or bound-free e{sup -}e{sup +} pair. Thus, it is an additional, resonant channel of pair creation in nucleus-nucleus collisions, an experimental investigation of which is projected at the FAIR facility.

  10. Nanotribological effects of hair care products and environment on human hair using atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre, Carmen; Bhushan, Bharat

    2005-07-01

    Tribological properties are useful in the study of human hair and other biological materials. Major sources of investigation for conditioner treated hair includes localization of conditioner, mechanisms related to changes in surface roughness, friction, and adhesion on the nanoscale due to conditioner agents, and how the products change the microstructure of the cuticle. The paper presents nanotribological studies investigating surface roughness, friction, and adhesion using atomic force/friction force microscopy (AFM/FFM). Test samples include virgin and chemically damaged hair, both with and without commercial conditioner treatment, as well as chemically damaged hair with experimental conditioner treatments. Friction force mapping provides insight into the localized change in friction caused by the application of hair care materials. Adhesive force maps to study adhesion on the cuticle surface provide information about localization and distribution of conditioner as well. A discussion is presented on these properties of hair as a function of relative humidity, temperature, durability, and conditioning treatments.

  11. A novel atomic force microscope operating in liquid with open probe unit and optimized laser tracking system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xia Fu; Dongxian Zhang; Haijun Zhang

    2009-01-01

    A novel atomic force microscope (AFM) for large samples to be measured in liquid is developed.An innovative laser beam tracking system is proposed to eliminate the tracking and feedback errors.The open probe design of the AFM makes the operation in liquid convenient and easy.A standard 1200-lines/mm grating and a sheet of filter paper are imaged respectively in air and liquid to confirm its performance.The corrosion behavior of aluminum surface in 1-mol/L NaOH solution is further investigated by the AFM.Experimental results show that the system can realize wide range (20 × 20 (μm)) scanning for large samples both in air and liquid,while keeping nanometer order resolution in liquid by eliminating the tracking and feedback error.

  12. Evolution Operator and Energy Spectrum of a Quasiclassical Particle Interacting with Bosons:. Application to Atom Surface Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumhalter, Branko; Kieron, Burke; Langreth, David C.

    We investigate the properties of the interaction of a particle with a boson field describing the response of a solid in the limit in which the interaction matrix elements may be considered as quasiclassical and the particle-boson coupling linear but not necessarily weak. We start by expressing the evolution operator of the system in a convenient form of an exponentiated nested commutator expansion in powers of the interaction potential. From this we are able to estimate under which conditions on the particle motion the contributions of the higher order expansion terms become small, irrespective of the coupling strength. Neglecting such small terms in the exponent of the evolution operator, we can calculate the energy excitation spectrum characteristic of the coupled system or of any of its constituents (particle or boson field). These spectra have the appearance of an exponentiated Born approximation (EBA) which contains and interpolates smoothly between the more frequently used distorted wave Born approximation (DWBA) and the trajectory approximation (TA), thereby covering a wide range of the parameter space for the description of the particle-boson interaction dynamics. The shape of the spectra and their characteristics (the weight of the elastic line or the Debye-Waller factor (DWF), the mean number of excited bosons, and the mean energy transfer in the course of the interaction) are discussed and shown to be very sensitive to the (non)adiabaticity of the switching of the interaction and the magnitude of the particle mass M. In the case of nonadiabatic switching on (as e.g. in photoemission) and linear bosonic density of states, we retrieve in the limit M→∞ the familiar infrared threshold divergences in the spectrum of the system. In the opposite case of adiabatic switching rates typical of scattering, the spectra exhibit a well-defined elastic line and a finite DWF. The case of surface scattering is discussed in more detail for the example of neutral atom

  13. 21 CFR 111.135 - What quality control operations are required for product complaints?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What quality control operations are required for... System: Requirements for Quality Control § 111.135 What quality control operations are required for product complaints? Quality control operations for product complaints must include reviewing and...

  14. Atomic Layer Deposition to Enable the Production, Optimization and Protection of Spaceflight Hardware Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a cost effective nano-manufacturing technique that allows for the conformal coating of substrates with atomic control in a benign...

  15. 29 CFR 784.151 - Operations performed after product is rendered nonperishable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Operations performed after product is rendered... Operations performed after product is rendered nonperishable. As indicated in § 784.138, after the character of the aquatic products as taken from nature has been altered by the performance of the...

  16. Program Trainer for Operator of Phosphoric Acid production by Wet-Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir А. Krivonosov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This article considers the major problems of operator of phosphoric acid production by wet-process during production control, develops program trainer, enabling to speed up the process of operators training, promote their professional qualifications and the production control

  17. SHIP, the Separator for Heavy Ion Reaction Products, and the making of the heaviest atomic nuclei. Roentgenium - a new chemical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the foundation of the GSI, the Darmstadt-based Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung, in the 1970s, physicists of the Justus-Liebig-University of Giessen have been at the frontiers of research work examining the behaviour of nuclear matter under critical stability conditions. The article in this edition of ''Spiegel der Forschung'', the scientific journal of the university, highlights the results of the last twenty years of research activities with the velocity separator named SHIP, Separator for Heavy Ion Reaction Products. With this instrument, developed by members of the university's II. Institute of Physics and built and operated by members of the GSI in Darmstadt, the scientists were able to generate the six heaviest of the currently known chemical elements, with atomic numbers ranging from 107 to 112. The element with the atomic number 111 will be named ''Roentgenium'', in honour of the famous physicist and Nobel prize winner Wilhelm Conrad Roentgen

  18. On instanton effects in the operator product expansion

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We revisit the computation of instanton effects to various correlation functions in ${\\cal N}=4$ SYM and clarify a controversy existing in the literature regarding their consistency with the OPE and conformal symmetry. To check these properties, we examine the conformal partial wave decomposition of four-point correlators involving combinations of half-BPS and Konishi operators and isolate the contribution from the conformal primary scalar operators of twist four. We demonstrate that the leading instanton correction to this contribution is indeed consistent with conformal symmetry and compute the corresponding corrections to the OPE coefficients and the scaling dimensions of such twist-four operators. Our analysis justifies the regularization procedure used to compute ultraviolet divergent instanton contribution to correlation functions involving unprotected operators.

  19. A New Extension Theory-based Production Operation Method in Industrial Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Yuan; ZHU Qunxiong

    2013-01-01

    To explore the problems of dynamic change in production demand and operating contradiction in production process,a new extension theory-based production operation method is proposed.The core is the demand requisition,contradiction resolution and operation classification.For the demand requisition,the deep and comprehensive demand elements are collected by the conjugating analysis.For the contradiction resolution,the conflict between the demand and operating elements are solved by the extension reasoning,extension transformation and consistency judgment.For the operating classification,the operating importance among the operating elements is calculated by the extension clustering so as to guide the production operation and ensure the production safety.Through the actual application in the cascade reaction process of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) of a chemicalplant,cases study and comparison show that the proposed extension theory-based production operation method is significantly better than the traditional experience-based operation method in actual production process,which exploits a new way to the research on the production operating methods for industrial process.

  20. 7 CFR 205.310 - Agricultural products produced on an exempt or excluded operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ORGANIC FOODS PRODUCTION ACT PROVISIONS NATIONAL ORGANIC PROGRAM Labels, Labeling, and... excluded operation as a certified organic operation, or (2) Be represented as a certified organic...

  1. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-10-27

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  2. Operational Impacts of Operating Reserve Demand Curves on Production Cost and Reliability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik; Gao, Wenzhong

    2015-11-02

    The electric power industry landscape is continually evolving. As emerging technologies such as wind, solar, electric vehicles, and energy storage systems become more cost-effective and present in the system, traditional power system operating strategies will need to be reevaluated. The presence of wind and solar generation (commonly referred to as variable generation) may result in an increase in the variability and uncertainty of the net load profile. One mechanism to mitigate this is to schedule and dispatch additional operating reserves. These operating reserves aim to ensure that there is enough capacity online in the system to account for the increased variability and uncertainty occurring at finer temporal resolutions. A new operating reserve strategy, referred to as flexibility reserve, has been introduced in some regions. A similar implementation is explored in this paper, and its implications on power system operations are analyzed.

  3. Advancements in Ti Alloy Powder Production by Close-Coupled Gas Atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heidloff, Andy; Rieken, Joel; Anderson, Iver; Byrd, David

    2011-04-01

    As the technology for titanium metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) becomes more readily available, efficient Ti alloy fine powder production methods are required. An update on a novel close-coupled gas atomization system has been given. Unique features of the melting apparatus are shown to have measurable effects on the efficiency and ability to fully melt within the induction skull melting system (ISM). The means to initiate the melt flow were also found to be dependent on melt apparatus. Starting oxygen contents of atomization feedstock are suggested based on oxygen pick up during the atomization and MIM processes and compared to a new ASTM specification. Forming of titanium by metal injection molding (Ti-MIM) has been extensively studied with regards to binders, particle shape, and size distribution and suitable de-binding methods have been discovered. As a result, the visibility of Ti-MIM has steadily increased as reviews of technology, acceptability, and availability have been released. In addition, new ASTM specification ASTM F2885-11 for Ti-MIM for biomedical implants was released in early 2011. As the general acceptance of Ti-MIM as a viable fabrication route increases, demand for economical production of high quality Ti alloy powder for the preparation of Ti-MIM feedstock correspondingly increases. The production of spherical powders from the liquid state has required extensive pre-processing into different shapes thereby increasing costs. This has prompted examination of Ti-MIM with non-spherical particle shape. These particles are produced by the hydride/de-hydride process and are equi-axed but fragmented and angular which is less than ideal. Current prices for MIM quality titanium powder range from $40-$220/kg. While it is ideal for the MIM process to utilize spherical powders within the size range of 0.5-20 {mu}m, titanium's high affinity for oxygen to date has prohibited the use of this powder size range. In order to meet oxygen requirements the top

  4. Molecular theory of K-vacancy production in heavy-ion-atom collisions at small impact parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1 s sigma vacancy production is calculated by approximating the 1 s sigma molecular wave function with an atomic 1s wave function for a charge Z(R) centered at a distance h(R) from the heavier nucleus. h(R) and Z(R) are determined by minimizing the 1 s sigma electronic energy. Previous calculations with the atomic semi-classsical approximation (h = 0, Z(R) = Z2, the target atomic number) showed that the probability of making Cu K vacancies in 0.5- to 2-MeV/a.m.u. H+, D+, and He+ + Cu collisions can be written as P(theta) = A(1 + B cos theta), where theta is the scattering angle and A and B are constants for theta approx. > 100. Although the recoil and dipole excitation contributions to P(theta) (which interfere destructively in the atomic theory) are independently smaller in the molecular calculations, similar B values are obtained. (orig.)

  5. The International Atomic Energy Agency's Laboratories Seibersdorf and Vienna. Meeting the challenges of research and international co-operation in the application of nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency therefore maintains a unique, multidisciplinary, analytical, research and training centre: the IAEA Laboratories, located at Seibersdorf near Vienna and at the Agency's Headquarters in the Vienna International Centre. They are organized in three branches: (i) the FAO/IAEA Agriculture and Biotechnology Laboratory: Soil Science, Plant Breeding, Animal Production and Health, Entomology, Agrochemicals; (ii) the Physics, Chemistry and Instrumentation Laboratory: Chemistry, Instrumentation, Dosimetry, Isotope Hydrology; (iii) the Safeguards Analytical Laboratory: Isotopic Analysis, Chemical Analysis, Clean Laboratory. 'The Mission of the IAEA Laboratories is to contribute to the implementation of the Agency's programmes in food and agriculture, human health, physical and chemical sciences, water resources, industry, environment, radiation protection and safeguards verification'. Together with a General Services and Safety Section, which provides logistics, information, industrial safety and maintenance services and runs a mechanical workshop, the three groups form the 'Seibersdorf Laboratories' and are part of the IAEA Department of Nuclear Sciences and Applications. The Laboratories contribute an important share to projects fostering peaceful applications of radiation and isotopes and radiation protection, and play a significant part in the nuclear verification mechanism. All activities are therefore planned and implemented in close co-operation with relevant divisions and departments of the IAEA. In specific sectors, the Laboratories also operate in conjunction with other organizations in the UN system, such as the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Meteorological Organization (WMO), and with networks of national laboratories in Member States

  6. Design Rules for Non-Atomic Implementations of PRS

    OpenAIRE

    Papadantonakis, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Martin Synthesis yields quasi--delay-insensitive (QDI) circuits, expressed in production--rule-set (PRS) form. Under an atomic circuit evaluation model, these circuits are provably correct. However, not all physical circuit implementations provide the atomic transitions needed to satisfy the atomic circuit model. This can cause operational failures in real circuits, as we illustrate. Nonetheless, circuits with non-atomic transitions can faithfully implement the atomic circuit model when comb...

  7. Optimisation of Shift Reactor Operating Conditions to Maximise Hydrogen Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, J. M.; Marano, M.; Ruiz, E.

    2011-07-28

    This report compiles the results of the work conducted by CIEMAT for Task 6.5 Shift reaction of the FLEXGAS project Near Zero Emission Advanced Fluidized Bed Gasification, which has been carried out with financial support from the Research Fund for Coal and Steel, RFCR-CT-2007-00005. The activity of an iron-chromium-based catalyst for the water gas shift reaction is studied. Results about WGS experiments conducted by CIEMAT on laboratory scale under different operating conditions are presented. The influence on the activity of the catalyst of main operating parameters- temperature, pressure, excess steam, and space velocity and gas composition - is evaluated and discussed. (Author) 19 refs.

  8. Production and Business Operation of Enterprises Are Improving

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Department of Research, State Electricity Regulato; Ye Qing

    2007-01-01

    @@ Power grid operation and management In 2006,the national total revenue of power supply business amounted to 1299.242 billion Yuan,21.66%higher than that of last year:the total profits amounted to 52.035 billion Yuan;workers employed in power enterprises amounted to 1232.4 thousand.

  9. Fault tolerant wind turbine production operation and shutdown (Sustainable Control)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engelen, T.; Schuurmans, J.; Kanev, S.; Dong, J.; Verhaegen, M.H.G.; Hayashi, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Extreme environmental conditions as well as system failure are real-life phenomena. Especially offshore, extreme environmental conditions and system faults are to be dealt with in an effective way. The project Sustainable Control, a new approach to operate wind turbines (Agentschap NL, grant EOSLT02

  10. Path to Support Development of Production and Operation of Big Grain Production Households - Based on Investigation of Heilongjiang Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Xiu-li; Wang Yu-qing; Ji He-wen; Yin Bao-hua; Tan Hong-yu

    2015-01-01

    Developing production and operation in scales in the major grain producing areas is the direction of the paper. Seizing the opportunity of modern agriculture comprehensive reform in two plains (Songnen Plain and Sanjiang Plain) of Heilongjiang Province and supporting to build a new type of production and management based on the big grain production householding, which plays demonstration and leading roles, have an important strategic position in improving agricultural comprehensive production capacity and ensuring national food security. In this paper, based on the survey data about the big grain production households production operations and analyses of the obstacles in expansion of production in Heilongjiang Province, specific suggestions in supporting the development of the big grain production household were put forward, such as, increasing agricultural production socialized level;perfecting the service system of land transferring; improving financial policies and farmer-friendly policy measures and perfecting the agriculture socialized service system.

  11. Influence of molecular oxygen on iodine atoms production in an RF discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheyev, P. A.; Ufimtsev, N. I.; Demyanov, A. V.; Kochetov, I. V.; Azyazov, V. N.; Napartovich, A. P.

    2016-06-01

    The results of the experiments and modeling of CH3I dissociation in a 40 MHz RF discharge plasma are presented. A discharge chamber of an original design, consisting of quartz tubes between two planar electrodes, permitted us to produce iodine atoms with a number density up to 2  ×  1016 cm‑3. In this discharge chamber, contrary to the previous experiments with a DC discharge and RF discharge with bare planar electrodes, contamination of the walls of the tubes did not disturb discharge stability, thus increasing iodine production rate. A substantial increase in CH3I dissociation efficiency due to the addition of oxygen into Ar(He) : CH3I mixtures was observed. Complete CH3I dissociation in the Ar : CH3I : O2 mixture occurred at 200 W discharge power, while a fraction of discharge power spent on iodine atoms production at 0.17 mmol s‑1 CH3I flow rate amounted to 16%. Extensive numerical modeling showed satisfactory agreement with the experiments and permitted us to estimate a previously unknown rate of constants for the processes: Ar*  +  CH2I2  →  Ar  +  CH2  +  I  +  I – 1.5  ×  10‑11 cm3 s‑1 Ar*  +  CH2I2  →  Ar  +  CH2I+  +  I  +  e – 10‑11 cm3 s‑1. Also, the cross section for the process CH2I2  +  e  →  CH2  +  I  +  I  +  e was estimated to be five times smaller than for the analogous process with CH3I.

  12. Assessing Product Line Derivation Operators Applied to Java Source Code: An Empirical Study

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira Filho, João Bosco; Allier, Simon; Barais, Olivier; Acher, Mathieu; Baudry, Benoit

    2015-01-01

    Product Derivation is a key activity in Software Product Line Engineering. During this process, derivation operators modify or create core assets (e.g., model elements, source code instructions, components) by adding, removing or substituting them according to a given configuration. The result is a derived product that generally needs to conform to a programming or modeling language. Some operators lead to invalid products when applied to certain assets, some others do not; knowing this in ad...

  13. Isotopically modified Ge detectors for GERDA: from production to operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budjáš, D.; Agostini, M.; Baudis, L.; Bellotti, E.; Bezrukov, L.; Brugnera, R.; Cattadori, C.; di Vacri, A.; Falkenstein, R.; Garfagnini, A.; Georgi, S.; Grabmayr, P.; Hegai, A.; Hemmer, S.; Hult, M.; Janicskó Csáthy, J.; Kornoukhov, V.; Lehnert, B.; Lubashevskiy, A.; Nisi, S.; Pivato, G.; Schönert, S.; Tarka, M.; von Sturm, K.

    2013-04-01

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge using high-purity germanium detectors made of material enriched in 76Ge. For Phase II of the experiment a sensitivity for the half life T1/20ν ~ 2·1026 yr is envisioned. Modified Broad Energy Germanium detectors (BEGe) with thick n+ electrodes provide the capability to efficiently identify and reject background events, while keeping a large acceptance for the 0νββ-decay signal through novel pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) techniques. The viability of producing thick-window BEGe-type detectors for the GERDA experiment is demonstrated by testing all the production steps from the procurement of isotopically modified germanium up to working BEGe detectors. Comprehensive testing of the spectroscopic as well as PSD performance of the GERDA Phase II prototype BEGe detectors proved that the properties of these detectors are identical to those produced previously from natural germanium material following the standard production line of the manufacturer. Furthermore, the production of BEGe detectors from a limited amount of isotopically modified germanium served to optimize the production, in order to maximize the overall detector mass yield. The results of this test campaign provided direct input for the subsequent production of the enriched germanium detectors.

  14. Isotopically modified Ge detectors for GERDA: from production to operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The GERDA experiment searches for the neutrinoless double beta (0νββ) decay of 76Ge using high-purity germanium detectors made of material enriched in 76Ge. For Phase II of the experiment a sensitivity for the half life T1/20ν ∼ 2·1026 yr is envisioned. Modified Broad Energy Germanium detectors (BEGe) with thick n+ electrodes provide the capability to efficiently identify and reject background events, while keeping a large acceptance for the 0νββ-decay signal through novel pulse-shape discrimination (PSD) techniques. The viability of producing thick-window BEGe-type detectors for the GERDA experiment is demonstrated by testing all the production steps from the procurement of isotopically modified germanium up to working BEGe detectors. Comprehensive testing of the spectroscopic as well as PSD performance of the GERDA Phase II prototype BEGe detectors proved that the properties of these detectors are identical to those produced previously from natural germanium material following the standard production line of the manufacturer. Furthermore, the production of BEGe detectors from a limited amount of isotopically modified germanium served to optimize the production, in order to maximize the overall detector mass yield. The results of this test campaign provided direct input for the subsequent production of the enriched germanium detectors.

  15. Novel Hydrogen Production Systems Operative at Thermodynamic Extremes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunsalus, Robert

    2012-11-30

    We have employed a suite of molecular, bioinformatics, and biochemical tools to interrogate the thermodynamically limiting steps of H{sub 2} production from fatty acids in syntrophic communities. We also developed a new microbial model system that generates high H{sub 2} concentrations (over 17% of the gas phase) with high H{sub 2} yields of over 3 moles H{sub 2} per mole glucose. Lastly, a systems-based study of biohydrogen production in model anaerobic consortia was performed to begin identifying key regulated steps as a precursor to modeling co-metabolism. The results of these studies significantly expand our ability to predict and model systems for H{sub 2} production in novel anaerobes that are currently very poorly documented or understood.

  16. Production mechanism of atomic nitrogen in atmospheric pressure pulsed corona discharge measured using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Ryo [Department of Advanced Energy, University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba 227-8568 (Japan); Oda, Tetsuji [Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-8656 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    To study the production mechanism of atomic nitrogen, the temporal profile and spatial distribution of atomic nitrogen are measured in atmospheric pressure pulsed positive corona discharge using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. The absolute atomic nitrogen density in the streamer filaments is estimated from decay rate of atomic nitrogen in N{sub 2} discharge. The results indicate that the absolute atomic nitrogen density is approximately constant against discharge energy. When the discharge voltage is 21.5 kV, production yield of atomic nitrogen produced by an N{sub 2} discharge pulse is estimated to be 2.9 - 9.8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} atoms and the energy efficiency of atomic nitrogen production is estimated to be about 1.8 - 6.1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 16} atoms/J. The energy efficiency of atomic nitrogen production in N{sub 2} discharge is constant against the discharge energy, while that in N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} discharge increases with discharge energy. In the N{sub 2}/O{sub 2} discharge, two-step process of N{sub 2} dissociation plays significant role for atomic nitrogen production.

  17. Production mechanism of atomic nitrogen in atmospheric pressure pulsed corona discharge measured using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the production mechanism of atomic nitrogen, the temporal profile and spatial distribution of atomic nitrogen are measured in atmospheric pressure pulsed positive corona discharge using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence. The absolute atomic nitrogen density in the streamer filaments is estimated from decay rate of atomic nitrogen in N2 discharge. The results indicate that the absolute atomic nitrogen density is approximately constant against discharge energy. When the discharge voltage is 21.5 kV, production yield of atomic nitrogen produced by an N2 discharge pulse is estimated to be 2.9 - 9.8 × 1013 atoms and the energy efficiency of atomic nitrogen production is estimated to be about 1.8 - 6.1 × 1016 atoms/J. The energy efficiency of atomic nitrogen production in N2 discharge is constant against the discharge energy, while that in N2/O2 discharge increases with discharge energy. In the N2/O2 discharge, two-step process of N2 dissociation plays significant role for atomic nitrogen production.

  18. Formaldehyde and Glyoxal: New Products in the SCIAMACHY Operational Processor

    OpenAIRE

    Hrechanyy, Serhiy; De Smedt, Isabelle; Kretschel, Klaus; Lichtenberg, Günter; Meringer, Markus; Wittrock, Folkard

    2010-01-01

    In sommer of 2010 version 6 of the SCIAMACHY operational processor is planned to be delivered to ESA. The SCIAMACHY Quality Working Group recommended an implementation of the formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) vertical columns into version 6 of the off-line processor. They are formed during the oxidation of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by plants, anthropogenic activities, and biomass burning. Due to a rather short lifetime of formaldehyde and glyoxal, their distribution...

  19. Operational costs induced by fluctuating wind power production in Germany and Scandinavia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meibom, Peter; Weber, C.; Barth, R.;

    2009-01-01

    therefore influence the operational costs induced by wind power production. A method is applied for calculating the change in operational costs due to wind power production using a stochastic optimisation model covering the power systems in Germany and the Nordic countries. Two cases of alternative...

  20. Strong-flavor-changing effective operator contributions to single top quark production

    CERN Document Server

    Ferreira, P M; 10.1103/PhysRevD.73.054025

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of dimension six effective operators on the production of single top quarks at the CERN LHC. The operator set considered includes terms with effective gluon interactions and four- fermion terms. Analytic expressions for the several partonic cross sections of single top production will be presented, as well as the results of their integration on the parton density functions.

  1. Approaches on the Operational Performance of Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ioana Florica BADEA; Catalina RADU; Ana-Maria GRIGORE

    2011-01-01

    The performance concept originated from the concept of firm management. The performance management of the firm involves improving its value-cost relationship, which means that the firm will be able to build a product or service, in terms of achieving cost and profitability targets, and compare the results with strategic forecasts. In addition, performance management also requires the firm's ability to develop a dynamic and continuous progress. In such conditions, its performance evaluation is...

  2. Creative teaching of new product development to operations managers

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, M.; Silva, J.V.B.; Almeida, I.D.

    2013-01-01

    New Product Development (NPD) has got its roots on an Engineering background. Thus, one might wonder about the interest, opportunity, contents and delivery process, if students from soft sciences were involved. This paper addressed «What to teach?» and «How to do it?», as the preliminary research questions that originated the introduced propositions. The curriculum-developer model that was purposefully chosen to adapt the coursebook by pursuing macro/micro strategies was found significant by ...

  3. Concept of Operations Visualization for Ares I Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilton, Jim; Smith, David Alan

    2008-01-01

    Establishing Computer Aided Design models of the Ares I production facility, tooling and vehicle components and integrating them into manufacturing visualizations/simulations allows Boeing and NASA to collaborate real time early in the design/development cycle. This collaboration identifies cost effective and lean solutions that can be easily shared with Ares stakeholders (e.g., other NASA Centers and potential science users). These Ares I production visualizations and analyses by their nature serve as early manufacturing improvement precursors for other Constellation elements to be built at the Michoud Assembly Facility such as Ares V and the Altair Lander. Key to this Boeing and Marshall Space Flight Center collaboration has been the use of advanced virtual manufacturing tools to understand the existing Shuttle era infrastructure and trade potential modifications to support Ares I production. These approaches are then used to determine an optimal manufacturing configuration in terms of labor efficiency, safety and facility enhancements. These same models and tools can be used in an interactive simulation of Ares I and V flight to the Space Station or moon to educate the human space constituency (e.g., government, academia, media and the public) in order to increase national and international understanding of Constellation goals and benefits.

  4. York University atomic scientist contributes to new breakthrough in the production of antimatter

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    Physicists working in Europe, including Canada Research Chair in Atomic Physics at York University, Prof. Eric Hessels, have succeeded in capturing the first glimpse of the structure of antimatter. The ATRAP group of scientists at CERN have managed to examine the internal states of anti-hydrogen atoms (1/2 page).

  5. Apparatus for operating a gas and oil producting well

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes an apparatus for operating a gas and oil producing well of the plunger lift type including a cylindrical tubing mounted in concentrically spaced relation within a vertical well casing that is embedded in an oil and gas producing formation, the casing and tubing being perforated adjacent their lower ends; a plunger mounted for vertical movement in the tubing, the plunger normally having an initial lower position adjacent the lower end of the tubing and being vertically displaceable toward an upper position adjacent the upper end thereof; an outlet conduit connected at one end with the upper end of the tubing, the outlet conduit including gas and oil branch legs for discharging gas and oil, respectively; and normally closed gas and fluid discharge valves connected in the gas and oil branches, respectively. It comprises: means for comparing the casing and tubing pressures; means for opening the gas discharge valve; means for opening the fluid discharge valve; means for initially closing the fluid discharge valve when the plunger reaches its upper position adjacent the upper end of the tubing; means operable after a given first period following closing of the fluid discharge valve for reopening the fluid discharge valve only when both: the oil level produces a pressure difference greater than the selected difference value, and the casing pressure is greater than the selected lift value

  6. Relationship Between Lean Production and Operational Performance in the Manufacturing Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasi, Raja Zuraidah R. M.; Syamsyul Rakiman, Umol; Ahmad, Md Fauzi Bin

    2015-05-01

    Nowadays, more and more manufacturing firms have started to implement lean production system in their operations. Lean production viewed as one of the mechanism to maintain the organisation's position and to compete globally. However, many fail to apply the lean concepts successfully in their operations. Based on previous studies, implementation of lean production in the manufacturing industry is more focused on the relationship between Lean and Operational Performance of one dimension only. Therefore, this study attempted to examine the relationship between Lean Production (LP) and Operational Performance in 4 dimensions which are quality, delivery, cost and flexibility. This study employed quantitative study using questionnaires. Data was collected from 50 manufacturing industries. The data was analysed using Statistical Package for Social Science (SPSS) 22.0. This study is hoped to shed new understanding on the concept of Lean Production (LP) in regards of Operational Performance covering the 4 dimensions.

  7. An Exploratory Study of Operant Conditioning Theory as a Predictor of Online Product Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Victor Perotti; Patricia Sorce; Stanley Widrick

    2003-01-01

    The present research applies operant conditioning theory to the question of what products and services consumers will shop for and buy online. Operant conditioning theory explains differences between products that are used to alleviate uncomfortable experiences (negative reinforcement) and those providing enjoyable experiences (positive reinforcement). The preliminary results described in this study confirmed the importance of operant conditioning as a factor in the behavior of online shopper...

