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Sample records for atomic power station

  1. SOARCA Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Long-Term Station Blackout Uncertainty Analysis: Knowledge Advancement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gauntt, Randall O.; Mattie, Patrick D.; Bixler, Nathan E.; Ross, Kyle W.; Cardoni, Jeffrey N; Kalinich, Donald A.; Osborn, Douglas.; Sallaberry, Cedric Jean-Marie; Ghosh, S. Tina

    2014-02-01

    This paper describes the knowledge advancements from the uncertainty analysis for the State-of- the-Art Reactor Consequence Analyses (SOARCA) unmitigated long-term station blackout accident scenario at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station. This work assessed key MELCOR and MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System, Version 2 (MACCS2) modeling uncertainties in an integrated fashion to quantify the relative importance of each uncertain input on potential accident progression, radiological releases, and off-site consequences. This quantitative uncertainty analysis provides measures of the effects on consequences, of each of the selected uncertain parameters both individually and in interaction with other parameters. The results measure the model response (e.g., variance in the output) to uncertainty in the selected input. Investigation into the important uncertain parameters in turn yields insights into important phenomena for accident progression and off-site consequences. This uncertainty analysis confirmed the known importance of some parameters, such as failure rate of the Safety Relief Valve in accident progression modeling and the dry deposition velocity in off-site consequence modeling. The analysis also revealed some new insights, such as dependent effect of cesium chemical form for different accident progressions. (auth)

  2. 78 FR 45984 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-30

    ... COMMISSION Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... on the site of any nuclear power reactor. In its Statement of Considerations (SOC) for the Final Rule... the site of a nuclear power reactor licensed for operation by the Commission, the emergency plan...

  3. Degradation of fast electrons energy and atomic hydrogen generation in an emission plume from atomic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolotkov, G. A.; Penin, S. T.; Chistyakova, L. K.

    2006-02-01

    The problem of remote detecting of a radioactivity in emissions from atomic power stations (APS) is devoted. The basic radionuclides contained in emissions of nuclear energy stations with various types of reactors have been analyzed. The total power spectrum of electrons is determined taking into account their multiplication. Physical and chemical reactions reducing to generation of atomic hydrogen are considered. For definition of the radiating volume in the emission from APS, the spatial distribution of atomic hydrogen concentration has been calculated with the use Pasquill- Gifford model. Power radiating by the emission plume from the APS with the BWR (Boiling Water Reactor) is estimated. It has been shown, that for estimation of radiation effect on the atmosphere, it is necessary to take into account many generations of electrons, because they have average energies exceeding considerably the ionization potentials for atoms and molecules of the atmospheric components. The area of the maximum concentration of atomic hydrogen in an emission plume can be determined by modelling the transport processes of admixture. The power radiated at frequency 1420 MHz by the volume 1 km from the APS emissions can amount to ~10 -13 W that allows one to detect the total level of activity confidently. The possible configuration of an emission plume has been calculated for various atmospheric stratification and underlying surfaces.

  4. An attempt for modeling the atmospheric transport of 3H around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, A K; Nankar, D P; Joshi, C P; Venkataraman, S; Sundar, D; Hegde, A G

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of downwind tritium air concentrations in the environment around Kakrapar Atomic Power Station (KAPS) was studied on the basis of Gaussian plume dispersion model. The tritium air concentration by field measurement [measured tritium air concentrations in the areas adjacent to KAPS] were compared with the theoretically calculated values (predicted) to validate the model. This approach will be useful in evaluating environmental radiological impacts due to pressurised heavy water reactors.

  5. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station recirc pipe dose rates with zinc injection and condenser replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCello, D.C.; Odell, A.D.; Jackson, T.J. [PECO Energy Co., Delta, PA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station (PBAPS) is located near the town of Delta, Pennsylvania, on the west bank of the Susquehanna River. It is situated approximately 20 miles south of Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The site contains two boiling water reactors of General Electric design and each rated at 3,293 megawatts thermal. The units are BWR 4s and went commercial in 1977. There is also a decommissioned high temperature gas-cooled reactor on site, Unit 1. PBAPS Unit 2 recirc pipe was replaced in 1985 and Unit 3 recirc pipes replaced in 1988 with 326 NGSS. The Unit 2 replacement pipe was electropolished, and the Unit 3 pipe was electropolished and passivated. The Unit 2 brass condenser was replaced with a Titanium condenser in the first quarter of 1991, and the Unit 3 condenser was replaced in the fourth quarter of 1991. The admiralty brass condensers were the source of natural zinc in both units. Zinc injection was initiated in Unit 2 in May 1991, and in Unit 3 in May 1992. Contact dose rate measurements were made in standard locations on the 28-inch recirc suction and discharge lines to determine the effectiveness of zinc injection and to monitor radiation build-up in the pipe. Additionally, HPGe gamma scans were performed to determine the isotopic composition of the oxide layer inside the pipe. In particular, the specific ({mu}Ci/cm{sup 2}) of Co-60 and Zn-65 were analyzed.

  6. Study of atmospheric stagnation, recirculation and ventilation potential at Narora Atomic Power Station NPP site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Deepak; Kumar, Avinash; Kumar, Vimal; Kumar, Jaivender; Ravi, P M

    2013-04-01

    The atmosphere is an important pathway to be considered in assessment of the environmental impact of radioactivity releases from nuclear facilities. The estimation of concentration of released effluents in air and possible ground contamination needs an understanding of relevant atmospheric dispersion. This paper describes the meteorological characteristics of Narora Atomic Power Station (NAPS) Nuclear Power Project site by using the integral parameters developed by Allwine and Whiteman (Atmospheric Environment 28(4):713-721, 1994). Meteorological data measured during the period 2006-2010 were analysed. The integral quantities related to the occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics were studied for the NAPS site to assess the dilution potential of the atmosphere. Wind run and recirculation factors were calculated for a 24-h transport time using 5 years of hourly surface measurements of wind speed and direction. The occurrence of stagnation, recirculation and ventilation characteristics during 2006-2010 at the NAPS site is observed to be 33.8, 19.5 and 34.7 % of the time, respectively. The presence of strong winds with predominant wind direction NW and WNW during winter and summer seasons leads to higher ventilation (48.1 and 44.3 %) and recirculation (32.6 % of the summer season). The presence of more dispersed light winds during pre-winter season with predominant wind directions W and WNW results in more stagnation (59.7 % of the pre-winter season). Thus, this study will serve as an essential meteorological tool to understand the transport mechanism of atmospheric radioactive effluent release from any nuclear industry during the pre-operational as well as operational phase.

  7. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic Power. By Denis Taylor: Dr. Taylor was formerly Chief UNESCO Advisor at the University. College, Nairobi, Kenya and is now Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Uni- versity of ... method of producing radioactive isotopes, which are materials .... the sealing and the pressure balancing, all can be carried out ...

  8. Installation of the Light-Water Breeder Reactor at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station (LWBR Development Program)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massimino, R.J.; Williams, D.A.

    1983-05-01

    This report summarizes the refueling operations performed to install a Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core into the existing pressurized water reactor vessel at the Shippingport Atomic Power Station. Detailed descriptions of the major installation operations (e.g., primary system preconditioning, fuel installation, pressure boundary seal welding) are included as appendices to this report; these operations are of technical interest to any reactor servicing operation, whether the reactor is a breeder or a conventional light water non-breeder core.

  9. 77 FR 36302 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Confirmatory Order Modifying...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... classes of Yankee Atomic Electric Company stock. V In accordance with 10 CFR 2.202, any person adversely... Meta System Help Desk will not be able to offer assistance in using unlisted software. If a participant... assistance by contacting the NRC Meta System Help Desk through the ``Contact Us'' link located on the NRC Web...

  10. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-12-31

    Hekinan thermal power station is situated at the port of Kinuura in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Unit 1 began commercial operation in October 1991, Unit 2 in June 1992 and Unit 3 in April 1993. This brochure gives the specification of the main facilities of the power station, shows its layout; illustrates its pollution control equipment, gives specifications of its flue gas treatment systems and of its large steam turbine, describes its coal handling facilities and gives their specifications, and mentions the power station`s automated control system.

  11. 76 FR 19476 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit Nos. 2 and 3; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-07

    ... carts containing new resins in paper or plastic bags. The total weight of the plastic bags is estimated.... Standard-383, ``IEEE Standard For Qualifying Class 1E Electrical Cables And Field Splices for Nuclear Power Generating Stations'' (IEEE 383), or equivalent. Detection, Control, and Extinguishment The licensee stated...

  12. Stanwell power station project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, David R; J Dey, Christopher [University of Sidney, Sidney (Australia); Morrison, Graham L [University of New South Wales, Sidney (Australia)

    2000-07-01

    This paper describes the Compact Linear Fresnel Reflector (CLFR) being developed for installation at the Stanwell power station in Queensland Australia. Stanwell Corporation Limited (SCL). Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd. And the universities of Sidney and New South Wales are cooperating in the project, and this first plant being partly funded by the Australian Greenhouse Office. The solar plant will be attached to a 1440 MW(e) coal fired plant. The 17000 m{sup 2} array will be the largest array in Australia, producing a peak of 13 MW of thermal energy which will offset the use of coal in the generation of electricity. It will use direct steam generation and will feed either steam or hot water at 265 Celsius degrees directly into the power station preheating cycle. The CLFR system, first developed by the University of Sidney and Solsearch Pty. Ltd., is simple and offers small reflector size, low structural cost, fixed receiver geometry. Initial installed plant costs are approximately US$1000 per kWe, but this includes the effect of high up-front design costs and the cost should drop substantially in the second and subsequent plants. [Spanish] Proyecto de la Planta Electrica Stanwell este articulo describe el Reflector Lineal Compacto Fresnel (CLFR, siglas en ingles) que se esta desarrollando para la instalacion de la planta electrica Stanwell en Queensland, Australia. La Corporacion Stanwell Limited (SCL), Solahart International, Solsearch Pty. Ltd., las universidades de Sidney y de New South Wales estan cooperando en este proyecto, y esta primera planta esta parcialmente auspiciada por la Australian Greenhouse Office. La planta solar sera anexa a una planta de carbon de 1440 MW(e). Este arreglo de 17000 m{sup 2} sera el mayor en Australia y producira un maximo de 13 MW en energia termica la cual contrarrestara el uso del carbon en la generacion de electricidad. Utilizara generacion con vapor directo y alimentara ya sea vapor o agua caliente a 265 grados

  13. 76 FR 29277 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit Nos. 2 and 3...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-20

    ... Reports for Nuclear Power Plants,'' Revision 3, March 2007, was also reviewed and assessed with respect to... proposed action does not involve a change to plant buildings or land areas on the PBAPS site. The proposed... and 3, ``Generic Environmental Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants,'' (NUREG-1437...

  14. Critical evaluation of the nonradiological environmental technical specifications. Volume 3. Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Units 2 and 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.M.; Cunningham, P.A.; Gray, D.D.; Kumar, K.D.; Witten, A.J.

    1976-08-10

    A comprehensive study of the data collected as part of the environmental Technical Specifications program for Units 2 and 3 of the Peach Bottom Nuclear Power Plant was conducted for the Office of Regulatory Research of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission. The program included an analysis of both the hydrothermal and ecological monitoring data collected from 1967 through 1976. Specific recommendations are made for improving both the present hydrothermal and ecological monitoring programs. Hydrothermal monitoring would be improved by more complete reporting of in-plant operating parameters. In addition, the present boat surveys could be discontinued, and monitoring efforts could be directed toward expanding the present thermograph network. Ecological monitoring programs were judged to be of high quality because standardized collection techniques, consistent reporting formats, and statistical analyses were performed on all of the data and were presented in an annual report. Sampling for all trophic groups was adequate for the purposes of assessing power plant induced perturbations. Considering the extensive period of preoperational data (six years) and operational data (three years) available for analysis, consideration could be given to reducing monitoring effort after data have been collected for a period when both units are operating at full capacity. In this way, an assessment of the potential ecological impact of the Peach Bottom facility can be made under conditions of maximum plant induced perturbations.

  15. The nuclear power stations of the French atomic energy programme (1960); Les centrales nucleaires de puissance du programme francais (1960)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leduc, C. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France).Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires; Roux, J.P. [Electricite de France (EDF), 75 - Paris (France)

    1960-07-01

    After recalling the entry of nuclear energy into energy production in France, the paper emphasizes the evolution of techniques applied in the designing of French nuclear power plants and describes the means employed for reducing costs per kWh of EDF2 and EDF3 compared with EDF1: the electric power per ton of uranium varies from 493 kW/t for EDF1 to 970 kW/t for EDF3. For this purpose the thermal power and electric power of units are changed respectively from 290 MWt for EDF1 to 1200 or 1600 MWt for EDF3 and from 28 to 250 MW. The results are obtained by an improvement in neutronic characteristics, developments in nuclear fuel technology, and simplification of the system of charging the reactor, whose means of maintenance are increased; the EDF2 heat-exchangers have been so designed as to increase the unit power of the elements, which will attain 9 MWt, as against 3 for EDF1. For EDF3 an advance project forecasts a thermodynamic layout with only one pressure stage. The paper ends with a description of the burst-slug detection systems, and an appendix gives a detailed comparative table of EDF1, EDF2 and EDF3 plant characteristics. (author) [French] Apres avoir rappele l'integration de l'energie nucleaire parmi les moyens de production de l'energie en France, les auteurs se penchent surtout sur l'evolution des techniques appliquees dans l'equipement des centrales nucleaires francaises et decrivent les moyens mis en oeuvre pour reduire les prix de revient du kWh d'EDF2 et d'EDF3 par rapport a EDF1: la puissance electrique par tonne d'uranium varie de 493 kW/t pour EDF1 a 970 kW/t pour EDF3. C'est dans ce but que les puissances thermiques et la puissance unitaire des groupes turbo-alternateurs passent respectivement de 290 MWt pour EDF1 a 1200 ou 1600 MWt pour EDF3 et de 82 a 250 MW. Les resultats sont obtenus par une amelioration des caracteristiques neutroniques, des progres realises sur la technologie des elements

  16. Release of radionuclides and chelating agents from cement-solidified decontamination low-level radioactive waste collected from the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akers, D.W.; Kraft, N.C.; Mandler, J.W. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1994-03-01

    As part of a study being performed for the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), small-scale waste-form specimens were collected during a low oxidation-state transition-metal ion (LOMI)-nitric permanganate (NP)-LOMI solidification performed in October 1989 at the Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station Unit 3. The purpose of this program was to evaluate the performance of cement-solidified decontamination waste to meet the low-level waste stability requirements defined in the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. The samples were acquired and tested because little data have been obtained on the physical stability of actual cement-solidified decontamination ion-exchange resin waste forms and on the leachability of radionuclides and chelating agents from those waste forms. The Peach Bottom waste-form specimens were subjected to compressive strength, immersion, and leach testing in accordance with the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1. Results of this study indicate that the specimens withstood the compression tests (>500 psi) before and after immersion testing and leaching, and that the leachability indexes for all radionuclides, including {sup 14}C, {sup 99}{Tc}, and {sup 129}I, are well above the leachability index requirement of 6.0, required by the NRC`s ``Technical Position on Waste Form,`` Revision 1.

  17. Solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Ferber, R. R.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    The subsystems of a solar photovoltaic central power system are identified and the cost of major components are estimated. The central power system, which would have a peak power capability in the range of 50 to 1000 MW, utilizes two types of subsystems - a power conditioner and a solar array. Despite differences in costs of inverters, the overall cost of the total power conditioning subsystem is about the same for all approaches considered. A combination of two inverters operating from balanced dc buses as a pair of 6-pulse groups is recommended. A number of different solar cell modules and tracking array structures were analyzed. It is concluded that when solar cell costs are high (greater than $500/kW), high concentration modules are more cost effective than those with low concentration. Vertical-axis tracking is the most effective of the studied tracking modes. For less expensive solar cells (less than $400/kW), fixed tilt collector/reflector modules are more cost effective than those which track.

  18. Package power stations for export

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    The cheap and efficient generation of power is an essential requirement for the success and prosperity of any community and is especially important to third world countries. It is therefore logical that the more technologically advanced nations should seek to produce power stations for the developing countries. Power plant can now be designed into a packaged form that may be readily exported and commissioned. This valuable and interesting collection of papers were originally presented at a seminar organised by the Power Industries Division of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Topics considered include the developing world market for packaged power stations using indigenous fuels; multi-fuel systems for power generation; packaging, modularisation, and containerisation of equipment for power boilers for export; compact coal-fired industrial plant; rural woodburning power stations; biomass gasification based power generation technology and potential; gas fed reciprocating engine development; packaged heavy duty gas turbines for power generation; and criteria for assessing the appropriateness of package power technologies in developing countries.

  19. Space Station Electrical Power System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Cochran, Thomas H.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe the design of the Space Station Electrical Power System. This includes the Photovoltaic and Solar Dynamic Power Modules as well as the Power Management and Distribution System (PMAD). In addition, two programmatic options for developing the Electrical Power System will be presented. One approach is defined as the Enhanced Configuration and represents the results of the Phase B studies conducted by the NASA Lewis Research Center over the last two years. Another option, the Phased Program, represents a more measured approach to reaching about the same capability as the Enhanced Configuration.

  20. Feature articles, thermal power and atomic power. Design and construction of the cargo unloading jetty of Misumi power station. Karyoku, genshiryoku. Misumi hatsudensho butsuyo sanbashi no sekkei/seko ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, I.; Ishimoto, M.; Ichinose, Y. (Chugoku Electric Power Co. Inc., Hiroshima (Japan))

    1994-05-31

    The Chugoku Electric Power Co., Ltd. is now constructing a cargo unloading jetty for bringing in materials and machines for the construction of the power station together with the coal unloading quay and the oil unloading quay at the east berth of the power station, as a part of the land reclamation work for Misumi power station in Shimane Prefecture. In this article, the design and construction of this jetty are to make the normal lines of these quays and the jetty aligned straight in order to allow a ship to lay alongside the two adjoining piers across their boundary, and to make its revetment portion with a water intake recede in the concave manner and adopt the flat slab structure supported with steel pipe piles to this portion in order to let this jetty function also as the deep water intaking facility for the condenser cooling water. Since the uplift pressure of the incident waves work on the slabs structurally, this effect has been reflected in the design after conducting an experiment using a hydromodel. Concerning steel pipe piles, driving of these piles into the bottom rock bed with the uniaxial compression pressure of 1,500kgf/cm[sup 2] in maximum has been conducted. On the front face of the above jetty, a curtain wall has been installed for intaking the deep water. It planned to complete the construction work in the end of 1994. 7 refs., 19 figs., 7 tabs.

