WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic power station

  1. How dangerous are atomic power stations?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article takes a look at potential dangers presented by atomic power stations and measures taken to ensure safety. Since the accident in Chernobyl, atomic power stations represent, from the point of view of the general public, a considerable danger. The article analyses the actual risks presented by atom power stations and asks the question, if these risks can even be assessed. Basic considerations on the stability and safety of reactors are discussed. Safety precautions implemented for the world's first nuclear reactor in the USA are discussed. The various safety precautions taken for various types of reactor are examined in detail. Also, the dangers presented by emissions that occur during normal operation are examined. The danger of a nuclear meltdown caused by external factors such as earthquakes, fire, aircraft crashes and terrorist activity is discussed

  2. Atomic thermoelectric power stations of small capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the beginning of 90 years a competition among atomic power stations of small capacity 'ATPS SC-91' was conducted under the aegis of Russian Nuclear Society. More than 20 designs of atomic power stations of small capacity (ATPS SC) were presented at the competition by way of conversion developments of leading design and planning organizations of Russian Minatom. The preliminary analysis of ATPS SC showed their high competitiveness comparing to traditional power-suppliers in the remote Russian territories even if there were local energy resources. In Russia by order of 'Rosenergoatom' Concern the ATPS SC project is developed on the basis of a floating power unit (FPU) with KLT-40S RF.The stationary option of ATPS SC with KLT-40S RF was developed for the Republic of Kazakhstan.The options of the project optimization made afterwards by NNC RK specialists allowed to substantially reduce construction budget due to, first, the change of price policy, and, secondly, the use of a number of supporting buildings, structures and systems located on the prospective construction sites. In Russia the designs of floating ATPS SC are developed, at first, on the basis of ABV-6 reactor facilities

  3. Maintenance experience at Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rajasthan Atomic Power Station is a twin-unit station of the CANDU-PHW type with a nominal rating of 200 MW(e) net per unit and on-power refuelling capability. Unit-I became critical in August 1972 and was declared commercial in December 1973. Unit-II is in an advanced stage of construction. Maintenance and repairs of both the nuclear and conventional equipment are done during routine planning, breakdown outages, poison shutdown outages and planned annual shutdown periods. Yearly, a period of three to four weeks may be needed for carrying out major inspection and maintenance activity on large equipment such as the steam turbine, generator, main condenser, station transformer, primary coolant recirculation pumps, moderator pumps and fuelling machines. Preventive maintenance jobs are planned and executed in accessible areas daily as a matter of routine and during poison shutdown outages in inaccessible areas. This requires that the maintenance crews be more or less continually on the alert. In addition to gamma radiation, radiation doses due to tritium are encountered and pose special problems for the maintenance personnel. During the past two years (1972-74) it was found that there is a need, in the maintenance crews, for more specialists for various radioactive and conventional jobs. This paper outlines the significant nuclear and conventional maintenance activities as well as problems in maintenance encountered during the period 1972-74. (author)

  4. Beaver Valley Power Station and Shippingport Atomic Power Station. 1984 Annual environmental report, radiological. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Radiological Environmental Monitoring Program conducted during 1984 in the vicinity of the Beaver Valley Power Station and the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. The Radiological Environmental Program consists of on-site sampling of water and gaseous effluents and off-site monitoring of water, air, river sediments, soils, food pathway samples, and radiation levels in the vicinity of the site. This report discusses the results of this monitoring during 1984. The environmental program outlined in the Beaver Valley Power Station Technical Specifications was followed throughout 1984. The results of this environmental monitoring program show that Shippingport Atomic Power Station and Beaver Valley Power Station operations have not adversely affected the surrounding environment. 23 figs., 18 tabs

  5. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Contractor, A.D.; Lele, H.G.; Vaze, K.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Division; Srivastava, A.

    2015-03-15

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  6. Tarapur atomic power station: analysis of station blackout scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is currently operating two BWR built by General Electric Company. The design features of these reactors are similar to the Fukushima's BWR except some better containment features in Indian BWR. This paper discusses the enveloping scenario of station blackout of infinite duration with no operator action and no component failure. The paper describes the details of modelling the TAPS-BWR plant model including SCDAP modelling of reactor core in system code RELAP5 and further thermal hydraulic safety assessment of station blackout scenario. The analysis brought out effectively the response of the plant to this high-pressure severe accident scenario. The time line of the severe accident progression will give details of various stages of accident progression along with hydrogen generation, which will be useful in evolving suitable severe accident management guidelines.

  7. Radioactive waste management at Narora atomic power station in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modern society creates waste material, which have to be disposed of in nature without disturbing the ecological equilibrium. Hence effective waste management in all industries is a major concern today. Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) generates low and intermediate level liquid, solid and gaseous wastes during its operation and maintenance. The generation of wastes is controlled at the source itself. The wastes are managed by adequate and appropriate treatment before being released into the environment. Different types of liquid wastes are treated by chemical co-precipitation, ion exchange, evaporation, filtration, and dilution techniques. For handling and conditioning of solid wastes, volume reduction techniques such as incineration and baling are employed. The treated wastes are immobilised by incorporation into cement and polymer matrices. Gaseous waste is cleaned by passing through pre-filters and high efficiency particulate (HEPA) filters and diluted with inactive air prior to release to the atmosphere through a 145 m high stack to get further atmospheric dilution. Regular monitoring up to 30 km radius is carried out by fully equipped Environmental Survey and Micrometeorological Laboratory which functions independently under the Directorate of Health and Safety, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Mumbai. So far, the annual maximum dose to the public around NAPS is reported to be 0.2 to 0.3% of limit of 1 mSv/year recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP). A decade of experience has proved that present practices of nuclear waste management at Narora Atomic Power Station are quite safe and effective with respect to ecological equilibrium. (author)

  8. Environmental radiological surveillance in retrospect for Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental radiological surveillance carried-out at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) site since 1992 is described in the paper. The radiation exposure of members of the public is mainly due to intake of tritium by ingestion and inhalation and skin absorption routes. The gaseous effluent containing tritiated water vapours is discharged through 100 m stack and low level liquid effluent along with cooling tower blow down water is discharged into Moticher lake. The dose through gaseous route is one third of the dose through aquatic route at this site. The irrigation canal outflowing from Moticher lake carrying diluted aquatic releases flow through WSW sector only, so the ingestion dose is mainly in this sector and contribution in other remaining fifteen sectors is lower by a factor of 4 to 5. The highest annual dose due to tritium during the period even in 1.6 to 5 km zone is 2.3 uSv during 1997, which is only 0.8 % of dose limit of 300 uSv/year apportioned by the station. The concentration of biologically significant long lived radionuclides in diet components like milk, vegetables, cereals, pulses etc that are locally produced and consumed by the general public, are at global fallout levels. The station operation practically does not contribute in this vector. (author)

  9. Nuclear instrument upgrade at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 20 years of commercial operation, the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station decided to replace the original nuclear instrument system. The plant was motivated primarily by reliability and maintainability problems, the former attributed to equipment wearout and discrete component failure, and the latter to the unavailability of qualified spare parts, another effect of the equipment's age. In replacing the system, the plant also had to address current regulatory, design, and plant technical specification requirements, including physical separation, signal isolation, and changes in equipment qualification. This paper discusses the motivation for the system's replacement, the challenges to the plant engineers and equipment designers, the ways in which the new design met the challenges, the test results of the new system, and other potential benefits supported by the test results

  10. Containment venting analysis for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extent to which containment venting is an effective means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of overpressurization during severe accidents was evaluated for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (boiling water reactors with Mark I containments). Detailed analyses were conducted on operator performance, equipment performance, and the physical phenomenology for three severe accident sequences currently identified as being important contributors to risk. The results indicate that containment venting can be effective in reducing risk for several classes of severe accidents but, based on procedures in draft form and equipment in place at the time of the analyses, has limited potential for further reducing the risk for severe accidents currently identified as being important contributors to the risk for Peach Bottom

  11. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: removal of previously installed plugs; videoprobe inspection of failed areas; extraction of tube samples for further analysis; eddy current testing of selected tubes; evaluation of the condition of insurance plugged tubes for return to service; hydrostatic testing of selected tubes; final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should be solely relied upon in establishing: the extent of actual degraded conditions; the source(s) of failure mechanisms; and the details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life

  12. Plant life management experience at Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station, the longest serving Nuclear Power Plant in the Asian continent has completed 36 years of successful operation and generated more than 70 Billion units of electric power. Built in late sixties, with the state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS through the process of evolution has become much more safer plant due to efforts of upgradation, renovation and refurbishment prompted by the station's operating experience, feed back from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and fresh review of design basis and safety analysis of the plant. All components of a Nuclear power plant experience some degradation with time. The Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) designed for 40 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation have operated for less than 21 EFPY and the material condition is assessed to be fit for several more years of service. The condition of the containment and main plant buildings was assessed to be satisfactory. The Life Management Programme involved identification of key systems, structures and components (SSCs) that may experience degradation due to ageing, and take corrective measures through maintenance, repair and / or replacement. The identified components were classified as major critical components, important systems and other critical components. For each component mode of degradation was identified, ageing assessment was done and action plan was finalized. Replacement of some important equipment like 3X50% capacity Emergency Diesel Generators (EDG) with 3 X 100% capacity EDG, Salt Service Water (SSW) pumps, Control rod drive (CRD) pumps, Emergency Condenser tube bundles, Station battery has been done on the basis of condition monitoring and to obviate common cause failure and enhance the system reliability. Samples of Safety related cables were subjected to residual life assessment (RLA) and replacement action firmed up on the basis of the RLA findings. Condition survey of Main plant

  13. Environmental gamma radiation monitoring around Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station (T.A.P.S.) is located on the Arabian Sea coast and uses enriched uranium as fuel and seawater as condenser coolant. It is India's first nuclear power plant. It was initially constructed with two boiling water reactor (BWR) units of 210 MWe each. The capacity of units 1 and 2 was reduced to 160 MWe later on due to technical difficulties. Units 1 and 2 were brought online for commercial operation on October 28, 1969. Two Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) (units 3 and 4) of 540 MW each was brought online for commercial operation on August 18, 2006 and September 12, 2005 respectively. The Power Reactor Fuel Reprocessing Plant (PREFRE), which was commissioned in 1976, is located about 1.3 Km East of TAPS. Presently, Tarapur is a multifacility site. In addition to TAPS and PREFRE, Waste Immobilization Plant (WIP), Advanced Fuel Fabrication Facility (A3F), Away from Reactor (APR) fuel storage facility and Tarapur Radwaste treatment plant (TRAP) are operating at the site. At TAPS, gaseous effluents are discharged through 110 m stack to atmosphere. The results of environmental gamma monitoring programme carried out at the taps sites in terms of annual average dose to public is given in this paper

  14. Plant life management experience at Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The twin BWR reactors of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) are in their 38th year of successful operation and have generated more than 71 billion units of electric power. The plant has seen continuous evolution based on operating experience, feedback from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and fresh review of design basis and safety analysis of the plant due to efforts of upgradation, renovation and refurbishment. The Plant Life Management involved establishing an Ageing Management Programme (AMP). The AMP involved identification of key systems, structures and components (SSCs) that may experience degradation due to ageing, and take corrective measures through maintenance, repair and/or replacement. The identified components were identified as major critical components, important systems and other critical components. The components were further classified as not replaceable, difficult to replace and replaceable on routine basis. The various degradation mechanisms (Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), Intra Granular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC), Trans Granular Stress Corrosion Cracking (TGSCC), Erosion Corrosion (EC), Flow Accelerated Corrosion (FAC), Temperature, Pressure, Humidity, Radiation, etc.,) were identified for critical components, their method of detection, methodologies followed for In-Service inspection and developmental activities to assess the integrity of nuclear reactor vessels, piping and components for continued service. For each component mode of degradation was identified, ageing assessment was done and action plan was finalized. A comprehensive examination was carried out on Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) as part of plant ageing management programme

  15. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tritium activity was measured regularly around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) since gaseous waste which contains tritium is being released through a 100 m high stack at KAPS site. Data collected shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-19.9 Bq x m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples at the site boundary (1.6 km) of KAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10-7 - 2.9 x 10-7 s x m-3. The scavenging ratio of KAPS site was found to be varying from 0.4 x 104 to 16.7 x 104 (Bq x m-3 rain water per Bq x m-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from KAPS site was found to be 0.07 μSv x y-1. (author)

  16. Monitoring of atmospheric 3H around Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1 x 10-7-7.3 x 10-7 s m-3. The scavenging ratio of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2 x 104 to 14.1 x 104 (Bq m-3 rain water per Bq m-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be ranged from 0.08-0.21 μSv year-1. (author)

  17. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... (76 FR 37842). Based upon the environmental assessment, the Commission has determined that issuance of... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit 1, located in York County, PA. PBAPS Unit 1...

  18. Shippingport Atomic Power Station Operating Experience, Developments and Future Plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes and evaluates five years of operation and test of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station and discusses the current technical developments and future plans of the Shippingport programme. This programme is directed towards development of the basic technology of light-water reactors to provide the basis for potential reduction in the costs of nuclear power. The Shippingport reactor plant has operated for over five years and has been found to integrate readily into a utility system either as a base load or peak load unit. Plant component performance has been reliable. There have been no problems in contamination or waste disposal. Access to primary coolant components for maintenance has been good, demonstrating the integrity of fuel elements. Each of the three refuelling operations performed since start-up of Shippingport has required successively less time to accomplish. Recently, the third seed was refuelled in 32 working days, about one quarter the time required for the first refuelling. The formal requirements of personnel training, written administrative procedures, power plant manuals, etc., which have been a vital factor in the successful implementation of the Shippingport programme, are described. The results obtained from the comprehensive test programme carried out at Shippingport are compared with calculations, and good agreement has been obtained. Reactor core performance, plant stability, and response to load changes, fuel element and control rod performance, long-term effects such as corrosion and radiation level build-up, component performance, etc., are discussed in this paper. The principal objective of the current and future programmes of the Shippingport Project in advancing the basic technology of water-cooled reactors is discussed. This programme includes the continued operation of the Shippingport plant, and the development, design, manufacture and test operation of a long-life, highpower density second core - Core 2. At its

  19. Burning issue of energy problem after Fukushima disaster of TEPCO's atomic power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strikes of unanticipated enormous earthquake and subsequent tsunami brought unbelievable disaster in eastern Japan on March 11, 2012. In particular, collapse of cooling system of TEPCO's Fukushima atomic power stations resulted in IAEA-defined level7 accident including heavy radiation, hydrogen explosion -induced collapse of the building of power station No.2 and No.4 and melt through of nuclear pressure vessel No1.3.4 At an initial stage of the disaster, nobody knew precisely what happened at the power stations. According to the recent report of the national investigation committee, precise reason of the collapse of the cooling system whether it was induced by the strike of huge earthquake or tsunami is still unclear. Due to poor risk management of the government and TEPCO and closure of the precise disaster information, people became suspicious and nervous about the atomic power station. Fifty four atomic power stations have been constructed for these forty years in Japan. On last May 04, all the atomic power stations were shut down due to periodic inspection. However, restart of them became hot discussion. Although atomic power station was regarded as a powerful tool to reduce carbon dioxide several years ago, this situation after March 11 completely changed. In many countries which possess atomic power station, making a road map to develop recyclable energy is a burning issue. It should be noted that German spent about thirty years to declare atomic energy free society. Finally necessity of succession of technology of utilizing atomic power is emphasized. Politics on depending atomic power differs in each country. Therefore, study from Fukushima disaster should be widely used to prevent from unexpected accident of atomic power station.

  20. Feedwater heater life optimization at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many papers published over the last 15 years have strongly emphasized the need for an ongoing program of inspection and testing with subsequent failure cause analysis of feedwater heaters. With deregulation of the electric utility industry in various phases of implementation, utilities must decrease costs, both O ampersand M and capital, while optimizing plant efficiency. In order to accomplish this coal, utility engineers must monitor feedwater heater performance in order to recognize degradation, correct/eliminate failure mechanisms, and prevent in-service failures while optimizing availability. Periodic tube plugging without complete analysis of the degraded/failed area resolves the immediate need for return for service, however, heater life will not be graded/failed area resolves optimized. This paper illustrates a complete inspection, testing, and maintenance program implemented at PECO Energy's Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). Concerns that tubes may have been too conservatively plugged due to insufficient data justified a program that included: (1) Removal of previously installed plugs. (2) Videoprobe inspection of failed areas. (3) Extraction of tube samples for further analysis. (4) Eddy current testing of selected tubes. (5) Evaluation of the condition of open-quotes insuranceclose quotes plugged tubes for return to service. (6) Hydrostatic testing of selected tubes. (7) Final repair plan based on the results of the above program. This paper concludes that no single method of inspection or testing should solely be relied upon in establishing: (1) The extent of actual degraded conditions, (2) The source(s) of failure mechanisms, (3) The details of repair. It is a combination of all gathered data that affords the best chance in arresting problems and optimizing feedwater heater life

  1. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... Generation Company, LLC (Exelon, the licensee) for operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units...-level radioactive waste (LLRW) from Limerick Generating Station (LGS) in the Peach Bottom Atomic...

  2. On manual stop of No.1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No. 1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co., is a BWR plant with rated output of 357 MWe, and while it was operated at the rated output, the functional test on high pressure water injection system was carried out on January 5, 1990. After 10:00 a.m., the flow rate of the high pressure water injection system pump decreased suddenly, and the diesel engine driving the pump stopped automatically. As the result of checkup, damage was observed in the speed increasing gear connecting the diesel engine and the pump. It is considered that long time is required for the restoration, therefore, the lowering of power output was begun at 0:00 a.m., January 10, and the reactor was manually shut down at 8:00 a.m.. (K.I.)

  3. Performance of turbine auxiliaries and service systems at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of the turbine auxiliaries and service systems at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station, India are described. Some of the specific problems encountered in connection with the feed water, turbine governing and common services like compressed air, chilled water, water treatment and chlorination systems are outlined. (K.B.)

  4. PECO-Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station containment suppression chamber modification program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with modifications to the containment suppression chamber (Torus) at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. A brief description is given of the containment system and its function. The circumstances leading to the formation of the Mark I Owners' Group and the various investigations performed during the course of the program are described

  5. Intertidal ecology of the sea shore near Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surveys were carried out between March 1969 and August 1970 to study the fauna and flora in the littoral zone of the sea shore near the Tarapur Atomic Power Station. The beach adjacent to the Station is rocky with a number of tidal pools inhabited by a variety of organisms whereas the beach to the south is mostly sandy and barren except for a small rocky stretch. The tidal range is 6 m and over a mile of beach is exposed during low tide. The near shore currents are very strong and have a clear northsouth oscillation with the changing tides. Less Atherina sp. fry were available near the Power Station in March 1970 than during the previous year. Possible reasons for these differences are discussed, including the effect of heated discharges on biota. The need is also emphasized to monitor the biota (Plankton, Nekton and Benthos) systematically for content of fission products released by the Power Station. (auth.)

  6. Decontamination and decommissioning of the Shippingport Atomic Power Station - a retrospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 72 MW Shippingport Atomic Power Station (SAPS) first achieved criticality in December 1957 and was operated thereafter for almost 25 years. During the period October 1984 to December 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) carried out the Shippingport Decommissioning Project, marking the world's first commercial sized nuclear power plant decommissioning. The experience gained from this project established the foundation for engineering, planning, and cost estimating for future decommissioning projects

  7. 76 FR 25378 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... December 14, 2010 (75 FR 77913). However, by letter dated April 26, 2011, the licensee withdrew the... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and... Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and 3, located...

  8. 75 FR 58445 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Environmental... operation of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Unit Nos. 2 and 3, located in York and...

  9. 75 FR 6071 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 20744). However, by letter dated January 19, 2010, the licensee withdrew the proposed... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56 for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS), Units 2 and...

  10. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1991--1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the period 1991 through 1994 and is the fifth in a series reporting monitoring results initiated at PBAPS in 1979

  11. Allowable Residual Contamination Levels in soil for decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station, a fundamental concern is the determination of Allowable Residual Contamination Levels (ARCL) for radionuclides in the soil at the site. The ARCL method described in this report is based on a scenario/exposure-pathway analysis and compliance with an annual dose limit for unrestricted use of the land after decommissioning. In addition to naturally occurring radionuclides and fallout from weapons testing, soil contamination could potentially come from five other sources. These include operation of the Shippingport Station as a pressurized water reactor, operations of the Shippingport Station as a light-water breeder, operation of the nearby Beaver Valley reactors, releases during decommissioning, and operation of other nearby industries, including the Bruce-Mansfield coal-fired power plants. ARCL values are presented for 29 individual radionculides and a worksheet is provided so that ARCL values can be determined for any mixture of the individual radionuclides for any annual dose limit selected. In addition, a worksheet is provided for calculating present time soil concentration value that will decay to the ARCL values after any selected period of time, such as would occur during a period of restricted access. The ARCL results are presented for both unconfined (surface) and confined (subsurface) soil contamination. The ARCL method and results described in this report provide a flexible means of determining unrestricted-use site release conditions after decommissioning the Shippingport Atomic Power Station

  12. Refurbishment and replacement efforts to mitigate ageing at Tarapur Atomic Power Station - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) - a twin Boiling Water Reactor unit and India's first Atomic Power Station was commissioned in April 1969, and was declared commercial in November 1969. Since then the light water moderated, low enriched uranium BWR with its demonstrated reliability and favourable economics is playing a vital role as a reliable source of power for the states of Maharashtra and Gujarat. The Power Station played a key role as a technology demonstrator validating the nuclear energy as safe and environmentally benign and economically viable alternate source of power generation in India. Built in the late sixties with state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS has further evolved to be a safe plant with renovation and refurbishment efforts. Ageing Management Programme is in place at TAPS. Identification of systems, structures and components (SSCs) important to safety and availability, assessment of ageing degradation of these SSCs and mitigation through repair, replacement and refurbishment based on the investigations have enhanced the plant safety and reliability. The station's operating experience and feedback from BWRs operating abroad have also given inputs to Ageing Management Programme. A good number of major equipment have been replaced to mitigate ageing. Primary system piping, process heat exchangers, feed water heaters, turbine extraction system piping, turbine blades, emergency condenser tube bundles, various pumps, station batteries, electrical cables, circuit breakers etc. are some of them. Obsolescence is another aspect of ageing of a plant. Replacement of obsolete equipment and components particularly in C and I is another area where much headway has been made. Replacement and refurbishment of equipment have been done after detailed study and analysis so that current standards are met. Retrofitting the indigenously developed and fabricated equipment in a compact plant like TAPS was a difficult task and required lot of

  13. Efforts to control occupational radiation exposure at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station-1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Station collective dose at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station -1 and 2 was high compared to other new generation Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs). Due to aging of the plant, system radiation levels and radioactivity of the system heavy water have been increasing. In addition maintenance has also increased. Various efforts were initiated to keep the occupational exposures As Low As Reasonably Achievable (ALARA). A number of ways were identified to reduce the radiation levels and collective doses. Important among them were administrative control, indigenous way of shielding, system decontamination, system modification, training, mock-up and pre job briefing. Previous operating experiences, ALARA review, increased radiation protection surveillance, emphasis on use of personnel protective equipment's, good housekeeping and ventilation improvement have also helped in reduction of station collective dose. (author)

  14. Experience and improvements in performance of condensers of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condenser Cooling Water system of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station is Open Recirculating type. Water is cooled by Natural Draft Cooling Tower with Langelier's Index showing scaling tendency of water. During Unit operation condenser vacuum was dropping gradually and it was not possible to operate plant at full power. Experiments and investigations revealed that hard-adherent calcium-carbonate scale deposition was the main cause for this. Mechanical hydro jet cleaning, chemical descaling of condenser tubes and organophosphonate based continuous cooling water treatment improved the condenser performance and desired out put. (author)

  15. On-line occupational dose data management using computer software programme at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Software package for On-line Occupational Dose Control and Direct Reading Dosimeter Issue/Return has been developed and made operational at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station for the first time on round-the-clock basis. It covers almost all the aspects of dose management in a Nuclear Power Plant viz. information on latest dose status of radiation workers, updating of dose files, Direct Reading Dosimeter (DRD), issue and return, date wise dose history of an individual, outstanding DRD list, monthly DRD dose report, job wise and section wise manrem report, internal dose calculation due to tritium uptake etc. The package has considerably reduced work load in Shift Health Physics Office by providing instantaneous information about dose status of a radiation worker. It has eliminated manual addition of doses for a large number of radiation workers. On-line availability of up-to-date dose status of each radiation worker has been very effective in exposure control at the station. (author)

  16. The new generation of nuclear power stations. A new trend in atomic power?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the author, all options for future power supply should be followed, including atomic power provided that it can be made technically safe and treated with a maximum safety culture. On the one hand, power supply is an elementary human need, deciding on public welfare, economic development and technical progress. On the other hand, there is an impending shortage of power owing to depletion of resources and the emergence of new industrialized nations especially in south east Asia. For this reason, all options should be considered, from renewable energy sources to coal and nuclear power. (orig.)

  17. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption 1... Operating License Nos. DPR-44 and DPR-56, which authorizes operation of the Peach Bottom Atomic Power... hereafter in effect. The facility consists of two boiling-water reactors located partly in Peach...

  18. Features of a choice of radiating shielding for planet atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of analytical studies aimed at choosing a radiation shielding for planet atomic power stations (APS) are presented. The shielding based on thermoemission reactor of space nuclear power system YaEhU-100, its thermal power 0.4-1.5 MW, was considered for a Martian APS, the YaEhU-25, -50, its thermal power 0.36 and 0.6 MW, respectively, being intended for the Lunar one. The weight-dimensional characteristics of the radiation shielding for diverse methods of APS arrangement on the planet, i.e. either directly on the surface with imported shielding, or with a diking made of local ground, or in a preliminarily prepared shaft, were obtained

  19. Seismic margin review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station: Fragility analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Fragility Analysis is the third of three volumes for the Seismic Margin Review of the Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station. Volume 1 is the Summary Report of the first trial seismic margin review. Volume 2, Systems Analysis, documents the results of the systems screening for the review. The three volumes are part of the Seismic Margins Program initiated in 1984 by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) to quantify seismic margins at nuclear power plants. The overall objectives of the trial review are to assess the seismic margins of a particular pressurized water reactor, and to test the adequacy of this review approach, quantification techniques, and guidelines for performing the review. Results from the trial review will be used to revise the seismic margin methodology and guidelines so that the NRC and industry can readily apply them to assess the inherent quantitative seismic capacity of nuclear power plants

  20. Safety upgradation at Tarapur Atomic Power Station 1 and 2 after Fukushima Daiichi experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS), one of the the longest serving Nuclear Power Plant in world has completed 44 years of successful operation and generated more than 85 Billion Units of electric power. Built in late sixties, with the state-of-the-art safety features prevailing then, TAPS through the process of evolution has become much more safer plant due to upgradation, renovation and refurbishment prompted by the station's operating experience, feed back from overseas reactors, lessons learnt from nuclear incidents, accidents and regular reviews of design basis and safety analysis. TAPS Reactor Pressure Vessels (RPV) are designed for 40 effective full power years (EFPY) of operation. So far, the reactors have operated for less than 27 EFPY and the material condition is assessed to be fit for several more years of service. The condition of the containment and main plant buildings was assessed to be satisfactory. The Life Management programme of the system, structures and components is in place to ensure that integrity and functional capability are maintained at par with current standards of safety throughout the service life of the plant. The consistent high performance of the plant and continuous stability in operation indicates its ability to continue in operation for many more years. Engineering work is in final stage for Containment Filterted Venting System and site work will soon start for Containment Pre Inerting System. This paper highlights the details of above efforts taken at TAPS 1 and 2, Post Fukushima Daiichi Incident

  1. Shippingport Atomic Power Station steam generator tube damage and water chemistry control (1965--1975)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The four stainless steel tubed steam generators in the Shippingport Atomic Power Station were replaced in 1964 with larger, horizontal, NiCrFe Alloy 600 tubed units consistent with a power uprating of the plant. Each of the four Alloy 600 tubed units experienced tube leakage attributed to corrosion by water treatment chemicals (sodium phosphates) which concentrated locally on the tubes in inadequately flushed crevices. Corrective and preventive actions include tube plugging, flow blockage, conversion to all-volatile (hydrazine-morpholine) chemistry and replacement of the two steam generators with the straight tube design. Eddy current inspection after four years of all-volatile chemistry use showed a diminished rate of crevice corrosion and no tube denting

  2. Spare parts management at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) [Paper No.: I-12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spare parts management at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station is explained. TAPS is the only BWR type station in this part of Asia, therefore, amongst the nuclear plants of this region, formation of industry level pool of spares has not been possible. Efforts for indigenisation of spare parts manufacture have not been satisfactory. Reasons are: (1) quantity and number of certain spares required are few, but development work involved for their manufacture is considerable; this does not hold any incentive for intending manufacturer, (2) performance of manufacturers in maintaining quality of supplies is poor, and (3) time schedules for delivery are not adhered to. Spares, therefore, have to be bought from outside sources and a long lead time is involved in their procurement. In case of items located in radiation areas, spares cannot be reconditioned. All these factors have led to follow a liberal policy inventory management in order to avoid stock-out situations for spares which may affect power generation. Other aspects of spare parts management which are discussed include preservation technique, storage hygiene, stock verification of spares, codification of spares. Cost monitoring and recording system are also briefly dealt with. (M.G.B.)

  3. Replacement and upgrade of nuclear instruments at Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After 22 years of commercial operation, the Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Station replaced the original Nuclear Instrument System. The plant was motivated primarily by reliability and maintainability problems, the former attributed to equipment wearout and discrete component failure, and the latter to the unavailability of qualified spare parts, another effect of the equipment's age. In replacing the system, the plant also had to address current regulatory, design, and plant technical specification requirements, including physical separation, signal isolation, and changes in equipment qualification. Many of these new requirements resulted in additional equipment compared with that installed initially. Fitting a new system meeting these requirements into the relatively small space available presented several challenges. This paper discusses the motivation for the system's replacement, the challenges to the plant engineers and equipment designers, the ways in which the design met the challenges, and the initial operating experience with the system

  4. Control rod guide tube hold on device modification in Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seven dummy fuel bundles were seen floating above the core of one of the reactors of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station, when the dryer-separator assembly was removed following the first refuelling outage. The incident is reported and the modifications carried out to the hold down device of the guide tubes on which the dummy fuel bundles rest are described. The lifting of the dummy fuel bundles was due to an upward displacement of guide tubes on which they rested. Various modifications considered were : (1) simulated fuel bundle weights fabricated from zincaloy, (2) thermal sleeve rotation prevented by the key, (3) guide tube hold down by means of a tie bolt and (4) thermal sleeve anti-rotation device. The last modification was found to satisfy most of the criteria selected for the modification. An account of how the modification was carried out is also given. (M.G.B.)

  5. Analysis of containment venting for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effectiveness of containment venting as a means of preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents was evaluated for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). Results from this evaluation indicate that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment failure is highly dependent on the severe accident sequence. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks in the containment and transients with a failure of containment heat removal. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with several sequences currently identified as significant contributors to risk. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction were identified, but their influence on risk was not analyzed

  6. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed

  7. Analysis of containment venting at the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analysis of the extent to which containment venting would be effective in preventing or mitigating the consequences of severe accidents has been completed for the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (BWR-4s with Mark I containments). The analysis indicates that the effectiveness of venting in preventing containment overpressurization highly depends on the sequence of the severe accident. Containment venting can be effective for several classes of sequences, including transients with failure of long-term decay heat removal and loss-of-coolant accidents with breaks inside the containment. However, based on draft procedures and equipment in place at the time of the evaluation, containment venting has limited potential for further reducing the risk associated with three severe accident sequences currently identified as important risk contributors at Peach Bottom. Means of improving the potential for risk reduction is identified, but their influence on risk is not analyzed

  8. Thermal plume behaviour in the Kalpakkam coast in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam consists of two Pressurised Heavy Water Reactor units, which use the seawater drawn from the Bay of Bengal for once through condenser cooling. As a part of thermal ecology investigations, seasonal monitoring studies were done by carrying out monthly boat cruises in the Kalpakkam coast. The thermal effluent discharged from the power plant travels as a canal (formed due to natural sand bar formation) before mixing with the sea. During the cruises both vertical and horizontal distribution of temperature in the vicinity of the power plant outfall and mixing zone were studied using temperature probes. The ambient sea surface temperature varied between 27 and 32 deg C. The boat cruises covered an area of 2.5 km2 and in this region the sea surface temperature ranged from 28 to 34 deg C. Heated water discharged did not contribute to any increase in temperature below a depth of 2m. The area occupied by the thermal plume was estimated to be about 1.3 sq. km. The plume movement was found to be dependent on the seasonal current variations. A ship cruise also was undertaken to study the temperature distribution and other parameters covering a larger area(∼ 4 sq. km). (author)

  9. Estimation of activity in radioactive solid waste at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station- 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the present regulatory norms, it is required that any radioactive solid waste should be labeled for activity content and radionuclide composition in it. An easy method for this purpose is to measure the radiation field at a fixed distance from the waste package and convert it to the activity content by applying suitable predetermined conversion factor. A user friendly PC-based code ACTDOR was developed by Health Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. This code requires a library of radionuclides and their composition present in the waste of different systems. A special sample collection technique and the analysis of samples has been evolved at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS)-1 and 2. The sample collection technique, the behaviour of radionuclides in the waste package and the validation of the code at RAPS-1 and 2 have been described. Experimental values are in reasonable agreement with the values given by the code in the light of high degree of non-homogeneity present in the waste package. (author)

  10. 76 FR 52357 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-22

    ... NRC E-Filing rule (72 FR 49139, August 28, 2007). The E-Filing process requires participants to submit...\\ Requestors should note that the filing requirements of the NRC's E-Filing Rule (72 FR 49139; August 28, 2007... COMMISSION Exelon Generation Company, LLC; PSEG Nuclear, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit...

  11. Variability of various genetic characteristics of animals kept in the zone of ChAPS [Chernobyl' atomic power station] accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Genetic structure and cytogenetic variability by some genetic-biochemical systems (22 locuses) in Black-and-White cows kept in the zone of Chernobyl' atomic power station with increased radionuclidic comtamination have been analyzed comparatively. Increased frequency of cytogenetic anomalies, differing distribution of allele frequencies, and reduced expression of some biochemical markers have been revealed in tested animals as compared to the control

  12. Performance of mechanical equipment and maintenance problems in the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station [Paper No.: II-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Performance of and maintenance problems faced with mechanical equipment of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) are discussed. The equipment discussed include: turbines, boiler feed pumps, reheater drain pumps, primary heat transport pumps and motors, pressurizing pumps, valves and ventilation equipment. Preventive maintenance programme is briefly described. (M.G.B.)

  13. Entrainment and impingement of aquatic fauna at cooling water system of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marine organisms get impinged to the intake screens of Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) due to the suction force of the cooling water system of the power plant. The present work has studied the loss of aquatic organism at MAPS due to impingement at cooling water screens. In total 67 species of marine faunas impinged on the water intake screens of MAPS during the study. The proportion of fish, shrimp, crab, jellyfish and others, with respect to the total biomass of impinged organisms are 1.59 % (33 species), 0.30% (9), 2.77 % (16), 95.10% (3) and 0.24% (4), respectively. Jellyfishes were observed to be the largest entrained group covering around 44.85% of individual and constituting almost 94.82 % of biomass recorded during the study period and sea nettle jelly (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) was impinged with highest frequency. The diel study shows higher impingement occurred during night time, on full moon day and at low tides in contrast to their counterparts. Fishes accounts for 14.84 % of individual count and mere 1.67 % of biomass. Totally 33 number of fish species were observed. The highest impinged species were pony fishes (Secutor ruconius, Secutor insidiator, Photopectoralis bindus, Alepes kleinii and Leiognathus equulus) (21% occurrence). These few entrained fishes are mostly very small in size and have less commercial value. The total loss of marine fauna by impingement during study period was estimated to be 4779 (or 463.46 kg). The present data when compared with the impingement data from other coastal power plants, shows that the impinged fish biomass at MAPS cooling water system is much less than the other temperate and tropical power plants. (author)

  14. IAEA Leads Operational Safety Mission to Rajasthan Atomic Power Station 3 and 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: An international team of nuclear safety experts led by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) today completed a review of safety practices at Units 3 and 4 of the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station in Rawatbhata. The team noted a series of good practices and made recommendations and suggestions to reinforce safety practices. The IAEA assembled the Operational Safety Review Team (OSART) at the request of the Government of India. Led by the IAEA's Division of Nuclear Installation Safety, the team performed an in-depth operational safety review from 29 October to 14 November 2012. The team was comprised of experts from Canada, Belgium, Finland, Germany, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden and the IAEA. The team conducted an in-depth review of the aspects essential to the safe operation of the Power Plant. The conclusions of the review are based on the IAEA's Safety Standards and good international practices. The review covered the areas of Management, Organization and Administration; Training; Operations; Maintenance; Technical Support; Operating Experience; Radiation Protection; Chemistry; Emergency Planning and Preparedness; and Severe Accident Management. The OSART team identified a number of good practices of the plant. These will be shared in due course by the IAEA with the global nuclear industry for consideration. Examples include the following: - The Power Plant's safety culture cultivates a constructive work environment and a sense of accountability among the Power Plant personnel, and gives its staff the opportunity to expand skills and training; - The Power Plant's Public Awareness Programme provides educational opportunities to the local community about nuclear and radiation safety; - The Power Plant has a Management of Training and Authorization system for effective management of training activities; and - The Power Plant uses testing facilities and mockups to improve the quality of maintenance work and to reduce radiation doses. The OSART

  15. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  16. Post-irradiation examination of fuel elements of Tarapur Atomic Power Station (Report-I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Detailed post-irradiation examination of three initial load fuel elements of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) has been carried out. The causes of the element failures have been analysed. It was observed that almost 90% of the length of the elements exoerienced nodular corrosion. It has been estimated that nodular corrosion would seriously affect the wall thickness and surface temperature of higher rated elements. Lunar shaped fret marks have also been observed at some spacer grid locations in the elements. The depth of the largest fret mark was measured to be 16.9% clad wall thickness. Detailed metallographic examination of the clad and fuel in the three elements has been done. The temperatures at different structural regions of the fuel cross-sections have been estimated. The change in fuel density during irradiation has been evaluated by comparing the irradiated fuel diameter with the mean pellet design diameter. The performance of the end plug welds and spacer grid sites in the elements has been assessed. The burnup distribution along the length of the elements has been evaluated by gamma scanning. The redistribution of fission products in the fuel has been examined by gamma scanning and beta-gamma autoradiography. Mechanical properties of the irradiated cladding have been examined by ring tensile testing. (auth.)

  17. Atmospheric 3H impact assessment (2004-2008) around Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric tritium activity is measured regularly around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) since gaseous waste, which contains tritium, is being released through a 145 m high stack at NAPS site. Atmospheric data collected during 2004-2008 shows a large variation of 3H concentration in air, fluctuating in the range of ≤0.2-91.6 Bq.m-3. Significantly, higher tritium levels were measured in samples near the site boundary (1.6 km) of NAPS compared to off-site locations. The atmospheric dilution factor was found to be in the range of 1.1x10-7-7.3x10-7 s.m-3. The scavenging of NAPS site was found to be varying from 0.2x104 to 14.1x104 (Bq.m-3 rain water per Bqm-3 air). The inhalation dose to a member of general public at different distances (1.6-30 km) from NAPS site was found to be in the range of 0.21 μSv.y-1. (author)

  18. Maintenance experience on reactor recirculation pumps at Tarapur Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor recirculation pumps at Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS) are vertical, single stage centrifugal pumps having mechanical shaft seals and are driven by vertical mounted 3.3 kV, 3 phase, 1500 h.p. electric motors. During these years of operation TAPS has gained enough experience and expertise on the maintenance of reactor recirculation pumps which are dealt in this article. Failure of mechanical shaft seals, damage on pump carbon bearings, motor winding insulation failures and motor shaft damage have been the main areas of concern on recirculation pump. A detailed procedure step by step with component sketches has helped in eliminating errors during shaft seal assembly and installation. Pressure breakdown devices in seal assembly were rebuilt. Additional coolant water injection for shaft seal cooling was provided. These measures have helped in extending the reactor recirculation pump seal life. Pump bearing problems were mainly due to failure of anti-rotation pins and dowel pins of bearing assembly. These pins were redesigned and strengthened. Motor stator winding insulation failures were detected. Stator winding replacement program has been taken up on regular basis to avoid winding insulation failure due to aging. 3 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs

  19. Maintenance management experiences at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station [Paper No.: I-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance management experiences at the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) in commissioning of its two reactor units and in maintenance of the first reactor unit are described. Based on these experiences, certain recommendations are made which include: (1) constant guiding by the maintenance engineers of the maintenance personnel assigned to individual commissioning groups, (2) bringing uniformity in maintenance procedures and record keeping, (3) provision of adequate areas for mechanical shop, electrical shop, control maintenance shop and fueling machine maintenance shop, (4) provision of separate areas for active work just outside the reactor building, (5) provision of area for sectional stores for controlled issue/use of consumables, (6) formation of a separate services group for house-keeping, laundering, clothing etc; (7) planning for availability of spares based on review of failure rates, (8) planning of a preventive maintenance programme, (9) maintaining a visadex system to keep record of details of all equipment including equipment history, and (10) reviewing staffing and training from time-to-time. (M.G.B.)