  8. Operational forecast products and applications based on WRF/Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirtl, Marcus; Flandorfer, Claudia; Langer, Matthias; Mantovani, Simone; Olefs, Marc; Schellander-Gorgas, Theresa

    2015-04-01

    The responsibilities of the national weather service of Austria (ZAMG) include the support of the federal states and the public in questions connected to the protection of the environment in the frame of advisory and counseling services as well as expert opinions. The ZAMG conducts daily Air-Quality forecasts using the on-line coupled model WRF/Chem. The mother domain expands over Europe, North Africa and parts of Russia. The nested domain includes the alpine region and has a horizontal resolution of 4 km. Local emissions (Austria) are used in combination with European inventories (TNO and EMEP) for the simulations. The modeling system is presented and the results from the evaluation of the assimilation of pollutants using the 3D-VAR software GSI is shown. Currently observational data (PM10 and O3) from the Austrian Air-Quality network and from European stations (EEA) are assimilated into the model on an operational basis. In addition PM maps are produced using Aerosol Optical Thickness (AOT) observations from MODIS in combination with model data using machine learning techniques. The modeling system is operationally evaluated with different data sets. The emphasis of the application is on the forecast of pollutants which are compared to the hourly values (PM10, O3 and NO2) of the Austrian Air-Quality network. As the meteorological conditions are important for transport and chemical processes, some parameters like wind and precipitation are automatically evaluated (SAL diagrams, maps, …) with other models (e.g. ECMWF, AROME, …) and ground stations via web interface. The prediction of the AOT is also important for operators of solar power plants. In the past Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) models were used to predict the AOT based on cloud forecasts at the ZAMG. These models do not consider the spatial and temporal variation of the aerosol distribution in the atmosphere with a consequent impact on the accuracy of forecasts especially during clear-sky days

  9. Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2 (Docket No. 50-341). Supplement No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 4 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1983

  10. Safety evaluation report related to the operation of Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit No. 2. Docket No. 50-341

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supplement No. 3 to the Safety Evaluation Report related to the operation of the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 2, provides the staff's evaluation of additional information submitted by the applicant regarding outstanding review issues identified in Supplement No. 2 to the Safety Evaluation Report, dated January 1982

  11. Production operation of small petroleum enterprises in Tomsk region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharf, I.; Filjushin, V.; Shenderova, I.; Kochetkova, O.

    2015-11-01

    Implementing resource-innovative strategy to develop Russian fuel-and-energy sector implies the promotion of small oil production enterprises developing fields with the reserves of less than 5 mln. tons. However, the efficiency of such enterprises, investigated on the example of Tomsk region (considering the indexes of oil extraction, growth of reserves, amount of capital expenditures and geological surveys), signifies the presence of definite tendencies. Consequently, management decisions concerning economic, organizational, financial and fiscal character should be taken in order to eliminate detrimental factors.

  12. An Operator Product Expansion for Polygonal null Wilson Loops

    CERN Document Server

    Alday, Luis F; Maldacena, Juan; Sever, Amit; Vieira, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    We consider polygonal Wilson loops with null edges in conformal gauge theories. We derive an OPE-like expansion when several successive lines of the polygon are becoming aligned. The limit corresponds to a collinear, or multicollinear, limit and we explain the systematics of all the subleading corrections, going beyond the leading terms that were previously considered. These subleading corrections are governed by excitations of high spin operators, or excitations of a flux tube that goes between two Wilson lines. The discussion is valid for any conformal gauge theory, for any coupling and in any dimension. For N=4 super Yang Mills we check this expansion at strong coupling and at two loops at weak coupling . We also make predictions for the remainder function at higher loops. In the process, we also derived a new version for the TBA integral equations that determine the strong coupling answer and present the area as the associated Yang-Yang functional.

  13. Enhancing productivity: The strategy-to-operations linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In its first two decades, commercial nuclear power enjoyed substantial popular acclaim. Why? Because it offered the opportunity to make a cheap product even cheaper when industrial America was dominant. Today, however, the price variable is going in the other direction and with it may go the future of nuclear power. Many approaches are being used to bring down the costs associated with nuclear power, and most are proving to be unsuccessful. What do other industries do when faced with obsolescence? They go back to their strategy and refocus their business consistent with new directions. This paper seeks to promote the results of several decades of of research in a variety of free-market industries regarding the causes of success and failures

  14. Quality control methods for KOOS operational sea surface temperature products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Chansu; KIM Sunhwa

    2016-01-01

    Sea surface temperature SST obtained from the initial version of the Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) SST satellite have low accuracy during summer and daytime. This is attributed to the diurnal warming effect. Error estimation of SST data must be carried out to use the real-time forecasting numerical model of the KOOS. This study suggests two quality control methods for the KOOS SST system. To minimize the diurnal warming effect, SSTs of areas where wind speed is higher than 5 m/s were used. Depending on the wind threshold value, KOOS SST data for August 2014 were reduced by 0.15°C. Errors in SST data are considered to be a combination of random, sampling, and bias errors. To estimate bias error, the standard deviation of bias between KOOS SSTs and climatology SSTs were used. KOOS SST data yielded an analysis error standard deviation value similar to OSTIA and NOAA NCDC (OISST) data. The KOOS SST shows lower random and sampling errors with increasing number of observations using six satellite datasets. In further studies, the proposed quality control methods for the KOOS SST system will be applied through more long-term case studies and comparisons with other SST systems.

  15. Relations and Utilities Operation monthly report, September, 1956

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, D.M.

    1956-10-24

    This document contains the September 1956 management and operations statistics of the Hanford Atomic Products Operation (HAPO) for their ``Relations and Utilities Operations.`` This is a monthly report. (BN)

  16. 1990 production costs operating steam-electric plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1990 U.S. electric utilities generated more than 2.8 billion net megawatt hours (MWhr) of electricity from all sources--a slight increase of 0.8% from the 1989 total of 2.78 billion MWhr, but substantially less than the 1989 increase of 2.8% over 1988. Steam-electric plants, which produce electricity by burning fossil fuels or by nuclear fission, typically generate 90% of all U.S. electricity. Utilization of the nation's fossil-fueled steam-electric power plants during 1990 was down about 2% from 1989, primarily because nuclear plant generation increased 9%. (Hydroelectric plant output was up 6% from 1989.) Nuclear power's 1990 contribution to total electric utility generation was up about 1% from 1989 to 20.5%. This paper includes specific 1990 production cost data for 798 steam-electric plants, of which 428 are fueled with coal or lignite, 284 are gas- and/or oil-fired, 73 are nuclear, 6 are geothermal, 4 are wood-fired, and 3 burn refuse or refuse-derived fuel (RDF)

  17. OPERATIONAL RESULT THROUGH VARIABLE COSTING: AGRICULTURAL AND POULTRY PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Gustavo Castanheira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to apply the variable costing method in an agricultural (maize production and poultry (chicken farming property, in order to assess the contribution margin of each activity, with the aid of cost accounting and agribusiness techniques. With regard to methodological procedures, the study was design as: field study, descriptive-exploratory, case study and applied research. The property that was the object of this study, located in the state of Paraná, Brazil, develops temporary maize crops and also undertakes poultry farming. The result, obtained under a comparative unit analysis of the contribution margin, in which chicken farming was done per unit and the maize crop was evaluated in bushels, detected that the latter has greater representativeness; however, when the analysis was carried out according to area, poultry farming reversed this representativeness. Lastly, it was concluded that even with these differences, both showed a positive margin in covering their fixed costs and both are profitable.

  18. Production and measurement of Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atomic gas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The research platform for Bose-Einstein condensate in 87 Rb atomic gas,which is composed of a double MOT configuration and a QUIC trap,was reported.The properties of the condensate were measured both in time-of-flight and in tight confinement by the absorption imaging method.The measurements agreed with the criterions of Bose-Einstein condensation phase transition.About 2×10 5 atoms were pure condensed.

  19. Health Effects of Operators in the Production of Wood Pellets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagstroem, K.; Arvidsson, H.; Bryngelsson, I.L.; Fedeli, C. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Eriksson, K. [Univ. Hospital of Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine; Andersson, E. [Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Occupational and Environmental Medicine

    2006-07-15

    The environmental and energy policy in Sweden is aiming to replace fossil energy with renewable sources such as biofuels, e.g., wood Pellets produced from shavings and sawdust of pine and spruce. Reported health effects in the wood processing industries are airway, eye and skin irritation, reduced lung function as well as eczema. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of airway and skin symptoms and measure lung function in a population of pellet operators in the Swedish wood industry. Additional reported acute effects from the airways, eyes, nose and skin were recorded. From May 2004 until April 2005 50 blue-collar workers from four Swedish pellet-producing industries were investigated. The study included a questionnaire about skin and airway symptoms (n=50), acute effect questionnaire (n=67; 44 individuals) as well as a test of the lung function (spirometry) before and after work shift (n=118; 39 individuals). Acute effects questionnaire and spirometry were done one to three times per participants and for the acute effects the worker had to assess their symptoms in the airways, eyes, nose and skin between 6 and 8 times during a day. The results from the symptom questionnaires were compared with reference data from other Swedish studies and the lung function data with a European reference material. Statistical tests used were chi-2-test for the questionnaire, t-test for lung function before shift compared expected values, and for difference in lung function between before and after work shift mixed models with subjects as a random factor. No statistical significant difference was seen for the skin and airway symptoms in the questionnaire. Reported acute effects were seen especially for eye and nose symptoms (table 1). Spirometry showed significantly higher forced vital capacity (FVC; p=0.0003) and no difference in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1; p=0.08) before work shift compared to expected values. FVC was 108,1 % and FEV1 was 104

  20. Operations Strategy Development in Project-based Production – a building contractor implements Lean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koch, Christian; Friis, Ole Uhrskov

    2015-01-01

    operations strategy development. Originality/value: The present study contributes to the small body of studies of operations strategy development processes by providing insight into how project-based companies renew their operations strategy. Key words: Lean, Construction, Operations Strategy, Political......Purpose: To study how operations strategy innovation occurs in project-based production and organisation. Design/methodology/approach: A longitudinal case study encompassing the processes at the company headquarters and in two projects using Lean. Findings: The operations strategy development...... commences at a middle level in the organisation, is underpinned and embedded in production projects, and only after several years becomes embedded in the corporate operations strategy. The projects use Lean principles in a differentiated manner. Research limitations/implications: A qualitative case study...

  1. Direct observation of a long-lived single-atom catalyst chiseling atomic structures in graphene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei Li; Santos, Elton J G; Jiang, Bin; Cubuk, Ekin Dogus; Ophus, Colin; Centeno, Alba; Pesquera, Amaia; Zurutuza, Amaia; Ciston, Jim; Westervelt, Robert; Kaxiras, Efthimios

    2014-02-12

    Fabricating stable functional devices at the atomic scale is an ultimate goal of nanotechnology. In biological processes, such high-precision operations are accomplished by enzymes. A counterpart molecular catalyst that binds to a solid-state substrate would be highly desirable. Here, we report the direct observation of single Si adatoms catalyzing the dissociation of carbon atoms from graphene in an aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM). The single Si atom provides a catalytic wedge for energetic electrons to chisel off the graphene lattice, atom by atom, while the Si atom itself is not consumed. The products of the chiseling process are atomic-scale features including graphene pores and clean edges. Our experimental observations and first-principles calculations demonstrated the dynamics, stability, and selectivity of such a single-atom chisel, which opens up the possibility of fabricating certain stable molecular devices by precise modification of materials at the atomic scale.

  2. Production of relativistic anti-hydrogen atoms by pair production with positron capture and measurement of the Lamb shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, C. T.; Brodsky, S. J.; Schmidt, I.

    1992-09-01

    A beam of relativistic antihydrogen atoms - the bound state (bar-p)e(+) - can be created by circulating the beam of an antiproton storage ring through an internal gas target. An antiproton which passes through the Coulomb field of a nucleus will create e(+)e(-) pairs, and antihydrogen will form when a positron is created in a bound instead of continuum state about the antiproton. The cross section for this process is roughly 1 Z(exp 2) pb for antiproton momenta above 6 GeV/c. A sample of 200 antihydrogen atoms in a low-emittance, neutral beam will be made in 1994 as an accidental byproduct of Fermilab experiment E760. We describe a simple experiment, Fermilab Proposal P862, which can detect this beam, and outline how a sample of a few 10(exp 4) atoms can be used to measure the antihydrogen Lamb shift to 1 percent.

  3. Production of relativistic antihydrogen atoms by pair production with positron capture and measurement of the Lamb shift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munger, Charles T.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; Schmidt, Ivan

    1993-12-01

    A beam of relativistic antihydrogen atoms — the bound state (bar pe+) — can be created by circulating the beam of an antiproton storage ring through an internal gas target. An antiproton which passes through the Coulomb field of a nucleus will create e+e- pairs, and antihydrogen will form when a positron is created in a bound instead of continuum state about the antiproton. The cross section for this process is roughly 3 Z 2 pb for antiproton momenta about 6 GeV/ c. A sample of 600 antihydrogen atoms in a low-emittance, neutral beam will be made in 1995 as an accidental byproduct of Fermilab experiment E760. We describe a simple experiment, Fermilab Proposal P862, which can detect this beam, and outline how a sample of a few-104 atoms can be used to measure the antihydrogen Lamb shift to 1 %.

  4. Operation parameters of a small scale batch distillation column for hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. D. Mayer

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Batch distillation applied to hydrous ethanol fuel (HEF production on a small scale still requires operating conditions that ensure optimal top product quality and productivity. The aim of this study is to statistically validate a batch still through the employment of response surface methodology (RSM. Operational and productivity parameters were formulated in order to guarantee quality compliance with the legal requirements for the top product concentration, besides providing support information to control the production of HEF on a small scale. The reboiler control and dephlegmator temperatures maintained within the range of 97.5 to 99.5°C and 60 to 70°C, respectively, combined with a variable reflux ratio, was satisfactory in obtaining a top product concentration, in accordance with legal regulations, as well as high productivity. The results of this study may contribute to the assembly of a simple and low-cost batch distillation control system.

  5. An Efficient Matrix Product Operator Representation of the Quantum-Chemical Hamiltonian

    CERN Document Server

    Keller, Sebastian; Troyer, Matthias; Reiher, Markus

    2015-01-01

    We describe how to efficiently construct the quantum chemical Hamiltonian operator in matrix product form. We present its implementation as a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemical applications in a purely matrix product based framework. Existing implementations of DMRG for quantum chemistry are based on the traditional formulation of the method, which was developed from a viewpoint of Hilbert space decimation and attained a higher performance compared to straightforward implementations of matrix product based DMRG. The latter variationally optimizes a class of ansatz states known as matrix product states (MPS), where operators are correspondingly represented as matrix product operators (MPO). The MPO construction scheme presented here eliminates the previous performance disadvantages while retaining the additional flexibility provided by a matrix product approach; for example, the specification of expectation values becomes an input parameter. In this way, MPOs for differe...

  6. Determination of Trace Silver in Water Samples by Online Column Preconcentration Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using Termite Digestion Product

    OpenAIRE

    Joyce Nunes Bianchin; Eduardo Carasek; Edmar Martendal

    2011-01-01

    A new method for Ag determination in water samples using solid phase extraction (SPE) coupled to a flow injection system and flame atomic absorption spectrometry was developed. The sorbent used for Ag preconcentration and extraction was the termite digestion product. Flow and chemical variables of the system were optimized through a multivariate procedure. The factors selected were adsorbent mass, buffer type and concentration, sample pH, and sample flow rate. The detection limit and precisio...

  7. Small Cell Layouts Based on Accounting Product Demand and Operating Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    常剑峰; 钟约先; 韩赞东

    2004-01-01

    Most current cell layout methods do not take into account the product demand and operating sequences, and may be too sophisticated for facilities with a relatively small number of products. A specific method for designing small manufacturing cells was developed especially for the press production lines, which is computationally simple, and yet considers product demand and the operating sequences. A simulated application illustrates the robustness of the layouts to demand changes. The method uses simple rules and database tools, so it is accessible to a wide range of facilities.

  8. Operational space weather product development and validation at the joint SMC-AFRL Rapid Prototyping Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, S.

    The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSB) and Detachment 11, Space &Missile Systems Center (SMC, Det 11/CIT) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, and implement graphical products for the Air Force's space weather operations center. These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense systems and communications. Jointly-developed products that have been, or will soon be added to real-time operations include: 1) the Operational Space Environment Network Display (OpSEND) suit - a set of four products that address HF communication, UHF satellite communication scintillation, radar auroral clutter, and GP S single- frequency errors; 2) a solar radio background and burst effects (SoRBE) product suite; and C) a meteor effects (ME) product suite. The RPC is also involved in a rather substantial "V&V" effort to produce multiple operational product verifications and validations, with an added end goal of a generalized validation software package. The presentation will provide a general overview of the RPC and each of the products mentioned above, to include background science, operational history, inputs, outputs, dissemination, and customer uses for each.

  9. Atomic Number Dependence of Hadron Production at Large Transverse Momentum in 300 GeV Proton--Nucleus Collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, J. W.; Frisch, H. J.; Shochet, M. J.; Boymond, J. P.; Mermod, R.; Piroue, P. A.; Sumner, R. L.

    1974-07-15

    In an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory we have compared the production of large transverse momentum hadrons from targets of W, Ti, and Be bombarded by 300 GeV protons. The hadron yields were measured at 90 degrees in the proton-nucleon c.m. system with a magnetic spectrometer equipped with 2 Cerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter. The production cross-sections have a dependence on the atomic number A that grows with P{sub 1}, eventually leveling off proportional to A{sup 1.1}.

  10. Production and manipulation of wave packets from ultracold atoms in an optical lattice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Poul Lindholm; Gajdacz, Miroslav; Winter, Nils;

    2013-01-01

    system. The modulation technique also allows for a controllable transfer (deexcitation) of atoms from such wave packets to a state bound by the lattice. Thus, it acts as a beam splitter for matter waves that can selectively address different bands, enabling the preparation of atoms in localized states....... The combination of wave packet creation and deexcitation closely resembles the well-known method of pump-probe spectroscopy. Here, we use the deexcitation for spectroscopy of the anharmonicity of the combined potential. Finally, we demonstrate that lattice modulation can be used to excite matter wave...

  11. Negative ion productions in high velocity collision between small carbon clusters and Helium atom target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We measured absolute double capture cross section of Cn+ ions (n=1,5) colliding, at 2.3 and 2.6 a.u velocities, with an Helium target atom and the branching ratios of fragmentation of the so formed electronically excited anions Cn−*. We also measured absolute cross section for the electronic attachment on neutral Cn clusters colliding at same velocities with He atom. This is to our knowledge the first measurement of neutral-neutral charge exchange in high velocity collision.

  12. An efficient matrix product operator representation of the quantum chemical Hamiltonian

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Sebastian, E-mail: sebastian.keller@phys.chem.ethz.ch; Reiher, Markus, E-mail: markus.reiher@phys.chem.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Laboratory of Physical Chemistry, Vladimir-Prelog-Weg 2, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland); Dolfi, Michele, E-mail: dolfim@phys.ethz.ch; Troyer, Matthias, E-mail: troyer@phys.ethz.ch [ETH Zürich, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, 8093 Zürich (Switzerland)

    2015-12-28

    We describe how to efficiently construct the quantum chemical Hamiltonian operator in matrix product form. We present its implementation as a density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) algorithm for quantum chemical applications. Existing implementations of DMRG for quantum chemistry are based on the traditional formulation of the method, which was developed from the point of view of Hilbert space decimation and attained higher performance compared to straightforward implementations of matrix product based DMRG. The latter variationally optimizes a class of ansatz states known as matrix product states, where operators are correspondingly represented as matrix product operators (MPOs). The MPO construction scheme presented here eliminates the previous performance disadvantages while retaining the additional flexibility provided by a matrix product approach, for example, the specification of expectation values becomes an input parameter. In this way, MPOs for different symmetries — abelian and non-abelian — and different relativistic and non-relativistic models may be solved by an otherwise unmodified program.

  13. Integration and Operational Experience in CMS Monte Carlo Production in LCG

    CERN Document Server

    Caballero, J; Hernández, Jose M

    2007-01-01

    This note describes integration and operational aspects of the CMS Monte Carlo production in the LHC Computing Grid (LCG). In 2005 the McRunjob MC production system was ported to LCG-2 in order to make use of the distributed computing and storage resources available in LCG for CMS. The full production chain (generation, simulation, digitization with pile-up, reconstruction, injection in the data transfer system and publication for analysis) was implemented. Experience gained during the implementation and operation of the production system in LCG has been used to build ProdAgent, the new MC production system. ProdAgent takes also advantage of the new CMS event data model, event processing framework and data management services. Integration and operational experience with ProdAgent is also described in this note.

  14. [The reprocessing of medical products: from regulatory polices to operational practices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Eliana Auxiliadora Magalhães; Costa, Ediná Alves

    2011-12-01

    The number of technological resources used in health care interventions is growing and continually expanding with the introduction of new products and articles. Problems associated with the reutilization of medical products, both reusable and of single use, affect policies and related technical-operational, economic, political, ethical, legal, and environmental matters. This study aims to contextualize the regulatory systems of medical products, and analyze the subsequent operational implications for Brazilian hospital practices. The article consists of a bibliographic review, carried out without time and language restriction, utilizing the Web of Science, Bireme, Scielo and Lilacs databases, with the support of specific descriptors. This study uses the contextualization of regulatory plans for medical products across the world and in Brazil and the existing condition of standardization of the reprocessing of these products as the assessment sources with which to analyze the operational implications for these practices in Brazilian hospitals.

  15. GOES-R AWG product processing system framework: research to operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, A.; Sampson, S.; Wolf, W.; Yu, T.; Garcia, R.; Martin, G.; Straka, W.; Fan, M.; Schiffer, E.; Goldberg, M.

    2014-11-01

    GOES-R Algorithm Working Group's (AWG) Product Processing System Framework is currently being run both in operations and in near real-time to support algorithm verification and validation over extended seasonal datasets. The algorithms are being tested using a variety of data sets, including: MODIS, SEVIRI, GOES, VIIRS data, and ABI WRF simulated data. The Advanced Himawari Imager(AHI) data will also be used as ABI proxy data to test the GOES-R algorithms in the Framework. AWG Integration Team (AIT) has developed a suite of tools to monitor product quality, product processing, and system performance for the near real-time product generation. These capabilities have allowed the framework to be expanded for use in transitioning algorithms to operations. The GOES-R AWG Derived Atmospheric Motion Vector Winds algorithm has been successfully updated and transitioned to operations running on existing GOES and VIIRS data. Other GOES-R algorithms that are being upgraded for operational use on VIIRS include the Clouds, Aerosols, and Cryosphere products. In addition, legacy operational cloud systems will be integrated into the Framework. The design details of the AWG Framework, near real-time algorithm product generation system, monitoring tools, transitioning of the framework to operations, and future algorithm implementation plans shall be discussed.

  16. Arithmetical and geometrical means of generalized logarithmic and exponential functions: Generalized sum and product operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-parameter generalizations of the logarithmic and exponential functions have been obtained as well as algebraic operators to retrieve extensivity. Analytical expressions for the successive applications of the sum or product operators on several values of a variable are obtained here. Applications of the above formalism are considered

  17. Para-product operators and para-linearization on locally compact Vilenkin groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏维宜

    1995-01-01

    The concept of para-product operators over locally compact Vilenkin groups is established and the applications to the para-linearization in nonlinear problems are studied. This kind of operators plays a special role in dealing with those functions which do not have the classical derivatives.

  18. ASPECTS REGARDING THE SETTING OF TIME STANDARDS FOR THE PRODUCTION AND SEWING OPERATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SECAN Cristina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the technological process of manufacture of a shoe for women in IL system in order to establish the time and the production norm in the processing-sewing procedure. The sequence of operations is presented in a case study that analyzed how can be obtained the upper assembly of a footwear product that later becomes integral part into the finished product. Drawing up the technological process is done considering both the manual operations and the manual-mechanical operations for processing and assembling the parts that make the whole upper assembly by gluing the parts, by seaming and securing the joints. The type of equipment chosen to carry out operations is influencing through its productivity the necessary material calculated and hence the labour force required. The amount of time consists of time needed for preparation-finishing time, operative time, time of working place service and time of regulated interruptions. These periods of times were determined basically by timing assistance of the manufacturing process throughout its development. Production norm is calculated on the basis of the standard time, taking into account that it represents the amount of products manufactured in a work shift In order to improve the process by reducing the time of production and the number of workers engaged we are considering the automation of the manufacturing process by using modern methods using laser cutting or cutting under running water, automatic sewing machines, strip conveyor belts with pace imposed etc.

  19. Severe plastic deformation by equal channel angular pressing: product quality and operational details

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal de Andrade Mendes Filho

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available As a technique, Equal Channel Angular Pressing (ECAP is simple and inexpensive. However, if die manufacture and operational details are not carefully planned and implemented, difficulties arise, which can interfere with the product characteristics and the pressing operation itself. The present paper offers guidelines on die design and manufacture, emphasizing geometry, material and heat treatment. Further, operational parameters such as lubrication, pressing temperature, deformation routes, die closure procedure and the influence of channel cross section on maximum acceptable load are described. Additionally, the effects of those variables on the product characteristics (deformation level and homogeneity and integrity, plus process control and safety, are discussed.

  20. Lipase-catalysed transesterification of soya bean oil for biodiesel production during continuous batch operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Wei; Xu, Yuanyuan; Liu, Dehua

    2003-10-01

    The effects of temperature, oil/alcohol molar ratio and by-product glycerol were studied during Lipozyme TL IM-catalysed continuous batch operation when short-chain alcohols were used as the acyl acceptor. In non-continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:4 and 40-50 degrees C; however, during the continuous batch operation, the optimal oil/alcohol ratio and temperature were 1:1 and 30 degrees C; 95% of enzymic activity remained after 10 batches when isopropanol was adopted to remove by-product glycerol during repeated use of the lipase.

  1. COHERENT INFORMATION ON THERMAL RADIATION NOISE CHANNEL: AN APPROACH OF INTEGRAL WITHIN ORDERED PRODUCT OF OPERATORS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小余; 仇佩亮

    2001-01-01

    An analytical expression is given to the coherent information of the thermal radiation signal transmitted over the thermal radiation noise channel, one of the most essential quantum Gaussian channels. Focusing on the single normal mode of the thermal radiation signal and noise, we resolve the entangled state density operator, which characterizes quantum information transmission, into a direct product of two parts, with each part being a thermal radiation density operator. The calculation is aided by the technique known as "integral within ordered product of operators".

  2. Integral evaluation of operating quality and the deciding of management strategy in productive coal mines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jing-li(赵景礼)

    2004-01-01

    According to overall mean square root of weighted deviation, presented an evaluation model of "geology-technique-social conditions" with a significant index system for the estimation of operating quality in productive coal mines. In the given example, the evaluation result is used to decide management strategy of coal mine, which plays a guiding role in the production.

  3. An Active Learning Exercise for Product Design from an Operations Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Stephen; Baker, Elizabeth

    2016-01-01

    Product design is a topic that is regularly covered in introductory operations management courses. However, a pedagogical challenge exists related to the presentation of introductory-level product design in a way that promotes active learning. The hands-on exercise presented in this article provides instructors with an activity that gives students…

  4. An intelligent factory-wide optimal operation system for continuous production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jinliang; Chai, Tianyou; Wang, Hongfeng; Wang, Junwei; Zheng, Xiuping

    2016-03-01

    In this study, a novel intelligent factory-wide operation system for a continuous production process is designed to optimise the entire production process, which consists of multiple units; furthermore, this system is developed using process operational data to avoid the complexity of mathematical modelling of the continuous production process. The data-driven approach aims to specify the structure of the optimal operation system; in particular, the operational data of the process are used to formulate each part of the system. In this context, the domain knowledge of process engineers is utilised, and a closed-loop dynamic optimisation strategy, which combines feedback, performance prediction, feed-forward, and dynamic tuning schemes into a framework, is employed. The effectiveness of the proposed system has been verified using industrial experimental results.

  5. Product Type Operations between Fuzzy Numbers and their Applications in Geology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnabás Bede

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Multiplicative operations for fuzzy numbers raise several problems both from thetheoretical and practical point of view in fuzzy arithmetic. The multiplication based onZadeh's extension principle and its triangular and trapezoidal approximation is used inseveral recent works in applications in geology. Recently, new product-type operation areintroduced and studied, as e.g. the cross product of fuzzy numbers and the product obtainedby the best trapezoidal approximation preserving the expeted interval. We present acomparative study of the above mentioned multiplications with respect to geologicalapplications.

  6. Torque Production Using Hand Cranks in a Simulated Gear-Operated Valve Opening Task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze; Stanton; Patel; Cheli

    1997-01-01

    Hand cranks are used in a variety of industries to actuate valves and in other gear-operated applications. In order to evaluate these types of operations and their compatibility with operator strength capabilities, a rotational dynamometer was used to measure torque production capability of operators using a hand crank at different heights and angles (with respect to the coronal plane). The tests were conducted for both clockwise and counterclockwise rotations using the dominant arm of each test participant. A total of 18 tests were completed by each of five male right-handed test participants. A 0 declination angle, counterclockwise operation and both 40.65 cm and 60.96 cm heights were found to be associated with the greatest torque production capabilities. PMID:10602594

  7. Operational Excellence through Schedule Optimization and Production Simulation of Application Specific Integrated Circuits.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flory, John Andrew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Padilla, Denise D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Gauthier, John H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Zwerneman, April Marie [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Miller, Steven P [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Upcoming weapon programs require an aggressive increase in Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) production at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). SNL has developed unique modeling and optimization tools that have been instrumental in improving ASIC production productivity and efficiency, identifying optimal operational and tactical execution plans under resource constraints, and providing confidence in successful mission execution. With ten products and unprecedented levels of demand, a single set of shared resources, highly variable processes, and the need for external supplier task synchronization, scheduling is an integral part of successful manufacturing. The scheduler uses an iterative multi-objective genetic algorithm and a multi-dimensional performance evaluator. Schedule feasibility is assessed using a discrete event simulation (DES) that incorporates operational uncertainty, variability, and resource availability. The tools provide rapid scenario assessments and responses to variances in the operational environment, and have been used to inform major equipment investments and workforce planning decisions in multiple SNL facilities.