  1. Nuclear power generation modern power station practice

    CERN Document Server

    1971-01-01

    Nuclear Power Generation focuses on the use of nuclear reactors as heat sources for electricity generation. This volume explains how nuclear energy can be harnessed to produce power by discussing the fundamental physical facts and the properties of matter underlying the operation of a reactor. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with an overview of nuclear physics, first by considering the structure of matter and basic physical concepts such as atomic structure and nuclear reactions. The second chapter deals with the requirements of a reactor as a heat source, along with the diff

  2. Atomic Power | Taylor | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3 (1968) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Atomic Power. D Taylor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  3. Photovoltaic central-station power conditioner subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauthamer, S.; Das, R.; Bahrami, K.; Bulawka, A.

    1984-01-01

    The potential of applying new advanced circuit topologies and semiconductors with improved switching characteristics to the design and development of central-station power conditioning subsystems is assessed. State-of-the-art large power conditioners suitable for photovoltaic central-station application are reviewed. Advanced topology power conditioning subsystems, when compared to available production hardware, promise improved performance, significant cost reduction, and lower cost-to-efficiency ratios.

  4. Space power station. Uchu hatsuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kudo, I. (Electrotechnical Laboratory, Tsukuba (Japan))

    1993-02-20

    A calculation tells that the amount of electric power the world will use in the future will require 100 to 500 power plants each with an output of 5-GW class. If this conception is true, it is beyond dispute that utilizing nuclear power will constitute a core of the power generation even though the geographical conditions are severe for nuclear power plants. It is also certain that power generation using clean solar energy will play important roles if power supply stability can be achieved. This paper describes plans to develop space solar power generation and space nuclear power generation that can supply power solving problems concerning geographical conditions and power supply stability. The space solar power generation is a system to arrest solar energy on a static orbit. According to a result of discussions in the U.S.A., the plan calls for solar cell sheets spread over the surface of a structure with a size of 5 km [times] 10 km [times] 0.5 km thick, and electric power obtained therefrom is transmitted to a rectenna with a size of 10 km [times] 13 km, a receiving antenna on the ground. The space nuclear power generation will be constructed similarly on a static orbit. Researches on space nuclear reactors have already begun. 10 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Decommissioning strategy for Trawsfynydd power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.M.; Ellis, A.T. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    Following the decision to close Trawsfynydd power station, Nuclear Electric adapted its generic decommissioning plans to suit the particular local circumstances. This resulted in an early reduced height safestore strategy which is described in the paper. (Author).

  6. Silicon solar photovoltaic power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowaniec, C. R.; Ferber, R. R.; Pittman, P. F.; Marshall, B. W.

    1977-01-01

    Modular design of components and arrays, cost estimates for modules and support structures, and cost/performance analysis of a central solar photovoltaic power plant are discussed. Costs of collector/reflector arrays are judged the dominant element in the total capital investment. High-concentration solar tracking arrays are recommended as the most economic means for producing solar photovoltaic energy when solar cells costs are high ($500 per kW generated). Capital costs for power conditioning subsystem components are itemized and system busbar energy costs are discussed at length.

  7. [The pathomorphological characteristics of duodenal peptic ulcer in the victims of the accident at the Chernobyl Atomic Electric Power Station: changes in the gastric mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degtiareva, L V; Moroz, G Z

    1998-01-01

    Gastrobiopsies were studied from patients with duodenal ulcer, 62 of whom took part in the elimination of the effects of the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant breakdown, 33 were permanent residents in the territories affected by radioactive contamination, and 36 formed the control group. Several distinguishing features were noted in chronic Helicobacter gastritis in victims of Chernobyl accident versus control, such as higher degree and activity of the inflammatory process spreading over large tissue areas, with Helicobacter pylori being recordable in the gastric mucosa in highly increased numbers, and more frequent occurrence of atrophic changes. Incorporation of radionuclides and external irradiation at dose levels exceeding 25 cause most significant disturbances in regeneration of epithelium, with its enterolyzation and dysplasia going on, which fact makes the risk of neoplastic transformations higher.

  8. Operations research investigations of satellite power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, J. W.; Ballard, J. L.

    1976-01-01

    A systems model reflecting the design concepts of Satellite Power Stations (SPS) was developed. The model is of sufficient scope to include the interrelationships of the following major design parameters: the transportation to and between orbits; assembly of the SPS; and maintenance of the SPS. The systems model is composed of a set of equations that are nonlinear with respect to the system parameters and decision variables. The model determines a figure of merit from which alternative concepts concerning transportation, assembly, and maintenance of satellite power stations are studied. A hybrid optimization model was developed to optimize the system's decision variables. The optimization model consists of a random search procedure and the optimal-steepest descent method. A FORTRAN computer program was developed to enable the user to optimize nonlinear functions using the model. Specifically, the computer program was used to optimize Satellite Power Station system components.

  9. Design of a photovoltaic central power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Photovoltaic central power station designs have been developed for both high-efficiency flat-panel arrays and two-axis tracking concentrator arrays. Both designs are based on a site adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The plants are 100 MW each, made of 5 MW subfields. The site specific designs allow detailed cost estimate for site preparation, installation, and engineering. These designs are summarized and cost estimates analyzed. Provided also are recommendations for future work to reduce system cost for each plant design.

  10. Lunar Base Thermoelectric Power Station Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Determan, William; Frye, Patrick; Mondt, Jack; Fleurial, Jean-Pierre; Johnson, Ken; Stapfer, Gerhard; Brooks, Michael; Heshmatpour, Ben

    2006-01-01

    Under NASA's Project Prometheus, the Nuclear Space Power Systems Program, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne, and Teledyne Energy Systems have teamed with a number of universities, under the Segmented Thermoelectric Multicouple Converter (STMC) Task, to develop the next generation of advanced thermoelectric converters for space reactor power systems. Work on the STMC converter assembly has progressed to the point where the lower temperature stage of the segmented multicouple converter assembly is ready for laboratory testing, and promising candidates for the upper stage materials have been identified and their properties are being characterized. One aspect of the program involves mission application studies to help define the potential benefits from the use of these STMC technologies for designated NASA missions such as a lunar base power station where kilowatts of power would be required to maintain a permanent manned presence on the surface of the moon. A modular 50 kWe thermoelectric power station concept was developed to address a specific set of requirements developed for this particular mission concept. Previous lunar lander concepts had proposed the use of lunar regolith as in-situ radiation shielding material for a reactor power station with a one kilometer exclusion zone radius to minimize astronaut radiation dose rate levels. In the present concept, we will examine the benefits and requirements for a hermetically-sealed reactor thermoelectric power station module suspended within a man-made lunar surface cavity. The concept appears to maximize the shielding capabilities of the lunar regolith while minimizing its handling requirements. Both thermal and nuclear radiation levels from operation of the station, at its 100-m exclusion zone radius, were evaluated and found to be acceptable. Site preparation activities are reviewed as well as transport issues for this concept. The goal of the study was to review the entire life cycle of the

  11. Space Station Freedom primary power wiring requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Thomas J.

    1994-09-01

    The Space Station Freedom (SSF) Program requirements are a 30 year reliable service life in low Earth orbit in hard vacuum or pressurized module service without detrimental degradation. Specific requirements are outlined in this presentation for SSF primary power and cable insulation. The primary power cable status and the WP-4 planned cable test program are also reviewed along with Rocketdyne-WP04 prime insulation candidates.

  12. 75 FR 75706 - Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... Power Station, Units 2 and 3 and Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Notice of... Nuclear Power Station, Units 2 and 3, respectively, located in Grundy County, Illinois, and to Renewed Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-29 and DPR-30 for Quad Cities Nuclear Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2...

  13. Toluene stability Space Station Rankine power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, V. N.; Ragaller, D. R.; Sibert, L.; Miller, D.

    1987-01-01

    A dynamic test loop is designed to evaluate the thermal stability of an organic Rankine cycle working fluid, toluene, for potential application to the Space Station power conversion unit. Samples of the noncondensible gases and the liquid toluene were taken periodically during the 3410 hour test at 750 F peak temperature. The results obtained from the toluene stability loop verify that toluene degradation will not lead to a loss of performance over the 30-year Space Station mission life requirement. The identity of the degradation products and the low rates of formation were as expected from toluene capsule test data.

  14. 77 FR 18271 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... revision to Regulatory Guide (RG) 4.11, ``Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations... environmental studies and analyses supporting licensing decisions for nuclear power reactors. ADDRESSES: Please...

  15. Solar dynamic power for Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labus, Thomas L.; Secunde, Richard R.; Lovely, Ronald G.

    1989-01-01

    The Space Station Freedom Program is presently planned to consist of two phases. At the completion of Phase 1, Freedom's manned base will consist of a transverse boom with attached manned modules and 75 kW of available electric power supplied by photovoltaic (PV) power sources. In Phase 2, electric power available to the manned base will be increased to 125 kW by the addition of two solar dynamic (SD) power modules, one at each end of the transverse boom. Power for manned base growth beyond Phase 2 will be supplied by additional SD modules. Studies show that SD power for the growth eras will result in life cycle cost savings of $3 to $4 billion when compared to PV-supplied power. In the SD power modules for Space Station Freedom, an offset parabolic concentrator collects and focuses solar energy into a heat receiver. To allow full power operation over the entire orbit, the receiver includes integral thermal energy storage by means of the heat of fusion of a salt mixture. Thermal energy is removed from the receiver and converted to electrical energy by a power conversion unit (PCU) which includes a closed brayton cycle (CBC) heat engine and an alternator. The receiver/PCU/radiator combination will be completely assembled and charged with gas and cooling fluid on earth before launch to orbit. The concentrator subassemblies will be pre-aligned and stowed in the orbiter bay before launch. On orbit, the receiver/PCU/radiator assembly will be installed as a unit. The pre-aligned concentrator panels will then be latched together and the total concentrator attached to the receiver/PCU/radiator by the astronauts. After final electric connections are made and checkout is complete, the SD power module will be ready for operation.

  16. Commentary: childhood cancer near nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2009-09-23

    In 2008, the KiKK study in Germany reported a 1.6-fold increase in solid cancers and a 2.2-fold increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from incorporated radionuclides. Doses from environmental emissions from nuclear reactors to embryos and fetuses in pregnant women near nuclear power stations may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  17. Waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, R.C.

    1978-12-01

    This study of waste heat rejection from geothermal power stations is concerned only with the heat rejected from the power cycle. The heat contained in reinjected or otherwise discharged geothermal fluids is not included with the waste heat considered here. The heat contained in the underflow from the flashtanks in such systems is not considered as part of the heat rejected from the power cycle. By following this definition of the waste heat to be rejected, various methods of waste heat dissipation are discussed without regard for the particular arrangement to obtain heat from the geothermal source. Recent conceptual design studies made for 50-MW(e) geothermal power stations at Heber and Niland, California, are of particular interst. The former uses a flashed-steam system and the latter a binary cycle that uses isopentane. In last-quarter 1976 dollars, the total estimated capital costs were about $750/kW and production costs about 50 mills/kWhr. If wet/dry towers were used to conserve 50% of the water evaporation at Heber, production costs would be about 65 mills/kWhr.

  18. thermal power stations' reliability evaluation in a hydrothermal system

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    A quantitative tool for the evaluation of thermal power stations reliability in a hydrothermal system is presented. A reliable power station is one which would supply the required power within its installed capacity at any time within the specified voltage and frequency limits. Required for this evaluation are the station's installed ...

  19. Electrical Power Station Theory. A Course of Technical Information for Electrical Power Station Wireman Apprentices. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This third-year course for electrical power station wirer apprentices is a foundation for the study of all aspects of installation and maintenance of power station equipment. It also provides a good technical background as well as the general knowledge essential to power station operator trainees. The course is intended to be equivalent to a…

  20. Atomic Power in Space: A History

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-01

    "Atomic Power in Space," a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. Interplanetary space exploration successes and achievements have been made possible by this technology, for which there is no known substitue.

  1. Atomic power in space: A history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-03-01

    ''Atomic Power in Space,'' a history of the Space Isotope Power Program of the United States, covers the period from the program's inception in the mid-1950s through 1982. Written in non-technical language, the history is addressed to both the general public and those more specialized in nuclear and space technologies. 19 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Childhood cancer near German nuclear power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fairlie, Ian

    2010-01-01

    In 2008, the Kinderkrebs in der Umgebung von Kernkraftwerken (KiKK) study in Germany reported a 60% increase in solid cancers and a 120% increase in leukemias among children living within 5 km of all German nuclear power stations. The study has triggered debates as to the cause(s) of these increased cancers. This article reports on the findings of the KiKK study; discusses past and more recent epidemiological studies of leukemias near nuclear installations around the world, and outlines a possible biological mechanism to explain the increased cancers. This suggests that the observed high rates of infant leukemias may be a teratogenic effect from radionuclides incorporated by pregnant women living near nuclear reactors. Doses and risks from environmental emissions to embryos and fetuses may be larger than suspected. Hematopoietic tissues appear to be considerably more radiosensitive in embryos/fetuses than in newborn babies. Recommendations for advice to local residents and for further research are made.

  3. Decommissioning at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bindon, F.J.L.

    1997-01-01

    The Trawsfynndd nuclear power station in North Wales was formally closed on July 20th 1993 on economic grounds. Radiation effects in the steel pressure vessels of the two Magnox units required high cost modifications if the reactors were to continue operation. Defuelling of the reactors was completed by August 1995. The Deferred Safestore Strategy has been selected as the decommissioning option. This does not involve any significant active dismantling until about 135 years from shutdown. Three main aspects of the decommissioning are discussed. These are: public consultation which focussed on the socio-economic implications of the reduction in the workforce and the visual impact of the safestore building design which was reduced in height in response to public opinion; technical considerations relating to waste management and electrical plant decommissioning; the conversion of the reactor buildings to provide safe storage for activated and contaminated material for a long period yet requiring only minimal maintenance. (UK).

  4. Utilization of hydraulic mini-power stations in rural zones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pontier, R. (Societe Neyrpic, 38 - Grenoble (France))

    1982-10-01

    It is explained on a specific case how hydroelectric mini-power stations can be associated to a hydraulic dam to feed electric power to the water treatment works and to supply peak load power to the grid.

  5. Coal fired power stations and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, S.H.

    1982-12-01

    Environmental problems resulting from the use of coal in power stations were discussed in a conference in Copenhagen in August, 1982. Topics included: 1) Discussions of the adverse temperature effects of cooling tower water. The pathogenic amoeba Naegleria fowleri has been isolated in two of eight cooling tower systems; 2) Uses of power plant ash. Dense blocks of the ash have been used to build artificial reefs with, as yet, not adverse effects on the marine community; 3) Long-range transport of particulates which bind heavy metals in the ash; and 4) The effects of acid rain. An examination of the fish status of Scandanavian lakes did not reveal a simple relationship between pH and fishlessness. It was concluded that levels of calcium and aluminum, food supply, genetically determined tolerance and ecological factors have also played a part in the fish regime of acid-affected lakes. The Norwegian attitude is that there are good grounds for thinking acid rain is a global problem implicating the discharge of nitrogen and sulfur oxides and either micropollutants. (JMT)

  6. 76 FR 50274 - Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... COMMISSION Terrestrial Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission... Environmental Studies for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide provides technical guidance that the NRC staff... nuclear power reactors. DATES: Submit comments by October 11, 2011. Comments received after this date will...

  7. Modern power station practice incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Reynolds, PM

    1992-01-01

    This volume contains two additional features which enhance the value of Modern Power Station Practice as a whole: a cumulative subject index and a detailed list of tables of contents for the entire work. The cumulative index provides access to the vast body of information presented in the set, and also indicates at a glance the breadth and depth of the treatment through the use of inclusive page ranges for major topics. In order to allow the reader the greatest flexibility in using the index there are many cross-references. The entries themselves are qualified by up to two descriptive subheadi

  8. Power Station. Bio-power plant Schilling at Schwendi; Power Station. Bio-Kraftwerk-Schilling in Schwendi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thun, Matteo [Matteo Thun and Partners, Mailand (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    When wood burns certain natural cycles are naturally completed: chemical energy turns into light and heat, water turns into steam and then rain, mineral salts transform into ashes and fall back down to the ground and carbon dioxide is given off into the air. But when wood burns properly, all this turns into energy which may be used creating less environmental impact than any fossil fuel (either oil or gas). It may seem strange, but burning wood and safeguarding nature are perfectly compatible. This is the underlying philosophy of Schilling Power Station, which, together with the nearby sawmill, turn the woodburning cycle into something genuinely virtuous: wast products from the sawmill in the form of bark and wood chips become combustible biomass serving the power station. In turn, the power station generates energy in the form of heat to cover the sawmill's energy requirements. This completes the circle, and that would be enough in its own right. (orig.)

  9. Scenery Storage Technology Application in Power Station System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hong; Geng, Hao; Feng, Lei; Xu, Xing

    Scenery storage technology can effectively utilize wind power and photovoltaic power generation in the natural complementary of energy and time, improve the reliability of power supply, has attracted more and more attention. At present, the scenery storage research in the field application of the technology is relatively small, based on the actual substation as the research object, put forward the scenery storage technology as substation load power supply three applications of lighting power, standby power station and DC system, and through the detailed implementation of the program design, investment analysis, research the scenery with the feasibility of electrical energy storage technology system application in station. To solve the weak power grid, substation remote and backward areas should not be from the outside to obtain reliable power supply problems, the station area electric system design provides a new way of thinking, which has important practical engineering value.

  10. Station planning and design incorporating modern power system practice

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, PC

    1991-01-01

    The planning and design of new power stations can involve complex interaction between the many engineering disciplines involved as well as environmental, planning, economical, political and social pressures. This volume aims to provide a logical review of the procedures involved in power station development. The engineering aspects are outlined in detail, with examples, showing the basis of the relationships involved together with ""non-engineering"" factors so that the engineer can draw on the information provided for specific projects. The civil engineering and building of power stations are

  11. Satellite nuclear power station: An engineering analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, J. R.; Clement, J. D.; Rosa, R. J.; Kirby, K. D.; Yang, Y. Y.