  20. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific (μCi/cm2) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed

  1. Production and quality control of concrete for the Rajasthan Atomic Power Station - [Part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production and quality control of concrete and concrete materials for the construction of the twin-reactor Rajasthan Atomic Power Station with its 400 MW net capacity posed many challenges since many of the requirements for the properties of concrete were new and were being laid down for the first time in India. Some of the conditions for the concrete included leak-tightness against gas pressure, total absence of shrinkage in the containment even when the ambient temperature during concreting was as high as 45degC, placing concrete at a temperature as low as 8degC, the use of non-shrink and high strength grout, absolute impermeability against water, high density for radiation shielding, controlled modulus of elasticity for large machine foundations, high strength with high slump for the prestressed concrete dome, etc. Though the total quantity of concrete was not very much compared with a large river valley or steel plant project, (e.g., about 1.2 X 106 m3 for a 2-million tonne steel plant) it was quite significant, being about 70,000 m3 of normal density and 2,100 m3 of high density concrete. The production of these quantities entailed intensive material study and investigation, development of new mixes with additives not tried out before in the country, and design and quality control techniques which were unique in many respects. The paper deals with the production and quality control of concrete, including grouts used in the projects, but the actual concreting and construction operations are not discussed. (author)

  2. Concentrations of 90Sr and 137Cs in region of discharge of warm water from the Kola Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The90Sr and 137Cs concentrations in trout cultivated in warm water from the Kola Atomic Power Station (APS) in the period 1974-1979 were 30-70 pCi/kg. This is one-quarter to one-third of the radionuclide concentrations in wild fish living in this region and one-tenth of that in commerical fishes from other waters on the Kola Peninsula. The low radionuclide concentrations can be attributed to the absence of pollution in the coolant reservoir of the Kola APS during this period of operation, and also to the fact that the main mode of entry of radionuclides into the fish's body is through food. The investigations lead to the very important conclusion that fish-farming based on the warm effluents of atomic power stations is a feasible proposition

  3. Transfer factor of 137Cs from soil to wheat grains and dosimetry around Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This field study was undertaken to quantify the transfer factor of 137Cs from agricultural soil to wheat grains and ingestion dose evaluation around Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, India from 2010 to 2012. 137Cs activity was measured using NaI (Tl) well type gamma-spectrometry system. Transfer factor of 137Cs from soil to wheat grain samples was in the range of 0.12-0.46. Annual ingestion dose to man from 137Cs activity was significantly lower than permissible limit (1.0 mSv year-1). The risk measured due to 137Cs is also insignificant to members of public residing around Narora Atomic Power Station, Narora, India. (author)

  4. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core

  5. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  6. Seismic re-evaluation of Madras Atomic Power Stations 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power plants designed in India since 1975 have been designed for earthquake loading. In India, 14 Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) viz., NAPS- 1 and 2, KAPS-1 and 2, KAIGA-1,2,3 and 4, RAPS-3,4,5 and 6 and TAPS-3 and 4 have been seismically qualified using state of the art techniques involving both seismic analysis and testing. The older generation plants viz., TAPS-1 and 2, RAPS-1 and 2 and MAPS-1 and 2 were seismically designed according to the standards prevailing at the time of their construction but not designed to the rigour of the current design practice. These plants are being re-evaluated for seismic loading as per IAEA Safety Standard, which has been followed for re-evaluation of older generation plants in Eastern European countries. The construction of two units of 220 MWe PHWRs, Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS-1,2) at Kalpakkam, Tamilnadu commenced in the year 1975 and were made critical in the year 1983 and 1985 respectively. These units were designed for seismic loading by using equivalent static analysis method with a seismic coefficient of 0.1 g for reactor building and stack and 0.05 g for other buildings. As these units were not designed as per the state of the art technology, which is being used in the seismic design of the new Nuclear Power Plants, the seismic re-evaluation of the MAPS units 1 and 2 has been undertaken. The Safety Systems (SS) and Safety Support Systems (SSS) are qualified by adopting a detailed analysis and testing methods. The equipment in the SS and SSS have been qualified by conducting a walk down as per the procedure given in Generic Implementation Procedure, Dept. of Energy (GIP -DOE), USA. The safety systems include the systems required for safe shutdown of the plant, the systems required for one chain of decay heat removal and the systems required for the containment of activity. The safety support systems viz. Electrical, Instrumentation and Control (I and C) and systems other than SS and SSS have been qualified by

  7. P.R. Halls in Tokai and Tsuruga Nuclear Power Stations of The Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (1) P.R. (Public Relations) Hall in Tokai Nuclear Power Station, JAPC. The P.R. Hall in Tokai Nuclear Power Station is in Tokai Village, Ibaraki Prefecture. On the site are the GCR Plant of 166 MWe and a BWR plant of 1,100 MWe. The P.R. Hall is visited especially by local people around nuclear power stations all over Japan. Explanation of nuclear power generation, exhibitions, movies, etc. are presented in the hall. The P.R. Hall is a two-story ferro-concrete building with floor space of 880 m2. (2) The P.R. Hall in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station, JAPC. The P.R. Hall in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station is in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture. A BWR plant of 357 MWe is on the site. The P.R. Hall is visited as sightseeing as well as the survey on nuclear power generation. It is a one-story steel frame building with floor space of about 600 m2. (J.P.N.)

  8. Technological innovations and design improvements to achieve ALARA exposures in Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4 (540 MWe)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Exposure control at the operating Nuclear Power Station is a major concern. Tarapur Atomic Power Station(TAPS) Unit- 3 and 4 is the first Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor of 540 MWe electrical capacity in-depth review of radiation safety was done to identify the impact of design modification on dose rates. Based on the experience gained in the operation of 220 MWe design modifications incorporated in TAPS unit-3 and 4. The challenging task of meeting the International standards in the field of radiation protection had been achieved at Tarapur Atomic Power Station 3 and 4 right from the initial stages of commissioning and operation. To avoid any unplanned exposures and also to keep the exposures at low level, several innovative features were introduced. These efforts were useful in achieving the lowest collective dose in the first year of operation among the Indian Nuclear Power Plants. This paper presents the brief descriptions of the systems and communication strategies adopted and design modifications implemented to reduce the dose rates and controlling exposure at TAPS 3 and 4. (author)

  9. Distribution of nitrate reducing bacteria in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station and their response to temperature changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present investigation nitrate reducing bacteria (NRB) from various locations of the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) cooling circuit as well as the coastal waters were monitored. Three different NRB strains isolated from outfall, mixing zone, and jetty were categorized respectively as OF95, MZ120 and JT11. The isolates were subjected to growth response to different temperatures (viz., 27, 37 and 42 degC). The results indicate that NRB counts were higher at stations close to the mixing zone when compared to heterotrophic bacteria. However, stations, which were away from the thermal plume, showed relatively lesser NRB. The variations noted were in the order of 1-2 magnitudes. The three isolates showed varied response in their growth patterns when incubated at different temperatures. The influence of temperature on the growth of NRB isolates showed that the log phase was shortened at higher temperatures. The nitrate utilization also followed similar pattern. (author)

  10. Radioactivity of food products in the region of the ''Kozloduj'' atomic power station in the pre-exploitation period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The pre-exploitation status of the region of the ''Kozloduj'' atomic power stationand its torch zone, regarding the concentration of the biologically most dangerous artificial isotopes in the basic food products was determined. The tested foods were milk, meat, wheat, fish and grapes produced at the most important and basic production regions in the controled region. The radioactive isotope concentrations in the analyzed food produxts are reported. They will serve as a basis in assessing any eventual additional contamination of the region as a result of the work of the ''Kozloduj'' electric power station. (author)

  11. Operating Experience at the Yankee Atomic Electric Company Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Operation of the Yankee plant began in November 1960 and since that time the station has generated over 2 x 109 kWh gross. The overall use factor from first generation of power in 1960 is just over 67%. The economic picture has also been very encouraging. The Yankee plant is not only continuing to demonstrate its ability to supply base-load power for the New England area but is also providing new information of benefit to the economics of all closed-cycle reactors. Problems have been encountered, some of a fairly significant nature, but every indication to date is that these are correctable and that plant operation will become even more dependable with continually improving economics as time goes on. (author)

  12. Tarapur Atomic Power Station -1 and 2 - contribution towards sustainable clean and green energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes improved practices followed at TAPS - 1 and 2, major modifications carried out at TAPS - 1 and 2 for minimizing discharges from station and in maintaining lower discharge water temperature from station to sea, station statistics of waste discharges for last few years, environmental monitoring scheme followed at nearby TAPS- 1 and 2 station locality and results thereon. (author)

  13. Experience with the decommissioning of the Kahl experimental atomic power station (VAK). Erfahrungen mit dem Abbau des Versuchsatomkraftwerkes Kahl (VAK)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzel, G.V.P. (Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG, Essen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-05-01

    The Kahl experimental atomic power station (VAK) has been finally shut down after 25 years of nuclear operation. Being the plant with the longest operating life to date in the Federal Republic of Germany, it has also been able to provide appropriate long-term experience. In this case, experience will also be accumulated of the continuous dismantling of such a plant. Reference cases for more comprehensive dismantling have been the Niederaichbach (KKN) and Gundremmingen (KRB A) plants. The work carried out so far, the scope of the next licensing stage applied for and a review of the future stages are considered in detail. (orig.).

  14. Distribution of heterotrophic bacteria in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam (east coast of India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterotrophic bacteria play an important role in nutrient cycling in the marine environments. In this investigation culturable aerobic heterotrophic bacteria (CAHB) from various locations of the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) cooling circuit as well as the coastal waters were monitored. Three different CAHB isolates isolated from mixing zone, out fall, and jetty were categorised respectively as HMZ1, HOF1, and HJN1. The results indicated that CAHB counts were higher at stations away from the mixing zone. The variations noted were in the order of 1-2 magnitudes. The three isolates showed similar response in their growth patterns when incubated at different temperatures. The influence of temperature on the growth of CAHB isolates showed that the log phase was shortened at higher temperatures. Furthermore the strains when incubated at 47 degC failed to grow. The number of CAHB were less in the thermal plume region followed by mixing zone. (author)

  15. The NUREG-1150 probabilistic risk assessment for the Peach Bottom atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the findings of the probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) for Unit 2 of the Peach Bottom Power Station performed in support of NUREG-1150. The emphasis is on the 'back-end' analyses, that is, the accident progression, source term, and consequence analyses, and the risk results obtained when the results of these analyses are combined with the accident frequency analysis. The results show that the annual risk from internal initiators is much lower than estimated by the Reactor Safety Study (RSS) over a decade ago. The risk from fire initiators is about an order of magnitude higher than the risk from internal initiators, but is still less than the risk from internal estimates by the RSS. The risk from seismic initiators at Peach Bottom is much greater than the risk from internal initiators. The uncertainty band for all types of initiators is considerably greater than that estimated in the RSS. (orig.)

  16. Man-rem audit - a tool for exposure ALARA at Madras Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ALARA - acronym for As Low As Reasonably Achievable, which means making every reasonable effort to maintain exposures to radiation as far below the dose limits as is practical. ICRP has recommended ALARA to be implemented as a formal practice into the System of Dose Limitation, which contains three parts, 1) Justification of practice 2) Optimization 3) Dose Limits. As with the human endeavor, there is always room for improvement. Keeping this in mind, ALARA program is being practiced in our Nuclear Power Plants over the years. There has been a gradual reduction of collective dose in our Nuclear Power Plants due to successful implementation of the ALARA programs. This was possible due to the rigorous application of O and M experience, feedback and active participation of workforce towards ALARA. Furthermore, ALARA is an ongoing continual improvement programme towards collective dose reduction and has enough scope for improvement at any point of time. In order to substantiate the gains of ALARA programme and to improve it further, first time Mam-rem Audit was conducted at MAPS during the month of Sep-Oct 2010. This paper gives the brief outline about the method man-rem audit, its findings, corrective action implementation and the benefits derived from it. Man-rem audit similar to financial audit, serves as a tool for finding out grey areas where improvements is required so that station collective dose can be further optimized. It is one of the identified missions to achieve excellence in area of reducing station collective dose, unplanned exposures and RPP deviation. The scope of this audit is to bring further improvements in the reduction in station collective dose, create more awareness among the employees about ALARA principles and seek valuable suggestions for improvements. Audit team consisting of senior HP persons had one to one interaction with the individuals of the respective section in the field and tried to gather the information from the individual and

  17. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during the period 1994-2001 at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of engineering structures, an understanding of extreme weather conditions that may occur at the site of interest is very essential, so that the structures can be designed to withstand such situations. In this report an analysis of extreme values of meteorological parameters observed at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site for the period 1994 -2001 is described. The parameters considered are maximum and minimum air temperature, maximum wind speed and gust, and maximum rainfall in a month, in a day, in an hour and annual rainfall. The extreme value analysis reveals that annual rainfall, maximum monthly rainfall, minimum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 10 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -1 distribution whereas maximum daily rainfall, maximum hourly rainfall, maxinlum air temperature and maximum wind speed at 30 m obey Fisher-Tippet Type -2 distribution function. There is no difference in correlation coefficients and fit both extreme value distribution function. Co-efficients of the distribution functions for each variable are established. Extreme values of parameters corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are derived. These derived extreme values are particularly useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure the safety of any civil structure in and around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station site with respect to stresses due to weather conditions. (author)

  18. Setting of cesium residual ratio of molten solidified waste produced in Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No.2 Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JNES investigated the appropriateness of a view of the Japan Nuclear Fuel Co. on cesium residual content and the radioactivity measurement precision regarding the molten solidified (with lowered inorganic salt used) radioactive wastes which were produced from Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai and Tokai No. 2 Power Stations. Based on the written performance report from the request and past disposal confirmation experience, a view of the JNFC is confirmed as appropriate that setting of 15% cesium residual ratio for molten solidified with volume ratio larger than 4% and less than 10% cases. (S. Ohno)

  19. Condition monitoring and signature analysis techniques as applied to Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) [Paper No.: VIA - 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The technique of vibration signature analysis for identifying the machine troubles in their early stages is explained. The advantage is that a timely corrective action can be planned to avoid breakdowns and unplanned shutdowns. At the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), this technique is applied to regularly monitor vibrations of equipment and thus is serving as a tool for doing corrective maintenance of equipment. Case studies of application of this technique to main boiler feed pumps, moderation pump motors, centrifugal chiller, ventilation system fans, thermal shield ventilation fans, filtered water pumps, emergency process sea water pumps, and antifriction bearings of MAPS are presented. Condition monitoring during commissioning and subsequent operation could indicate defects. Corrective actions which were taken are described. (M.G.B.)

  20. Environmental radionuclide concentrations in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant and the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station: 1996--1997. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Maryland Power Plant Research Program monitors concentrations of natural, weapons, and power plant produced radionuclides in environmental samples collected from the Chesapeake Bay in the vicinity of the Calvert Cliffs Nuclear Power Plant (CCNPP) and from the Susquehanna River-Chesapeake Bay system in the vicinity of Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS). The purpose of this monitoring is to determine the fate, transport, and potential effects of power plant-produced radionuclides. This report contains a description of monitoring activities and data collected during the 1996 and 1997 calendar years. Radionuclide concentrations in shellfish, finfish, aquatic vegetation, and sediment were measured using high-resolution gamma spectrometry. Radionuclides in environmental samples originated from natural sources, historic atmospheric weapons testing, and normal operations of CCNPP and PBAPS

  1. Retrofitting of an improved stack monitoring system in Rajasthan atomic power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems encountered in the measurement of inert gas activities, iodine activity and tritium activity released through the stack in RAPS are described and the considerations for the development of improved instruments outlined. The new approach provides for better accuracy of measurement of all the relevant radioactive parameters in the stack at one centralised place. The construction work in the station for the newly conceived stack activity monitoring system is completed and the earlier equipment used is installed in the room temporarily. Development prototypes of stack inert gas monitoring system and iodine monitoring system as described in Section 5 are made and evaluated. Fabrication of new equipment for retrofitting in RAPS is in progress and these will replace the equipment temporarily installed in the station

  2. Assessment of effects of structural response on plant risk. Preliminary results for Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has been sponsoring tests at Los Alamos National Laboratory on the dynamic response of Seismic Category I reinforced concrete shear wall structures. As test results accumulated, it became clear that there was a significant difference between as-calculated and measured shear wall stiffnesses and frequencies, and that these differences existed both in static and dynamic tests. For very low level tests, measured frequencies were found to range between 50% and 80% of the computed values. During simulated earthquake tests, measured frequencies were found to further decrease as the earthquake level increased. The observed differences between calculated and measured stiffnesses and frequencies represents a potentially important issue relative to the seismic design and safety of nuclear power plants. Thus, this frequency difference issue has potentially important implications with respect to the safety of power plants during seismic events. In order to assess the importance of this frequency difference issue the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission has funded Sandia National Laboratories to re-evaluate several existing seismic PRAs by modeling and incorporating the effects of the frequency reductions. This report presents the results for the initial re-evaluation of the seismic risk at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

  3. Results of second regular inspection of No.2 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The second regular inspection of No.2 plant in Tsuruga Power Station was carried out from April 11 to July 26, 1989. The parallel operation was resumed on July 1, 1989, 82 days after the parallel off. The facilities which were the object of inspection were the reactor proper, reactor cooling system, measurement and control system, fuel facilities, radiation control facilities, waste facilities, reactor containment installation and emergency electric power generation system. On the facilities which were the object of inspection, the appearance, disassembling, leak, function, performance and other inspections were carried out, as the result, the return flow rate from No.1 seal of a primary coolant pump increased, and the reactor automatically stopped as a motor-driven feed pump tripped, but other abnormality was not observed. The works related to this regular inspection were accomplished within the range of the limit of radiation dose equivalent based on the relevant laws. Particular main reconstruction work was not carried out during the period of this regular inspection. (K.I.)

  4. Results of fourteenth regular inspection of No.1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station, Japan Atomic Power Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fourteenth regular inspection of No.1 plant in the Tsuruga Power Station was carried out from September 16, 1983, to January 20, 1984. The objects of inspection were the reactor proper, reactor cooling system, measurement and control system, fuel facilities, radiation control facilities, waste facilities, reactor containment facilities and emergency standby power generation system. The inspection of appearance, disassembled components, leak, function, performance and so on was carried out on these objects, but abnormality was not found. The works related to this regular inspection were carried out within the range of the allowable dose based on the laws. The main reconstruction works carried out during this inspection were the additional installation of an ionization chamber detector to an exhaust funnel monitor, the installation of two radiation monitors each on the dry well and suppression chamber, the reconstruction of the ventilation system for the turbine building, the replacement of main steam safety valves, the replacement of piping and valves in the liquid waste treating system, the replacement of piping in the feed heater drain system and so on. (Kako, I.)

  5. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. Semiannual operating report, January--June 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peach Bottom Unit 2 generated 3,005,350 MWH(e) net electric power and was on line 3,132.48 hrs and Unit 3 generated 2,972,897 MWH(e) and was on line 3,417.97 hours. Information is presented concerning power generation, shutdowns, corrective maintenance, chemistry and radiochemistry, occupational radiation exposure, release of radioactive materials, and abnormal occurrences. (FS)

  6. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author)

  7. Application of results of the academic research institutes to atomic power stations of the republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of research in providing NPP safety, reliability and operating economy are reviewed. The advancement of the technology and equipment for welding metal structures of RBMK-1000 reactors, the study of heat exchange intensification in RBMK-1000 channels, calculation-experimental analysis of NPP turbogenerator load characteristics, neutron-physical computer calculations of RBMK-1000 reactors are noted in the works being reviewed. The development of reactivity diagnostics means: reactivity meters, calorimetric energy release sensors and methods of error estimation in in-pile temperature measurements is considered. The effect of NPP radiation, thermal and salt contaminants on the environment is noted. The possibility to further develop the work in the main directions of nuclear power: reactor physics and thermal physics, radiation material testing, the technology of the development of principal equipment and NPP ecology is shown

  8. Low-flow stability tests at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station unit 2 during cycle 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report under RP1020-2 is a description of the results from the low-flow stability tests conducted at the Peach Bottom-2 boiling water reactor (BWR) in 1978 during Cycle 3. These tests were a continuation of the series begun in 1977 under RP1020-1. Results from the earlier tests have been documented in EPRI Topical Report NP-564. As expected, the Peach Bottom-2 BWR core is very stable even at minimum core flow rate conditions. These data constitute high-quality proof of some long-held hypotheses about BWR stability at high power-to-flow ratios. In the future, these data will become part of the qualification data base for the improved BWR stability predictive computer codes being developed and tested under RP1384

  9. Response of mole crab, Emerita emeritus to the thermal effluents from the Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mole crabs belonging to the genus Emerita are exclusively inhabitants of exposed wave washed sandy beaches in certain temperate and tropical seas. Its sedentary adult life and a primitive filter-feeding behavior make this intertidal crab an excellent indicator species for monitoring anthropogenic impact. Hence, this sand crab has been used to determine the effect of elevated temperature (rT) arising out of the thermal effluent from the Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam with special reference to the intertidal fauna. Since Emerita exhibits limited capacity to move from their place of habitation, an analysis of the population structure of Emerita emeritus in the Kalpakkam coast including the impacted and the adjoining control sandy beaches on either side of the mixing point in the vicinity of the power plant was done. The data indicate that in the impact zone having an elevated seawater temperature of <35 deg C, the crab is completely absent. However, as we move away from the impact zone, with normalization of seawater temperature, Emerita move to safer areas on either side of the impact zone. Thus, the extensive field data on the distribution of mole crabs indicated that population structure is affected by the thermal plume, although the shifting positions of the mixing point (caused by northerly and southerly long shore currents) allowed decolonization of Emerita due to transmigration in positions that were earlier mixing points. This paper also describes a complete larval development of Emerita emeritus in the laboratory. Different life stages of E. emeritus were subjected to various power plant stressors to determine their varying responses. The expression of heat shock protein (hsp) in the gill tissue of the adult crabs was also observed when the crabs were exposed to elevated temperatures (35 deg C). However, no expression of heat shock proteins was observed when the crabs were subjected to chlorine stress. (author)

  10. Experience on failed moderator heat exchangers tube leak detection at Narora Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear side various heat exchangers of the station which handle radioactive fluids are cooled by a close loop cooling water system, known as active process water system (APW). Active process water system transfers its heat to tertiary cooling water system known as active process water cooling system which in turn is cooled with the help of an induced draft cooling tower. Use of two cooling water loops provide double barrier to radioactivity release to the environment. On line sampling facility for tritium activity detection in all heat exchangers on their cooling water side provides indication of regarding failure of a particular heat exchanger. During September, 1995, NAPS Unit-1 active process water system showed gradual increase in tritium activity. Individual heat exchanger sample results could not provide confirmatory information regarding the leaky heat exchanger because of minor nature of leak. As the global tritium activity of active process water system kept on increasing, unit was shutdown to identify and repair the leaky heat exchanger. Sampling from isolated heat exchangers were done after putting fresh water to it. Sample results (tritium activity) indicated leak from moderator system HX ≠ 1. Detection of the leaky tube was experienced to extremely difficult task, because of size, location and nature of failure. All conventional methods of tube leak detection were applied but without success. These methods involved helium leak test from either side, vacuum drop test, pressure drop test, eddy current testing and fluorescent dye method. Having found no indication of failed tube moderator heat exchanger was reverted back to normal configuration with increase in process water flow through shell side in steps and parallel monitoring of tritium activity trend. Beyond 50% of PW flow, tritium activity level in active process water started increasing. Process water was throttled back and about 40% flow, tritium activity in process water got stabilised. Thus

  11. Extreme value analysis of meteorological parameters observed during 1964-2000 at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, statistical analysis of extreme value of meteorological parameters at Rajasthan Atomic Power Station (RAPS) site is presented. The parameters examined for extreme value analysis are maximum wind speed at 120 m and gust, maximum and minimum surface air temperature, maximum and minimum atmospheric pressure, maximum and minimum rainfall in a year, and maximum rainfall in a month and a day along with intensity of rainfall averaged over 5 minutes. The period of observation for rainfall is 1964 -2000, while for other variables, it is 1980 -2000. From the extreme value analysis, it is observed that the variables for annual maximum rainfall, monthly maximum rainfall, maximum rainfall intensity, maximum temperature, maximum pressure and maximum hourly wind speed obey Fisher -Tippette type I distribution, whereas annual minimum rainfall, maximum daily rainfall, minimum temperature, minimum atmospheric pressure and gust (5 min. averaged maximum wind speed at 120m height) follow Fisher -Tippette type II distribution. Parameters of the distribution functions for each variable are established and occurrence of the extreme values corresponding to return periods of 50 and 100 years are also derived. These derived extreme values are very useful for arriving at suitable design basis values to ensure safety of any civil structure in the vicinity of RAPS site with respect to expected stresses due to climatic conditions. (author)

  12. Power station instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Power stations are characterized by a wide variety of mechanical and electrical plant operating with structures, liquids and gases working at high pressures and temperatures and with large mass flows. The voltages and currents are also the highest that occur in most industries. In order to achieve maximum economy, the plant is operated with relatively small margins from conditions that can cause rapid plant damage, safety implications, and very high financial penalties. In common with other process industries, power stations depend heavily on control and instrumentation. These systems have become particularly significant, in the cost-conscious privatized environment, for providing the means to implement the automation implicit in maintaining safety standards, improving generation efficiency and reducing operating manpower costs. This book is for professional instrumentation engineers who need to known about their use in power stations and power station engineers requiring information about the principles and choice of instrumentation available. There are 8 chapters; chapter 4 on instrumentation for nuclear steam supply systems is indexed separately. (Author)

  13. Biblis nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A short constructive description of the components of the Biblis nuclear power station is given here. In addition to the heat flow diagram, the coolant cycle and the turbine control system, some details of construction and reactor safety are presented. (TK/AK)

  14. Fessenheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fessenheim nuclear power plant includes two PWR type units each with net electrical output of 890MW(e). The site and layout of the station, geological features and cooling water characteristics are described. Reference is made to other aspects of the environment such as population density and agronomy. (U.K.)

  15. The nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The processes taking place in a nuclear power plant and the dangers arising from a nuclear power station are described. The means and methods of controlling, monitoring, and protecting the plant and things that can go wrong are presented. There is also a short discourse on the research carried out in the USA and Germany, aimed at assessing the risks of utilising nuclear energy by means of the incident tree analysis and probability calculations. (DG)

  16. CFD simulation of thermal discharge behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at the Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 1. Validation for 2 power plant units in operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Goyal, P.; Markandeya, S.G. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Planning and Coordination Div.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Health Safety and Environment Group

    2011-05-15

    The thermal pollution arising out of discharge of hot water from the power plant condensers into the natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans etc. has been a serious concern to environmentalists ever since the plants started operating world over. In the past forty to fifty years, the methods of calculations for predicting the velocity and temperature fields in the affected regions of the stagnant/flowing water bodies have undergone a significant improvement. Currently, use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for performing these calculations is gaining popularity. However, several factors such as the assumed computational domain and its discretisation, the boundary conditions used, representation of hydrodynamic characteristics (laminar/turbulent, buoyant/non-buoyant), etc. have a strong influence on the accuracy of predictions by such a model. A CFD code STAR-CD has been used for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS). The predictions from these calculations of two units in operation have been found to be in good agreement with the site data made available from earlier studies. The present paper briefly describes the model developed using STAR-CD and results obtained for the Kadra reservoir at KAPS. (orig.)

  17. CFD simulation of thermal discharge behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at the Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 1. Validation for 2 power plant units in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The thermal pollution arising out of discharge of hot water from the power plant condensers into the natural water bodies such as rivers, lakes, reservoirs, oceans etc. has been a serious concern to environmentalists ever since the plants started operating world over. In the past forty to fifty years, the methods of calculations for predicting the velocity and temperature fields in the affected regions of the stagnant/flowing water bodies have undergone a significant improvement. Currently, use of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) codes for performing these calculations is gaining popularity. However, several factors such as the assumed computational domain and its discretisation, the boundary conditions used, representation of hydrodynamic characteristics (laminar/turbulent, buoyant/non-buoyant), etc. have a strong influence on the accuracy of predictions by such a model. A CFD code STAR-CD has been used for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS). The predictions from these calculations of two units in operation have been found to be in good agreement with the site data made available from earlier studies. The present paper briefly describes the model developed using STAR-CD and results obtained for the Kadra reservoir at KAPS. (orig.)

  18. Atomic power's powered atomiser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As an extension of its traditional activities the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has developed a range of products and services. So far one of its most successful ventures has been the licensing of power fluidics technology in the hvac (heating, ventilation and air conditioning) market. Power Fluidics is the control of liquid or gas flows without the use of any moving parts. The UKAEA has developed the vortex amplifier, a control device, which has many potential applications, in which the process flow is throttled and turned down as the control flow is increased. The bistable flow diverter in which a coanda effect diverts the flow down one of two outlets has possible uses in the water industry as well. Another development is a device for controlling fluid droplet size in which a bistable converter has a feedback loop which ensures continuous switching of the flow. By opposing the nozzle outlets, the alternating flows collide in a controlled manner and droplet size can be controlled. (U.K.)

  19. Thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir at Kaiga atomic power station. Pt. 2. Studies for the case of four and six units in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computational model was developed earlier for 2 units of Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) operational at Kaiga Atomic Power Station (KAPS) to understand the thermal plume behaviour in the Kadra reservoir wherein the hot water from the plant condensers is discharged. The model was successfully validated against the site data. The same model has now been extended for analyzing the thermal plume behaviour in case of 4 NPP units as well as 6 NPP units operational at the same site. The present paper briefly describes details of the studies along with the results of earlier study to understand the overall behavior of thermal plume in Kadra reservoir. (orig.)

  20. The Atomic Energy Control Board criteria for identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents information for the identification and evaluation of fire hazards in nuclear power stations. The report consists of two volumes. Volume 1 contains background material which outlines tools and analytical techniques currently available to deterministically analyse fire hazards. Volume 2 presents criteria for evaluating fire hazard reports. The criteria are consistent with the existing AECB regulatory approach in Canada and cover the topics which should be included in a fire hazard analysis. This volume also provides details of each topic so that the quality of an analysis may be evaluated

  1. Discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report contains details of the technologies used at many nuclear power stations to treat and control radioactive discharges and gives, where information was available, details of discharges and authorised discharge limits. (author)

  2. Morphological peculiarities of duodenal peptic ulcer and leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    36 persons with duodenal peptic ulcer (DPU) who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (experimental group) and 20 patients who were not exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation were examined to study morphological peculiarities of DPU and blood leucocytes functional activity in the persons who were present in the zone of the accident. The finding have shown that in the persons, exposed to small doses of ionizing radiation, peptic ulcer is often accompanied by erosive changes of gastric and duodenal mucosa. Disturbance of mucus formation in myocytes and secret evacuation from the cells, epithelium large-intestine-type metaplasia, were revealed. Shift of cellular correlation balance in inflammatory infiltrate to the side of monocytes number increase as well as decrease of leucocytes functional activity, manifesting itself by slowing a granulocytes migration to the focus of inflammation, were noted, which is necessary to take into account at administration of effective peptic ulcer therapy in the persons who were in the zone of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

  3. In-service inspection - a vital role in monitoring and health assessment of nuclear pressure vessels, piping and components at Tarapur Atomic Power Station - 1 and 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarapur Atomic Power Station is a twin unit Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) built in 1960's and presently operating at 160MWe. TAPS has completed 36 years of successful commercial operation and is continuing to provide safe, economic and reliable power supply. The design life of Tarapur nuclear reactors is 40 Effective Full Power Years (EFPY). So far TAPS has completed about 20EFPY for each reactor. In order to estimate the healthiness of nuclear components, a comprehensive study was made by the station in consultation with design group of Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd.. In-Service Inspection (ISI) substantially enhances confidence in component performance. Consolidated inspection early in service life provides greater assurance of component's integrity. Periodic in-service inspection provides vital information in the form of flaw characterization for assessment of structural integrity. This paper describes various degradation mechanisms (SCC, IGSCC, TGSCC, EC, FAC etc.,) identified for critical components, their method of detection, methodologies followed for In-Service inspection and developmental activities to assess the integrity of nuclear reactor vessels, piping and components for continued service. Also a comprehensive examination carried out on Structures, Systems and Components (SSCs) as part of plant ageing management programme is also discussed. (author)

  4. Atomic Power Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hogerton, John F

    1964-01-01

    This booklet is condensed from a larger publication, -Background Information on Atomic Power Safety-, published in January 1964, by the .Atomic Industrial Forum. That publication and this abridgment were produced in recognition of the emergence of commercial atomic power as an important factor in our national economy, and of the resulting need for readily available information in nontechnical form on the characteristics of nuclear power plants and on the various measures taken during their design, construction, and operation for public safety.

  5. RETRAN analysis of the turbine trip tests at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 and at the end of cycle 2. Special report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The RETRAN system analysis code is undergoing a comprehensive qualification program by the Electric Power Research Institute and the Utilities' RETRAN Working Group. An important element of this effort is the analysis of the turbine trip tests performed at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 boiling water reactor (BWR) during April 1977. The report gives the results obtained from this analysis and from an extensive set of associated sensitivity studies. These results are in good agreement with the measured data, providing important evidence of the code's ability to model BWR turbine trips and similar transients. Other conclusions resulting from this work pertain to needed code improvements and to the sensitivity of the calculated transients to various input parameters. The analysis of the tests and the sensitivity studies performed with RETRAN also provide a better understanding of certain phenomena which are important during BWR transients involving abrupt changes in pressure and flow

  6. Islands for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety principles, design criteria and types of artificial island for an offshore nuclear power station are discussed with particular reference to siting adjacent to an industrial island. The paper concludes that the engineering problems are soluble and that offshore nuclear power stations will eventually be built but that much fundamental work is still required. (author)

  7. Nuclear power stations licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The judicial aspects of nuclear stations licensing are presented. The licensing systems of the United States, Spain, France and Federal Republic of Germany are focused. The decree n0 60.824 from July 7 sup(th), 1967 and the following legislation which define the systematic and area of competence in nuclear stations licensing are analysed

  8. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program. Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Docket No. 50-29. Draft report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation Program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, operated by Yankee Atomic Electric Company. The Yankee plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  9. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment: Systematic Evaluation Program. Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Docket No. 50-29. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Systematic Evaluation program was initiated in February 1977 by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the designs of older operating nuclear reactor plants to confirm and document their safety. The review provides: (1) an assessment of how these plants compare with current licensing safety requirements relating to selected issues, (2) a basis for deciding on how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. This report documents the review of Yankee Nuclear Power Station, operated by Yankee Atomic Electric Company. The Yankee plant is one of 10 plants reviewed under Phase II of this program. This report indicates how 137 topics selected for review under Phase I of the program were addressed. Equipment and procedural changes have been identified as a result of the review

  10. Soil to rice grain transfer factor and radiological dose of 137Cs and 90Sr around Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Narora, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    137Cs and 90Sr concentration in rice grain and corresponding agricultural soils were measured (2009-2011) within 15 km radius of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS), Narora, India. 137Cs activity was in the range of BDL (<0.2)-0.65 ± 0.18 Bq kg-1 in rice grains and from BDL (<0.56)-2.06 ± 0.36 Bq kg-1 in soil samples. 90Sr content was BDL (<0.095 Bq kg-1) in all rice grain samples. Transfer factor of 137Cs from soil to rice grain was in the range of 0.10-0.40. Ingestion dose from rice consumption was significantly lesser than the permissible limits of 1.0 mSv year-1, thus posing no radiological health risk. (author)

  11. The Miksova water power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This leaflet describes the Miksova water power station. The Miksova water power station is part of the second derived cascade of hydro power stations on the river Vah. It was built at the end of a huge development in Slovak hydro-energy in the late 1950's and the beginning of the 1960's. It is the second water power station on this derived cascade, which is situated downstream the Hricov reservoir and water power station. At the power station, three turbine sets with vertical Kaplan turbines are installed with a total power output of 3 x 31.2 = 93.6 MW. With this power output the Miksova water power station (Miksova I) was the biggest water power station in the Slovak Republic until the construction of Pumping water power station Liptovska Mara. And it is still the biggest channel water power station on the Vah so far. It was put into operation during the period 1963 to 1965. There are three turbine sets with Kaplan turbines from CKD Blansko, with a synchronous hydro-alternator installed in the power station. Their installed capacity is 93.6 MW in total and the projected annual production of electrical energy is 207 GWh. The turbines are fi ve-bladed (on the Hricov and Povazska Bystrica water power stations they are four-bladed) and the impeller wheel has a diameter of 4800 mm. They are designed for extension of the head from 24.1 to 22.21 m and each of them has an absorption capacity of 134 m3.s-1 nd a nominal operating speed of 2.08 m3.s-1, runaway speed 4.9 m3.s-1. Each synchronous hydro-alternator has a maximum power output of 31.2 MW, a nominal voltage of 10.5 kV and power factor cos φ of 0.8. Power from the power station is led out through 110 kV switchgear. The water power station operates under automatic turbine mode of operation with remote indication and control from the Dispatch Centre at Vodne elektrarne, in Trencin. From start of operation until the end of 2003 all three turbine sets operated for a total of 450,500 running hours and the Miksova water

  12. Balakovo nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A key means of improving the safety and reliability of nuclear power plants is through effective training of plant personnel. The goal of this paper is to show the progress of the training at the Balakovo Nuclear Power Plant, and the important role that international cooperation programs have played in that progress

  13. Power station unit control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The VDI/VDE code refers to the power generating unit within the process control system that interconnects the power unit and the consumer. Basic principles and requirements to be met by the various networks are explained, as well as characteristics of control engineering of the power generating unit and its components. This is followed by a description of the configurations of the unit control system, the control equipment and operational characteristics, the suitability and applicability of unit control configurations, and finally of the control quality with regard to sensibility to disturbances. A list of symbols used and of catchwords is given. (HAG)

  14. Safeguarding nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The basic features of nuclear fuel accounting and control in present-day power reactors are considered. Emphasis is placed on reactor operations and spent-fuel characteristics for Light-Water Reactors (LWRs) and Heavy-Water Reactors (HWRs)

  15. A test program for predicting and monitoring the emergency diesel generator heat exchangers at Limerick Generating Station and Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The USNRC issued Generic Letter 89-13, ''Service Water Problems Affecting Safety-Related Equipment'' to all nuclear power plant licensees which requires the implementation of a program to ensure that nuclear safety-related heat exchangers are capable of performing their intended functions. The heat exchangers on the standby emergency diesel generator (EDG) skids are covered by this requirement. PECo and SWEC have developed a program of testing and analysis to monitor the level of fouling in the EDG's at the Limerick and Peach Bottom nuclear power plants in response to the Generic Letter. The development of an EDG heat exchanger test program is significantly more complex than for most other heat exchangers. This is because the process fluid flows are controlled by self-modulating thermostatic valves to maintain proper process temperature setpoints. As a result, under some test conditions the process flows may be reduced to as little as 20% of their design values. Flow changes of this magnitude significantly affect the performance of the coolers and obscure observation of the effects of fouling if not properly addressed. This paper describes the methods developed by PECo and SWEC to address this problem

  16. Transient and stability tests at Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 2 at end of Cycle 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turbine trip transient and low flow stability tests were performed at the Peach Bottom-2 BWR/4 nuclear power plant prior to shutdown for refueling at end of Cycle 2 in April 1977. The results of the turbine trip transient tests showed that the fundamental mode of the acoustical pressure oscillation generated in the main steam piping propagates with relatively little attenuation into the reactor core. The magnitude of the neutron flux transient taking place in the BWR core was found to be strongly affected by the initial rate of pressure rise caused by the pressure oscillation. The measured neutron flux transients showed a strong spatial variation along the axis of the reactor core. Very little radial variation in the neutron flux transient was observed. The low-flow stability tests demonstrated that the Peach Bottom-2 Cycle 2 core exhibited a high degree of stability at the limiting test condition above the rated power-flow control line. The measured reactor stability margins showed the expected sensitivity to core power changes at minimum reactor core flow. The tests showed that the small pressure perturbation stability testing offers a useful and practical method of measuring core stability margins. The actual core stability margin was determined from the measured closed-loop pressure to average neutron flux transfer function data based on maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters in a relatively simple transfer function model determined from nonlinear regression analysis. Both static and dynamic error estimates were taken into consideration in evaluating the test results

  17. Checking nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes the test facilities and research projects for Sizewell-B and other nuclear power stations, directed by the National Nuclear Corporation (NNC). The NNC is Britain's nuclear power station design and construction company, and is currently carrying out commissioning on both the Heysham and Torness AGRs. A description is given of NNC's nuclear research and development work, which includes: the production of Cobalt-free alloy, coatings for the primary containment shell, and ''fitness for purpose'' tests on reactor components using its 'Loki' rig to put the equipment through postulated accident conditions. NNC also has a rig to test structural features under extreme thermal shock conditions. (U.K.)