  8. Operating Analysis of the Closed Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products Based on Logistics Center

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives the overview of concept and constitution of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products based on logistics center,and the necessity of regarding logistics center as core enterprise.Meanwhile,it analyzes the function of logistics center of agricultural products,namely functions of exchange,collection,distribution,storage and transportation.It also poses the prerequisites of logistics center.The logistics center of agricultural products must have stable profit expectancy,prominent scale,strong appealing power,capacity of bearing market risk and basic thoughts of supply chain management.The functional design of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products has been discussed in 5 aspects,namely logistics center,production base,providers of means of production,retailer and consumer.The operating thoughts of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products based on logistics center are put forward on the basis of the research of operating objective and service target of supply chain as follows:first,based on local principal agricultural products,the logistics center mainly distributes the massed agricultural products;second,it is necessary to choose appropriate strategic cooperative partners to sign contract;third,the operating procedure of supply chain entails bringing in professional managerial talents of supply chain;finally,the relationships of supply chain should be maintained.

  9. Determination of metallic impurities in raw materials for radioisotope production by atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic absorption spectrometry has been used for the determination of traces of calcium in scandium oxide, copper in zinc, iron in cobalt oxide, manganese In ferric oxide, nickel in copper and zinc in gallium oxide. The influences on the sensitivities arising from the hollow cathode currents, the gas pressures and the acid concentrations have been considered. A study of the interferences from the metallic matrices has also been performed, the interference due to the absorption of the manganese radiation by the atoms of iron being the most outstanding . In order to remove the interfering elements and increase sensitivity, pre-concentration methods have been tested. The addition methods has also been used. (Author) 14 refs

  10. Photoassociative ionization of cold Na atoms: repulsive levels effects on the ion production rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, R. R.; Muhammad, R.; Shiozaki, R. F.; de Oliveira, A. L.; Magalhães, D. V.; Ramirez-Serrano, J.; Bagnato, V. S.; Magalhães, K. M. F.

    2009-02-01

    We have revisited photoassociative ionization (PAI) in a cold sample of Na atoms. A two-color experiment was performed in a magneto-optical trap through the addition of a probe laser. The observation of a marked change in the PAI rate for a definite frequency range can be attributed to the influence of repulsive levels and a possible avoided crossing between long-range molecular levels.

  11. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  12. International Production and Global Logistics Operations : Management Issues in Global Logistics with Offshored Production Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Korrmann, Franziska

    2011-01-01

    This paper is directed at discussing some of the management issues, problems and solutions of logistics in the context of offshored productive activities The introduction includes a discussion of the logistics topics and an introduction of the economic logic of offshoring. The main part analyses the logistics topics with regard to the internationally fragmented production. The topics of logistics include: Information flow and integration, transportation, inventory management, warehousing and ...

  13. Production of excited atomic hydrogen and deuterium from H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} photodissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozek, J D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Furst, J E [University of Newcastle-Ourimbah, Ourimbah, NSW 2258 (Australia); Gay, T J [Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); Gould, H [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Kilcoyne, A L D [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Machacek, J R [Behlen Laboratory of Physics, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0111 (United States); MartIn, F [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain); McLaughlin, K W [Department of Physics and Engineering, Loras College, Dubuque, IA 52001 (United States); Sanz-Vicario, J L [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, 28049 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-12-14

    We have measured the production of both Ly{alpha} and H{alpha} fluorescence from atomic H and D for the photodissociation of H{sub 2} and D{sub 2} by linearly polarized photons with energies between 24 and 60 eV. In this energy range, excited photofragments result primarily from the production of doubly excited molecular species which promptly autoionize or dissociate into two neutrals. Our data are compared with ab initio calculations of the dissociation process, in which both doubly excited state production and prompt ionization (non-resonant) channels are considered. Agreement between our experimental data and that of earlier work, and with our theoretical calculations, is qualitative at best.

  14. Operational System-Impact Products for the Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, S.; Scro, K.

    2006-12-01

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/VSBX) and the Technology Applications Division of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC/WXT) have combined efforts under the Rapid Prototyping Center (RPC) to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for the Air Force Space Command (AFSPC) Space Situational Awareness Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D). The SEEFS architecture and database enable modular use and execution of SEEFS products, and the high-level Decision Aid shows the combined effects of all SEEFS product output on a given asset and on multi-asset missions. This presentation provides a general overview of the SEEFS program, along with details of the first round of products expected to be operational for use in exercises and/or real-time operations in 2007-2008.

  15. Nanoscale spatially resolved simultaneous measurement of in-plane and out-of-plane force components on surfaces: a novel operational mode in atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gregory S.; Dinte, Bradley P.; Blach, Jolanta A.; Myhra, Sverre

    2002-11-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) allows investigation of the properties of surfaces and interfaces at atomic scale resolution. However, several different operational modes, (imaging, force versus distance and lateral force modes), need to be deployed in order to gain insight into the structure, tribological and mechanical properties. A new method, based on a variation of the force versus distance mode, has been developed. In essence, a coupling of the deformational modes of the probe is exploited whereby the tip is induced to undergo lateral travel in response to application of an out-of-plane force (and thus normal bending of the force-sensing lever). The lateral travel induces in-plane forces that are then measurable as a consequence of stimulation of the 'buckling' deformational mode of the lever. Due to the lever geometry, the technique offers an increase in resolution of an order of magnitude over existing AFM methods for measurement of atomic scale stick-slip events. In addition, the method allows measurement of the lateral deformation of the sample as well as scanner calibration. Outcomes will be demonstrated for atomically flat surfaces such as WTe2 and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite.

  16. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopaev, D. V.; Malykhin, E. M.; Zyryanov, S. M.

    2011-01-01

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter—ozone production probability (\\gamma_{O_{3}}) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse \\gamma_{O_{3}} data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models—the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model—was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the

  17. Surface recombination of oxygen atoms in O2 plasma at increased pressure: II. Vibrational temperature and surface production of ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozone production in an oxygen glow discharge in a quartz tube was studied in the pressure range of 10-50 Torr. The O3 density distribution along the tube diameter was measured by UV absorption spectroscopy, and ozone vibrational temperature TV was found comparing the calculated ab initio absorption spectra with the experimental ones. It has been shown that the O3 production mainly occurs on a tube surface whereas ozone is lost in the tube centre where in contrast the electron and oxygen atom densities are maximal. Two models were used to analyse the obtained results. The first one is a kinetic 1D model for the processes occurring near the tube walls with the participation of the main particles: O(3P), O2, O2(1Δg) and O3 molecules in different vibrational states. The agreement of O3 and O(3P) density profiles and TV calculated in the model with observed ones was reached by varying the single model parameter-ozone production probability (γO3) on the quartz tube surface on the assumption that O3 production occurs mainly in the surface recombination of physisorbed O(3P) and O2. The phenomenological model of the surface processes with the participation of oxygen atoms and molecules including singlet oxygen molecules was also considered to analyse γO3 data obtained in the kinetic model. A good agreement between the experimental data and the data of both models-the kinetic 1D model and the phenomenological surface model-was obtained in the full range of the studied conditions that allowed consideration of the ozone surface production mechanism in more detail. The important role of singlet oxygen in ozone surface production was shown. The O3 surface production rate directly depends on the density of physisorbed oxygen atoms and molecules and can be high with increasing pressure and energy inputted into plasma while simultaneously keeping the surface temperature low enough. Using the special discharge cell design, such an approach opens up the possibility to develop

  18. Determination of Selenium in Marine Aquatic Products by Hydride Generation-atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (HG-AFS)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhaohui; GAO Xin; Tashiro Yuri; Hiroo Ogawa

    2005-01-01

    A method for the analysis of selenium in marine aquatic products by HG-AFS has been investigated. The method is based on the reduction of inorganic selenium to volatile SeH2 which is bubbled out by carrier gas of pure argon, and then swept to Ar-H2 flame quarts atomizer to measure its fluorescence intensity. The hydride generation, transportation, atomization and some instrumental parameters were studied by a kind of orthogonal design. The optimum conditions selected are as follows: reactive acidity, 20% HC1; the amount of NaBH4, 4.9mL; gas flow of argon, 600mLmin-1; atomizing temperature, 200 ℃; negative high voltage, -300V; light current, 100 mA; integral time, 7s. The detection limit of the presented method is 0.072μgL-1 for selenium. The calibration curve shows a satisfactory line inthe concentration range from 0.000 to1.000μgL-1 Se. The recovery is 95.8%-102.2%.

  19. Extensive theoretical study on electronically excited states of calcium monochloride: Molecular laser cooling and production of ultracold chlorine atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingkai; Ma, Haitao; Cao, Jianwei; Bian, Wensheng

    2016-05-01

    Nine doublet Λ-S states of calcium monochloride (CaCl) are calculated using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method with the Davidson correction. Both the core subvalence and spin-orbit coupling effects are taken into account. Laser cooling of CaCl and production of ultracold chlorine atoms are investigated and assessed. Our computed spectroscopic constants and radiative lifetimes match the available experimental data very well. The determined Franck-Condon factors and vibrational branching ratios of the A 2 Π 1 / 2 ( ν ' ) ← X 2 Σ1 / 2 + ( ν ) transition are highly diagonally distributed and the evaluated radiative lifetime for the A2Π1/2(ν' = 0) state is 28.2 ns, which is short enough for rapid laser cooling. Subsequently, detection of cold molecules via resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization to determine the final quantum state populations is discussed and the ionization energy calculated. A multi-pulse excitation scheme is proposed for producing ultracold chlorine atoms from zero-energy photodissociation of the cooled CaCl. Our results demonstrate the possibility of producing ultracold CaCl molecules and Cl atoms.

  20. Extensive theoretical study on electronically excited states of calcium monochloride: Molecular laser cooling and production of ultracold chlorine atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Mingkai; Ma, Haitao; Cao, Jianwei; Bian, Wensheng

    2016-05-14

    Nine doublet Λ-S states of calcium monochloride (CaCl) are calculated using the internally contracted multireference configuration interaction method with the Davidson correction. Both the core subvalence and spin-orbit coupling effects are taken into account. Laser cooling of CaCl and production of ultracold chlorine atoms are investigated and assessed. Our computed spectroscopic constants and radiative lifetimes match the available experimental data very well. The determined Franck-Condon factors and vibrational branching ratios of the A(2)Π1/2(ν('))←X(2)Σ1/2 (+)(ν) transition are highly diagonally distributed and the evaluated radiative lifetime for the A(2)Π1/2(ν' = 0) state is 28.2 ns, which is short enough for rapid laser cooling. Subsequently, detection of cold molecules via resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization to determine the final quantum state populations is discussed and the ionization energy calculated. A multi-pulse excitation scheme is proposed for producing ultracold chlorine atoms from zero-energy photodissociation of the cooled CaCl. Our results demonstrate the possibility of producing ultracold CaCl molecules and Cl atoms. PMID:27179479

  1. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    CERN Document Server

    Jensen, Kasper; Thomas, Rodrigo A; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette; Balabas, Mikhail V; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the frst detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the tempor...

  2. On the role of atomic metastability in the production of Balmer line radiation from ‘cold’ atomic hydrogen, deuterium and hydrogenic ion impurities in fusion edge plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hey, J. D.

    2012-03-01

    Published arguments, which assign an important role to atomic metastability in the production of ‘narrow’ Zeeman component radiation from the boundary region of fusion plasmas, are examined critically in relation to l-redistribution by proton and electron collisions, and mixing of unperturbed atomic states by the ion microfield and microfield gradient. It is concluded that these important processes indeed severely constrain the contribution from ‘metastable’ states to the generation of the hydrogen Balmer spectra, for electron concentrations above 1012 cm-3, as pointed out before by the present author (Hey et al 1999 J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 32 3555). The analysis of collision-induced l-redistribution represents an extension of that used previously (Hey et al 1996 Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36 583), applicable up to higher electron densities. For comparison purposes, we also consider the question of metastability of ionized helium in a low-temperature plasma, and that of some common hydrogenic impurities (C5+ and Ne9+) in a hydrogen (deuterium) fusion plasma. While for low nuclear charge Z the metastability of 2s1/2 levels is quenched by the plasma environment, it is much reduced in high-Z ions owing to the rapid increase with Z of the two-photon electric dipole (2E1) and magnetic dipole (M1) spontaneous transition rates to the ground state, whereas the role of the plasma in these cases is less important. The main new principle elaborated in this work is the sensitivity of atomic line strengths, and hence collision strengths, to perturbation by the plasma environment for transitions between fine-structure sublevels of the same principal quantum number. As the plasma microfield strength grows, ‘allowed’ transitions diminish in strength, while ‘forbidden’ transitions grow. However, owing to violation of the parity selection rule, there is an overall loss of collision strength available to transitions, resulting from the appearance of significant

  3. Operability Guidelines For Product Tanker In Heavy Weather In The Adriatic Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mudronja Luka

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents operability guidelines for seafarers on a product tanker which navigates in the Adriatic Sea during heavy weather. Tanker route starts from the Otranto strait in the south to the island Krk in the north of Adriatic Sea. Heavy weather is caused by south wind called jugo (blowing from E-SE to SS-E, sirocco family. Operability guidelines are given based on an operability criteria platform for presenting ship seakeeping characteristics. Operability criteria considered in this paper are propeller emergence, deck wetness and bow acceleration of a product tanker. Limiting values of mentioned criteria determine sustainable speed. Heavy weather is described by extreme sea state of 7.5 m wave height. Wave spectrum used in this paper is Tabain spectrum which is developed specifically for Adriatic Sea. Seafarer's approach of decisions making in extreme weather is also shown and servers as a guideline for further research of the authors.

  4. Radio frequency atomic hydrogen beam source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple, convenient rf discharge source for the production of an intense beam of hydrogen atoms is described. The design and operation is such that the discharge tube can be operated over a period of several thousand hours, producing an intense beam with dissociation approx.95%

  5. The Use of H-SAF Soil Moisture Products for Operational Hydrology: Flood Modelling over Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Massari, Christian; Brocca, Luca; Ciabatta, Luca; Moramarco, Tommaso; Gabellani, Simone; Albergel, Clement; De Rosnay, Patricia; Puca, Silvia; Wagner, Wolfgang

    2015-01-01

    The ever-increasing availability of new remote sensing and land surface model datasets opens new opportunities for hydrologists to improve flood forecasting systems. The current study investigates the performance of two operational soil moisture (SM) products provided by the “EUMETSATSatellite Application Facility in Support of Operational Hydrology and Water Management” (H-SAF, http://hsaf.meteoam.it/) within a recently-developed hydrological model called the “simplified continuous rainfall-...

  6. Operation GREENHOUSE. Scientific Director's report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 6. 7. Contamination-decontamination studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Werner, L.B.; Sinnreich, S.R.

    1951-08-01

    This 1951 NTPR report describes experiments conducted in Operation Greenhouse at Eniwetok on certain processes and materials associated with contamination and decontamination phenomena. For this type of contaminating event, in which surfaces are contaminated by being carried by aircraft through an atomic cloud, information was obtained which will assist in development of effective protective measures and recovery measures from contaminating atomic detonations. The contaminant which was deposited on surfaces mounted on drone planes was shown to be nonuniform under various contaminating conditions, both as to distribution and composition. Data have been obtained on the relative importance of such surface characteristics as roughness, porosity, retentivity, and contact angle. The relative behavior of various chemical agents as decontaminants was determined and use of industrial cleaning methods employing chemical additives to effect decontamination was investigated.

  7. Production of Platinum Atom Nanoclusters at One End of Helical Plant Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Drygin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platinum atom clusters (Pt nanoparticles, Pt-NPs were produced selectively at one end of helical plant viruses, tobacco mosaic virus (TMV and potato virus X (PVX, when platinum coordinate compounds were reduced chemically by borohydrides. Size of the platinum NPs depends on conditions of the electroless deposition of platinum atoms on the virus. Results suggest that the Pt-NPs are bound concurrently to the terminal protein subunits and the 5′ end of encapsidated TMV RNA. Thus, a special structure of tobacco mosaic virus and potato X virus particles with nanoparticles of platinum, which looks like a push-pin with platinum head and virus needle, was obtained. Similar results were obtained with ultrasonically fragmented TMV particles. By contrast, the Pt-NPs fully filled the central axial hole of in vitro assembled RNA-free TMV-like particles. We believe that the results presented here will be valuable in the fundamental understanding of interaction of viral platforms with ionic metals and in a mechanism of nanoparticles formation.

  8. Operational Evaluation of VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSan(tm) as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  9. Operation Evaluation of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Gary W.; Newsham, Gerard; Morrow, Robert M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.

    2011-01-01

    The 2010 Desert Research and Technology Studies (DRATS) of the VEGGIE Food Production System in the Habitat Demonstration Unit (HDU) Pressurized Excursion Module (PEM) was the first operational evaluation of salad crop production technology in a NASA analog test. A systematic evaluation of rooting media and nutrient delivery systems were evaluated for three lettuce cultivars that have shown promise as candidates for a surface based food production system. The VEGGIE nutrient delivery system worked well, was able to be maintained by multiple operators with a minimum of training, and supported excellent lettuce growth for the duration of the test. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) evaluation was performed using ProSantm as sanitation agent prior to consumption was approved, and the crew was allowed to consume the lettuce grown using the VEGGIE light cap and gravity based nutrient delivery system at the completion of the 14-day DRAT field test. The DRAT field test validated the crew operations; Growth of all lettuce cultivars was excellent. The operational DRAT field testing in the HDU identified light quality issues related to morphology and pigment development that will need to be addressed through additional testing. Feedback from the crew, ground support personnel, and human factors leads was uniformly positive on the psychological value of having the crop production system in the excursion module. A number of areas have been identified for future work, to minimize the "footprint" of the Food Production system through creative use of unused wall and floor space in the unit.

  10. The elimination of waste emissions from oil and gas production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the principal waste streams that have been identified from the production operations of all Shell Exploration and Production (E and P) companies. A phased approach has been identified to meet their target of eliminating over time all emissions, effluents and discharges that have a negative impact on the environment. In the short/medium term changes in operational procedures, together with end of pipe technology will be used to reduce emissions. In the longer term, fundamental changes to the production process will be required to eliminate the problem as far as possible at source, to re-use waste streams within the process and return any remaining unwanted material to the producing reservoir, without additional contamination. Carbon dioxide is currently regarded as a special case and will be reduced by minimizing the amount of energy consumed and/or wasted in the production process

  11. Operation Mechanism of Farmers’ Professional Cooperatives from the Point of Low-Carbon Agricultural Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    We firstly take a look at internal logic of cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.In combination with operation features of farmers’ professional cooperatives and actual requirements for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products;we elaborate establishing benefit allocation mechanism,bearing education and training functions,forming low-carbon value,building low-carbon identification system,as well as realizing low-carbon value.According to these situations,we systematically analyze operation mechanism of farmers’ professional cooperatives suitable for cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products.To promote cluster development of low-carbon agricultural products,we put forward following suggestions,including government guidance and encouragement,social acceptance and active cooperation,and integration into global low-carbon development system to share benefit of low-carbon development.

  12. Operator Product Expansion and Conservation Laws in Non-Relativistic Conformal Field Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Golkar, Siavash

    2014-01-01

    We explore the consequences of conformal symmetry for the operator product expansions in nonrelativistic field theories. Similar to the relativistic case, the OPE coefficients of descendants are related to that of the primary. However, unlike relativistic CFTs the 3-point function of primaries is not completely specified by conformal symmetry. Here, we show that the 3-point function between operators with nonzero particle number, where (at least) one operator has the lowest dimension allowed by unitarity, is determined up to a numerical coefficient. We also look at the structure of the family tree of primaries with zero particle number and discuss the presence of conservation laws in this sector.

  13. Closure of the Operator Product Expansion in the Non-Unitary Bootstrap

    CERN Document Server

    Esterlis, Ilya; Ramirez, David

    2016-01-01

    We use the numerical conformal bootstrap in two dimensions to search for finite, closed sub-algebras of the operator product expansion (OPE), without assuming unitarity. We find the minimal models as special cases, as well as additional lines of solutions that can be understood in the Coulomb gas formalism. All the solutions we find that contain the vacuum in the operator algebra are cases where the external operators of the bootstrap equation are degenerate operators, and we argue that this follows analytically from the expressions in arXiv:1202.4698 for the crossing matrices of Virasoro conformal blocks. Our numerical analysis is a special case of the "Gliozzi" bootstrap method, and provides a simpler setting in which to study technical challenges with the method. In the supplementary material, we provide a Mathematica notebook that automates the calculation of the crossing matrices and OPE coefficients for degenerate operators using the formulae of Dotsenko and Fateev.

  14. Atomization of dilute oil-in-water emulsions during application of crop protection products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hilz, E.

    2013-01-01

    Crop protection products are usually applied as sprays. These spray droplets have a certain size distribution. Fine droplets are often required to achieve a good coverage of the plant and to guarantee the biological efficacy of an agrochemical product. At the same time very fine droplets in spray ar

  15. Finite Blaschke product and the multiplication operators on Sobolev disk algebra

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Let R(D) be the algebra generated in Sobolev space W22(D) by the rational functions with poles outside the unit disk D. In this paper the multiplication operators Mg on R(D) is studied and it is proved that Mg ~ Mzn if and only if g is an n-Blaschke product. Furthermore, if g is an n-Blaschke product, then Mg has uncountably many Banach reducing subspaces if and only if n > 1.

  16. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1987-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The annual report of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the fiscal year ended March 31, 1988 covers: Research Company; CANDU Operations; Radiochemical Company; Medical Products Division; The Future; Financial Sections; Board of Directors and Officers; and AECL locations

  17. Analytic hierarchy process as module for productivity evaluation and decision-making of the operation theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E M; Hamoud, Hesham S

    2016-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales, these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms. The aim of the article was to develop a model for productivity measurement of the operation theater (OT), which could be applied as a model for quality improvement and decision-making. AHP is used in this article to evolve such a model. The steps consist of identifying the critical success factors for measuring the productivity of OT, identifying subfactors that inflauence the critical factors, comparing the pairwise, deriving their relative importance and ratings, and calculating the cumulative effect according to the attributes in OT. The cumulative productivitycan be calculated by the end and can be compared Ideal productivity to measure the productive of OT in percentage fraction. Hence, the productivity could be calculated. Hence, AHP is a very useful model to measure the productivity in OT. PMID:26955599

  18. Development of High-Density U/Al Dispersion Plates For Mo-99 Production Using Atomized Uranium Powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Ho Jin [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chang Kyu; Park, Jong Man [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Sim, Moon Soo; Lee, Jong Hyun [Chungnam National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-12-15

    Uranium metal particle dispersion plates have been proposed as targets for Molybdenum-99 (Mo-99) production to improve the radioisotope production efficiency of conventional low enriched uranium targets. In this study, uranium powder was produced by centrifugal atomization, and miniature target plates containing uranium particles in an aluminum matrix with uranium densities up to 9 g-U/cm{sup 3} were fabricated. Additional heat treatment was applied to convert the uranium particles into UAl{sub x} compounds by a chemical reaction of the uranium particles and aluminum matrix. Thus, these target plates can be treated with the same alkaline dissolution process that is used for conventional UAl{sub x} dispersion targets, while increasing the uranium density in the target plates.

  19. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Norhasni Mohd Asaad

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Market globalization, competitive product and services, high economic crises are the most critical factors that influence the success of the manufacturing companies in global market. Therefore it is critical to the manufacturing companies to be efficient in production and lean tool may used to achieve that.  The most frequently used is the Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, even though there are many studies have been conducted in relation to the TPM but there is limited research in investigating the effects of the TPM on operational performance. However, the result of the studies was not consistent, where TPM practice may have positive and negative impact on operational performance. Among the reason is the culture of the organization that influenced the implementation of TPM and operational performance. Due to that this study attempts to investigate the influence of organizational culture on the TPM implementation and operational performance.  Rasch model is used in this study due to its ability in interpreting and analyzing the ability of respondents in performing the difficult items. The online questionnaires were distributed to 63 randomly selected automotive companies located at Northern Region of Malaysia.  Results of the study revealed that the organizational culture has influenced on the successful implementation of TPM and operational performance. Therefore by the implementation of TPM in outstanding organizational culture can improve operational performance.   Keyword: Total Preventive Maintenance (TPM, Lean manufacturing, Operational performance, Organizational culture, Rasch modeldoi:10.12695/ajtm.2013.6.2.2How to cite this article:Mohd Asaad, M.N and Yusoff, R.Z. (2013. Organizational Culture Influence On Total Productive Maintenance (TPM and Operational Performance Using RASCH Model Analysis . The Asian Journal of Technology Management 6 (2: 72-81. Print ISSN: 1978-6956; Online ISSN: 2089-791X.  doi:10.12695/ajtm

  20. Economic feasibility study to Raise the operational capacity of the Electron Beam Accelerator at the National Centre for Radiation Research and Technology, atomic Energy Authority, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study aims to investigate the economic feasibility to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the National Center for Radiation Research and Technology, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt, through proposal of additional processing of power cables as it have 4 thousand operating hours per year of total 6 thousand hours per year. The study involved three sections; the first section included the technical aspects and marketing, the second section was concerned with financial analysis, and the third section included the national return of the project. In the first part, the electronic and technical requirements of the accelerator were studied to raise the capacity of the accelerator and to identify the time trend of demand for services in marketing. The second section included the financial feasibility of the project which was carried out through two parts; the first part deal with the analysis of costs of the project including identifying of investment, spending, labor costs, operating expenses, the annual installment of the annual depreciation expense with the total annual costs and operating costs per hour and ton. The second part was carried out to evaluated business profitability of the project, preparation of the annual cash flow, calculation of the internal rate of return, payback period of capital, and the analysis of sensitivity of the project in terms of its ability to achieve profitable business in the event of increasing costs and decreasing revenue. The third section was carried out to raise the operational capacity of the accelerator at the Egyptian Atomic Energy Authority to generate added value for national income, and to study the social rate of return for the project and examine the project's ability to provide new employment opportunities. The study showed the possibility and the importance of the project implemented at the level of private investment and national security.

  1. Force Feedback Coupling with Dynamics for Physical Simulation of Product Assembly and Operation Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zhenyu; TAN Jianrong; DUAN Guifang; FU Yun

    2015-01-01

    Most existing force feedback methods are still difficult to meet the requirements of real-time force calculation in virtual assembly and operation with complex objects. In addition, there is often an assumption that the controlled objects are completely free and the target object is only completely fixed or free, thus, the dynamics of the kinematic chain where the controlled objects are located are neglected during the physical simulation of the product manipulation with force feedback interaction. This paper proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation based on statistically learned contact force prediction model and the coupling of force feedback and dynamics. In the proposed method, based on hidden Markov model (HMM) and local weighting learning (LWL), contact force prediction model is constructed, which can estimate the contact force in real time during interaction. Based on computational load balance model, the computing resources are dynamically assigned and the dynamics integral step is optimized. In addition, smoothing process is performed to the force feedback on the synchronization points. Consequently, we can solve the coupling and synchronization problems of high-frequency feedback force servo, low-frequency dynamics solver servo and scene rendering servo, and realize highly stable and accurate force feedback in the physical simulation of product assembly and operation manipulation. This research proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation.

  2. China's first large-scale MA production unit operational in Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Abrainchild of researchers of the CAS Institute of Coal Chemistry, a production unit capable of turning out 20,000 tons of maleic anhydride (MA) per year, the largest of its kind in China, has come into operation recently at the Shanxi Regent Taiming Chemical Co Ltd in Taiyuan, capital of north China's Shanxi Province.

  3. A critical assessment of the modern sociotechnical approach within production and operations management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Zwaan, A.H.; de Vries, J.

    2000-01-01

    The field of production and operations management nowadays includes various concepts, theories and approaches. The theoretical background of these concepts and theories however, can be found in many different disciplines and it is therefore not surprising that still no clear body of knowledge exists

  4. Force feedback coupling with dynamics for physical simulation of product assembly and operation performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenyu; Tan, Jianrong; Duan, Guifang; Fu, Yun

    2015-01-01

    Most existing force feedback methods are still difficult to meet the requirements of real-time force calculation in virtual assembly and operation with complex objects. In addition, there is often an assumption that the controlled objects are completely free and the target object is only completely fixed or free, thus, the dynamics of the kinematic chain where the controlled objects are located are neglected during the physical simulation of the product manipulation with force feedback interaction. This paper proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation based on statistically learned contact force prediction model and the coupling of force feedback and dynamics. In the proposed method, based on hidden Markov model (HMM) and local weighting learning (LWL), contact force prediction model is constructed, which can estimate the contact force in real time during interaction. Based on computational load balance model, the computing resources are dynamically assigned and the dynamics integral step is optimized. In addition, smoothing process is performed to the force feedback on the synchronization points. Consequently, we can solve the coupling and synchronization problems of high-frequency feedback force servo, low-frequency dynamics solver servo and scene rendering servo, and realize highly stable and accurate force feedback in the physical simulation of product assembly and operation manipulation. This research proposes a physical simulation method of product assembly and operation manipulation.

  5. Changes in production control required for untended operation of a flexible manufacturing cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slomp, Jannes; Stecke, Kathryn E.

    2012-01-01

    This article examines and improves the production control system of a firm that wants to operate its flexible manufacturing cell (FMC) in an untended third shift. The FMC consists of a machining centre, a pallet storage, a rail-guided transport vehicle for pallets and a clamping/unclamping station.