    1973-01-01

    A nuclear-MHD power plant system which uses a compact non-breeder reactor to produce power in the multimegawatt range is analyzed. It is shown that, operated in synchronous orbit, the plant would transmit power safely to the ground by a microwave beam. Fuel reprocessing would take place in space, and no radioactive material would be returned to earth. Even the effect of a disastrous accident would have negligible effect on earth. A hydrogen moderated gas core reactor, or a colloid-core, or NERVA type reactor could also be used. The system is shown to approach closely the ideal of economical power without pollution.

  12. Design of photovoltaic central power station concentrator array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using tracking concentrators has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes an advanced Martin Marietta two-axis tracking fresnel lens concentrator. The concentrators are arrayed in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic plant output is connected to the existing 115 kV switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  13. 78 FR 61400 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-03

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Issuance of Director's Decision... and ML102210411, respectively), concerns the operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... (non- EQ) inaccessible cables at Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim) are capable of performing...

  14. 75 FR 11205 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station... Nuclear Power Station,'' NUREG-1437, Supplement 29, published in July 2007 (ADAMS Accession No...

  15. 77 FR 76541 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-28

    ... Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (the licensee), for operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim... Renewal of Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station, Final Report- Appendices,'' published...

  16. Power station automation: A special issue; Stationsautomatisering: Themanummer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zewald, H.F.M. [ed.; Wester, Ph. [Afdeling Hoogspanningsstations, PEN, Bloemendaal (Netherlands); Rijanto, H.; Kersten, W.F.J. [Vakgroep Elektrische Energiesystemen, Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Maas, J.H. [Afdeling Studie en Bedrijfsvoering, Delta Nutsbedrijven, Middelburg (Netherlands); Groeman, J.F. [KEMA Transport en Distributie, Arnhem (Netherlands); De Heus, A.A. [Elin Holec High Voltage, Amersfoort (Netherlands); De Bruijn, P. [Smit Transformatoren, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Groot, J.W. [Sector Automatiseringstechniek, Mauell-Nederland, Harderwijk (Netherlands); Zomers, A.N.

    1995-04-01

    Nine articles are presented in this special issue of `Energietechniek` on the subject of power station automation. The first article is an introduction to several articles, which are based on lectures, presented during the bi-annual joint meeting of Study Committees of Cigre (`Conference International des Grands Reseaux Electriques`) in Arnhem, Netherlands, December 16, 1994. The contents of six articles, presented at the Cigre meeting are a summary of the discussions, maintenance, design methods for future power stations, safety and control, a new generation of power substations, and future technological developments. The other two articles deal with operational exploitation calculations of power transformers, and the state of the art regarding the automation of power stations and networks

  17. Study of Environmental Impact by Coal-Fired Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshizumi, Koji; Ogaki, Mituharu; Motonaka, Junko; Yabutani, Tomoki

    The Tachibana-wan coal-fired power station was constructed on land that was reclaimed using the soil that came from cutting through half of a small island while balancing the amount of soil. The power station has been generating for three years. When the electric utility provider projected the power station, it must have conducted an environmental impact assessment, and studied the environmental preservation measures. Moreover, after the power generation began, an environmental investigation was done as a follow up survey to study the environmental impact by the power station based on its construction and use. To study the environmental impact with smoke, the environmental density of sulfur dioxide around the power station was investigated. It fell below the environmental standards at all the environmental measurement points during this investigation. Moreover, a big difference was not seen before and after the beginning of the power generation and the change in these data was in the normal range. As a result of the environmental impact assessment, the contribution density of the power station was near the quantitative limit and a low value. To study the environmental impact with warm wastewater, the water temperature in the bay was investigated. A big difference was not generally seen before and after the beginning of the power generation though the water temperature slowly rose at the discharge point of the warm wastewater but the change of these data was in the normal range. As for the environmental impact, a clear judgment was difficult only from the environmental investigation. It is necessary to set a new environmental indicator to judge the environmental impact. Moreover, as for a new environmental assessment system, it is necessary to introduce a strategic environmental assessment.

  18. CONTROL SYSTEM FOR MULTILEVEL INVERTOR OF SOLAR POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Levitskiy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The development of control law for network multilevel invertor of solar power station and design device for control law realization. Methodology. At synthesis of control law theory of automatic control, power network engineering and circuit technique are considered. The control law for distributive control over the direct-axis and quadrature-axis currents of invertor after abc-dq transform of three phase current’s momentary value is used. Results. The improved model of regulator of direct-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the voltage optimization of invertor’s operating both from solar module and from network by means of calculation the reactive power consumption from network, voltage on network and voltage on solar module. The improved model of regulator of quadrature-axis invertor’s current is developed and provides the power and frequency optimization of invertor’s operating by means of calculation ratio of active power consumption and power from solar module. Originality. The offered control law and device, which realize it, is working out on secondary loop from power network smart grid with active and reactive power consumption monitoring. That provides the optimal operation of solar station both from solar module and from power network. Practical value. The proposed control law and structure of the network multilevel invertor for solar power station provide the operate mode of solar module in maximum power point and increasing the solar module’s productivity.

  19. 75 FR 33238 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... turbine set, a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and a steam turbine generator set. DATES: Written...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY... Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for a RUS loan and a Western...

  20. 75 FR 43915 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-27

    ... generator, and a steam turbine generator set. ADDRESSES: To obtain copies of the ROD, or for further... Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY: Rural Utilities... environmental impacts of and alternatives to Basin Electric Power Cooperative's (Basin Electric) application for...

  1. case study of afam power station

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    fell to 45.3%. Recommendations include the establishment of a good maintenance work documentation system, increased training programme for local manpower, privatization of the electric power industry among others. INTRODUCTION. The maintenance of any engineering system consists of performing the following.

  2. Physics Experiments at the Agesta Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apelqvist, G. [State Power Board, Stockholm (Sweden); Bliselius, P. Aa.; Blomberg, P.E.; Jonsson, E.; Aakerhielm, F. [AB Atomenergi, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    1966-09-15

    Part A. Dynamic measurements have been performed at the Aagesta reactor at power levels from 0.3 to 65 MW(th). The purposes of the experiments have been both to develop experimental methods and equipment for the dynamic studies and to measure the dynamic characteristics of the reactor in order to check the dynamic model. The experiments have been performed with four different perturbation functions: trapezoidal and step functions and two types of periodic multifrequency signals. Perturbations were introduced in the reactivity and in the load. The recordings were made of the responses of nuclear power, coolant inlet and outlet temperature and control rod position. The results are presented as step responses and transfer functions (Bode diagrams). Inmost cases the relative accuracy is {+-} 0.5 dB in amplitude and {+-} 5 deg in phase. The results from the experiments in general show rather good agreement with the results obtained from a dynamic model, which successively has been improved. Experience on reactor noise analysis based on measurements in the Agesta power reactor is discussed. It is shown that the noise measurements have given complementary dynamic information of the reactor. Part B. Static measurements of the physics parameters in the Agesta reactor are carried out to confirm theoretical methods for reactor calculations and to form a good basis for safe operation of the reactor. The reactivity worth of groups of control rods are determined with different methods and compared with calculations with the three-dimensional code HETERO. The excess reactivity as a function of burn up is obtained from the control rod positions. The temperature coefficient of the moderator is measured by lowering the moderator temperature at constant power and observing the change in control rod insertion. As burn up increases the experiments are repeated in order to follow the changes in the coefficient. The xenon poisoning effects are measured by changing the power level and

  3. Power Factor Improvement for Pumping Stations using Capacitor Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamad, M. M.; Abd El-gawad, Amal F.; Ramadan, H. S.

    2016-10-01

    One of the fundamental problems affects the performance of pumping stations is its relative high operational cost. As three-phase induction motors are the main prime mover of pumping stations and considered the most widely used electrical motors due to their reliability, ease of maintenance. However, its major problem is the low power factor which results in high electric energy consumption. Energy will be saved when power factor is improved. The main objective of this paper is studying the power factor improvement in El sadaa Pumping Station because of its low operating efficiency which goes from 20 % to 25 %and calculating penalty, ponus and savings in each cases. The correction is achieved by the addition of capacitor banks in parallel with the connected motor circuits and can be applied to the starter, applied at the switchboard or the distribution panel. A model of this station is created using MatlabTM Simulink. Then the determination of induction motor parameters is performed. The station model is discussed. From the simulation results, the power factor enhancement of the pumping station is highlighted.

  4. The Grossmatt hydro-power station; Wasserkraftwerk Grossmatt. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hintermann, M.

    2006-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the project for a small hydropower station on the Birs river in north-western Switzerland. The report reviews the history of the project, in which a new 385 kW-hydro-power station at the site of an earlier installation is foreseen. Details are presented on the investigations made and on the co-ordination with the owners of the hydro-power station situated up-river, the local power utility and the local authorities. Also, the requirements placed on the project by the fishing authorities are quoted and the solution foreseen is described. Also discussed are the requirements placed on the project by legislation on environmental impact and flood protection. Figures on electrical energy production and building costs are presented.

  5. Focus on coal power station installations and population health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Valenti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage to health associated with emissions from coal power stations can vary greatly from one location to another depending on the size of the plant, location and the characteristics of the population. Population-based studies conducted by independent groups in different locations around the world show effects on health in populations at higher risk, but failed to definitely demonstrate direct effects on morbidity and mortality, to be exclusively attributed to the presence of active power stations. However, evidence on the role of micropollutants from power station activities suggests that a complete and thorough analysis should be made on the environmental cycle. Therefore danger should in any case be assessed as carefully as possible while assuming, at most, that all micropollutants may come into direct contact with man through the various potential pathways throughout their entire lifetime, regardless of the factors that reduce their presence.

  6. Complex Mobile Independent Power Station for Urban Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunik, A. A.; Tolstoy, M. Y.

    2017-11-01

    A new type of a complex mobile independent power station developed in the Department of Engineering Communications and Life-Support Systems of Irkutsk National Research Technical University, is presented in this article. This station contains only solar panel, wind turbine, accumulator, diesel generator and microbial fuel cell for to produce electric energy, heat pump and solar collector to generate heat energy and also wastewater treatment plant and new complex control system. The complex mobile independent power station is intended for full power supply of a different kind of consumers located even in remote areas thus reducing their dependence from centralized energy supply systems, decrease the fossil fuel consumption, improve the environment of urban areas and solve the problems of the purification of industrial and municipal wastewater.

  7. Rotary-atomizer electric power generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Tran, Tuan; de Boer, Hans L.; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C.T.

    2015-01-01

    We report experimental and theoretical results on a ballistic energy-conversion method based on a rotary atomizer working with a droplet acceleration-deceleration cycle. In a rotary atomizer, liquid is fed onto the center of a rotating flat surface, where it spreads out under the action of the

  8. A Renewably Powered Hydrogen Generation and Fueling Station Community Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Valerie J.; Sekura, Linda S.; Prokopius, Paul; Theirl, Susan

    2009-01-01

    The proposed project goal is to encourage the use of renewable energy and clean fuel technologies for transportation and other applications while generating economic development. This can be done by creating an incubator for collaborators, and creating a manufacturing hub for the energy economy of the future by training both white- and blue-collar workers for the new energy economy. Hydrogen electrolyzer fueling stations could be mass-produced, shipped and installed in collaboration with renewable energy power stations, or installed connected to the grid with renewable power added later.

  9. Solar Power Station Output Inverter Control Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bauer

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic applications spreads in these days fast, therefore they also undergo great development. Because the amount of the energy obtained from the panel depends on the surrounding conditions, as intensity of the sun exposure or the temperature of the solar array, the converter must be connected to the panel output. The Solar system equipped with inverter can supply small loads like notebooks, mobile chargers etc. in the places where the supplying network is not present. Or the system can be used as a generator and it shall deliver energy to the supply network. Each type of the application has different requirements on the converter and its control algorithm. But for all of them the one thing is common – the maximal efficiency. The paper focuses on design and simulation of the low power inverter that acts as output part of the whole converter. In the paper the design of the control algorithm of the inverter for both types of inverter application – for islanding mode and for operation on the supply grid – is discussed. Attention is also paid to the design of the output filter that should reduce negative side effects of the converter on the supply network.

  10. 47 CFR 74.710 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.710 Digital low power TV and TV... protect an authorized digital low power TV or TV translator station or an application for such station...

  11. New generation medium power nuclear station with VPBER-600 passive safety reactor plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitenkov, F.M.; Antonovsky, G.M.; Panov, Yu.K.; Runov, B.I. [OKB Mech. Eng., Nizhny Novgorod (Russian Federation)

    1997-10-01

    Design principles and the main technical characteristics of a new generation medium size atomic station with passive safety VPBER-600 reactor plant (RP) are considered in the report. RP safety concept, design of the integral reactor and of the reactor unit, description of the principal diagram and plant safety system, layout decisions on reactor building and the concept of architectural-arrangement decisions on the site are given. The results of safety analysis show that the atomic station with VPBER-600 RP is an environmentally clean source of power supply with a minimal radiation impact on the environment. Information is given on the soundness of design solutions and data are presented concerning the respective cost and possible time schedule for the plant construction. (orig.) 4 refs.

  12. 75 FR 8895 - Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-26

    ... include a new natural gas-fired combustion turbine set, a heat recovery steam generator (HRSG), and a steam turbine generator set. DATES: With this notice, RUS invites any affected Federal, State, and local...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service Basin Electric Power Cooperative: Deer Creek Station AGENCY...

  13. FUEL CELL OPERATION ON LANDFILL GAS AT PENROSE POWER STATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    This demonstration test successfully demonstrated operation of a commercial phosphoric acid fuel cell (FC) on landfill gas (LG) at the Penrose Power Station in Sun Valley, CA. Demonstration output included operation up to 137 kW; 37.1% efficiency at 120 kW; exceptionally low sec...

  14. Chemical properties of fly ashes produced in the Arcelor Mittal power station and the Třinec ironworks power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulikova, L.

    2017-10-01

    Fly ash is an inorganic secondary material coming from combustion of coal in power stations. Tested fly ashes were produced by different processes. Therefore they have different parameters. Their chemical properties were determined using chemical analyzes and compared. Results of laboratory tests show possibility to use of fly ashes in road construction as binder for soil treatment.

  15. Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station IGCC project: Project status

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDaniel, J.E.; Carlson, M.R.; Hurd, R.; Pless, D.E.; Grant, M.D. [Tampa Electric Co., FL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Tampa Electric Company Polk Power Station is a nominal 250 MW (net) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plant located to the southeast of Tampa, Florida in Polk County, Florida. This project is being partially funded under the Department of Energy`s Clean Coal Technology Program pursuant to a Round II award. The Polk Power Station uses oxygen-blown, entrained-flow IGCC technology licensed from Texaco Development Corporation to demonstrate significant reductions of SO{sub 2} and NO{sub x} emissions when compared to existing and future conventional coal-fired power plants. In addition, this project demonstrates the technical feasibility of commercial scale IGCC and Hot Gas Clean Up (HGCU) technology. The Polk Power Station achieved ``first fire`` of the gasification system on schedule in mid-July, 1996. Since that time, significant advances have occurred in the operation of the entire IGCC train. This paper addresses the operating experiences which occurred in the start-up and shakedown phase of the plant. Also, with the plant being declared in commercial operation as of September 30, 1996, the paper discusses the challenges encountered in the early phases of commercial operation. Finally, the future plans for improving the reliability and efficiency of the Unit in the first quarter of 1997 and beyond, as well as plans for future alternate fuel test burns, are detailed. The presentation features an up-to-the-minute update on actual performance parameters achieved by the Polk Power Station. These parameters include overall Unit capacity, heat rate, and availability. In addition, the current status of the start-up activities for the HGCU portion of the plant is discussed.

  16. 47 CFR 74.793 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protection of broadcast stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.793 Digital low power TV and TV.... Predictions of interference to co-channel DTV broadcast, digital Class A TV, digital LPTV and digital TV...

  17. Flow of power-law fluids in simplex atomizers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandal, A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 (United States); Jog, M.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 (United States)], E-mail: Milind.Jog@uc.edu; Xue, J.; Ibrahim, A.A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221-0072 (United States)

    2008-10-15

    This paper presents a computational analysis of flow of time-independent, purely-viscous, power-law fluids in simplex atomizers using the volume-of-fluid (VOF) method. Flow of shear-thinning (0.4 < n < 1), Newtonian (n = 1) and shear thickening fluids (1 < n < 1.2) has been considered. The effect of power-law index and atomizer geometry on the flow and atomizer performance has been investigated. Three geometry parameters have been considered, viz., the atomizer constant which is the ratio of inlet area to the product of swirl chamber diameter and the exit diameter, the ratio of swirl chamber diameter to exit orifice diameter, and the length-to-diameter ratio of the exit orifice. The dimensionless film thickness at exit, spray cone angle, and the discharge coefficient for different values power-law index as well as those with varying atomizer geometry are reported. The pressure drop across the atomizer has been kept constant in all simulations. A change in the power-law index significantly alters the flow field in the in the swirl chamber of the atomizer. The velocity magnitudes and liquid film thickness at the orifice exit change with the power-law index. With fixed atomizer geometry, the pseudoplastic fluids tend to produce thinner liquid sheet, larger spray cone angle, and have lower discharge coefficient compared to dilatant fluids. Changes in the atomizer geometry have a significant impact on the flow for all values of power-law index. The spray cone angle decreases and the discharge coefficient and the film thickness increase with increasing atomizer constant. With increasing D{sub s}/d{sub o}, the dimensionless film thickness at exit increases whereas the dimensional film thickness decreases monotonically. The discharge coefficient increases and the spray cone angle decreases with increasingD{sub s}/d{sub o}. The discharge coefficient, the spray cone angle, and the film thickness decrease with increasing l{sub o}/d{sub o}. A significant finding is that the

  18. Power stations, power plant engineering and power station design in (what was) the German Democratic Republic. Kraftwerke, Kraftwerkstechnik und Kraftwerksplanung in der ehemaligen DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roeder, G.; Gernhardt, A. (Vereinigte Kraftwerks-AG, Peitz (Germany, F.R.)); Weidlich, H.G. (Ingenieurunternehmen fuer Kraftwerks-, Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Vetschau (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-12-01

    Using as a basis the capacities available in the field of both engineering and civil construction in the post war years, the existing power stations were recommissioned. Later, continuous development using 100 MW units was attained. Due to the age of these plants and the high incidence of faults which occurred on them, additional solutions were evolved for improving and modernizing the power stations in addition to the repair and maintenance strategy. On the basis of new conditions created under international treaty for the planning of power stations and the solution of ecological problems, a new concept is presented in this paper. (orig.).