  18. CFD analysis of atmospheric dispersion in a large terrain of Kakrapar atomic power station in presence of structural buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work presents a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculation to investigate the dispersion of SF6 over terrain of Kakrapar nuclear power plant using the actual meteorological data. Three-dimensional, transient simulations have been carried out using CFD code PHOENICS. The CFD calculation covers a domain of 3.2 km X 3.2 km in plan and 0.5 km in height. Atmospheric dispersion in presence of the structures like Reactor Building, Natural Draft Cooling Tower and Turbine Building has been studied. The SF6 was released from the stack at a height of 100 m. SF6 released was considered for 2 hours duration at a rate of 1 gm/sec. This model was used to simulate the transport of SF6 for 6 hours. The ground level concentration of SF6 was monitored

  19. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC's ''Technical Position on Waste Form,'' Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC's ''Technical Position on Waste Form,'' Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including 14C, 99 Tc, and 129I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC's ''Technical Position on Waste Form,'' Revision 1

  20. Assessment of gamma emitting radionuclides in the aquatic ecosystem of Kakrapar Atomic Power Station and evaluation of radiological doses to aquatic plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During operation and maintenance of Pressurised Heavy Water Reactors (PHWRs) at Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS), low level radioactive liquid waste is generated and released to the aquatic ecosystem (Moticher lake). The silt and aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata) samples collected from different locations in Moticher lake were analysed for 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K during 2007-2008. A wide variation in activity levels of 137Cs, 134Cs, 65Zn, 60Co, 54Mn and 40K in silt and weed samples were observed in aquatic system of KAPS. The activity buildup in the silt is confined to a small area in the Moticher lake. The activity levels were found to be insignificant at 1 km away from discharge point (upstream and downstream). An attempt was made to evaluate the radiological dose to aquatic weed (Hydrilla verticillata), which was found to be well within the dose limit prescribed by US DOE. The total radiological dose due to the naturally occurring radionuclide (40K) is comparatively higher than that of other reactor released gamma emitting radionuclides. (author)

  1. Damage prevention in power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference provided orientational information for engineers as planners, manufacturers, designers and operators of power stations working in planning, quality assurance, assembly/installation and safety. The topics were: Risk analysis; failure detection and evaluation; failure examples; reliability from planning to acceptance; reliability during operation; risk reduction by insurances; successful damage prevention. (orig./GL)

  2. Merchant funding for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The next frontier for project finance is merchant generation: the financing of IPPs without long-term offtake contracts. Banks are just beginning to finance merchant generation power stations. One of the first was Destec's Indian Queens project in Cornwall, UK. Bruce Johnston and Martin Bartlam of Wilde Sapte discuss the project. (UK)

  3. Pumps for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    16 nuclear power plants are in commercial operation in Japan, and nuclear power generation holds the most important position among various substitute energies. Hereafter also, it is expected that the construction of nuclear power stations will continue because other advantageous energy sources are not found. In this paper, the outline of the pumps used for BWR plants is described. Nuclear power stations tend to be large scale to reduce the construction cost per unit power output, therefore the pumps used are those of large capacity. The conditions to be taken in consideration are high temperature, high pressure, radioactive fluids, high reliability, hydrodynamic performances, aseismatic design, relevant laws and regulations, and quality assurance. Pumps are used for reactor recirculation system, control rod driving hydraulic system, boric acid solution injecting system, reactor coolant purifying system, fuel pool cooling and purifying system, residual heat removing system, low pressure and high pressure core spraying systems, and reactor isolation cooling system, for condensate, feed water, drain and circulating water systems of turbines, for fresh water, sea water, make-up water and fire fighting services, and for radioactive waste treating system. The problems of the pumps used for nuclear power stations are described, for example, the requirement of high reliability, the measures to radioactivity and the aseismatic design. (Kako, I.)

  4. Construction costs - nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to present development plans in the western industrial nations nuclear power will be able to cover 35 to 45% of power requirements in the mid 1980's. Although specific investment costs are higher for nuclear power plants than for other thermal power stations, nuclear plants are in a position today to generate power more economically than fossil fired plants into the upper part of the middle load sector. The relatively high proportion of fixed costs of the total power generation costs, and a still considerable potential to exploit the economy of scale, will contribute to minimize the inflationary burden on electric power generation. Nevertheless price development of nuclear power plants should be watched attentively, rapid price escalation for components, extremely long planning and construction times and exaggerated environmental protection requirements which serve no real purpose may reduce the economic benefit gained by nuclear energy. Electrical utilities will try to hold investment cost down by all means; for instance they will encourage standardization of nuclear power plants or order twin stations. For long term utilization of nuclear energy the development of high temperature reactors and fast breeders is a logical step forward. (author)

  5. Polymeric materials for atomic power industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the atomic power industry such as nuclear power generating stations, organic polymeric materials are widely used. Those materials have superior properties for electric insulation, for the fabricability and flexibility, so they are conveniently used from the viewpoint of economics too. Here, it is important to recognize the limit of their usage. The first chapter deals with the introduction of the polymeric materials for atomic power industry, i.e. their limiting usage under irradiation, and type test of the equipments. The second chapter describes the testing of the flamability of wire and cable which is mostly concerned at present. The third chapter introduces the accident at the Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Generating Station, which accident has given strong shock in the world, and the last chapter tells the fire accident at the Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Generating Station, which accident has accelerated the development of the fire resistant polymers. (author)

  6. Reviewing nuclear power station achievement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For measurement of nuclear power station achievement against original purchase the usual gross output figures are of little value since the term loosely covers many different definitions. An authentically designed output figure has been established which relates to net design output plus house load at full load. Based on these figures both cumulative and moving annual load factors are measured, the latter measuring the achievement over the last year, thus showing trends with time. Calculations have been carried out for all nuclear stations in the Western World with 150 MW(e) gross design output and above. From these are shown: moving annual load factor indicating relative station achievements for all the plants; cumulative load factors from which return of investment can be calculated; average moving annual load factors for the four types of system Magnox, PWR, HWR, and BWR; and a relative comparison of achievement by country in a few cases. (U.K.)

  7. Thermal ecological study on the water quality and biological impact assessment in the vicinity of Madras Atomic Power Station, Kalpakkam, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS), Kalpakkam uses seawater as tertiary coolant at the rate of 35m3/sec employing a once through type of circuit. The discharged water travels as a canal and mixes with seawater at the mixing zone. The present study investigated the impact of the discharged thermal effluent on the physical chemical and biological quality of the receiving seawater body. Measurements of ΔT between Intake and Outfall ranged from 6.1 to 9.8 deg C and between Intake and Mixing zone from 3.2 to 6.0 deg C. These values are well within the legal limits. The thermal plume is shore attached and extended up to 300 m from the shore and registered a ΔT of 3-4 deg C. No measurable Change in the physical and chemical parameters of seawater (DO, Salinity NO3, NO2, NH3, PO4 and SiO3) in relation to thermal discharges was observed. However, these parameters fluctuated with seasonal changes. The shore attached thermal plume adversely affected the density and distribution of macro benthic animals. The benthos are absent in the mixing zone and their density decreased about 500 m on either side of the mixing zone. The natural shift in the mixing zone provides opportunities for the recolonization of macro benthos. The thermal tolerance study revealed that the experimental fish species Mugil cephalus and Alepeus djidapa did not show any mortality or loss of equilibrium at Δ5 degC (33 degC) and Δ T 7 degC (35 degC) and the maximum ΔT recorded at the impact area is 6 degC. The gradual increase in temperature as found in the plume favors the fishes to escape the acute thermal exposures. (author)

  8. Offshore atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various merits of offshore atomic power plants are illustrated, and their systems are assessed. The planning of the offshore atomic power plants in USA is reviewed, and the construction costs of the offshore plant in Japan were estimated. Air pollution problem may be solved by the offshore atomic power plants remarkably. Deep water at low temperature may be advantageously used as cooling water for condensers. Marine resources may be bred by building artificial habitats and by providing spring-up equipments. In the case of floating plants, the plant design can be standardized so that the construction costs may be reduced. The offshore plants can be classified into three systems, namely artificial island system, floating system and sea bottom-based system. The island system may be realized with the present level of civil engineering, but requires the development of technology for the resistance of base against earthquake and its calculation means. The floating system may be constructed with conventional power plant engineering and shipbuilding engineering, but the aseismatic stability of breakwater may be a problem to be solved. Deep water floating system and deep water submerging system are conceivable, but its realization may be difficult. The sea bottom-based system with large caissons can be realized by the present civil engineering, but the construction of the caissons, stability against earthquake and resistance to waves may be problems to be solved. The technical prediction and assessment of new plant sites for nuclear power plants have been reported by Science and Technology Agency in 1974. The construction costs of an offshore plant has been estimated by the Ministry of International Trade and Industry to be yen71,026/kW as of 1985. (Iwakiri, K.)

  9. Insurance of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrical utility companies have invested large sums in the establishment of nuclear facilities. For this reason it is normal for these companies to attempt to protect their investments as much as possible. One of the methods of protection is recourse to insurance. For a variety of reasons traditional insurance markets are unable to function normally for a number of reasons including, the insufficient number of risks, an absence of meaningful accident statistics, the enormous sums involved and a lack of familiarity with nuclear risks on the part of insurers, resulting in a reluctance or even refusal to accept such risks. Insurers have, in response to requests for coverage from nuclear power station operators, established an alternative system of coverage - insurance through a system of insurance pools. Insurers in every country unite in a pool, providing a net capacity for every risk which is a capacity covered by their own funds, and consequently without reinsurance. All pools exchange capacity. The inconvenience of this system, for the operators in particular, is that it involves a monopolistic system in which there are consequently few possibilities for the negotiation of premiums and conditions of coverage. The system does not permit the establishment of reserves which could, over time, reduce the need for insurance on the part of nuclear power station operators. Thus the cost of nuclear insurance remains high. Alternatives to the poor system of insurance are explored in this article. (author)

  10. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  11. Transformation of the fourth power block of the Chernobyl atomic power station into a ecologically safe system by a dock-caisson technological complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The designers of the technical solution do not doubt that it is possible to transform the fourth power block of the Chernobyl APS into an ecologically safe system by help of Dock-Caisson technological complex. Application of the Dock-Caisson allows to make the operations of phases 1 and 2 of the Shelter installation transformation at the same time, i.e. to make the installation stabilization and preparation to radioactive wastes extraction simultaneously. By completion of first two phases the conditions are created for instant beginning of phase 3, i.e. disassembling of the content of the crashed power block

  12. Waste management at power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Like most other industrial processes, nuclear power stations produce waste in gaseous, liquid and solid forms. Gaseous and liquid wastes are routinely discharged from the stations after suitable treatment, the residual radioactivity being diluted and dispersed in the environment. The discharges are controlled and authorised under the Radioactive Substances Act and the environmental impact is minimal. In recent years low level wastes (LLW) have been sent to BNFL's disposal site at Drigg. Recent charges at Drigg have resulted in changed arrangements for the transport and disposal of low level wastes. This disposal route will be used until an alternative facility is brought into operation. Consideration is being given to volume reduction by supercompaction. Small amounts of intermediate level waste (ILW) such as spent ion exchange resins are now stored pending the availability of a disposal route. Such as a mobile waste treatment plant. In the case of Magnox debris a demonstration dissolution plant has been constructed at Dungeness and this will significantly reduce the volume of waste being stored whilst retaining the bulk of the activity on site for later treatment. At Trawsfynydd a few debris store will hold the fuel element debris in 500 litre drums. (author)

  13. 78 FR 58571 - Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Atomic Power Company, Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company, and The Yankee Atomic Electric Company... Power Company (Maine Yankee), Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company (Connecticut Yankee), and the Yankee Atomic Electric Company (Yankee Atomic) (together, ``licensees'' or ``the Yankee Companies'')...

  14. Sources of the wind power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper deals with problems of the wind power stations. Describes the basic properties of wind energy. Shows and describes the different types of electrical machines used as a source of electricity in the wind power stations. Shows magnetic fields synchronous generator with salient poles and permanent magnets in the program FEMM. Describes methods for assessing of reversing the effects of the wind power stations on the distribution network. (Authors)

  15. Water pollution and thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are a number of thermal power stations dotting the countryside in India for the generation of electricity. The pollution of environment is continuously increasing in the country with the addition of new coal based power stations and causing both a menace and a hazard to the biota. The paper reviews the problems arising out of water pollution from the coal based thermal power stations. (author). 2 tabs

  16. Simulators of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report deals with the simulators of nuclear power stations used for the training of operators and for the analysis of operations. It reviews the development of analogical, hybrid and digital simulators up to the present, indicating the impact resulting from the TMI-2 accident. It indicates, the components of simulators and the present accepted terminology for a classification of the various types of simulators. It reviews the present state of the art of the technology: how a basic mathematical model of a nuclear power system is worked out and what are the technical problems associated with more accurate models. Examples of elaborate models are given: for a PWR pressurizer, for an AGR steam generator. It also discusses certain problems of hardware technology. Characteristics of present replica simulators are given with certain details: simulated transient evolutions and malfunctions, accuracy of simulation. The work concerning the assessment of the validity of certain simulators is reported. A list of simulator manufacturers and a survey of the principal simulators in operation in the countries of the European Community, in the United States, and in certain other countries are presented. Problem associated with the use of simulators as training facilities, and their use as operational devices are discussed. Studies and research in progress for the expected future development of simulators are reviewed

  17. Improving nuclear power station output

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The total annual output of Nuclear Electric's five advanced gas cooled reactor (AGR) stations has increased by more than 80% from 21.7 to 39.3 TW·h over the last four years since the company was formed. This has been achieved through increasing both the capability (maximum power output) and the availability of the reactors. The successive stages of technical modifications, testing and safety case preparation and approval by which the capability of each of the reactor units was raised, whilst ensuring safety, are detailed and the further stages that are planned for the future are outlined. The availability of the reactors has been increased by removing the constraints associated with refuelling operations, reducing statutory overhaul lengths and frequency, and reducing unplanned losses. In 1990, the fuel routes at four of the five stations operated too slowly to supply the fuel needed by the reactors and also required substantial periods of outage of the fuel route for modifications in order to consolidate their off-load refuelling safety cases. The programmes of work undertaken are outlined and the improved performance of the fuel route operations to match the increased output of reactor units is detailed. The future developments, particularly of on-load refuelling, are outlined. The lengths of statutory outages have been reduced by improved management and performance of plant operations and maintenance, and permission has also been received to extend the period between overhauls from 24 to 36 months. Unplanned losses have also been reduced. The improvements in output have not been achieved at the expense of safety nor by increasing the resources deployed. Indeed the reverse is true; key safety indicators show an improvement in both nuclear and industrial safety; and the manpower employed at the AGRs and the total annual expenditure in real terms have both decreased over the past four years. (author). 7 figs, 1 tab

  18. Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of a Nuclear Power Station from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members of the Agency. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 23 November 2006. It was signed in Vienna on 22 February 2007. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 22 February 2007, upon signature by the Director General of the Agency and by the authorised representative of Pakistan

  19. Agreement Between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of Two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the Application of Safeguards in Connection with the Supply of two Nuclear Power Stations from the People's Republic of China is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Board of Governors approved the Agreement on 8 March 2011. It was signed on 15 April 2011 in Vienna, Austria. Pursuant to Section 30 of the Agreement, the Agreement entered into force on 15 April 2011, upon signature by the representatives of Pakistan and the Agency

  20. Safety of Russia's nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently, 29 nuclear power plant units are in operation in Russia. The units 2, respectively, of both the Novovoronesh and Belojarsk nuclear power stations are shut down for decommissioning. In judjing the safety of the units of the first and second generation, GOSATOMNAZDOR applies very strict standards. For several nuclear power stations this entailed restraints on their power output as well as upgrading and retrofitting measures (Kurk, Balakovo, Kalinin, Leningrade 1 and 2, and Kola). (DG)

  1. Underground location of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Japan where the population is dense and the land is narrow, the conventional location of nuclear power stations on the ground will become very difficult sooner or later. At this time, it is very important to establish the new location method such as underground location, Quaternary ground location and offshore location as the method of expanding the location for nuclear power stations from the viewpoint of the long term demand and supply of electric power. As for underground location, the technology of constructing an underground cavity has been already fostered basically by the construction of large scale cavities for underground pumping-up power stations in the last 20 years. In France, Norway and Sweden, there are the examples of the construction of underground nuclear power stations. In this way, the opportunity of the underground location and construction of nuclear power stations seems to be sufficiently heightened, and the basic research has been carried out also in the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry. In this paper, as to underground nuclear power stations as one of the forms of utilizing underground space, the concept, the advantage in aseismatic capability, the safety at the time of a supposed accident, and the economical efficiency are discussed. (Kako, I.)

  2. Study of the transfer of 137Cs from fodder to cow milk in the region around Narora atomic power station NPP site, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site-specific transfer coefficient from feed to cow's milk, for 137Cs in the villages around Narora, a nuclear power station site in India, determined over a period of 17 y, is presented in this paper. In the transport model for the prediction of the concentration of 137Cs in milk, the transfer coefficient from feed to milk, Fm, is an important parameter. The transfer coefficient value is determined from 137Cs concentration in milk and grass samples of the Narora region, and the result ranged from 4.28E-03 to 3.30E-02 d l-1 with a geometric mean value of 1.15E-03 d l-1. The highest and the lowest values were only below one order of magnitude different from the mean, regardless of the type of diet, milk yield and age of the cow. The result is compared with that for 40K, determined concurrently at the same region and ranged from 6.92E-03 to 8.01E-03 d l-1 with a geometric mean value of 7.45E-03 d l-1. This parameter is quite useful in decision-making for implementing countermeasures during a large-area contamination with 137Cs in tropical areas like Narora. The ingestion dose from fallout 137Cs through milk intake for adult and child is also estimated. (authors)

  3. Indoor switchyards for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Special problems encountered in the design of the 230 kV switchyards of the coastal nuclear station at Tarapur, India, are discussed. The remedial measures taken to overcome the deleterious effects of the salty sea water are also outlined. (K.B.)

  4. Reducing nitrogen oxides from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains 17 individual lectures of the seminar included in databanks. The lectures concern combustion and waste gas measures for reducing the sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emission from coal-fired and gas-fired power stations. (PW)

  5. Guangdong Daya Bay nuclear power station project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station is the largest joint-venture project which is also the largest commercial nuclear power plant currently under construction in China mainland. Organized and executed strictly in accordance with international standards, the Daya Bay project is seen as the first step taken by China in the development programme of large-capacity commercial nuclear power units

  6. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-02-20

    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  7. The Gyllingnaes investigation - a survey of altitudes in the Gylling postal area towards atomic power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the altitudes of the local population towards the possible construction of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes in Denmark. It is primarily based on questionnaries, secondarily on interviews. To put the results in better perspective, similar investigations from 1974-1976 are also dealt with. It is concluded that the majority of the population are against atomic power; not only do they oppose the erection of an atomic power station at Gyllingnaes but they oppose the building of atomic power stations in general. An attempt is made to characterize the ''typical'' opponent and the ''typical'' supporter of atomic power. (B.P.)

  8. Power electronic applications for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickrell, Roy L.; Lazbin, Igor

    1990-01-01

    NASA plans to orbit a permanently manned space station in the late 1990s, which requires development and assembly of a photovoltaic (PV) power source system to supply up to 75 kW of electrical power average during the orbital period. The electrical power requirements are to be met by a combination of PV source, storage, and control elements for the sun and eclipse periods. The authors discuss the application of power electronics and controls to manage the generation, storage, and distribution of power to meet the station loads, as well as the computer models used for analysis and simulation of the PV power system. The requirements for power source integrated controls to adjust storage charge power during the insolation period current limiting, breaker interrupt current values, and the electrical fault protection approach are defined. Based on these requirements, operating concepts have been defined which then become drivers for specific system and element design.

  9. FUZZY APPLICATIONS IN A POWER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    T.K Sai; K.A. Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Power generation today is an increasingly demanding task, worldwide, because of emphasis on efficient ways of generation. A power station is a complicated multivariable controlled plant, which consists of boiler, turbine, generator, power network and loads. The power sector sustainability depends on innovative technology and practices in maintaining unit performance, operation, flexibility and availability . The demands being placed on Control & Instrumentation engineers include economic opti...

  10. Starting of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The procedure is briefly characterized of jobs in nuclear power plant start-up and the differences are pointed out from those used in conventional power generation. Pressure tests are described oriented to tightness, tests of the secondary circuit and of the individual nodes and facilities. The possibility is shown of increased efficiency of such jobs on an example of the hydraulic tests of the second unit of the Dukovany nuclear power plant where the second and the third stages were combined in the so-colled integrated hydraulic test. (Z.M.). 5 figs

  11. Distributed systems for protecting nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advantages of distributed control systems for the control of nuclear power stations are obviously of great interest. Some years ago, EPRI, (Electric Power Research Institute) showed that multiplexing the signals is technically feasible, that it enables the availability specifications to be met and costs to be reduced. Since then, many distributed control systems have been proposed by the manufacturers. This note offers some comments on the application of the distribution concept to protection systems -what should be distributed- and ends with a brief description of a protection system based on microprocessors for the pressurized power stations now being built in France

  12. Socioeconomic impacts: nuclear power station siting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The rural industrial development literature is used to gain insights on the socioeconomic effects of nuclear power stations. Previous studies of large industrial facilities in small towns have important implications for attempts to understand and anticipate the impacts of nuclear stations. Even a cursory review of the nuclear development literature, however, reveals that industrialization research in rural sociology, economic geography and agricultural economics has been largely ignored

  13. Principles of nuclear power station control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecture notes are presented which were first distributed as part of a UKAEA introductory course on reactor technology held during November 1975. The material is presented in a manner which hopefully will enable recent graduates in science and technology to obtain a broad overall picture of the problems involved. A nuclear power station is only one element of a dispersed interconnected arrangement of other nuclear and fossil-fired units which together constitute the national 'grid'. Thus the control of any one station must relate to the objectives of the grid network as a whole. Economic and technological factors are shown to lead to a national power supply operating around 50 Hz. A precise control of the supply frequency is also motivated by economic and technological considerations, and it is achieved by regulating the output power of individual stations. In order to make the whole grid network stable in following the load, it is shown that a satisfactory practical criterion is for each station to be stable when operating in isolation with a variable load. As regards individual stations, several special control problems concerned with individual plant items are discussed; these include controlled reactivity insertions, temperature reactivity time constants and flow instability. A simplified analysis establishes a fundamental relationship between the stored thermal energy of a boiler unit (a function of mechanical construction) and the flexibility of the heat source (nuclear or fossil-fired) if the station is to cope satisfactorily with demands arising from unscheduled losses of other generating sets or transmission capacity. Finally, two basic control schemes for power station operation are described, known as coupled and decoupled control. Each of the control modes has its own merits, which depend on the proposed station operating strategy (base-load or load-following) and the nature of the heat source. (author)

  14. Power station stack gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are increasing awareness and pressure to reduce emissions of acid rain and photochemical smog. There is a need to produce new control system and equipment to capture those emissions. The most visible form of pollutions are the chimney smoke, dust and particles of fly ash from mineral matter in the fuel. Acid gases are hard on structures and objects containing limestone. Coal fired power generation is likely to be able to sustain its competitive advantage as a clean source of electricity in comparison with nuclear power and natural gas

  15. Themis - A solar power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hillairet, J.

    The organization, goals, equipment, costs, and performance of the French Themis (Thermo-helio-electric-MW) project are outlined. The program was begun for both the domestic energy market and for export. The installation comprises a molten eutectic salt loop which receives heat from radiators situated in a central tower. The salt transfers the heat to water for steam generation of electricity. A storage tank holds enough molten salt to supply one day's reserve of power, 40 MWh. A field of heliostats directs the suns rays for an estimated 2400 hr/yr onto the central receiver aperture, while 11 additional parabolic concentrators provide sufficient heat to keep the salt reservoir at temperatures exceeding 200 C. In a test run of several months during the spring of 1982 the heliostats directed the sun's rays with an average efficiency of 75 percent, yielding 2.3 MW of power at a system efficiency of 20.5 percent in completely automatic operation.

  16. Developmental state and perspectives of USSR power stations, espec. nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the resolutions of the 25th and 26th party congresses of the CPSU, the Soviet electric and thermal energy economy envisages as the mainstreams in development: Energy projects based on nuclear fuel, i.e. nuclear power stations (NPS), nuclear heat- and -power stations (NHPS) and nuclear heat stations (NHS); fuel-energy complexes: Ekibastuz, Kansk-Achinsk, West-Siberian complex (Tyumen); power stations utilizing non-conventional regenerative energy sources, i.e. solar, geothermal, MHD power stations. Further down, an overview is given on the developmental perspectives of nuclear-heat and nuclear-power economy and on the development of energy management based on fossil fuels. (orig./UA)

  17. Tethered nuclear power for the space station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear space power system the SP-100 is being developed for future missions where large amounts of electrical power will be required. Although it is primarily intended for unmanned spacecraft, it can be adapted to a manned space platform by tethering it above the station through an electrical transmission line which isolates the reactor far away from the inhabited platform and conveys its power back to where it is needed. The transmission line, used in conjunction with an instrument rate shield, attenuates reactor radiation in the vicinity of the space station to less than one-one hundredth of the natural background which is already there. This combination of shielding and distance attenuation is less than one-tenth the mass of boom-mounted or onboard man-rated shields that are required when the reactor is mounted nearby. This paper describes how connection is made to the platform (configuration, operational requirements) and introduces a new element the coaxial transmission tube which enables efficient transmission of electrical power through long tethers in space. Design methodology for transmission tubes and tube arrays is discussed. An example conceptual design is presented that shows SP-100 at three power levels 100 kWe, 300 kWe, and 1000 kWe connected to space station via a 2 km HVDC transmission line/tether. Power system performance, mass, and radiation hazard are estimated with impacts on space station architecture and operation. 23 references

  18. Atomic power generation and future technical progress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of the world's first atomic power station in the Soviet Union in 1954 not only marked the beginning of a new trend in power engineering but also clearly demonstrated the practicability of human utilization of the vast resource of nuclear energy. The discovery of the fundamental possibility of using the energy released by the chain reactions associated with fission of heavy nuclei and fusion of light nuclei was a stupendous gift of science. The full significance of these revelations will appear later, at the end of this century, but it is already clear that the widespread use of nuclear energy from fission and fusion is inevitable, as the only technically and economically satisfactory way of overcoming the shortage of cheap fuels such as oil and gas. The large-scale development of atomic power engineering for various purposes - electric power, process heat and district heating, heat and power supplies for the metallurgical industry, power and heat for different branches of the chemical industry and radiation stimulation of chemical products - will help to save oil and gas so that they can be used for purposes where they are most difficult to replace

  19. Series: Information pavilions of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information pavilion of the Leibstadt nuclear power station is featured. Some 10,000 people visit annually the pavilion, 1/3rd of which are school pupils, and 30% to 40% are German nationals. The pavilion is open to visitors and individuals seven days/week and tours cover the actual installations of which the cooling tower is very popular. Seating space is available for discussions. Some 165,000 people have visited the Leibstadt nuclear power station since 1974. (P.F.K.)

  20. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and...

  1. Nuclear power program and performance of existing nuclear stations in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    India is a developing country that is very anxious to achieve self-reliance in all facets of nuclear power generation. Its nuclear power program, conceived in 1954, was a three-stage long-term plant that included eventual utilization of India's large supplies of thorium. India now has the satisfaction that it has developed all the infrastructures needed for setting up and operating nuclear power stations. it is now poised for rapid growth and has set a target of 10,000 MW(electric) by the turn of this century, although some problems have significantly affected the operation of the units. Performance of the Tarapur atomic power station, the Rajasthan atomic power station, and the Madras atomic power station is discussed

  2. Studying dynamics of indicators of nuclear power stations exploitation (the case of US nuclear power stations)

    OpenAIRE

    Varshavsky, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    Analysis of external and internal factors influencing significant improvement of economic indicators of US nuclear power stations in the 1990s is carried out. Approaches to modeling dynamics of capacity factors of nuclear power stations are proposed. Comparative analysis of dynamics of capacity factors and occupational radiation exposure for various generations of US nuclear power plants is carried out. Dynamical characteristics of «learning by doing» effects for analyzed indicators are measu...

  3. Staff Organization in Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the organization of operating and maintenance staff at nuclear power stations in Italy and manpower variations, either because the plants themselves differ or are organized in some special way. Staff doing jobs for which a specific training is required are given special consideration in the paper. (author)

  4. Comissioning of Fessenheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fessenheim Nuclear Power Station comprises two power plant units of the same design each with a net electrical rated capacity of 890 MW. Each unit comprises a nuclear steam generator system of the pressurized water type and the associated turbine-generator. Successive commissioning procedures extended over a period of three years from initial functional tests to commercial operation of the steam generator system. (orig.)

  5. Phasing out Britain's nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report examines the technical and economic feasibility of phasing-out Britain's nuclear power stations. It considers a range of strategies, from complete closure by 1990, to allowing them to run the full course of their planned lives, which for some reactors would be well into the next century. For reasons stated, closure of all Britain's nuclear power stations by 1990 or shortly afterwards would be likely to lead to a shortfall in generating capacity. Sufficient new generating capacity could not be provided quickly enough to avoid this shortfall, so power cuts at times of winter peak demand would probably occur. However, the older Magnox reactors, which comprise nine of the sixteen nuclear power stations, could be closed by the end of the present decade without risking power cuts. The seven AGRs, which are all newer, could be closed between 1995 and 2000, as replacement capacity was completed. 6 GW of new capacity, equivalent to three coal-fired power stations of standard design, would be needed for this purpose. The phasing out of nuclear power would add to the electricity industry operating costs. Taking all costs together - decommissioning, operating costs and the capital cost of replacement - the increase in electricity price is unlikely to exceed 10%. It is essential that the phasing-out of nuclear power is supported by new investment in the UK coal industry. Given the long time lag in completing new developments, it would be wise to make an early start on this new capacity in order to avoid large coal imports in the 1990s. (author)

  6. Environmental policy for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are several potential explanations for the fact that ambitious CO2 emission reduction goals co-exist with continued existence and even building of high-emission power plants. Three hypothesis have been analyzed in this study, whereby two of them actually seem to occur in practice. First, it is reasonable to assume that long-term public policy regarding climate change is so vague that companies are not able to take them into account. Second, the Dutch allocation mechanism of emission rights under the European Emission Trading Scheme (EU ETS) appears to be biased towards high-carbon technologies. The hypothesis that firms are myopic, in the sense that they ignore future public policy when they make investment decisions, is not backed by empirical evidence. The policy consequences of these findings can be twofold. First, short term government regulation can direct firms towards the adoption of low-carbon technologies. Several technical measures that would be effective in reducing CO2 emissions have been mentioned. However, the government might not want to prescribe companies which action to undertake. There is a risk that they would force investments in technologies that turn out to be less efficient than ex-ante expected. It might be better to rely on the EU market for emission rights, provided that it works well. Unfortunately, the current EU ETS system seems to suffer from some distortion due to applied allocation mechanisms of emission allowances. A second policy consequence is therefore to improve the distribution of emission rights among participants. Benchmarking can be done, but it should be as independent of historic use and fuel type as possible. The auctioning of emission permits is also an option. Whether significant alternations to the system will be made and which changes are to be expected is, however, uncertain. It highly depends on the political climate in Brussels and in the EU member states. This leads us to the conclusion that reliance on

  7. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES:...

  8. Agreement of 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The document reproduces the text of the Agreement from 24 February 1993 between the International Atomic Energy Agency and the Government of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan for the application of safeguards in connection with the supply of a nuclear power station from the People's Republic of China. The Agreement was approved by the Agency's Board of Governors on 19 June 1992

  9. Technological development of Guangdong nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After over 5 years of operations, the Guangdong Nuclear Power Station (GNPS) has achieved good results both economically and in operational safety performance. The main attributes to the success of the plant operational performances include the equipment reliability, the technical capability and management efficiency. To that the key strategy has been to adopt know-how and technological transfer and encourage self-innovation, aiming to strive for the long-term self-reliance in design, manufacturing and operating the plant. (author)

  10. Robot equipment for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A cassette transfer device produced at GANZ-MAVAG, to be installed at the Paks nuclear power station has been previously reported. Further on the requirements set against the robot equipment are described with special regard to safety and economic aspects. Besides the cassette transfer devices designed to tend reactors of an output of 440 MW, information is given on the cassette transfer devices intended for reactors having an output of 1000 MW, actually under development. (author)

  11. Requirement profile for nuclear power station personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The starting point in deriving the requirement profile for the shift personnel in the control rooms of nuclear power stations is information of a technical, organisational and ergonomic kind. The technique used, the distribution of work to different work areas and the configuration of the workplace is determined by the tasks and the environmental conditions in which they have to be done. (orig./DG)

  12. Thermodynamic power stations at low temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malherbe, J.; Ployart, R.; Alleau, T.; Bandelier, P.; Lauro, F.

    The development of low-temperature thermodynamic power stations using solar energy is considered, with special attention given to the choice of the thermodynamic cycle (Rankine), working fluids (frigorific halogen compounds), and heat exchangers. Thermomechanical conversion machines, such as ac motors and rotating volumetric motors are discussed. A system is recommended for the use of solar energy for irrigation and pumping in remote areas. Other applications include the production of cold of fresh water from brackish waters, and energy recovery from hot springs.

  13. Renin-aldosterone and kallikrein-kinin systems in the patients with arterial hypertension who took part in elimination of aftereffects of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study involved 290 patients with arterial hypertension (borderline arterial hypertension, stage 1 and 2 hypertensive disease) who took part in elimination of the aftereffects of the accident at Chernobyl Atomic Power Station (liquidators). The values of pressor renin-aldosterone system and depressor kallikrein-kinin system were determined in the patients. Some peculiarities of vasoactive regulation in these patients were established. Low-renin forms of arterial hypertension are characteristic for the examined liquidators.Irrespective of the stage of hypertension development and renin activity level, increased amount of plasma aldosterone was observed in the liquidators, which can suggest of primary aldosteronism in some patients with low level of renin. Absence of activation and even exhaustion of depressor system (kallikrein-kinin) was revealed in the examined liquidators, which is not characteristic for the patients of the same age who were not exposed to ionizing radiation. The revealed changes of vasoactive regulation in the liquidators with arterial hypertension of comparatively young age have already been described for elderly and old persons and can suggest of aging rate increase in this group of patients

  14. Community reaction to noise from power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Community reaction is a major consideration in noise control. The relationship between noise exposure and community reaction has received considerable attention in relation to railway, traffic, aircraft and impulsive noise. The results have shown a number of features in common, including: similarly shaped noise/reaction functions; similar results across different measurement techniques and cultures, noise/reaction correlations based on individual respondent data are low (mean r = 0.42 ± 0.12: Job, 1988), although correlations of .58 and above have been reported correlations based on data grouped by noise exposure are generally high and relatively unaffected by the type of noise studied whereas correlations based on individual data tend to be lower for impulsive noise than for transportation noise attitude to the noise source and sensitivity to noise shows strong correlations with reaction. This paper reports that the present study was undertaken in order toe establish over a wider range of noise exposure whether community reaction to power station noise is similar to reaction to other types of non-impulsive noise. It is possible that reaction is different given important differences in the source of the noise which may affect attitude. Attitudes towards power stations may be more positive than attitudes to aircraft or rail noise for example, because almost all respondents use electricity regularly every day. Further, the power stations in the present study provided employment for the relatively small surrounding communities

  15. FUZZY APPLICATIONS IN A POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.K Sai

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Power generation today is an increasingly demanding task, worldwide, because of emphasis on efficient ways of generation. A power station is a complicated multivariable controlled plant, which consists of boiler, turbine, generator, power network and loads. The power sector sustainability depends on innovative technology and practices in maintaining unit performance, operation, flexibility and availability . The demands being placed on Control & Instrumentation engineers include economic optimization, practical methods for adaptive and learning control, software tools that place state-of-art methods . As a result, Fuzzy techniques are explored which aim to exploit tolerance for imprecision, uncertainty, and partial truth to achieve robustness, tractability, and low cost. This paper proposes use of fuzzy techniques in two critical areas of Soot Blowing optimization and Drum Level Control.

  16. Special Protection Scheme at BTPS Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballal, Makarand Sudhakar; Suryawanshi, Hiralal Murlidhar; Ballal, Deepali Makarand; Mishra, Mahesh Kumar

    2016-03-01

    After 2003 free licensees' act in power sector, it is observed that many power plants from public sector as well as from private sectors are going to be commissioned. The load growth in India is about more than 10% pa. As these plants are going to connect to the power grid, therefore the grid is going to become more complicated. Also the problems related to grid stability are enhanced. There shall be possibilities regarding failure of grid system and under such circumstance it is always desirable to island minimum single generating unit in power plant of specified geographical area. After islanding the generating unit, this unit has to survive not only for the restoration of grid but also for power supply to important consumers. For the grid stability and effective survival of islanded generating unit, it is mandatory to maintain the power balance equation. This paper focuses on the lacunae's observed in implementation of special protection scheme to carry out islanding operation at Bhusawal Thermal Power Station (BTPS) by considering the case studies. The concepts of islanding, load shedding, generator tripping and along with importance of power balance equation is discussed. Efforts are made to provide the solution for the survival of islanding scheme.

  17. Vacuum switchgear for power station auxiliary switchboards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sizewell B is the first UK power station in which vacuum switchgear is used for the auxiliary switchboards. Previously the 3.3kV, 6.6kV or 11kV switchgear has used air-break circuit breakers and fused air-break contactors, known as motor starting devices or fused switching devices (FSD). The use of vacuum interrupters is therefore a new technology in this application, although it has been established in the UK distribution network and in industrial installations from the mid 1970s. Vacuum switchgear was already in use in the USA for power station auxiliary switchgear at the time that it was proposed for Sizewell B. The Sizewell B high voltage auxiliary switchgear comprises eight Unit and Station Auxiliary Switchboards at 3.3kV and 11kV, and four 3.3kV Essential Switchboards for the essential safety related circuits, making a total of 65 circuit breakers plus FSD panels. (Author)

  18. Decommissioning U.K. power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The strategy for decommissioning U.K. commercial nuclear power stations at the end of their operating lives has hitherto been based on early partial dismantling and clearance to green-field site after about 100 years. This strategy involves a considerable financial liability particularly in the early years following shutdown of the stations. In 1990 Nuclear Electric identified the potential for significantly reducing this liability by reviewing a range of alternative strategies for decommissioning. This review has now been completed by Nuclear Electric and this paper describes the background to it, the review itself and the conclusions. As a result Nuclear Electric are now proposing to adopt a new strategy, referred to as the ''Deferred Safestore strategy'' for all its gas-cooled power stations. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years after shutdown, allowing radioactivity levels in the plant to decay to very low levels in-situ. Following defuelling, an initial care and maintenance phase of about 30 years occurs followed by construction of containments (Safestores) around all buildings containing active plant. The purpose of these is to protect the buildings and their contents from deterioration due to weathering for a further 100 years. Complete dismantling is carried out after that time. An alternative option at that time, with further considerable cost savings, could be In-situ decommissioning. (Author)

  19. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  20. 77 FR 43382 - Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-24

    ... the Commission) now or hereafter in effect. MPS2 shares the site with Millstone Power Station Unit 1... COMMISSION Millstone Power Station, Unit 2; Exemption 1.0 Background Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc., (the... operation of the Millstone Power Station, Unit 2 (MPS2). The license provides, among other things, that...

  1. Dealing with operational power station wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposal of wastes from nuclear power stations is discussed. Liquid and gaseous wastes, from magnox stations, which are of low level activity, are dispersed to the sea or estuaries on coastal sites or for the case of Trawfynyeld, to the nearby lake. Low activity solid wastes are either disposed of on local authority tips or in shallow land burial sites. Intermediate level wastes, consisting mainly of wet materials such as filter sludges and resins from cooling ponds, are at present stored in shielded storage tanks either dry or under water. Only one disposal route for intermediate waste is used by Britain, namely, sea-dumping. Materials for sea dumping have to be encapsulated in a durable material for example, concrete. (U.K.)

  2. Peculiar Features of Nuclear Power and Steam and Gas Plant of Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    I. A. Bokoun

    2014-01-01

    The paper reveals peculiar features concerning of power generation at a nuclear power station and a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station. According to technical and economical indices a nuclear power station is at a disadvantage in relation to a steam and gas plant of a thermal power station.