  6. Pointwise and uniform approximation by multivariate neural network operators of the max-product type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costarelli, Danilo; Vinti, Gianluca

    2016-09-01

    In this article, the theory of multivariate max-product neural network (NN) and quasi-interpolation operators has been introduced. Pointwise and uniform approximation results have been proved, together with estimates concerning the rate of convergence. At the end, several examples of sigmoidal activation functions have been provided. PMID:27389570

  7. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M; Balabas, Mikhail V; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D; Stærkind, Hans C; Müller, Jörg H; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics. PMID:27417378

  8. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M.; Balabas, Mikhail V.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Stærkind, Hans C.; Müller, Jörg H.; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2016-07-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics.

  9. Non-invasive detection of animal nerve impulses with an atomic magnetometer operating near quantum limited sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Kasper; Budvytyte, Rima; Thomas, Rodrigo A.; Wang, Tian; Fuchs, Annette M.; Balabas, Mikhail V.; Vasilakis, Georgios; Mosgaard, Lars D.; Stærkind, Hans C.; Müller, Jörg H.; Heimburg, Thomas; Olesen, Søren-Peter; Polzik, Eugene S.

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic fields generated by human and animal organs, such as the heart, brain and nervous system carry information useful for biological and medical purposes. These magnetic fields are most commonly detected using cryogenically-cooled superconducting magnetometers. Here we present the first detection of action potentials from an animal nerve using an optical atomic magnetometer. Using an optimal design we are able to achieve the sensitivity dominated by the quantum shot noise of light and quantum projection noise of atomic spins. Such sensitivity allows us to measure the nerve impulse with a miniature room-temperature sensor which is a critical advantage for biomedical applications. Positioning the sensor at a distance of a few millimeters from the nerve, corresponding to the distance between the skin and nerves in biological studies, we detect the magnetic field generated by an action potential of a frog sciatic nerve. From the magnetic field measurements we determine the activity of the nerve and the temporal shape of the nerve impulse. This work opens new ways towards implementing optical magnetometers as practical devices for medical diagnostics. PMID:27417378

  10. Efficient operation of a multi-purpose reservoir in Chile: Tradeoffs between irrigation and hydropower production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Cabrera, J. M., Sr.; Olivares, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    This study proposes a method to develop efficient operational policies for a reservoir the southern Chile. The main water uses in this system are hydropower and irrigation, with conflicting seasonal demands. The conflict between these two uses is currently managed through a so-called "irrigation agreement" which defines a series of operational conditions on the reservoir by restricting volumes used for power production depending on reservoir storage level. Other than that, the reservoir operation is driven by cost-minimization over the power grid. Recent evidence shows an increasing degree of conflict in this basin, which suggests that the static approach of irrigation agreements, might no longer be appropriate. Moreover, this agreement could be revised in light of decreased water availability. This problem poses a challenge related to the spatial scope of analysis. Thus, irrigation benefits are driven by decisions made within the basin, whereas hydropower benefits depend on the operation of the entire power grid. Exploring the tradeoffs between these two water uses involves modeling both scales. The proposed methodology integrates information from both a grid-wide power operations model and a basin-wide agro-economic model into a decision model for optimal reservoir operation. The first model, a hydrothermal coordination tool, schedules power production by each plant in the grid, and allows capturing technical and economic aspects to the operation of hydropower reservoirs. The agro-economic model incorporates economic features of irrigation in the basin, and allows obtaining irrigation water demand functions. Finally, the results of both models are integrated into a single model for optimal reservoir operation considering the tradeoffs between the two uses. The result of the joint operation of water resources, show a flexible coordination of uses, revealing the opportunity cost of irrigation, which it gives the possibility of negotiating transfers of water to

  11. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Jason; Lombardi, Francesco;

    2015-01-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-. biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25......, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MET wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions...... change continuously and vary significantly depending on the climate, the landfill operative management strategies in place (e.g. leachate recirculation, waste disposal methods), the hydraulic characteristics of disposed waste, the presence and type of temporary and final cover systems. (C) 2015 Elsevier...

  12. Analysis of the Effects of a Flexible Ramping Ancillary Service Product on Power System Operations: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krad, Ibrahim; Ibanez, Eduardo; Ela, Erik

    2015-10-19

    The recent increased interest in utilizing variable generation (VG) resources such as wind and solar in power systems has motivated investigations into new operating procedures. Although these resources provide desirable value to a system (e.g., no fuel costs or emissions), interconnecting them provides unique challenges. Their variable, non-controllable nature in particular requires significant attention, because it directly results in increased power system variability and uncertainty. One way to handle this is via new operating reserve schemes. Operating reserves provide upward and downward generation and ramping capacity to counteract uncertainty and variability prior to their realization. For instance, uncertainty and variability in real-time dispatch can be accounted for in the hour-ahead unit commitment. New operating reserve methodologies that specifically account for the increased variability and uncertainty caused by VG are currently being investigated and developed by academia and industry. This paper examines one method inspired by the new operating reserve product being proposed by the California Independent System Operator. The method is based on examining the potential ramping requirements at any given time and enforcing those requirements via a reserve demand curve in the market-clearing optimization as an additional ancillary service product.

  13. Nonmeromorphic operator product expansion and C{sub 2}-cofiniteness for a family of W-algebras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carqueville, Nils; Flohr, Michael [Physikalisches Institut, University of Bonn, Nussallee 12, 53115 Bonn (Germany)

    2006-01-27

    We prove the existence and associativity of the nonmeromorphic operator product expansion for an infinite family of vertex operator algebras, the triplet W-algebras, using results from P(z)-tensor product theory. While doing this, we also show that all these vertex operator algebras are C{sub 2}-cofinite.

  14. Productivity and Cost of Integrated Harvesting of Wood Chips and Sawlogs in Stand Conversion Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hunter Harrill

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the operational performance and cost of an integrated harvesting system that harvested sawlogs and biomass (i.e., energy wood chips in stand conversion clearcut operations. Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii trees were processed into sawlogs while whole trees of tanoak (Lithocarpus densiflorus, and sub-merchantable materials (small-diameter trees, tops and limbs were fed directly into a chipper to produce biomass for energy production. A standard time study method was used to determine productivity and costs. Over 26 working days, the integrated system produced 1,316 bone-dry metric tonnes (BDTs of sawlogs, and 5,415.89 BDT of chips, with an average moisture content of 43.2%. Using the joint products allocation costing method, the costs of the integrated system were $29.87/BDT for biomass and $4.26/BDT for sawlogs. Chipping utilization was as low as 41%, directly affecting production and cost of chipping operation. Single-lane, dirt, spur roads were the most costly road type to transport whole trees to a centralized processing site: transportation costs for biomass and sawlogs were increased by $0.08/BDT and $0.02/BDT, respectively, for every 50 meter increase in traveling distance. Diesel fuel price could raise total system cost for each product by $0.78/BDT and $0.08/BDT for each $0.10/liter increase.

  15. An integrated model for product mix problem and scheduling considering overlapped operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Amin Badri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Product mix problem is one of the most important decisions made in production systems. Several algorithms have been developed to determine the product mix. Most of the previous works assume that all resources can perform, simultaneously and independently, which may lead to infeasibility of the schedule. In this paper, product mix problem and scheduling are considered, simultaneously. A new mixed-integer programming (MIP model is proposed to formulate this problem. The proposed model differentiates between process batch size and transfer batch size. Therefore, it is possible to have overlapped operations. The numerical example is used to demonstrate the implementation of the proposed model. In addition, the proposed model is examined using some instances previously cited in the literature. The preliminary computational results show that the proposed model can generate higher performance than conventional product mix model.

  16. Fermi motion versus co-operative effects in subthreshold pion and energetic gamma production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various reaction mechanisms proposed to explain the production of pions at 'sub-threshold' energies and of energetic gammas are examined. They range from the nucleon-nucleon single collision mechanism to a co-operative multi-nucleon process. With a shell model prescription for the initial state energies the single collision picture cannot explain the data. The participation of many nucleons in the pion production process appears to be necessary. We present a statistical model which demands the co-operative action of several of the target and projectile nucleons in the pion production process. The formation of composite fragments alongside with the produced pion is seen to be vital to understand the experimental data within this model. (orig.)

  17. Co-operation agreement. The text of the agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for accounting and control of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials which entered into force on 25 May 1998

  18. Virtual copies of semisimple Lie algebras in enveloping algebras of semidirect products and Casimir operators

    CERN Document Server

    Campoamor-Stursberg, R

    2008-01-01

    Given a semidirect product $\\frak{g}=\\frak{s}\\uplus\\frak{r}$ of semisimple Lie algebras $\\frak{s}$ and solvable algebras $\\frak{r}$, we construct polynomial operators in the enveloping algebra $\\mathcal{U}(\\frak{g})$ of $\\frak{g}$ that commute with $\\frak{r}$ and transform like the generators of $\\frak{s}$, up to a functional factor that turns out to be a Casimir operator of $\\frak{r}$. Such operators are said to generate a virtual copy of $\\frak{s}$ in $\\mathcal{U}(\\frak{g})$, and allow to compute the Casimir operators of $\\frak{g}$ in closed form, using the classical formulae for the invariants of $\\frak{s}$. The behavior of virtual copies with respect to contractions of Lie algebras is analyzed. Applications to the class of Hamilton algebras and their inhomogeneous extensions are given.

  19. The Combination of Postponement Operations in a Supply Chain Network with Multi-level Product Differentiations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Lu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To study the problem about the optimal combination of postponement operations in the context of supply chain network, a decision-making model is developed. In the model two kinds of product differentiations and three types of postponement operations are considered. Then a procedure for solving this model is proposed. By using a numerical example, we analyze the effect of cost structure on the decision about postponement operations. The results show that if customizing cost is high, no customizing operation should be adopted, if the subassembly-related costs are large assembling directly the components is more sensible, as well as if lead time is tight and penalty cost is high, only manufacturing postponement should be adopted

  20. Composite organic-inorganic butterfly scales: production of photonic structures with atomic layer deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaillot, Davy P; Deparis, Olivier; Welch, Victoria; Wagner, Brent K; Vigneron, Jean Pol; Summers, Christopher J

    2008-09-01

    Recent advances in the photonics and optics industries have produced great demand for ever more sophisticated optical devices, such as photonic crystals. However, photonic crystals are notoriously difficult to manufacture. Increasingly, therefore, researchers have turned towards naturally occurring photonic structures for inspiration and a wide variety of elaborate techniques have been attempted to copy and harness biological processes to manufacture artificial photonic structures. Here, we describe a simple, direct process for producing an artificial photonic device by using a naturally occurring structure from the wings of the butterfly Papilio blumei as a template and low-temperature atomic layer deposition of TiO2 to create a faithful cast of the structure. The optical properties of the organic-inorganic diffraction structures produced are assessed by normal-incidence specular reflectance and found to be well described by multilayer computation method using a two-dimensional photonic crystal model. Depending on the structural integrity of the initially sealed scale, it was found possible not only to replicate the outer but also the inner and more complex surfaces of the structure, each resulting in distinct multicolor optical behavior as revealed by experimental and theoretical data. In this paper, we also explore tailoring the process to design composite skeleton architectures with desired optical properties and integrated multifunctional (mechanical, thermal, optical, fluidic) properties. PMID:18851080

  1. Novel Method for Indirect Determination of Iodine in Marine Products by Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jian-ping; TAN Fang-wei; TANG Qiong; JIANG Tian-cheng

    2013-01-01

    A method for the determination of iodine based upon compound H2HgI4,formed between I-and Hg2+ in nitric acid and extracted in methyl isobutyl ketone(MIBK),was developed via atomic fluorescence spectrometry(AFS).After the compound is reduced with potassium borohydrid(KBH4),the resultant mercury vapor was injected into the instrument and iodine was,therefore,indirectly determined.Experimental parameters such as the conditions of extraction reagents,aqueous phase acidity,elemental mercury diffusion temperature in a vial and other factors were investigated and optimized.Under the optimum experimental conditions,this method shows a detection limit of 0.038 μg/L iodine and a linear relationship between 0.04-20 μg/L.The method was applied to determining the iodine content in marine duck eggs,kelps,laver and Ganoderma lucidum spirulina,showing a relative standard deviation(RSD) of 2.15% and the recoveries in the range of 98.1%-102.5%.

  2. Evaluation for the method for the determination of impurities in uranium products by atomic absorption spectrophotometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To establish a reliable method for the determination of Al, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Mg, Ni, Pb, V and Zn as impurities in a uranium oxide (U3 O8). Methodology: The sample, generally a solid or a powder, is solubilized by acid digestion with concentrated nitric acid, carrying to dryness for the recover with 6 N Nitric Acid to extract the uranium matrix, try butyl phosphate to 30 % in carbon tetrachloride (C Cl4), the aqueous phase containing the impurities is heat up with perchloric acid (HClO4) in order to eliminate the remainder organic solvent. A Perking Elmer Atomic Absorption spectrophotometer is used for the analysis of the samples which were read for 5 times and the average is reported as final result. The method is considered as valid since it comply with linearity in the concentration for each one of the elements. The accuracy of the method is check with the repeatability of the results. For the evaluation of the accuracy, reference certified standards are used. (Author)

  3. Management model of productive capacity: integrating theory of constraints and the global operational efficiency index (IROG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Augusto Pacheco

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a model of management capacity in productive systems integrating the concepts of the Theory of Constraints and Total Productive Maintenance (TPM. The main objective of this study is to discuss and propose a model of management capacity, able to answer the following key questions: i capacity indicators which should be considered and how to measure them to measure the productive capacity of manufacturing systems? ii what is the real productive capacity of the system analyzed under a determined relationship between capacity and demand? The discussion of the proposed model is relevant because the definition of productive capacity system enables better management of resources and capabilities, improve production scheduling on the factory floor and meeting the demands imposed by the market. This paper presents the proposition of using the Operating Income Index Global (IROG with a different approach from traditional literature dealing with the theme, presented by Nakajima (1988. The results of this paper enable to develop a model to determine the capacity of the production system and the impact on the productive capacity of the entire system, not to consider the quality conformances that occur after the bottleneck resource of the production flow.

  4. MULTIPHOTON IONIZATION OF ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Mainfray, G.

    1985-01-01

    Multiphoton ionization of one-electron atoms, such as atomic hydrogen and alkaline atoms, is well understood and correctly described by rigorous theoretical models. The present paper will be devoted to collisionless multiphoton ionization of many-electron atoms as rare gases. It induces removal of several electrons and the production of multiply charged ions. Up to Xe5+ ions are produced in Xe atoms. Doubly charged ions can be produced, either by simultaneous excitation of two electrons, or b...

  5. Characterization of cement minerals, cements and their reaction products at the atomic and nano scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skibsted, Jørgen; Hall, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances and highlights in characterization methods are reviewed for cement minerals, cements and their reaction products. The emphasis is on X-ray and neutron diffraction, and on nuclear magnetic resonance methods, although X-ray absorption and Raman spectroscopies are discussed briefly...

  6. An operator product expansion for the mutual information in AdS/CFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Molina-Vilaplana

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the behavior of the mutual information IAB between two “small” and wide separated spherical regions A and B in the N=4 SYM gauge theory dual to Type IIB string theory in AdS5×S5. To this end, the mutual information is recasted in terms of correlators of surface operators W(Σ defined along a surface Σ within the boundary gauge theory. This construction relies on the strong analogies between the twist-field operators appearing in the replica trick method used for the computation of the entanglement entropy, and the disorder-like surface operators in gauge theories. In the AdS/CFT correspondence, a surface operator W(Σ corresponds to having a D3-brane in AdS5×S5 ending on the boundary along the prescribed surface Σ. Then, a long distance expansion for IAB is provided. The coefficients of the expansion appear as a byproduct of the operator product expansion for the correlators of the operators W(Σ with the chiral primaries of the theory. We find that, while undergoing a phase transition at a critical distance, the holographic mutual information, instead of strictly vanishing, decays with a power law whose leading contributions of order O(N0, originate from the exchange of pairs of the lightest bulk particles between A and B. These particles correspond to operators in the boundary field theory with the smallest scaling dimensions.

  7. Influences of environmental and operational factors on dark fermentative hydrogen production: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammadi, Parviz [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Department of Environmental Health Engineering, Faculty of Health, Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ibrahim, Shaliza; Ghafari, Shahin [Department of Civil Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Annuar, Mohamad Suffian Mohamad; Vikineswary, Sabaratnam [Institute of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia); Zinatizadeh, Ali Akbar [Department of Applied Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Water and Wastewater Research Center (WWRC), Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Hydrogen (H{sub 2}) is one of renewable energy sources known for its non-polluting and environmentally friendly nature, as its end combustion product is water (H{sub 2}O). The biological production of H{sub 2} is a less energy intensive alternative where processes can be operated at ambient temperature and pressure. Dark fermentation by bacterial biomass is one of multitude of approaches to produce hydrogen which is known as the cleanest renewable energy and is thus receiving increasing attention worldwide. The present study briefly reviews the biohydrogen production process with special attention on the effects of several environmental and operational factors towards the process. Factors such as organic loading rate, hydraulic retention time, temperature, and pH studied in published reports were compared and their influences are discussed in this work. This review highlights the variations in examined operating ranges for the factors as well as their reported optimum values. Divergent values observed for the environmental/operational factors merit further exploration in this field. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  8. Determination of cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Aguinaga, Nerea; López-García, Ignacio; Hernandez-Córdoba, Manuel

    2002-01-01

    Procedures were developed for determining cadmium, aluminium, and copper in beer and the products used in its manufacture by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry. Beer samples were injected into the furnace and solid samples were introduced as suspensions after preparation in a medium containing hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid, and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate for cadmium atomization. Calibration was performed with aqueous standards, and characteristic masses and detection limits were, respectively, 1 and 0.3 pg for cadmium, 18 and 5.4 pg for aluminium, and 5.6 and 6.8 pg for copper. Different samples of beer, wort, brewer's yeast, malt, raw grain, and hops were analyzed by the proposed procedures. Cadmium was found in low concentrations (0.001-0.08 microg/g and 0-1.3 ng/mL); copper (3-13 microg/g and 25-137 ng/mL) and aluminium (0.6-9 microg/g and 0.1-2 microg/mL) were found at higher levels. The reliability of the procedure was confirmed by comparing the results obtained with others based on microwave oven sample digestion, and by analyzing several certified reference materials. PMID:12083268

  9. On atomicity of free algebras in Boolean algebras with operators, and a new result on Pinter's free algebras

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmed, Tarek Sayed

    2013-01-01

    We give some general theorems on free algebras of varieties of Boolean algebras with operators; a hitherto new result is obtained for Pinter's substitution algebras. For n\\geq 3, and m>1, there is a generating set of the free algebra freely generated by m elements, which is not a free set of generators.

  10. [Continuous operation of hydrogen bio-production reactor with ethanol-type fermentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan-qi; Gong, Man-li; Xing, De-feng

    2004-11-01

    The natural response of a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) for hydrogen bio-production using molasses wastewater as substrate was investigated. Emphasis was placed on assessing the operational controlling strategy on the stable operation of CSTR with high efficiency. It was found that at an initial biomass of 15g/L, an equilibrial microbial community in the ethanol-type fermentation and efficient stable operation of CSTR could be established with following conditions: temperature of 35 degrees C +/- 1 degrees C, COD organic loading rate (OLR) of 40kg/(m3 x d), hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 4h, pH value of 4.6 - 4.9 and oxidation reduction potential (ORP) of -450 - -470mV. Following that, hydrogen production in the reactor was relatively stable. The observed maximal hydrogen bio-production rate was 7.63m3/(m3 x d). The content of hydrogen in the biogas was about 40% - 58%. COD removal rate was between 22% - 26%. The total content of ethanol and acetic acid in the fermentative end products was above 80%.

  11. Evaluation on Core Competitiveness of Wholesale Market of Agricultural Products Based on CWAA Operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    According to relevant data,we select five indices,namely management ability,organization and management capability,enterprise culture,development ability and technical equipment ability,to establish the index system of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.Based on combination weight arithmetic average(CWAA) operator,we advance an evaluation model of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products which involves participation of many people.By inviting five exerts,we conduct evaluation in terms of management ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,organization and management capability of leadership,enterprise culture of wholesale market of agricultural products,future development ability of wholesale market of agricultural products,and exiting technical equipment ability of wholesale market of agricultural products.We adopt hundred-mark system to grade and evaluate core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products.The results show that the experts’ evaluation score of core competitiveness of wholesale market of agricultural products is high.The evaluation result is reasonable and authentic and this model is feasible.

  12. Evaluation of the new operational French radar product for urban hydrology

    OpenAIRE

    Emmanuel, Isabelle; Andrieu, Hervé; Tabary, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to evaluate, for urban scales, the quality of the new French operational radar processing chain developed by Meteo France. This product is deployed within the French operational radar network. The evaluation is done by comparing radar data (1 km² resolution) to rain gauge data at four different time scales i.e. 5, 15, 30 and 60 min. Radar data is given by the radar of Trappes located 30 km south-west of Paris. 87 rain gauges located from 0 to 135 km around ...

  13. A production throughput forecasting system in an automated hard disk drive test operation using GRNN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nara Samattapapong

    2016-04-01

    Originality/value: The production throughput volume is a key performance index of hard disk drive manufacturing systems that need to be forecast. Because of the production throughput forecasting result is useful information for management team to respond to any changing in production processes and resources allocation. However, a practically forecasting system for production throughput has not been described in detail yet. The experiments were conducted on a real data set from the final testing operation of hard disk drive manufacturing factory by using Visual Basics Application on Microsoft Excel© to develop preliminary forecasting system on testing and verification process. The experimental result shows that the proposed model is superior to the performance of the current forecasting system.

  14. Effect of plasma CVD operating temperature on nanomechanical properties of TiC nanostructured coating investigated by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanaghi, Ali, E-mail: alishanaghi@gmail.com [Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Malayer University, P.O. Box: 95863-65719, Malayer (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rouhaghdam, Ali Reza Sabour, E-mail: sabour01@modares.ac.ir [Surface Engineering Laboratory, Materials Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box: 14115-143, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ahangarani, Shahrokh, E-mail: sh.ahangarani@gmail.com [Advanced Materials and Renewable Energies Department, Iranian Research Organization for Science and Technology, P.O. Box 15815-3538, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chu, Paul K., E-mail: paul.chu@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: ► The TiC{sub x} nanostructure coatings have been deposited by PACVD method. ► Dominant mechanism of growth structure at 490 °C is island-layer type. ► TiC{sub x} nanostructure coating applied at 490 °C, exhibits lowest friction coefficient. ► Young's moduli are 289.9, 400 and 187.6 GPa for 470, 490 and 510 °C, respectively. ► This higher elastic modulus and higher hardness of nanocoating obtain at 490 °C. -- Abstract: The structure, composition, and mechanical properties of nanostructured titanium carbide (TiC) coatings deposited on H{sub 11} hot-working tool steel by pulsed-DC plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition at three different temperatures are investigated. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are carried out by atomic force microscopy to determine the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, surface roughness, and friction coefficient. The nanostructured TiC coatings prepared at 490 °C exhibit lower friction coefficient (0.23) than the ones deposited at 470 and 510 °C. Increasing the deposition temperature reduces the Young's modulus and hardness. The overall superior mechanical properties such as higher hardness and lower friction coefficient render the coatings deposited at 490 °C suitable for wear resistant applications.

  15. Effect of plasma CVD operating temperature on nanomechanical properties of TiC nanostructured coating investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The TiCx nanostructure coatings have been deposited by PACVD method. ► Dominant mechanism of growth structure at 490 °C is island-layer type. ► TiCx nanostructure coating applied at 490 °C, exhibits lowest friction coefficient. ► Young's moduli are 289.9, 400 and 187.6 GPa for 470, 490 and 510 °C, respectively. ► This higher elastic modulus and higher hardness of nanocoating obtain at 490 °C. -- Abstract: The structure, composition, and mechanical properties of nanostructured titanium carbide (TiC) coatings deposited on H11 hot-working tool steel by pulsed-DC plasma assisted chemical vapor deposition at three different temperatures are investigated. Nanoindentation and nanoscratch tests are carried out by atomic force microscopy to determine the mechanical properties such as hardness, elastic modulus, surface roughness, and friction coefficient. The nanostructured TiC coatings prepared at 490 °C exhibit lower friction coefficient (0.23) than the ones deposited at 470 and 510 °C. Increasing the deposition temperature reduces the Young's modulus and hardness. The overall superior mechanical properties such as higher hardness and lower friction coefficient render the coatings deposited at 490 °C suitable for wear resistant applications.

  16. [Characteristics and operation of enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production reactor using support carrier].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Nan-qi; Tang, Jing; Gong, Man-li

    2006-06-01

    A kind of granular activated carbon, whose granular size is no more than 2mm and specific gravity is 1.54g/cm3, was used as the support carrier to allow retention of activated sludge within a continuous stirred-tank reactor (CSTR) using molasses wastewater as substrate for bio-hydrogen production. Continuous operation characteristics and operational controlling strategy of the enhanced continuous bio-hydrogen production system were investigated. It was indicated that, support carriers could expand the activity scope of hydrogen production bacteria, make the system fairly stable in response to organic load impact and low pH value (pH reactor at low HRT. The reactor with ethanol-type fermentation achieved an optimal hydrogen production rate of 0.37L/(g x d), while the pH value ranged from 3.8 to 4.4, and the hydrogen content was approximately 40% approximately 57% of biogas. It is effective to inhibit the methanogens by reducing the pH value of the bio-hydrogen production system, consequently accelerate the start-up of the reactor.

  17. Effects of high and low morpholine operation on corrosion product transport at Bruce NGS A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrosion product transport studies were carried out on the condensate and feedwater systems for two of the units at Bruce Nuclear Generating Station-A (Bruce NGS-A). Bruce NGS-A is a four unit station with a mixed copper/iron feedtrain and operates under morpholine chemistry. During the studies, two different morpholine chemistries were evaluated. When high morpholine concentrations were used, lower iron transport was reported; but this was offset by increased copper and zinc transport. The distribution of morpholine and its degradation products throughout the secondary system is also discussed. (author)

  18. Charge yield potential of indoor-operated solar cells incorporated into Product Integrated Photovoltaic (PIPV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-02-15

    Solar cell performance parameters (open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency) are derived for different solar cell types for the irradiance range 0.1-1000 W/m{sup 2}. Also it is demonstrated how spectral mismatch factors for indoor lighting conditions are calculated. The presented methods and particular results may aid product designers in selecting appropriate solar cells for Product Integrated PV (PIPV) operated indoors and allow for more certainty in energy balance estimations of PIPV design concepts. (author)

  19. Particle number conservation in quantum many-body simulations with matrix product operators

    CERN Document Server

    Muth, Dominik

    2011-01-01

    Incorporating conservation laws explicitly into Matrix product states (MPS) has proven to make numerical simulations of quantum many-body systems much less resources consuming. We will discuss here, to what extent this concept can be used in matrix product operators (MPO). Quite counter-intuitively the expectation of gaining in speed by sacrificing information about all but a single symmetry sector is not in all cases fulfilled. It turns out that often the entanglement imposed by the global constraint of fixed particle number is the limiting factor in the canonical ensemble.

  20. Sustainable Agrifood Production and Distribution through Innovative Technologies and Operational Research Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochtis, Dionysis

    of sustainability is a renewed focus on the usage of these advanced technologies. Such a development increases the demand for advanced management tools based on operational research techniques and methodologies that are able to cope with the inherent biological and dynamic nature of agricultural operations...... decades. The goals that have to be met towards this direction include the increased productivity, reduced waste in the chain, optimized water management, optimised energy efficiency, and reduced GHG emissions. Innovative technologies such as GIS, Telematics, sensors networks, automation control systems......, satellite navigation, and robotics that are originated from the different solution domains, can pave the way towards sustainable and efficient agrifood production and the corresponding distribution systems. However, a preliminary step in the direction of achieving increasing efficiency in terms...

  1. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations, 1992--1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1992, 1993, 1994, and 1995. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sum (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measured do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables

  2. Operator training simulation for integrating cultivation and homogenisation in protein production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Gerlach

    2015-06-01

    This work shows the design of an OTS where two sequential steps of a recombinant protein production process, a fed-batch cultivation and a high-pressure homogenisation, are integrated. The OTS was evaluated on a user test group and showed that the OTS promoted and developed their understanding of the process, their capability to identify parameters influencing process efficiency and the skills of operating it.

  3. Scale-down and parallel operation of a riboflavin production process with Bacillus subtilis

    OpenAIRE

    Knorr, Bettina

    2007-01-01

    Novel parallel bioreactor systems at a milliliter scale were recently developed for the design and improvement of biological cultivations. The objective of this work was to identify the reaction parameters that were necessary for a representative scale-down of an industrial manufacturing process to be carried out with the new technology. The process for the production of riboflavin with Bacillus subtilis, operated in a controlled fed-batch mode, served as an example for investigations in stir...

  4. Consequence of Job Satisfaction Factors on the Productivity Level of Operating Core

    OpenAIRE

    Baaren, Terence; Galloway, Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to uncover the relationship of job satisfaction factors on the productivity level of operating core of manufacturing firm in textile mill. The theoretical approach that has been in this study to examine job satisfaction is Hertzberg’s two-factor theory of motivation, Maslow’s hierarchy of needs theory. The Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire (MSQ) has been used. With the confidence interval of 95% and after analyzing the data and computing the correlation in SP...

  5. Analytic hierarchy process as module for productivity evaluation and decision-making of the operation theater

    OpenAIRE

    Ezzat, Abdelrahman E. M.; Hamoud, Hesham S.

    2016-01-01

    The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is a theory of measurement through pairwise comparisons and relies on the judgments of experts to derive priority scales, these scales that measure intangibles in relative terms. The aim of the article was to develop a model for productivity measurement of the operation theater (OT), which could be applied as a model for quality improvement and decision-making. AHP is used in this article to evolve such a model. The steps consist of identifying the critica...