  19. 75 FR 39285 - Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-08

    ... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company: North Anna Power Station, Unit No. 1 Environmental Assessment...-4, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna... changes are being made in the types of effluents that may be released offsite. There is no significant...

  20. Ash Deposition Trials at Three Power Stations in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Karin; Frandsen, Flemming; Larsen, Ole Hede

    1998-01-01

    Six full-scale trials were conducted at three power stations in Denmark: Ensted, Funen, and Vendsyssel power stations. During these trials, pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and deposits from cooled probes were sampled and analyzed with various techniques. On the basis of SEM analyses......, the deposits can be grouped into five textural types, which all possess distinct textural and chemical characteristics. Likewise, the deposition mechanisms for these five types are characteristic and they may be used for constructing a model for the buildup and maturation of an ash deposit. The deposits...... collected on the probes were thin (maximum 2 mm after 9 h) and the influence of operational parameters and probe temperatures on the magnitude of the deposits were minor. The probe temperatures had no influence on the composition of the ash deposits for coals with low ash deposition propensities, whereas...

  1. Urban solar irradiance and power prediction from nearby stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zihao Chen

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available With the proliferation of small-scale solar PV installations, global horizontal irradiance (GHI and power predictions are becoming critical elements in the integration of PV generation into the grid. This paper considers short-term prediction, from 5 minutes to a few hours, based on historical meteorological measurement data from weather and power monitoring stations located in the Canberra (Australia region. The specific objective of this study is to produce skilful forecasts for (a generic target station using a minimal amount of observations from nearby stations. Thus, although a large number of weather and power variables are collected and used for developing and testing the prediction algorithms, the ultimate aim is to rely on a few predictors, mainly meteorologically based. This will allow the identification of critical instruments which would need to be installed in order to provide satisfactory PV power predictions while limiting capital and operating costs of monitoring. Relative mean absolute error (rMAE is used here to indicate prediction performance. Three statistical methods are tested for two different seasons, a winter and a summer. The relative importance of predictors and stations is assessed. A conversion from GHI to global irradiance on tilted surfaces, by means of simple geometry arguments and notion of irradiance components at a nearby site, is also introduced and tested. Finally, the prediction accuracy is categorised according to different clear-sky indices. Results show that when the clear-sky index exceeds 0.9 (near-to-cloudless conditions, the prediction performance is distinctly better than at lower clear sky indices, by at least 0.05 and 0.2 in terms of rMAE in summer and winter, respectively.

  2. Station normal : the power of the Stave River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanley, M.; Wilson, H. [BC Hydro, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2001-07-01

    This book documented the history of power development along the Stave River and Stave Falls in British Columbia. The book was compiled from memories of employees and retired employees who helped to build the power station along the Stave River. The book provided details of the technical achievements accomplished during the construction of the hydro-electric project, and described the roles and functions of BC Hydro workers at the plant. The book also chronicled the project's growth over time, and discussed its impact on communities in the region. The book included over 100 photographs, as well as a chronology. refs., tabs., figs.

  3. 47 CFR 74.707 - Low power TV and TV translator station protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.707 Low power TV and TV translator station protection. (a)(1) A low power TV or TV translator will be protected from interference from other...

  4. 47 CFR 74.792 - Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital low power TV and TV translator station... SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.792 Digital low power TV and TV translator station protected contour. (a) A digital low power TV or TV translator will be protected from...

  5. Application of ORC power station to increase electric power of gas compression ignition engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mocarski Szymon

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the calculation results of efficiency of the subcritical low temperature ORC power station powered by waste heat resulting from the process of cooling a stationary compression ignition engine. The source of heat to supply the ORC power station is the heat in a form of water jet cooling the engine at a temperature of 92°C, and the exhaust gas stream at a temperature of 420°C. The study considers three variants of systems with the ORC power stations with different ways of using heat source. The first variant assumes using just engine cooling water to power the ORC station. In the second variant the ORC system is powered solely by a heat flux from the combustion gases by means of an intermediary medium - thermal oil, while the third variant provides the simultaneous management of both heat fluxes to heat the water stream as a source of power supply to the ORC station. The calculations were made for the eight working media belonging both to groups of so-called dry media (R218, R1234yf, R227ea and wet media (R32, R161, R152a, R134a, R22.

  6. Station power supply by residual steam of Fugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiya, Y.; Kato, H.; Hattori, S. (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1981-09-01

    In the advanced thermal reactor ''Fugen'', when the sudden decrease of load more than 40% occurs due to the failure of power system, the turbine regulating valve is rapidly shut, and the reactor is brought to scrum. However, the operation of turbo-generators is continued with the residual steam in the reactor, and the power for inside the station is supplied for 30 sec by the limiting timer, then the power-generating plant is automatically stopped. The reasons why such design was adopted are to reduce manual operation at the time of emergency, to continue water supply for cooling the reactor and to maintain the water level in the steam drum, and to reduce steam release from the safety valve and the turbine bypass valve. The output-load unbalance relay prevents the everspeed of the turbo-generator when load decreased suddenly, but when the failure of power system is such that recovers automatically in course of time, it does not work. The calculation for estimating the dynamic characteristics at the time of the sole operation within the station is carried out by the analysis code FATRAC. The input conditions for the calculation and the results are reported. Also the dynamic characteristics were actually tested to confirm the set value of the limiting timer and the safe working of turbine and generator trips. The estimated and tested results were almost in agreement.

  7. Increasing the safety of atomic power stations with RBMK reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adamov, E.O.; Asmolov, V.G.; Vasilevskii, V.P.; Egorov, Yu.A.; Kalugin, A.K.; Nikitin, Yu.M.; Nikolaev, V.A.; Podlazov, L.N.; Sirotkin, A.P.; Stenbok, I.A.; Cherkashov, Yu.M.

    1987-10-01

    The authors review the operating, safety, and accident records of RBMK reactors in the Soviet Union, perform in-core kinetics assessments of cooling system, fuel element, and control rod behavior during accident scenarios, and make detailed technical recommendations for increasing the operating and safety margins of the plants. Methods for the amelioration of fission product release are also discussed. The Chernobyl accident is included.

  8. The economic feasibility of renewable powered fast charging stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benger, Ralf; Heyne, Raoul; Wenzl, Heinz; Beck, Hans-Peter

    2011-07-01

    Electric vehicles will make an important contribution for a sustainable energy supply in the public transport sector. Although it is not sure at the moment which role the different vehicle concepts and charging options will play, it is possible to act on following assumptions: There will be purely electrically operated vehicles (EV), which will need a charging infrastructure in the public domain. Even if the number of these vehicles in comparison with hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) or range extended electric vehicles (REV) will be low, in the long run an amount of some million vehicles can be reached (1 0 % of the vehicles in Germany corresponds to round about 4 million vehicles). Charging stations in parking areas, shopping malls, at home or at work do not require high charging power because the time available for charging is relative long. In contrast charging stations beside these in normal parking areas should have the ability to charge the car batteries in a very short time, e.g. 80% of the energy content in 15 minutes or less. Therefore every charging process requires 100-200 kW electric power. Such charging stations are necessary both in rural and in urban regions.

  9. Optimized Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station RF Power Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2008-01-01

    An ultra-fast tracking power supply (UFTPS) for envelope tracking in a 50kHz 64-QAM Tetra2 base station power amplification system is demonstrated. A simple method for optimizing the step response of the PID+PD sliding-mode control system is presented and demonstrated, along with a PLL-based sche...

  10. The Victoria Project, Sri Lanka: Victoria Power-Station. [Hydroelectric power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creber, B. (Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners (GB))

    1991-04-01

    The Victoria Hydroelectric Power-Station forms part of the Victoria Project on the Mahaweli Ganga in Sri Lanka and it provides the country's largest single power source. The Paper describes the planning, design and construction of the civil engineering works, including problems encountered, and also describes, in outline, the electrical and mechanical works. (Author).

  11. 75 FR 2164 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment and...), for operation of Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim), located in Plymouth County, MA. Therefore...

  12. Operating Experience at the Aagesta Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandstroem, S. (ed.)

    1966-09-15

    Sweden's first nuclear power reactor Agesta, achieved criticality on July 17, 1963. Full power (65 MW{sub t}) was attained on March 20, 1964. Aagesta is a heavy water cooled and moderated pressure vessel reactor used for production of electricity as well as for district heating. The design, assembly and construction etc, of the reactor was described in detail in a staff report by AB Atomenergi, 'The Aagesta Nuclear Power Station' edited by B McHugh, which was published in September, 1964. In the book experiences from the commissioning and the first operation of the reactor were reported as well as findings from the extensive reactor physics studies made during this period. The report now presented is written by members of the operating team at Aagesta since its start. It reflects in general the experiences up to the end of 1965. The Aagesta Log, however, covers the period up to the normal summer stop 1966. The reactor has hitherto produced 506,000 MWh power of which 48,700 MWh have been electric power. In July 1965 the responsibility for the reactor operation was taken over by the Swedish State Power Board from AB Atomenergi, which company had started the reactor and operated it until the summer break 1965.

  13. Expansion potential for existing nuclear power station sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cope, D. F.; Bauman, H. F.

    1977-09-26

    This report is a preliminary analysis of the expansion potential of the existing nuclear power sites, in particular their potential for development into nuclear energy centers (NECs) of 10 (GW(e) or greater. The analysis is based primarily on matching the most important physical characteristics of a site against the dominating site criteria. Sites reviewed consist mainly of those in the 1974 through 1976 ERDA Nuclear Power Stations listings without regard to the present status of reactor construction plans. Also a small number of potential NEC sites that are not associated with existing power stations were reviewed. Each site was categorized in terms of its potential as: a dispersed site of 5 GW(e) or less; a mini-NEC of 5 to 10 GW(e); NECs of 10 to 20 GW(e); and large NECs of more than 20 GW(e). The sites were categorized on their ultimate potential without regard to political considerations that might restrain their development. The analysis indicates that nearly 40 percent of existing sites have potential for expansion to nuclear energy centers.

  14. 75 FR 12311 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station Environmental Assessment and... Nuclear Operations, Inc. (Entergy or the licensee), for operation of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station... Statement for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, Docket No. 50-271, dated July 1972, as supplemented...

  15. 75 FR 38147 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The... regulations. Therefore, the exemption is authorized by law. Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station Exemption...

  16. 78 FR 71675 - License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-29

    ... COMMISSION License Amendment Application for Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory... Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station, located in Windham County, VT... proposed amendment to Facility Operating License No. DPR-28 for the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station...

  17. 76 FR 82201 - General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... Power Stations AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft regulatory guide; request for... regulatory guide DG-4021, ``General Site Suitability Criteria for Nuclear Power Stations.'' This guide... for nuclear power stations. DATES: Submit comments by February 25, 2012. Comments received after this...

  18. 77 FR 35080 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc., Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Record of Decision and Issuance... Operations Inc. (the licensee), the operator of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). Renewed facility... Nuclear Plants Regarding Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station,'' dated July 2007 (ADAMS Accession Nos...

  19. Development of the Science Data System for the International Space Station Cold Atom Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Harmelen, Chris; Soriano, Melissa A.

    2015-01-01

    Cold Atom Laboratory (CAL) is a facility that will enable scientists to study ultra-cold quantum gases in a microgravity environment on the International Space Station (ISS) beginning in 2016. The primary science data for each experiment consists of two images taken in quick succession. The first image is of the trapped cold atoms and the second image is of the background. The two images are subtracted to obtain optical density. These raw Level 0 atom and background images are processed into the Level 1 optical density data product, and then into the Level 2 data products: atom number, Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) lifetime, magnetic chip-trap atom lifetime, and condensate fraction. These products can also be used as diagnostics of the instrument health. With experiments being conducted for 8 hours every day, the amount of data being generated poses many technical challenges, such as downlinking and managing the required data volume. A parallel processing design is described, implemented, and benchmarked. In addition to optimizing the data pipeline, accuracy and speed in producing the Level 1 and 2 data products is key. Algorithms for feature recognition are explored, facilitating image cropping and accurate atom number calculations.

  20. The Electric Power System of the International Space Station: A Platform for Power Technology Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gietl, Eric B.; Gholdston, Edward W.; Manners, Bruce A.; Delventhal, Rex A.

    2000-01-01

    The electrical power system developed for the International Space Station represents the largest space-based power system ever designed and, consequently, has driven some key technology aspects and operational challenges. The full U.S.-built system consists of a 160-Volt dc primary network, and a more tightly regulated 120-Volt dc secondary network. Additionally, the U.S. system interfaces with the 28-Volt system in the Russian segment. The international nature of the Station has resulted in modular converters, switchgear, outlet panels, and other components being built by different countries, with the associated interface challenges. This paper provides details of the architecture and unique hardware developed for the Space Station, and examines the opportunities it provides for further long-term space power technology development, such as concentrating solar arrays and flywheel energy storage systems.

  1. 75 FR 9449 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). The licenses provide, among other things, that the... COMMISSION [Docket Nos. 50-338 and 50-339; NRC-2010-0026 Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 1.0 Background The Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee...

  2. 75 FR 4591 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-28

    ...-7, issued to Virginia Electric and Power Company, (the licensee), for operation of the North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 (NAPS). In accordance with 10 CFR 51.21, ``Criteria for and... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Environmental...

  3. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    OpenAIRE

    Hassen T. Dorrah; Ninet M. A. El-Rahman; Faten H. Fahmy; Hanaa T. El-Madany

    2012-01-01

    Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical powe...

  4. Developing the concept of maintenance and repairs in projects of power units for new-generation nuclear power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurinovich, V. D.; Yanchenko, Yu. A.

    2012-05-01

    Results from conceptual elaboration of individual requirements for the system of maintenance and repairs that must be implemented in the projects of new-generation nuclear power stations are presented taking as an example the power unit project for a nuclear power station equipped with a standard optimized VVER reactor with enhanced information support (the so-called VVER TOI reactor). Implementation of these concepts will help to achieve competitiveness of such nuclear power stations in the domestic and international markets.

  5. Water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations: A new level of information support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochkov, V. F.

    2011-07-01

    Methods used by the Moscow Power Engineering Institute's Department for Technologies of Water and Fuel in providing information support to the chemical departments of power stations in the field of organizing water chemistry of power units are described. Information is given on a new handbook on water chemistries at thermal and nuclear power stations and on the site supplementing this handbook.

  6. 78 FR 784 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (PNPS). The license provides, among... with the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Plant and Seabrook Nuclear Power Plant, on February 9, 2011 and...

  7. Baghouse performance and ash characterization at the Arapahoe Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlin, R.S.; Sears, D.R.; Green, G.P.

    1982-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a field test conducted in March 1981, on the Unit 3 baghouse of the Arapahoe Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. The unit was burning a subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado, and was retrofitted with a baghouse in 1979. Baghouse performance was found to be excellent with an overall mass efficiency of 99.98%. The estimated cumulative collection efficiency of all particles smaller than two microns was 99.92%. The Grand Forks Energy Technology Center of the US Department of Energy, through its contractor Southern Research Institute, is conducting a series of field tests to study the characteristics and control of fly ash from the combustion of low-rank Western coals. Emphasis is being placed on two types of coal: Western subbituminous coal and Texas lignite. The overall objective of the project is to provide data that will be useful in evaluating particulate control technologies for these coals. To date, two field tests have been performed. The first field test, the subject of this paper, was conducted in march 1981, at Unit 3 of the Arapahoe Power Station of the Public Service Company of Colorado. The unit, retrofitted with a baghouse that was placed in service in May 1979, was burning a low-sulfur subbituminous coal from Routt County, Colorado. The second field test, which was jointly sponsored by DOE and EPRI, was completed in May 1982 at the San Miguel Station of the San Miguel Electric Cooperative located between San Antonio and Corpus Christi, Texas. Results of the San Miguel test will be reported elsewhere.

  8. Energy Sharing Framework for Microgrid-Powered Cellular Base Stations

    KAUST Repository

    Farooq, Muhammad Junaid

    2017-02-07

    Cellular base stations (BSs) are increasingly becoming equipped with renewable energy generators to reduce operational expenditures and carbon footprint of wireless communications. Moreover, advancements in the traditional electricity grid allow two-way power flow and metering that enable the integration of distributed renewable energy generators at BS sites into a microgrid. In this paper, we develop an optimized energy management framework for microgrid-connected cellular BSs that are equipped with renewable energy generators and finite battery storage to minimize energy cost. The BSs share excess renewable energy with others to reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity grid. Three cases are investigated where the renewable energy generation is unknown, perfectly known, and partially known ahead of time. For the partially known case where only the statistics of renewable energy generation are available, stochastic programming is used to achieve a conservative solution. Results show the time varying energy management behaviour of the BSs and the effect of energy sharing between them.

  9. Retrieval of Intermediate Level Waste at Trawsfyndd Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I.

    2002-02-25

    In 1996 RWE NUKEM Limited were awarded two contracts by BNFL Magnox Generation as part of the decommissioning programme for the Trawsfynydd power station. From the normal operations of the two Magnox reactors, intermediate level waste (ILW) had accumulated on site, this was Miscellaneous Activated Components (MAC) and Fuel Element Debris (FED). The objective of these projects is retrieval of the waste from storage vaults, monitoring, packaging and immobilization in a form suitable for on site storage in the medium term and eventual disposal to a waste repository. The projects involve the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilize the waste, this includes recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and final decommissioning and removal of plant from site after completion of waste recovery.

  10. Recirculation of Laser Power in an Atomic Fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enzer, Daphna G.; Klipstein, WIlliam M.; Moore, James D.