  3. Experience in increasing power at Grohnde nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steps to improve performance were taken at Grohnde nuclear power station in the years 1986-1990. These are described, together with details of operation since. Also covered are the main factors in calculating plant data as part of monitoring performance. 4 tabs

  4. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multivariable methods have the potential to improve the control of large systems such as nuclear power stations. Linear-quadratic optimal control is a multivariable method based on the minimization of a cost function. A related technique leads to the Kalman filter for estimation of plant state from noisy measurements. A design program for optimal control and Kalman filtering has been developed as part of a computer-aided design package for multivariable control systems. The method is demonstrated on a model of a nuclear steam generator, and simulated results are presented

  5. Programmable controller for the power station environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A programmable controller has been developed specifically to meet the needs of a large power station. Designed to be used in large numbers throughout the station, each controller replaces one separately fused relay logic circuit controlling one or several devices in a process or electrical logic system. A number of built-in diagnostic features have been provided to reduce substantially the cost of detecting and locating field wiring faults such as discontinuities and ground faults. The mechanical and electrical design has been arranged to minimize the installation and maintenance costs through such features as factory pre-assembled field connectors, a compact mechanical arrangement, a small number of standard replaceable modules, and the mounting of all failure-prone components on the modules as opposed to the motherboard or crate. Production prototype units have been tested for their capability of withstanding the environmental effects of temperature, transient interference, RFI and seismic vibration. A pre-production pilot run is underway leading to the installation of large numbers of units in a nuclear station. 7 refs

  6. Influence of radiation on maintenance in a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maintenance in nuclear power plant differs from that in fossil fuel power plant in many aspects because the maintenance in the former has to be carried out in radiation area. These aspects are : (1) manpower planning to minimise time of repair in order to reduce the radiation dose received by the maintenance crew, (2) difficulties in isolating components to be repaired from reactor which is normally filled with water, (3) shielding and decontamination to reduce radiation fields around equipment and (4) need to write the detailed procedures and use special tools, brief and train personnel before-hand on similar equipment or mock-ups. These aspects are discussed. Two of the major repair jobs carried out at the Tarapur Atomic Power Station are described in brief. The jobs were : (1) tube plugging of secondary steam generators and (2) repair to the guide brackets of dryer -separator assembly in the reactor vessel. (M.G.B.)

  7. The Technical Training Programme for Nuclear Power Station Personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canada's Nuclear Power Demonstration station (NPD), initiated by the federal agency Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, is operated and staffed by the Hydro-Electric Power Commission of Ontario, a provincial public utility. Obtaining and training staff for the station was hampered by the fact that until recently most of Ontario's electricity requirements were supplied by the abundant hydro-electric resources of the province. Increasing use of thermal-electric energy since 1950 created an extreme shortage of staff experienced in the operation of thermal stations. To meet this situation, trained manpower for nuclear generating stations was developed by the following steps: (1) An initial group of professional engineers was selected from among persons with considerable experience in nuclear work, thermal stations and electrical operation; (2) Another group of highly experienced operators and maintainers was selected; (3) The selected groups were given a rigorous training programme involving operation of both nuclear and coal-fired stations, instruction from the designers of NPD and training in the classroom and on the job; and (4) A nuclear training centre was established to select and train additional staff, conduct formal examinations and be generally responsible for personnel quality standards. Independent examinations of personnel were conducted by the Atomic Energy Control Board, a separate federal regulatory agency. Five general categories of personnel are being developed: (1) Supervisors: professional engineers responsible for operation, maintenance and administrative supervision, rotated periodically to increase their versatility; (2) Operators: four levels of qualification depending on the requirements of the job; (3) Control maintainers: four levels of qualification, responsible for maintenance of all instruments, control equipment and electrical equipment; (4) Mechanical maintainers: various levels and combinations of skills (welding, machining, fitting, etc

  8. Slovak power stations (Annual report 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Slovak power stations, s.a. (SE) in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Foreword of the chairman of the Board of directors; (2) Highlights of 1997; (3) Board of directors; (4) Supervisory board; (5) Organisation structure of SE; (6) Branches of SE; (7) Auditor's report; (8) Balance sheet / Economic balance; (9) Economic results; (10) Analysis of economic result; (11) SE capital investment in other trade companies; (12) Basic data; (13) Management and operation of the Slovak Republic's power system; (14) Labour safety and health, fire protection; (15) Electricity trade; (16) Trade heat; (17) Customer services provided to electricity users (18) Investment programme; (19) Environmental protection; (20) Support of renewable; (21) Nuclear safety; (22) Quality system; (23) International co-operation; (24) Centrel; (25) Information technology; (26) Public relations; (27) Business strategy and development programme; (28) Strategic change programme

  9. Grohnde nuclear power station in operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Grohnde Nuclear Power Station in Hamelin on the river Weser is equipped with a pressurized water reactor in the 1,300 MWe power category. The plant was built by Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) for Gemeinschaftskernkraftwerk Grohnde GmbH (KWG), in which Preussische Elektrizitaets-AG and Gemeinschaftskraftwerk Weser GmbH (Stadtwerke Bielefeld GmbH, Elektrizitaetswerk Minden-Ravensberg GmbH, Elektrizitaetswerk Wesertal GmbH) each hold 50%. Including the preplanning phase begun 1972, twelve years and a half passed until the complete plant was delivered to the operator. This is an extension of the planning and construction period by five and a half years compared to the original completion date of mid-1979. The delay was caused especially by the well-known licensing problems in the seventies and by a court order interrupting construction work. (orig./GL)

  10. Solar Powered Radioactive Air Monitoring Stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, J. Matthew; Bisping, Lynn E.; Gervais, Todd L.

    2013-10-30

    Environmental monitoring of ambient air for radioactive material is required as stipulated in the PNNL Site radioactive air license. Sampling ambient air at identified preferred locations could not be initially accomplished because utilities were not readily available. Therefore, solar powered environmental monitoring systems were considered as a possible option. PNNL purchased two 24-V DC solar powered environmental monitoring systems which consisted of solar panels, battery banks, and sampling units. During an approximate four month performance evaluation period, the solar stations operated satisfactorily at an on-site test location. They were subsequently relocated to their preferred locations in June 2012 where they continue to function adequately under the conditions found in Richland, Washington.

  11. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fairlie Ian

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  12. Forecasting Canadian nuclear power station construction costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the huge volume of capital required to construct a modern electric power generating station, investment decisions have to be made with as complete an understanding of the consequences of the decision as possible. This understanding must be provided by the evaluation of future situations. A key consideration in an evaluation is the financial component. This paper attempts to use an econometric method to forecast the construction costs escalation of a standard Canadian nuclear generating station (NGS). A brief review of the history of Canadian nuclear electric power is provided. The major components of the construction costs of a Canadian NGS are studied and summarized. A database is built and indexes are prepared. Based on these indexes, an econometric forecasting model is constructed using an apparently new econometric methodology of forecasting modelling. Forecasts for a period of 40 years are generated and applications (such as alternative scenario forecasts and range forecasts) to uncertainty assessment and/or decision-making are demonstrated. The indexes, the model, and the forecasts and their applications, to the best of the author's knowledge, are the first for Canadian NGS constructions. (author)

  13. Tidal currents measured near Sizewell Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the latter half of 1975 the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) commissioned a survey of water temperatures and currents in the sea near Sizewell Power Station, which is located on the coast of the southern North Sea some 150 km north-east of London. The survey was performed in coastal waters up to 5 km offshore and spanning an area of about 50 km2, to assist in an estimation of the marine dispersion of heat released with the cooling water discharge from the power station. Variations in time and space of the residual tidal movements are presented which provide the mechanism for bulk transport of water, and therefore of heat or other contaminants, from the area. It is shown that these variations can be considerable, and that this has important implications for far-field models of cooling water discharges. The results of harmonic analysis of the tidal velocity are used in two ways- first, the variation of the current with depth is discussed and the implications for the mid-field mixing of cooling water are brought out- second, the significance of reflections from the coast is highlighted by splitting the tidal wave into progressive and standing components. (author)

  14. Underground construction of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the discussions about the safety of nuclear installations the question of building nuclear power stations below ground is being raised again and again. Almost all the experts in the field regard further investigations of underground construction as necessary or desirable. Although in present above-ground plant designs safety measures must ensure that the consequences of hypothetical accidents will in any case be accommodated without involving any hazard to the public, there are some question marks when it comes to ensuring protection against acts of war and sabotage. This contribution outlines the variants of underground designs of nuclear power stations and their feasibility at the present state of the art. The question is studied whether underground construction will increase the safety of the public as against present above-ground designs. Another problem considered is the question of whether the extensive protective measures required under the present licensing procedures and implemented in these plants already preclude any real hazard to the environment with a high degree of certainty, which would leave no necessity for underground constructions. (orig.)

  15. Nuclear Stations of Low Power (SMR): Past, Present, Future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Interest to SMR has arisen from the very beginning of atomic energy development. It is caused by independent energy resource creation for deleted and hard-to-reach areas, where the use of traditional organic sources of energy is impossible or complicated, and electric power lines are absent. Development of small nuclear energy in USA began in 50s of last century and it was subordinated to the tasks of Department of Defense. To solve these tasks 8 experimental SMR of electric power from 0,3 up to 3 ?W were manufactured and put into operation. In 60s these stations were decommissioned. Floating nuclear power plant SMR Sturgis (MN-1A) was in operation since August 1968 till July 1976 in Panama canal region (on lake Gatun). In the USSR design and calculation of SMR were made from the beginning of 50s of last century. The purpose of these researches was to reveal the most perspective SMR projects for implementation as demonstration and industrial samples. It has been worked about 20 variants of SMR with electric power of 1-1,5 ?W with various reactors (on thermal, intermediate and fast neutrons) and different types of execution (stationary, unit-transportable, mobile and floating stations). This work provides the implemented and modern, innovational projects in Russia and in the world. (author)

  16. The micro power station of Verbois

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The policy of the public utilities of the City of Geneva includes the promotion of renewable energy and the conservation of the environment. The erection of the most important hydroelectric power plant in the canton of Geneva at Verbois, on the Rhone River dates back to the years 1938 to 1944. Several retrofits have been made since then, the last dating from 1996 to 1998. In 2000, due to ecological considerations, a fish ladder was added, resulting in a loss of generated power equivalent to a water flow of 2 m3/s at a height of 18.35 meters. In order to compensate for this energy loss, a micro hydropower station with a maximum output power of 316 kW was added. It is fitted with a Francis turbine with horizontal axis and fixed opening; the rotation speed is 605 rpm. A reduced power output could be traced back to the deposition of solids on the grids upstream of the water supply duct. The necessary modifications are discussed

  17. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The systems benefits of the selection of the Sizewell site for a PWR power station are dealt with. The transmission modifications which would be needed to provide effective connection of this station to the system are considered. (U.K.)

  18. Ardennes nuclear power station. Annual report, 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Ardennes nuclear power station suffered two serious production setbacks in 1976 in spite of the satisfactory behavior of the equipment. The first is due to exceptionally unfavorable temperature and flow-rate conditions of the river Meuse, which caused a loss of production of about 300 million kWh. The second arises from the application of the Service des Mines regulations (decree of February 26th 1974) which in 1976 entailed the thorough inspection of the primary circuit and the ten-yearly hydraulic trial during the routine shutdown. This shutdown, intended for three months, in fact lasted an extra two weeks. Calculating the immobilization necessary for a general revision of the material, the production loss ascribable to statutory inspection may also estimated to 300 GWh. The net energy produced was 1362 GWh, the number of hours connected 5536h, the availability coefficient in time 62%, the total number of shutdowns 14. The equipment as a whole works very well. The tests carried out on the occasion of the ten-yearly trial showed the state of the main circuit to be perfectly satisfactoy, while inspections during the hydraulic trial at 207 bar revealed no anomalies. Where the behavior of the steam generators is concerned, only 20 tubes over a total of 6500 have been obstructed since the unit was started up in 1967. The cost per kWh electric of the station is 8.82 French centimes

  19. Nuclear power stations located around Latvia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper consider technical parameters of the nuclear power stations (NPPs) located around Latvia at a distance up to 1500 km. On this territory 163 NPPs were built meant for commercial use. They gave up to 123535 M We(net) in total. At the end of the twentieth century from the mentioned number there remained 141 functioning NPPs yielding totally 115327 M We(net). From these latter the majority (67.4 %) are water-cooled type reactors, half of them, 47, having been built after the projects by specialists of the former US. On the neighbouring territories (Russia, Ukraine, Romania, Czech and Slovak Republics) 18 NPPs are currently under construction, which are envisaged to yield about 14089 M We in total. (author)

  20. Location and security of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting from recent court decisions, the author highlights environmental safety in regard to operation according to regulations and to accidents, and the excludability of an uncontrollable, catastrophic accident. He discusses the site issue under the legal aspect of protecting the individual, of reducing the residual risk, of an international process of consultations on nuclear power stations situated near to frontiers. A decision on sites by parliament and the setting of dose limits by law are rejected by the author who advocates further government provisions to reduce the residual risk. He comes to the conclusion that the site problem and the problems of legal decision-making are shrinking with the achieved safety, test and control techniques. This is also demonstrated to an increasing extent by legal proceedings at administrative courts. Despite many difficulties occurring in this proceedings - stringent decisions made very quickly, long duration of proceedings - it seems useless to shift the competence of decision-making elsewhere. (HSCH)

  1. Water chemistry in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power generation in Japan takes about 30 % of the total generated electric power, and the stable operation and the improvement of the rate of operation are anticipated. In such situation, the water quality control in nuclear power stations aims at the prevention of the corrosion damage of structural materials in the plants, the grasp of the behavior of corrosion products of infinitesimal amount and the countermeasures for reducing them as the important subjects. At the beginning of the operation of LWRs in Japan, stress corrosion cracking and the rise of plant dose rate in BWRs and the corrosion damage of steam generator tubes in PWRs occurred, and the importance of water quality control was recognized. The water quality control standard and the materials for BWRs are shown. In BWRs, the maintenance of the purity of water is the primary subject. The quantity of dissolved oxygen is properly adjusted, and the reduction of generation and removal of iron crud are carried out. Also the water quality control standard and the materials for PWRs are shown. In the primary system, the concentrations of boric acid and lithium hydroxide are controlled, and the pH of coolant is an adjustment factor. In the secondary system, all volatile treatment and condensate desalting equipment are used. (Kako, I.)

  2. Evaluation of predicted and operated parameters of photovoltaic power - station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is concerned with comparison of amount of power produced by photovoltaic power-station determined before construction by simulation of the given system with actually measured values during the full operation of the power-station. Our objective was to compare and evaluate the results of prediction against actual situation. The solution result is the justification of deviations measured. (authors)

  3. Living near a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The need to expand nuclear power and its advantages are discussed publicly nearly each week. According to politicians and the nuclear lobby investing tens of billions Sk at Mochovce will bring Slovakia the often cited 'independence and energy self-sufficiency'. It will also mean profit for Slovenske elektrarne and the company's shareholders - the state and Italian company, Enel. In addition to the lively discussion on the pros and cons of nuclear energy, TREND was also interested in the living conditions around the concrete and strictly guarded, potentially dangerous plants and in the opinion of the people most affected by Mochovce and Jaslovske Bohunice on expansion of the existing and the building of new nuclear power plants. The construction of nuclear powers stations in these regions was not only about new jobs. The state 'prescribed' iodine pills and did not allow any construction in the region and, in the case of Mochovce, ordered the complete demolition of a village. The only thing that remained from Mochovce village was the church. 'And when it was found that the power plant would not reach it, it was even given a new roof. Former inhabitants, especially the older ones that had problems accepting the evacuation, used to visit it often,' explained Jan Foldy, the head of the local municipality in Kalna nad Hronom. After many years, life in the neighbouring villages is not bad. Their budgets are overflowing and so they can afford to spoil their inhabitants with free cable TV and high standard sport facilities, which should partly compensate for the fact that the people are living so close to a nuclear facility. (authors)

  4. Development situation about the Canadian CANDU Nuclear Power Generating Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CANDU reactor is the most versatile commercial power reactor in the world. The acronym 'CANDU', a registered trademark of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, stands for 'CANada Deuterium Uranium'. CANDU uses heavy water as moderator and uranium (originally, natural uranium) as fuel. All current power reactors in Canada are of the CANDU type. Canada exports CANDU type reactor in abroad. CANDU type is used as the nuclear power plants to produce electrical. Today, there are 41 CANDU reactors in use around the world, and the design has continuously evolved to maintain into unique technology and performance. The CANDU-6 power reactor offers a combination of proven, superior and state-of-the-art technology. CANDU-6 was designed specifically for electricity production, unlike other major reactor types. One of its characteristics is a very high operating and fuel efficiency. Canada Nuclear Power Generating Stations were succeeded in a commercial reactor of which the successful application of heavy water reactor, natural uranium method and that on-power fuelling could be achieved. It was achieved through the joint development of a major project by strong support of the federal government, public utilities and private enterprises. The potential for customization to any country's needs, with competitive development and within any level of domestic industrial infrastructure, gives CANDU technology strategic importance in the 21st century

  5. Engineering blasting and vibration monitor near nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The record of earth and stone work blasting test near the Daya bay nuclear power station is presented. Through the test, the schemes of earth and stone work blasting excavation and vibration monitor are gained, ensuring not only the safe operation of Daya bay nuclear power station but also the progress of Lingao nuclear power station engineering. Practice indicates that the two schemes are feasible

  6. Work place regulations - effects on power station construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper describes that the Workplace Order and Workplace Regulations cannot be applied in every area of a conventional power station or the conventional sections of nuclear power stations. In any case extensive regulations already exist for the hot regions of nuclear power stations. A proposal is made as to which areas of power stations should be developed in accordance with the Workplace Order and the Workplace Regulations and which areas are not deemed to be 'Workplaces'. This is illustrated with the aid of typical examples. (orig.)

  7. MOBILE POWER STATIONS BASED ON AIRCRAFT GAS-TURBINE ENGINES

    OpenAIRE

    Kavelin, V.; National Aviation University, Kyiv

    2012-01-01

     Gas-turbine power station is a modern, high-technology plant, which generates electricity and heat energy. It consists of one or more gas-turbine engines – power-plants ganged with electric generator and combined into one power complex by controlling system. Mobile power stations are used in districts, which are distant from source of electric power, e.g. during building of waterworks, mines, bore-holes drilling etc. Primary purpose of mobile power stations is their usage as emergency source...

  8. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... a Final Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station project in... interconnection agreement to construct the proposed 300 megawatt (MW) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and...

  9. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... a Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station in White...) Deer Creek Station in Brookings and Deuel Counties, South Dakota (Project). The proposed facility...

  10. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... Impact Statement (EIS) for the proposed Deer Creek Station Energy Facility project (Project) in Brookings... to construct, own, operate, and maintain the Deer Creek Station Energy Facility, a 300 MW...

  11. Generic information display system for the control centre of the nuclear power station power unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the last years much attention was given to the problem of man-machine interface management for the control systems of high risk object. Modular control panels with computerized display systems are proposed in a number of projects. Rejection of expanded mnemonics and transition to integrated mnemonics and automated workstations feature these projects. The implementation of such systems is related to the need to overcome a number of difficulties. The specialists is automated control systems (ACS) encountered the similar situation in astronautics and then in aviation. Therefore it is reasonable to take into consideration their experience while designing ACS or modifying operational ACS for the power units of atomic stations. In addition, the experience of soviet specialists in the field of astronautics is the most useful from our point of view. Information display systems of manned spacecrafts, starting with the ''Vostok'', substantially differed from those of aircraft and American spacecrafts. Compact consoles using command compression and multifunctional electronic displays and controls were proposed in place of expanded consoles. Based on the experience in astronautics the paper considers the problems of designing a console panel for the integrated IDS and consoles for the ACS of complex objects, including a power unit of the atomic power station. The power unit IDS is presented as an integrated shared system and the operators' workstations. The shared system consists of four levels to display a general status of the power unit; accidents related to the power unit safety; the main parameters and arrangements of the power unit; instruction of goal designations. The workstations have the four similar levels related to the reactor plant or turbine and additional levels to display particular parameters and limitations, routine control and critical situation isolation of a space station and the console of the operator's workstation. (author). 10 refs, 8 figs

  12. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PM

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  13. Standard concerning the design of nuclear power stations in earthquake-prone districts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The measures of security assurance against the effect of radioactive contamination has become more and more complex due to the construction of nuclear power stations of diverse types. The aseismatic measures for the nuclear power stations built in the districts where earthquakes of different intensity occur are important problems. All main machinery and equipments and emergency systems in power stations must be protected from earthquakes, and this makes the solution of problems difficult. At present in USSR, the provisional standard concerning the design of atomic energy facilities built in earthquake-prone districts is completed. The basic philosophy of the standard is to decide the general requirements as the conditions for the design of nuclear power stations built in earthquake-prone districts. The lowest earthquake activity in the construction districts is considered as magnitude 4, and in the districts where earthquake activity is magnitude 9 or more, the construction of nuclear power stations is prohibited. Two levels of earthquake action are specified for the design: design earthquake and the largest design earthquake. The construction sites of nuclear power stations must be 15 to 150 km distant from the potential sources of earthquakes. Nuclear power stations are regarded as the aseismatically guaranteed type when the safety of reactors is secured under the application of the standard. The buildings and installations are classified into three classes regarding the aseismatic properties. (Kako, I.)

  14. Modern power station practice, incorporating modern power system practice. Volume A: station planning and design; 3rd. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, P.C.; Hannah, I.W. [eds.

    1993-12-31

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with `non-engineering` factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are also treated, from the earliest planning and site selection studies, through estimating, finance and quantity surveying, to final landscaping. Main chapter headings are: power station siting and site layout; station design and layout; and civil engineering and building works. The book draws on experience gained by the CEGB through the commissioning of its large modern power stations in the United Kingdom. 216 figs.

  15. Trustworthiness test of nuclear power station employees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trustworthiness test is an important part of securing nuclear facilities against internal offenders. For performing such a test the supervisory authority, which is the State's physical protection authority, contacts the security offices or authorities regarding persons who work inside the sensitive areas of nuclear power stations - areas containing nuclear material. The trustworthiness test covers the present activities of the employees and gives a prediction for the following five years; after this time the test must be repeated. The trustworthiness test is a prerequisite for a facility to obtain a licence for the use of nuclear material, to hire persons for work in the inner area of a nuclear facility or the hire persons for leading positions. In Germany the content and form of the test as well as the evaluation of the results are regulated in a guideline of the Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Reactor Safety (BMU) (latest edition in June 1996). The test is performed by the licensing authority or the supervisory authority. the basis of the test is a declaration by the employee concerned, containing personal data and the agreement of the person to the use of the data files by the safety authorities. It the results of the test are positive, the person tested has the possibility to comment on differences or to explain certain facts. The paper presents details of the BMU guideline. (author)

  16. Corrosion protection at a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Early in the 1970's, the Electricity Supply Commission (Eskom) in South Africa took the decision to construct South Africa's first nuclear fuelled power station. The environment at Koeberg, however, was determined as being particularly corrosive. Eskom was thus faced with the task of selecting corrosion resistant materials and protective coating systems that would provide the required performance in the hostile marine environment. In order to select the correct coating, it was decided to conduct an investigation into the behaviour of various coating systems. All the major coating suppliers in South Africa were invited to provide wet samples of the coating systems that they would recommend. These coatings were applied to mild steel panels which had been prepared in accordance with the coating manufacturer's specification. The panels were then mounted on exposure test racks at various sites. The results of this coating exposure programme were used in the compilation of the corrosion protection specifications for plant and components exposed to the atmosphere at Koeberg. 1 ill

  17. Improvements in steam-cycle thermal power-stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention concerns means for improving the thermodynamic output of thermal power stations and in particular nuclear power stations. A heat pump is used for compressing steam taken from a generator and the thus pressurized steam is used for re-superheating the operating fluid, once partially expanded or even prior to the expansion thereof. Within a given temperature and pressure range, the additional power thus provided by the turbine is greater than the power spent by the pump. This can be applied to power stations comprising means for re-superheating the operating fluid through quick steam and/or steam drawn from the turbine

  18. Human reliability analysis of Lingao Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The necessity of human reliability analysis (HRA) of Lingao Nuclear Power Station are analyzed, and the method and operation procedures of HRA is briefed. One of the human factors events (HFE) is analyzed in detail and some questions of HRA are discussed. The authors present the analytical results of 61 HFEs, and make a brief introduction of HRA contribution to Lingao Nuclear Power Station

  19. Computer management of refueling for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author analyzes the disadvantages of refueling management for nuclear power station at present. A method of computer management of refueling for nuclear power station is put forward and the main functions of the system are explained. The implementation method of the system is also discussed. Finally the expanded prospect is given

  20. The economic consequences of the Sizewell 'B' nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction (the background to Sizewell 'B'); policy options (Sizewell 'B'; a new coal-fired station; the no-new-station option; a PWR programme); economic framework (direct effects; financing; final macroeconomic effects); the construction phase (capital costs; direct effects; final effects; summary); the operating phase (a new power station as a replacement for older stations; the period of base-load operation; the later years of operation; summary); conclusions and policy recommendations. The first recommendation is that if a new power station is built it should be a coal-fired station rather than a PWR. The second recommendation is that if a new coal station is built there is a case for building it early, ahead of demand. (U.K.)

  1. A concept of the energy storable orbital power station (ESOPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Ryojiro; Takano, Tadashi; Yokota, Hiroki

    To save foreseeable difficulties and risks associated with large scale development of the Space Power Station on GEO at a remote distance, the Energy Storable Orbital Power Station (ESOPS) placed in a near earth orbit is proposed. Most promising orbit for ESOPS is a fixed periapsis pseudo sun synchronous orbit. A thermodynamical power generation is preferable owing to its inherent insensitive nature against radiation suffered on the medium altitude orbit. Thermal energy storage using latent heat of fusion seems the best choice for this system. The power transmission from ESOPS to ground station presents most critical problems due to non-stationary characteristics.

  2. Safety of CANDU nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear plant contains a large amount of radioactive material which could be a potential threat to public health. The plant is therefore designed, built and operated so that the risk to the public is low. Careful design of the normal reactor systems is the first line of defense. These systems are highly resistant to an accident happening in the first place, and can also be effective in stopping it if it does happen. Independent and redundant safety sytems minimize the effects of an accident, or stop it completely. They include shutdown systems, emergency core cooling systems, and containment systems. Massive impairment of any one safety system together with an accident can be tolerated. This 'defence in depth' approach recognizes that men and machines are imperfect and that the unexpected happens. The nuclear power plant need not be perfect to be safe. To allow meaningful judgements we must know how safe the plant is. The Atomic Energy Control Board guidelines give one such measure, but they may overestimate the true risk. We interpret these guidelines as an upper limit to the total risk, and trace their evolution. (author)

  3. Nuclear weapons and nuclear power stations: what is the connection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From the start of the nuclear age with the dropping of two atom bombs on Japan in 1945 it has been known that this new source of primary energy could be exploited for weapons or for replacing coal or oil in electricity-generating stations. Nuclear energy is made from two elements: naturally occurring uranium and man-made plutonium. Their processing differs according to the intended end-use. Great efforts have been and still are made to disguise the close connection between nuclear energy for war and for power stations. Two reasons are suggested for this: political conveniences in avoiding additional informed protests against nuclear weapon production and industrial convenience in carrying on without public protest what has become a very profitable industry. It is argued that medical doctors, because of their professional prestige, can speak and be listened to on the risks of continuing to exploit this newly discovered form of energy. Furthermore, this industry is uniquely hazardous to the health of its workers, to the public generally and possibly to the procreation and genetic health of future generations. (author)

  4. The safety reinforcement measures at Shika Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster was initiated by the Tohoku earthquake and subsequent massive tsunami on 11 March 2011. To prevent the event as the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster, we had implemented the necessary safety reinforcement measures in Shika Nuclear Power Stations. In this paper, we are going to introduce the flood prevention measures that prevent seawater from entering the power stations. And we also secured emergency power supplies for the case of loss of all AC power supplies. In addition, we secured the function of coolant systems by diversifying water sources and deployment of fire engines and so forth. As the next step, including the adaptation of Shika Nuclear Power Stations for the new regulations that are going to be forced on next July, not staying the existing state, we are going to study and implement the further measures to improve safety and reliability of Shika Nuclear Power Stations. (author)

  5. Review of radioactive discharges from nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HM Inspectorate of Pollution commissioned, with authorising responsibilities in England and Wales, a study into the discharges of radioactive effluents from Nuclear Power Stations. The study considered arisings from nuclear power stations in Europe and the USA and the technologies to treat and control the radioactive discharges. This report is a review of the arisings and concludes that suitable technologies exist, which if applied, could reduce discharges from nuclear power plants in England and Wales in line with the rest of Europe. (author)

  6. The regional income and employment impacts of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper attempts quantitatively to assess the income and employment impacts associated with two nuclear establishments in Scotland: the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority (U.K.A.E.A.) nuclear power establishment at Dounreay in Caithness and the South of Scotland Electricity Board (S.S.E.B.) nuclear power station presently under construction at Torness in the Lothian region. The model used is a basic Keynesian income multiplier model refined to allow detailed analysis of income and employment impacts at a local level. As used in this study it allows the identification of the increase in income and the associated increase in employment relating to the siting of a nuclear power plant in a particular locality. Results are given. The employment multipliers are estimated to be in the range 1.236 to 1.535 for Dounreay and 1.294 to 1.675 for the operational phase of the Torness plant. It is concluded that although the absolute income increases in the respective subregions are significant, compared to the total annual expenditure of the establishments these figures indicate high leakage from the subregions. (UK)

  7. Atomic power in space: A history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs

  8. Technical-evaluation report on the proposed technical-specification changes for the inservice surveillance of safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3 (Docket Nos. 50-277, 50-278)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the technical evaluation of the proposed Technical Specification changes to Limiting Conditions for Operation, Surveillance Requirements and Bases for safety-related hydraulic and mechanical snubbers at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3. The evaluation is to determine whether the proposed Technical Specifications are in conformance with the model Standard Technical Specification set forth by the NRC. A check list, Appendix A of this report, compares the licensee's submittal with the NRC requirements and includes Proposed Resolution of the Deviations

  9. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, PC

    1991-01-01

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  10. The Cold Atom Laboratory: a facility for ultracold atom experiments aboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aveline, David; CAL Team

    2016-05-01

    Spread across the globe there are many different experiments in cold quantum gases, enabling the creation and study of novel states of matter, as well as some of the most accurate inertial sensors currently known. The Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL), being built at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will be a multi-user facility that will allow the first study of ultracold quantum gases in the microgravity conditions of the International Space Station (ISS). The microgravity environment offers a wealth of advantages for studies of cold atoms, including expansion into extremely weak traps and achieving unearthly cold temperatures. It will also enable very long interaction times with released samples, thereby enhancing the sensitivity of cold atom interferometry. We will describe the CAL mission objectives and the flight hardware architecture. We will also report our ongoing technology development for the CAL mission, including the first microwave evaporation to Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) on a miniaturized atom chip system, demonstrated in JPL's CAL Ground Testbed. We will present the design, setup, and operation of two experiments that reliably generate and probe BECs and dual-species mixtures of Rb-87 and K-39 (or K-41). CAL is scheduled to launch to the ISS in 2017. The CAL mission is supported by NASA's SLPS and ISS-PO. This research was carried out at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under Contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  11. Analysis of boron at Koeberg Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soluble reactivity poisons, also called chemical shim, produce spatially uniform neutron absorption when dissolved in reactor coolant water. The boron-10 isotope having a high neutron absorption coefficient is used in commercial pressurised water reactors (PWR) to limit and control reactivity. This is achieved at Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS) and the majority of commercial PWR's worldwide by the addition of natural boric acid to the reactor coolant. The boric acid dissolved in the coolant decreases the thermal utilisation factor, causing a decrease in reactivity. By varying the concentration of boric acid (and hence also the B-10 concentration) in the coolant, a process referred to as boration and dilution, the reactivity of the core can be easily managed. An increase in boron concentration (boration) creates negative reactivity and if the boron concentration is reduced (dilution), positive reactivity is added. The changing of boron concentration in a PWR is used primarily to compensate for fuel burn-up or poison build-up. The variation in boron concentration allows control rod use to be minimised, which results in a flatter flux profile over the core than can be produced by control rod manipulation. Accurate laboratory and on-line chemical analysis of boron concentration is important because of its operational implications associated with reactivity control and also for nuclear safety. In a normal fuel cycle, as the nuclear fuel is being consumed, the reactor coolant boric acid (B-10) concentration must be reduced by dilution with purified water to maintain the reactor at constant power. Besides in the reactor coolant water, boric acid concentration is also important in the chemical and volume control system and reactor make-up system for operation. For nuclear safety, boric acid concentrations are technical specification parameters, maintained and monitored in the spent fuel system and safety injection systems. Boron concentration determination is

  12. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the policy and practices that would be adopted in the commissioning, operation and maintenance of the proposed Sizewell B PWR power station. The system of personnel recruitment and training required to staff the station is discussed. (U.K.)

  13. Application of additional diesel generators in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to enlarge the nuclear safety margin, ensure safe shutdown of nuclear reactors under loss of on-site and offsite power supply, and raise the unit availability through elongation of diesel fallback time under unavailability of emergency diesel generators, at present, nuclear power stations of most countries and zones in the world such as France, the U.S., south Africa, South Korea and Taiwan have been equipped with additional diesel generators, making the safety performance of above-mentioned nuclear power stations advanced in the world. The wiring procedures, power supply mode, testing methods and the power supply and connection schemes of motor control center are described

  14. Automatic power control system for 235 MWe atomic power reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper highlights the essential features of the design, fabrication and testing of microprocessor based reactor power regulating system of Narora Atomic Power Plant (NAPP) and Kakrapar Atomic Power Plant (KAPP). The improved system design at KAPP employs the reactor power control based on neutron flux signal after correction. The control system responses have been presented and compared with the responses using a reactor functional simulator. A new fault tolerant reactor regulating system has been designed using a dual active and hot stand-by microprocessor system to improve operational reliability. (author). 1 ref., 8 figs

  15. Microwave Power Standard using Cold Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Paulusse, D C; Michaud, A; Paulusse, David C; Rowell, Nelson L; Michaud, Alain

    2003-01-01

    We discuss how the observation of Rabi flopping oscillations in a laser cooled atomic sample could be used as a microwave power standard. The rubidium atoms are first trapped in a standard MOT, then optically pumped, and dropped. As they enter the interaction region, a resonant pulsed microwave field is applied. Following the interaction lasting up to 10 ms, a probe laser beam is turned on and the fluorescence measures the population inversion.

  16. Automation of Space Station module power management and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechtel, Robert; Weeks, Dave; Walls, Bryan

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on automation of space station module (SSM) power management and distribution (PMAD) system are presented. Topics covered include: reasons for power system automation; SSM/PMAD approach to automation; SSM/PMAD test bed; SSM/PMAD topology; functional partitioning; SSM/PMAD control; rack level autonomy; FRAMES AI system; and future technology needs for power system automation.

  17. Reload Startup Physics Tests for Tianwan Nuclear Power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the test purposes, test items, test schedules and test equipment's for reload startup physics test's on Unit 1 and 2 of Tianwan Nuclear Power station. Then, an overview of the previous thrice tests and evaluations on the tests results are presented. In the end, the paper shows the development and work direction of optimization project for reload startup physics tests on Unit 1 and 2 of Tianwan Nuclear Power station. (Authors)

  18. The first n4 power station: Chooz B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authorization to commence construction of the first N4 nuclear power station, Chooz B, with a capacity of 1400 MWe; was granted at the end of 1983. After giving the reasons behind the development of this new generation of power stations the author describes its main characteristics in the light of new developments in various sectors: main components of the system; the control room; health physics; safety; extension of campaigns; improved performance

  19. Geologic survey for atomic power-plant, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author has presented a general treatise on the above title previously, in which the geology and aseismatic design criteria for atomic power-plants in Japan were considerably precisely described. In the present paper, such criteria and surveying prescription now adopted in U.S.A. are first introduced, in which special weight is laid on the vibrative characteristics and structural geologic conditions of plant ground which have large influence on the effects of earthquakes, fault-movement and some accidental shocks that may be inflicted on power stations. Next, as a home example of the geologic survey for atomic power-plants, that performed for the Genkai Power plant in Kyushu now its construction is almost completed, is introduced. Besides general geologic survey of ground and the examination of various physico-mechanical characteristics of site rocks, special tests were carried out for the estimation of the nature and degree of ground vibration at the time of natural and accidental shocks. One of them thus performed is the observation of elastic waves (P and S) caused by blasting in surveying tunnels opened near the reactor site. The data of the vibrative characteristics of ground obtained from these tests are also indespensable for the regulation of blasting method in the excavating work of basal ground for the construction of additional reactors in the vicinity of operating atomic power plants. (Shibata, I.)

  20. Human factors in atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To ensure safety should have priority over all other things in atomic power plants. In Chernobyl accident, however, various human factors including the systems for bulb check after inspection and communication, troubles in the interface between hardwares such as warning speakers and instruments, and their operators, those in education and training for operators and those in the general management of the plant have been pointed out. Therefore, the principles and the practical measures from the aspect of human factors in atomic power plants were discussed here. The word, ''human factor'' was given a definition in terms of the direct cause and the intellectual system. An explanatory model for human factors, model SHEL constructed by The Tokyo Electric Power Co., Ltd., Inc. was presented; the four letter mean software(S), hardware(H), environment(E) and liveware(L). In the plants of the company, systemic measures for human error factors are taken now in all steps not only for design, operation and repairing but also the step for safety culture. Further, the level required for the safety against atomic power is higher in the company than those in other fields. Thus, the central principle in atomic power plants is changing from the previous views that technology is paid greater importance to a view regarding human as most importance. (M.N.)

  1. Planning and preparedness for radiological emergencies at nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Radiological Emergency Preparedness (REP) Program was created after the March 1979 accident at the Three Mile Island nuclear power station. The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) assists state and local governments in reviewing and evaluating state and local REP plans and preparedness for accidents at nuclear power plants, in partnership with the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), which evaluates safety and emergency preparedness at the power stations themselves. Argonne National Laboratory provides support and technical assistance to FEMA in evaluating nuclear power plant emergency response exercises, radiological emergency plans, and preparedness

  2. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  3. Atomic power in space: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  5. Optimal Selection of Floating Platform for Tidal Current Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengmei Jing

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available With continuous development of marine engineering, more and more new structures are used in the exploring of tidal current energy. Three are there different kinds of support structures for tidal current power station, which are sea-bed mounted/gravity based system, pile mounted system and floating moored platform. Comparison with them, the floating mooring system is suit for deep water and the application of which will be widely. In this study, catamaran and semi-submersible as floating platform of tidal current power station are studied. And they are compared with its economic, efficiency of turbine and stability of station. It is found that the catamaran is optimal choice. Based on basic ship theory and using software MOSES, the stability of Catamaran tidal current power station is also calculated. The research of this study is significant and it will be as the reference for the future study.

  6. Hinkley Point 'C' power station public inquiry: statement of case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Statement of Case contains full particulars of the case which the Central Electricity Generating Board (CEGB) proposes to put forward at the Hinkley Point ''C'' Inquiry. It relates to the planning application made by the CEGB for the construction of a 1200 MW Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) power station at Hinkley Point in the United Kingdom, adjacent to an existing nuclear power station. The inquiry will consider economic, safety, environmental and planning matters relevant to the application and the implications for agriculture and local amenities of re-aligning two power transmission lines. The Statement contains submissions on the following matters: Topic 1 The Requirement for the Station; Topic 2 Safety and Design, including Radioactive Discharges; Topic 3 The On-Site Management of Radioactive Waste and Decommissioning of the Station; Topic 4 Emergency Arrangements; Topic 5 Local and Environmental Issues. (author)

  7. Low earth orbit environmental effects on the space station photovoltaic power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A summary of the Low Earth Orbital Environment, its impact on the photovoltaic power systems of the space station and the solutions implemented to resolve the environmental concerns or issues are described. Low Earth Orbital Environment (LEO) presents several concerns to the photovoltaic power systems of the space station. These concerns include atomic oxygen interaction with the polymeric substrate of the solar arrays, ionized environment effects on the array operating voltage, the effects of the meteoroids and debris impacts and penetration through the different layers of the solar cells and their circuits, and the high energy particle and radiation effects on the overall solar array performance. Potential solutions to some of the degrading environmental interactions that will provide the photovoltaic power system of the space station with the desired life are also summarized

  8. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment..., Section III.O, ``Oil collection system for reactor coolant pump,'' for Facility Operating License No. NPF... Power Station, Unit 1 (NAPS Unit 1), located in Louisa County, Virginia. Therefore, as required by...

  9. Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station. Records of the hearing held in compliance with the atomic energy law, from August 28 to September 1, 1989, in Muelheim-Kaerlich

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hearing reported here was held in response to a decision by the Federal Administration Court of September 9, 1988, anulling the first partial licence issued for the Muelheim-Kaerlich nuclear power station. The decision is based on the fact that this first partial licence was issued for a plant which no longer 'exists' in the current construction plans. The first partial licence was issued, according to the application documents, for an exactly defined site and for a specific design concept, namely a compact reactor. In the meantime, due to changes in the arrangement of buildings and as a result of this, deviation from the site previously defined in every detail, the actual construction plans do no longer sufficiently correspond to the application documents in order to justify the first site approval, which was to be connected with the design concept submitted, but was not considered in the safety context bound to the plant design. Therefore, the Court stated, the site approval of the first partial licence has to be re-examined with a view to the changed overall building concept, which is the application basis for the second partial licence. This means that the proper decision to be overtaken is the design-concept-specific site approval. The deficiency in title emerging from a site-specific examination and evaluation deficit can be healed according to the Court judgement, by a flawless first partial licence to be issued by due procedure. (orig.)