  6. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1994 through 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimated costs and cost indices for domestic oil and natural gas field equipment and production operations for 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997. The costs of all equipment and services are those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of the total number of oil wells to the total number of gas wells. The detail provided in this report is unavailable elsewhere. The body of this report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (compliance costs and lease availability) have a significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas equipment and production operations

  7. Costs and indices for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations 1990 through 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents estimated costs and indice for domestic oil and gas field equipment and production operations for 1990, 1991, 1992, and 1993. The costs of all equipment and serives were those in effect during June of each year. The sums (aggregates) of the costs for representative leases by region, depth, and production rate were averaged and indexed. This provides a general measure of the increased or decreased costs from year to year for lease equipment and operations. These general measures do not capture changes in industry-wide costs exactly because of annual variations in the ratio of oil wells to gas wells. The body of the report contains summary tables, and the appendices contain detailed tables. Price changes for oil and gas, changes in taxes on oil and gas revenues, and environmental factors (costs and lease availability) have significant impact on the number and cost of oil and gas wells drilled. These changes also impact the cost of oil and gas production equipment and operations

  8. Knowledges and abilities catalog for nuclear power plant operators: Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Knowledges and Abilities Catalog for Nuclear Power Plant Operations: Savannah River Site (SRS) Production Reactors, provides the basis for the development of content-valid certification examinations for Senior Reactor Operators (SROs) and Central Control Room Supervisors (SUP). The position of Shift Technical Engineer (STE) has been included in the catalog for completeness. This new SRS reactor operating shift crew position is held by an individual holding a CCR Supervisor Certification who has received special engineering and technical training. Also, the STE has a Bachelor of Science degree in engineering or a related technical field. The SRS catalog contains approximately 2500 knowledge and ability (K/A) statements for SROs and SUPs at heavy water moderated production reactors. Each K/A statement has been rated for its importance to the safe operation of the plant in a manner ensuring the health and safety of the public. The SRS K/A catalog is presently organized into five major sections: Plant Systems grouped by Safety Function, Plant Wide Generic K/As, Emergency Plant Evolutions, Theory and Components (to be developed)

  9. Interfase y software de control para operar en sincronismo un automuestreador y un atomizador electrotérmico por filamento de tungsteno en espectrofotometría de absorción atómica Development of interface and software for synchronous operation of an autosampler and a tungsten coil electrothermal atomizer coupled to an atomic absorption spectophotometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Neira

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available The interface and software for synchronous control of an autosampler and an electrothermal tungsten coil atomizer in atomic absorption spectrophotometry were developed. The control of the power supply, the trigger of the Read function of the spectrophotometer and the automatic operation of the autosampler was performed by software written in "TurboBasic". The system was evaluated by comparison of the repeatability of peak-height absorbances obtained in the atomization of lead by consecutive 10-µl injections of solutions (prepared in 0.2% v/v HNO3 using autosampler and manual sample introduction, and also by long term operation.

  10. Operational Monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI Level 1 Product Processing at EUMETSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livschitz, Yakov; Munro, Rosemary; Lang, Rüdiger; Fiedler, Lars; Dyer, Richard; Eisinger, Michael

    2010-05-01

    The growing complexity of operational level 1 radiance products from Low Earth Orbiting (LEO) platforms like EUMETSATs Metop series makes near-real-time monitoring of product quality a challenging task. The main challenge is to provide a monitoring system which is flexible and robust enough to identify and to react to anomalies which may be previously unknown to the system, as well as to provide all means and parameters necessary in order to support efficient ad-hoc analysis of the incident. The operational monitoring system developed at EUMETSAT for monitoring of GOME-2 and IASI level 1 data allows to perform near-real-time monitoring of operational products and instrument's health in a robust and flexible fashion. For effective information management, the system is based on a relational database (Oracle). An Extract, Transform, Load (ETL) process transforms products in EUMETSAT Polar System (EPS) format into relational data structures. The identification of commonalities between products and instruments allows for a database structure design in such a way that different data can be analyzed using the same business intelligence functionality. An interactive analysis software implementing modern data mining techniques is also provided for a detailed look into the data. The system is effectively used for day-to-day monitoring, long-term reporting, instrument's degradation analysis as well as for ad-hoc queries in case of an unexpected instrument or processing behaviour. Having data from different sources on a single instrument and even from different instruments, platforms or numerical weather prediction within the same database allows effective cross-comparison and looking for correlated parameters. Automatic alarms raised by checking for deviation of certain parameters, for data losses and other events significantly reduce time, necessary to monitor the processing on a day-to-day basis.

  11. Statistics of electron and exciton production for grazing impact of keV hydrogen atoms on a LiF(001) surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, H.; Lederer, S.; Maass, K.; Mertens, A.; Aumayr, F.; Winter, HP

    2002-08-01

    The energy loss of kilo-electronvolt hydrogen atoms for scattering from a LiF(001) surface under a grazing angle of incidence is measured in coincidence with the number of emitted electrons. The combined time-of-flight and electron number distributions show discrete features which are attributed to specific numbers for emitted electrons and production of surface excitons. The distributions are fairly well reproduced in terms of binomial distributions. The corresponding probabilities for electron and exciton production can consistently be related to a model where the formation of negative hydrogen atoms via local electron capture from halogen lattice sites is considered as a precursor for both processes.

  12. Naturally occurring radioactive materials (NORM) in oil and gas production operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum industry in the USA is being criticized now for its impact on the environment. One claim against the petroleum industry is the Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM) coproduced with oil and gas. The oil industry has been accused of disturbing environmental balance by bringing radioactive materials to the surface. Studies indicate that low concentrations of NORM, mostly radium-226, radium-228, and radon-222, are sometimes carried from geologic formation into oil-field equipment. The radium isotopes being water soluble remain in the liquid phase while radon being a gas is transported to gas plant equipment. Under surface conditions the radium isotopes coprecipitate with other salts as scales in tubulars or accumulate in sludges in production equipment. Radon-222 decays into more stable lead-210 which coats the gas plant equipment. Number of alternatives have been identified for the disposal of production wastes and equipment containing NORM. Most of them are still in the development wastes and equipment containing NORM. Most of them are still in the development stages. The radioactivity level due to NORM in production operations rarely exceeds the background level. Therefore the human exposure to NORM is of concern only in case of direct contact. The safety precautions routinely taken in the daily production operations are sufficient to avoid risks from the exposure to NORM. (author). 6 refs

  13. CFD-based simulation of operational point influences on product changing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szöke, L.; Wortberg, J.

    2014-05-01

    In the means of production, saving resources is becoming more and more a priority optimizing plastics extrusion processes. The analysis of color and material changes has become very interesting to prevent unnecessary material loss. This interest is justified especially due to increasing numbers of changing processes as a reaction of more individual product specifications and thus decreasing lot sizes in the last decades. It can be shown that commercial numerical tools are capable of plausible calculations of changing processes, enabling process observations and giving the possibility of predicting different influences. Due to the highly dynamical character of the flow behavior in the control volume, a transient approach is necessary to show the effects of different operational points on product changes. To determine the progress of the product change the volume of fluid model (VOF) as multiphase approach is used. The analysis of influences from operational points on the changing process is achieved by separate observations of two important input parameters. On one hand the effects of varied mass flow rates as inlet boundary conditions and on the other hand different mass temperatures are observed. To check the plausibility of the calculation method the results are discussed referring to exemplary experimental data in qualitative comparison. The experimental data is obtained using special laboratory equipment neglecting influences from the extruder and taking only the die as control volume into consideration.

  14. New Products, Chern Classes, and Power Operations in Orbifold K-theory

    CERN Document Server

    Edidin, Dan; Kimura, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    We develop a theory of inertial pairs on smooth, separated Deligne-Mumford quotient stacks. An inertial pair determines inertial products and an inertial Chern character. Every vector bundle V on such a stack defines two new inertial pairs and we recover, as special cases, both the orbifold product and the virtual product of [GLSUX07]. We show that for strongly Gorenstein inertial pairs there is also a theory of Chern classes and compatible power operations. An important application is to show that there is a theory of Chern classes and compatible power operations for the virtual product. We also show that when the stack is a quotient [X/G], with G diagonalizable, inertial K-theory has a lambda-ring structure. This implies that for toric Deligne-Mumford stacks there is a corresponding lambda-ring structure associated to virtual K-theory. As an example we compute the semi-group of lambda-positive elements in the virtual lambda-ring of the weighted projective stack P(1,2). Using the virtual orbifold line elemen...

  15. Microalgae cultivation as tertiary unit operation for treatment of pharmaceutical wastewater associated with lipid production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemalatha, Manupati; Venkata Mohan, S

    2016-09-01

    Microalgae based treatment was studied to polish sequential batch reactor (SBR) treated pharmaceutical wastewater under mixotrophic mode of operation with simultaneous biomass/lipid production. At the end of biomass growth phase (BGP), carbon removal efficiency was observed to be 73% along with good removal of nitrates (62%). Since microalgae assimilate nutrients from wastewater for growth, an increment in total biomass productivity (2.8g/l) was observed. Subjecting to nutrient stress phase (NSP), total lipid content of 17.2% with neutral lipids of 6.2% was observed under light condition. Contrarily, dark condition depicted total lipid content of 15.8% with neutral lipids constituting 6.5%. The nutrient stress in combination with light showed marked influence on the profile of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Integration of microalgae cultivation improves environmental sustainability and enables greener routes of biofuels and value added products synthesis in a biorefinery approach. PMID:27177715

  16. A General PCT Theorem for the Operator Product Expansion in Curved Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Hollands, S

    2004-01-01

    We consider the operator product expansion for quantum field theories on general analytic 4-dimensional curved spacetimes within an axiomatic framework. We prove under certain general, model-independent assumptions that such an expansion necessarily has to be invariant under a simultaneous reversal of parity, time, and charge (PCT) in the following sense: The coefficients in the expansion of a product of fields on a curved spacetime with a given choice of time and space orientation are equal (modulo complex conjugation) to the coefficients for the product of the corresponding charge conjugate fields on the spacetime with the opposite time and space orientation. We propose that this result should be viewed as a replacement of the usual PCT theorem in Minkowski spacetime, at least in as far as the algebraic structure of the quantum fields at short distances is concerned.

  17. Methane production in an UASB reactor operated under periodic mesophilic-thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourque, J-S; Guiot, S R; Tartakovsky, B

    2008-08-15

    Methane production was studied in a laboratory-scale 10 L anaerobic upflow sludge bed (UASB) reactor with periodic variations of the reactor temperature. On a daily basis the temperature was varied between 35 and 45 degrees C or 35 and 55 degrees C with a heating period of 6 h. Each temperature increase was accompanied by an increase in methane production and a decrease in the concentration of soluble organic matter in the effluent. In comparison to a reactor operated at 35 degrees C, a net increase in methane production of up to 22% was observed. Batch activity tests demonstrated a tolerance of mesophilic methanogenic populations to short-term, 2-6 h, temperature increases, although activity of acetoclastic methanogens decreased after 6 h exposure to a temperature of 55 degrees C. 16S sequencing of DGGE bands revealed proliferation of temperature-tolerant Methanospirillum hungatii sp. in the reactor.

  18. Atomic scale modeling of defect production and microstructure evolution in irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz de la Rubia, T.; Soneda, N.; Shimomura, Y. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Irradiation effects in materials depend in a complex way on the form of the as-produced primary damage state and its spatial and temporal evolution. Thus, while collision cascades produce defects on a time scale of tens of picosecond, diffusion occurs over much longer time scales, of the order of seconds, and microstructure evolution over even longer time scales. In this report the authors present work aimed at describing damage production and evolution in metals across all the relevant time and length scales. They discuss results of molecular dynamics simulations of displacement cascades in Fe and V. They show that interstitial clusters are produced in cascades above 5 keV, but not vacancy clusters. Next, they discuss the development of a kinetic Monte Carlo model that enables calculations of damage evolution over much longer time scales (1000`s of s) than the picosecond lifetime of the cascade. They demonstrate the applicability of the method by presenting predictions on the fraction of freely migrating defects in {alpha}Fe during irradiation at 600 K.

  19. Development, Application, and Transition of Aerosol and Trace Gas Products Derived from Next-Generation Satellite Observations to Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berndt, Emily; Naeger, Aaron; Zavodsky, Bradley; McGrath, Kevin; LaFontaine, Frank

    2016-01-01

    NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a history of successfully transitioning unique observations and research capabilities to the operational weather community to improve short-term forecasts. SPoRTstrives to bridge the gap between research and operations by maintaining interactive partnerships with end users to develop products that match specific forecast challenges, provide training, and assess the products in the operational environment. This presentation focuses on recent product development, application, and transition of aerosol and trace gas products to operations for specific forecasting applications. Recent activities relating to the SPoRT ozone products, aerosol optical depth composite product, sulfur dioxide, and aerosol index products are discussed.

  20. Atomic Scale Plasmonic Switch

    OpenAIRE

    Emboras, A.; Niegemann, J.; Ma, P; Haffner, C; Pedersen, A.; Luisier, M.; Hafner, C; Schimmel, T.; Leuthold, J.

    2016-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moore’s law in the electronics industry. While electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling, similar to electronics, is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled plasmonic switch operating at the atomic scale. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocat...

  1. An operator product expansion for the mutual information in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molina-Vilaplana, Javier

    2014-11-15

    We investigate the behavior of the mutual information I{sub AB} between two “small” and wide separated spherical regions A and B in the N=4 SYM gauge theory dual to Type IIB string theory in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5}. To this end, the mutual information is recasted in terms of correlators of surface operators W(Σ) defined along a surface Σ within the boundary gauge theory. This construction relies on the strong analogies between the twist-field operators appearing in the replica trick method used for the computation of the entanglement entropy, and the disorder-like surface operators in gauge theories. In the AdS/CFT correspondence, a surface operator W(Σ) corresponds to having a D3-brane in AdS{sub 5}×S{sup 5} ending on the boundary along the prescribed surface Σ. Then, a long distance expansion for I{sub AB} is provided. The coefficients of the expansion appear as a byproduct of the operator product expansion for the correlators of the operators W(Σ) with the chiral primaries of the theory. We find that, while undergoing a phase transition at a critical distance, the holographic mutual information, instead of strictly vanishing, decays with a power law whose leading contributions of order O(N{sup 0}), originate from the exchange of pairs of the lightest bulk particles between A and B. These particles correspond to operators in the boundary field theory with the smallest scaling dimensions.

  2. Transition from Research to Operations: Assessing Value of Experimental Forecast Products within the NWSFO Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapenta, William M.; Wohlman, Richard; Bradshaw, Tom; Burks, Jason; Jedlovec, Gary; Goodman, Steve; Darden, Chris; Meyer, Paul

    2003-01-01

    The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center seeks to accelerate the infusion of NASA Earth Science Enterprise (ESE) observations, data assimilation and modeling research into NWS forecast operations and decision-making. To meet long-term program expectations, it is not sufficient simply to give forecasters sophisticated workstations or new forecast products without fully assessing the ways in which they will be utilized. Close communication must be established between the research and operational communities so that developers have a complete understanding of user needs. In turn, forecasters must obtain a more comprehensive knowledge of the modeling and sensing tools available to them. A major goal of the SPoRT Program is to develop metrics and conduct assessment studies with NWS forecasters to evaluate the impacts and benefits of ESE experimental products on forecast skill. At a glance the task seems relatively straightforward. However, performing assessment of experimental products in an operational environment is demanding. Given the tremendous time constraints placed on NWS forecasters, it is imperative that forecaster input be obtained in a concise unobtrusive manor. Great care must also be taken to ensure that forecasters understand their participation will eventually benefit them and WFO operations in general. Two requirements of the assessment plan developed under the SPoRT activity are that it 1) Can be implemented within the WFO environment; and 2) Provide tangible results for BOTH the research and operational communities. Supplemental numerical quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) were chosen as the first experimental SPoRT product to be evaluated during a Pilot Assessment Program conducted 1 May 2003 within the Huntsville AL National Weather Service Forecast Office. Forecast time periods were broken up into six- hour bins ranging from zero to twenty-four hours. Data were made available for display in AWIPS on an

  3. Development and Applications of a New, High-Resolution, Operational MISR Aerosol Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garay, M. J.; Diner, D. J.; Kalashnikova, O.

    2014-12-01

    Since early 2000, the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) instrument on NASA's Terra satellite has been providing aerosol optical depth (AOD) and particle property retrievals at 17.6 km spatial resolution. Capitalizing on the capabilities provided by multi-angle viewing, the operational MISR algorithm performs well, with about 75% of MISR AOD retrievals falling within 0.05 or 20% × AOD of the paired validation data from the ground-based Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET), and is able to distinguish aerosol particles by size and sphericity, over both land and water. These attributes enable a variety of applications, including aerosol transport model validation and global air quality assessment. Motivated by the adverse impacts of aerosols on human health at the local level, and taking advantage of computational speed advances that have occurred since the launch of Terra, we have implemented an operational MISR aerosol product with 4.4 km spatial resolution that maintains, and sometimes improves upon, the quality of the 17.6 km resolution product. We will describe the performance of this product relative to the heritage 17.6 km product, the global AERONET validation network, and high spatial density AERONET-DRAGON sites. Other changes that simplify product content, and make working with the data much easier for users, will also be discussed. Examples of how the new product demonstrates finer spatial variability of aerosol fields than previously retrieved, and ways this new dataset can be used for studies of local aerosol effects, will be shown.

  4. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  5. 78 FR 37584 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-21

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, Pennsylvania; Notice of Amended... workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport Tubular Operations Division, a subsidiary of...

  6. Operation greenhouse. Scientific director`s report of atomic weapon tests at Eniwetok, 1951. Annex 8.1. Blast effects on aircraft in flight. Nuclear explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wayne, J.C.; Lehmkuhl, J.C.

    1951-10-01

    The primary objective of this report is to present data concerning the structural and aerodynamic loads as measured on various types of aircraft, in flight, in the vicinity of an atomic explosion. A secondary objective is to describe the instrumentation (installation, calibration, and operation) in order to provide for the future planning and conduct of similar tests. The data presented herein were obtained on Dog, Easy, and George shots of Operation Greenhouse. The airplanes used to collect these data were B-17`s, T-33`s, B-50D`s and one XB-47. These instrumented airplanes were arrayed at preassigned locations in the air space above the explosions. A total of approximately 250 channels of information were obtained which essentially consisted in wing bending, torsion, and shear at the root, mid-span, and outer panel; horizontal stabilizer bending at the root; normal accelerations at the nose, c.g., and tail; aerodynamic pressures at various locations on the airplanes; and temperatures experienced by various critical components of the airplane. The positions of the airplanes at the time of shock arrival were accurately determined by means of radar tracking. The measured data were correlated by means of time signals, every second, from a land based radio transmitter station, and with reference to time zero, by means of a photoelectric cell. The recorded data show that the loads produced by the shock wave were in general accord with theory. The loading experienced by an airplane while passing through the `puff` of the atomic cloud is shown to be considerably higher than that caused by the shock wave. For this reason the penetration of the puff should be avoided even by `sampling` drones.

  7. Demand and Supply–Based Operating Modes—A Framework for Analyzing Health Care Service Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lillrank, Paul; Groop, P Johan; Malmström, Tomi J

    2010-01-01

    Context: The structure of organizations that provide services should reflect the possibilities of and constraints on production that arise from the market segments they serve. Organizational segmentation in health care is based on urgency and severity as well as disease type, bodily function, principal method, or population subgroup. The result is conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. A managerial perspective is needed to identify activities with similar requirements for integration, coordination, and control. Methods: The arguments in this article apply new reasoning to the previous literature. Findings: The method used in this article to classify health care provision distinguishes different types of health problems that share generic constraints of production. Conclusions: The analysis leads to seven different demand-supply combinations, each with its own operational logic. These are labeled demand and supply–based operating modes (DSO modes), and constitute the managerial building blocks of health care organizations. The modes are Prevention, Emergency, One visit, Project, Elective, Cure, and Care. As analytical categories the DSO modes can be used to understand current problems. Several operating modes in one unit create managerial problems of conflicting priorities, goals, and performance metrics. The DSO modes are constructed as managerially homogeneous categories or care platforms responding to general types of demand, and supply constraints. The DSO modes bring methods of industrial management to bear on efforts to improve health care. PMID:21166870

  8. Training tissue bank operators: the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA)/National University of Singapore (NUS) 10 years of experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nather, A; Phillips, G O; Morales Pedraza, Jorge; Lee, Chris C W

    2009-05-01

    National University of Singapore (NUS) was appointed by IAEA to become IAEA/NUS Regional Training Centre (RTC) for Asia and the Pacific region in September 1996. The Government of Singapore (represented by the Ministry of Environment) with the National Science and Technology Board as the funding agency awarded a grant of S$225,500 to build a new purpose-built tissue bank to be the Regional Training Centre. National University Hospital provided a space of 2,000 square feet for this purpose. The first Diploma Course was launched on 3 November 1997 with 17 candidates with the first NUS Diploma Examination being held in October 1998. Between November 1997 and April 2007, a total of nine courses were conducted by RTC with a total of 180 tissue bank operators, 133 from Asia and the Pacific region (13 countries including 2 from Iran), 14 from Africa (Algeria, Egypt, Libya, Egypt, South Africa and Zambia), 6 from Latin America (Brazil, Chile, Cuba, Peru and Uruguay), 9 from Europe (Greece, Slovakia, Poland, Ukraine) and 2 from Australia. The last batch (ninth batch) involved twenty students registered in April 2007 and will be due to sit for the terminal examination only in April 2008.

  9. Production of biogas from organic waste in microreactors operated at two temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process and the product of anaerobic digestion are evaluated for different proportions of organic substrates, in microreactors operated at thermophilic and mesophilic temperatures with interest to find alternatives that will generate energy from biomass. Small-scale tests are conducted to ensure the proper functioning of biodigesters and optimize operating conditions. The anaerobic digestion process is characterized in three manure mixing ratios: mix of leftovers (100:0,90:10 and 80:20) and two temperatures of work (35 degrees Celsius and 50 degrees Celsius), using a factorial arrangement with 2 replicates per treatment. The mixture is composed of manure, cow dung and scraps of fresh food (fruits and vegetables) and prepared food. The proportions were diluted to 5% total solids. Bottles are the experimental unit used consisting culture medium bottles of 1 liter with 500 mL of mixture. The test has run for 5 hydraulic retention times (HRT) of twenty days each. At this time the pH was evaluated, the daily production of biogas, biogas composition, total solids, volatile and fixed and the content of volatile fatty acids. The values obtained biogas productivity and CH4 content have been similar to those reported in the literature and indicate that the systems have been successful

  10. Sharp anisotropic estimates for the Boltzmann collision operator and its entropy production

    CERN Document Server

    Gressman, Philip T

    2010-01-01

    This article provides sharp constructive upper and lower bound estimates for the non-linear Boltzmann collision operator with the full range of physical non cut-off collision kernels ($\\gamma > -n$ and $s\\in (0,1)$) in the trilinear $L^2(\\R^n)$ energy $\\langle \\mathcal{Q}(g,f),f\\rangle$. These new estimates prove that, for a very general class of $g(v)$, the global diffusive behavior (on $f$) in the energy space is that of the geometric fractional derivative semi-norm identified in the linearized context in our earlier works [2009 arXiv:0912.0888v1, 2010, 2010 arXiv:1002.3639v1]. We further prove new global entropy production estimates with the same anisotropic semi-norm. This resolves the longstanding, widespread heuristic conjecture about the sharp diffusive nature of the non cut-off Boltzmann collision operator in the energy space $L^2(\\R^n)$.

  11. A Rescheduling Method for Operation Time Delay Disturbance in Steelmaking and Continuous Casting Production Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Sheng-ping; PAN Quan-ke

    2012-01-01

    In the steelmaking and continuous casting (SMCC) production process, operation time delay may lead to casting break or processing conflict so that the initial scheduling plan becomes unrealizable. Existing research meth- ods are difficult to guarantee the accuracy of the model and successful application to actual applications. The resched- uling problem in response to operation time delay is firstly analyzed. This is then followed by the establishment of a novel multi-obiective nonlinear programming model (MONPM). In specifications, a three-stage rescheduling method is proposed including the batches splitting (BS), forward scheduling method (FSM) and backward scheduling meth- od (BSM). As a result, the real-time application shows that the proposed rescheduling method efficiently ensures the continuous casting and dramatically shortens the redundant waiting time for molten steel in very short rescheduling time.

  12. Evaluation of a solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production operating with ammonia/lithium nitrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rivera, W.; Moreno-Quintanar, G.; Best, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, A.P. 34, 62580 Temixco, Mor. (Mexico); Rivera, C.O.; Martinez, F. [Facultad de Ingenieria Campus Coatzacoalcos, Universidad Veracruzana, Av. Universidad Km 7.5, 96530 Coatzacoalcos, Ver. (Mexico)

    2011-01-15

    A novel solar intermittent refrigeration system for ice production developed in the Centro de Investigacion en Energia of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico is presented. The system operates with the ammonia/lithium nitrate mixture. The system developed has a nominal capacity of 8 kg of ice/day. It consists of a cylindrical parabolic collector acting as generator-absorber. Evaporator temperatures as low as -11 C were obtained for several hours with solar coefficients of performance up to 0.08. It was found that the coefficient of performance increases with the increment of solar radiation and the solution concentration. A dependency of the coefficient of performance was not founded against the cooling water temperature. Also it was found that the maximum operating pressure increases meanwhile the generation temperature decreases with an increase of the solution concentration. (author)

  13. Subsea nuclear power generating stations for offshore oil production operations. Preliminary safety and licensing information document

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-02-15

    This document presents preliminary safety and licensing information relating to the manufacture, installation, and operation of small subsea nuclear generating stations in remote offshore locations, and the associated onshore base-site activities of reactor refueling and system refurbishment at 4-year intervals. The purpose of the proposed facilities is to provide a subsea power capability for offshore oil production operations in areas where surface conditions, water depths, or other environmental constraints may preclude the use of surface-mounted power sources. This will provide the capability to achieve the maximum recovery of petroleum resources from the U.S. frontier areas. Summary descriptions of a typical subsea nuclear generating station and a typical base site-facility are presented. General safety and licensing considerations are discussed, and a representative schedule of licensing activities is outlined.

  14. Technological indicators of operation of the rotating-hearth furnace in conditions of discontinued production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić, L.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Quality heating of the steel charge to be rolled into seamless tubes in the rotating-hearth furnace requires continuous operation of the pilger mill. Interruption of the charging schedule leads to impaired charge heating process. Prolonged heating time causes a rise in the charge temperature above the limit values, and that in turn brings to a larger quantity of scale formed on the charge surface. Final result is loss of metal and overheating of the charge accompanied by increased fuel consumption and lower furnace productivity.

  15. Operating Procedure Changes to Improve Antiproton Production at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drendel, B.; Morgan, J.P.; Vander Meulen, D.; /Fermilab

    2009-04-01

    Since the start of Fermilab Collider Run II in 2001, the maximum weekly antiproton accumulation rate has increased from 400 x 10{sup 10} Pbars/week to approximately 3,700 x 10{sup 10} Pbars/week. There are many factors contributing to this increase, one of which involves changes to operational procedures that have streamlined and automated Antiproton Source production. Automation has been added to the beam line orbit control, stochastic cooling power level management, and RF settings. In addition, daily tuning efforts have been streamlined by implementing sequencer driven tuning software.

  16. Antenna Operator Product Expansion of ABJ(M) Lightlike Polygon Wilson Loop

    OpenAIRE

    Bae, Jin-Beom; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Expectation value of lightlike polygon Wilson loop is computed in the three-dimensional ABJM theory up to second-order in `t Hooft coupling in the limit of infinitely many colors and the result is critically compared with that in the four-dimensional N=4 super Yang-Mills theory. We first obtain analytic result for hexagon Wilson loop by combining Mellin-Barnes transformation, high precision numerical computation and the PSLQ algorithm. We then derive a version of operator product expansion (O...

  17. Clinical Space Medicine Products as Developed by the Medical Operations Support Team (MOST)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, James D.; Doerr, Harold K.; Hurst, Victor W., IV; Schmid, Josef

    2007-01-01

    Medical Operations Support Team (MOST) is introducing/integrating teaching practices associated with high fidelity human patient simulation into the NASA culture, in particular, into medical training sessions and medical procedure evaluations. Current/Future Products iclude: a) Development of Sub-optimal Airway Protocols for the International Space Station (ISS) using the ILMA; b) Clinical Core Competency Training for NASA Flight Surgeons (FS); c) Post-Soyuz Landing Clinical Training for NASA FS; d) Experimental Integrated Training for Astronaut Crew Medical Officers and NASA FS; and e) Private Clinical Refresher Training.

  18. Quality and productivity drive innovation and improvement at United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamar, L. G.

    1986-01-01

    Quality and innovation are the hallmarks of the national space program. In programs that preceded the Shuttle Program the emphasis was on meeting the risks and technical challenges of space with safety, quality, reliability, and success. At United Technologies Aerospace Operations, Inc. (UTAO), the battle has developed along four primary fronts. These fronts include programs to motivate and reward people, development and construction of optimized processes and facilities, implementation of specifically tailored management systems, and the application of appropriate measurement and control systems. Each of these initiatives is described. However, to put this quality and productivity program in perspective, UTAO and its role in the Shuttle Program are described first.