    2007-01-01

    A new technique for laser-cooling atoms in a cesium atomic fountain frequency standard relies on recirculation of laser light through the atom-collection region of the fountain. The recirculation, accomplished by means of reflections from multiple fixed beam-splitter cubes, is such that each of two laser beams makes three passes. As described below, this recirculation scheme offers several advantages over prior designs, including simplification of the laser system, greater optical power throughput, fewer optical and electrical connections, and simplification of beam power balancing. A typical laser-cooled cesium fountain requires the use of six laser beams arranged as three orthogonal pairs of counter-propagating beams to decelerate the atoms and hold them in a three-dimensional optical trap in vacuum. Typically, these trapping/cooling beams are linearly polarized and are positioned and oriented so that (1) counter-propagating beams in each pair have opposite linear polarizations and (2) three of the six orthogonal beams have the sum of their propagation directions pointing up, while the other three have the sum of their propagation directions pointing down. In a typical prior design, two lasers are used - one to generate the three "up" beams, the other to generate the three "down" beams. For this purpose, the output of each laser is split three ways, then the resulting six beams are delivered to the vacuum system, independently of each other, via optical fibers. The present recirculating design also requires two lasers, but the beams are not split before delivery. Instead, only one "up" beam and one oppositely polarized "down" beam are delivered to the vacuum system, and each of these beams is sent through the collection region three times. The polarization of each beam on each pass through the collection region is set up to yield the same combination of polarization and propagation directions as described above. In comparison with the prior design, the present

  11. Small geothermic heat and power station with power plants on organic fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, W.; Wos, M. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech. (Poland). Chair of Heat Engineering

    2006-07-01

    The results of the calculations of heat-flow heats and power stations were introduced in the work geothermic with one circulation, with two circulations and with three circulations. They are reinforced network water heated up in the geothermic heat exchanger to temperatures 100 C and stream. In this solution the temperature of water force to the geothermic hest exchanger changes and amount out suitably 39,35 C (one circulation), 49,83 C (two circulations), 58,91 C (three circulations). He results that the solution of heat and power station is the most profitable variant with three circulations from the analysis of the received results of calculations. He keeps the highest power of the circulation C.R. from three considered variants. (orig.)

  12. Power transmission cable development for the Space Station Freedom electrical power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Gregory V.; Biess, John J.

    1989-01-01

    Power transmission cable is presently being evaluated under a NASA Lewis Research Center advanced development contract for application in the Space Station Freedom (SSF) electrical power system (EPS). Evaluation testing has been performed by TRW and NASA Lewis Research Center. The results of this development contract are presented. The primary cable design goals are to provide (1) a low characteristic inductance to minimize line voltage drop at 20 kHz, (2) electromagnetic compatibility control of the 20-kHz ac power current, (3) a physical configuration that minimizes ac resistance and (4) release of trapped air for corona-free operation.

  13. 75 FR 14209 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background.... DPR-28, which authorizes operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (VY). The license....55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against...

  14. 75 FR 14208 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-24

    ... COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background Entergy..., which authorizes operation of the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The license provides, among..., ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  15. 76 FR 30204 - Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-24

    ... COMMISSION Exelon Nuclear, Dresden Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security... issued for Dresden Nuclear Power Station (DNPS), Unit 1, located in Grundy County, Illinois. DNPS Unit 1... ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological...

  16. 76 FR 39134 - ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-05

    ... COMMISSION ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2 Exemption From Recordkeeping Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... licensing basis requirements previously applicable to the nuclear power units and associated systems...

  17. 75 FR 16523 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company; Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Exemption 1.0 Background... No. NFP-3, which authorizes operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1 (DBNPS). The...,'' section 73.55, ``Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities in nuclear power reactors...

  18. 78 FR 46616 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Surry Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    ... Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' to... workers and members of the public. No changes will be made to plant buildings or the site property... Impact Statement for License Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Supplements 6 and 7 Regarding Surry and NAPS...

  19. Gas-turbine expander power generating systems for internal needs of compressor stations of gas-main pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimanov, A. A.; Biryuk, V. V.; Sheludko, L. P.; Shabanov, K. Yu.

    2017-08-01

    In the framework of this paper, there have been analyzed power station building methods to construct a power station for utilities for gas-main pipelines compressor stations. The application efficiency of turbo expanders in them to expand the power gas of compressor stations' gas compressor units has been shown. New schemes for gas-turbine expander power generating systems have been proposed.

  20. Monitoring airborne dust in a high density coal-fired power station region in North Yorkshire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallack, H W; Chadwick, M J

    1993-01-01

    Concerns about the levels of dust deposition in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations in North Yorkshire, in particular Drax Power Station, prompted the commissioning of a detailed monitoring study in the area. This paper describes the first two years' work. The first 12-month study concentrated on the village of Barlow close to Drax Power Station, whilst in the second 12-month study, monitoring sites were spread along a transect passing through the power station belt formed by Ferrybridge, Eggborough and Drax Power Stations. Two monitoring sites were common to both 12-month studies, thus giving two years of continuous monitoring. Pairs of wet Frisbee dust deposit gauges (based on inverted Frisbees) were located at each site. Undissolved particulate matter from each gauge was weighed and characterized by microscopic examination of individual particles. The first 12-month study revealed a downward gradient in dust deposition rate and cenosphere content with distance from Drax Power Station. The high cenosphere content at Barlow, especially at the eastern end, suggested that there was a significant contribution from coal-fired power stations. In the second year, the overall pattern of dust deposition rate and cenosphere content across the power station belt suggested that power stations were contributing to higher levels. In particular, relatively high levels were again found at Barlow. Wind direction correlations point to the fly-ash tip next to Drax Power Station as being the source of cenospheres arriving at Barlow. It is concluded that in both years the fly-ash tip Drax Power Station was making a significant contribution to higher than expected dust deposition rates at Barlow, particularly its eastern end. Other villages in the area may also have been affected by dust originating from coal-fired power stations.

  1. Determination of Technological Electric Power Consumption for Its Transportation while Using Block-Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Pavlovets

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper proposes a method for calculation of the technological electric power consumption for its transportation in the elements of power network while using block-stations under conditions of differently-directed electric power transfer.The calculation of technological electric power consumption for its transportation can be applied while supplying several consumers with one element of power network simultaneously with block-station operation. 

  2. Note on the judgement of the Federal Administrative Court of December 17, 1986 (nuclear power station near international border)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Preu, P.

    1987-07-01

    The author examines the judgement of the Federal Administrative Court to the Emsland nuclear power station of December 17, 1986. In its decision the court accepted the right of action of Dutch borderers against a nuclear licence for a German nuclear power plant. The necessary involvement according to sec. 42 para. 2 of the Administrative Court Procedure Act results from the violation of the third party protection provision in sec. 7 Atomic Energy Act. In the note the author investigates fundamental questions concerning the principle of territoriality and concerning the third party protection according to public law.

  3. Measurements and modelling of base station power consumption under real traffic loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorincz, Josip; Garma, Tonko; Petrovic, Goran

    2012-01-01

    Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System) base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  4. Measurements and Modelling of Base Station Power Consumption under Real Traffic Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Petrovic

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Base stations represent the main contributor to the energy consumption of a mobile cellular network. Since traffic load in mobile networks significantly varies during a working or weekend day, it is important to quantify the influence of these variations on the base station power consumption. Therefore, this paper investigates changes in the instantaneous power consumption of GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications and UMTS (Universal Mobile Telecommunications System base stations according to their respective traffic load. The real data in terms of the power consumption and traffic load have been obtained from continuous measurements performed on a fully operated base station site. Measurements show the existence of a direct relationship between base station traffic load and power consumption. According to this relationship, we develop a linear power consumption model for base stations of both technologies. This paper also gives an overview of the most important concepts which are being proposed to make cellular networks more energy-efficient.

  5. Recent advances in automated ultrasonic inspection of Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.B. [Magnox Electric Ltd., Gloucestershire (United Kingdom). Oldbury Technical Centre

    2007-07-01

    This paper describes recent advances in automated ultrasonic techniques which have enabled fully effective and qualified inspections to be introduced for nuclear power stations. In the first example, ultrasonic phased arrays have been introduced for inspection of fillet welded structures where physical access for the operator is very awkward and the surface available for probe scanning are very restricted. The system has optimised the depth of field by varying the number of phased array elements fired at a given time and the inspections are substantially faster and more reliable than conventional manual inspection. In the second example, NDT Workbench significantly improves data analysis for complex geometries and defects by using 3D data displays of multiple beams and automated logging of measurements. Both examples have been formally qualified using the ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) Methodology. This was achieved more easily because of the rigorous in-house training programmes and because the Technical Justifications referred to evidence from previous related qualifications whenever appropriate. (orig.)

  6. 76 FR 11680 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-03

    ... digital Class A TV stations (``Class A''). The Commission addresses important issues such as: (1) The... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final...

  7. Optimization and Feasibility Analysis of Satellite Earth Station Power System Using Homer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Satellite earth stations which located in remote areas are one of many applications powered by the renewable energy sources. Ground system consists of ground station and control centers working together to support the spacecraft and the data user. Earth station consists of major subsystems, transmitter, receiver, antenna, tracking equipment, terrestrial interface equipment and power supply. Power subsystem is an important part that required for supplying the earth station with electrical power to continue communicating with its remote sensing satellite. This paper deals with simulation and optimal sizing of earth station power system using HOMER software. A combination of two energy sources (solar, and wind to provide a continuous electric power production is used to determine the optimum system operation. Three system configurations are compared with respect to the total net present cost (NPC and levelized cost of energy (COE. Also, economical study will be analyzed for energy demand and sensitivity analysis will be performed.

  8. Study of wet blasting of components in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, J

    1999-12-01

    This report looks at the method of wet blasting radioactive components in nuclear power stations. The wet blaster uses pearl shaped glass beads with the dimensions of 150-250 {mu}m mixed with water as blasting media. The improved design, providing outer operator's positions with proper radiation protection and more efficient blasting equipment has resulted in a lesser dose taken by the operators. The main reason to decontaminate components in nuclear power plants is to enable service on these components. On components like valves, pump shafts, pipes etc. oxides form and bind radiation. These components are normally situated at some distance from the reactor core and will mainly suffer from radiation from so called activation products. When a component is to be decontaminated it can be decontaminated to a radioactive level where it will be declassified. This report has found levels ranging from 150-1000 Bq/kg allowing declassification of radioactive materials.This difference is found between different countries and different organisations. The report also looks at the levels of waste generated using wet blasting. This is done by tracking the contamination to determine where it collects. It is either collected in the water treatment plant or collected in the blasting media. At Barsebaeck the waste levels, from de-contaminating nearly 800 components in one year, results in a waste volume of about 0,250 m{sup 3}. This waste consists of low and medium level waste and will cost about 3 600 EURO to store. The conclusions of the report are that wet blasting is an indispensable way to treat contaminated components in modern nuclear power plants. The wet blasting equipment can be improved by using a robot enabling the operators to remotely treat components from the outer operator's positions. There they will benefit from better radiation protection thus further reduce their taken dose. The wet blasting equipment could also be used to better control the levels of

  9. Electronic Shore Power Station Based on Matrix-style Frequency Algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia-sheng, Li; Lian-jun, Jiang; Biao, Qiu; Wu-mei, Yang

    The current port power supply to foreign ships, there are two ways power-type for owned diesel-powered and frequency conversion unit,In this paper,Proposed electronic shore power station, put forward electronic shore power station's concepts, and gives a whole building program of electronic shore power station based on matrix conversion algorithm, It will change 10 kV/50 Hz (35Kv/50 Hz) input voltage into 440 V/60 Hz low-voltage, not only eliminating intermediate links, but also simplify the hardware circuit and reduce the production cost and improve the competitiveness of enterprises. Simulation and experimental results show that this program has a built shore power station of high power factor, sinusoidal effective, low distortion, environmental pollution and the advantages,It will be very definite practical significance.

  10. International lunar observatory / power station: from Hawaii to the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durst, S.

    Astronomy's great advantages from the Moon are well known - stable surface, diffuse atmosphere, long cool nights (14 days), low gravity, far side radio frequency silence. A large variety of astronomical instruments and observations are possible - radio, optical and infrared telescopes and interferometers; interferometry for ultra- violet to sub -millimeter wavelengths and for very long baselines, including Earth- Moon VLBI; X-ray, gamma-ray, cosmic ray and neutrino detection; very low frequency radio observation; and more. Unparalleled advantages of lunar observatories for SETI, as well as for local surveillance, Earth observation, and detection of Earth approaching objects add significant utility to lunar astronomy's superlatives. At least nine major conferences in the USA since 1984 and many elsewhere, as well as ILEWG, IAF, IAA, LEDA and other organizations' astronomy-from-the-Moon research indicate a lunar observatory / power station, robotic at first, will be one of the first mission elements for a permanent lunar base. An international lunar observatory will be a transcending enterprise, highly principled, indispensable, soundly and broadly based, and far- seeing. Via Astra - From Hawaii to the Moon: The astronomy and scie nce communities, national space agencies and aerospace consortia, commercial travel and tourist enterprises and those aspiring to advance humanity's best qualities, such as Aloha, will recognize Hawaii in the 21st century as a new major support area and pan- Pacific port of embarkation to space, the Moon and beyond. Astronomical conditions and facilities on Hawaii's Mauna Kea provide experience for construction and operation of observatories on the Moon. Remote and centrally isolated, with diffuse atmosphere, sub-zero temperature and limited working mobility, the Mauna Kea complex atop the 4,206 meter summit of the largest mountain on the planet hosts the greatest collection of large astronomical telescopes on Earth. Lunar, extraterrestrial

  11. 76 FR 72849 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 73 and 74 Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and To Amend Rules for Digital Class A Television Stations AGENCY: Federal Communications... Rules to Establish Rules for Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster...

  12. 76 FR 44376 - Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Notice of Withdrawal of Application for Amendment to... request of Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (the licensee) to withdraw its August 19, 2010...

  13. 77 FR 47680 - Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Entergy Nuclear Operations, Inc.; Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station Receipt of Request for Action... (NRC or the Commission) take action with regard to the Pilgrim Nuclear Power Station (Pilgrim). The...

  14. Construction of a nuclear power station in one's locality: attitudes and salience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Pligt, J.; Eiser, J.R.; Spears, R.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the attitudes toward the building of a nuclear power station in one's locality by surveying 290 residents (mean age 47.5 yrs) of 3 small rural communities that were listed as possible locations for a new nuclear power station. Results show that a large majority of Ss opposed the building of

  15. The Environment Friendly Power Source for Power Supply of Mobile Communication Base Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudenko, N. V.; Ershov, V. V.; Evstafiev, V. V.

    2017-05-01

    The article describes the technical proposals to improve environmental and resource characteristics of the autonomous power supply systems of mobile communication base stations based on renewable energy sources, while ensuring the required reliability and security of power supply. These include: the replacement of diesel-generator with clean energy source - an electrochemical generator based on hydrogen fuel cells; the use of wind turbines with a vertical axis; use of specialized batteries. Based on the analysis of the know technical solutions, the structural circuit diagram of the hybrid solar-wind-hydrogen power plant and the basic principles of the algorithm of its work were proposed. The implementation of these proposals will improve the environmental and resource characteristics.

  16. Recent advances in automated ultrasonic inspection of Magnox power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooldridge, A.B. [Magnox Electric, South Glos (United Kingdom). Oldbury Training Centre

    2006-07-01

    Magnox Electric operates a number of Magnox nuclear power stations, some of which have presented difficult inspection challenges. This paper will describe recent advances in automated ultrasonic techniques which have enabled additional, fully effective and qualified inspections to be introduced. The examples chosen involve phased array inspection of fillet welds and the introduction of 3D data display and analysis using NDT Workbench. Ultrasonic phased arrays have been optimised for inspection of fillet welded structures where physical access for the operator is very awkward and the surfaces available for probe scanning are very restricted. In addition to controlling the beam direction and focus depth, the systems have also optimised the depth of field by varying the number of phased array elements fired at a given time. These phased array inspections are substantially superior in quality, reliability and speed compared with that achievable by conventional manual inspection. Analysis of automated ultrasonic data can be very time-consuming if defects are complex. NDT Workbench significantly improves data analysis for complex geometries and defects primarily because of the 3D data displays of multiple beams and automated logging of measurements. This system has been used in 2005 for data analysis of complex defects where sizing accuracy was particularly important. Both these inspection procedures have been formally qualified using the ENIQ (European Network for Inspection Qualification) Methodology. Such qualification was achieved more easily because of the rigorous in house training programmes established in each case and because the Technical Justifications referred to evidence from previous related qualifications whenever appropriate. The timely achievement of inspection qualification demonstrates that the new systems have reached sufficient maturity to be used with confidence for high quality inspections. (orig.)

  17. FLAME MONITORING IN POWER STATION BOILERS USING IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Sujatha

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Combustion quality in power station boilers plays an important role in minimizing the flue gas emissions. In the present work various intelligent schemes to infer the flue gas emissions by monitoring the flame colour at the furnace of the boiler are proposed here. Flame image monitoring involves capturing the flame video over a period of time with the measurement of various parameters like Carbon dioxide (CO2, excess oxygen (O2, Nitrogen dioxide (NOx, Sulphur dioxide (SOx and Carbon monoxide (CO emissions plus the flame temperature at the core of the fire ball, air/fuel ratio and the combustion quality. Higher the quality of combustion less will be the flue gases at the exhaust. The flame video was captured using an infrared camera. The flame video is then split up into the frames for further analysis. The video splitter is used for progressive extraction of the flame images from the video. The images of the flame are then pre-processed to reduce noise. The conventional classification and clustering techniques include the Euclidean distance classifier (L2 norm classifier. The intelligent classifier includes the Radial Basis Function Network (RBF, Back Propagation Algorithm (BPA and parallel architecture with RBF and BPA (PRBFBPA. The results of the validation are supported with the above mentioned performance measures whose values are in the optimal range. The values of the temperatures, combustion quality, SOx, NOx, CO, CO2 concentrations, air and fuel supplied corresponding to the images were obtained thereby indicating the necessary control action taken to increase or decrease the air supply so as to ensure complete combustion. In this work, by continuously monitoring the flame images, combustion quality was inferred (complete/partial/incomplete combustion and the air/fuel ratio can be automatically varied. Moreover in the existing set-up, measurements like NOx, CO and CO2 are inferred from the samples that are collected periodically or by

  18. Effect of time lag upon the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, X.

    1982-01-01

    In this paper we discretize the state parameter - flow of cascade hydroelectric power stations - into the step function of time variable, and use constrained nonlinear programming to establish a mathematical model of economical operation which is universally applicable for general cascade hydroelectic power stations, and then the primary factors which affect the value of the time lag are discussed. According to each case of different values of the time lag, the formulas for calculating the gradient of augmented objective functions and other important formulas which will be used in SUMT for optimization are derived. Furthermore, the functional relation between the time lag and the state of operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is derived. The situations in which the time lag will cause the mutual relation between hydroelectric power stations to change were studied. Finally, the affect that time lag will have on the economical operation of cascade hydroelectric power stations is discussed.