  10. Renewal of a nuclear power station using the nuclear power station. Proposal to the energy policy by British Energy, Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    British Energy, Co. (BE) carried out a proposal containing the titled content on review of energy policy promoted by the English Government. At present, in England, as about one fourth of total power generation is supplied by nuclear power generation, because of no construction plan of a new nuclear power station, no unit will be operated on 2025 except the Sizewell Nuclear Power Station. Now, BE proposed that from a viewpoint of energy security in England and the Earth environment, shares of power generation on 2025 should be 15 % in coal heat, 40 % in gas heat, 20 % in reusable energy, and 25 % in nuclear power generations. Therefore, it is said that about ten units of 1.0 to 1.2 million kW output of nuclear power station must be constructed and begun to operate from 2010 to 2025. However, as at present power market price in England, new construction of a nuclear power station will not be payable, together with proposing a carbon-free obligation system where a part of power is obtained from a source without emission of CO2, BE claims to have a negotiation to exempt disposal responsibility on used fuels and radioactive wastes of neck in BE's yield to enforce equity finance ability of BE. Here was introduced on outlines of the proposal. (G.K.)

  11. Hydroelectric power stations and ecological energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report discusses the place of hydroenergy in solving the power and ecological problems of Bulgaria: level of building up of the hydroelectric capacity of the country; possibilities for new hydro electric construction; environmental problems of design, construction and operation of the hydroelectric units; advantages of the hydroelectric engineering. The possibilities of the hydroelectric power plants as an alternative of the other more or less conventional electicity producers are shown in order to help in decision making as regards the problems of the economic, power and environmental crisis. (author)

  12. Nuclear power station and environmental protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution has become a major problem of the present times. In addition to the pollution of air, water, noise and food, there is pollution by industries and factories. Nuclear power plant is the best option to meet the increasing demand for power and to make use of available uranium and thorium in the country. It is generally believed that nuclear power plants increase pollution and are hazardous and not safe. An attempt has been made to analyse these beliefs on a scientific basis. (author). 5 refs., 3 figs

  13. CANDU-OCR power station options and costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report updates and in some cases expands the technical and economic parameters presented originally in AECL-4441. 'Summary report on the design of a prototypical 500 MWe CANDU-OCR power station.' Updating is desirable owing to the increasing number of inquiries that have been received by Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd. from government agencies and the private sector. Each is exploring the available options in their continuing endeavour to provide sufficient and economical energy. The organic-cooled reactor (OCR) concept is particularly interesting to the oil industry because the high steam pressures it can develop allow it to be used for heavy oil extraction can also be used economically for other large thermal and electrical energy production requirements such as those encountered in district heating schemes, heavy water production and electricity production. The report describes a reference OCR-500 MWe reactor. It includes an overview of organic reactor experience and areas for further development based on 14 years of operating experience with the WR-1 reactor. A discussion of several variations on the reference design is given including estimates of costs for various reactor sizes, enrichments and operating functions. Costs are presented in a form which allow easy comparison with those of competing energy options. (auth)

  14. Active screening of magnetic field near power stations generator buses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.I. Kuznetsov

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study technique for a prototyping system of active screening of power-frequency magnetic field distortions near power station generator buses via controllable magnetic field sources is presented. Results of experimental research on a proto-typing active screening system with different control algorithms are given.

  15. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is issuing for public comment draft regulatory guide (DG), DG-4016, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff considers acceptable for terrestrial environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power...

  16. Construction of Dukovany nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief list is given of basic data on the construction of the third Czechoslovak nuclear power plant at Dukovany with four WWER-440 reactors. The technical specifications of the reactors are given as are the specifications of steam generators and of the main circulating pumps. The layout is given of the nuclear power plant designed with regard to operating efficiency, urban integration, fire protection, safety and hygiene control. (J.C.)

  17. Erection all risks insurance for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear power stations are built and installed with components and facilities highly sophisticated on the basis of modern science and technology. Therefore, it has various features in both risks and insurance provision. In considering the damage insurance for nuclear installations, the insurance for nuclear power stations is the most characteristic, and further, the outline can be grasped relatively easily. Among the various damage insurances for nuclear power stations, an insurance for all risks during their erection is described: risk-covering method, the objects of insurance, insurance-contracting particles, damages compensated by the insurance, damages and expenses not compensated, the amounts covered and the limits in damage compensation, the term of insurance, the burden charges of the insured party, the amounts of damage and the amounts covered, adjustment with a nuclear-power property insurance. (Mori, K.)

  18. The ISO 9001 combined cycle gas turbine power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, C. [Enron Power Operations Ltd., Middlesborough (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    Enron Power Operations Limited is believed to be one of the first organisations to achieve BS EN ISO9001: 1994 for an Operational Combined Cycle Gas Turbine Power Station. In 1997 the Power Station decided to re-create policies and procedures to fill in the unknown gaps in its array of policies and procedures. The creation of the Quality Management System was expected to take six months utilising limited resources and the experiences of operational staff. Initial checks and internal audits created a wealth of information and highlighted some significant short falls, once certification was gained further issues have been noted. This paper concerns the development, implementation and certification of the Quality Management System at Teesside Power Station showing some benefits noted during this period and the short period after certification. Any other improvements and benefits will come in the future during continued development of the system. (author)

  19. Preventive maintenance activities for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The supply of stable electric power by getting rid of the failures of nuclear power plants is an important factor for obtaining reliance and social acceptance for nuclear power plants as power sources. Electric power companies have improved their installations as well as carried out maintenance during operation, regular inspection and arrangement. Nuclear plant manufacturers not only implement maintenance and facility-improving works at the request of electric power companies, but also have charge of cooperation in maintenance planning, maintenance engineering services such as operation and repair data analysis and the development of working robots for maintenance. This paper introduces the maintenance activities presently performed by Hitachi Ltd., that is (1) servicing activities for supporting maintenance centering around the Nuclear Plant Service Center; (2) maintenance works in regular inspection; (3) maintenance engineering services to offer preventive maintenance data; and (4) the automation of maintenance works and the development of working robots for reducing exposure to radiation. The robots for nuclear plants are roughly divided into the following four types, and the results of using robots are described. They are exchange machines for replacing reactor or auxiliary components; inspection machines for monitoring plant conditions during reactor operation and for inspection works during shutdown; decontamination machines for reducing radiation dose of reactor equipment; and machining robots for reactor equipment reconstruction or repairing works. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  20. Modern power station practice: incorporating modern power system practice. V. J: Nuclear power generation. 3. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of this new edition of the nuclear volume of Modern Power Station Practice reflect the considerable expansion and development of nuclear power generation in the UK since the initial volume was published in 1964. During that period the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor (AGR) programme has been completed, the approval of Sizewell B launches a new generation of Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) stations and the first of the Magnox has completed its useful life. Thus the current volume presents a comprehensive picture of the design, development and operation of the majority of the nuclear station designs currently being operated throughout the world. Four independent but complementary chapters cover Nuclear physics and basic technology; Nuclear station design; Nuclear station operation and Nuclear safety. Although each chapter is complete within itself, some overlap of technical matter between the chapters is inevitable and indeed essential, reflecting the co-operation of widely differing technical disciplines necessary to ensure the safe and economic design and operation of nuclear stations. (Author)

  1. Feasibility study on floating nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is stipulated that nuclear power plants are to be built on solid rock bases on land in Japan. However, there are a limited number of appropriate siting grounds. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has engaged since 1981 in the studies on the construction technology of power plants, aiming at establishing new siting technology to expand the possible siting areas for nuclear power plants. Underground siting is regarded as a proven technology due to the experience in underground hydroelectric power plants. The technology of siting on quaternary ground is now at the stage of verification. In this report, the outline of floating type offshore/inshore siting technology is introduced, which is considered to be feasible in view of the technical and economical aspects. Three fixed structure types were selected, of which the foundations are fixed to seabed, plant superstructures are above sea surface, and which are floating type. Aiming at ensuring the aseismatic stability of the plant foundations, the construction technology is studied, and the structural concept omitting buoyancy is possible. The most practical water depth is not more than 20 m. The overall plant design, earthquake isolation effect and breakwater are described. (Kako, I.)

  2. Surry nuclear power station: 25th anniversary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virginia Power is one of the ten biggest electricity utilities in the United States of America. In 1972, the Surry-1 nuclear generating unit, equipped with an 850 MWe pressurized water reactor from Westinghouse, was accepted into commercial operation. Unit-2 followed in 1973. The North Anna plant is equipped with two 950 MWe PWR commissioned in 1978 and 1980, respectively. The four units together supply roughly one third of the electric power of the grid system in Virginia. They convert nuclear energy into electric power in an economic way: capacity utilization averaged over five years amounted to 90%, and the generating costs were 1.2 cents per kilowatthour. In 1996, the operator began to make use of the experience accumulated in running his plants when backfitting the three generating units on the Millstone site, which are currently out of operation. An agreement on cooperation to this effect was signed by the two utilities, Virginia Power and Northeast Nuclear Energy Company. As a consequence of deregulation of the US electricity market it may be economically preferable to buy electric power instead of generating it in-house. (orig.)

  3. The power station society's new research and development initiative

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The society of power stations in Sweden has taken an initiative to promote research and development by its members which consist of privately owned generating stations. The areas of work are to be: technology, organisation, economy and finance, environment and relationship to society and man. The article deals with the economics, resources, aims and basis for cooperation and general administrative aspects. (J.H.H.)

  4. Improvements in operational safety performance of the Magnox power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the 43 years since commencement of operation of Calder Hall, the first Magnox power station, there remain eight Magnox stations and 20 reactors still in operation, owned by BNFL Magnox Generation. This paper describes how the operational safety performance of these stations has significantly improved over the last ten years. This has been achieved against a background of commercial competition introduced by privatization and despite the fact that the Magnox base design belongs to the past. Finally, the company's future plans for continued improvements in operational safety performance are discussed. (author)

  5. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is ± 0.5 dB in amplitude and ± 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  6. Tritium releases and impact about EDF nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After a description of the different ways of formation of tritium in the nuclear power stations (either by fission or by activation), the authors discuss the levels of tritium releases by these power stations, indicate the tritium average activities in liquid and gaseous radioactive releases in 2008. They indicate the choices made by EDF and the actions performed to control these releases. They describe how the presence of tritium in the environment is monitored and how measurements are published. They discuss the interpretation of these measurements (in water streams, water sheets, sediments, along the Channel French coasts), and the impact of the tritium released by the nuclear power stations. They evoke modelling studies and researches supported by EDF on the impact of tritium on mankind

  7. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valenti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  8. Waste management and environmental issues at Callide B Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callide B is a coal-fired power station located east of Biloela in the Callide Valley of Central Queensland. To protect the Callide Valley groundwater, a zero waste-water discharge concept was adopted for the power station. This strategy is possible because waste-water volumes are minimized through natural evaporation, is re-used for ash transport and remaining wastes (mainly ash and water) are held behind a clay-cored earth dam 3.2 km in length. This paper describes the environmental monitoring programs, dam surveillance and waste management adopted to maintain the quality of the Callide Valley resource. Groundwater quality downstream of the power station site is considered good to marginal. It is used extensively as a source of irrigation water for agriculture and also supplies 40 percent of Biloela's town water requirements. (author). 8 figs., 17 refs

  9. Focus on coal power station installations and population health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Marco; Masedu, Francesco; Tiberti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence. PMID:21952157

  10. Modelling of the Installed Capacity of Landfill Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberga, D.; Kuplais, Ģ.; Veidenbergs, I.; Dāce, E.; Gušča, J.

    2009-01-01

    More and more landfills are being developed, in which biogas is produced and accumulated, which can be used for electricity production. Currently, due to technological reasons, electricity generation from biogas has a very low level of efficiency. In order to develop this type of energy production, it is important to find answers to various engineering, economic and ecological issues. The paper outlines the results obtained by creating a model for the calculations of electricity production in landfill power stations and by testing it in the municipal solid waste landfill "Daibe". The algorithm of the mathematical model for the operation of a biogas power station consists of four main modules: • initial data module, • engineering calculation module, • tariff calculation module, and • climate calculation module. As a result, the optimum capacity of the power station in the landfill "Daibe" is determined, as well as the analysis of the landfill's economic data and cost-effectiveness is conducted.

  11. Proceedings of scientific-technical seminar: materials investigation for power stations and power grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power stations as well as power grid. The diagnostic methods are also discussed. (author)

  12. General technical characteristics of the Paks nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power station is planned to have 1760 MW; it will consist of 4 power units of 440 MW each. The energy source for the power station is a heterogeneous pressurized water reactor of the type V-213 representing a thermal output of 1375 MW. The reactor will use moderately enriched uranium as a fuel. As to its technological scheme the power plant will have two circuits. The radioactive primary circuit, accomodated in a hermetic box, will contain the reactor, the six loops including the steam generators, main circulating pumps, gate valves, pipings. The non-radioactive secondary circuit accomodates the turbogenerator sets, all their ancillary equipment and heat supply installations. Associated to the reactor hall an auxiliary building serves to store temporarily the liquid and solid radioactive waste. The power plant will be connected to the national grid at voltages of 120 and 400 kV. (author)

  13. Gas electric power station - real option approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper a real option approach for a concrete Gas Power Plant (GPP) is analysed. The classical approach determines the Net Present Value (NPV) for investment in the GPP when the capital of a unit value is at least as large as its installation cost. But the classical NPV rule does not include the opportunity cost of the possibility of waiting a new information from the market that may affect the desirability or the timing of the investment (project). In addition, we must note that in the short run the volatility of the variable dominates, but in the long-run the trend dominates. (Original)

  14. Improving Energy Efficiency of Hydroelectric Power Stations at Irrigation Reservoirs by Wind Power Add-In

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated the possibility of improving the energy efficiency of hydropower stations at irrigation reservoirs based on the energy use of mountain-valley wind flows of surface layers of the atmosphere through the establishment of wind power generation superstructures to the hydroelectric power station that work with them. (author)

  15. Large containment vessel for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reactor containment vessels are installed for preventing scattering radioactive substances at the time of breaking of nuclear equipments, and they have grown large with the increase of reactor power output. As for the types of containment vessels, self-supporting type, concrete liner type, and hybrid type are named, and there are cylindrical, conical, spherical, and electric bulb forms. Reactor pressure vessels and important equipments and pipings are contained in containment vessels, and the measures for safety and in-service inspection are the factors enlarging the containment vessels. The present tendency is to enlarge containment vessels so as to obtain large free space for taking sufficient safety measures and carrying out in-service inspection. The steels for contruction self-supporting containment vessels must be tough enough at low temperature, have good weldability, not require stress relief annealing in field welding, and have stable quality. In case of using SPV-50, the plate thickness required is smaller than 38 mm, the limit that annealing is not required, even when the internal pressure and earthquake load are taken into account. Spherical containment vessels used for small output so far became to be used also for large power output because the plate thickness required is relatively small, sufficient working space can be obtained, and the manufacture is easy. (Kako, I.)

  16. A Series Dissertation on Tianwan Nuclear Power Station--Summary of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Qiankun

    2006-01-01

    This is a summary in relation to the construction and operation of Tianwan Nuclear Power Station (the Project) at Lianyungang, Jiangsu Province, the People' s Republic of China. The breakdown specialty topic shall been given in times to come. In this report, the author attempted to give some general description of the Project, including the Project site' s general layout and geographical conditions. A description of its exposure to the elements is also provided, supported by some data made available to us. The key component parts of the Project are described, namely, the nuclear island which includes the reactor, steam generator and so on; the conventional island and the balance of plant. Wherever possible, the improvements to the reactor design over the operating V320 are highlighted, which result in the V428 reactor model. The supplier and contractor for the major equipment such as the reactor and the turbine is the Russian company, namely Atomstroyexport (ASE). There are third country suppliers who provide other equipment. For instance, Siemens supplies the full digital I&C system and Framatome ANP supplies the emergency diesel generators; the metal-clad switchgear cabinet by ABB of Australia; the main steam isolation valve unit by CCI AG of Switzerland. All these foreign suppliers are well known globally. Their experience and quality of the equipment supplied by them are well recognized by the people in the respective fields. As for the civil work and erection work, the most experienced and trustworthy local contractors have been selected. These contractors have proven their competence in similar contract work before. For the testing of the equipment, stringent and proper procedures which meet international standards are adopted. Finally, the author wished on this report could provide the world a safety and advanced Nuclear Project building in China.

  17. Design Provisions for Withstanding Station Blackout at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    International operating experience has shown that the loss of off-site power supply concurrent with a turbine trip and unavailability of the standby alternating current power system is a credible event. Lessons learned from the past and recent station blackout events, as well as the analysis of the safety margins performed as part of the ‘stress tests’ conducted on European nuclear power plants in response to the Fukushima Daiichi accident, have identified the station blackout event as a limiting case for most nuclear power plants. The magnitude 9.0 earthquake and consequential tsunami which occurred in Fukushima, Japan, in March 2011, led to a common cause failure of on-site alternating current electrical power supply systems at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant as well as the off-site power grid. In addition, the resultant flooding caused the loss of direct current power supply, which further exacerbated an already critical situation at the plant. The loss of electrical power resulted in the meltdown of the core in three reactors on the site and severely restricted heat removal from the spent fuel pools for an extended period of time. The plant was left without essential instrumentation and controls, and this made accident management very challenging for the plant operators. The operators attempted to bring and maintain the reactors in a safe state without information on the vital plant parameters until the power supply was eventually restored after several days. Although the Fukushima Daiichi accident progressed well beyond the expected consequences of a station blackout, which is the complete loss of all alternating current power supplies, many of the lessons learned from the accident are valid. A failure of the plant power supply system such as the one that occurred at Fukushima Daiichi represents a design extension condition that requires management with predesigned contingency planning and operator training. The extended loss of all power at a

  18. Port construction works in the Sendai Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sendai Nuclear Power Station is the second nuclear power station of Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., with two PWR plants of 890 MW each, and the operation of No.1 plant will be started in July, 1984, and that of No.2 plant in March, 1986. The civil engineering works for both plants were started in June, 1978, and March, 1981, respectively, and the rate of progress as of the end of September, 1982, was 97 % and 66 %, respectively. In the construction of this power station, the port facility was provided for the transport of construction materials and spent fuel, and for the intake of condenser cooling water. In order to make the construction by dry work, the double cofferdam structures with steel sheet piles were made offshore. The use of the wharf was started in March, 1980, though typhoons hit the area several times, and the dredging in the port was completed in May, 1982. The outline of the plan of this power station, the state of affairs before the start of construction, the outline of the port construction works, the topography, geological features and sea conditions, the design of the port such as breakwaters, unloading wharf and water intake, the manufacture and installation of caissons, dredging, and the temporary cofferdam works for water intake are described. (author)

  19. Bioremediation for coal-fired power stations using macroalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Paul, Nicholas A; Bird, Michael I; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-04-15

    Macroalgae are a productive resource that can be cultured in metal-contaminated waste water for bioremediation but there have been no demonstrations of this biotechnology integrated with industry. Coal-fired power production is a water-limited industry that requires novel approaches to waste water treatment and recycling. In this study, a freshwater macroalga (genus Oedogonium) was cultivated in contaminated ash water amended with flue gas (containing 20% CO₂) at an Australian coal-fired power station. The continuous process of macroalgal growth and intracellular metal sequestration reduced the concentrations of all metals in the treated ash water. Predictive modelling shows that the power station could feasibly achieve zero discharge of most regulated metals (Al, As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn) in waste water by using the ash water dam for bioremediation with algal cultivation ponds rather than storage of ash water. Slow pyrolysis of the cultivated algae immobilised the accumulated metals in a recalcitrant C-rich biochar. While the algal biochar had higher total metal concentrations than the algae feedstock, the biochar had very low concentrations of leachable metals and therefore has potential for use as an ameliorant for low-fertility soils. This study demonstrates a bioremediation technology at a large scale for a water-limited industry that could be implemented at new or existing power stations, or during the decommissioning of older power stations. PMID:25646673

  20. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  1. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the work of the CEGB's Health and Safety Department in assessing the safety of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station. Issues considered include: external hazards; layout of buildings and plant; primary coolant pressure circuit; fuel; reactor protection systems; safety analysis; radioactive waste management systems; radiological protection; quality assurance; human factors. (U.K.)

  2. Overall strategy of Creys Malville power station dismantling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The power station was stopped by a government decision following the elections in 1997. This shutdown was then officialized by a letter dated April 1998 and the decree of December 1998. This was a non-technical shutdown and as such had not been envisaged; there has been no early warning. (author)

  3. The Staffing of Central Electricity Generating Board Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An account is given of the staffing requirements and organization at a CEBG nuclear power station. The training of staff and licensing requirements for reactoroperating staff are discussed. Experience gained to data of the outcome of pre-operating training and detailed planning in the operational sphere is given. (author)

  4. Prospects for solving environmental problems pertinent to thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.G. Tumanovskii; V.R. Kotler [OAO All-Russia Thermal Engineering Institute, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2007-06-15

    Possible ways to protect the atmosphere and water basin against harmful emissions and effluent waters discharged from thermal power stations are considered. Data on the effectiveness of different methods for removing NOx, SO{sub 2}, and ash particles, as well as heavy metals and CO{sub 2}, from these emissions and discharges are presented.

  5. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the role of Lloyd's Register of Shipping as Independent Inspection Agency for the primary circuit of the PWR for the proposed Sizewell B power station. Topics discussed include: Lloyd's Register of Shipping and its functions; the Independent Inspection Agency and its functions; fabrication of the reactor pressure vessel; inspection on site at Sizewell. (U.K.)

  6. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The non-destructive testing of components for the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station is discussed. Issues considered include: non-destructive testing techniques available; inspection of ferritic steel components during fabrication; reliability of the ultrasonic inspection of ferritic structures; inspection of components of austenitic steel; in-service inspection of the reactor coolant system. (U.K.)

  7. Considerations on control systems in power stations and similar technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedrich, H.J.; Scholz, K.

    1982-03-01

    The statements made are mainly to be regarded as a contribution to the discussion at the ETG/GMR converence on control system in power stations in May 1982. The authors discuss the special subject of the use of central information transmission channels. They indicate both possible limits and also special advantages, and then discuss these.

  8. Ozone for purification of water in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Visibility problems are uncommon in BWR reactors of the German type but they do occur occasionally. At KRB A nuclear power station, the water in the storage pond became turbid in shutdown conditions, which slowed down the work. The authors describe attempts to solve the problem. Ozone treatment was successful

  9. Automated power management within a Space Station module

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William D.; Jones, Ellen F.

    1988-01-01

    An effort to advance and develop techniques and approaches for automation and autonomy in power management and distribution with a Space Station module is described. The applicable breadboard architecture is discussed, summarizing the function partitioning. The breadboard software is briefly addressed, and the breadboard automated operation is described in detail.

  10. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The scenic effect of the proposed Sizewell B power station is considered. Offsite planting of trees, landscaping of the areas around the new access road and of the site itself are discussed. The landscape designs are in a separate volume. (U.K.)

  11. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  12. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The case for Sizewell B in terms of the CEGB's overall duties, policies and objectives is presented. The discussion concentrates on the rationale of the CEGB's wish to proceed with Sizewell B and the implications which an eventual decision to proceed with a Pressurised Water Reactor at Sizewell could have for future power station orders. (U.K.)

  13. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The practice of radiological protection within the CEGB is described. Health physics at nuclear power stations is discussed. Radiation exposure of operational staff at a PWR and radiation exposure of members of the public are considered. Finally arrangements for dealing with radiological hazards arising during a site emergency are described. (U.K.)

  14. Emergency evacuation around nuclear power stations :a systems approach

    OpenAIRE

    Kari, Uday Shankar

    1990-01-01

    Prior to this work, MASSVAC (MASS eVACuation) had evolved as a micro-computer simulation model for analysis and evaluation of areas facing natural disasters (hurricanes and floods). Conceptual and technical enhancements have been made to procedures within MASSVAC to deal with the special problems of evacuating around nuclear power stations. Its incorporation into TEDSS-3 (Transportation-Evacuation Decision Support System) has resulted in a powerful tool to assist development...

  15. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    OpenAIRE

    Marco Valenti; Francesco Masedu; Sergio Tiberti

    2011-01-01

    Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power sta...

  16. Environmental studies and clearance compliance of Kudankulam Atomic Power Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Nuclear industry has played a leading role in evolving proper and effective environmental management impact from development practices right form inception thus minimizing the environmental impact from developmental activities of man. In the engineering design of nuclear power plant, safety is further enhanced considerably by providing double back-upped engineered safety systems. Besides the engineered safety, the other factors considered for ensuring environmental impact minimization are siting criteria, conservative rad-waste management, effluent treatment, application of stringent environmental protection standards for limiting waste discharges, an elaborate environmental surveillance program and an on site and off site emergency preparedness plan. Recently, nuclear power industry has taken a drive to develop and implement Environmental Management System (EMS) to all its operating stations in line with ISO-14001 standards. For Kudankulam atomic power project, a number of studies specifically for environmental protection are carried out to meet the requirements of Russian Federation, new guidelines of Ministry of environment and Forests (MOEF) and Atomic Energy Regulatory Board (AERB). In the present paper an attempt has been made to present the environmental management plan and clearance compliance status of the project

  17. Total life cycle cost model for electric power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Total Life Cycle Cost (TLCC) model for electric power stations was developed to provide a technology screening model. The TLCC analysis involves normalizing cost estimates with respect to performance standards and financial assumptions and preparing a profile of all costs over the service life of the power station. These costs when levelized present a value in terms of a utility electricity rate. Comparison of cost and the pricing of the electricity for a utility shows if a valid project exists. Cost components include both internal and external costs. Internal costs are direct costs associated with the purchase, and operation of the power station and include initial capital costs, operating and maintenance costs. External costs result from societal and/or environmental impacts that are external to the marketplace and can include air quality impacts due to emissions, infrastructure costs, and other impacts. The cost stream is summed (current dollars) or discounted (constant dollars) to some base year to yield a overall TLCC of each power station technology on a common basis. While minimizing life cycle cost is an important consideration, it may not always be a preferred method for some utilities who may prefer minimizing capital costs. Such consideration does not always result in technology penetration in a marketplace such as the utility sector. Under various regulatory climates, the utility is likely to heavily weigh initial capital costs while giving limited consideration to other costs such as societal costs. Policy makers considering external costs, such as those resulting from environmental impacts, may reach significantly different conclusions about which technologies are most advantageous to society. The TLCC analysis model for power stations was developed to facilitate consideration of all perspectives

  18. Battersea Power Station and environmental issues 1929-1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowler, Catherine; Brimblecombe, Peter

    From inception (1920s) to partial demolition (1980s) London's Battersea Power Station provoked public concern over environmental impacts. Adverse reaction during the early stages concerned siting and the effects of air pollutants on the urban surroundings. Potential air pollution problems resulted in a restrictive 'condition' being inserted in the consent for Battersea which required smoke and sulphur dioxide to be controlled. The 'condition' did not reassure either the public or special interest groups who campaigned against the construction of the station. However plans were too advanced to be halted and the official response focused on ensuring successful implementation of flue gas desulphurization. Though the subsequent effectiveness of emission control during the station's working life is arguable, the building itself rapidly became a popular London landmark and an architectural symbol of the fascination that surrounds technology. Objections to its decommissioning and demolition in the 1980s once again placed Battersea Power Station at the centre of public protest. Reactions to the station illustrate the rapidity with which our perception of environmental threats may change.

  19. Heat from nuclear power stations of Nordwestdeutsche Kraftwerke AG (NWK)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of dramatically increased prices, especially for conventional fuels, the feasibility of supplying heat from condensation power plants, constructed solely for generating electric power, has been examined at NWK. In this report, a brief outline is given of the nuclear power stations with which NWK is involved, the main focal point being the heat output derivation from the nuclear power station at Stade. From the end of 1983, 60 tonnes of steam per hour, at a pressure of 8 bar and a temperature of 270 deg. C, will be supplied mainly for the production and heating requirements of an industrial firm which boils salt. Background factors which have led to the realization of this project, as well as the technology and its economy, are discussed. The secondary circulatory system of the nuclear power station and the 'external steam system' are separated from one another by surface heat exchangers. The steam converter required for generating external steam is heated by steam derived from tap A6 of the turbine. When the power station is operated at partial load, the heating steam pressure can be boosted by a reduction of live steam. The external steam is then conveyed to the saline via an approximately 1.5 km conduit pipe, and about 95% of it returns in the form of the condensation product. By releasing the steam, the electric capacity of the power station, available for generating electricity, is reduced by about 10 MW. The external steam-generating plant will be installed in an annex to the engine room. Taking into account the additional investments of almost DM 20 million, as well as the costs of providing a substitute for the shortfall of electric energy actually produced by the power station, even today steam can be supplied more cheaply than by the conventional process of using heavy fuel oil. In addition, the price of steam will change solely according to cost factors related to electricity generation, i.e. it will not be dependent on developments in the sphere

  20. Risk of loss power for ATWT in Daya Bay and Ling'ao nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to analyze the differences between the Anticipated Transient Without Reactor Trip (ATWT) and other reactor protection methods, this paper analyzes in detail the realizing means of ATWT and the effect of lost of power supply on the units based on Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations by system wiring diagram. Based on the comprehensive analysis,this paper proposes the sequence for powering when recovering the power source after ATWT power supply (LCC/LNE) loss for Daya Bay and Ling'ao Nuclear Power Stations. (authors)

  1. Transwaal - economic district heat from the Beznau nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Initial study phases of the Transwaal project for distribution of heat from the Beznau nuclear power station via pipe lines to Aare and Limmat valley regions in Switzerland are presented. 500 MW heat availability through heat exchangers providing forward flow water temperature of 1200C, pipe line network and pumping station aspects, and the system energy flow diagram, are described. Considerations based on specific energy requirements in the year 2000 including alternative schemes showed economic viability. Investment and consumer costs and savings compared with oil and gas heating are discussed. Heat supply is guaranteed well into the 21st century and avoids environmental disadvantages. (H.V.H.)

  2. Computer based training simulator for Hunterston Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For reasons which are stated, the Hunterston-B nuclear power station automatic control system includes a manual over-ride facility. It is therefore essential for the station engineers to be trained to recognise and control all feasible modes of plant and logic malfunction. A training simulator has been built which consists of a replica of the shutdown monitoring panel in the Central Control Room and is controlled by a mini-computer. This paper highlights the computer aspects of the simulator and relevant derived experience, under the following headings: engineering background; shutdown sequence equipment; simulator equipment; features; software; testing; maintenance. (U.K.)

  3. Environmental radon monitoring in gas turbine power station in Haryana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurement of indoor radon and its progeny levels was carried out in Gas Turbine Power Station in Haryana, where natural gas is used as fuel. In the power station LR-115, Type- II plastic track detectors were exposed for 100 days at different locations. The radon levels measured at various locations were moderate to high and thus unsafe from health point of view. The potential alpha energy concentration (PAEC), radon levels (EEC), annual exposure, annual effective dose in the Plant varied from 4.14 mWL to 26.7 mWL, 38.3 Bq m-3 to 247.6 Bq m-3, 0.17 WLM to 1.10 WLM and 0.66 mSv to 4.25 mSv. For comparison, the results of a study carried out in thermal power plant in Haryana are also presented. (author)

  4. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  5. Automatic plant start-up system for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic plant start-up system using a process computer has been applied to the unit No. 1 of Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Co., Inc. This is the world's first commercial-base system for LWRs. Turbine start-up and power control by reactor recirculation flow are automated to reduce operator's labor and to improve the efficiency and accuracy of plant operation. The test data and the results of practical operation have proved the performance of the system is satisfactory. Major functions, configuration, and the results of performance tests at factory and at site are represented here. (author)

  6. Plant power supply device in an atomic power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Object: To avoid tripping of a 6.9 kV class bus line and to decrease a large electric current momentarily flown into a start transformer, in despite of the fact that the bus line is not changed over resulted from actuation of a generator lock-out relay. Structure: An atomic power plant comprising a bus line for a two-system plant power supply and a start transformer receiving power from an exterior system, characterized by the provision of a breaker for effecting the change-over of only one system bus line simultaneously with the reactor scrum and a breaker for effecting the change-over of the other bus line before a generator is tripped as a result of actuation of a generator lock-out relay in a predetermined period of time after the reactor scrum, to thereby reduce the momentary large current to the start transformer. (Kamimura, M.)

  7. The effects of the nuclear disaster at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station on local governments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    All Japan council of local governments with atomic power stations consisted of 24 reactor site and 6 neighboring local governments to solve reactor site related problems. Nuclear disaster at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station affected member local governments to be forced in severe conditions such as 'removal of administrative function' or 'refuge over a wide district beyond local government area', not imagined before. The council set up working group for thirteen local governments themselves to investigate this disaster and find safety and prevention of disaster measures to be deployed in nuclear administration, which published report in March 2012. This article described outline of investigation and derived problems and direction of their solution. Main items were related with communication, resident evacuation, prevention of disaster system, and management of refuge site. (T. Tanaka)

  8. Slovak power stations, Nuclear Power Plants Mochovce (Annual report 1997)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Mochovce in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Director's foreword; (2) Power plant management; (3) Highlights of 1997; (4) Capital construction; (5) Nuclear safety; (6) Radiation safety; (7) Work safety and health protection at work; (9) Fire protection; (10) Units upgrading - safety measures; (11) Maintenance; (12) Operation; (13) Environmental impacts of operations; (14) List of balances; (15) Human sources; (16) International co-operation; (17) Public relations

  9. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses, the...... deposits can be grouped into five textural types, which all possess distinct textural and chemical characteristics. Likewise, the deposition mechanisms for these five types are characteristic and they may be used for constructing a model for the buildup and maturation of an ash deposit. The deposits...... collected on the probes were thin (maximum 2 mm after 9 h) and the influence of operational parameters and probe temperatures on the magnitude of the deposits were minor. The probe temperatures had no influence on the composition of the ash deposits for coals with low ash deposition propensities, whereas...

  10. Organization of radiation protection in German nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using the operating handbooks of the nuclear power stations in West Germany, an examination was carried out of how far the existing organisational structure for radiation protection fulfils the requirements for protection and whether a standardisation of the organisation would provide improvements for the protection of the personnel and for the practicability of the radiation protection organisation. In particular, the parts 'Personnel operating organisation', 'Radiation protection order' and 'Maintenance order' of the operating handbook were evaluated and an audit was made of the radiation protection organisation. In general, the result of the assessment is that the organisation of radiation protection does not contradict the orders, guidelines and regulations in any of the nuclear power stations examined. Corresponding to the possibilities of regulating details of the radiation protection organisation within the undertaking, the target of 'protection of the personnel against radioactive irradiation' is achieved by the various organisation structures which are largely equal to the given example. (orig./HP)

  11. Cooling water practices at coal and gas based power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water is used for a number of diverse purposes in a power plant. In most cases, the water cannot be used as such and requires treatment to ensure higher efficiency and protection of equipment. Corrosion, scale deposition and fouling have since long posed as challenges to the technical expertise of cooling water chemists at industrial and utility power plants. The study of the raw water, water samples from the CW tower basin and clarified water of various coal and gas based power stations has indicated that problem of corrosion and scale formation are linked with the quality of raw water and operating parameters. The present paper deals with the different cooling water treatment practices being followed at various power stations and which have been quite helpful in improving the quality of water and reduce scale promotion, thereby improving heat transfer of condenser and heat exchangers, and in addition to prevent corrosion in the pipelines, water boxes, tube plates and condenser tubes. The above said studies constitutes a part of the Research work being carried out by corrosion group of Research and Development Centre, NTPC under the project entitled evaluation of standards for cooling water treatment which has been sanctioned under CBIP (Central Board of Irrigation and Power) action plan by Department of Power to Research and Development Centre of NTPC in the 8th plan period. (author)

  12. Design Provisions for Station Blackout at Nuclear Power Plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A station blackout (SBO) is generally known as 'a plant condition with complete loss of all alternating current (AC) power from off-site sources, from the main generator and from standby AC power sources important to safety to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses. Direct current (DC) power supplies and un-interruptible AC power supplies may be available as long as batteries can supply the loads. Alternate AC power supplies are available'. A draft Safety Guide DS 430 'Design of Electrical Power Systems for Nuclear Power Plants' provides recommendations regarding the implementation of Specific Safety Requirements: Design: Requirement 68 for emergency power systems. The Safety Guide outlines several design measures which are possible as a means of increasing the capability of the electrical power systems to cope with a station blackout, without providing detailed implementation guidance. A committee of international experts and advisors from numerous countries is currently working on an IAEA Technical Document (TECDOC) whose objective is to provide a common international technical basis from which the various criteria for SBO events need to be established, to support operation under design basis and design extension conditions (DEC) at nuclear power plants, to document in a comprehensive manner, all relevant aspects of SBO events at NPPs, and to outline critical issues which reflect the lessons learned from the Fukushima Dai-ichi accident. This paper discusses the commonly encountered difficulties associated with establishing the SBO criteria, shares the best practices, and current strategies used in the design and implementation of SBO provisions and outline the structure of the IAEA's SBO TECDOC under development. (author)

  13. Safety aspects of station blackout at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal focus of this report is on existing light water reactor nuclear power plants. However, many of the considerations discussed herein can be equally applied to new plants, i.e. those not yet in construction. This report is organized to provide a description of design and procedural factors which safety assessments and reviews of operating experience have shown to be important. These are divided into the off-site power system, the on-site AC power systems and alternate (or nearby) sources of power. The latter may be used in the unlikely event that both normal off-site and on-site sources fail. It must be emphasized that first priority should be placed on designing and maintaining high reliability of both the off-site and on-site AC power systems. This basic concept also applies to the capabilities for restoring power sources which failed and making use of all available alternative and nearby power sources during an emergency, to restore AC power in a prompt manner. Discussions on these aspects are provided in chapters 2 and 3 of this report. Because the expected event frequency and associated confidence in such estimations of station blackout are uncertain, preparations should be made to deal with a station blackout. The nature of those preparations, whether they be optimizing emergency procedures to use existing equipment, modifying this equipment to enhance capabilities, or adding new components or systems to cope with station blackout, must be made in light of plant-specific assessments and regulatory safety philosophies/requirements. Discussions on these matters are provided in chapter 4. General and specific conclusions and recommendations are provided in chapter 5. Appendix A provides a description of several case studies on station blackout and loss of off-site power. Abstracts of papers and presentations are provided in Appendix B with authors and affiliations identified to facilitate personal contact. The References and Bibliography contain a

  14. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the main sources of radioactivity and the barriers which would prevent their release at the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station. The methods of calculating the radiological consequences associated with the most significant faults within the design are outlined. The following possibilities are considered: faults involving high fuel temperatures; loss of coolant accidents; secondary coolant circuit faults; waste processing system faults; irradiated fuel faults. (U.K.)

  15. The risks at nuclear power stations and their insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Insurance can offer an uninterrupted insurance cover from start-up-to shut-down of a nuclear power station. This is assured by the insurance for the erection, for the nuclear liability, for the nuclear/fire, for the engines, for operational interruptions and for the transport. For each of the above mentioned insurance branches, essential characteristic features, such as risk carrier, protection range and insurance costs, are given. (orig.)

  16. Dungeness Power Station off-site emergency plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This off-site Emergency Plan in the event of an accidental release of radioactivity at the Dungeness Nuclear power station sets out the necessary management and coordination processes between Nuclear Electric, operators of the site, the emergency services and relevant local authorities. The objectives promoting the aim are identified and the activities which will be undertaken to protect the public and the environment in the event of an emergency are outlined. (UK)

  17. Optimal Selection of Floating Platform for Tidal Current Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Fengmei Jing; Gang Xiao; Nasir Mehmood; Liang Zhang

    2013-01-01

    With continuous development of marine engineering, more and more new structures are used in the exploring of tidal current energy. Three are there different kinds of support structures for tidal current power station, which are sea-bed mounted/gravity based system, pile mounted system and floating moored platform. Comparison with them, the floating mooring system is suit for deep water and the application of which will be widely. In this study, catamaran and semi-submersible as floating platf...

  18. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    OpenAIRE

    K.Sujatha; VENMATHI, M.; Pappa, N.

    2012-01-01

    Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2), excess oxygen (O2), Nitrogen dioxide (NOx), Sulphur dioxide (SOx) and Carbon monox...

  19. Special address: Fukushima Dai-Ichi Nuclear Power Station update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station event and progression. It discusses the recovery road map and the IAEA fact finding mission which provides important preliminary results. It concludes that the response of the expert and dedicated staff in extreme conditions resulted in the best possible response given the exceptional circumstances. The Japanese government's response to protect the public including evacuation has been impressive and well organized. The hazards for several sites has been underestimated.

  20. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The biological consequences of using a direct cooled system at the proposed Sizewell B power station are dealt with. Problems caused by the impingement of organisms on the fine-mesh screens through which the water is pumped, by the entrainment of smaller organisms in the flow through the cooling system and by the discharge of warmed chlorinated water into the sea are discussed. The chlorination of cooling water is described. (U.K.)

  1. Estimation of Power Efficiency of Combined Heat Pumping Stations in Heat Power Supply Systems

    OpenAIRE

    I. I. Matsko

    2010-01-01

    The paper considers realization of heat pumping technologies advantages at heat power generation for heat supply needs on the basis of combining electric drive heat pumping units with water heating boilers as a part of a combined heat pumping station.The possibility to save non-renewable energy resources due to the combined heat pumping stations utilization instead of water heating boiler houses is shown in the paper.The calculation methodology for power efficiency for introduction of combine...