  19. IR Renormalons vs. Operator Product Expansion in Supersymmetric and Related Gauge Theories

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, Gerald V; Unsal, Mithat

    2015-01-01

    We use the "conspiracy" between infrared (IR) renormalons and condensates in the operator product expansion for correlation functions to make predictions concerning the structure of singularities in the Borel plane for the perturbative series in quantum field theories with different levels of supersymmetry. The same conspiracy can be used for establishing the absence of condensates or IR renormalons in gauge theories with an IR conformal regime or fully Higgsed gauge theories. The absence of the renormalon-induced factorial divergence implies that instanton contributions (where present) must be well-defined. We show that the conventional bubble-chain method for detecting renormalon-induced factorial divergences in these theories is not sufficient.

  20. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3

  1. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Filley, T.H.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Cleland, J.H.

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. In the 1970s, the US Department of Energy (DOE) began investigating more efficient and cost-effective enrichment technologies. In January 1990, the Secretary of Energy approved a plan for the demonstration and deployment of the Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) technology with the near-term goal to provide the necessary information to make a deployment decision by November 1992. Initial facility operation is anticipated for 1999. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE sites to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. The final evaluation, which included sensitivity studies, identified the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant (ORGDP) site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) site, and the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PORTS) site as having significant advantages over the other sites considered. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PORTS site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). This report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during site visits. The organization of the ESD is as follows. Topics addressed in Sec. 2 include a general site description and the disciplines of geology, water resources, biotic resources, air resources, noise, cultural resources, land use. Socioeconomics, and waste management. Identification of any additional data that would be required for an EIS is presented in Sec. 3.

  2. Process optimization of atomized melt deposition for the production of dispersion strengthened Al-8.5%Fe-1.2%V-1.7%Si alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomized melt deposition is a low cost manufacturing process with the microstructural control achieved through rapid solidification. In this process the liquid metal is disintegrated into fine droplets by gas atomization and the droplets are deposited on a substrate producing near net shape products. In the present investigation Al-8.5%Fe-1.2%V-1.7%Si alloy was produced using atomized melt deposition process to study the evolution of microstructure and assess the cooling rates and the undercooling achieved during the process. The size, morphology and the composition of second phase particles in the alloy are strong functions of the cooling rate and the undercooling and hence microstructural changes with the variation in process parameters were quantified. To define optimum conditions for the atomized melt deposition process, a mathematical model was developed. The model determines the temperature distribution of the liquid droplets during gas atomization and during the deposition stages. The model predicts the velocity distribution, cooling rates and the fraction solid, during the flight for different droplet sizes. The solidification heat transfer phenomena taking place during the atomized melt deposition process was analyzed using a finite difference method based on the enthalpy formulation

  3. Optimizing relational algebra operations using discrimination-based joins and lazy products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henglein, Fritz

    that discriminators can be constructed generically (by structural recursion on equivalence expressions), purely func- tionally, and efficiently (worst-case linear time). The array-based basic multiset discrimination algorithm of Cai and Paige (1995) provides a base discriminator that is both asymptotically and prac......- tically efficient. In contrast to hashing, discrimination is fully ab- stract (only depends on which equivalences hold on its inputs), and in contrast to comparison-based sorting, it does not require an or- dering relation on its inputs. In particular, it is applicable to ref- erences (pointers......). Furthermore, it has better asymptotic computa- tional complexity than both sorting and hashing. We represent cross-products and unions lazily (symbolically) as formal products of the argument sets (relations). This allows the selection operation to recognize on the fly whenever it is applied to a cross...

  4. A new approach for cell formation and scheduling with assembly operations and product structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Bahador Aryanezhad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new formulation model for cellular manufacturing system (CMS design problem is proposed. The proposed model of this paper considers assembly operations and product structure so that it includes the scheduling problem with the formation of manufacturing cells, simultaneously. Since the proposed model is nonlinear, a linearization method is applied to gain optimal solution when the model is solved using direct implementation of mixed integer programming. A new genetic algorithm (GA is also proposed to solve the resulted model for large-scale problems. We examine the performance of the proposed method using the direct implementation and the proposed GA method. The results indicate that the proposed GA approach could provide efficient assembly and product structure for real-world size problems.

  5. Operational aspects of the radiological control in a radioisotopes plant production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this paper is to inform about the results obtained in the control operations carried out by the radioprotection area of the radioisotopes plant production during 1994 and then were compared with the limits established by the regulations of radiological radioprotection. In the general inter-texture of the activities that are developed in the radioisotopes plant production, the carried out controls are: area monitoring, air monitoring, personnel monitoring, monitoring in the expedition of radioactive material and monitoring and control in the evacuation of solid and liquid wastes. The result obtained in the present paper states that the doses received by the exposed occupationally staff are below the allowed limits. (author). 3 refs

  6. Improving productivity and profitability of a bioanalytical business through sales and operation planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Rafiqul

    2013-07-01

    Today's bioanalytical CROs face increasing global competition, highly variable demand, high fixed costs, pricing pressure, and increasing demand for quality and speed. Most bioanalytical laboratories have responded to these challenges by implementing automation and by implementing process improvement methodologies (e.g., Six Sigma). These solutions have not resulted in a significant improvement in productivity and profitability since none of them are able to predict the upturn or downturn in demand. High volatility of demand causes long lead times and high costs during peak demand and poor productivity during trough demand. Most bioanalytical laboratories lack the tools to align supply efficiently to meet changing demand. In this paper, sales and operation planning (S&OP) has been investigated as a tool to balance supply and demand. The S&OP process, when executed effectively, can be the single greatest determinant of profitability for a bioanalytical business.

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ;

    2004-01-01

    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, an...

  8. Single Atom Plasmonic Switch

    CERN Document Server

    Emboras, Alexandros; Ma, Ping; Haffner, Christian; Luisier, Mathieu; Hafner, Christian; Schimmel, Thomas; Leuthold, Juerg

    2015-01-01

    The atom sets an ultimate scaling limit to Moores law in the electronics industry. And while electronics research already explores atomic scales devices, photonics research still deals with devices at the micrometer scale. Here we demonstrate that photonic scaling-similar to electronics-is only limited by the atom. More precisely, we introduce an electrically controlled single atom plasmonic switch. The switch allows for fast and reproducible switching by means of the relocation of an individual or at most - a few atoms in a plasmonic cavity. Depending on the location of the atom either of two distinct plasmonic cavity resonance states are supported. Experimental results show reversible digital optical switching with an extinction ration of 10 dB and operation at room temperature with femtojoule (fJ) power consumption for a single switch operation. This demonstration of a CMOS compatible, integrated quantum device allowing to control photons at the single-atom level opens intriguing perspectives for a fully i...

  9. CFD simulation of thermal discharge behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at the Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 1. Validation for 2 power plant units in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Goyal, P.; Markandeya, S.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Planning and Coordination Div.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Health Safety and Environment Group

    2011-05-15

    The thermal pollution arising out of discharge of hot water from the power plant condensers into the natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans etc. has been a serious concern to environmentalists ever since the plants started operating world over. In the past forty to fifty years, the methods of calculations for predicting the velocity and temperature fields in the affected regions of the stagnant/flowing water bodies have undergone a significant improvement. Currently, use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for performing these calculations is gaining popularity. However, several factors such as the assumed computational domain and its discretisation, the boundary conditions used, representation of hydrodynamic characteristics (laminar/turbulent, buoyant/non-buoyant), etc. have a strong influence on the accuracy of predictions by such a model. A CFD code STAR-CD has been used for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS). The predictions from these calculations of two units in operation have been found to be in good agreement with the site data made available from earlier studies. The present paper briefly describes the model developed using STAR-CD and results obtained for the Kadra reservoir at KAPS. (orig.)

  10. Manipulation of gold colloidal nanoparticles with atomic force microscopy in dynamic mode: influence of particle–substrate chemistry and morphology, and of operating conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samer Darwich

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available One key component in the assembly of nanoparticles is their precise positioning to enable the creation of new complex nano-objects. Controlling the nanoscale interactions is crucial for the prediction and understanding of the behaviour of nanoparticles (NPs during their assembly. In the present work, we have manipulated bare and functionalized gold nanoparticles on flat and patterned silicon and silicon coated substrates with dynamic atomic force microscopy (AFM. Under ambient conditions, the particles adhere to silicon until a critical drive amplitude is reached by oscillations of the probing tip. Beyond that threshold, the particles start to follow different directions, depending on their geometry, size and adhesion to the substrate. Higher and respectively, lower mobility was observed when the gold particles were coated with methyl (–CH3 and hydroxyl (–OH terminated thiol groups. This major result suggests that the adhesion of the particles to the substrate is strongly reduced by the presence of hydrophobic interfaces. The influence of critical parameters on the manipulation was investigated and discussed viz. the shape, size and grafting of the NPs, as well as the surface chemistry and the patterning of the substrate, and finally the operating conditions (temperature, humidity and scan velocity. Whereas the operating conditions and substrate structure are shown to have a strong effect on the mobility of the particles, we did not find any differences when manipulating ordered vs random distributed particles.

  11. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kujanpää

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The surface ultraviolet (UV radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop satellites. Cloud cover is taken into account by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3 instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA in the afternoon orbit. In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast. The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated ultraviolet B (UVB and ultraviolet A (UVA radiation, solar noon UV index and daily maximum photolysis frequencies of ozone and nitrogen dioxide at the surface level. The quantities are computed in a 0.5°×0.5° regular latitude–longitude grid and stored as daily files in the hierarchical data format (HDF5 within 2 weeks from sensing. The product files are archived in the O3M SAF distributed archive and can be ordered via the EUMETSAT Data Centre.

  12. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kujanpää, J.; Kalakoski, N.

    2015-10-01

    The surface ultraviolet (UV) radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2) instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop) satellites. Cloud cover is taken into account by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High-Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3) instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in the afternoon orbit. In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast). The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated ultraviolet B (UVB) and ultraviolet A (UVA) radiation, solar noon UV index and daily maximum photolysis frequencies of ozone and nitrogen dioxide at the surface level. The quantities are computed in a 0.5°×0.5° regular latitude-longitude grid and stored as daily files in the hierarchical data format (HDF5) within 2 weeks from sensing. The product files are archived in the O3M SAF distributed archive and can be ordered via the EUMETSAT Data Centre.

  13. Development and operation of gas catchers to thermalize fusion-evaporation and fragmentation products

    CERN Document Server

    Savard, G; Boudreau, C; Buchinger, F; Crawford, J E; Geissel, H; Greene, J P; Gulick, S; Heinz, A; Lee, J K P; Levand, A; Maier, M; Münzenberg, G; Scheidenberger, C; Seweryniak, D; Sharma, K S; Sprouse, G; Vaz, J; Wang, J C; Zabransky, B J; Zhou, Z

    2003-01-01

    A new approach to the production of low energy radioactive beams involves the stopping of fast beams produced by fragmentation, in-flight fission or fusion-evaporation reaction into a large gas catcher where the reaction products are thermalized in high-purity helium and extracted as singly charged ions for post-acceleration. This removes the limitation present in standard ISOL technique for species that are difficult to extract from the target/ion source assembly. This approach has been implemented at Argonne since 1998 to inject fusion-evaporation products in an ion trap system. Via a series of improvements since then, we now reach efficiencies for these devices of close to 50% with delay times below 10 ms. In preparation for the RIA project, a larger device for stopping fragmentation products is in preparation. The basic principles behind these devices together with results obtained and experience gained operating these devices will be presented. Preparation for a test of the large gas cell at the full RIA...

  14. Operations Structure for the Management, Control and Support of the INFN-GRID/Grid.It Production Infrastructure

    CERN Document Server

    Vistoli, M C; Calzolari, F; Vistoli, Maria Cristina; Gaido, Luciano; Calzolari, Federico

    2006-01-01

    Moving from a National Grid Testbed to a Production quality Grid service for the HEP applications requires an effective operations structure and organization, proper user and operations support, flexible and efficient management and monitoring tools. Moreover the middleware releases should be easily deployable using flexible configuration tools, suitable for various and different local computing farms. The organizational model, the available tools and the agreed procedures for operating the national/regional grid infrastructures that are part of the world-wide EGEE grid as well as the interconnection of the regional operations structures with the global management, control and support structure play a key role for the success of a real production grid. In this paper we describe the operations structure that we are currently using at the Italian Grid Operation and Support Center. The activities described cover monitoring, management and support for the INFN-GRID/Grid.It production grid (spread over more than 3...

  15. The relation between the production efficiency of nitrogen atoms and the electrical characteristics of a dielectric barrier discharge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peeters, F. J. J.; Yang, R.; M. C. M. van de Sanden,

    2015-01-01

    In a nitrogen plasma jet, atomic nitrogen is the longest lived radical species and, through recombination, gives rise to highly reactive excited nitrogen species. In this paper, the atomic nitrogen concentration in the effluent of a nitrogen-fed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is determined by us

  16. Operational surface UV radiation product from GOME-2 and AVHRR/3 data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kujanpää

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The surface ultraviolet (UV radiation product, version 1.20, generated operationally in the framework of the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF of the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT is described. The product is based on the total ozone column derived from the measurements of the second Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME-2 instrument aboard EUMETSAT's polar orbiting meteorological operational (Metop satellites. The input total ozone product is generated by the German Aerospace Center (DLR also within the O3M SAF framework. Polar orbiting satellites provide global coverage but infrequent sampling of the diurnal cloud cover. The diurnal variation of the surface UV radiation is extremely strong due to modulation by solar elevation and rapidly changing cloud cover. At the minimum, one sample of the cloud cover in the morning and another in the afternoon are needed to derive daily maximum and daily integrated surface UV radiation quantities. This is achieved by retrieving cloud optical depth from the channel 1 reflectance of the third Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR/3 instrument aboard both Metop in the morning orbit (daytime descending node around 09:30 LT and Polar Orbiting Environmental Satellites (POES of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA in the afternoon orbit (daytime ascending node around 14:30 LT. In addition, more overpasses are used at high latitudes where the swaths of consecutive orbits overlap. The input satellite data are received from EUMETSAT's Multicast Distribution System (EUMETCast using commercial telecommunication satellites for broadcasting the data to the user community. The surface UV product includes daily maximum dose rates and integrated daily doses with different biological weighting functions, integrated UVB and UVA radiation, solar noon UV Index and daily maximum photolysis

  17. The effect of backroom size on retail product availability – operational and technological solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikola Milićević

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Amid the conditions of increasingly fierce competition, retailers are doing their best to meet the demands of their customers as efficiently as possible. Through the ever-growing level of product availability they raise the quality of service, which is positively reflected not only on the growth in sales, but also customer satisfaction. In the opposite case, the out-ofstock problem emerges, affecting not only customers, but also retailers and their suppliers. Bearing in mind, that the causes of the given problem occur most frequently in the last metres of the supply chain, in this paper we investigated the effect of backroom size on product availability, depending on the retail format. For this purpose, we used moderated regression analysis on the sample of 80 fast moving consumer goods in retail stores located on the territory of the Republic of Serbia. The obtained results pointed to opposite movements in the smallest and the largest format. Whereas in superettes the out-of-stock level lowers with the increase in the backroom size, it tends to drop in hypermarkets. Therefore, we pointed to some in-store problems that cause product stock-outs in different store formats. In addition to indicating the potential causes of analyzed relations, this paper also presents certain operational and technological solutions related to their mitigation.

  18. Biofuel production system with operation flexibility: Evaluation of economic and environmental performance under external disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kou, Nannan

    Biomass derived liquid hydrocarbon fuel (biofuel) has been accepted as an effective way to mitigate the reliance on petroleum and reduce the greenhouse gas emissions. An increasing demand for second generation biofuels, produced from ligno-cellulosic feedstock and compatible with current infrastructure and vehicle technologies, addresses two major challenges faced by the current US transportation sector: energy security and global warming. However, biofuel production is subject to internal disturbances (feedstock supply and commodity market) and external factors (energy market). The biofuel industry has also heavily relied on government subsidy during the early development stages. In this dissertation, I investigate how to improve the economic and environmental performance of biorefineries (and biofuel plant), as well as enhance its survivability under the external disturbances. Three types of disturbance are considered: (1) energy market fluctuation, (2) subsidy policy uncertainty, and (3) extreme weather conditions. All three factors are basically volatile, dynamic, and even unpredictable, which makes them difficult to model and have been largely ignored to date. Instead, biofuel industry and biofuel research are intensively focused on improving feedstock conversion efficiency and capital cost efficiency while assuming these advancements alone will successfully generate higher profit and thus foster the biofuel industry. The collapse of the largest corn ethanol biofuel company, Verasun Energy, in 2008 calls into question this efficiency-driven approach. A detailed analysis has revealed that although the corn ethanol plants operated by Verasun adopted the more efficient (i.e. higher ethanol yield per bushel of corn and lower capital cost) dry-mill technology, they could not maintain a fair profit margin under fluctuating market condition which made ethanol production unprofitable. This is because dry-mill plant converts a single type of biomass feedstock (corn

  19. Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rachel Henderson

    2007-09-30

    The project is titled 'Identification, Verification, and Compilation of Produced Water Management Practices for Conventional Oil and Gas Production Operations'. The Interstate Oil and Gas Compact Commission (IOGCC), headquartered in Oklahoma City, Oklahoma, is the principal investigator and the IOGCC has partnered with ALL Consulting, Inc., headquartered in Tulsa, Oklahoma, in this project. State agencies that also have partnered in the project are the Wyoming Oil and Gas Conservation Commission, the Montana Board of Oil and Gas Conservation, the Kansas Oil and Gas Conservation Division, the Oklahoma Oil and Gas Conservation Division and the Alaska Oil and Gas Conservation Commission. The objective is to characterize produced water quality and management practices for the handling, treating, and disposing of produced water from conventional oil and gas operations throughout the industry nationwide. Water produced from these operations varies greatly in quality and quantity and is often the single largest barrier to the economic viability of wells. The lack of data, coupled with renewed emphasis on domestic oil and gas development, has prompted many experts to speculate that the number of wells drilled over the next 20 years will approach 3 million, or near the number of current wells. This level of exploration and development undoubtedly will draw the attention of environmental communities, focusing their concerns on produced water management based on perceived potential impacts to fresh water resources. Therefore, it is imperative that produced water management practices be performed in a manner that best minimizes environmental impacts. This is being accomplished by compiling current best management practices for produced water from conventional oil and gas operations and to develop an analysis tool based on a geographic information system (GIS) to assist in the understanding of watershed-issued permits. That would allow management costs to be kept in

  20. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pantini, Sara, E-mail: pantini@ing.uniroma2.it [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Via del Politecnico, 1, 00133 Rome (Italy); Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter [Department of Environmental Engineering, Technical University of Denmark, Miljoevej, Building 113, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d{sup −1} at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d{sup −1} at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d{sup −1} at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution

  1. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • BMP test displayed high gas potential generation capacity of MBT waste. • Strong inhibition effects were observed due to ammonia and VFA accumulation. • Waste water content was found as the key parameter limiting gas generation. • First order k-values were determined for different operating conditions. - Abstract: In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically–biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26–43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25 °C up to 55 °C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150 Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007 d−1 at room temperature that increased to 0.03–0.05 d−1 at 37 °C and to 0.04–0.11 d−1 at 55 °C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when

  2. Reaction studies of hot silicon, germanium and carbon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspar, P.P.

    1990-11-01

    The goal of this project was to increase the authors understanding of the interplay between the kinetic and electronic energy of free atoms and their chemical reactivity by answering the following questions: (1) what is the chemistry of high-energy carbon silicon and germanium atoms recoiling from nuclear transformations; (2) how do the reactions of recoiling carbon, silicon and germanium atoms take place - what are the operative reaction mechanisms; (3) how does the reactivity of free carbon, silicon and germanium atoms vary with energy and electronic state, and what are the differences in the chemistry of these three isoelectronic atoms This research program consisted of a coordinated set of experiments capable of achieving these goals by defining the structures, the kinetic and internal energy, and the charge states of the intermediates formed in the gas-phase reactions of recoiling silicon and germanium atoms with silane, germane, and unsaturated organic molecules, and of recoiling carbon atoms with aromatic molecules. The reactions of high energy silicon, germanium, and carbon atoms created by nuclear recoil were studied with substrates chosen so that their products illuminated the mechanism of the recoil reactions. Information about the energy and electronic state of the recoiling atoms at reaction was obtained from the variation in end product yields and the extent of decomposition and rearrangement of primary products (usually reactive intermediates) as a function of total pressure and the concentration of inert moderator molecules that remove kinetic energy from the recoiling atoms and can induce transitions between electronic spin states. 29 refs.

  3. Examining effective factors on human forces' productivity in bureau of naval operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younes Bahadori

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aims at examining effective factors on improvement of human forces' productivity and determining degree of influence and importance of each group among factors including workshop equipment and arrangement in organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and at last, administrating meritocracy system on improvement of human forces' productivity. Statistical population is composed of bureau of naval operations' employees in oil terminals' company in Khark, Iran. Statistical population has been 230, among which 135 people were determined as statistical sample size using Cochran formula. Survey instrument in this research has been questionnaire, according to which employees' ideas about effective factors on employees' productivity were evaluated. These questionnaires completed by people among statistical sample contain 16 close questions which were set up according to Likert 5-grade scale and were distributed as 135 numbers that after returning questionnaire, statistical analysis and data processing were accomplished. Analysis was performed in 2 descriptive and inferential statistics levels. Results of data analysis show that: A 5-fold factors under review “workshop equipment and arrangement of organization, system of control and supervision on employees, degree of employees training, occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy related to human resources by management” have had effects on improvement of employees' productivity as average. B degree of employees training and then occupational value of employees and administrating meritocracy system have had the most influence, and workshop equipment and arrangement of organization and system of control and supervision on employees have had the least influence.

  4. NVENTIONS IN THE NANOTECHNOLOGICAL AREA PROVIDE INCREASED RESISTANCE OF CONSTRUCTION MATERIALS AND PRODUCTS TO OPERATIONAL LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    VLASOV Vladimir Alexeevich

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The invention «Dispersion of Carbon Nanotubes (RU 2494961» can be used in production of modifying additives for construction materials. Dispersion of carbon nanotubes contains, mass %: carbon nanotubes 1–20; surface active agent – sodium chloride of sulfonated derived naphthalene 1–20; fumed silica 5–15; water – the rest. Dispersion can additionally contain ethylene glycol as antifreeze. Dispersion is steady in storage, it is soluble in water, provides increased strength of construction materials. Invention «Building Structures Reinforcement Composition (RU 2493337» can beused in construction to reinforce concrete, brick and masonry structures. Composition contains glass or basalt roving taken in quantity 90÷100 parts by weight, soaked in polymer binder based on epoxy taken in quantity 0,001÷1,5 parts by weight. This invention provides high resistance to operational load.

  5. Design, production and first operation of the ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector system

    CERN Document Server

    Kluge, A; Antinori, F; Burns, M; Cali, I A; Campbell, M; Caselle, M; Cavicchioli, C; Dima, R; Elia, D; Fabris, D; Krivda, M; Librizzi, F; Manzari, V; Marangio, G; Morel, M; Moretto, S; Osmic, F; Pappalardo, G S; Pepato, Adriano; Pulvirenti, A; Riedler, P; Riggi, F; Santoro, R; Stefanini, G; Torcato Matos, C; Turrisi, R; Tydesjol, H; Viesti, G

    2008-01-01

    The ALICE Silicon Pixel Detector (SPD) constitutes the two innermost barrel layers of the ALICE experiment. The SPD is the detector closest to the interaction point, mounted around the beam pipe with the two layers at r=3.9 cm and 7.6 cm distance from beam axis. In order to reduce multiple scattering the material budget per layer in the active region has been limited to ≈1% X0. The SPD consists of 120 hybrid silicon pixel detectors modules with a total of ~107 cells. The on-detector read-out is based on a multi-chip-module containing 4 ASICs and an optical transceiver module. The readout electronics, located in the control room, is housed in 20 VME boards; it is the interface to the ALICE trigger, data acquisition, control system and detector electronics. In this contribution the SPD detector components design and production are reviewed. First operation results are reported.

  6. CHARACTERIZATIONS OF JORDAN +-SKEW MULTIPLICATIVE MAPS ON OPERATOR ALGEBRAS OF INDEFINITE INNER PRODUCT SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AN RUNLING; HOU JINCHUAN

    2005-01-01

    Let H and K be indefinite inner product spaces. This paper shows that a bijective map Φ: B(H) → B(K) satisfies Φ(AB+ + B+A) = Φ(A)Φ(B)+ + Φ(B)+Φ(A) for every pair A,B ∈ B(H) if and only if either Φ(A) = cUAU+ for all A or Φ(A) = cUA+U+ for all A; Φ satisfies Φ(AB+A) = Φ(A)Φ(B)+Φ(A) for every pair A, B ∈ B(H) if and only if either Φ(A) = UAV for all A or Φ(A) = UA+V for all A, where A+ denotes the indefinite conjugate of A, U and V are bounded invertible linear or conjugate linear operators with U+U = c-1I and V+V = cI for some nonzero real number c.

  7. Operational risk of a wind farm energy production by Extreme Value Theory and Copulas

    CERN Document Server

    D'Amico, Guglielmo; Prattico, Flavio

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we use risk management techniques to evaluate the potential effects of those operational risks that affect the energy production of a wind farm. We concentrate our attention on three major risk factors: wind speed uncertainty, wind turbine reliability and interactions of wind turbines due mainly to their placement. As a first contribution, we show that the Weibull distribution, commonly used to fit recorded wind speed data, underestimates rare events. Therefore, in order to achieve a better estimation of the tail of the wind speed distribution, we advance a Generalized Pareto distribution. The wind turbines reliability is considered by modeling the failures events as a compound Poisson process. Finally, the use of Copula able us to consider the correlation between wind turbines that compose the wind farm. Once this procedure is set up, we show a sensitivity analysis and we also compare the results from the proposed procedure with those obtained by ignoring the aforementioned risk factors.

  8. The influence of operational constraints in the production strategy definition; Influencia de restricoes operacionais na definicao da estrategia de producao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magalhaes, Tasso C.B. de; Schiozer, Denis J. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2004-07-01

    Production strategies definition, applied to petroleum fields, must consider physical, operational and economic constraints. It is common to consider only the reservoir conditions on the optimization processes, simplifying, many times, the process by not taking into account the operational constraints due to production facilities. There are two main reasons: considering the operational constraints makes the process much complex and it is assumed that this simplification can affect the economic indicators but dos not affect significantly the optimization process (number e location of wells, for example). The capacity of a production unit can be limited by many constrains such as: maximum liquid rate, capacity of water and gas treatment, gas compression, water or gas injection, number of wells, etc. In this work, we show that these limitations have a direct influence in the oil production and consequently in the economic indicators and they can cause significant impact at production strategy definition, influencing the number of production and injection wells, their locations and their operational conditions. We presented an example of an offshore field with a limitation on the liquid rate. Production strategies were selected with and without constraints in order to observe the differences in the technical and economic indicators, such as NPV (Net Present Value), production and injection of fluids and the number and location of the production and injection wells. It was possible to observe yet that the amount and location of the wells were significantly affected by the restriction. (author)

  9. Universal bosonic tetramers of dimer-atom-atom structure

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A

    2012-01-01

    Unstable four-boson states having an approximate dimer-atom-atom structure are studied using momentum-space integral equations for the four-particle transition operators. For a given Efimov trimer the universal properties of the lowest associated tetramer are determined. The impact of this tetramer on the atom-trimer and dimer-dimer collisions is analyzed. The reliability of the three-body dimer-atom-atom model is studied.

  10. 77 FR 69928 - Transco Railway Products Inc.-Acquisition and Operation Exemption-D&W Railroad LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ... Surface Transportation Board Transco Railway Products Inc.--Acquisition and Operation Exemption--D&W... exemption under 49 CFR 1150.31 to acquire from D&W Railroad LLC (D&W) and to operate approximately 23 miles...&W main line, which segments include three parallel tracks northeast of the Stub-ended...

  11. Vertex operators for production of baryon resonances in nucleon-gamma collisions with preserving gauge invariance and analyticity

    CERN Document Server

    Anisovich, A V; Sarantsev, A V

    2016-01-01

    Vertex operators for photo- and electro-production of baryon states with arbitrary spin-parity, $ \\gamma + N\\to B(J^P)$, are constructed. The operators obey gauge invariance and analyticity constraints. Analyticity is realized as a requirement of the generalized Siegert theorem for vertex form factors.

  12. Validation of SCIAMACHY limb NO2 and BrO operational data products 2002-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azam, Faiza; Weigel, Katja; Weber, Mark; Rozanov, Alexei; Bovensmann, Heinrich; Burrows, John P.

    2013-04-01

    SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY), aboard Envisat (2002-2012) observed the Earth's atmosphere in nadir, limb and solar/lunar occultation geometries covering UV-Visible to NIR (240-2830 nm) spectral range with a moderate spectral resolution of 0.2-1.5nm. The decadal time series (2002-2012) of SCIAMACHY's products are valuable for long term trend analysis and interpretations, as well as stratospheric ozone studies and assessments. An important prerequisite for such studies is to verify the quality of the available datasets. The ESA project SCILOV-2010 (SCIAMACHY long term validation 2010) aims at monitoring the quality of different operational data products retrieved from SCIAMACHY measurements in limb and nadir observation geometries by validations and comparisons to the correlative measurements from other satellite and ground based instruments. The limb observations from the instrument provide vertically resolved information on global scale. NO2 and BrO play important roles in the stratospheric ozone chemistry. NO2 controls the stratospheric ozone abundances by direct catalytic destruction or by mitigating ozone depletion through formation of reservoirs of active halogens. BrO has a large ozone depletion efficiency and contributes to ozone destruction by catalytic reactions with different radicals. Here we present the long-term comparisons of operational NO2 and BrO (ESA/DLR V5.02) limb profiles with the corresponding scientific SCIAMACHY retrievals at the Institute of Environmental Physics (IUP) Bremen and to other satellite measurements e.g. ACE-FTS, HALOE, SAGE and OSIRIS in case of NO2 and for BrO, with SMILES.