  19. The expressive power of modal logic with inclusion atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauri Hella

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Modal inclusion logic is the extension of basic modal logic with inclusion atoms, and its semantics is defined on Kripke models with teams. A team of a Kripke model is just a subset of its domain. In this paper we give a complete characterisation for the expressive power of modal inclusion logic: a class of Kripke models with teams is definable in modal inclusion logic if and only if it is closed under k-bisimulation for some integer k, it is closed under unions, and it has the empty team property. We also prove that the same expressive power can be obtained by adding a single unary nonemptiness operator to modal logic. Furthermore, we establish an exponential lower bound for the size of the translation from modal inclusion logic to modal logic with the nonemptiness operator.

  20. Trace elements emission from coal-fired power stations in Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altamirano-Bedolla, J.A.; Wong-Moreno, A.; Romo-Millares, C.A.

    1999-07-01

    This paper presents partial results of work currently in progress to determine trace elements emissions associated with the coal combustion from coal-fired power stations in Mexico. It shows the progress of the first year of a five-year project, supported by the Mexican Ministry of Energy with the aim of developing methods to obtain representative samples, perform reliable analysis and produce accurate quantification and classification of these emissions. A description of the sampling procedures and analysis performed to the coal, bottom ash, fly ash and total suspended particles in flue gas are given. Some results are provided and discussed as an example of the large amount of information that will be analyzed in the future to produce conclusions regarding trace elements from coal fired stations in Mexico. Elements such as Mercury, Arsenic, Lead, Nickel, Chromium, Cadmium, Copper, Zinc, Manganese, Cobalt, Selenium, Atimony, Vanadium, Barium, Strontium, Boron and Molybdenum were analyzed by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) using Flame AAS, Hydride Generation AAS and Cold Vapor AAS. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Electron Probe Microanalysis (SEM-EDX) was also used to identify some of the elements.

  1. Economic station load distribution in thermal power stations with multi-rated sets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jagannathan, P.; Murty, N.S.; Dutt, R.V.S.K. [BHEL House, New Delhi (India)

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents a suitable method developed for arriving at the minimum station heat rate with dynamic heat rate characteristics evaluation for implementation on existing as well as next generation C & I platforms. 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. A Photovoltaic Power Station Equivalent Method Based on Real-Time Digital Simulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Ping

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As a clean energy power generation technology, photovoltaic generation has the characteristics of low carbon, green and environmental protection. More and more countries pay close attention to it, more than one megawatt demonstration projects of grid photovoltaic power station has been commenced or built. In order to study interconnection characteristics of large-scale photovoltaic power station better, reduce the effects of photovoltaic power station to the grid, we need to set up photovoltaic power station simulation model. However, the model of photovoltaic power station is complex, the speed of system simulation become slow after establish. In this paper, a real-time digital simulator based on the photovoltaic power station equivalent method will be given, through the proposed hierarchical equivalence method can simplify the process of equivalent of photovoltaic power station, shortening the period of equivalent model, and can be carried out in the process of each layer of the equivalent model accuracy validation, improve the accuracy of the equivalent model.

  3. An Electric Power Consumption Analysis System for the Installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongpil Cheon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available With the rising demand for electric vehicles, the number of electric vehicle charging stations is increasing. Therefore, real-time monitoring of how the power consumption by charging stations affects the load on the peripheral power grid is important. However, related organizations generally do not provide actual power consumption data in real time, and only limited information, such as the charging time, is provided. Therefore, it is difficult to calculate and predict the power load in real time. In this paper, we propose a new model for estimating the electric power consumption from the supplied information, i.e., the charging time and the number of charging involved. The experimental results show that by displaying this information on a map, it is possible to visually monitor the electric power consumption of the charging stations with an accuracy rate of about 86%. Finally, the proposed system can be used to relocate and select the location of vehicle charging stations.

  4. Influence of Mobile Users' Density Distribution on the CDMA Base Station Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebl, Aleksandar; Mitić, Dragan; Popović, Miroslav; Markov, Žarko; Mileusnić, Mladen; Matić, Vladimir

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the influence of users' density distribution in one cell of CDMA mobile network (ie adjusted power control on the forward link) on base station emission power. This influence is analyzed for different circles radii around base station within which same emission power is generated for all mobile users, and for different values of propagation loss coefficient. It is proved that emission power in this cell must be increased comparing to the similar cell, which uses complete power control. The power increase is greater when greater number of users are situated near base station, and for greater values of propagation loss coefficient. The results are presented, illustrated by numerical examples and verified by simulation for three users' density distributions: uniform, decreasing and increasing density from the base station to the cell rim. The simulation process, which is based on random traffic process, is presented briefly.

  5. TEDS Base Station Power Amplifier using Low-Noise Envelope Tracking Power Supply

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2009-01-01

    This paper demonstrates a highly linear and efficient TETRA enhanced data service (TEDS) base-station RF power amplifier (RFPA). Based on the well-known combination of an envelope tracking (ET) power supply and a linear class-A/B RFPA, adequate adjacent channel power ratio (ACPR) and wideband noise...... a significant tradeoff between the depth of the ET and open-loop RFPA linearity, as well as overall efficiency. An empirical method for determining the permissible amount of switching ripple on the ET supply is presented, showing very good accuracy. Performance of the prototype RFPA system is verified...... experimentally with a 9.6-dB peak-to-average 50-kHz 16 quadrature amplitude modulation TEDS carrier, the setup providing 44-dBm (25 W) average RF output power at 400 MHz with 44% dc-to-RF efficiency state-of-the-art ACPR of less than ${-}$67 dBc, switching noise artifacts around ${-}$ 85 dBc, and an overall rms...

  6. Prospects for Using Atomic Power Microscopic Methods in Reanimatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to obtain an image of pores in the membrane of an erythrocyte after its electroporation, by using an atomic power microscope (APM, to evaluate the parameters of the obtained pores, and to discuss the prospects for using an APM in reanimatology. Human whole venous blood was exposed to a pulsed electric field, by inducing erythrocytic membrane elec-troporation. Blood smears were obtained by the standard method. Images of the form and surface of individual erythrocytes and their enlarged fragments were obtained by means of a Femto Scan APM. The diameters, depths, and configuration of some pores were analyzed. This example and others were used to show a wide field and prospects for using an APM in reanimatology.

  7. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2000-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL Sites [Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York; Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York; S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut] during calendar year 1999 resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations.

  8. High power VCSEL devices for atomic clock applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, L. S.; Ghosh, C.; Seurin, J.-F.; Zhou, D.; Xu, G.; Xu, B.; Miglo, A.

    2015-09-01

    We are developing VCSEL technology producing >100mW in single frequency at wavelengths 780nm, 795nm and 850nm. Small aperture VCSELs with few mW output have found major applications in atomic clock experiments. Using an external cavity three-mirror configuration we have been able to operate larger aperture VCSELs and obtain >70mW power in single frequency operation. The VCSEL has been mounted in a fiber pigtailed package with the external mirror mounted on a shear piezo. The package incorporates a miniature Rb cell locker to lock the VCSEL wavelength. This VCSEL operates in single frequency and is tuned by a combination of piezo actuator, temperature and current. Mode-hop free tuning over >30GHz frequency span is obtained. The VCSEL has been locked to the Rb D2 line and feedback control used to obtain line-widths of <100kHz.

  9. Key role for virtual power stations; Schluesselrolle fuer virtuelle Kraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finck, Christian

    2011-09-21

    Consequent expansion of power supply from renewable energy sources and high reliability of power supply necessitate intelligent grids and new marketing strategies. Virtual power plants offer a solution; they are currently under investigation in several model regions in Germany, e.g. in the Harz mountain range.

  10. 47 CFR 73.6019 - Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Digital Class A TV station protection of low power TV, TV translator, digital low power TV and digital TV translator stations. 73.6019 Section 73... BROADCAST SERVICES Class A Television Broadcast Stations § 73.6019 Digital Class A TV station protection of...

  11. Experience on decommissioning commercial nuclear power stations in the United Kingdom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, G.; Lee, J.C.; Woollam, P.B. [Magnox Electric plc, Gloucestershire (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    Magnox Electric is the U.K. government-owned utility that is responsible for nine commercial Magnox nuclear power stations. The stations were commissioned between 1962 and 1971, each having twin gas-cooled, graphite-moderated reactors. Three stations (Berkeley, Hunterston A, and Trawsfynydd) were shut down between 1989 and 1993, and they are being decommissioned in accordance with the preferred SAFSTOR strategy. The six reactors have been defueled, and extensive dismantling and decontamination have already been carried out.

  12. Harmonic incursion at the point of common coupling due to small grid-connected power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Mumtaz

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The orthodox electric power distribution systems used to be generally radial and direction of flow of power was often from grid towards consumer. Sometimes, the transmission of power generated from newly set small power stations by using transmission network is not feasible due to the transmission losses, service cost on transmission lines and other related issues. That is why, in many cases, small power stations are connected directly to the local distribution network. These small power stations inject active and reactive power to the existing network, badly disturbing the flow of power hence injecting harmonics in the system at the point of common coupling (PCC. This harmonic injection at PCC due to a direct grid-connection of small power stations to the existing large electric power systems is identified. Also, the impact of harmonic incursion by these small generation units is analysed using a straightforward and an effortless method. This simulation based method uses power system components simplified to basic inductive and capacitive elements and can be very helpful for a fast assessment of harmonic incursion at PCC if extended to the practical large inter-connected electric power systems.

  13. Stade nuclear power station (KKS): four giants on tour; Kernkraftwerk Stade - KKS: Vier Riesen gehen auf Reisen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beverungen, M.; Viermann, J. [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The Stade nuclear power station was the first nuclear power plant in the Federal Republic of Germany to deliver heat in addition to electricity. Since 1984, district heat was distributed to a saltworks nearby. The power plant, which is situated on the banks of the river Elbe, was commissioned in 1972 after approximately 4 years of construction. Together with the Wuergassen plant, it was among the first commercial nuclear power plants in this country. E.ON Kernkraft holds a 2/3 interest, Vattenfall Europe a 1/3 interest in the nuclear power plant. The Stade nuclear power station was decommissioned on November 14, 2003 for economic reasons which, in part, were also politically motivated. In September 2005, the permit for demolition of the nuclear part was granted. The release from supervision under the Atomic Energy Act is expected for 2014. In the course of demolition, the 4 steam generators of the Stade nuclear power station were removed. These components, which have an aggregate weight of approx. 660 tons, are to be safely re-used in Sweden. In September 2007, the steam generators were loaded on board the Swedish special vessel, MS Sigyn, by means of a floating crane. After shipment to Sweden, heavy-duty trucks carried the components to the processing hall of Studsvik AB for further treatment. After 6 months of treatment, the contaminated inner surfaces of the tube bundles of the steam generators have been decontaminated successfully, among other items. This has increased the volume of material available for recycling and thus decreased the volume of residues. (orig.)

  14. Refuse-fueled power stations and waste incinerators. Different plant technology?; Ersatzbrennstoffkraftwerke und Abfallverbrennungsanlagen. Unterschiedliche Anlagentechnik?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, H. [umwelttechnik und ingenieure GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    The conceptual delimitation of a refuse-fueled power station in relation to a waste incinerator results from the primary setting of tasks for the plant. In the case of waste incinerators, the combustion of solid wastes is the centre of attention. In contrast to this, the production of utilization energy is the centre of interest at refuse-fueled power stations. Accordingly, the refuse-fueled power station is planned under the aspect of power requirement as a function of the production time of the customers. In particular, if there are industrial customers with strong variations in power requirement, then the refuse-derived fuel power station either has to go in part load or has to be able to deal with large quantities of surplus steam. A refuse-fueled power station conceptually differs from a waste incinerator by the priority of the power supply in relation to the aspect of disposal. The power requirement is the crucial fundamental condition for the plant concept. The special characteristics of secondary fuels require adjustments in the equipment technology in order to meet the requirement regarding to energy efficiency and supply security.

  15. Development of an HTS hydroelectric power generator for the hirschaid power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, Ruben; Lewis, Clive; Eugene, Joseph; Ingles, Martin, E-mail: ruben.fair@converteam.co [Advanced Technology Group, Converteam, Rugby, CV21 1BD (United Kingdom)

    2010-06-01

    This paper describes the development and manufacture of a 1.7MW, 5.25kV, 28pole, 214rpm hydroelectric power generator consisting of superconducting HTS field coils and a conventional stator. The generator is to be installed at a hydro power station in Hirschaid, Germany and is intended to be a technology demonstrator for the practical application of superconducting technology for sustainable and renewable power generation. The generator is intended to replace and uprate an existing conventional generator and will be connected directly to the German grid. The HTS field winding uses Bi-2223 tape conductor cooled to about 30K using high pressure helium gas which is transferred from static cryocoolers to the rotor via a bespoke rotating coupling. The coils are insulated with multi-layer insulation and positioned over laminated iron rotor poles which are at room temperature. The rotor is enclosed within a vacuum chamber and the complete assembly rotates at 214rpm. The challenges have been significant but have allowed Converteam to develop key technology building blocks which can be applied to future HTS related projects. The design challenges, electromagnetic, mechanical and thermal tests and results are presented and discussed together with applied solutions.

  16. Wind-powered electrical systems : highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    This project considered the use of wind for providing electrical power at Illinois Department of Transportation : (IDOT) highway rest areas, weigh stations, and team section buildings. The goal of the project was to determine : the extent to which wi...

  17. NPDES Permit for Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number DC0000094, the Potomac Electric Power Company (PEPCO) Benning Generating Station is authorized to discharge from from a facility to receiving waters named Anacostia River.

  18. Techno-economic assessments of oxy-fuel technology for South African coal-fired power stations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Oboirien, BO

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available at the technical and economic viability of oxy-fuel technology for CO(sub2) capture for South African coal-fired power stations. This study presents a techno-economic analysis for six coal fired power stations in South Africa. Each of these power stations has a...

  19. ONE OF THE WAYS TO RISE THE EFFICIENCY OF THE KISHINEV TOWN HEAT AND POWER STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maximuk E.P.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Methods to rise the efficiency of fuel using at town heat and power stations are discussed in detail. It is shown that application of hot water/exhaust absorption chillers allow to use heat energy surplus especially in warm season. As the results, the consumption of heat energy from the power stations is more constant during the year, the efficiency of fuel using is higher, and economics is better. Different technological schemes are discussed in detail.

  20. Pu isotopes in the western North Pacific Ocean before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, M.; Zheng, J.; Aono, T.

    2011-12-01

    Anthropogenic radionuclides such as Pu-239 (half-life: 24100 yr), Pu-240 (half-life: 6560 yr) and Pu-241 (half-life: 14.325 yr) mainly have been released into the environment as the result of atmospheric nuclear weapons testing. In the North Pacific Ocean, two distinct sources of Pu isotopes can be identified; i.e., the global stratospheric fallout and close-in tropospheric fallout from nuclear weapons testing at the Pacific Proving Grounds in the Marshall Islands. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 is a powerful fingerprint to identify the sources of Pu in the ocean. The Pu-240/Pu-239 atom ratios in seawater and marine sediment samples collected in the western North Pacific before the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station will provide useful background data for understanding the process controlling Pu transport and for distinguishing future Pu sources. The atom ratios of Pu-240/Pu-239 in water columns from the Yamato and Tsushima Basins in the Japan Sea were significantly higher than the mean global fallout ratio of 0.18; however, there were no temporal variation of atom ratios during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the Japan Sea. The total Pu-239+240 inventories in the whole water columns were approximately doubled during the period from 1984 to 1993 in the two basins. The atom ratio of Pu-240/Pu-239 in surface water from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific Ocean, was 0.224 and showed no notable variation from the surface to the bottom with the mean atom ratio being 0.234. The atom ratios for the Pacific coast, near the Rokkasho nuclear fuel reprocessing plant, were approximately the same as the 0.224 ratio obtained from Sagami Bay, western North Pacific margin. The atom ratios in the surficial sediments from Sagami Bay ranged from 0.229 to 0.247. The mean atom ratio in the sediment columns in the East China Sea ranged from 0.248 for the Changjiang estuary to 0.268 for the shelf edge. The observed atom ratios were significantly higher than the mean

  1. Design of a photovoltaic central power station: flat-plate array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    A design for a photovoltaic central power station using fixed flat-panel arrays has been developed. The 100 MW plant is assumed to be located adjacent to the Saguaro Power Station of Arizona Public Service. The design assumes high-efficiency photovoltaic modules using dendritic web cells. The modules are arranged in 5 MW subfields, each with its own power conditioning unit. The photovoltaic output is connected to the existing 115 kV utility switchyard. The site specific design allows detailed cost estimates for engineering, site preparation, and installation. Collector and power conditioning costs have been treated parametrically.

  2. 77 FR 24539 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The NRC staff concludes that there are no changes... of the environment. The Environmental Assessment and the Finding of No Significant Impact are... COMMISSION Virginia Electric and Power Company; Surry Power Station Units 1 and 2; Independent Spent Fuel...

  3. Federal Administrative Court, judgement of December 17, 1986 (nuclear power station at international border)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-06-01

    In its decision of December 17, 1986, the Federal Administrative Court accepted the right of action of Dutch borderers against an atomic licence for a German nuclear power plant. The necessary involvement according to sec. 42 Paragraph 2 of the Administrative Court Procedure Act results from the violation of the third party protection provision in sec. 7 Atomic Energy Act.

  4. About Economy of Fuel at Thermal Power Stations due to Optimization of Utilization Diagram of Power-Generating Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Svechko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Problems of rational fuel utilization becomes more and more significant especially for thermal power stations (TPS. Thermal power stations have complicated starting-up diagrams and utilization modes of their technological equipment. Method of diagram optimization of TPS equipment utilization modes has been developed. The method is based on computer analytical model with application of spline-approximation of power equipment characteristics. The method allows to economize fuel consumption at a rate of 15-20 % with accuracy of the predicted calculation not more than 0.25 %.