  2. Optimization of air ducts for nuclear reactor power generation station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the optimization study on the heating, ventilating and air conditions system in Nuclear Reactor Power Generation Station, proper arrangement of air ducts has been studied using the experimental and analytical investigation from a viewpoint of duct arrangement optimization. This study consists of two parts. Part I is optimization of air ducts in the corridors and Part II is optimization of air duct in each room. In part I, from viewpoints of confinement of radioactive materials in facilities having possible radioactive contamination and improvement of thermal environment for workers, the authors have studied air ducts system in which fresh air is supplied to corridors and heat removal and ventilation for each room are performed by transferring air from the corridors, instead of current ducts system with supply duct to each room. In part II, the condenser room with complex configuration and large space, and the electrical equipment room with simple space are selected for model areas. Based on these studies, experimental and analytical investigation (using a three-dimensional thermal hydraulic analysis) technique has been established, and the effective design method for duct arrangement of HVAC design has been verified for Boiling Water Reactor Power Station. The air-duct arrangements optimized in this study are applied to an Advanced Boiling Water Reactor Power Station in trial and reduction of the air-duct quantity is confirmed

  3. Turbo-generator sets in conventional and nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of unit power in conventional and nuclear power stations in Germany and the USA - the development of design criteria for conventional and reheat turbines - a survey of constructional types and problems of conventional reheat turbines by the example of turbine types for 150, 300, 600 and 1,200 MW - saturated steam turbines for boiling-water and pressurized-water reactors - maintenance, automatics, and turbine protection systems - reliability and availability - common turbine defects: outlook on limiting outputs of turbines and generators with different cooling systems and low-pressure parts. (orig./AK)

  4. Technical specifications for cold shutdown (Barsebaeck nuclear power station)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a reactor safety point of view, it is clear that the conditions at power operation and at cold shutdown are quite different. Because of this a special set of regulations, i.e. Technical Specifications for Cold Shutdown (TSCS), has been prepared for the Barseback nuclear power station. This paper gives a short description of these TSCS. Background, general principles, history, preparation, structure and experiences of TSCS are discussed. In order to provide some deeper information about some part of TSCS, a specific example has been chosen, namely the TSCS concerning the residual heat removal systems

  5. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A description is given of the CEGB's current assessment of the potential contribution to electricity generation of those methods considered to be the most significant alternatives to conventional power stations or thermal nuclear reactors for generating electricity. The state of development of the technology, the timescale on which it could be developed, its ability to generate electricity reliably and the cost of generating electricity are some of the matters considered. The following topics are covered: potential developments in coal fired generating plant; combined heat and power generation; energy storage; electricity generation from renewable energy sources; fast reactors and fusion. (U.K.)

  6. Studies on anticorrosion layers on steels typical for power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anticorrosion protective oxide layers arise on ferrous materials in the coolant circuits of power stations from the effect of hot water or steam. The corrosion damage occurring in practice starts with anticorrosion layer failure. However, the extent of corrosion inhibition also determines transfer of metallic compounds into the corrosive medium. The corrosion products transported by the medium form deposits hence leading to a reduction of heat transfer efficiency, local corrosion effects and, in pressurized water reactor circuits, radioactive contamination. Power plant chemistry requires a more detailed clarification of the processes involved at the phase boundary material/operating medium. This work is intended to give a contribution to those problems. (author)

  7. Biblis A nuclear power station: commissioning and first operating experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Biblis A Nuclear Power Station, one of the world's largest nuclear power plants, has fulfilled all expectations in its commissioning phase and the subsequent power operation extending over more then eighteen months and has proved that it is possible to operate generating units of this size perfectly safely. The nuclear power station, which is equipped with a pressurized water reactor and a single shaft turbogenerator set and has an electric power of 1,200 MW, had been started up in the summer of 1974, after a construction period of four years, and accepted by RWE on schedule in February 1975. The outages which have occurred since the acceptance date, which are covered in more detail in this report, were caused primarily by the conventional part of the plant. Cases of this type include defects and maloperation of the mechanical cooling water clean-up system, the instrument transformers of the generator, the high pressure casing of the turbine, and the secondary feed water tank. In the nuclear part of the plant the outages were due mainly to defects of the hydrodynamic shaft seals of the main coolant pumps. All defects were safely controlled by the control and regulating systems of the plant. The behavior of the fuel elements has been normal so far. The radioactivity levels released into the environment were far below the limits prescribed by the licensing authorities. (orig.)

  8. Papers of 6. Scientific-Technical Seminar Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power station. The normalization problems in power station and gas pipelines according to the prescription of UE are also discussed. (author)

  9. Scenarios for the popular initiatives 'Strom ohne Atom' (Electricity without nuclear power) and 'Moratorium Plus'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the possible effects of two Swiss Popular Initiatives which called for the shutdown of nuclear power stations in Switzerland ('Strom ohne Atom'), the restriction of their operating life and the abstention from building new atomic power stations ('Moratorium Plus'). The report examines the energetic and financial consequences of the initiatives. The approaches used for the analysis are described and the energy policy actions required to avoid gaps in the supply of power after the possible closure of the power stations are discussed. Apart from a reference scenario (long-term utilisation of nuclear energy), scenarios for power generation using co-generation are presented. The problems posed by the resulting CO2 and NOx emissions are discussed. Further scenarios review the contribution to be made by renewable sources of energy and increasing energy-conservation efforts. The costs of the shutdown of nuclear power stations are discussed and the results of a sensitivity analysis are presented

  10. Cooperating expert systems for space station power distribution management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a complex system such as the manned Space Station, it is deemed necessary that many expert systems must perform tasks in a concurrent and cooperative manner. An important question to arise is: what cooperative-task-performing models are appropriate for multiple expert systems to jointly perform tasks. The solution to this question will provide a crucial automation design criteria for the Space Station complex systems architecture. Based on a client/server model for performing tasks, the authors have developed a system that acts as a front-end to support loosely-coupled communications between expert systems running on multiple Symbolics machines. As an example, they use the two ART*-based expert systems to demonstrate the concept of parallel symbolic manipulation for power distribution management and dynamic load planner/scheduler in the simulated Space Station environment. This on-going work will also explore other cooperative-task-performing models as alternatives which can evaluate inter and intra expert system communication mechanisms. It will serve as a testbed and a bench-marking tool for other Space Station expert subsystem communication and information exchange

  11. The local economic and social effects of power station siting: anticipated, demonstrated and perceived

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the economic and social effects of power station siting at a local level using material based on the interim research findings from a project commissioned by the Central Electricity Generating Board. The cases for and against power station development are outlined and a review of the actual economic and social effects is presented, drawn from a study of a conventional power station at Drax and a nuclear power station at Sizewell. (U.K.)

  12. Nuclear siting and licensing process (Limerick Atomic Power Station, PA.). Oversight hearing before the Subcommittee on Energy and the Environment of the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, second session

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Subcommittee, in conducting this hearing, is not conducting an inquiry into the question of whether or not construction of the Limerick plant should continue or whether the plant should be allowed to operate. Such decisions properly reside with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission as do all regulatory decisions. The Committee's concern is whether the nuclear regulatory process is functioning as Congress intended. This oversight hearing will serve as a ''case study'' of the nuclear licensing process, and will assist the Subcommittee in weighing decisions pertaining to proposed legislative changes in the nation's nuclear policies. One area of interest to the Subcommittee is the process by which the adequacy of state, local and utility radiological emergency response plans are evaluated prior to the issuance of an operating license. Limerick provides a useful case study in this regard because the plant is located in a region of relatively high population density, where emergency preparedness presents unique and difficult problems. Also, the Subcommittee is aware that some believe the Limerick plants should be converted to coal-fired stations. While the Subcommittee will make no judgements on the merits of this specific proposal for Limerick, it would like to learn how, if at all, the licensing process addresses and resolves an issue of this kind

  13. Solid radwaste characterization at surry and North Anna Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a characterization of the solid radwaste generated at Virginia Power's North Anna and Surry power stations. The primary focus of this characterization was dry active waste (DAW). The characterization, covering the 21-month period from January 1985 through September 1986, was based on information in the station's health physics procurement records, radwaste shipping records, and from interviews with station personnel. The procurement records were the principal source of information for DAW. They were reviewed to determine the quantities of various materials, purchased during the study period, that were expected to become DAW. This provides an upper limit on the quantity in the waste for several major DAW components and a basis for the total amount of other components in the waste. The approach to characterizing DAW discussed in this paper could be implemented and regularly updated by utilizing a computerized procurement records system. If a use code (i.e., contaminated or noncontaminated) is associated with each stock requisition, a characterization could be performed by a computer run. This approach would help track minimization effort effectiveness and would refine the characterization of DAW considerably

  14. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  15. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement. (Kako, I.)

  16. Installation modification of the reactor in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station, Tohoku Electric Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The head of Japan Atomic Energy Commission submitted on September 29, 1978, to the Prime Minister the report that the modification of the reactor installation in Onagawa Nuclear Power Station which is constructed by the Tohoku Electric Power Company, Inc., is in conformity with the relevant laws, annexing the evaluating report that had been deliberated by the Nuclear Reactor Safety Evaluation Committee. The modification is related to the fuel assemblies, the minimum critical power ratio (MCPR), the falling speed of control rods, the maximum reactivity worth of control rods, the independent back-up reactor shut down system, the concentration control system for burnable gas, the iodine removal efficiency of emergency gas process system and the discharge position of condenser-cooling water. The evaluated results of these modifications are explained one by one. By the adoption of 8 x 8 fuel pin array, the maximum linear output density of a fuel pin is decreased, and it was confirmed that the MCPR would be kept always more than the minimum critical value of 1.06. Also, it was evaluated that the channel hydraulics, the core and the plant are stable, and the xenon spatial oscillation can be sufficiently controlled. The limit of the free falling speed of control rods is modified to 0.95 m/s from 1.5 m/s, and the scram time for 90% stroke is revised to less than 3.5 s from about 5.0 s. The maximum reactivity worth of control rods is corrected to less than 0.015 Δk from 0.025 Δk. Considering LOCA, the concentrations of hydrogen and oxygen gases are kept less than 4% and 5%, respectively, utilizing the recombining system in the containment vessel. The discharge point of condenser cooling water is relocated to the offshore about 260 m from the coast. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF WIND-POWER STATIONS ON BIRDS: ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES

    OpenAIRE

    Gorlov P. I.; Siokhin V. D.

    2012-01-01

    The world experience of bird collisions with wind-power stations was analyzed. The detailcharacteristics of principal threats to the birds during building and exploitation of wind-power stations was done. Comparative analysis of factors caused annual birds mortality was performed. Some proposals of negative influence minimization were suggested for wind-power stations utilization.

  18. STUDY OF INFLUENCE OF WIND-POWER STATIONS ON BIRDS: ANALYSIS OF INTERNATIONAL PRACTICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gorlov P. I.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The world experience of bird collisions with wind-power stations was analyzed. The detailcharacteristics of principal threats to the birds during building and exploitation of wind-power stations was done. Comparative analysis of factors caused annual birds mortality was performed. Some proposals of negative influence minimization were suggested for wind-power stations utilization.

  19. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this... Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations,'' is temporarily identified by its task...

  20. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. An overview of the report is provided. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general

  1. Site preparation and excavation for foundation of power plant in construction works for No.2 plant in Tsuruga Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Japan Atomic Power Co. has completed the improved Calderhall type power station in 1966, BWR type No.1 plant in Tsuruga Power Station in 1970, and the BWR type plant in Tokai No.2 Power Station in 1978. Now, as the fourth nuclear power plant, No.2 plant with 1160 MW output in Tsuruga Power Station is a PWR plant, and a prestressed concrete containment vessel was adopted for the first time in Japan. The site of No.2 plant is the limited area between No.1 plant and the Fugen Power Station, in which only the structures of the power plant can be placed, but there was no space for the temporary structure for construction works and abandoning earth. In excavation, the amount of special explosive was limited to avoid the effect of vibration and flying stones. The geological features of the site were examined by various tests. The outline of the civil engineering works is explained. The area of the site is 71,000 m2, and its level is EL + 7.0m. The amount of excavation is 770,000 m3. The excavation for the foundations of three main buildings amounts to 570,000 m3, and the amount of concrete is 17,500 m3. The method of excavation was selected according to the class of rocks. The excavation works were completed without trouble, and the construction is in progress smoothly. (Kako, I.)

  2. The Gundremmingen B and C nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Gundremmingen II Nuclear Power Station, KRB II, was built at Gundremmingen on the river Danube by the KWU/Hochtief consortium with KWU as the reactor manufacturer, for the Rheinisch-Westfaelisches Elektrizitaetswerk AG and Bayernwerk AG utilities. Each of the two units has been equipped with a boiling water reactor of the KWU 72 line of 1310 MWe gross power each. Construction of the main buildings of units B and C was started simultaneously on July 20, 1976 after the first partial construction, including the speedy commissioning phase unit B was delivered to the operator on July 19, 1984. Unit C will be able to complete the nuclear commissioning phase probably by early 1985 and then start power operation. The raise in quality standards led to considerable delays in the preliminary testing and fabrication of components and installations. Those delays were counteracted by the advantages inherent in the dual-unit principle, which helped to save time. (orig./GL)

  3. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based scheme...

  4. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  5. Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station operation and management indicators system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since the commercial operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station (GNPS), dynamic objective management concept that features modern enterprises has been adopted by the station to manage all operational activities with the guidance of business plan. And some quantitative indicators have been employed in order to measure effectively the progress status of these operational activities. After several years' evolvement, a hierarchical and standard performance indicators system has been developed and is playing an active part in the plant's efforts towards top quartile of world nuclear power industry. Structured hierarchically with higher levels resolving into lower levels and lower levels committing to higher levels, the indicator system represents the corporate vision, WANO (World Association of Nuclear Operators) performance indicators, plant integrated indicators and departmental key indicators, covering such areas as safety, production, environment, human resource and cost control. The indicator system not only reflects performance-centered management concept, but also shows the controllability of the whole operational process of the station. Indicators of a certain level serve as both early warnings to superior indicators (lagging indicators in this case) and effects to inferior indicators (leading indicators in this case). The dynamic status of these indicators, numbered more than 230, will eventually be fed back to the business plan and realized through daily work of every branch, and even every member of the workforce. With the indicator system as a quantitative management tool, and an effective tracking system, GNPS has achieved great success in self-assessment, objective definition, improvement follow up, resource re-allocation, and management-staff communication. Periodic plant performance assessment is performed through spider chart and other pictorial diagrams. Indicators are displayed at the plant entrance, offices, Main Control Room and SIS network

  6. Studies on validation of atomic power development in NNC RK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the former Semipalatinsk test site, on remediation of radioactively contaminated areas, on problems of radioactive waste processing and long-term storage. The National Nuclear Center also carries out research development activities in such an urgent problems in the modern atomic power engineering as the decommissioning of nuclear power facilities, in particular, on decommissioning of the BN-350. The NNC RK scientists and specialists participate in work on handling the spent fuel, a long-term storage facility for which is planned to be arranged at the IAE Baikal-1 complex of research reactors under the project on handling a radioactive sodium coolant of the BN-350 primary circuit. Another field of activity, which the NNC RK actively participates is nuclear nonproliferation. The NNC institutes in cooperation with U.S. scientists and specialists carried out the work on creation and upgrading an export control system, at the Institute of Geophysical Research the seismic stations are constructed and investigations on seismic control and monitoring of nuclear tests and explosions are performed. The National Nuclear Center participates in the international program on creation of the ITER Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor, the Institute of Atomic Energy in cooperation with Russian scientific and design organizations takes part in the work on designing and construction a research material testing thermonuclear KTM reactor

  7. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers

  8. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry. CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The NNC cost estimates for the construction of the Sizewell B nuclear power station are discussed and the methods employed in their preparation are described. The preparation of the estimates for each of the major divisions of cost are outlined. These divisions are: civil engineering and building works; nuclear steam supply system; NNC costs; turbine generators; other mechanical plant; other electrical plant. The uncertainties which exist in making these estimates are discussed and the cost allowances which must be made as a result are outlined. (U.K.)

  9. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The cooling water system which would be needed for the proposed Sizewell B power station is described. The possible effects upon public safety, local fishing interests and the existing seabed are examined. Studies of the heat dispersion from outfalls, the location of offshore structures and the control of marine growth in the system are reported. Finally the essential service water system, the reserve ultimate heat sink, the discharge of liquid radioactive waste into the sea and the possible use of waste heat for agricultural and fish farming purposes are discussed. (U.K.)

  10. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design of the proposed Sizewell B power station and the policies which have guided design choices are outlined. The specification for Sizewell B and the production of its reference design are discussed. The Nuclear Steam Supply System and the associated safeguards systems are dealt with in more detail. The protection against hazards causing damage to plant and the protection provided to reduce radiation exposure are described. Control, instrumentation and operation of the plant are discussed. A section on quality of design follows. Finally economic aspects of the design are dealt with. (U.K.)

  11. Water chemistry: industrial and power station water treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book is a blend of basic information on water chemistry at both ambient and high temperature, as well as the problems encountered during wide spread use of water as the fluid for heat transfer in industry. Emphasis is also on steam generating systems and steam quality requirements for high pressure turbines. Special problems of water chemistry and material compatibility in nuclear power stations are also given. A few aspects of both natural waters and effluent treatment systems have also been touched upon briefly

  12. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A discussion is given on the safety issues for the pressure circuit components of the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station. The detail of the evidence concentrates on the reactor pressure vessel itself, as the principal example of a component whose failure is considered incredible. The general background to construction and operation of pressurized plant is described. A description of the form of the vessel and its role is given. Each of the factors which lead to confidence in the integrity of the vessel is then considered. (U.K.)

  13. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence is presented to show how the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel to be constructed for the proposed Sizewell B nuclear power station could be achieved by the French company Framatome. Following a description of the organization and experience of Framatome, their ability to manufacture the pressure vessel to the preferred design and to meet all the requirements of the National Nuclear Corporation is demonstrated. Then it is shown, using examples, how the various procurement and fabrication operations are carried out and controlled and how the quality of the materials and products is assessed and guaranteed. (U.K.)

  14. U. S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-01-01

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission.

  15. U.S. Central Station Nuclear Power Plants: operating history

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The information assembled in this booklet highlights the operating history of U. S. Central Station nuclear power plants through December 31, 1976. The information presented is based on data furnished by the operating electric utilities. The information is presented in the form of statistical tables and computer printouts of major shutdown periods for each nuclear unit. The capacity factor data for each unit is presented both on the basis of its net design electrical rating and its net maximum dependable capacity, as reported by the operating utility to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission

  16. Advanced space solar dynamic power systems beyond IOC Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Wayne E.; Dustin, Miles O.

    1987-01-01

    Three different solar dynamic power cycle systems were evaluated for application to missions projected beyond the IOC Space Station. All three systems were found to be superior to two photovoltaic systems (a planar silicon array and a GaAs concentrator array), with both lower weight and area. The alkali-metal Rankine cycle was eliminated from consideration due to low performance, and the Stirling cycle was found to be superior to the closed Brayton cycle in both weight and area. LiF salt, which establishes peak cycle temperatures for both of the considered cycles at about 1090 K, was shown to be the most suitable material for Thermal Energy Storage.

  17. Human-factor operating concept for Borssele Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The safety level in the operation of a reactor is determined basically by human beings. The Borssele Nuclear Power Station has carried out measures for improving the man-machine interface through training and operating instructions for the shift personnel. The retrofitting of control technology relevant to safety engineering should avoid operating instructions which can cause potential failures. A safety study has shown that the remaining risk following all retrofitting measures remains dependent to the extent of 80% on human factors and that human factors as a whole have a positive effect on reactor safety. (orig.)

  18. Devices (manipulators) particularly for ultrasonic tests in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The manipulator devices for internal and external tests described in this article, were used successfully in the basic and repeat tests for nearly all West German, Swiss and Austrian nuclear power stations. For older reactors or for reactors originating from abroad one did not take sufficient account of the required accessibility to the test location in the configuration of the reactor pressure vessel, which led to complicated special manipulation devices. The handling of which at site requires a great deal of time. The more modern types of reactors are laid out so as to be easier to test and make a better manipulation test system and better test results possible. (orig./RW)

  19. Poultry litter power station in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poultry litter has presented a waste disposal problem to the poultry industry in many parts of the United Kingdom. The plant at Eye is a small to medium scale power station, fired using poultry litter. The 12.7 MW of electricity generated is supplied, through the local utility, to the National Grid. The spent litter that constitutes the fuel is made up of excrement and animal bedding (usually 90% excrement and 10% straw or wood shavings). It comes from large climate-controlled buildings (broiler houses) where birds, reared for meat production, are allowed to roam freely. (UK)

  20. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the Safety Case for the Sizewell B nuclear power station as presented in the Pre-Construction Safety Report. Information which has been made available since its publication is included. Safety is considered for normal operation of the reactor and under fault conditions. Faults considered are those due to external hazards such as earthquakes, extreme weather conditions and aircraft crashes, internal hazards such as fire and missiles and reactor faults. Reactor fault studies described include transient analyses of pressurised faults and of loss-of-coolant accidents and the evaluation of the radiological consequences of design basis faults. (U.K.)

  1. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MWt) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965

  2. Sustainable Power Supply Solutions for Off-Grid Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asma Mohamad Aris

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The telecommunication sector plays a significant role in shaping the global economy and the way people share information and knowledge. At present, the telecommunication sector is liable for its energy consumption and the amount of emissions it emits in the environment. In the context of off-grid telecommunication applications, off-grid base stations (BSs are commonly used due to their ability to provide radio coverage over a wide geographic area. However, in the past, the off-grid BSs usually relied on emission-intensive power supply solutions such as diesel generators. In this review paper, various types of solutions (including, in particular, the sustainable solutions for powering BSs are discussed. The key aspects in designing an ideal power supply solution are reviewed, and these mainly include the pre-feasibility study and the thermal management of BSs, which comprise heating and cooling of the BS shelter/cabinets and BS electronic equipment and power supply components. The sizing and optimization approaches used to design the BSs’ power supply systems as well as the operational and control strategies adopted to manage the power supply systems are also reviewed in this paper.

  3. Atomic power engineering under falsified safety standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In July 1970 the United States Department of Justice accused the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) of violating the Sherman Antitrust Act and of acting in restraint of trade by restricting the ASME Certificate of Authorization and the use of the Code Symbol Stamps to boilers and pressure vessels manufactured in the United States and Canada. During the succeeding two years attorneys for the parties in the case formulated a Consent Decree without a public confrontation in the Court. Furthermore, the membership of ASME was kept uninformed until October of 1972, after the Consent and Final Judgment had become effective and new procedures had been developed for allowing foreign manufacturers to apply the ASME Code Symbol Stamps to their products. As a consequence, a breakdown in engineered safety standards has been sanctioned and this is undermining the engineering profession's overriding reponsibility to protect the public health and safety. This breakdown of professional responsibility is especially serious in the new technology of atomic power. American insurance companies, which have traditionally written 100% insurance coverage for property damage and third party liability against explosions of high pressure steam boilers bearing the ASME Code Stamp, have refused to write such insurance coverage on nuclear reactors. In the author's opinion there is evidence that the Consent was formulated under collusive proceedings and he calls on the members and the Council of ASME to appeal for dismissal of the Consent Decree. 24 refs

  4. Radioactive graphite management at UK Magnox nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UK nuclear power industry is predominantly based on gas-cooled, graphite moderated reactors with their being 20 operating and 6 shutdown Magnox reactors. The radioactive graphite issues associated with the Magnox reactors relate mainly to the reactor core graphite but, at two of the stations, there is also another graphite waste stream which results from the handling of their particular design of fuel elements which incorporate graphite fittings. The decommissioning plan for the Magnox reactors is to apply the Safestore strategy in which the defuelled reactors will be maintained in a quiescent state, e.g. to gain benefit from radioactive decay, with their dismantling being deferred for a period of time. In preparing for and developing the decommissioning strategy detailed studies have been undertaken on all relevant aspects. These have resulted in, for example, extensive information on the graphite radioactive inventories, the condition of the graphite throughout the quiescent deferral period, safety assessment, and, dismantling, waste management and disposal plans. Significant work has also been undertaken on the management of the graphite fuel element debris that has accumulated at the two stations. For example, work is well advanced at one of the stations to install equipment to retrieve this waste and package it in a form suitable for eventual deep geological disposal. (author)

  5. Trends of personal dosimetry at atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The individual dosimetry at the atomic power station is sorted for monthly dosimetry, daily dosimetry and special job dosimetry in high dose circumstance. Film badge (passive dosimeter) can measure gamma dose, beta dose and neutron dose respectively lower than about 0.1 mSv. While workers are in the radiation controlled area, they have to wear the dosimeters and the individual dose is accumulated for every one month. Recently the Silicon semiconductors detecting beta ray and neutron have been developed. With microcircuit technology and these new sensors, new multiple function dosimeter of the card size had been put to practical use. The result of dose measurement obtained by the electronic dosimeter is consistent well with the measurement of usual film badge and new dosimeter can determine the dose as low as 0.01 mSv. The result is stored in the non-volatile memory in the electronic personal dosimeter and held for more than one year without the power supply. The function to read data directly from the memory improves the reliability of the data protection. The realization of the unified radiation control system that uses the electronic personal dosimeter for monthly dosimetry is expected. (J.P.N.)

  6. Single phase power : mini power station transforms waste heat to energy; Single phase power: minikraftverk omdanner spillvarme til energi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-07-01

    Every year large energy quantities vanish as waste heat from Norwegian industry. This was the starting point for Single-Phase Power which has generated a mini power station that utilize waste heat transformed to power. Enova has through the technology program supported the company to develop a pilot plant. (AG)

  7. Integrated Reliability Improvement on Maanshan Nuclear Power Station of Taiwan Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For instance, the Maanshan Nuclear Power Station was subject to a higher frequency of reactor trips and also a larger number of equipment failures in B/P subsystems during its first year of operation than would be expected b asked on experience in other plants of this design. Also there was a large fire in the turbine generator in July 1985. Concerning this, Dr. L. S. Tong, advisor of Atomic Energy Council of Republic of China and Taiwan Power Company, recommended developing and implementing a preventive maintenance program to solve the problem to increase not only maintenance program to solve the problem to increase not only plant reliability but also operational safety. The RecA and TEPC are convinced that high priority should be given to setting up a reliability improvement project for the Mns. A. To complete the fault tree development and critical items identification of the subsystems related mainly in B/P which may cause reactor trips, there are 363 single critical items to be provided for overall preventive maintenance program at Mns. B. With systematic point of view, the reactor trips due to S/G level Low-Low which caused by the critical systems of main feedwater and main steam is the most significance by priority; and secondly, due to turbine trips which are caused by the critical system of Electro Hydraulic Control (EEC). This analysis results coincides with that the reactor trip events actually occurred at Mns. C. With equipment classified point of view, those instrumentation control cards and elements, as well as electric fuses among the single critical items which any one item failure may directly cause a reactor trip to occur must be the most significant items utilized for preventive maintenance

  8. 76 FR 44821 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-27

    ... television stations have ceased over-the-air analog broadcasting, many low power television stations are... Television Broadcasting The SBA defines a television broadcasting station as a small business if such station... establishments operate television broadcasting studios and facilities for the programming and transmission...

  9. Probabilistic safety analysis for the Unterweser Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In October last year, a plant-specific probabilistic safety analysis (PSA) was conducted for the Unterweser Nuclear Power Station as part of the periodic safety review (PSR). As a living PSA, the probabilistic safety analysis was based on the first analysis conducted in 1995; its scope was extended in accordance with the 1996 PSA guideline. Besides the in-plant initiating events in the power mode, which were considered already in the 1995 PSA, the current PSA included external impacts, fires in the plant, and events occurring during plant outages as well as plant-specific data. Also findings of current research were incorporated. The results obtained show the KKU plant to enjoy a high level of safety and allow the PSA to be used alongside plant operation. (orig.)

  10. Representations and types of organizational errors in nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to explore the organizational errors that affect the safety of the nuclear power station,with the methods of interview and events re-analysis. Coding method has been used to change the qualitative data to quantitative data. After cluster analysis, five organizational factors in nuclear power field have been obtained, including technical management factors, non-technical management factors, information interface, organizational planning, and lack of holistic thinking. The study also finds that compared to the technical management factors, non-technical management factors have greater affects on the safety of the system. So the non-technical training is essential to insure the safety of the system

  11. Reliability-centered maintenance program at Clinton Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illinois Power Company is implementing a reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) program at its 984-MW(electric) Clinton Power Station (CPS). The RCM program as defined at CPS is broader and more encompassing than the classical RCM program that is now being introduced to the nuclear industry from the commercial airline industry. At CPS, all of the major elements of the classical RCM approach are being used, but in conjunction with other reliability engineering techniques (e.g., traditional system analysis, review of CPS-specific and industry operating experience). The following are the fundamental objectives of the CPS RCM program: (1) ensure safe and reliable operation of CPS; (2) maintain equipment at inherent levels of safety and reliability and restore these whenever they become degraded; (3) develop design improvements when inherent equipment reliability is inadequate; and (4) accomplish the above objectives at a minimum of total cost, including maintenance costs and the costs of residual failures

  12. Cost of delays in the construction of nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The serious delays in construction suffered by a number of German nuclear power stations are the consequence mainly of the sluggish way in which the licensing procedure is carried out by the public authorities and, more recently, also of administrative court actions with a suspensive effect. The delays brought about by the licensing procedure are due to many causes, among them the uncertainties associated with the decision making process because of objections, the time required for expertises on possible environmental impacts, delays with authorities and experts as a result of the demand for more and more differentiated investigations and the insufficient number of personnel available to the licensing authorities and experts, the delays in the preparation of documents by the manufacturers, and the bachfitting of recent findings to plants already in the licensing phase or licensed. While the negative effect of delays in the construction period upon the electricity supply situation gives rise to less difficulties, because of the economic recession, repercussions on cost are all the more severe. In extreme cases, the extra costs generated over a period of three years may reach the level of the cost of the nuclear power station proper. (orig.)

  13. Spent fuel management in Tokai No.2 power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokai No.2 power station (Tokai-2) is the first 1,100MWe BWR in Japan commencing commercial operation in 1978. There arose a tight situation on the spent fuel storage capacity of the power station after the completion of spent fuel shipment to the overseas reprocessing plants in 1991 and due to the delay of the domestic reprocessing plant operation, and also due to the relatively small original storage capacity. The spent fuel pool storage capacity of Tokai-2 was enhanced with re-racking in 1994. Dry cask storage started in December 2001 for further enhancement. On the other hand, to increase the fuel storage measures, the off-site dry cask storage of spent fuel will start. At Tokai-2, one dry storage cask loaded with spent fuel was carefully examined after 7-year-storage to confirm integrity of fuel assemblies and metal gasket in January 2009. To contribute a more practical cask design, the margin of current dry storage cask design was investigated by comparison of measured data of dry storage casks with calculation. (author)

  14. Recent trends of hydraulic snubbers for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the important safety measures for nuclear power stations is aseismatic measure. The vibration due to earthquakes, the pulsation of fluid, the blow-off of safety valves, the whipping of pipes due to break and so on should be taken into consideration. The recent trends of the hydraulic vibration dampers for pipings are described. The vibration dampers must not restrain the gradual move due to thermal expansion, but exert restraining force to violent move due to earthquakes and others. Fixed restrainers and spring type restrainers are simple and sure, but there is some fear of restraining thermal expansion with them. In nuclear power stations, hydraulic suppressors are mostly employed. The poppet valves in a control valve box do not close in case of the motion slower than 0.1 cm/sec, therefore resistance does not arise. In case of the motion of 0.1 - 0.4 cm/sec, the poppet valves close and stop the motion of a piston. In the motion faster than 0.4 cm/sec, the poppet valves close without fail, and the resistance of nominal capacity is produced. The hydraulic vibration dampers are prescribed in the subsection NF, Section III, ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code. The problems are the radiation resistance and the degeneration due to temperature and secular change of actuating oil and seal material. The bleed rate of the hydraulic vibration dampers is important for preventing the troubles. (Kako, I.)

  15. Excavation without blasting in extension works for nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Genkai Nuclear Power Station, Kyushu Electric Power Co., Inc., the excavation for foundations and cooling water tunnel of No.2 plant was carried out while No.1 plant was in operation, so that harmful effect was not exerted on No.1 plant. This paper reports on this work. The selection of excavation method according to the amount and speed of works and the class of base rocks is very difficult in such cases as mentioned above. First, the effect of blasting method with explosives was studied throughly regarding the excavation for foundations, and the effective method without blasting was adopted in order to make the effect small. The circumstances and the practical works are described. The geological features of the station site are explained. The limiting value of oscillation at which various equipments in No.1 plant cause misbehavior was determined by blasting test, and the amount of explosives which does not exert any effect on No.1 plant was found. Seven kinds of excavation method were picked up, and their effect of reducing oscillation, reliability and economy were compared. Finally, ripping method for soft and medium rocks, rock breaker method for hard rocks, and boom header method for tunnel excavation were selected. The actual results of the excavating works by these methods are reported. (Kako, I.)

  16. Materials for the field test - students' attitudes to nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This working paper contains all the materials developed for and used in the field test of 'Student Attitudes toward Atomic Power Stations'. This research is a component of a larger project called 'Attitudes and Attitudes Change with Regard to Problems of Energy Supply and their Consequences for our Environment'. A central aim of this project is the development of instrumental strategies enabling the student to build up in this field a critically reflective and active behavior and attitudes based on sound problem consciousness. These instrumental strategies are derived from theories of social, learning and environmental psychology. A concrete result of these efforts are the materials of the field test mentioned above. They include: a) The draft of an instructional unit 'Atomic Power Stations - Prosperity or Disaster' with - a booklet on the subject matter for students and teachers - a paper on the contents of the instructional unit and their sequence - information for the students concerning the aims of the investigation - working materials for the students - reading materials for the teachers informing them about the proposed instructional strategies based on the psychological theories: (1) model-learning and the structuring of knowledge, (2) how to activate and motivate students, (3) the stabilization of attitudes and (4) small group work. b) Instruments for testing and observation. These instruments were used within a criterion-oriented evaluation and for a test of the effects of the different proposed items used in the instruction. (orig./HP)

  17. Prevention of human errors in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is indispensable to decrease human errors as far as possible in view of the importance of nuclear power generation for Japan. From the viewpoint like this, the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry organized Human Factor Research Center in 1987, and the research on the prevention of human errors in nuclear power stations has been advanced together with electric power companies. For initial five years, the research centering around individual human behavior was advanced, and the establishment of the technique for the analysis of the cause and the plan of countermeasures on the occurred accidents and troubles from the aspect of human factors, the development of human behavior prediction system, the collection of the data on the state of research regarding human factors, the proposal of the concrete supporting technology for reducing human errors in maintenance works, the development of the technique for determining the probability of trouble occurrence, the development of the equipment for measuring and analyzing human visual sense, behavior and physiology, and the proposal of the technology for supporting the formation of knowledge and education system were carried out. In the second five-year period to 1996, the team errors in operation and maintenance, the development of a man-machine simulator, the practical use of the concrete supporting technology and so on are taken up. The human behavior prediction system is explained. (K.I.)

  18. Reliability estimation for important nuclear power station safety equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complicated engineering in nuclear power leads to systems in which faults cause unpredictable consequences. To prevent hazardous situations in such systems, one uses safety systems, and when these fail, the operation presents risks. On the one hand, adding a safety system increases the complexity and does not raise the reliability but actually reduced it because of spurious failures, while on the other hand it substantially influence the safety in operating the system. This aspect of safety systems required detailed attention from designers and manufacturers. There are numerous papers on reliability in safety systems; the expected total economic losses have been calculated due to failure in protected equipment and protection systems, studies were made on how periodic monitoring of safety system correctness affects the probability that it will meet all demands during the operating time for the protected object, and in the probability of a safety system failing per demand was determined. The World Association of Nuclear Operation (WANO) recommendations are reflected in open-quotes Nuclear Power Station Parameter Programs,close quotes and to estimate safety system performance one should use the nonworking interval or nonworking time. The nonworking time in that method is in general a random quantity, so one needs methods of estimating the mean nonworking time during continuous system operation. The method described in this article enables one to calculate the mean nonworking time for important safety systems on the basis of the structure and the relationship to the protected object and enables one to determine the working-time significance characteristics for safety system components. Sample calculations are presented for estimating the reliability of an emergency cooling system in the Chernobyl Power Station

  19. Thoughts on Documentation of Atomic Power Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Hee Won; Song, Ki Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Korean Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has accumulated a number of technology development and research outcomes, including its representative achievements such as atomic energy technology independence and the first export of atomic energy system, since it was established in 1959. With its long history of over 50 years, KAERI has produced a large amount of information and explicit knowledge such as experiment data, database, design data, report, instructions, and operation data at each stage of its research and development process as it has performed various researches since its establishment. Also, a lot of tacit knowledge has been produced both knowingly and not unknowingly based on the experience of researchers who have participated in many projects. However, in the research environment in Korea where they focus overly on the output, tacit knowledge has not been managed properly compared to explicit knowledge. This tacit knowledge is as an important asset as explicit knowledge for an effective research and development. Moreover, as the first generation of atomic energy independence and research manpower retire, their accumulated experience and knowledge are in danger of disappearing. Therefore, in this study, we sought how to take a whole view and to document atomic energy technology researched and developed by KAERI, from the background to achievement of each field of the technology. Comprehensive and systematic documentation of atomic energy technology will establish a comprehensive management system of national atomic energy technology record to make a foundation of technical advancement and development of atomic energy technology. Also, it is expected to be used as an important knowledge and information resource of atomic energy knowledge management system

  20. Hydrostatic testing of power generating plant for atomic electric stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Descriptions are given of layouts for the hydrostatic testing of products; these vary according to the shell material and the technical specifications of the different test fluids. Recommendations are made for the organization of central installations for supplying several test sections with the necessary fluid, with these sections being suitably located close to such a centralized installation. Special features of the hydrostatic testing of large-volume components at test pressures of 20 MPa and over are discussed, as well as the problems of guaranteeing the safety of workers and equipment

  1. Estimation of Power Efficiency of Combined Heat Pumping Stations in Heat Power Supply Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. I. Matsko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers realization of heat pumping technologies advantages at heat power generation for heat supply needs on the basis of combining electric drive heat pumping units with water heating boilers as a part of a combined heat pumping station.The possibility to save non-renewable energy resources due to the combined heat pumping stations utilization instead of water heating boiler houses is shown in the paper.The calculation methodology for power efficiency for introduction of combined heat pumping stations has been developed. The seasonal heat needs depending on heating system temperature schedule, a low potential heat source temperature and regional weather parameters are taken into account in the calculations.

  2. Research on Power Benefits Assessment of SiPing Hydropower Station under the Operation of Sanliping Hydropower Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Tian; Xiaohui, Lei; Qian, Yu; Jialan, Sun

    In order to research on the effect on the hydropower benefits of SiPing Hydropower station by SaLiPing hydropower station in operation, cascaded optimal operation model has been established, with the objective function of maximizing minimum power and maximizing the generated energy capacity respectively, 0.5 times power probability is selected as system power constraint. The hydropower benefits in SiPing hydropower station is calculated before and after SanLiPing in operation. The result shows that after SanLiPing in operation, the hydropower benefits in SiPing are improved through the compensation of SanLiPing, as well as its flood control condition, brought huge economic benefits to cascaded hydropower stations.

  3. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...... performance is shown to be enabled only by further incorporating high-bandwidth Cartesian feedback (CFB) and using a low-noise ET power supply. It is demonstrated that CFB loop bandwidth is limited by modulator/demodulator/RF path group delay to around 2 MHz in the considered setup, and that there exists a...

  4. Establishment of high ground power supply center at Onagawa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A large earthquake occurred on March 11, 2011 and tsunami was generated following it. The East Japan suffered serious damage by the earthquake and tsunami. This is called the Great East Japan Earthquake. Onagawa Nuclear Power Station (NPS) is located closest to the epicenter of Great East Japan Earthquake. We experienced intense shake by the earthquake and some flooding from the tsunami, however, we have succeeded safely cold shutdown of the reactors. In this paper, we introduce the reinforcement of power supply to increase reliability and power supply center with high voltage electric power supply trucks which is original treatment at Onagawa NPS. (author)

  5. Effort to grapple with improvement of security and reliability of nuclear power plant. Actions of the Japan Atomic Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the Great Tohoku Earthquake in 2011, Tokai No.2 reactor was shut down automatically. Three of emergency diesel generators worked automatically at loss-of-offsite-power and began to work the cooling system of reactor. The reactor could be kept stable and safe in cold state by management of power from the gas turbine electric generator and power source car. Actions of Japan Atomic Power Company (JAPC) for cold shutdown and Tsunami were stated. Inspection results after the earthquake and testimony of staff was described. Countermeasure of improvement of safety of nuclear power station is explained by ensuring of power source and water supply, crisis management system, countermeasure of accident, ensuring, and training of workers, and action for better understanding of reliance. (S.Y.)