  13. Operational Readiness Review Plan for the Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator Materials Production Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, R. H.; Martin, M. M.; Riggs, C. R.; Beatty, R. L.; Ohriner, E. K.; Escher, R. N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP 24 entitled "Operational Readiness Process" describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management approved "readiness plan" to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks.

  14. Validation of an operational product to determine L1 to Earth propagation time delays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cash, M. D.; Witters Hicks, S.; Biesecker, D. A.; Reinard, A. A.; Koning, C. A.; Weimer, D. R.

    2016-02-01

    We describe the development and validation of an operational space weather tool to forecast propagation delay times between L1 and Earth using the Weimer and King (2008) tilted phase front technique. A simple flat plane convection delay method is currently used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) to propagate the solar wind from a monitoring satellite located at L1 to a point upstream of the magnetosphere. This technique assumes that all observed solar wind discontinuities, such as interplanetary shocks and interplanetary coronal mass ejection boundaries, are in a flat plane perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line traveling in the GSE X direction at the observed solar wind velocity. In reality, these phase plane fronts can have significantly tilted orientations, and by relying on a ballistic propagation method, delay time errors of ±15 min are common. In principle, the propagation time delay product presented here should more accurately predict L1 to Earth transit times by taking these tilted phase plane fronts into account. This algorithm, which is based on the work of Weimer and King (2008), is currently running in real time in test mode at SWPC as part of the SWPC test bed. We discuss the current algorithm performance, and via our detailed validation study, show that there is no significant difference between the two propagation methods when run in a real-time operational environment.

  15. Metal atom oxidation laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides

  16. Metal atom oxidation laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R.J.; Rice, W.W.; Beattie, W.H.

    1975-10-28

    A chemical laser which operates by formation of metal or carbon atoms and reaction of such atoms with a gaseous oxidizer in an optical resonant cavity is described. The lasing species are diatomic or polyatomic in nature and are readily produced by exchange or other abstraction reactions between the metal or carbon atoms and the oxidizer. The lasing molecules may be metal or carbon monohalides or monoxides. (auth)

  17. Co-operation Agreement. The Text of the Agreement of 25 May 1998 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Co-operation Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Accounting and Control of Nuclear Materials is reproduced herein for the information of all Members. The Agreement entered into force on 25 May 1998, pursuant to Article 8

  18. Assessment of biogas production from MBT waste under different operating conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantini, Sara; Verginelli, Iason; Lombardi, Francesco; Scheutz, Charlotte; Kjeldsen, Peter

    2015-09-01

    In this work, the influence of different operating conditions on the biogas production from mechanically-biologically treated (MBT) wastes is investigated. Specifically, different lab-scale anaerobic tests varying the water content (26-43% w/w up to 75% w/w), the temperature (from 20 to 25°C up to 55°C) and the amount of inoculum have been performed on waste samples collected from a full-scale Italian MBT plant. For each test, the gas generation yield and, where applicable, the first-order gas generation rates were determined. Nearly all tests were characterised by a quite long lag-phase. This result was mainly ascribed to the inhibition effects resulting from the high concentrations of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia detected in the different stages of the experiments. Furthermore, water content was found as one of the key factor limiting the anaerobic biological process. Indeed, the experimental results showed that when the moisture was lower than 32% w/w, the methanogenic microbial activity was completely inhibited. For the higher water content tested (75% w/w), high values of accumulated gas volume (up to 150Nl/kgTS) and a relatively short time period to deplete the MBT waste gas generation capacity were observed. At these test conditions, the effect of temperature became evident, leading to gas generation rates of 0.007d(-1) at room temperature that increased to 0.03-0.05d(-1) at 37°C and to 0.04-0.11d(-1) at 55°C. Overall, the obtained results highlighted that the operative conditions can drastically affect the gas production from MBT wastes. This suggests that particular caution should be paid when using the results of lab-scale tests for the evaluation of long-term behaviour expected in the field where the boundary conditions change continuously and vary significantly depending on the climate, the landfill operative management strategies in place (e.g. leachate recirculation, waste disposal methods), the hydraulic characteristics of disposed

  19. Earth observation products for operational irrigation management: the PLEIADeS project

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Urso, G.; Vuolo, F.; Richter, K.; Calera Belmonte, A.; Osann, M. A.

    2009-09-01

    In the context of a sustainable agriculture, a controlled and efficient irrigation management is required to avoid negative effects of the increasing water scarcity, especially in arid and semi-arid regions. Within this background, the project 'Participatory multi-Level EO-assisted tools for Irrigation water management and Agricultural Decision-Support' (PLEIADeS: http://www.pleiades.es) addressed the efficient and sustainable use of water for food production in water-scarce environments. Economical, environmental, technical, social and political dimensions are considered by means of a synergy of leading-edge technologies and participatory approaches. Project partners, represented by a set of nine pilot case studies, include a broad range of conditions characteristic for the European, Southern Mediterranean and American regions. PLEIADeS aimed at improving the performance of irrigation schemes by means of a range of measures, made possible through wide space-time coverage of Earth observation (E.O.) data and interactive networking capabilities of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). Algorithms for a number of basic products to estimate Irrigation Water Requirements (IWR) in an operational context are defined. In this study, the pilot zone at the Nurra site in Sardinia, Italy, is chosen to test, validate and apply these methodologies.

  20. Sea Ice Thickness, Freeboard, and Snow Depth products from Operation IceBridge Airborne Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, N. T.; Farrell, S. L.; Studinger, M.; Galin, N.; Harbeck, J. P.; Lindsay, R.; Onana, V. D.; Panzer, B.; Sonntag, J. G.

    2013-01-01

    The study of sea ice using airborne remote sensing platforms provides unique capabilities to measure a wide variety of sea ice properties. These measurements are useful for a variety of topics including model evaluation and improvement, assessment of satellite retrievals, and incorporation into climate data records for analysis of interannual variability and long-term trends in sea ice properties. In this paper we describe methods for the retrieval of sea ice thickness, freeboard, and snow depth using data from a multisensor suite of instruments on NASA's Operation IceBridge airborne campaign. We assess the consistency of the results through comparison with independent data sets that demonstrate that the IceBridge products are capable of providing a reliable record of snow depth and sea ice thickness. We explore the impact of inter-campaign instrument changes and associated algorithm adaptations as well as the applicability of the adapted algorithms to the ongoing IceBridge mission. The uncertainties associated with the retrieval methods are determined and placed in the context of their impact on the retrieved sea ice thickness. Lastly, we present results for the 2009 and 2010 IceBridge campaigns, which are currently available in product form via the National Snow and Ice Data Center

  1. OPTIMIZATION OF THE OPERATING CONDITIONS FOR RHAMNOLIPID PRODUCTION USING SLAUGHTERHOUSE-GENERATED INDUSTRIAL FLOAT AS SUBSTRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. S. Borges

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBiosurfactants have a wide range of applications in emulsions, separations, and solubilization because these chemicals reduce the surface tension and viscosity of solutions. This work studied rhamnolipid production using a batch bioreactor with a working volume of 1.5 liters, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC (American Type Culture Collection 10145 strain, and the greasy effluent from the slaughter of poultry and pigs as the substrate. The main goal of this research was to evaluate the level of aeration, agitation speed and inoculum concentration using a Central Composite Design (CCD. Experimental conditions were selected using the surface response technique obtained from the CCD, and the results were validated to test the reproducibility. The following operating conditions were selected: 1.2 vvm level of aeration, 600 rpm agitation speed, and 1.0 g/L biomass inoculum concentration. Under these conditions, the following results were obtained: the rhamnose production, surface tension and emulsifying index were 5.37 g/L, 25.6 dyne/cm and 100%, respectively.

  2. 78 FR 59632 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-27

    ... proposed rulemaking on production safety systems on August 22, 2013 (78 FR 52240). The proposed rule would... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems AGENCY: Bureau of Safety...

  3. 78 FR 14361 - U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-05

    ... Employment and Training Administration U.S. Steel Tubular Products, Inc., Mckeesport Tubular Operations Division, Subsidiary of United States Steel Corporation, Mckeesport, PA; Notice of Initiation of...) filed on December 20, 2012 on behalf of workers of U.S. Steel Tubular Products, McKeesport...

  4. The Handling System of Product and Existence of Waste Components in Fishing Operation of Tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaruddin Mustaruddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling in fishing vessel is urgent to maintaining the quality of tuna products, while the existenceof waste components can bother the performance of fishing operations. The aims of this research are toevaluate the handling system of tuna products in fishing vessel and to analyze the influences of fishingoperation to the existence of waste components. This research methods are no control chart and regressionmodel approach. Research result shows that the handling system in the fishing operation of tuna in Bitungis not optimum. But the quality of tuna products which landed is still in controlled as shown by amountof rejecting products in UCL-LCL range (0 – 3,63 reject products/processing. The influence of amount oftuna caught per setting (X to existence of bait waste (Y formulated with model Y = - 1,176X+37.794, theinfluence of amount of tuna products (X to the existence of ices remained Y formulated with model Y =- 0,002X + 62,226, and also the influences of fishing operation which deputized by the amount of ABK (X1and number of operating days (X2 to the existence of freshwater remained (Y formulated with model Y= 50,000X1-23,704X2+288,889. The significant impacts are only the influence of amount of tuna productsin existence of ices remained (sigh = 0,036 and number of operating days of the existence of freshwaterremained (sigh = 0,037.Keywords: Bitung, waste components, handling system, tuna

  5. Assimilation of NASA MODIS Flood Mapping Product into Operational Flash Flood Warning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, A. J.; Georgakakos, K. P.; Shamir, E.

    2013-12-01

    Regional operational systems that support forecasters for the real-time warning of flash flood events have been implemented worldwide in the last decade. These systems provide hydrological and meteorological agencies the tools to make possible timely alerts and warnings for flash floods in small basins (area of order of 100 km2). The output of the model consists of indices that estimate the amount of rain of a certain duration that is needed over a given small basin in order to cause minor flooding (bankfull flow) at its outlet. These indices are adjusted and used with local available data and nowcast products by forecasters and enable the generation of prompt flash flood warnings and alerts. Soil moisture is the principal state variable in estimating the rainfall-runoff relationship in a given catchment. Antecedent soil moisture conditions directly impact the ability of additional precipitation to infiltrate, rather than becoming surface runoff. In the operational systems the focus is on the water balance over the flash-flood prone small watersheds. Backwater catchment inundation from swollen rivers or regional groundwater inputs is not significant over the spatial and temporal scales for the majority of the upland flash flood prone basins, and as such, these effects are not considered. However, some lowland areas and flat terrain near large rivers experience standing water long after local precipitation has ceased as a result of phenomena outside of local forcing. The NASA Office of Applied Science is producing an experimental product from the MODIS instrument on the Terra and Aqua satellites that detects standing water, beyond reference water, at a daily time interval and with a 250m resolution. This presentation discusses the potential utility of this product to adjust the soil water estimates of the operational systems for flash flood prone basins in low lying areas to improve local flash flood warnings. Given that a portion of the catchment area is inundated

  6. Operational readiness review plan for the radioisotope thermoelectric generator materials production tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, R.H.; Martin, M.M.; Riggs, C.R.; Beatty, R.L.; Ohriner, E.K.; Escher, R.N.

    1990-04-19

    In October 1989, a US shuttle lifted off from Cape Kennedy carrying the spacecraft Galileo on its mission to Jupiter. In November 1990, a second spacecraft, Ulysses, will be launched from Cape Kennedy with a mission to study the polar regions of the sun. The prime source of power for both spacecraft is a series of radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs), which use plutonium oxide (plutonia) as a heat source. Several of the key components in this power system are required to ensure the safety of both the public and the environment and were manufactured at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in the 1980 to 1983 period. For these two missions, Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc. (Energy Systems), will provide an iridium-alloy component used to contain the plutonia heat source and a carbon-composite material that serves as a thermal insulator. ORNL alone will continue to fabricate the carbon-composite material. Because of the importance to DOE that Energy Systems deliver these high-quality components on time, performance of an Operational Readiness Review (ORR) of these manufacturing activities is necessary. Energy Systems Policy GP-24 entitled Operational Readiness Process'' describes the formal and comprehensive process by which appropriate Energy Systems activities are to be reviewed to ensure their readiness. This Energy System policy is aimed at reducing the risks associated with mission success and requires a management-approved readiness plan'' to be issued. This document is the readiness plan for the RTG materials production tasks. 6 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Sympathetic cooling in a rubidium cesium mixture: Production of ultracold cesium atoms; Sympathetisches Kuehlen in einer Rubidium-Caesium-Mischung: Erzeugung ultrakalter Caesiumatome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, M.

    2007-07-01

    This thesis presents experiments for the production of ultracold rubidium cesium mixture in a magnetic trap. The long-termed aim of the experiment is the study of the interaction of few cesium atoms with a Bose-Einstein condensate of rubidium atoms. Especially by controlled variation of the cesium atom number the transition in the description of the interaction by concepts of the one-particle physics to the description by concepts of the many-particle physics shall be studied. The rubidium atoms are trapped in a magneto-optical trap (MOT) and from there reloaded into a magnetic trap. In this the rubidium atoms are stored in the state vertical stroke f=2,m{sub f}=2 right angle of the electronic ground state and evaporatively cooled by means of microwave-induced transitions into the state vertical stroke f=1,m{sub f}=1] (microwave cooling). The cesium atoms are also trppaed in a MOT and into the same magnetic trap reloaded, in which they are stored in the state vertical stroke f=4,m{sub f}=4 right angle of the electronic ground state together with rubidium. Because of the different hyperfine splitting only rubidium is evaporatively cooled, while cesium is cooled jointly sympathetically - i.e. by theramal contact via elastic collisions with rubidium atoms. The first two chapters contain a description of interatomic interactions in ultracold gases as well as a short summary of theoretical concepts in the description of Bose-Einstein condensates. The chapters 3 and 4 contain a short presentation of the methods applied in the experiment for the production of ultracold gases as well as the experimental arrangement; especially in the framework of this thesis a new coil system has been designed, which offers in view of future experiments additionally optical access for an optical trap. Additionally the fourth chapter contains an extensive description of the experimental cycle, which is applied in order to store rubidium and cesium atoms together into the magnetic trap. The

  8. Polarized atomic beams for targets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic principle of the production of polarized atomic hydrogen and deuterium beams are reviewed. The status of the present available polarization, density and intensity are presented. The improvement of atomic beam density by cooling the hydrogen atoms to low velocity is discussed. The possible use of polarized atomic beams as targets in storage rings is shown. It is proposed that polarized atomic beams can be used to produce polarized gas targets with high polarization and greatly improved density

  9. Dimer-atom-atom recombination in the universal four-boson system

    OpenAIRE

    Deltuva, A

    2012-01-01

    The dimer-atom-atom recombination process in the system of four identical bosons with resonant interactions is studied. The description uses the exact Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas equations for the four-particle transition operators that are solved in the momentum-space framework. The dimer-dimer and atom-trimer channel contributions to the ultracold dimer-atom-atom recombination rate are calculated. The dimer-atom-atom recombination rate greatly exceeds the three-atom recombination rate.

  10. The Handling System of Product and Existence of Waste Components in Fishing Operation of Tuna in Bitung, North Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustaruddin

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Handling in fishing vessel is urgent to maintaining the quality of tuna products, while the existence of waste components can bother the performance of fishing operations. The aims of this research are to evaluate the handling system of tuna products in fishing vessel and to analyze the influences of fishing operation to the existence of waste components. This research methods are no control chart and regression model approach. Research result shows that the handling system in the fishing operation of tuna in Bitung is not optimum. But the quality of tuna products which landed is still in controlled as shown by amount of rejecting products in UCL-LCL range (0 – 3,63 reject products/processing. The influence of amount of tuna caught per setting (X to existence of bait waste (Y formulated with model Y = - 1,176X+37.794, the influence of amount of tuna products (X to the existence of ices remained Y formulated with model Y = - 0,002X + 62,226, and also the influences of fishing operation which deputized by the amount of ABK (X1 and number of operating days (X2 to the existence of freshwater remained (Y formulated with model Y = 50,000X1-23,704X2+288,889. The significant impacts are only the influence of amount of tuna products in existence of ices remained (sigh = 0,036 and number of operating days of the existence of freshwater remained (sigh = 0,037.

  11. Atom Chips

    CERN Document Server

    Folman, R; Cassettari, D; Hessmo, B; Maier, T; Schmiedmayer, J; Folman, Ron; Krüger, Peter; Cassettari, Donatella; Hessmo, Björn; Maier, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    Atoms can be trapped and guided using nano-fabricated wires on surfaces, achieving the scales required by quantum information proposals. These Atom Chips form the basis for robust and widespread applications of cold atoms ranging from atom optics to fundamental questions in mesoscopic physics, and possibly quantum information systems.

  12. Production of Briquetted Biomass Fuels Using a hand Operated Circular Piston Press Briquetter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research has shown that, the future of fossil based fuel is uncertain. Most of the developing countries have concentrated most on traditional fuels such as firewood and charcoal leading to over exploitation of available wood resources. The most appropriate technology for such recovery is simple briquetting. The objective of this study were to design and construct a circular and hand operated briquetter and determine the properties of the briquettes produced. A circular piston press was designed and fabricated. The materials used were; a circular steel plate 92 cm in diameter 10 mm thick, three circular steel plates 92 cm diameter 6 mm, fifty eight pipes 4 cm diameter and 8 cm long with similar fifty eight pipes 3.8 cm diameter 10 long, a square threaded screw 1.5 m long, a 10 mm diameter nut and two nut bearings. Charcoal fines and clay soil soil were used as energy and binder materials respectively. The binder and charcoal fines were mixed in a ratio of 1:20 by weight, poured into the moulds and they were then spread uniformly. The pressing was done by screwing the pistons downwards. After maximum pressure was applied, the formula P=w xr tan (A+ +)/12. Using the depth, the wet density and work done were determined. The production level was calculated followed by the determination of the cost of production after which the machine profitability was was calculated. The maximum pressure obtained was 197.5Nmm-2. Average depth obtained was 6.685 cm. The wet density varied from 1.47 gcm-3 at the machine centre to 1.44gcm3 at the periphery with an average work done per piston being 57.86 N. cm. The dry density varied from 0.96gcm-3 at the centre to 0.94 gcm-3 at the periphery resulting to the average density of 0.954. The machine produced 55.68 bags each of 35 kg per month with a payback period of 8 months. Statistical package (SPSS) showed no significant difference between dry density and work done per hole. However there was significant differences in depth and wet

  13. Operation of the joint panel on occupational and environmental research for uranium production in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Joint Panel, formed in 1976, is a Canadian organization (composed of federal and provincial government departments and agencies, uranium mining companies, labour unions, and non-profit research institutions) whose members have voluntarily agreed to share information regarding planned, ongoing and completed research on the effects of uranium (and thorium) production on the radiological health and safety of workers and on the environment. The objectives of the Joint Panel are: the identification of areas (within its purview of interest) where research is required; the stimulation of research in areas where the needs have been identified; the dissemination of subsequent research results; and, the avoidance of unnecessary duplication in research activities. The operation of this unique organization permits a free and open discussion of a wide variety of research activities, draws upon its member institutions to form working groups for the preparation of technical documents, and complements its more formal business sessions with technical presentations on topics of current interest. Copies of reports of completed research are maintained by a secretariat, which also issues the minutes of all meetings as well as the annual reports

  14. The Operator Product Expansion Beyond Leading Order for Spin-1/2 Fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Samuel; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

    2016-05-01

    Strongly interacting systems of ultracold, two-component fermions have been studied using various techniques for many years. One technique that has been applied is a quantum field theoretical formulation of the zero-range model. In this framework, the Operator Product Expansion was used to derive universal relations for systems with a large scattering length. This corroborated and extended the work of Tan. We calculate finite range corrections to the momentum distribution using the OPE framework and demonstrate the utility of including the 1 /k6 tail from the OPE for the momentum distribution. Corrections to the universal relations for the system are calculated and expressed in terms of the S-wave effective range and an additional quantity D similar to Tan's contact which, in addition to the contact, relates various physical observables. We compare our results with quantum Monte Carlo calculations for the two-component Fermi gas with large scattering length. NSF Grant No. PHY-1516077; U.S. DOE Office of Science, Office of Nuclear Physics Contract Nos. DE-AC52-06NA25396, DE-AC05-00OR22725, an Early Career Research Award; LANL/LDRD Program.

  15. The Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation Experiment: Perspective from Classical Vectors, Nonclassical Vectors, and Product Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen de la Vega-Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is usually accepted that most 2D-NMR experiments cannot be approached using classical models. Instructors argue that Product Operators (PO or density matrix formalisms are the only alternative to get insights into complex spin evolution for experiments involving Multiple-Quantum Coherence, such as the Heteronuclear Multiple-Quantum Correlation (HMQC technique. Nevertheless, in recent years, several contributions have been published to provide vectorial descriptions for the HMQC taking PO formalism as the starting point. In this work we provide a graphical representation of the HMQC experiment, taking the basic elements of Bloch’s vector model as building blocks. This description bears an intuitive and comfortable understanding of spin evolution during the pulse sequence, for those who are novice in 2D-NMR. Finally, this classical vectorial depiction is tested against the PO formalism and nonclassical vectors, conveying the didactic advantage of shedding light on a single phenomenon from different perspectives. This comparative approach could be useful to introduce PO and nonclassical vectors for advanced upper-division undergraduate and graduate education.

  16. Operator product expansion beyond leading order for two-component fermions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emmons, Samuel B.; Kang, Daekyoung; Platter, Lucas

    2016-10-01

    We consider a homogeneous, balanced gas of strongly interacting fermions in two spin states interacting through a large scattering length. Finite-range corrections are needed for a quantitative description of data which experiments and numerical simulations have provided. We use a perturbative field-theoretical framework and a tool called the operator product expansion (OPE), which together allow for the expression of finite-range corrections to the universal relations and momentum distribution. By using the OPE, we derive the 1 /k6 part of the momentum tail, which is related to the sum of the derivative of the energy with respect to the finite range and the averaged kinetic energy of opposite spin pairs. By comparing the 1 /k4 term and the 1 /k6 correction in the momentum distribution to provided quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data, we show that including the 1 /k6 part offers marked improvements. Our field-theoretical approach allows for a clear understanding of the role of the scattering length and finite effective range in the universal relations and the momentum distribution.

  17. The operation, products and promotion of waterpipe businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudrey, P J; Jasie, K A; Pykalo, L; Singer, S T; Woodin, M B; Sherman, S

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the customers, operations, products and advertising of these businesses to explore the unique policy challenges created by the suppliers of waterpipes. We completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of structured site observations and in-person interviews of businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai identified using Google, Yelp, Timeout Dubai and Timeout Abu Dhabi and neighbourhood visits in 2014. Regular customers made up 59% of customers. Franchises or chains were 28% of businesses. Waterpipes made up 39% of sales with 87% of businesses offering food within their menu. Flavoured tobacco made up 94% of sales. Discounts were offered by 47% of businesses and 94% of businesses used advertising, often through social media. The market consists of largely independent businesses, with a large regular customer base, frequently offering diversified services beyond waterpipes. These businesses advertise using both traditional and social media. The economics of waterpipe businesses is very different from the economics of cigarettes, and unique regulatory strategies are needed to control this epidemic. PMID:27432405

  18. The operation, products and promotion of waterpipe businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joudrey, P J; Jasie, K A; Pykalo, L; Singer, S T; Woodin, M B; Sherman, S

    2016-04-01

    We evaluated the customers, operations, products and advertising of these businesses to explore the unique policy challenges created by the suppliers of waterpipes. We completed a cross-sectional survey consisting of structured site observations and in-person interviews of businesses in New York City, Abu Dhabi and Dubai identified using Google, Yelp, Timeout Dubai and Timeout Abu Dhabi and neighbourhood visits in 2014. Regular customers made up 59% of customers. Franchises or chains were 28% of businesses. Waterpipes made up 39% of sales with 87% of businesses offering food within their menu. Flavoured tobacco made up 94% of sales. Discounts were offered by 47% of businesses and 94% of businesses used advertising, often through social media. The market consists of largely independent businesses, with a large regular customer base, frequently offering diversified services beyond waterpipes. These businesses advertise using both traditional and social media. The economics of waterpipe businesses is very different from the economics of cigarettes, and unique regulatory strategies are needed to control this epidemic.

  19. The Operator Product Expansion Beyond Leading Order for Two-Component Fermions

    CERN Document Server

    Emmons, Samuel B; Platter, Lucas

    2016-01-01

    We consider a homogeneous, balanced gas of strongly interacting fermions in two spin states interacting through a large scattering length. Finite range corrections are needed for a quantitative description of data which experiments and numerical simulations have provided. We use a perturbative field theoretical framework and a tool called the Operator Product Expansion (OPE), which together allow for the expression of finite range corrections to the universal relations and momentum distribution. Using the OPE, we derive the $1/k^6$ part of the momentum tail, which is related to the derivative of the energy with respect to the finite range. By comparing the $1/k^4$ term and the $1/k^6$ correction in the momentum distribution to provided Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) data, we show that including the $1/k^6$ part offers marked improvements. Our field theoretical approach allows for a clear understanding of the role of the scattering length and finite effective range in the universal relations and the momentum distri...

  20. Recovery of Fresh Water Resources from Desalination of Brine Produced During Oil and Gas Production Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David B. Burnett; Mustafa Siddiqui

    2006-12-29

    Management and disposal of produced water is one of the most important problems associated with oil and gas (O&G) production. O&G production operations generate large volumes of brine water along with the petroleum resource. Currently, produced water is treated as a waste and is not available for any beneficial purposes for the communities where oil and gas is produced. Produced water contains different contaminants that must be removed before it can be used for any beneficial surface applications. Arid areas like west Texas produce large amount of oil, but, at the same time, have a shortage of potable water. A multidisciplinary team headed by researchers from Texas A&M University has spent more than six years is developing advanced membrane filtration processes for treating oil field produced brines The government-industry cooperative joint venture has been managed by the Global Petroleum Research Institute (GPRI). The goal of the project has been to demonstrate that treatment of oil field waste water for re-use will reduce water handling costs by 50% or greater. Our work has included (1) integrating advanced materials into existing prototype units and (2) operating short and long-term field testing with full size process trains. Testing at A&M has allowed us to upgrade our existing units with improved pre-treatment oil removal techniques and new oil tolerant RO membranes. We have also been able to perform extended testing in 'field laboratories' to gather much needed extended run time data on filter salt rejection efficiency and plugging characteristics of the process train. The Program Report describes work to evaluate the technical and economical feasibility of treating produced water with a combination of different separation processes to obtain water of agricultural water quality standards. Experiments were done for the pretreatment of produced water using a new liquid-liquid centrifuge, organoclay and microfiltration and ultrafiltration membranes

  1. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs

  2. Environmental site description for a Uranium Atomic Vapor Laser Isotope Separation (U-AVLIS) production plant at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marmer, G.J.; Dunn, C.P.; Moeller, K.L.; Pfingston, J.M.; Policastro, A.J.; Yuen, C.R.; Cleland, J.H. (ed.)

    1991-09-01

    Uranium enrichment in the United States has utilized a diffusion process to preferentially enrich the U-235 isotope in the uranium product. The U-AVLIS process is based on electrostatic extraction of photoionized U-235 atoms from an atomic vapor stream created by electron-beam vaporization of uranium metal alloy. The U-235 atoms are ionized when precisely tuned laser light -- of appropriate power, spectral, and temporal characteristics -- illuminates the uranium vapor and selectively photoionizes the U-235 isotope. A programmatic document for use in screening DOE site to locate a U-AVLIS production plant was developed and implemented in two parts. The first part consisted of a series of screening analyses, based on exclusionary and other criteria, that identified a reasonable number of candidate sites. These sites were subjected to a more rigorous and detailed comparative analysis for the purpose of developing a short list of reasonable alternative sites for later environmental examination. This environmental site description (ESD) provides a detailed description of the PGDP site and vicinity suitable for use in an environmental impact statement (EIS). The report is based on existing literature, data collected at the site, and information collected by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) staff during a site visit. 65 refs., 15 tabs.

  3. Tool for assessing the intervention effect on milk production in an evolutionary operation setup

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stygar, Anna Helena; Krogh, Mogens; Østergaard, Søren;

    2016-01-01

    Modern dairy herds resemble factories. Cows, organized in production units, are manufacturing milk from many components (e.g. concentrates, silage). However, both production units and components can greatly differ between each other. Therefore, production optimization based on general recommendat......Modern dairy herds resemble factories. Cows, organized in production units, are manufacturing milk from many components (e.g. concentrates, silage). However, both production units and components can greatly differ between each other. Therefore, production optimization based on general...

  4. Multiphoton ionization of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper is devoted to the analysis of high intensity effects which result from multiphoton ionization of atoms in a high laser intensity, ranging from 1010 to 1015 W cm-2. Resonant multiphoton ionization of atoms, the production of multiply charged ions, and electron energy spectra, are all discussed. (U.K.)

  5. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity. PMID:23146658

  6. Assessment for Production and Operation Ability of Medium and Small-sized Enterprises Based on Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yu-hong; XU Jun; WANG Guan; ZENG Qi

    2006-01-01

    In order to improve production and operation ability of medium and small-sized enterprises, an assessment-index system of production and operation ability was proposed, and a corresponding assessment model was established based on BP neural network. The conjunction weights of the neural network were continuously modified from output layer to input layer in the process of neural network training to reduce the errors between the anticipated and actual outputs. The results from an example show that this method is reliable and feasible. The production and operation ability of an enterprise with assessed result of 0.833 is fairly powerful, and that with assessed result of 0.644 is average.