  5. On Variable Reverse Power Flow-Part I: Active-Reactive Optimal Power Flow with Reactive Power of Wind Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aouss Gabash

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available It has recently been shown that using battery storage systems (BSSs to provide reactive power provision in a medium-voltage (MV active distribution network (ADN with embedded wind stations (WSs can lead to a huge amount of reverse power to an upstream transmission network (TN. However, unity power factors (PFs of WSs were assumed in those studies to analyze the potential of BSSs. Therefore, in this paper (Part-I, we aim to further explore the pure reactive power potential of WSs (i.e., without BSSs by investigating the issue of variable reverse power flow under different limits on PFs in an electricity market model. The main contributions of this work are summarized as follows: (1 Introducing the reactive power capability of WSs in the optimization model of the active-reactive optimal power flow (A-R-OPF and highlighting the benefits/impacts under different limits on PFs. (2 Investigating the impacts of different agreements for variable reverse power flow on the operation of an ADN under different demand scenarios. (3 Derivation of the function of reactive energy losses in the grid with an equivalent-π circuit and comparing its value with active energy losses. (4 Balancing the energy curtailment of wind generation, active-reactive energy losses in the grid and active-reactive energy import-export by a meter-based method. In Part-II, the potential of the developed model is studied through analyzing an electricity market model and a 41-bus network with different locations of WSs.

  6. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda L. Garnham

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016. Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the highest contributors to mercury emissions in South Africa. A major factor affecting the amount of mercury emitted into the atmosphere is the type and efficiency of emission abatement equipment at a power station. Eskom employs particulate emission control technology at all its coal-fired power stations, and new power stations will also have sulphur dioxide abatement technology. A co-beneficial reduction of mercury emissions exists as a result of emission control technology. The amount of mercury emitted from each of Eskom’s coal-fired power stations is calculated, based on the amount of coal burnt and the mercury content in the coal. Emission Reduction Factors (ERF’s from two sources are taken into consideration to reflect the co-benefit received from the emission control technologies at the stations. Between 17 and 23 tons of mercury is calculated to have been emitted from Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in 2015. On completion of Eskom’s emission reduction plan, which includes fabric filter plant retrofits at two and a half stations and a flue gas desulphurisation retrofit at one power station, total mercury emissions from the fleet will potentially be reduced by 6-13% by 2026 relative to the baseline. Mercury emission reduction is perhaps currently not the most pressing air quality problem in South Africa. While the focus should then be on reducing emissions of other pollutants which have a greater impact on human health, mercury emission reduction

  7. Radiation dose reduction efficiency of buildings after the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Monzen

    Full Text Available Numerous radionuclides were released from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (F1-NPS in Japan following the magnitude 9.0 earthquake and tsunami on March 11, 2011. Local residents have been eager to calculate their individual radiation exposure. Thus, absorbed dose rates in the indoor and outdoor air at evacuation sites in the Fukushima Prefecture were measured using a gamma-ray measuring devices, and individual radiation exposure was calculated by assessing the radiation dose reduction efficiency (defined as the ratio of absorbed dose rate in the indoor air to the absorbed dose rate in the outdoor air of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings. Between March 2011 and July 2011, dose reduction efficiencies of wood, aluminum, and reinforced concrete buildings were 0.55 ± 0.04, 0.15 ± 0.02, and 0.19 ± 0.04, respectively. The reduction efficiency of wood structures was 1.4 times higher than that reported by the International Atomic Energy Agency. The efficiency of reinforced concrete was similar to previously reported values, whereas that of aluminum structures has not been previously reported. Dose reduction efficiency increased in proportion to the distance from F1-NPS at 8 of the 18 evacuation sites. Time variations did not reflect dose reduction efficiencies at evacuation sites although absorbed dose rates in the outdoor air decreased. These data suggest that dose reduction efficiency depends on structure types, levels of contamination, and evacuee behaviors at evacuation sites.

  8. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The principal function at KAPL sites (Knolls, Kesselring, and Windsor) is research and development in the design and operation of Naval nuclear propulsion plants. The Kesselring Site is also used for the training of personnel in the operation of these plants. The Naval nuclear propulsion plant at the Windsor Site is currently being dismantled. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  9. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and Site closure activities at the S1C Site (also known as the KAPL Windsor Site) continue to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL at the Knolls and Kesselring Sites are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as environmental monitoring of air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of the Knolls and Kesselring Sites and at off-site background locations. The environmental monitoring program for the S1C Site continues to be reduced in scope from previous years due to the completion of Site dismantlement activities during 1999 and a return to green field conditions during 2000.

  10. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory environmental monitoring report, calendar year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2001-12-01

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) Sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the Knolls Site, Niskayuna, New York and the Kesselring Site, West Milton, New York and site closure activities at the S1C Site, Windsor, Connecticut, continued to have no adverse effect on human health and the quality of the environment during calendar year 2000. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each Site and at off-site background locations. Monitoring programs at the S1C Site were reduced in scope during calendar year 2000 due to completion of site dismantlement activities during 1999.

  11. Atomic Information Technology Safety and Economy of Nuclear Power Plants

    CERN Document Server

    Woo, Taeho

    2012-01-01

    Atomic Information Technology revaluates current conceptions of the information technology aspects of the nuclear industry. Economic and safety research in the nuclear energy sector are explored, considering statistical methods which incorporate Monte-Carlo simulations for practical applications. Divided into three sections, Atomic Information Technology covers: • Atomic economics and management, • Atomic safety and reliability, and • Atomic safeguarding and security. Either as a standalone volume or as a companion to conventional nuclear safety and reliability books, Atomic Information Technology acts as a concise and thorough reference on statistical assessment technology in the nuclear industry. Students and industry professionals alike will find this a key tool in expanding and updating their understanding of this industry and the applications of information technology within it.

  12. 77 FR 42768 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-20

    ... COMMISSION Central Vermont Public Service Corporation, Millstone Power Station, Unit 3; Notice of... Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS)' interest in the Renewed Facility Operating License (No... Central Vermont Public Service Corporation with Green Mountain Power Corporation, to reflect the proposed...

  13. 75 FR 63766 - Digital Low Power Television, Television Translator, and Television Booster Stations and Digital...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ...-transition low power TV signals provided to consumers will be of an estimable quality. If not, we seek... the Commission's burden estimates; (c) ways to enhance the quality, utility, and clarity of the... Authority to Construct or Make Changes in a Low Power TV, TV Translator or TV Booster Station, FCC Form 346...

  14. 75 FR 14635 - FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FirstEnergy Nuclear Operating Company, Davis-Besse Nuclear Power Station; Environmental Assessment...Energy Nuclear Operating Company (FENOC, the licensee), for operation of the Davis-Besse Nuclear Power...

  15. TRIGA OCEANOGRAPHIC POWER SUPPLY FOR A MANNED UNDERWATER STATION. VOLUME I. REFERENCE DESIGN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The TRIGA Oceanographic Power Supply (TOPS) is designed to provide 100 kw of electrical power for a Manned Underwater Station (MUS). The design is... TRIGA research reactor. It contains the entire pressurized water primary coolant circuit and the steam generator. The U-ZrH-fueled, water-cooled core

  16. Information management for nuclear power stations: project description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpin, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    A study of the information management structure required to support nuclear power plant construction was performed by a joint university-industry group under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), formerly the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The purpose of this study was (1) to study methods for the control of information during the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants, and (2) identify those data elements intrinsic to nuclear power plants which must be maintained in a structured format for quick access and retrieval. Maintenance of the massive amount of data needed for control of a nuclear project during design, procurement, construction, start-up/testing, and operational phases requires a structuring which allows immediate update and retrieval based on a wide variety of access criteria. The objective of the research described has been to identify design concepts which support the development of an information control system responsive to these requirements. A conceptual design of a Management Information Data Base System which can meet the project control and information exchange needs of today's large nuclear power plant construction projects has been completed and an approach recommended for development and implementation of a complete operational system.

  17. Information management for nuclear power stations: System Design Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halpin, D.W.

    1978-03-01

    A study of the information management structure required to support nuclear power plant construction was performed by a joint university-industry group under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy (DOE), formerly the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA). The purpose of this study was (1) to study methods for the control of information during the construction and start-up of nuclear power plants, and (2) identify those data elements intrinsic to nuclear power plants which must be maintained in a structured format for quick access and retrieval. Maintenance of the massive amount of data needed for control of a nuclear project during design, procurement, construction, start-up/testing, and operational phases requires a structuring which allows immediate update and retrieval based on a wide variety of access criteria. The objective of the research described has been to identify design concepts which support the development of an information control system responsive to these requirements. A conceptual design of a Management Information Data Base System which can meet the project control and information exchange needs of today's large nuclear power plant construction projects has been completed and an approach recommended for development and implementation of a complete operational system.

  18. 75 FR 20867 - DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    ... COMMISSION DTE Energy; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant, Unit 1 Environmental Assessment and Finding of No... Operating License No. DPR-9 issued to DTE Energy (DTE or the licensee), for the Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1, (Fermi-1) located in Monroe County, Michigan. Environmental Assessment Identification of...

  19. Transient Processes in Electric Power Supply System for Oil Terminal with Own Gas-Turbine Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Hаshimov

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of the investigations concerning influence of symmetrical and non-symmetrical short circuits at main power network on electric power supply system of a huge oil terminal which is powered by own gas-turbine power station. Calculations have been made in accordance with the IEC and IEEЕ requirements. Estimations for voltage level and distribution of short circuit current in the electric power supply system of the Sangachal oil terminal being operated in parallel with the AzerEnerji grid are presented in the paper

  20. Efforts toward enhancing seismic safety at Kashiwazaki Kariwa nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, Kazuhiko

    2010-09-15

    Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Station, 8212MW, was struck by M6.8 quakes in July 2007. TEPCO has steadily been conducting restoration and post-earthquake equipment integrity assessment, aiming to make it a disaster-resistant power station. 2 units among 7 resumed commercial operation by June 2010. This earthquake has provided a great deal of knowledge and information useful for nuclear safety improvement. It has also served as a valuable reference for the IAEA in developing earthquake-related guidelines. TEPCO would like to share the knowledge and information thereby contributing to improving the safety of nuclear power generation. We will introduce some of our activities.

  1. Noise test system of rotating machinery in nuclear power station based on microphone array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Xincai; Guan, Jishi; Qi, Liangcai

    2017-12-01

    Rotating machinery plays an important role in all walks of life. Once the equipment fails, equipment maintenance and shutdown will cause great social harm and economic losses. Equipment safety operations at nuclear power stations have always been of top priority. It is prone to noise when the equipment is out of order or aging. Failure to find or develop equipment at the initial stage of equipment failure or ageing will pose a serious threat to the safety of the plant’s equipment. In this paper, sound imaging diagnosis technology is applied as a supplementary method to the condition monitoring and diagnosis system of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations. It provides a powerful guarantee for the condition monitoring and fault diagnosis of rotating machinery in nuclear power stations.

  2. IMPLEMENTATION OF ENERGY LAW OF HYBRID POWER STATION FOR SOCIAL WELFARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyah Ayu Widowati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate the Implementation of Energy Law of Hybrid Power Station for Social Welfare in Pantai Baru. The problem formulations are the management and utilization of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru and implementation of energy law of hybrid power station for social welfare in the fields of economy and information in Pantai Baru. Based on data analysis it is concluded that the management of hybrid power station in Pantai Baru is performed collaboratively between government and the society. The existence of hybrid power station in pantai baru has positive impacts in economy and information. Penelitian ini meneliti Pelaksanaan Hukum Energi Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Hibrid untuk Kesejahteraan Rakyat di Bidang Ekonomi dan Informasi di Pantai Baru. Masalah yang diteliti adalah bentuk pengelolaan dan pemanfaatan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid di Pantai Baru dan pelaksanaan hukum energi pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid untuk kesejahteraan rakyat di bidang ekonomi dan informasi di Pantai Baru. Berdasarkan analisis data dapat disimpulkan bahwa pengelolaan pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru dilakukan secara kolaboratif, antara pemerintah dengan masyarakat. Kehadiran pembangkit listrik tenaga hibrid yang ada di pantai baru telah memberikan dampak positif di bidang ekonomi dan informasi.

  3. In situ monitoring of animal micronuclei before the operation of Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Y.N. Cai; H.Y. He; L.M. Qian; G.C. Sun; J.Y. Zhao [Guangzhou College of Education, Guangzhou (China)

    1994-12-31

    Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, a newly-built nuclear power station in southern mainland China, started its operation in 1993. We examined micro-nucleated cells of Invertibrate (Bivalves) and Vertibrate (Fish and Amphibia) in different spots within the 50km surroundings of the Power Station during 1986-1993. This paper reports the results of the investigation carried out in Dong Shan, a place 4.7km to the Power Station:Bivalves; Pteria martensil 5.1(1986),4.8(1988),4.8(1991),5,0(1993),Mytilus smardinus 4.7(1987),4.6(1988); Chamys nobilis 4.9(1987);4.9(1991),4.5(1992),4.5(1993). Fish; Therapon jarbua 0.48(1991),0.67(1992),0.47(1993). Amphibia; Bufo melanostictus 0.29 (1987), 0.34(1988),0.39(1992),0.39(1993). These results showed that the environmental situation, estimated by using the frequencies of micronucleated cells, was stable-there was no obvious chromosome damage in the animals studied. It was found that the incidence of micronucleated cells of Bivalves was higher than that of Fish and Amphibia, suggesting the epithelial cells to be more sensitive than peripheral erythrocytes to environmental genotoxic effects. The results of our studies for other spots will be reported afterward. These data can be used as the original background information to monitor the environment when the Nuclear Power Station is in operation.

  4. Avian radioecology on a nuclear power station site. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, C.K.; Maletskos, C.J.; Youngstrom, K.A.

    1975-01-01

    A summary of a six-year avian radioecology study at the site of a nuclear power plant in Massachusetts is reported. A completed historical summary is followed by a description of mathematical models developed to calculate the effects on bird body burdens of various changes in environmental radionuclide levels. Examples are presented. Radionuclide metabolism studies in which acute doses of /sup 131/I and /sup 137/Cs were administered to four species of wild birds are presented. Radionuclides were administered both intravenously and orally; no apparent differences in uptake or elimination rates were observed between the two methods.

  5. A study of the transmitting power control for earth stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seta, Mitsuru; Ayukawa, Ichiro

    Various transmitting power control (TPC) methods, particularly for digital data communication systems, are described. Four types of TPC systems are addressed: independent control system, central control system, central pilot system, and pair control system. The detection of rain attenuation and the measurement of signal quality in these systems is examined. Effective TPC methods for three kinds of networks are discussed. For a TDMA network, a central control system with BER detection is effective. A central control system with beacon and pilot is shown to be useful for a very small aperture terminal (VSAT) network, particularly in the Ku-band, and an independent control system is suitable for an SCPC network.

  6. Counter rotating type hydroelectric unit suitable for tidal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanemoto, T [Faculty of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan); Suzuki, T, E-mail: turbo@tobata.isc.kyutech.ac.j [Graduate School of Engineering, Kyushu Institute of Technology, Sensui 1-1, Tobata, Kitakyushu 804-8550 (Japan)

    2010-08-15

    The counter rotating type hydroelectric unit, which is composed of the axial flow type tandem runners and the peculiar generator with double rotational armatures,was proposed to utilize effectively the tidal power. In the unit, the front and the rear runners counter drive the inner and the outer armatures of the generator, respectively. Besides, the flow direction at the rear runner outlet must coincide with the flow direction at the front runner inlet, because the angular momentum through the rear runner must coincides with that through the front runner. That is, the flow runs in the axial direction at the rear runner outlet while the axial inflow at the front runner inlet. Such operations are suitable for working at the seashore with rising and falling tidal flows, and the unit may be able to take place of the traditional bulb type turbines. The tandem runners were operated at the on-cam conditions, in keeping the induced frequency constant. The output and the hydraulic efficiency are affected by the adjustment of the front and the blade setting angles. The both optimum angles giving the maximum output and/or efficiency were presented at the various discharges/heads. To promote more the tidal power generation by this type unit, the runners were also modified so as to be suitable for both rising and falling flows. The hydraulic performances are acceptable while the output is determined mainly by the trailing edge profiles of the runner blades.

  7. Description of a straw/wood chip system at the power station of Southern Jutland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, N.B. [The power station of Southern Jutland (Denmark)

    1997-10-01

    A project concerning combustion of straw and wood chips in separated boilers designed for parallel operation with large coal-fired boilers is described. The concept includes the construction of a new straw and wood chip-fired system at SH (power station of Southern Jutland) in the existing unit 2 of the Ensted Power Station (EV2). This boiler is designed for parallel operation with the coal-fired boiler in unit 3 of the Ensted Power Station (EV3). The current coal/oil-fired EV2 plant was laid up on 1 April 1995. The project will amount to DKK 400 million and is expected to take 37 months to complete. The project was launched on 15 December 1994. (ln)

  8. Power station coal yards using scraper reclaimers - 25 years of experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, G. [Gustav Schade Maschinenfabrik GmbH, Dortmund (Germany)

    2000-10-01

    25 years ago, the German power station at Scholven became the first in the world to employ a scraper reclaimer for power station coal stockyard duties. Based on experience gained here, many new coal handling systems have been built. The paper describes the current state of development and the different features of each type of today's scraper reclaimer: cantilever, portals, bridge-type and portal bridge scraper reclaimers. Examples are given of their use in linear stockpile systems. Advice is given on how to select a correct stockpile width. The advantages and disadvantages of the recently-introduced circular stockpile systems for power station coal are discussed. Future directions for coaling systems are outlined. 5 refs., 20 figs., 1 tab.

  9. 77 FR 36298 - In the Matter of Maine Yankee Atomic Power Company; Maine Yankee Atomic Power Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... Securities and Exchange Act of 1934 that disclose beneficial ownership of any registered classes of Maine..., but should note that the NRC's E-Filing system does not support unlisted software, and the NRC Meta... electronically using the agency's adjudicatory E- Filing system may seek assistance by contacting the NRC Meta...

  10. 76 FR 58844 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, Surry Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-22

    ... included in NUREG-1474, ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from..., ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20-30, 1992.'' Also... severe weather conditions such as tropical storm and hurricane force winds at the Surry 1 and 2 site. A...