  6. Report on the accident at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the compilation of information obtained by various organizations regarding the accident (and the consequences of the accident) that occurred at Unit 4 of the nuclear power station at Chernobyl in the USSR on April 26, 1986. Each organization has independently accepted responsibility for one or more chapters. The specific responsibility of each organization is indicated. The various authors are identified in a footnote to each chapter. Very briefly the other chapters cover: the design of the Chernobyl nuclear station Unit 4; safety analyses for Unit 4; the accident scenario; the role of the operator; an assessment of the radioactive release, dispersion, and transport; the activities associated with emergency actions; and information on the health and environmental consequences from the accident. These subjects cover the major aspects of the accident that have the potential to present new information and lessons for the nuclear industry in general. The task of evaluating the information obtained in these various areas and the assessment of the potential implications has been left to each organization to pursue according to the relevance of the subject to their organization. Those findings will be issued separately by the cognizant organizations. The basic purpose of this report is to provide the information upon which such assessments can be made

  7. The First Two Years of Operating Experience of the Kahl Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahl, being the first European private atomic power station, has been operating at load since June 1961. Kahl is equipped with a boiling-water reactor, operating in an indirect cycle and with natural circulation. Its electrical net capacity is 15 MW, and the power produced until February 1963 amounts to 140 million kWh. In the paper the operating experience, particularly the extensive testing programme such as concerning transient behaviour and gammascanning, will be reviewed. Results about the operating performance of certain plant components such as control-rod-drive system, off-gas system and turbine will be presented. After this testing programme the plant has been operated at base load for some time in order to obtain realistic experience on fuel performance. After completion of the base-load phase of operation a nuclear superheating test loop will be installed and run in the Kahl reactor. (author)

  8. Integrated Plant Safety Assessment, Systematic Evaluation Program: Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Docket No. 50-29)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has prepared Supplement 1 to the final Integrated Plant Safety Assessment Report (IPSAR) (NUREG-0825), under the scope of the Systematic Evaluation Program (SEP), for Yankee Atomic Electric Company's Yankee Nuclear Power Station located in Rowe, Massachusetts. The SEP was initiated by the NRC to review the design of older operating nuclear power plants to reconfirm and document their safety. This report documents the review completed under the SEP for those issues that required refined engineering evaluations or the continuation of ongoing evaluations after the Final IPSAR for the Yankee plant was issued. The review has provided for (1) an assessment of the significance of differences between current technical positions on selected safety issues and those that existed when Yankee was licensed, (2) a basis for deciding how these differences should be resolved in an integrated plant review, and (3) a documented evaluation of plant safety. 2 tabs

  9. Temporal variations in Global Seismic Stations ambient noise power levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringler, A.T.; Gee, L.S.; Hutt, C.R.; McNamara, D.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent concerns about time-dependent response changes in broadband seismometers have motivated the need for methods to monitor sensor health at Global Seismographic Network (GSN) stations. We present two new methods for monitoring temporal changes in data quality and instrument response transfer functions that are independent of Earth seismic velocity and attenuation models by comparing power levels against different baseline values. Our methods can resolve changes in both horizontal and vertical components in a broad range of periods (∼0.05 to 1,000 seconds) in near real time. In this report, we compare our methods with existing techniques and demonstrate how to resolve instrument response changes in long-period data (>100 seconds) as well as in the microseism bands (5 to 20 seconds).

  10. Recommendations for the market introduction of solar thermal power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Until 2010, solar thermal power stations based on parabolic trough concentrating collectors can become a competitive option on the world's electricity market, if the market extension of this mature technology is supported by a concerted, long-term programme capable of bundling the forces of industry, finance, insurance and politics. Technical improvements based on the experience of over ten years of successful operation, series production and economies of scale will lead to a further cost reduction of 50% and to electricity costs of 0.06 - 0.04 US$/kWh for hybrid steam cycles and hybrid combined cycles, respectively. Until 2010, a capacity of 7 GW will be installed, avoiding 16 million tons of carbon dioxide per year. The programme comprises an investment of 16 billion US$ and requires external funding of 6%. (author)

  11. Demonstration of zinc injection technique in Fugen Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Applicability of the zinc injection technique for reducing the equivalent dose of annual inspection workers has been cleared and confirmed by several out-of-pile tests at Fugen Nuclear Power Station. A trial, which aimed at compressing the dose rate increase, was developed by BWR and was carried out in several plants from 1986. And then, regular zinc injections were started from Aug. 1999 after the start up of the 15th annual inspection. As a result of this injection, the 60Co ion concentration in reactor has been reduced by the order of about 30%, and a radioactivity reduction effect has also been confirmed. Also, the rebuild up rate of 60Co on piping surfaces has been drastically reduced from about 60% to about 12% after system decontamination. According to an analysis of the practical method, the adhesive rate coefficient of 60Co to metal oxide film is compressed to about 1/3. (author)

  12. Medical Actions in Emergencies at Nuclear Power Stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casualties which could occur as a result of accidents at nuclear power stations can be categorized as follows. Those due to: (a) Over-exposure to external radiation; or (b) Excessive contamination of body surfaces with radioactive materials with, possibly, absorption of toxic quantities of these materials; (c) Combinations of (a) and (b) complicated by conventional injuries. This paper discusses the arrangements made within the Central Electricity Generating Board for dealing with casualties, taking account of the limited medical and nursing facilities. These arrangements can be summarized as follows: (a) Immediate actions on site, including first aid and rescue; (b) Plans have been agreed with the medical staff of appropriate hospitals for dealing with eventualities of this nature; (c) Adequate training programs have been instituted to include nursing and first-aid teams; (d) Rehabilitation and reemployment of injured personnel. Details of dosimetry both physical and biological which would be used to assess the extent of radioactive exposure are described. (author)

  13. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  14. Low level waste management developments in UK nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses how the UK definition of low-level waste (LLW) as agreed between the Government regulating departments and the nuclear industry differs from that in the US and elsewhere. It is that the material is not suitable for disposal as ordinary refuse and that it has a specific activity level below 12 GBq/te beta-gamma and 4 GBq/te alpha. In other words it generally covers the low activity trash produced by the industry. The LLW produced as a result of power station operations can be grouped as drummable/non-drummable, compactable/non-compactable using low force compaction technology, and as burnable/non-burnable depending on the management practices locally

  15. Accounting and cost control of a nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1) chart or classification of accounts, 2) all plant expenses, 3) cost control, 4) storage of spare parts and supplies, 5) control of applicable dose rate, 6) charges for insurance. The accuracy of accounting and cost control is a primary thing for the efficiency in a nuclear power station. The much more important factor is the availability. It is necessary to save costs by a more effective storage or a more detailed and automatic process of single jobs in the workshop. But a very definite experience made in Obrigheim is the fact that not only commercial people know which financial loss will occur if the plant is out of operation one hour. This knowledge is also important for the technical people and for the workers in the workshops. The technical responsibility and the security in operation of the plant and the commercial understanding for the risk of non-availability do not exclude each other. (HP)

  16. Environmental impacts of high voltage power lines and stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental pollution due to high voltage power lines and stations (over 400 kV) shows up in several ways: high frequency (radio and TV range) radio waves; sound pollution (noises); various direct and indirect effects on living beings; aestethic pollution. The indirect effects of electromagnetic field may result in inducing high electric potential to earth insulated objects as cars, shelters and farming equipment, fencing, etc. which on human touch lead to discharge currents which only disappear by interrupting the contact. At high currents, due to muscle contraction, the man often cannot release the touched object, hence serious or even lethal accidents may happen. In depth analysis of such phenomena is possible by separating the electric and magnetic field effects. We shall concentrate on the electric field since the magnetic field effects are much less significant. 6 refs

  17. Control of design and construction of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    UK experience in the design and construction of thermal reactor power stations is examined. In the past the industry has been confronted with the need to design and construct a succession of near prototypes. Problems encountered with the AGRs are examined. The two main lessons learnt from the delay on Hinkley B are the need for good information at the correct operating conditions early in the design stage, and the need to prove components under conditions as representative of reactor conditions as possible. Design work under the old consortia system is examined and compared with work under the new reorganisation of one design and construction company. Experience in site organisation during construction is discussed. (U.K.)

  18. Response robot and Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When we remote control the robot in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station reactor building, in addition to the environmental conditions narrow, stairs, rubble, such as high temperature, high humidity, there is a problem which we have not experienced. One is the radiation resistance of the robotic system, and the other is a matter of remote communication. Robot must be active under a hight radiation in behalf of person, a method that can reduce the exposure a radiation is only shielding. It causes increase of the weight of the robot, shielding worsen the exercise performance of small robot. In addition, thick concrete structures to block reactor building is the failure of the radio communications. (author)

  19. Waste heat of HTR power stations for district heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The market situation, the applied techniques, and the transport, for district heating in combination with HTR plants are considered. Analysis of the heat market indicates a high demand for heat at temperatures between 100 and 1500C in household and industry. This market for district heating can be supplied by heat generated in HTR plants using two methods: (1) the combined heat and power generation in steam cycle plants by extracting steam from the turbine, and (2) the use of waste heat of a closed gas turbine cycle. The heat generation costs of (2) are negligible. The cost for transportation of heat over the average distance between existing plant sites and consumer regions (25 km) are between 10 and 20% of the total heat price, considering the high heat output of nuclear power stations. Comparing the price of heat gained by use of waste heat in HTR plants with that of conventional methods, considerable advantages are indicated for the combined heat and power generation in HTR plants. (author)

  20. Upgrading of HP turbines for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many papers have been written on the upgrading of nuclear plant LP turbines but there are also strong reasons for the upgrading of the HP turbines. Two principal reasons are discussed in this paper. Fouling by deposition on the feedwater side of the stream generator tubes, frequently results in a reduction of pressure at the turbine stop valve and a consequent loss of power output. This loss of power can be largely offset by fitting increased capacity blading in part of the HP turbine which increases the swallowing capacity of the turbine. It is necessary to consider the increased capacity blading, bypassing of heaters and future fouling to arrive at an optimum solution. Since the design of the operating nuclear stations GEC ALSTHOM have made very significant advances in the design of steam turbine HP blading and it is now possible to upgrade the HP turbine with blades of modern design to give a substantial increase in power output. The pay back period for such a upgrade is short and the paper describes some of the Company's successful nuclear HP upgrading in the UK. The two actions described above can be combined, or indeed, be carried out in conjunction with an LP upgrade

  1. Development of a new generation of solar thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zarza, E. [CIEMAT/PSA. Almeria (Spain)

    1999-07-01

    The DISS project is a complete technological program aimed at developing a new generation of solar thermal power stations with parabolic trough collectors. This development is based on three factors: collector improvements, process improvement and overall system improvements. The expected benefits is a 30% reduction in the electricity generation cost. From a technical point, the most important improvement is the direct production of high-pressure steam at the absorber pipes of the solar collectors, thus replacing the synthetic oil currently used at the SEGS plants as a heat transfer medium between the solar field and the power block. Through the SEGS plants currently in operation at California have shown a good reliability and Competitiveness under California market conditions, the development proposed in DISS is essential in order to be competitive with gas fired combined cycle plants in the near future. This DISS project planning covers three consecutive phases, the first of which is currently underway with the support of the European Union, within the framework of the Joule programme (contract JOE3-OCT95-0058). The project partnership is composed of research institutions (CIEMAT, DLR and ZSW). private companies (INABENSA and Pilkington Solar), Utilities (Endesa, Iberdrola, and Union Electrica Fenosa) and engineering companies (INITEC, and SIEMENS), thus covering all the sectors involved in the commercialization of Solar Thermal Power Plants. (Author)

  2. Balakovo - Biblis nuclear power stations WANO partnership 20 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The WANO partnership of the Balakovo, Russia, and Biblis, Germany, nuclear power stations, which was initiated in 1989 within the framework of the agreements and objectives of the WANO Centers in Paris and Moscow, can be called a success story. Since 1990, a total of 78 meetings have been arranged within the WANO partnership for projects exchanging experience in seminars, workshops and on-site tours, which served for increased safety, availability, and safety culture in line with the objectives of WANO. The technical discussions within WANO projects often led to possibilities for technical modifications which were put into effect in more than 30 projects financed, as a rule, by the European Union. A total of 153 experts and senior staff from the Balakovo nuclear power plant travelled to Germany, while 90 persons went from Biblis to Russia for these exchanges. Both sides have agreed to continue their close cooperation also in the future and exchange information and experience at the high level reached. This WANO partnership is also supported by overarching international events organized by VGB with WANO MC, such as the annual meetings of power plant executives, and specialized seminars on a variety of subjects. (orig.)

  3. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present. (Kako, I.)

  4. Change of local social economy accompanying location of power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arai, Yasuo; Saito, Kannosuke (Central Research Inst. of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan))

    1982-05-01

    The method of environment assessment is urgently developed to make various development plans appropriate. It is desirable to grasp synthetically direct and indirect influences to society, since various development activities are deeply related to whole local societies. The Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry has performed research to develop the method of synthesizing environment assessment, and this is the interim report on the development of the method for forecasting and evaluating the social influence accompanying the location of power stations. As the first approach, the development of the model to forecast the influence of location was started, using the econometric method. In this paper, the works of composing the pilot model, which was made to examine the possibility of model development, are summarized. The fundamental framework of model composition and the theoretical model for each power source and each locality were examined, and the works of making the proving models related to three points based on the theoretical model were carried out. As the result of this work of pilot model composition, the prospect of developing the econometric model for forecasting social environmental influence was obtained, and the works of developing the more versatile master model are advanced at present.

  5. Oily wastewater treatment at Khartoum North Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To a chief these goals a series of experimental procedure have been executed for the wastewater in sump tank at river side where all wastewater collected. This paper attempts to investigate the chemical and physical characteristics of Khartoum North Power Station waste water and to suggest methods for removing oil before being discharged to River Bule Nile. To achieve this goal numerous numbers of samples have been collected and examined to detect oil content, turbidity, suspended solids, total dissolved solids, pH, BOD, COD and conductivity, and average values of these parameters were 924.3 ppm, 554.2 NTU, 80 ppm, 559.5 ppm, 7.3 pH unit, 130 Pm, 443.14 ppm, 736.7 μs/cm respectively. The average values of these results were compared with [1] guide lines which are 15 ppm, 5 ppm, 60 ppm, <1000 ppm, 7.5 pH unit, 60 ppm, 100 ppm 500 μs/cm respectively. The outcome of the paper confirmed that waste water at Khartoum North Power Station (KNPS) is heavily polluted with oil and other pollutants. For this reason a second phase of experiments is carried out mainly to remove or reduce oil content to 6.7 ppm and other pollutants to levels which may comply with International Regulations and Local Authority acts. The treatment phase of experiment comprising different processing units arranged in a logical sequence starting with units for oil removal through a coagulation process, NaoH ending with air floatation and skimping to reduce oil content. Results obtained from second phase of experiments after waste water being treated are encouraging and a total reduction in contamination of not less than 80% has been achieved. (Author)

  6. Development of the Science Data System for the International Space Station Cold Atom Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, Chris; Soriano, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) is a facility that will enable scientists to study ultra-cold quantum gases in a microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) beginning in 2016. The primary science data for each experiment consists of two images taken in quick succession. The first image is of the trapped cold atoms and the second image is of the background. The two images are subtracted to obtain optical density. These raw Level 0 atom and background images are processed into the Level 1 optical density data product, and then into the Level 2 data products: atom number, Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) lifetime, magnetic chip-trap atom lifetime, and condensate fraction. These products can also be used as diagnostics of the instrument health. With experiments being conducted for 8 hours every day, the amount of data being generated poses many technical challenges, such as downlinking and managing the required data volume. A parallel processing design is described, implemented, and benchmarked. In addition to optimizing the data pipeline, accuracy and speed in producing the Level 1 and 2 data products is key. Algorithms for feature recognition are explored, facilitating image cropping and accurate atom number calculations.

  7. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power...

  8. 76 FR 39134 - ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COMMISSION ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... licensing basis requirements previously applicable to the nuclear power units and associated...

  9. Energy Efficiency of Thermal Power Station Auxiliary Power Consumption and Cost Savings in Carbon Footprint in India

    OpenAIRE

    K. Thirumavalavan; Mathi Ramalingam; Jayalalitha Subbaiahan

    2014-01-01

    This study discusses about the energy conservation and carbon credits in Thermal Power Stations in India. Indian power scenario, accounts for 66.4% (1,36,436 MW) of Thermal Power Generation. The Thermal Power Stations have the problem of consuming 8.5% of power it produces. Also it has the drawback of emission factors which leaves the carbon footprint, which has to be controlled as per the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM). The United Nations Framework watches ...

  10. Complementary safety evaluation of the Phenix power station (INB n 71) in the light of the Fukushima power station accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes a complementary safety evaluation of the Phenix power station, one of the French basic nuclear installations (BNI, in French INB) in the light of the Fukushima accident. This evaluation takes the following risks into account: risks of flooding, earthquake, loss of power supply and loss of cooling, in addition to operational management of accident situations. It presents some characteristics of the Phenix installation (location, operator, industrial environment, installation characteristics), identifies the risks of cliff effect and the main structures and equipment, evaluates the seismic risk (installation sizing, installation conformity, margin evaluation), evaluates the flooding risk (installation sizing, installation conformity, margin evaluation), briefly examines other extreme natural phenomena (extreme meteorological conditions related to flooding, earthquake or flooding with a higher level than that for which the installation is designed). It analyzes the risk of a loss of power supply and of cooling (loss of external and internal electric sources, loss of the ultimate cooling system). It analyzes the management of severe accidents: crisis management organization, available intervention means, robustness of available means. It discusses the conditions of the use of subcontractors

  11. Methods for evaluating economic competitive ability of different type power stations and their comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods for evaluating the economic competitive ability of different type power stations are introduced which are: (1) Present method used in China; and (2) International prevailing method (UNIPEDE). A nuclear power station and a coal-fired power station with typical comparable parameters were selected to calculate their economic characterictics by using these two methods. Results obtained show opposite conclusions from these two methods. Analysis indicated that UNIPEDE method is a scientific and impartial one and it is suggested to use UNIPEDE method in evaluating the economic competitive ability of different type power stations in China

  12. Quality control of Ling'ao nuclear power station civil construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the quality control model adopted during Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station construction, the author briefly introduces quality control process of some main civil construction activities (reinforced concrete, steel liner, steel works and prestressing force) of nuclear power station, and makes some descriptions on non-conformance control of civil works. These quality control processes described come from the concrete practice during civil construction of Ling'ao Nuclear Power Station, and are based on Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station construction experience

  13. Challenges to fire protection measures at Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New regulatory standards for fire protection at nuclear power plants have been established by the Nuclear Regulation Authority. This paper introduces the measures taken by the Hamaoka Nuclear Power Station for the following four items, which were especially big changes. (1) To install a combination of sensors of different types or instruments with equivalent functions so as to be able to emit unique signals to inform a fire in the early stage. (2) To conduct 'UL vertical burn test' as the demonstration test for self-extinguishing performance as the condition for flame-retardant cable. (3) To install automatic fire-extinguishers or fixed fire-extinguishing devices of manual type at the spots where fire-fighting is difficult due to the filling of smoke in a fire or the effect of radiation. (4) To separate the system for purpose of ensuring safety function to attain the high-temperature shutdown and cold-temperature shutdown of a reactor whatever fire may happen at the nuclear facilities. The examples of the installation of fire-extinguishers as the measures for the above Item (3) are as follows; (A) as for the devices containing oil, a foam-extinguishing agent is released against each target device from the nozzle, and (B) for large vertical pump motors indoors and relatively small pump motors, IA type automatic foam extinguishing systems are installed. (A.O.)

  14. Completion of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station Unit No. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No. 4 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Co., Inc. is a BWR plant in which the results of the LWR improvement and standardization project by Japanese independent technology were adopted. Hitachi Ltd. has applied the experiences of construction and operation obtained so far, the improved technology based on research and development and the latest technologies to it, in addition to the technology which was verified in the preceding No. 5 plant. In the aspect of the systems and facilities, the various improvements based on the experience in past plants were reflected from the initial stage of design. Also in the design techniques, the three-dimensional CAD system using the newest computer technology was applied to the layout and piping design, and the quality and efficiency of design were improved. In the aspect of construction, a crawler crane with the largest lifting capacity in the world was used, and the large section module method, by which large prefabricated machinery, equipment and piping are directly lifted in, was applied. By these means, the safety of workings was secured, the construction period was shortened, and the plant showed good, stable results in the trial, and started the commercial operation in August, 1994. No. 4 plant is a BWR plant of 1100 MW output. The applied new technologies and the contents of the improvement of the design and facilities are shown. The outline and the features of the construction works and the trial operation are reported. (K.I.)

  15. Carbon burnout of pulverised coal in power station furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.I. Backreedy; L.M. Fletcher; J.M. Jones; L. Ma; M. Pourkashanian; A. Williams; K. Johnson; D.J. Waldron; P. Stephenson [University of Leeds, Leeds (United Kingdom)

    2003-07-01

    The degree of carbon burnout in pulverised fuel fired power stations is important because it is linked with power plant efficiency and coal ash suitability for construction purposes. The use of computational methods to calculate carbon burnout in such systems has been aided by the increasing availability of fast computers and improvements in computational methodologies. Despite recent advances in fluid flow, coal devolatilisation and coal combustion models, the use of CFD methods for detailed design purposes or for the selection of commercial coals is still limited. In parallel, industrial engineering codes, which combine simplified thermal models with advanced coal combustion models, are still undergoing development since they provide economic advantages over detailed CFD analysis. Although the major coal combustion processes are well established, an understanding regarding the role of coal macerals and the influence of ash on the combustion process is still lacking. A successful coal model must be able to handle all the complexities of combustion, from the details of the burner geometry through to the formation of unburnt carbon as well as NOx. The development of such a model is described here.

  16. Construction of Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station unit No.5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    No.5 plant in Kashiwazaki Kariwa Nuclear Power Station is a BWR type nuclear power plant of 1100 MWe capacity, the construction of which was begun in October, 1983, and the commercial operation was started on April 10, 1990. This plant is the first plant in which the results of the secondary improvement and standardization were fully adopted, and it the latest facilities aiming at the further improvement of reliability and the reduction of the radiation dose to which workers are exposed. By the adoption of the improved technology for systems, machinery and equipment, such as the core with zirconium-lined fuel and the installation of the pumps in reactor coolant purification system in low temperature zone, the objective of improving the plant performance was attained. In the construction, the improvement of construction techniques using large mobile cranes for the first time in Japan and the promotion of the trial operation based on the activities of promoting high reliability enabled the completion of construction within the predetermined period. The construction processes and techniques, the new technology adopted in the plant system, the layout, the activities of promoting high reliability and the start-up test are reported. (K.I.)

  17. Sizewell 'B' power station public inquiry: CEGB proof of evidence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The methods of establishing construction time, capital cost, availability and lifetime of different types of generating plant are described. In volume one assessments are presented for a new coal fired station, for a new AGR station and for a new PWR station - Sizewell B. Volume two, contains all diagrams, tables and appendices presented as evidence. (U.K.)

  18. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  19. A Model of Energy Saving Control Using the Discharge Units of Thermal Power Stations

    OpenAIRE

    КАНЮК, Г. И.; Мезеря, А. Ю.; Лаптинов, И. П.

    2016-01-01

    The model of energy saving control of discharge units (pumps and fans) of thermal power stations has been proposed. The factors that affect the power efficiency of the supercharger operation have been shown. The influence of the technical performances of pipeline systems on the power station efficiency has been demonstrated. The function of power losses in the supercharger that can be varied in real time depending on the changes of power responses in the discharge units (bearing wear, a chang...

  20. The emergency medical programs of japan and foreign countries for radiation accidents in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In our country, the medical emergency programs for the people living near nuclear power stations are well organized, however, preparation of medical staffs who are well trained is considered to be not sufficient. In the USA, on call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided and funded by Department of Energy(DOE) or electric companies. Especially, REAC/TS is a part of DOE response network, in which there are provided well-trained physicians, nurses, health physicists, coordinators and support personnels. In United Kingdom, National Radiological Protection Board(NRPB) is responsible to a radiological emergency program. Each nuclear power station has its own emergency program consisting of a team of physicians, nurses and health physicists. In France, French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) is a responsible agency for a radiological emergency program. On call 24 hours response to a radiological emergency is provided in Fontenay-aux Roses Institute and Curie Institute. Curie Institute also responds to radiological emergencies in other countries at the request of WHO. In Germany(West Germany), compulsory assurance system covers a radiological emergency program and a radiological protection. There are seven centers in West Germany, in which well-trained medical staffs are provided against radiological injuries. In this report, I tried to propose a new concept about emergency medical programs for nuclear power station accidents in Japan. I think it is a very urgent theme to provide on call 24 hours radiological emergency program, in which patients suffered from acute radiation sickness with internal contamination or contaminated radiation burns will be treated without any trouble. We have to make our best efforts to complete basic or clinical research about radiation injuries including bone marrow transplantation, radioprotectors, chelating agents and radiation burns etc. (J.P.N.)

  1. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 μm mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials. This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m3. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of radioactivity on

  2. Mobile solar mini power station filled with infrared heliochambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The work dedicated to development of perspective types of solar energetic devices of in-land application in accordance with conception about advantage of decentralized production of electrical and heat energy for supply of atom customers. It is given constructive particulars and characteristics of developed by authors mobile energy complex, which contents from block photoelectrical of convertor on the base of semiconductor solar elements, transparent in longwaved area out of edge of absorption base band, with power from 100 till 1000 Wt and heliochamber for accumulation of infrared part of solar radiation with wave length λ> 1 mcm. It is shown that, introduction into the system of energy complex the infrared heliochamber, increase the efficiency of equipment generally on the account of increasing the useful application of solar spectrum and extend her functional abilities. It is discussed the advantages of similar energy complex at decision of separate production tasks, including agriculture processing. (Author)

  3. Shippingport station communications program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author discusses how the communications program for the Shippingport Atomic Power Station has a long history. It can be traced as far back as 1953, when the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) awarded a contract to Westinghouse Electric to design the nuclear portion of a power plant for electric utility use. During May of the next year, President Eisenhower initiated groundbreaking ceremonies for the construction of the commercial atomic power plant at Shippingport, Pennsylvania

  4. The World Power Conference and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility that emerged after the last World War that useful power could be produced from nuclear fission led to optimistic estimates that nuclear power would prove to be the solution to the world's energy problems. The possible advantages of nuclear methods of power production compared with conventional means are discussed at the World Power Conference. The 1962 Conference with its theme 'The Changing Pattern of Power' will undoubtedly attract great interest in a world where the change-over from conventional to nuclear fuels for power production has started in some countries and is being actively examined in others. It is generally being realized that even though a country may possess indigenous supplies of uranium or thorium minerals, the building up of a nuclear industry i s a long and expensive process and the alternative of depending on countries more advanced in nuclear technology for the supply of materials, skill and know-how is costly in foreign exchange and international prestige. Many of the industrialized countries, still possessing supplies of conventional fuels, are preparing for the day when their reserves will become depleted and are embarking on training schemes to ensure a continuing supply of engineers and scientists skilled in nuclear arts

  5. 78 FR 66965 - In the Matter of Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Dresden Nuclear Power Station Confirmatory Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... of Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Dresden Nuclear Power Station Confirmatory Order Modifying License... operation of the Dresden Nuclear Power Station (Dresden Station) in accordance with conditions specified... taken at Dresden Nuclear Power Station and other nuclear plants in Exelon's fleet and that License...

  6. Power plant engineering. Steam generator replacement at the Beznau nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 1993, two steam generators were replaced in a single run within only 44 days at the Beznau Nuclear Power Station. Already in 1971 it had been necessary to plug up heating tubes. For replacement, the outer and the inner concrete cylinders of the containment together with the protective shield had to be opened. Radiation exposure of the personnel was kept low throughout the entire replacement work, the total dose remaining below 1100 mSv. (orig.)

  7. Manufacture and quality control of concrete for Ikata Nuclear Power Station, Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikata Nuclear Power Station, only one nuclear power station in Shikoku, is located at the root of Sada Peninsula on Seto Inland sea side. At present, No.1 and No.2 plants of 566 MW each are in commercial operation, and on the east side, No.3 plant is under construction. No.3 plant is a PWR type plant of 890 MWe output, and the start of commercial operation is scheduled in March, 1995. In the construction of No.3 plant, the concrete used for civil engineering and building works is about 430,000 m3, and for the improvement of the quality control of concrete, the pursuit of economic efficiency, the fostering of concrete technology of employee and the coprosperity with local industries, the facilities for manufacturing concrete were constructed within the premise of the power station. The amount of use of concrete and respective materials classified by respective fiscal years, and the amount of manufacture of concrete that determines the scale of the concrete plant are shown. As to the construction of the concrete plant, the foundation work was started in March, 1987, and the machine foundation and building works were started in May, 1987. The acceptance was completed on August 17, 1987. The facilities of manufacturing concrete, the manufacture of concrete, and the quality control of materials and concrete are reported. (author)

  8. Development of an acoustic emission equipment for valves of the Nuclear Power Station Atucha 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A four channel Acoustic Emission was developed by the Acoustic Emission Group, INEND Department, of the Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina, for the detection of leaks in valves of the pressurized air system: ''Sistema de desconexion de emergencias por acido deuteroborico''. Basically, the system consists of four piezoelectric transducers with their corresponding preamplifiers coupled to the piping close to the valves. The following stages: amplifiers, threshold levels, channel identifications and visual alarm system are gathered in a box. The system was installed in the controlled zone of the Nuclear Power Stations Atucha I. It was calibrated and works on line. The values shown on the display are registered daily in order to separate the normal values from the leak ones. (author). 4 refs, 9 figs

  9. Zooplankton mortality due to entrainment in the cooling water circuit of a power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zooplankton mortality, both the instant (0 h) and delayed (24 h) due to entrainment has been studied at two different locations in the cooling water circuit of Madras Atomic Power Station at Kalpakkam. Among the four dominant groups of zooplankton studied, calanoids the largest organisms (average length 1036±246 μm) with regards to the size as compared to other groups, registered the highest mortality (70.63%). However, the barnacle larvae with their smallest average size (408±105 μm), suffered the lowest mortality. Thus, the mortality occurred corresponded to the average size of the zooplankton groups. The mortality showed significant difference among the four different groups of zooplankton (p=6 ml/day (in terms of displacement volume) is equivalent to 116.2 kg C/Day. (author)

  10. Simulator training and licensing examination for nuclear power station operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the recruitment, training and position qualification of the simulator instructors and feedback of training effect, the management approaches are formulated in 'The System for Simulator Training and Licensing Examination of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station Operators'. The concrete requirements on the professional knowledge, work experience and foreign language ability of a simulator instructor are put forward. The process of instructor training is designed. The training items include the trainer training, pedagogy training, time management training, operation activities training during outage of unit, 'shadow' training and on-the-jot training on simulator courses. Job rotation is realized between simulator instructor and licensing personnel on site. New simulator instructor must pass the qualification identification. After a duration of 2 years, re-qualification has to be carried out. On the basis of the operator training method introduced from EDF (electricite De France), some new courses are developed and the improvement on the initial training, retaining courses, the technical support and the experience feedback by using the simulator is done also. (authors)

  11. Multivariable control in nuclear power stations -survey of design methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of larger nuclear generating stations increases the importance of dynamic interaction between controllers, because each control action may affect several plant outputs. Multivariable control provides the techniques to design controllers which perform well under these conditions. This report is a foundation for further work on the application of multivariable control in AECL. It covers the requirements of control and the fundamental mathematics used, then reviews the most important linear methods, based on both state-space and frequency-response concepts. State-space methods are derived from analysis of the system differential equations, while frequency-response methods use the input-output transfer function. State-space methods covered include linear-quadratic optimal control, pole shifting, and the theory of state observers and estimators. Frequency-response methods include the inverse Nyquist array method, and classical non-interactive techniques. Transfer-function methods are particularly emphasized since they can incorporate ill-defined design criteria. The underlying concepts, and the application strengths and weaknesses of each design method are presented. A review of significant applications is also given. It is concluded that the inverse Nyquist array method, a frequency-response technique based on inverse transfer-function matrices, is preferred for the design of multivariable controllers for nuclear power plants. This method may be supplemented by information obtained from a modal analysis of the plant model. (auth)

  12. Adaptive Modeling of the International Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Justin Ray

    2007-01-01

    Software simulations provide NASA engineers the ability to experiment with spacecraft systems in a computer-imitated environment. Engineers currently develop software models that encapsulate spacecraft system behavior. These models can be inaccurate due to invalid assumptions, erroneous operation, or system evolution. Increasing accuracy requires manual calibration and domain-specific knowledge. This thesis presents a method for automatically learning system models without any assumptions regarding system behavior. Data stream mining techniques are applied to learn models for critical portions of the International Space Station (ISS) Electrical Power System (EPS). We also explore a knowledge fusion approach that uses traditional engineered EPS models to supplement the learned models. We observed that these engineered EPS models provide useful background knowledge to reduce predictive error spikes when confronted with making predictions in situations that are quite different from the training scenarios used when learning the model. Evaluations using ISS sensor data and existing EPS models demonstrate the success of the adaptive approach. Our experimental results show that adaptive modeling provides reductions in model error anywhere from 80% to 96% over these existing models. Final discussions include impending use of adaptive modeling technology for ISS mission operations and the need for adaptive modeling in future NASA lunar and Martian exploration.

  13. Climatographic analysis of the Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this papers is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities. A conceptual framework for allocating resources in developing an adequate emergency response system includes three major factors: (1) frequency of the mesoscale regimes; (2) extent to which the regime can result in high concentrations/doses; (3) ease with which it can be modeled, with due consideration given for input data requirements

  14. Climatographic analysis of the Zion nuclear power station site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The computerized emergency response dose assessment codes (ERDACs) used in the nuclear industry commonly rely on Gaussian plume dispersion techniques. In coastal zones, particularly within 15 km of the shoreline, complex four-dimensional mesoscale meteorological regimes often violate some of the basic assumptions of Gaussian dispersion. For example, a land breeze will initially advect materials offshore into unpopulated areas. Such effluents may pool over water only to return to land in the next morning's onshore flow, but in locations and concentrations unknown and undeterminable from on-site data and standard Gaussian modeling techniques. Improving the performance of ERDACs for a given coastal site requires a climatographic inventory of that site and its surroundings. This involves identifying the coastal mesoscale regimes (CMRs) that affect the site, including their annual frequencies of occurrence and the meteorological conditions that characterize them. Such a climatographic analysis has been performed for the Zion nuclear power station (NPS), which is located just north of Chicago, Illinois, on the western shore of southern Lake Michigan. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of this study and its implications for radiological emergency response activities

  15. Automatic defect identification on PWR nuclear power station fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents a new automatic identification technique of structural failures in nuclear green fuel pellet. This technique was developed to identify failures occurred during the fabrication process. It is based on a smart image analysis technique for automatic identification of the failures on uranium oxide pellets used as fuel in PWR nuclear power stations. In order to achieve this goal, an artificial neural network (ANN) has been trained and validated from image histograms of pellets containing examples not only from normal pellets (flawless), but from defective pellets as well (with the main flaws normally found during the manufacturing process). Based on this technique, a new automatic identification system of flaws on nuclear fuel element pellets, composed by the association of image pre-processing and intelligent, will be developed and implemented on the Brazilian nuclear fuel production industry. Based on the theoretical performance of the technology proposed and presented in this article, it is believed that this new system, NuFAS (Nuclear Fuel Pellets Failures Automatic Identification Neural System) will be able to identify structural failures in nuclear fuel pellets with virtually zero error margins. After implemented, the NuFAS will add value to control quality process of the national production of the nuclear fuel.

  16. The Fukushima Nuclear Power Station incident and marine pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the facts relating to the radioactive wastewater discharged by the Fukushima Nuclear Power Station in Japan, this paper intends to explore the international legal obligations for Japan from three perspectives, namely, the immediate notification, the prevention of transboundary harm and the prevention of dumping. Furthermore, this article defines and compares two types of international legal liabilities, the traditional state responsibility and the responsibility for transboundary harm. Through comparison, the international legal liability of Japan is discussed. After detailed analysis, the conclusion is that Japan should be responsible for the obligation of immediate notification and since Japan unilaterally discharge the wastes without prior specific permits of other contracting countries, it should also be responsible for the violation of prevention of dumping. Since so far, no material injury has emerged and there would appear to be no culpability as regards the prevention of transboundary harm. Finally, this paper stresses the necessity to develop a worldwide agreement concerning the liability for transboundary harm and to establish an institutional framework for the enforcement of a state’s obligations, and also the great significance of international cooperation between nations and organisations in relation to marine environmental protection.

  17. Manufacture of power station heat exchangers using modern production technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heat exchangers of high quality and operational safety can only be fabricated economically if fabrication is as 'simple' as possible and can be controlled and if, through value analysis, the work flows can be mechanized and automated and the following requirements are met: use of materials that are easy to work with for the application considered, choice of product designs and wall thicknesses that offer favourable conditions for processing and non-destructive testing, placing of seams in such a way that good accessibility for welding and minimum residual welding stresses are assured, minimizing the number of welding seams, use of automatic welding machines for submerged-arc welding and electronically controlled sources of welding current - semi-automatic equipment for spatter-free interfaces (pulse technique), electronically controlled equipment for welding in rollers and pipes and CNC-controlled machining centres for drilling pipe galleries (deep-hole drilling) and baffle plates and for machining the sealing elements after welding. Continuous inspections in each phase of fabrication assures that heat exchangers are made which fully meet the requirements of nuclear power station operators. (orig.)

  18. Pulverised fuel balancing at a power station's quadrafurcator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pulverised fuel (P.F) conveying pipe work of coal fired power stations there are numerous places where the P.F and air mixture needs to be split. However, air/fuel mixture stratification occurs due to the different routes the P.F takes through the pipe-work, resulting in uneven splits. Therefore, there is a need to design changes to provide control of the split. Before this can be done the nature of splitting must be investigated. This entails an examination of the air/solid split, as well as P.F. distribution up and downstream of the junction. The formation of flow discontinuities, such as particle ropes in bends, are of particular interest as it is these structures that are often responsible for bad splitting. The present work employs Computational Fluids Dynamics (CFD) to model the formation of particle ropes and then simulate what happens to them when they enter the splitter junction. The splitter under scrutiny for this paper is a quadrafurcator. The model employs a Lagrangian model for the particle tracking. The model also takes into account, through coupled discrete phase iterations, the effects of the particles on the flow. (author)

  19. Lessons learned from our accident at Fukushima nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is given in order to share the detailed information on the Fukushima Accident which occurred on March 11, 2011, and the lessons learned from it which worldwide nuclear experts might currently have more interest in. The paper first reflects how the facilities were damaged by a very strong earthquake and a series of beyond design-basis tsunamis. The earthquake caused loss of all off-site electric power at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (1F), and the following series of tsunami made all emergency diesel generators except one for Unit 6 and most of DC batteries inoperable and severely damaged most of the facilities located on the ocean side. Thus all the units at 1F resulted in the loss of cooling function and ultimate heat sink for a long time period. TEPCO focused on restoration of the instruments and lights in the Main Control Room (MCR), preparation of alternative water injection and venting of Primary Containment Vessel (PCV) in the recovery process. However, the workers faced a lot of difficulties such as total darkness, repeated aftershocks, high radiation dose, a lot of debris on the ground, loss of communication means, etc. Massive damages by the tsunami and lack of necessary equipments and resources hampered a quick recovery. It eventually resulted in the severe core damage of Unit 1, 2, and 3 and also the hydrogen explosions in the reactor buildings of Unit 1, 3, and 4. This paper finally extracts the lessons learned from the accident and proposes the countermeasures, such as flood protection for essential facilities, preparation of practical and effective tools, securing communication means and so on. These would help the people involved in the nuclear industries all over the world properly understand the accident and develop their own countermeasures appropriately. (authors)

  20. Radiocarbon mass balance for a Magnox nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • First comprehensive assessment of C-14 arisings in a Magnox nuclear power station. • C-14 production in graphite and coolant gas quantified by activation modelling. • Principal C-14 production pathway is via C-13 with a small contribution from N-14. • C-14 mass balance model provides a basis for analyses on other reactors. - Abstract: Nuclear power generation in the United Kingdom is based principally on graphite-moderated gas-cooled reactors. The mass of irradiated graphite associated with these reactors, including material from associated experimental, prototype and plutonium production reactors, exceeds 96,000 tonnes. One of the principal long-lived radionuclides produced during graphite irradiation is radiocarbon (C-14). Its potential as a hazard must be taken into account in decommissioning and graphite waste management strategies. While C-14 production processes are well-understood, radionuclide distributions and concentrations need to be characterised. A common misconception is that generic statements can be made about C-14 precursors and their location. In fact, the composition of the original manufactured material, the chemical environment of the graphite during service and its irradiation history will all influence C-14 levels. The analysis presented here provides the first assessment of the principal C-14 activation pathways for a UK Magnox reactor. Activation modelling has been used to predict C-14 production rates in both the graphite core and the carbon dioxide coolant over a selected period of operation and the results compared with monitored site C-14 discharges. Principal activation routes have been identified, which should inform future graphite waste management strategies relating to radiocarbon

  1. Recent advances in radiation monitoring systems for nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present projections indicate that by 1990 a minimum of 700 nuclear power stations will be in operation in at least 42 different countries. The health physics' profession is confronted, therefore, with a massive effort to control the radiological consequences of these operations. Regulations have been adopted or are being considered by the various governments to guide the health physicist. It is apparent that the necessary radiological measurements will become increasingly complex, require improved sensitivity and accuracy, increase in frequency, and demand more attention from the health physics staff. Computerized systems offer a cost-effective solution to keep these expanding requirements within manageable limits. The technology of computers, minicomputers and microcomputers is one of the most dynamic developments occurring in today's society. It has a history of doing 'more-for-less' as each new advancement reaches the commercial market. In the face of constant cost escalation in nuclear plant construction, the opportunity to provide more-for-less is a most welcome change. In anticipation of expanded radiological requirements and the availability of a compatible technology to meet them, the next step is to design and test a total system to be responsive to regulatory guidelines. Such a system will be described with appropriate emphases on both the data acquisition and data management subsystems. As the system evolves, it is logical to view its full purpose as a health physics operations center more than just another monitoring tool. Here the data vital to the decision-making processes are displayed rapidly and intelligently for interpretation by the operators. Overall, system design and operation should provide the health physicist with credible data to reflect favorably on the environmental and public acceptability of nuclear power

  2. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads †

    OpenAIRE

    Goran Petrovic; Tonko Garma; Josip Lorincz

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations acco...