  7. Effects of operational factors on soluble microbial products in a carrier anaerobic baffled reactor treating dilute wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Huajun; HU Lifang; SHAN Dan; FANG Chengran; HE Yonghua; SHEN Dongsheng

    2008-01-01

    The effects of feed strength,hydraulic residence time(HRT),and operational temperatures on soluble microbial product(SMP) production were investigated,to gain insights into the production mechanism.A carrier anaerobic batfled reactor (CABR) treating dilute wastewater was operated under a wide range of operational conditions,namely,feed strengths of 300-600 mg/L,HRTs of 9-18 h,and temperatures of 10-28℃.Generally, SMP production increased with increasing feed strength and decreasing temperature.At high temperature (28℃),SMP production increased with decreasing HRT. As the temperature Was decreased to 18 and 10℃.the SMP production was at its peak for 12 h HRT Therefore,temperature could be an important determinant of SMP production along with HRT. A higher SMP to soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD) ratio Was found at high temperature and long HRT because of complete volatile fatty acid degradation.SMP accounted for 50%-75% of the SCOD in the last chamber of the CABR.As a secondary metabolite.some SMP could be consumed at lower feed strength.

  8. Production processes of fermented organic acids targeted around membrane operations: design of the concentration step by conventional electrodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Bailly, M; Roux-De Balmann, Hélène; Aimar, Pierre; Lutin, F.; Cheryan, M.

    2001-01-01

    Organic acids are increasingly used for various industrial applications. Their production is mainly achieved by fermentation. Precipitation or extraction stages, which generate big amount of effluents, are then traditionally used to get the acid in a suitable form. To lower the impact on the environment, the implementation of cleaner operations are investigated. In this context, a complete process targeted around membrane operations for clarification, concentration and conversionwas studied. ...

  9. IMPACTS OF PST ON OPTIMAL PRODUCTION AND MARKETING DECISIONS OF A GROW-FINISH HOG FARM OPERATION

    OpenAIRE

    Govindasamy, Ramu; Liu, Donald J.; Kliebenstein, James B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of PST on the optimal production/marketing decisions of a grow-finish hog farm operation. The analysis evaluates PST from three angles: the feed efficiency effect, the leaner meat price effect, and the aggregate-supply-induced price effect. When limited to the feed efficiency effect only, the primary response to the new technology is to increase the animal turnover rate of the operation. When the leaner meat price effect is also included, marketing weight increa...

  10. The operator product expansion between the 16 lowest higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changhyun; Kim, Man Hea

    2016-07-01

    Some of the operator product expansions (OPEs) between the lowest 16 higher spin currents of spins (1, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 3/2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) in an extension of the large N=4 linear superconformal algebra were constructed in N=4 superconformal coset SU(5)/SU(3) theory previously. In this paper, by rewriting these OPEs in the N=4 superspace developed by Schoutens (and other groups), the remaining undetermined OPEs in which the corresponding singular terms possess the composite fields with spins s =7/2, 4, 9/2, 5 are completely determined. Furthermore, by introducing arbitrary coefficients in front of the composite fields on the right-hand sides of the above complete 136 OPEs, reexpressing them in the N=2 superspace, and using the N=2 OPEs Mathematica package by Krivonos and Thielemans, the complete structures of the above OPEs with fixed coefficient functions are obtained with the help of various Jacobi identities. We then obtain ten N=2 super OPEs between the four N=2 higher spin currents denoted by (1, 3/2, 3/2, 2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), (3/2, 2, 2, 5/2), and (2, 5/2, 5/2, 3) (corresponding 136 OPEs in the component approach) in the N=4 superconformal coset SU(N+2)/SU(N) theory. Finally, we describe them as one single N=4 super OPE between the above 16 higher spin currents in the N=4 superspace. The fusion rule for this OPE contains the next 16 higher spin currents of spins of (2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 5/2, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 3, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 7/2, 4) in addition to the quadratic N=4 lowest higher spin multiplet and the large N=4 linear superconformal family of the identity operator. The various structure constants (fixed coefficient functions) appearing on the right-hand side of this OPE depend on N and the level k of the bosonic spin-1 affine Kac-Moody current. For convenience, the above 136 OPEs in the component approach for generic ( N, k) with simplified notation are given.

  11. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  12. Pickup Ion Production in the Global Heliosphere and Heliosheath and Their Diagnostics by Fluxes of Energetic Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.

    2015-12-01

    An anisotropic particle transport model, based on an expansion of a focused transport equation in Legendre polynomials, is used here as a tool to analyze the distributions of pickup ions (PUIs) in the heliosphere and heliosheath. A three-dimensional, MHD-kinetic model for flows of a thermal plasma, neutral atoms and PUIs has been developed. The preliminary results from our model are in qualitative agreement with observations made by New Horizons, Ulysses, Voyager 1 and 2. All-sky maps of energetic neutral atoms (ENA) fluxes with energies of about 0.2-6 keV based on our current PUI model are qualitatively similar to IBEX-Hi distributed ENA maps. Also, simulated spectra of ENA fluxes nearly match IBEX-Hi spectra of distributed ENA fluxes. It is demonstrated that preserving some pitch-angle information of the PUI distribution is important for correctly interpreting the data.

  13. Production of intense beams of mass-selected water cluster ions and theoretical study of atom-water interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Z P; Reinhard, P -G; Suraud, E; Bruny, G; Montano, C; Feil, S; Eden, S; Abdoul-Carime, H; Farizon, B; Farizon, M; Ouaskit, S; Maerk, T D

    2009-01-01

    The influences of water molecules surrounding biological molecules during irradiation with heavy particles (atoms,ions) are currently a major subject in radiation science on a molecular level. In order to elucidate the underlying complex reaction mechanisms we have initiated a joint experimental and theoretical investigation with the aim to make direct comparisons between experimental and theoretical results. As a first step, studies of collisions of a water molecule with a neutral projectile (C atom) at high velocities (> 0.1 a.u.), and with a charged projectile (proton) at low velocities (< 0.1 a.u.) have been studied within the microscopic framework. In particular, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) was applied to the valence electrons and coupled non-adiabatically to Molecular dynamics (MD) for ionic cores. Complementary experimental developments have been carried out to study projectile interactions with accelerated (< 10 keV) and mass-selected cluster ions. The first size distributio...

  14. Effect of operating conditions and potassium content on Fischer-Tropsch liquid products produced by potassium-promoted iron catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Francisco E. M. Farias; Fernando G. Sales; Fabiano A. N. Fernandes

    2008-01-01

    The dependencies of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis liquid hydrocarbon product distribution on operating pressure and temperature have been studied over three potassium-promoted iron catalysts with increasing potassium molar content. The study followed an experimental planning and the results were analyzed based on surface response methodology. The effects of different operating conditions and potassium contents on the liquid product distribution were compared based on number average carbon number and dispersion. Results showed that high pressures (25 to 30 atm) favored the production of waxes that could be converted into liquid fuels through hydrocracking, while greater direct selectivity towards diesel was favored by low pressure (20 atm) using catalysts with low potassium to iron molar ratios. The liquid product distribution produced using an iron catalyst with high potassium content presented higher number-average number of carbons when compared to the distribution obtained using an iron catalyst with low potassium content.

  15. Integration and Visualization of Multiple Sensors in Generating the NOAA Operational Snow and Ice Cover Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, M.; Helfrich, S.

    2011-12-01

    Global snow and ice cover is a key component in the climate and hydrologic system as well as daily weather forecasting. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has produced a daily northern hemisphere snow and ice cover chart since 1997 through the Interactive Multisensor Snow and Ice Mapping System (IMS). The IMS integrates and visualizes a wide variety of satellite data, as well as derived snow/ice products and surface observations, to provide meteorologists with the ability to interactively prepare the daily northern hemisphere snow and ice cover chart. These products are presently used as operational inputs into several weather prediction models and are applied in climate monitoring. The IMS is currently on its second version (released in 2004) and scheduled to be upgraded to the third version (V3) in 2013. The IMS V3 will have nearly 40 external inputs as data sources processed by the IMS, which fall into five data formats: binary image, HDF file, GeoTIFF image, Shapefile image and ASCII file. With the exception of the GeoTIFF and Shapefile files, which are used directly by IMS, all other types of data are pre-processed to ENVI image file format and "sectorized" for different areas around the northern hemisphere. The IMS V3 will generate daily snow and ice cover maps in five formats: ASCII, ENVI, GeoTIFF, GIF and GRIB2 and three resolutions: 24km, 4km and 1km. In this presentation, the methods are discussed for accessing and processing satellite data, model results and surface reports. All input data with varying formats and resolutions are processed to a fixed projection. The visualization methodology for IMS are provided for five different resolutions of 48km, 24km, 8km, 4km, 2km and 1km. This work will facilitate the future enhancement of IMS, provide users with an understanding of the software architecture, provide a prospectus on future data sources, and help to preserve the integrity of the long-standing satellite-derived snow and ice

  16. Effects of operational parameters on dark fermentative hydrogen production from biodegradable complex waste biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Anish; Sposito, Fabio; Frunzo, Luigi; Trably, Eric; Escudié, Renaud; Pirozzi, Francesco; Lens, Piet N L; Esposito, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    This work aimed to investigate the effect of the initial pH, combination of food to microorganism ratio (F/M) and initial pH, substrate pre-treatment and different inoculum sources on the dark fermentative biohydrogen (H2) yields. Three model complex waste biomasses (food waste, olive mill wastewater (OMWW) and rice straw) were used to assess the effect of the aforementioned parameters. The effect of the initial pH between 4.5 and 7.0 was investigated in batch tests carried out with food waste. The highest H2 yields were shown at initial pH 4.5 (60.6 ± 9.0 mL H2/g VS) and pH 5.0 (50.7 ± 0.8 mL H2/g VS). Furthermore, tests carried out with F/M ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 at initial pH 5.0 and 6.5 revealed that a lower F/M ratio (0.5 and 1.0) favored the H2 production at an initial pH 5.0 compared to pH 6.5. Alkaline pre-treatment of raw rice straw using 4% and 8% NaOH at 55°C for 24h, increased the H2 yield by 26 and 57-fold, respectively. In the dark fermentation of OMWW, the H2 yield was doubled when heat-shock pre-treated activated sludge was used as inoculum in comparison to anaerobic sludge. Overall, this study shows that the application of different operating parameters to maximize the H2 yields strongly depends on the biodegradability of the substrate. PMID:26876775

  17. Factors in reliable treatment plant operation for the production of safe water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Bruce A

    2010-08-01

    This contribution to the International Congress on Production of Safe Water, Izmir, Turkey, 20-24 January, 2009, relates to general aspects of a water supply undertaking rather than to particular technologies or chemistries for water treatment. The paper offers a "creative problem solving" approach following Fogler and LeBlanc (Strategies for creative problem solving. Prentice Hall, NJ, 1995) as a model for generating sustainable solutions when water quality and safety problems arise. Such a structured approach presents a systematic methodology that can promote communication and goal-sharing across the inter-related, but often isolated and dispersed, functions of water scientists and researchers, engineers, operations managers, government departments and communities. A problem-solving strategy, or "heuristic", invokes five main steps (define; generate; decide; implement; evaluate). Associated with each step are various creative and enabling techniques, many of which are quite familiar to us in one form or another, but which we can use more effectively in combination and through our increased awareness and practice. For example, taking a fresh view of a problem can be promoted by a variety of "lateral thinking" tools. First-hand investigation of a problem can trigger new thinking about the real problem and its origins. A good strategy implementation will always address each and every step (though not necessarily every possible technique) and will use them at various stages in the search for and implementation of solutions. The creative nature of our experience with a problem-solving heuristic develops our facility to cope better with complex formal situations, as well as with less formal or everyday problem situations. A few anecdotes are presented that illustrate some of the author's experiences relating to factors involved in safe water supply. Here, the term "factors" may signify people and organisations as agents, as well as meaning those aspects of a problem

  18. Science verification of operational aerosol and cloud products for TROPOMI on Sentinel-5 precursor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lelli, Luca; Gimeno-Garcia, Sebastian; Sanders, Abram; Sneep, Maarten; Rozanov, Vladimir V.; Kokhanvosky, Alexander A.; Loyola, Diego; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    With the approaching launch of the Sentinel-5 precursor (S-5P) satellite, scheduled by mid 2016, one preparatory task of the L2 working group (composed by the Institute of Environmental Physics IUP Bremen, the Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute KNMI De Bilt, and the German Aerospace Center DLR Oberpfaffenhofen) has been the assessment of biases among aerosol and cloud products, that are going to be inferred by the respective algorithms from measurements of the platform's payload TROPOspheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI). The instrument will measure terrestrial radiance with varying moderate spectral resolutions from the ultraviolet throughout the shortwave infrared. Specifically, all the operational and verification algorithms involved in this comparison exploit the sensitivity of molecular oxygen absorption (the A-band, 755-775 nm, with a resolution of 0.54 nm) to changes in optical and geometrical parameters of tropospheric scattering layers. Therefore, aerosol layer height (ALH) and thickness (AOT), cloud top height (CTH), thickness (COT) and albedo (CA) are the targeted properties. First, the verification of these properties has been accomplished upon synchronisation of the respective forward radiative transfer models for a variety of atmospheric scenarios. Then, biases against independent techniques have been evaluated with real measurements of selected GOME-2 orbits. Global seasonal bias assessment has been carried out for CTH, CA and COT, whereas the verification of ALH and AOT is based on the analysis of the ash plume emitted by the icelandic volcanic eruption Eyjafjallajökull in May 2010 and selected dust scenes off the Saharan west coast sensed by SCIAMACHY in year 2009.

  19. Characterization of the flowing afterglows of an N2 O2 reduced-pressure discharge: setting the operating conditions to achieve a dominant late afterglow and correlating the NOβ UV intensity variation with the N and O atom densities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudam, M. K.; Saoudi, B.; Moisan, M.; Ricard, A.

    2007-03-01

    The flowing afterglow of an N2-O2 discharge in the 0.6-10 Torr range is examined in the perspective of achieving sterilization of medical devices (MDs) under conditions ensuring maximum UV intensity with minimum damage to polymer-based MDs. The early afterglow is shown to be responsible for creating strong erosion damage, requiring that the sterilizer be operated in a dominant late-afterglow mode. These two types of afterglow can be characterized by optical emission spectroscopy: the early afterglow is distinguished by an intense emission from the N_{2}^{+} 1st negative system (band head at 391.4 nm) while the late afterglow yields an overpopulation of the v' = 11 ro-vibrational level of the N2(B) state, indicating a reduced contribution from the early afterglow N2 metastable species. We have studied the influence of operating conditions (pressure, O2 content in the N2-O2 mixture, distance of the discharge from the entrance to the afterglow (sterilizer) chamber) in order to achieve a dominant late afterglow that also ensures maximum and almost uniform UV intensity in the sterilization chamber. As far as operating conditions are concerned, moving the plasma source sufficiently far from the chamber entrance is shown to be a practical means for significantly reducing the density of the characteristic species of the early afterglow. Using the NO titration method, we obtain the (absolute) densities of N and O atoms in the afterglow at the NO injection inlet, a few cm before the chamber entrance: the N atom density goes through a maximum at approximately 0.3-0.5% O2 and then decreases, while the O atom density increases regularly with the O2 percentage. The spatial variation of the N atom (relative) density in the chamber is obtained by recording the emission intensity from the 1st positive system at 580 nm: in the 2-5 Torr range, this density is quite uniform everywhere in the chamber. The (relative) densities of N and O atoms in the discharge are determined by using

  20. Research-to-operations (R2O) for the Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS) system-impact products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Stephen

    The Space Vehicles Directorate of the Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL/RVBX) and the Space Environment Branch of the Space and Missile Systems Center (SMC SLG/WMLE) have combined efforts to design, develop, test, implement, and validate numerical and graphical products for Air Force Space Command's (AFSPC) Space Environmental Effects Fusion System (SEEFS). These products are generated to analyze, specify, and forecast the effects of the near-earth space environment on Department of Defense weapons, navigation, communications, and surveillance systems. Jointly developed projects that have been completed as prototypes and are undergoing development for real-time operations include a SEEFS architecture and database, five system-impact products, and a high-level decision aid product. This first round of SEEFS products includes the Solar Radio Burst Effects (SoRBE) on radar and satellite communications, Radar Auroral Clutter (RAC), Scintillation Effects on radar and satellite communications (RadScint and SatScint), and Satellite Surface and Deep Charge/Discharge (Char/D) products. This presentation will provide overviews of the current system impact products, along with plans and potentials for future products expected for the SEEFS program. The overviews will include information on applicable research-to-operations (R2O) issues, to include input data coverage and quality control, output confidence levels, modeling standards, and validation efforts.

  1. Text of the agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the joint operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization concerning the Joint Operation of the International Centre for Theoretical Physics at Trieste is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 25 February 1993 and by the UNESCO General Conference on 16 November 1993

  2. Productivity and cost of harvesting a stemwood biomass product from integrated cut-to-length harvest operations in Australian Pinus radiata plantations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant quantities of woody biomass from the tops of trees and larger woody ‘waste’ pieces that fall outside existing sawlog and pulpwood specifications are left on site post final harvest in Australian radiata Pinus radiata (D. Don) (radiata pine) plantations. Woody biomass is a potential product for pulp making or energy generation. Commercial use of woody biomass from radiata pine plantations would add extra value to the Australian plantation estate through improved resource utilisation, and potentially reduced post-harvesting silvicultural costs. This study investigated the productivity and cost impact of the harvest and extraction to roadside of woody biomass in an integrated harvest operation in a typical Australian two machine (harvester/processor and forwarder), cut-to-length, clearfall operation in a mature, thinned radiata pine plantation. The harvest operation yielded 23 GMt/ha (5% of the total yield) of woody biomass (known as ‘fibreplus’), 443 GMt/ha of sawlogs and 28 GMt/ha of pulpwood. The mean quantity of biomass left on site was 128 GMt/ha, mainly consisting of branches and needles, sufficient to minimise nutrient loss and protect the soil from erosion. Woodchips derived from the fibreplus product were suitable for kraft pulp making, (when blended in small amounts with clean de-barked roundwood woodchips), and for energy generation. The method trialed with the fibreplus product being produced did not impact harvesting and processing productivity and costs, but extraction was 14% less productive. Through analysis of the productivities of each phase and development of a cost model the harvest and extraction of the fibreplus product was estimated to increase total unit costs by ∼4.9%. - Highlights: • Study of the productivity and cost impact of producing a woody biomass product. • We compared two scenarios – harvesting with and without the biomass product. • An additional 23 GMt/ha (5% of the total yield) of woody biomass

  3. An integrated model for product mix problem and scheduling considering overlapped operations

    OpenAIRE

    Seyed Amin Badri; Mehdi Ghazanfari; Ahmad Makui

    2014-01-01

    Product mix problem is one of the most important decisions made in production systems. Several algorithms have been developed to determine the product mix. Most of the previous works assume that all resources can perform, simultaneously and independently, which may lead to infeasibility of the schedule. In this paper, product mix problem and scheduling are considered, simultaneously. A new mixed-integer programming (MIP) model is proposed to formulate this problem. The proposed model differen...

  4. Strategic, operational, and marketing concerns of product-line management in health care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelman, W N; Parham, D L

    1990-01-01

    Product-line management is a specialist strategy that focuses on specific products and markets. This article presents a typology of organizational approaches to implementing such a strategy and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of each. Finally, the relationship of the control of marketing to product-line strategy and decentralization is discussed.

  5. Calculation of isotopic mass and energy production by a matrix operator method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Volterra method of the multiplicative integral is used to determine the isotopic density, mass, and energy production in linear systems. The solution method, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. The method allows a rapid accurate calculation of the change in isotopic density, mass, and energy production independent of the magnitude of the time steps, production or decay rates, or flux levels

  6. 78 FR 54417 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    ... Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1014-AA10 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations on the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Safety Systems Correction In proposed rule... hydrocarbons (i.e., natural gas, oil) that are produced, handled, stored, or processed at the facility. (B)...

  7. 75 FR 20271 - Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf-Oil and Gas Production...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-19

    ... Rulemaking (NPR) in the Federal Register (72 FR 9884). This NPR requested comments on proposed revisions to... Minerals Management Service 30 CFR Part 250 RIN 1010-AD12 Oil and Gas and Sulphur Operations in the Outer Continental Shelf--Oil and Gas Production Requirements AGENCY: Minerals Management Service (MMS),...

  8. Operational value of ensemble streamflow forecasts for hydropower production: A Canadian case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Marie-Amélie; Tremblay, Denis; Luc, Perreault; François, Anctil

    2010-05-01

    Ensemble and probabilistic forecasts have many advantages over deterministic ones, both in meteorology and hydrology (e.g. Krzysztofowicz, 2001). Mainly, they inform the user on the uncertainty linked to the forecast. It has been brought to attention that such additional information could lead to improved decision making (e.g. Wilks and Hamill, 1995; Mylne, 2002; Roulin, 2007), but very few studies concentrate on operational situations involving the use of such forecasts. In addition, many authors have demonstrated that ensemble forecasts outperform deterministic forecasts in terms of performance (e.g. Jaun et al., 2005; Velazquez et al., 2009; Laio and Tamea, 2007). However, such performance is mostly assessed on the basis of numerical scoring rules, which compare the forecasts to the observations, and seldom in terms of management gains. The proposed case study adopts an operational point of view, on the basis that a novel forecasting system has value only if it leads to increase monetary and societal gains (e.g. Murphy, 1994; Laio and Tamea, 2007). More specifically, Environment Canada operational ensemble precipitation forecasts are used to drive the HYDROTEL distributed hydrological model (Fortin et al., 1995), calibrated on the Gatineau watershed located in Québec, Canada. The resulting hydrological ensemble forecasts are then incorporated into Hydro-Québec SOHO stochastic management optimization tool that automatically search for optimal operation decisions for the all reservoirs and hydropower plants located on the basin. The timeline of the study is the fall season of year 2003. This period is especially relevant because of high precipitations that nearly caused a major spill, and forced the preventive evacuation of a portion of the population located near one of the dams. We show that the use of the ensemble forecasts would have reduced the occurrence of spills and flooding, which is of particular importance for dams located in populous area, and

  9. 29 CFR 784.107 - Relationship of employee's work to operations on the specified aquatic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relationship of employee's work to operations on the... the Two Exemptions § 784.107 Relationship of employee's work to operations on the specified aquatic... these descriptions is not within the exemptions (Fleming v. Hawkeye Pearl Button Co., 113 F. 2d...

  10. Effect of operational pH on biohydrogen production from food waste using anaerobic batch reactors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chaeyoung; Lee, Sewook; Han, Sun-Kee; Hwang, Sunjin

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the influence of operational pH on dark H(2) fermentation of food waste by employing anaerobic batch reactors. The highest maximum H(2) yield was 1.63 mol H(2)/mol hexoseadded at operational pH 5.3, whereas the lowest maximum H(2) yield was 0.88 mol H(2)/mol hexoseadded at operational pH 7.0. With decreasing operational pH values, the n-butyrate concentration tended to increase and the acetate concentration tended to decrease. The highest hydrogen conversion efficiency of 11.3% was obtained at operational pH 5.3, which was higher than that (8.3%) reported by a previous study (Kim et al. (2011) 'Effect of initial pH independent of operational pH on hydrogen fermentation of food waste', Bioresource Technology 102 (18), 8646-8652). The new result indicates that the dark fermentation of food waste was stable and efficient in this study. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) analysis showed that Clostridium species Cluster I accounted for 84.7 and 13.3% of total bacteria at operational pH 5.3 and pH 7.0, respectively, after 48 h operation.

  11. Atom chips

    CERN Document Server

    Reichel, Jakob

    2010-01-01

    This book provides a stimulating and multifaceted picture of a rapidly developing field. The first part reviews fundamentals of atom chip research in tutorial style, while subsequent parts focus on the topics of atom-surface interaction, coherence on atom chips, and possible future directions of atom chip research. The articles are written by leading researchers in the field in their characteristic and individual styles.

  12. Performance Analysis of a Manufacturing Line Operated under Optimal Surplus-Based Production Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Starkov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We examine optimality and performance of a tandem manufacturing line driven by a surplus-based decentralized production control strategy. The main objective of this type of production strategies is to guarantee that the cumulative number of produced products follows the cumulative production demand on the output of the given network. The basic idea of surplus-based control strategy is presented for the case of one manufacturing machine. We prove that this strategy is optimal. Then, a flow model of a line composed of arbitrarily many machines with bounded buffers is analyzed. We prove that the surplus-based production control enables this network to efficiently follow the product demand and establish the relation between the efficiency in the production tracking error and the intermediate inventory levels of a line. Performance and robustness of the flow model of the closed-loop manufacturing line are illustrated by computer simulations.

  13. Transition of Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) Data Products for Operational Weather Forecasting Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Matthew R.; Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Jedlovec, Gary J.

    2012-01-01

    SPoRT is a team of NASA/NOAA scientists focused on demonstrating the utility of NASA and future NOAA data and derived products on improving short-term weather forecasts. Work collaboratively with a suite of unique products and selected WFOs in an end-to-end transition activity. Stable funding from NASA and NOAA. Recognized by the science community as the "go to" place for transitioning experimental and research data to the operational weather community. Endorsed by NWS ESSD/SSD chiefs. Proven paradigm for transitioning satellite observations and modeling capabilities to operations (R2O). SPoRT s transition of NASA satellite instruments provides unique or higher resolution data products to complement the baseline suite of geostationary data available to forecasters. SPoRT s partnership with NWS WFOs provides them with unique imagery to support disaster response and local forecast challenges. SPoRT has years of proven experience in developing and transitioning research products to the operational weather community. SPoRT has begun work with CONUS and OCONUS WFOs to determine the best products for maximum benefit to forecasters. VIIRS has already proven to be another extremely powerful tool, enhancing forecasters ability to handle difficult forecasting situations.

  14. Computation of fission product distribution in core and primary circuit of a high temperature reactor during normal operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fission product release during normal operation from the core of a high temperature reactor is well known to be very low. A HTR-Modul-reactor with a reduced power of 170 MWth is examined under the aspect whether the contamination with Cs-137 as most important nuclide will be so low that a helium turbine in the primary circuit is possible. The program SPTRAN is the tool for the computations and siumlations of fission product transport in HTRs. The program initially developed for computations of accident events has been enlarged for computing the fission product transport under the conditions of normal operation. The theoretical basis, the used programs and data basis are presented followed by the results of the computations. These results are explained and discussed; moreover the consequences and future possibilities of development are shown. (orig./HP)

  15. Magnetic transport apparatus for the production of ultracold atomic gases in the vicinity of a dielectric surface

    CERN Document Server

    Haendel, S; Wiles, T P; Hopkins, S A; Cornish, S L

    2011-01-01

    We present an apparatus designed for studies of atom-surface interactions using quantum degenerate gases of $^{85}$Rb and $^{87}$Rb in the vicinity of a room temperature dielectric surface. The surface to be investigated is a super-polished face of a glass Dove prism mounted in a glass cell under ultra-high vacuum (UHV). To maintain excellent optical access to the region surrounding the surface magnetic transport is used to deliver ultracold atoms from a separate vacuum chamber housing the magneto-optical trap (MOT). We present a detailed description of the vacuum apparatus highlighting the novel design features; a low profile MOT chamber and the inclusion of an obstacle in the transport path. We report the characterization and optimization of the magnetic transport around the obstacle, achieving transport efficiencies of 70% with negligible heating. Finally we demonstrate the loading of a hybrid optical-magnetic trap with $^{87}$Rb and the creation of Bose-Einstein condensates via forced evaporative cooling ...

  16. Use and Storage of Test and Operations Data from the High Temperature Test Reactor Acquired by the US Government from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hans Gougar

    2010-02-01

    This document describes the use and storage of data from the High Temperature Test Reactor (HTTR) acquired from the Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) by the U.S. Government for high temperature reactor research under the Next Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP) Project.

  17. Structural and functional organization for radiological control and practical guide for radioactive sources control in operation and for emergencies at the Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission (CEEA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new structural organization for the regulation of radiation protection and the control of radiation sources is provided. It was established according with the strategic plan for 2000 of the Ecuadorian Atomic Energy Commission. Reference on the contains of the practical guidance for the control of radiation sources during normal and emergency situations is explained. (author)

  18. Core operational Sentinel-3 marine data product services as part of the Copernicus Space Component

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonekamp, Hans; Montagner, Francois; Santacesaria, Vincenzo; Nogueira Loddo, Carolina; Wannop, Sally; Tomazic, Igor; O'Carroll, Anne; Kwiatkowska, Ewa; Scharroo, Remko; Wilson, Hilary

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the marine data available from the Marine Centre, part of the Sentinel-3 Payload Data Ground Segment, located at the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT). The Marine Centre together with the existing EUMETSAT facilities provides a centralised operational service for operational oceanography. These descriptions of the marine data are produced with a focus on a user service perspective. They include the scientific and operational feedback mechanisms on the performance of the services as well as practical information and user support mechanisms.

  19. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  20. Operating Analysis of the Closed Supply Chain of Green Agricultural Products Based on Logistics Center

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Duo-hong; Li, Yu; Zhao, Hong-Xia; Zhang, Jiang-quan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis gives the overview of concept and constitution of the closed supply chain of green agricultural products on logistics center, and the necessity of regarding logistics center as core enterprises. Meanwhile, it analyzes the function of logistic center of agricultural products, namely functions of exchange, collection, distribution, storage and transportation. It also poses the prerequisites of logistics center. The logistics center of agricultural products must have stable profit ex...