  3. Algological studies on the site of the Fessenheim nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systematic study of the algal flora at five stations situated on both sides of the nuclear power station at Fessenheim (department of Haut-Rhin, France). The analysis of the diatomaceae populations in 1977 and 1978, i.e. before and after the start of the reactors, does not indicate, in the composition and abundance of algae, any modifications susceptible to be directly connected to the implantation of the nuclear power station

  4. Operating experience with the Fort St. Vrain Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since entering into commercial operation in 1979, the 330 MW(e) Fort St. Vrain HTGR has performed increasingly well, and it is now demonstrating the real promise of this advanced reactor type. As of this writing, the plant has operated routinely at 70% power with 38% thermal efficiency, the highest nuclear plant efficiency in the United States of America, and has generated over 2,500,000 MW.h of electricity. Monthly availability factors have reached 99%. The plant has operated in a testing mode over 90% power and reached full power on 6 November 1981. Fuel performance has continued to exceed expectations and the second refuelling was carried out in 1981 (the first was in 1979). Radioactivity levels in the helium coolant and around the plant are very low. Personnel exposure during 1979-80, computed on a unit electricity generated basis, was a few per cent of the average exposure at LWR plants. This paper reviews the lessons learned during the startup and first five years of operation of Fort St. Vrain, including core behaviour, fuel handling, helium coolant cleanup, primary system and balance-of-plant component and systems operation, and plant operation and maintenance experience. In addition, the ways in which the new regulations resulting from the accident at Three Mile Island have been implemented in this HTGR plant are described. Public Service Co. of Colorado and General Atomic Co. have, through Fort St. Vrain, generated a large base of experience in HTGR technology that can be applied to future projects in the United States and elsewhere. (author)

  5. Papers of 7. Scientific-Technical Seminar Material Study for Electric Power Stations and Energetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report is the assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power station and gas pipelines. The normalization problems in the power station and in the gas pipelines according to the prescription of UE are also discussed. (author)

  6. About Selection of Method for Regulation of Heat Supply from Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Sednin; P. Y. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Systems of from thermal power stations are considered as priority ones in the Republic of Belarus. Changes in heat load structure and operational regimes of centralized heat-supply systems have necessitated an introduction of the regimes concerning qualitative-quantitative regulation of heating load from a thermal power station.

  7. About Selection of Method for Regulation of Heat Supply from Thermal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sednin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Systems of from thermal power stations are considered as priority ones in the Republic of Belarus. Changes in heat load structure and operational regimes of centralized heat-supply systems have necessitated an introduction of the regimes concerning qualitative-quantitative regulation of heating load from a thermal power station.

  8. 76 FR 44376 - Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... COMMISSION Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... request of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (the licensee) to withdraw its August 19, 2010, application for proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee...

  9. The hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of pump turbines for Xianyou pumped storage power station. The method of improving the hydraulic performance of pump turbine with CFD analysis is given. The results of model test indicate that the final hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station is of high efficiencies, good

  10. Radioactive waste disposals and personal radiation doses resulting from operation of CEGB nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discharge of radioactive effluents, both aqueous and airborne, and the disposal of radioactive solid wastes from the CEGB nuclear power stations are reviewed. Resulting radiation doses to members of the public are discussed. Radiation doses incurred by power station employees are also reviewed briefly. It is concluded that discharges and disposals have been controlled satisfactorily. (U.K.)

  11. Exploration and practice on contract management of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the market economy, Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station needs to out source or allow to suppliers among industries, while concentrating its core competitive capability, for safely and stable operation. By evaluating the features of contract management in Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, set up the organization and process of the supply management

  12. The hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, J. S.; Liu, W. C.; Fu, Z. Y.; Shi, Q. H.

    2012-11-01

    This paper presents the hydraulic design of pump turbines for Xianyou pumped storage power station. The method of improving the hydraulic performance of pump turbine with CFD analysis is given. The results of model test indicate that the final hydraulic design of pump turbine for Xianyou pumped storage power station is of high efficiencies, good

  13. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... fossil fuel generation, renewable energy sources, demand-side measures such as energy conservation, and... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed...

  14. Novel Radio on Fiber Access Eliminating External Electric Power Supply at Base Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tetsuya; Miki; Katsuyasu; Kawano; Nobuo; Nakajima; Naoto; Kishi; Masaru; Miyamoto; Tetsu; Aoki

    2003-01-01

    A novel Radio On Fiber(ROF) access is proposed and demonstrated which enables the pico-cell Base Station (BS) for high-speed wireless communications to eliminate external electric power supply facilities. We demonstrated 2.4-GHz band radio signal transmission through the BS without external electric power supply. The electrical power used for BS circuit is feeded by optical power over optical fiber from central station.

  15. Calculation and evaluation of population distribution around potential sites for nuclear power stations in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a period of IEC and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) pre-evaluations and feasibility surveys for the erection of a nuclear power plant and its introduction into the electric production system, the Israeli Government decided, in the beginning of 1973, to prepare the principal equipment specifications for such a plant. This decision has brought about an era of intensive activity toward the erection of the first nuclear power plant in Israel (NP - 1). One of the principal subjects in the pre-erection phase of building such a plant is the zoning of a suitable site. This is a complicated subject in which evaluations of potential sites, surveys of various kinds and licensing processes are involved. The IEC, which is managing the NP - 1 project, is now involved in early evaluation and surveys of the project. These activities are being conducted according to recommendations of the IAEC Licensing Division which is responsible for the NP - 1 power plant licensing. One : of the important factors influencing the quality of the site and its suitability for a nuclear power station is the population distribution and dispersion around it. Although formal licensing guidelines have not yet been published concerning suggested sites, the general conception may be understood from publications issued by the Licensing Division to date. (B.G.)

  16. Service hall in Number 1 Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are six BWR type nuclear power plants in the Number 1 Fukushima Nuclear Power Station, Tokyo Electric Power Company, Inc. The service hall of the station is located near the entrance of the station. In the center of this service hall, there is the model of a nuclear reactor of full scale. This mock-up shows the core region in the reactor pressure vessel for the number one plant. The diameter and the thickness of the pressure vessel are about 5 m and 16 cm, respectively. The fuel assemblies and control rods are set just like the actual reactor, and the start-up operation of the reactor is shown colorfully and dynamically by pushing a button. When the control rods are pulled out, the boiling of water is demonstrated. The 1/50 scale model of the sixth plant with the power generating capacity of 1100 MWe is set, and this model is linked to the mock-up of reactor written above. The operations of a recirculating loop, a turbine and a condenser are shown by switching on and off lamps. The other exhibitions are shielding concrete wall, ECCS model, and many kinds of panels and models. This service hall is incorporated in the course of study and observation of civics. The good environmental effects to fishes and shells are explained in this service hall. Official buildings and schools are built near the service hall utilizing the tax and grant concerning power generation. This service hall contributes to give much freedom from anxiety to the public by the tour. (Nakai, Y.)

  17. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 {mu}m mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials.This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m{sup 3}. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of

  18. Experience gained in the operation of the Beznau nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 24th December 1969, when the Beznau 1 nuclear power station was placed in commercial operation, marked the beginning of electricity production from nuclear energy in Switzerland. Beznau 2 followed on the 15th March 1972. Together with the Muehleberg nuclear power station, nuclear energy accounts for approximately 20 percent of the total electricity production in Switzerland. Until the end of 1975, Switzerland's three nuclear power stations had a mean energy utilisation factor of 71.3 percent which, as compared with a mean energy utilization factor of 60.5 percent for all the nuclear power stations in the West, suggests fairly good operational results. Problems that arose during operation are discussed in detail. By way of summary it is stated that the operation of the Beznau nuclear power station has so far proved a success. The production of electrical energy has always remained within the limits imposed by the law and by the safety aspects. (Auth.)

  19. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  20. Analyses on various activities in the US power stations to enhance safety culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the United States, the regulatory body, NRC, started an evaluation scheme with regard to nuclear power station's Safety Culture, in order to prevent similar serious trouble as the reactor head degradation at Davis Besse station. In this evaluation, NRC picks out various elements of Safety Culture aspects which caused problems from the findings made at Reactor Oversight Program inspections. Such evaluation of power station Safety Culture which results are publicly available is very rare. In this study, we make analyses on the result of ROP performed in the US, and also, make series of interviews at US power stations, in order to extract useful clue to be applied to our own improvement actions of power stations in Japan. So far, there are no obvious tendencies in numbers and extent in ROP findings. On the other hand, the number of findings every year depends on individual power station to a great degree. The power stations in the US put Corrective Action Program in the center of its operation, working very hard to improve its performance. CAP is a form of oversight system in an organization. In the US power stations, they utilize it as a system of continuous improvements. Top management in power stations holds CAP review board periodically to evaluate the performance of CAP in their station, directing particular orders to get over their problems. The manager in charge of the specific improvement theme is responsible for carrying out such activity by showing its goals and deadlines clearly. With such structure, the personnel try to realize the condition of operation in the station objectively, and at the same time, they can improve the efficiency of their operation. In this way of management, its personnel commit themselves to their tasks voluntarily, and this structure has an effect of raising the organization's activity. (author)

  1. Comparison and evaluation of nuclear power plant options for geosynchronous power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solution to the safety, safeguards, and radwaste disposal problems of nuclear power is to locate the breeder reactor power plants far out in geosynchronous orbit and beam the power to earth with microwaves. The generation of nuclear power in space is technologically feasible and has already been demonstrated on a small scale. It has also been shown that high efficiency microwave transmission of power from synchronous orbit to earth is feasible and is not hazardous. The reactor safety problem would be virtually eliminated because of the remoteness of the satellite power station in geosynchronous orbit. The worst possible accident at such a plant would have negligible effect on the earth, certainly less than the high altitude nuclear explosions which have been conducted in the past. Accidental re-entry from geosynchronous orbit could not occur because of the very large velocity change required. The safeguards problem can be virtually eliminated by adopting the following procedures: 1) The plant is initially started up using U-235 fuel or bred plutonium or U-233 from another geosynchronous power plant, 2) Once the plant is operating, only nonhazardous fertile materials (thorium or depleted uranium) are shipped up from earth, 3) The fissile fuel is bred and used in space, and none of this highly toxic fissile material is ever returned to earth. The radioactive waste could be concentrated and ejected in canisters into deep space away from the earth. The geosynchronous nuclear power plant offers unlimited nuclear power without nuclear hazards or nuclear pollution, but at somewhat higher cost. Whether or not society will be willing to pay these higher costs of nuclear power from space, or whether new energy resources such as nuclear fusion or solar power become feasible, remains to be seen. A prudent course to follow would be to give careful consideration to all future options for large scale energy generation, including the option of nuclear power from space

  2. Structural Design and Protective Methods for the 100 kW Shoreline Wave Power Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    游亚戈; 郑永红; 马玉久; 余志; 蒋念东

    2003-01-01

    The structural design and protective methods for the 100 kW shoreline wave power station in China are described in detail. The proper structural type is designed for effective minimization of wave loads and bending stress. Various protective devices are adopted to protect the station in the extreme conditions against excessive power of airflow, excessive torsion of the shaft, over-pressure of the chamber, over-speed of rotation, power failure, and so on. It turns out that the structural design and protective methods for the 100 kW shoreline wave power station are successful.

  3. Embankment over fly ash pond at Portsmouth Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fly ash and bottom ash sediments from the Portsmouth Power Station in Portsmouth, Virginia were being sluiced into a 39 acre diked ash pond near the plant. When the ash level within the pond was an average of 4 feet below the crest of the dike, it was decided to enlarge the capacity of the disposal area. The plant was about to convert to dry ash disposal, and thus, the plan was to construct a 30-foot high fly ash embarkment over the previously ponded ash. To meet regulatory guidelines, the conversion from wet to dry disposal of fly ash required that the existing ''wet'' pond area be ''closed'' with an impermeable cover and that the new ''dry'' area have an impervious liner (a cover-liner system). This posed potential drainage constraints necessitating an underdrain system below the cover-liner system. The design had to address the stability of the new 30-foot ash embankment constructed over confined, saturated ponded ash and not adversely affect the stability of the perimeter dike. The design also had to provide for interim storage of sluiced fly ash, which resulted in a new inner perimeter dike (inside the existing main dike) and for long term storage for sluiced bottom ash. The sluiced bottom ash would be collected in a small segmented diked pond within the existing main dike. This paper describes the subsurface exploration, stability evaluation, underdrains, design, instrumentation results, and problems encountered during construction of this converted disposal area which extended the life of the facility a minimum of five years

  4. Ethanolamine experience at Koeberg nuclear power station, South Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following testing of ethanolamine as an alternative to ammonia on Unit 2 in 1997, Unit 1 of the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station was converted to ethanolamine in 1998. The Unit has now operated for just over one and a half cycle on ETA. The decision to change to ETA was made to achieve further reductions in feedwater iron transport. Koeberg has always operated ammonia/hydrazine AVT control and ran the feedwater pH at 9.6-9.7 before the changeover. The original pH levels were increased in response to concerns over flow-accelerated corrosion. A by product of reducing the FAC rates is a reduction in iron transport. Although nominally all-ferrous, there are a number of small copper-containing components and the Koeberg Engineering Department would not countenance a further increase in ammonia concentrations in case of copper transport to the SGs. This led to ethanolamine being selected as an alternative to ammonia. The Koeberg condensate polishing plant has been modified, largely to accommodate ETA operation, but is not currently operable in the modified configuration. It is therefore on standby while ETA is implemented. The SG blowdown demineralizers have begun to be operated past ammonia/ETA break, but optimisation is largely dependent on CPP availability in the modified configuration. This paper documents the Koeberg experience to date of operation under an ethanolamine-AVT regime. As one of the few plants outside of the USA to have changed to ethanolamine, it is hoped we can make a valuable contribution for other non-US plants considering such a move. (authors)

  5. Steam generator of Vandellos nuclear power station: Operational experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Central Nuclear de Vandellos power station at Hospitalet del Infante, Spain, is a 500 MWe gas graphite moderated natural uranium reactor. The plant has generated over 46,000 million KWh over the past thirteen years of service. Throughout this service, the plant has suffered from THO phase erosion-corrosion damage in the steam generator sections of the system. The Vandellos steam generators are once-through units constructed of 1386 mild steel tubing (panels) each fabricated into a serpentine containing 83 horizontal passes. Four independent steam generator circuits are combined to feed two, 250 MWe turbines. Erosion-corrosion damage has caused panel element leakage in the evaporation of some tubing elements. The rate of erosion-corrosion damage has been modified through different operational changes since damage was first detected in 1975. This paper describes the different operating behavior of the four steam generators and an evaluation of damage through the expertise of different technical resource groups. The changes in plant operating technique discussed include hydrodynamic conditions and chemical treatment parameters. One of the most important changes in plant operation has been in the use of amines as alkaline agents. Solutions of ammonia were initially used for pH control of feedwater. In an effort to reduce erosion-corrosion levels below rates experienced using ammonia, a change was made to the use of morpholine, and more recently, a change to the use of AMP(2 amino-2-methyl-1-propanol) has shown favorable results. The paper outlines the overall behavior of steam generator function under plant transition conditions, and contrasts that behavior with current chemical parameters experienced using AMP treatment. Water chemistry characteristics are used to present an evaluation of the development of erosion-corrosion damages from 1976 through present operating conditions. (author)

  6. Interim report on the accident at Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations of Tokyo Electric Power Company

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Investigation Committee on the Accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Stations (the Investigation Committee) of Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) was established by the Cabinet decision on May 24, 2011. Its objectives are: to conduct investigation for finding out the causes of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS) and Fukushima Dai-ni Nuclear Power Station (Fukushima Dai-ni NPS) of TEPCO as well as the causes of accident damage; and to make policy recommendations for limiting the expansion of damage and preventing reoccurrence of similar accidents. The Investigation Committee has conducted its investigation and evaluation since its first meeting on June 7, 2011. Its activities included: site visits to the Fukushima Dai-ichi and Dai-ni NPSs, as well as to other facilities; hearing of heads of local governments around the Fukushima Dai-ichi NPS; and hearing of people concerned through interviews mainly arranged by the Secretariat. As of December 16, 2011, the number of interviewees reached 456. The investigation and evaluation by the Investigation Committee are still ongoing and the Interim Report does not cover every item that the Committee aims at investigating and evaluating. Fact-finding of even some of those items discussed in the Interim Report are not yet completed. The Investigation Committee continues to conduct its investigation and evaluation and will issue its Final Report in the summer of 2012. This brief executive summary covers mainly considerations and evaluation of the issues in Chapter VII of the Interim Report, with brief reference to Chapters I to VI. The Investigation Committee recommendations are printed in bold. (author)

  7. The Need for Nuclear Power Stations in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While seeking a remedy for the crisis of radiation fear in Japan, the author reread a recent article on radiation hormesis. It describes the motivation for creating this fear and mentions the evidence, in the first UNSCEAR report, of a factor of 3 reduction in leukemia incidence of the Hiroshima atom-bomb survivors in the low dose zone. Drawing a graph of the data reveals a hormetic J-curve, not a straight line as reported. UNSCEAR data on the lifespan reduction of mice and Guinea pigs exposed continuously to radium gamma rays indicate a threshold at about 2 gray per year. This contradicts the conceptual basis for radiation protection and risk determination that was established in 1956-58. In this paper, beneficial effects and thresholds for harmful effects are discussed, and the biological mechanism is explained. The key point: the rate of spontaneous DNA damage (double-strand breaks) is more than 1000 times the rate caused by background radiation. It is the effect of radiation on an organism's very powerful adaptive protection systems that determines the dose-response characteristic. Low radiation up-regulates the adaptive protection systems, while high radiation impairs these systems. The remedy for radiation fear is to expose and discard the politicized science

  8. Are atomic power plants saver than nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is rather impossible to establish nuclear power plants against the resistance of the population. To prevail over this resistance, a clarification of the citizens-initiatives motives which led to it will be necessary. This is to say: It is quite impossible for our population to understand what really heappens in nuclear power plants. They cannot identify themselves with nuclear power plants and thus feel very uncomfortable. As the total population feels the same way it is prepared for solidarity with the citizens-initiatives even if they believe in the necessity of nuclear power plants. Only an information-policy making transparent the social-psychological reasons of the population for being against nuclear power plants could be able to prevail over the resistance. More information about the technical procedures is not sufficient at all. (orig.)

  9. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  10. A Photovoltaic Power Station Equivalent Method Based on Real-Time Digital Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy power generation technology, photovoltaic generation has the characteristics of low carbon, green and environmental protection. More and more countries pay close attention to it, more than one megawatt demonstration projects of grid photovoltaic power station has been commenced or built. In order to study interconnection characteristics of large-scale photovoltaic power station better, reduce the effects of photovoltaic power station to the grid, we need to set up photovoltaic power station simulation model. However, the model of photovoltaic power station is complex, the speed of system simulation become slow after establish. In this paper, a real-time digital simulator based on the photovoltaic power station equivalent method will be given, through the proposed hierarchical equivalence method can simplify the process of equivalent of photovoltaic power station, shortening the period of equivalent model, and can be carried out in the process of each layer of the equivalent model accuracy validation, improve the accuracy of the equivalent model.

  11. Atom interferometric measurement of ``Big G'' on the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwood, Elizabeth; Kurkcuoglu, Doga Murat; Clark, Charles W.; Edwards, Mark

    2016-05-01

    Recent measurements of Newton's universal gravitational constant (``Big G'') using atom interferometric methods have increased the uncertainty in the value of this important fundamental constant. We have developed tools for rapid simulation and evaluation of atom interferometer (AI) schemes that can be implemented in the Cold Atom Laboratory to be deployed to the International Space Station (ISS) in 2017. We have approximated the solution of the rotating-frame Gross-Pitaevskii equation in both one and three dimensions by using the Lagrangian Variational Method (LVM). The LVM trial wave function is a sum of Nc Gaussian clouds and we have derived equations of motion for the centers, widths, and phase parameters of these clouds. These equations of motion can be rapidly solved for many different AI designs enabling the estimation interferometer sensitivity and the effects of errors. We present two potential schemes as for measuring ``Big G'' on the ISS. These include a Mach-Zehnder-like scheme as well as a design similar to a Foucault Pendulum. Supported by NSF Grant PHY-1413768.

  12. District heating system of Beznau nuclear power station - foundation of REFUNA AG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The author describes a district heating system supplied with heat from the Beznau nuclear power stations. The system will eventually reduce heating oil consumption in the area by 16,000 tonnes/year. At present, 70,000 kW of heat are available for 8 towns totalling 15,000 inhabitants. The maximum distance from the power station is 10 km, the maximum level difference 100 m. The hot water (1200C) from the two nuclear power stations passes through a distribution network with pumping stations to homes and businesses in the area. The maximum consumption of heat (52 MW) corresponds to 1.2% of the output of the power stations. (J.S.)

  13. Effect of the Capacity of Electric Power Stations with MHD Generators on their Thermal Efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report on experiments to determine the effect of the capacity of electric power stations with open-cycle MHD generators both on the performance of the actual MHD generators and on the steam-turbine sections of the power stations. They present the method of analysis and the structure of the formulae for determining the thermal efficiency of such power stations. The results are given of MHD generator calculations based on different working fluid flow rates, electrical efficiencies and initial parameters. The effect of the various types of loss on the power generation characteristics of MHD generators is analysed as a function of working fluid flow rate. It is found that the power generation characteristics of relatively large MHD generators are stable over a wide range of working fluid flow rates and that the total capacity of a power station has a considerable effect on the performance of the steam- turbine section. (author)

  14. The introduction of an integral quality assurance system in the Beznau nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nordostschweizerische Kraftwerke AG decided in 1982 to introduce an integral quality assurance system for the operational phase of the Beznau nuclear power station. The post of Quality Assurance Agent was created. Together with a team of representatives from all departments at the Beznau nuclear power station this person was responsible for writing and introducing the quality assurance manual. The system is practice-oriented and comprises all the work which is involved in the operation of the power plants. 2 figs

  15. The Iran-1 and Iran-2 nuclear power station on the Persian Gulf

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iran is a country with large oil reserves which, however, are exploited only very carefully because of ther importance for exports. In the light of this policy it was decided to make increasing use of nuclear energy for the country's electricity supply. Under the 8th Iranian five year plan, a total installed generating capacity of 56,000 MW is foreseen by 1993, of which 24,400 MW will be in nuclear power plants. This large construction program of nuclear power stations is implemented by the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, AEOI, which started negotiations with potent nuclear industries of various industrialized countries in early 1974. In November 1974, these discussions led to a letter of intent with the German Kraftwerk Union AG (KWU) for the turnkey erection of the first Iranian nuclear power plant, Iran-1 and Iran-2, with two units of 1,300 MW on a site on the Persian Gulf. The siting decision was taken in favor of the Halileh area located some 18 km from the seaport of Bushehr. Construction work on the site began in July 1975. The delivery dates are December 1, 1980 for Iran-1 and November 1, 1981 for Iran-2. (orig.)

  16. Mission Analysis for LEO Microwave Power-Beaming Station in Orbital Launch of Microwave Lightcraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrabo, L. N.; Dickenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    A detailed mission analysis study has been performed for a 1 km diameter, rechargeable satellite solar power station (SPS) designed to boost 20m diameter, 2400 kg Micr,oWave Lightcraft (MWLC) into low earth orbit (LEO) Positioned in a 476 km daily-repeating oi.bit, the 35 GHz microwave power station is configured like a spinning, thin-film bicycle wheel covered by 30% efficient sola cells on one side and billions of solid state microwave transmitter elements on the other, At the rim of this wheel are two superconducting magnets that can stor,e 2000 G.J of energy from the 320 MW, solar array over a period of several orbits. In preparation for launch, the entire station rotates to coarsely point at the Lightcraft, and then phases up using fine-pointing information sent from a beacon on-board the Lightcraft. Upon demand, the station transmits a 10 gigawatt microwave beam to lift the MWLC from the earth surface into LEO in a flight of several minutes duration. The mission analysis study was comprised of two parts: a) Power station assessment; and b) Analysis of MWLC dynamics during the ascent to orbit including the power-beaming relationships. The power station portion addressed eight critical issues: 1) Drag force vs. station orbital altitude; 2) Solar pressure force on the station; 3) Station orbital lifetime; 4) Feasibility of geo-magnetic re-boost; 5) Beta angle (i..e., sola1 alignment) and power station effective area relationship; 6) Power station percent time in sun vs, mission elapsed time; 7) Station beta angle vs.. charge time; 8) Stresses in station structures.. The launch dynamics portion examined four issues: 1) Ascent mission/trajecto1y profile; 2) MWLC/power-station mission geometry; 3) MWLC thrust angle vs. time; 4) Power station pitch rate during power beaming. Results indicate that approximately 0 58 N of drag force acts upon the station when rotated edge-on to project the minimum frontal area of 5000 sq m. An ion engine or perhaps an electrodynamic

  17. Commerical electric power cost studies. Capital cost addendum multi-unit coal and nuclear stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is the culmination of a study performed to develop designs and associated capital cost estimates for multi-unit nuclear and coal commercial electric power stations, and to determine the distribution of these costs among the individual units. This report addresses six different types of 2400 MWe (nominal) multi-unit stations as follows: Two Unit PWR Station-1139 MWe Each, Two Unit BWR Station-1190 MWe Each, Two Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1232 MWe Each, Two Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-1243 MWe Each, Three Unit High Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-794 MWe Each, Three Unit Low Sulfur Coal-Fired Station-801 MWe Each. Recent capital cost studies performed for ERDA/NRC of single unit nuclear and coal stations are used as the basis for developing the designs and costs of the multi-unit stations. This report includes the major study groundrules, a summary of single and multi-unit stations total base cost estimates, details of cost estimates at the three digit account level and plot plan drawings for each multi-unit station identified

  18. Economic and financial benefits as a compensation for living near a nuclear power station. A case study of Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although dwellers living near a nuclear power station are entitled to economic/financial benefits such as increased job opportunities and local tax revenues pertaining to the power station, it is not clear whether such benefits are appreciated by the dwellers. Two findings of this study based upon a social survey of local dwellers living near the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station are summarized as follows. First, an increase in the per capita sizes of the local tax revenue and national subsidies resulted in a larger share of respondents who thought that those revenues are beneficial. Therefore, local dwellers are aware of the sizes of economic/financial benefits. Second, given the same risk level of nuclear disaster, a larger per capita financial benefit resulted in a larger share of respondents who felt compensated for the nuclear risk. However, this increase in the number of compensated respondents is low relative to the increase in the amount of financial benefits. (author)

  19. Retrofitting the Strogino district heat supply station with construction of a 260-MW combined-cycle power plant (Consisting of two PGU-130 combined-cycle power units)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleksandrov, V. F.

    2010-02-01

    The retrofitting carried out at the Strogino district heat supply station and the specific features of works accomplished in the course of constructing the thermal power station based on a combined-cycle power plant at the station site are described; the layout solutions for the main building and turbine building are presented, and a comparison of the retrofitted station with the Kolomenskoe and Vnukovo gas turbine-based power stations is given.

  20. Mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4: Public enterprise (JP) Komunalec

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The role of the Public enterprises in improving entire living conditions of the citizens, not only by its services towards the citizenship such as: water supplying and public hygiene but the opportunity to produce the electric power by the Mini hydro electric-power stations built on the main city water supply pipes. The paper presents experiences of building the mini hydro electric power stations Lukar 1,2,3,4. The successful completion of this project should be a motivation for building more electric power stations because there are great water potential in the Republic of Macedonia i.e. there have been recorded more than a hundred places suitable for construction of power electric stations. This will contribute not only for clean ecological energy but will have a direct influence on the total economic development of the Republic of Macedonia. (Author)

  1. Mathematical modeling of vibrations in turbogenerator sets of Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leonov, G. A.; Kuznetsov, N. V.; Solovyeva, E. P.

    2016-02-01

    Oscillations in turbogenerator sets, which consist of a synchronous generator, a hydraulic turbine, and an automatic speed regulator, are investigated. This study was motivated by the emergency that took place at the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station in 2009. During modeling of the parameters of turbogenerator sets of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station, the ranges corresponding to undesired oscillation regimes were determined. These ranges agree with the results of the full-scale tests of the hydropower units of the Sayano-Shushenskaya Hydroelectric Power Station performed in 1988.

  2. Compensation for the risk of a nuclear power station. Distances and people's perceptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geographic patterns of citizens' perceptions of the risk and benefit of a nuclear power station are determined using two social surveys. In the neighborhood area, perceived risk reduces slowly as the distance from the power station increases. The reduction pace accelerates as the distance reaches 20-30 kilometers and the pace slows down again in the farther areas. Perceived benefits are relevant to the townships where the respondents reside. Those geographic patterns explain citizens' views in each area of whether the benefit is enough to compensate for the risk of the power station. (author)

  3. Estimate of arsenic emission amount from the coal power stations in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Kunli; ZHANG Xinmin; CHEN Changhe; LU Yilun

    2004-01-01

    To study the amount of arsenic emission from the coal power stations (mainly Permo-Carboniferous coal) in China in different combustion conditions, the arsenic content of the coal, the fly ash and the cinder in high- temperature power stations as well as mid-low temperature power stations have been analyzed. This note provides a rough estimate of the total amount of arsenic emission as well as emission ratio from steam coal combustion in China. The results show that by combustion of 1 t of Permo-Carbonif- erous coal (containing roughly 5 mg/kg arsenic), high-tem- perature power stations emit roughly 0.40 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 7.70%; mid-low power stations emit roughly 0.15 g arsenic into the atmosphere and the arsenic emission rate is about 2.97%. A total of 600 million tons coal is burnt annually in China power stations, and the coal comes mainly from Permo- Carboniferous depositing in the North China Plate and northwest China coal mines. Taking the average arsenic content of the coal used at the value of 5 mg/kg, the total annual arsenic emission from steam coal combustion into the atmosphere is about 195.0 t. Most of the arsenic in coal can be released in the process of coal combustion, and the most of the released arsenic can be seized by the fly ash and then both of them are seized by the dust catcher of power station, so the arsenic emission ratio to the atmosphere is declined; in addition, research on the arsenic emission amount and emission rules from the coal power stations in China should go on the coal power stations with the dry-process dust catchers by the experiments results. In the wet process of dust catcher, 20% of the arsenic in the fly ash is dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank in high-temperature power station; in the mid-low temperature power station there are 70% of the arsenic in the fly ash dissolved in the water of sedimentation tank, this is an important source of arsenic pollution in

  4. Fish cultures in the area of the nuclear power station Dukovany and their prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of investigating the fishery production and measurements of radiation background in the ecosystem of the Jihlava river, in the area of a nuclear power station being built near Dukovany are evaluated with regard to the prospects of fish cultures when the power station operates in full extent. Basic data were provided for calculating the burden of significant groups of the population, resulting from the ingestion of fish of local provenance. All available information shows that under normal operating conditions, the power station should not exert a negative influence on the quality of fish food and that in the area under study it would be possible to manage intensive fish cultures. (author)

  5. Torness nuclear power station. From folly to fiasco

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in chapters, entitled: introduction; the Torness story; electricity demand; the real cost of nuclear power; Torness - employment delusion; nuclear waste; nuclear power and nuclear weapons; domestic energy conservation; combined heat and power; conclusion. (U.K.)

  6. Blasting in the lower shaft station of Atomic Energy of Canada Limited's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has the responsibility for research, and development of technologies, for the safe and permanent disposal of Canada's nuclear fuel wastes. As part of this comprehensive program, AECL is constructing an Underground Research Laboratory (URL) near Lac du Bonnet, Manitoba, to evaluate aspects of the concepts of waste disposal deep in stable geological formations. No nuclear wastes will be used in the URL program. The lower shaft station of the URL was excavated between 1984 December and 1985 February. Substantial effort went into producing good results from the blasting to minimize the blast damage to the rock surrounding the excavation. All headings of the lower shaft station were excavated by the pilot heading and slash method. The blasts for the pilot headings were designed using a combination of Swedish and Canadian blast design methods, with the detailed layout of the blast holes being finalized at the excavation face. By experimenting with the perimeter of the pilot headings, it was possible to finalize the perimeter blast design before starting on the final walls

  7. The duty health physicist program at Byron Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Duty Health Physicist Program at Byron Station was established to deal with routine health physics tasks and provide an interface between frontline and upper radiation-chemistry management. The program consists of a weekly rotation of selected members of the health physics staff into the duty health physicist position to handle the assigned duty tasks. The tasks include, but are not limited to, daily isotopic and air sample review, effluent release package review, maximum permissible concentration calculations, dose approvals, as-low-as-reasonably-achievable action review of pending jobs, and general availability to answer questions and address problems in health-physics-related areas of plant operation. The daily attendance of the duty health physicist at the radiation-chemistry and station plan-of-the-day meetings has increased the overall presence and visibility of the health physics program to upper station management and other station departments. Since its inception in July of 1985, the Duty Health Physics Program has been a major contributor to the observed 50% reduction in reportable personnel errors in the radiation-chemistry department (based on personnel-error-related deviation reports and license event reports generated on the radiation-chemistry department at Byron Station). Although difficulty to quantify, other important benefits of this program are also discussed in this paper

  8. Ministry Ordinance determining the technical standard concerning atomic energy facilities for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Ministry Ordinance shall be applied to the electric works installed for generating power utilizing atomic energy as motive power. In case there is some possibility that reactor facilities and steam turbines driven by primary or secondary cooling material may suffer damage by disaster, fire, earthquake and vibration, protective measures should be taken. Barriers have to be made to prevent illegal trespasses. Reactor facilities should meet several requirements. Safety valves should be mounted at specified places. Safety facilities should be installed. The material and structure of containers and pipes belonging to reactor facilities should meet separate standards. The containers, pipes and main valves belonging to reactor facilities should pass pressure-resistant test. Primary cooling material should maintain necessary physical and chemical properties under the most strict conditions of pressure, temperature and radiation. In an atomic energy power station, should be provided an apparatus for circulating primary cooling material with the capacity capable of removing the heat generated inside a pressure vessel of a reactor. In said station, a core cooling device for emergency must be provided as well as measuring instruments, warning apparatuses and emergency stop apparatuses. (Rikitake, Y.)

  9. Operation and Maintenance Schedule of a Steam Turbine Plant : A Case Study of Egbin Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Okwuejunti, Emeka; Kehinde, Bolaji

    2015-01-01

    Thermal electrical power generation is one of the major methods used in Egbin thermal station. Due to inconsistency and failure in the power supply in Nigeria, there is a need for a proper operation and maintenance schedule strategy of the various kinds of power plants accessories so as to facilitate their efficiencies and functionality. Egbin thermal station, which is one of the major power generating stations in Nigeria was used as a case study. The station has an installed capacity ...

  10. ANALYSIS OF THE METHOD FOR COMPENSATIVE POWER IN THE ELECTRICITY SUPPLY NETWORKS BASED ON PORTABLE ELECTRIC POWER STATION

    OpenAIRE

    Karamnov, A.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we consider a base technology for compensating the reactive power in electricity supply networks based on portable electric power stations (e.g. bank of capacitors, synchronous motors, barier-layer statistical reactive power source). Analysis of advantages and disadvantages for considered engineering solutions is performed.

  11. CFD research on runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure, three dimensional unsteady numerical simulations were executed on geometrical model of the whole flow system. Through numerical calculation, the changeable flow configuration and variation law of some parameters such as unit rotate speed,flow rate and static pressure of measurement points were obtained and compared with experimental data. Numerical results show that runaway speed agrees well with experimental date and its error was 3.7%. The unit undergoes pump condition, brake condition, turbine condition and runaway condition with flow characteristic changing violently. In runaway condition, static pressure in passage pulses very strongly which frequency is related to runaway speed

  12. CFD research on runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L. G.; Zhou, D. Q.

    2013-12-01

    To study runaway transient of pumped storage power station caused by pumping power failure, three dimensional unsteady numerical simulations were executed on geometrical model of the whole flow system. Through numerical calculation, the changeable flow configuration and variation law of some parameters such as unit rotate speed,flow rate and static pressure of measurement points were obtained and compared with experimental data. Numerical results show that runaway speed agrees well with experimental date and its error was 3.7%. The unit undergoes pump condition, brake condition, turbine condition and runaway condition with flow characteristic changing violently. In runaway condition, static pressure in passage pulses very strongly which frequency is related to runaway speed.

  13. Use of poultry litter for power generation - monitoring of 'EYE' power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarises the results of the emissions monitoring programme undertaken by FEC Consultants at EYE power station. It has shown that poultry litter can generally be burnt in a clean and efficient manner with due regard to the environment. The emissions monitored with the exception of particulates generally conform with the requirements of IPR 1/7 (92); particulates exceed the 100 mg/Nm3 but are within the 200 mg/Nm3 allowed for the first 12 months of operation. The particulate burden from the large scale combustion of poultry litter has exceeded expectations. The environmental monitoring programme undertaken by ADAS Huntingdom, at 'EYE' power station over a period of 16 months, has shown there was no evidence of the deposition of harmful substances from the chimney onto the surrounding plants and soil. To alleviate the fears of the NFU over possible contamination to the food chain from chimney deposition, MAFF, Food Safety (Contaminants) Unit, undertook to collect milk samples over a period of 16 months. These milk samples were subject to analysis for dioxin and furan contamination. The analysis has shown that the dioxin and furan contents were at the bottom of the normal background levels for the UK and there was no evidence of any increase over the sampling period. (author)

  14. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... Docket No. 03-185, FCC 04-220, 69 FR 69325, November 29, 2004. Synopsis As required by the Paperwork... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION:...

  15. The practical implementation of the nuclear safety culture drive at Koeberg nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper details some of the actions which were taken to introduce the recommendations of the INSAG 4 'Safety Culture' document at a nuclear power station. The station has experienced a much improved performance turnaround during the period of implementation, and although one cannot say that this is as a result of these interventions - maybe it is. (author) figs

  16. Aseismic design of the Heysham II Nuclear Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief description of the seismic criteria established for use with the Steam Generating Heavy Water Reactor (SCHWR) and taken for the Heysham II Project is given. The qualification strategy adopted for Heysham II is described, and a brief overview is given of some of the more important design changes required for seismic purposes on that station

  17. Application of new core monitoring system “GNF-ARGOS” to Tokai No.2 power station (2). System validation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    New BWR core monitoring system “GNF-ARGOS” has been applied to the Japan Atomic Power Company Tokai No.2 power station. ARGOS incorporated a BWR core physics simulator AETNA to evaluate the core performance. ARGOS is the world first system that adopted the three neutron energy group core simulator for on-line BWR core monitoring. With instrument adaption and reconstructed pin powers, ARGOS can provide accurate information on the whole core pin-by-pin thermal margins. Currently the official core monitor of Tokai No.2 power station is 3D-Monicore system. ARGOS is planned to be an official monitor after validation during parallel run with the current system. During the startup operation in cycle 25, verification of ARGOS system was done by comparing the fraction of limiting CPR (FLCPR) and the fraction of limiting power density (FLPD), as well as the axial power distribution to those obtained with 3D-Monicore system. Cold critical eigenvalues were tested against the measurements. Also, comparisons are made for the core prediction during the startup with the monitoring results. It is concluded that the agreements are good and thus the ARGOS results are acceptable. (author)

  18. 77 FR 33004 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Clinton Power Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... Company, LLC (the licensee, EGC) for operation of the Clinton Power Station, Unit 1 (CPS), located in De... EGC, from CPS to Creek Township to expand the Lisenby Cemetery. Before acceptance of the partial...

  19. Saving of drinking water in cooling system at Aq aba Thermal Power Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discussing a new modification, design and implementation to the existing cooling water system of boiler drum continuous blow down water at Aq aba Thermal Power Stations to eliminate drinking water consumption as a coolant medium

  20. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, KernRiver, Published in 2007, Millard County.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset, was produced all or in part from Other information as of 2007. It is described as 'KernRiver'. Data by...