  11. Development of a transient stability protection system for Eskom`s Matimba Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coetzee, G.J. [Electricity Supply Commission Engineering Investigations, Johannesburg (South Africa); Wittwer, F. [ABB Power Generation Ltd., Baden (Switzerland)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the special protection system that was developed for Eskom`s Matimba Power Station. The power transfer of the Matimba IPS is limited to 90% of the station full load output capacity due to the fact that faults on the system will lead to network pole slipping and network breakdown at higher loads. The conventional solution of increasing the tie line strength or installing more lines was very expensive and an alternative solution has to be found. By implementing ``Generator Dropping`` or tripping a generator/s on severe faults, network pole slipping can be prevented. (author)

  12. Automating security monitoring and analysis for Space Station Freedom's electric power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolce, James L.; Sobajic, Dejan J.; Pao, Yoh-Han

    1990-01-01

    Operating a large, space power system requires classifying the system's status and analyzing its security. Conventional algorithms are used by terrestrial electric utilities to provide such information to their dispatchers, but their application aboard Space Station Freedom will consume too much processing time. A new approach for monitoring and analysis using adaptive pattern techniques is presented. This approach yields an on-line security monitoring and analysis algorithm that is accurate and fast; and thus, it can free the Space Station Freedom's power control computers for other tasks.

  13. The Industrial Fluorosis Caused by a Coal-Burning Power Station and its Effects on Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    FİDANCI, Ulvi Reha; SEL, Tevhide

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to examine the industrial fluorosis caused by the coal burning power station in Muğla-Yatağan. Blood and urine samples of sheep, and water, plant and soil samples from around the power station were collected four times throughout the year to cover all four seasons. Fluoride ion concentrations in the water, urine, plant and soil samples were detected potentiometrically using an ion selective electrode. Serum Alkaline phosphatase (ALP-EC 3.1.3.1), Alanine amino...

  14. Static analysis of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations based on finite element method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Qiang; Chen, Tian-jin; Li, Wei-yang; Xiong, Ze-cheng; Ma, Rui

    2017-09-01

    In order to obtain the deformation map and equivalent stress distribution of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations, the quality distribution of structure and electrical are described, the tensile bond strengths of the rings are checked, and the finite element model of cabinet is set up by ANSYS. The transport conditions of the hoisting state and fork loading state are analyzed. The deformation map and equivalent stress distribution are obtained. The attentive problems are put forward. It is a reference for analysis method and the obtained results for the transport of rectifier cabinet for nuclear power generating stations.

  15. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Vitorović Gordana S.; Mitrović Branislava M.; Andrić Velibor Đ.; Stojanović Mirjana D.; Lazarević-Macanović Mirjana V.; Vitorović Duško P.

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activi...

  16. The behaviour of coal blends in power station boilers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, W.R.; Horne, P.A.; McGhee, B.F.; Gibson, J.R. [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd., Renfrew (United Kingdom)

    1998-12-31

    The milling characteristics of coal blends were studied to provide quantitative information which allows the calculation of the Hardgrove Index (HGI) values of coal blends from those of the constituent coals; to provide data on the power requirement to produce a given mill output fineness, and abrasion rates of mill components when milling coal blends, relative to the behaviour of the constituent coals; to investigate the combustion behaviour of coal blends in pulverized fuel-fired systems by carrying out testwork in a semi-industrial combustion test facility, and to assess the deposition characteristics and the potential for utilization of the ashes produced by the combustion of coal blends. It was found that both the HGI and the Abrasion Index values of coals are additive properties. There were linear correlations between the slope of the Rosin-Rammler plot of the Mini-mill product size distribution and both the blend compositions and the HGI values of the coals and coal blends. Investigations showed that the fusion behaviour of the coal ash blends is rather complex, and that the characteristic ash fusion temperature are not additive in a simple way. A number of correlations were found between the ash fusion temperatures of the coals and coal ash blends. 1 ref., 45 figs., 10 tabs., 1 app.

  17. 76 FR 72007 - ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... COMMISSION ZionSolutions, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; Exemption From Certain Security Requirements 1.0 Background Zion Nuclear Power Station (ZNPS or Zion), Unit 1, is a Westinghouse 3250 MWt... activities in nuclear power reactors against radiological sabotage,'' paragraph (b)(1) states, ``The licensee...

  18. Time Averaged Transmitter Power and Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields from Mobile Phone Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfred Bürgi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Models for exposure assessment of high frequency electromagnetic fields from mobile phone base stations need the technical data of the base stations as input. One of these parameters, the Equivalent Radiated Power (ERP, is a time-varying quantity, depending on communication traffic. In order to determine temporal averages of the exposure, corresponding averages of the ERP have to be available. These can be determined as duty factors, the ratios of the time-averaged power to the maximum output power according to the transmitter setting. We determine duty factors for UMTS from the data of 37 base stations in the Swisscom network. The UMTS base stations sample contains sites from different regions of Switzerland and also different site types (rural/suburban/urban/hotspot. Averaged over all regions and site types, a UMTS duty factor  for the 24 h-average is obtained, i.e., the average output power corresponds to about a third of the maximum power. We also give duty factors for GSM based on simple approximations and a lower limit for LTE estimated from the base load on the signalling channels.

  19. Diversion at small hydro-electric power stations; Forbislipping ved smaa vannkraftverk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, Knut E.; Elstad, Ivar K.

    2008-07-01

    At a shut down caused by, for instance, a power shortage at a power station, the electric aggregate will stop and there will be a quick change in the flow of water downstream of the power station. This situation gives undesirable environmental effects, especially with regards to fish. The fish must have the opportunity to withdraw to deep pools, to avoid running aground. The goal of this report is to present good ideas to design diversion stations that reduce the environmental effects to an acceptable level, which is especially important in anadromous waterways, simultaneously not costing too much. The demand for diversion should be clarified with the authorities as soon as possible. By taking into account the power stations dimensions and foundation needs early on in the planning phase, the cost will be minimized. As a rule NVE currently demand that a diversion installation must have a capacity of 50 % of the turbines full flow of water. This is to avoid large changes in the flow of water downstream of the power station. In addition to the demand on the maximum capacity of the diversion installation, there should also be posed a demand that the calculation of the rate of flow should be kept within 50 % of the total rate of flow before the shut down. This is possible to achieve with the help of software control without the operational drawbacks caused by slow regulation being too great. Calculations carried out show that also with loading operation after shut down should have a relatively slow rate of flow. It is recommended that the short term rate of flow increase should be no more than 50 % of the rate of flow before the shut down or the stationary rate of flow before the turbines are started. To ensure the diversion with loading operation at small power stations it is recommended to use standard valves as much as possible, possibly with an energy dissipater that often can be manufactured locally. The installation should be arranged in such a way that the

  20. Method of statistical data processing safety ecological monitoring combined heat and power station in the megalopolis territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Telichenko Valeriy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The first developed method allowed to determine the combined effects of emissions of pollutants into the atmospheric air in the city by combined heat and power stations group, as well as to assess the interference impact of combined heat and power station ion the child population in different districts of Moscow. It has been proven emissions of pollutants by combined heat and power station interference are distributed on the territory of the city and does not equally affect the disease incidence of children in different administrative districts with emissions of each of the combined heat and power stations individually and do not exceed maximum allowable concentrations.

  1. On the possibility of generation of cold and additional electric energy at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimenko, A. V.; Agababov, V. S.; Borisova, P. N.

    2017-06-01

    A layout of a cogeneration plant for centralized supply of the users with electricity and cold (ECCG plant) is presented. The basic components of the plant are an expander-generator unit (EGU) and a vapor-compression thermotransformer (VCTT). At the natural-gas-pressure-reducing stations, viz., gas-distribution stations and gas-control units, the plant is connected in parallel to a throttler and replaces the latter completely or partially. The plant operates using only the energy of the natural gas flow without burning the gas; therefore, it can be classified as a fuelless installation. The authors compare the thermodynamic efficiencies of a centralized cold supply system based on the proposed plant integrated into the thermal power station scheme and a decentralized cold supply system in which the cold is generated by electrically driven vapor-compression thermotransformers installed on the user's premises. To perform comparative analysis, the exergy efficiency was taken as the criterion since in one of the systems under investigation the electricity and the cold are generated, which are energies of different kinds. It is shown that the thermodynamic efficiency of the power supply using the proposed plant proves to be higher within the entire range of the parameters under consideration. The article presents the results of investigating the impact of the gas heating temperature upstream from the expander on the electric power of the plant, its total cooling capacity, and the cooling capacities of the heat exchangers installed downstream from the EGU and the evaporator of the VCTT. The results of calculations are discussed that show that the cold generated at the gas-control unit of a powerful thermal power station can be used for the centralized supply of the cold to the ventilation and conditioning systems of both the buildings of the power station and the neighboring dwelling houses, schools, and public facilities during the summer season.

  2. Reactive Power Support of Electrical Vehicle Charging Station Upgraded with Flywheel Energy Storage System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    SUN, BO; Dragicevic, Tomislav; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    Electrical vehicles (EVs) are presenting increasingly potential to replace the conventional fossil fuel based vehicles due to environmental friendly characteristic. Accordingly, Charging Stations (CS), as an intermediate between grid and large numbers of EVs, are supposed to have more critical...... influence on future smart transportation network. This paper explores an off-board charging station upgraded with flywheel energy storage system that could provide a reactive power support to the grid utility. A supervisory control scheme based on distributed bus signaling is proposed to coordinate...... the operation of each component in the system. As a result, the charging station could supply the reactive power support to the utility grid without compromising the charging algorithm and preserve the battery’s lifetime. Finally, the real-time simulation results based on dSPACE1006 verifies the proposed...

  3. Heuristic Storage System Sizing for Optimal Operation of Electric Vehicles Powered by Photovoltaic Charging Station

    OpenAIRE

    Blasius, Erik; Federau, Erik; Janik, Przemyslaw; Leonowicz, Zbigniew

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the utilisation of PV systems for electric vehicles charging for transportation requirements of smart cities. The gap between PV power output and vehicles charging demand is highly variable. Therefore, there is a need for additional support from a public distribution grid or a storage device in order to handle the residual power. Long term measurement data retrieved from a charging station for 15 vehicles equipped with a PV system were used in the research. Low and high i...

  4. [Risk of electromagnetic fields in electric power stations and substations of a petrochemical plant].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castagnoli, A; Fabri, G; Romeo, A

    2003-01-01

    Authors evaluate electromagnetic field exposure in the low-frequency range (5-30,000 Hz) in electric power stations and substations of petroleum processing plant. According to the measured values and the reference exposure limits considered, they conclude that operators should be exposed without adverse effects.

  5. 47 CFR 74.780 - Broadcast regulations applicable to translators, low power, and booster stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to translators... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.780 Broadcast...

  6. 77 FR 59679 - Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-28

    ... COMMISSION Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (Millstone Power Station, Unit 3); Order Approving.... (DNC), Central Vermont Public Service Corporation (CVPS) and Massachusetts Municipal Wholesale Electric... the change of name for the co-owner licensee on the MSP3 license from ``Central Vermont Public Service...

  7. Influence of Frequency Converters on Insulation of Power Supply Cables at Oil-Producing Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. I. Zalizny

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers consequences of negative frequency converter influence on insulation of  power supply cables used for submersible installations of electric-centrifugal pumps at oil-producing stations. The possible approaches to the solution of the problem are proposed on the basis of a harmonic analysis of actually measured voltages and currents in a cable.  

  8. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1990. Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1991-04-01

    The exchange of experience within the VGB Specialist Committee 'Exchange of Operational Experience' (ABE) (Nuclear Technology) embraces nuclear power stations in the following countries: Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on the operating results achieved in 1990, incidents relevant to safety technology, important modifications and annual discharge rates of radioactivity. (orig.).

  9. 78 FR 39019 - Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-28

    ... nuclear plants around the United States, day-to-day management of FCS by Exelon is likely to worsen FCS... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Omaha Public Power District, Fort Calhoun Station, Unit 1 AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission...

  10. Implementation of an electronic personal dosimetry system (EPD) at Oldbury-on-Severn power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, P W; Weeks, A R

    2001-03-01

    This article presents the implementation of an electronic personal dosemeter (EPD) as a film badge replacement at Oldbury-on-Severn power station, which is the first major site to use an approval issued by the UK Health and Safety Executive (HSE) for dose measurement by an EPD. The practicalities and history behind the introduction of an EPD for personal dosimetry are described.

  11. The Tidal Power Station on the Rance | Gabre - Amlak | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Tidal Power Station on the Rance. A Gabre - Amlak. Abstract. No Abstract. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about AJOL · AJOL's Partners · Terms and Conditions of Use · Contact AJOL · News. OTHER RESOURCES... for Researchers · for ...

  12. The AP1000{sup R} nuclear power plant innovative features for extended station blackout mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vereb, F.; Winters, J.; Schulz, T.; Cummins, E.; Oriani, L. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Station Blackout (SBO) is defined as 'a condition wherein a nuclear power plant sustains a loss of all offsite electric power system concurrent with turbine trip and unavailability of all onsite emergency alternating current (AC) power system. Station blackout does not include the loss of available AC power to buses fed by station batteries through inverters or by alternate AC sources as defined in this section, nor does it assume a concurrent single failure or design basis accident...' in accordance with Reference 1. In this paper, the innovative features of the AP1000 plant design are described with their operation in the scenario of an extended station blackout event. General operation of the passive safety systems are described as well as the unique features which allow the AP1000 plant to cope for at least 7 days during station blackout. Points of emphasis will include: - Passive safety system operation during SBO - 'Fail-safe' nature of key passive safety system valves; automatically places the valve in a conservatively safe alignment even in case of multiple failures in all power supply systems, including normal AC and battery backup - Passive Spent Fuel Pool cooling and makeup water supply during SBO - Robustness of AP1000 plant due to the location of key systems, structures and components required for Safe Shutdown - Diverse means of supplying makeup water to the Passive Containment Cooling System (PCS) and the Spent Fuel Pool (SFP) through use of an engineered, safety-related piping interface and portable equipment, as well as with permanently installed onsite ancillary equipment. (authors)

  13. Observations of Earth space by self-powered stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mende, S. B.; Rachelson, W.; Sterling, R.; Frey, H. U.; Harris, S. E.; McBride, S.; Rosenberg, T. J.; Detrick, D.; Doolittle, J. L.; Engebretson, M.; Inan, U.; Labelle, J. W.; Lanzerotti, L. J.; Weatherwax, A. T.

    2009-12-01

    Coupling of the solar wind to the Earth magnetosphere/ionosphere is primarily through the high latitude regions, and there are distinct advantages in making remote sensing observations of these regions with a network of ground-based observatories over other techniques. The Antarctic continent is ideally situated for such a network, especially for optical studies, because the larger offset between geographic and geomagnetic poles in the south enables optical observations at a larger range of magnetic latitudes during the winter darkness. The greatest challenge for such ground-based observations is the generation of power and heat for a sizable ground station that can accommodate an optical imaging instrument. Under the sponsorship of the National Science Foundation, we have developed suitable automatic observing platforms, the Automatic Geophysical Observatories (AGOs) for a network of six autonomous stations on the Antarctic plateau. Each station housed a suite of science instruments including a dual wavelength intensified all-sky camera that records the auroral activity, an imaging riometer, fluxgate and search-coil magnetometers, and ELF/VLF and LM/MF/HF receivers. Originally these stations were powered by propane fuelled thermoelectric generators with the fuel delivered to the site each Antarctic summer. A by-product of this power generation was a large amount of useful heat, which was applied to maintain the operating temperature of the electronics in the stations. Although a reasonable degree of reliability was achieved with these stations, the high cost of the fuel air lift and some remaining technical issues necessitated the development of a different type of power unit. In the second phase of the project we have developed a power generation system using renewable energy that can operate automatically in the Antarctic winter. The most reliable power system consists of a type of wind turbine using a simple permanent magnet rotor and a new type of power

  14. Self-Oscillating Soft Switching Envelope Tracking Power Supply for Tetra2 Base Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høyerby, Mikkel Christian Wendelboe; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS) i...... overall solution switching at 1MHz with 88-95% efficiency. In a class-AB RFPA amplifying a 50kHz bandwidth QAM Tetra2 signal at 4.6W average output power, the use of tracking supply voltage reduced power dissipation by 25W.......This paper presents a high-efficiency, high-bandwidth solution to implementing an envelope tracking power supply for the RF power amplifier (RFPA) in a Tetra2 base station. The solution is based on synchronous rectified buck topology, augmented with high-side switch zero-current switching (ZCS......) implemented with a series inductor and an external clamping power supply. Combined with advanced power stage components (die-size MOSFETs), a high-performance fixed-frequency self-oscillating (sliding mode) control strategy and a 4th-order output filter, this leads to a compact, effective and efficient...

  15. A Power Distribution System for the AMS experiment on the International Space Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K S [Department of Physics, EWHA Womans University, Seoul, Korea (Korea, Republic of); Capell, M [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Lebedev, A [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Viertel, G M [ETH-Zuerich, Labor fuer Hochenergiephysik, Zurich (Switzerland); Yang, J [Department of Physics, EWHA Womans University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-12-15

    The Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) experiment on the International Space Station (ISS) requires a fully redundant, highly efficient, space qualified power distribution system. The device receives up to 2.8 kW of electrical power from the ISS and distributes it to the various subsystems of the experiment. The majority of these subsystems require the power to be converted from the ISS delivered nominal voltage level of 120 VDC to 28 VDC. The entire system and the individual output channels will be monitored and controlled from the Control Centers on the ground.

  16. About Utilization Efficiency Evaluation of Gas-Expansion and Generator Units at Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Kachan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers methods for determination of gas-expansion and generator unit indices when they are applied at a thermal power station. It is shown, that while relating the effect of additional power-and-heat generation output due to heat taking-off from steam turbines to gas-expansion and generator unit to the operation of this unit a specific fuel consumption of power supply from gas-expansion and generator unit can be lower than fuel equivalent of kilowatt-hour.

  17. Development of a Cost-Effective Solar/Diesel Independent Power Plant for a Remote Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okeolu Samuel Omogoye

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the design, simulation, and optimization of a solar/diesel hybrid power supply system for a remote station. The design involves determination of the station total energy demand as well as obtaining the station solar radiation data. This information was used to size the components of the hybrid power supply system (HPSS and to determine its configuration. Specifically, an appropriate software package, HOMER, was used to determine the number of solar panels, deep-cycle batteries, and rating of the inverter that comprise the solar section of the HPSS. A suitable diesel generator was also selected for the HPSS after careful technical and cost analysis of those available in the market. The designed system was simulated using the HOMER software package and the simulation results were used to carry out the optimization of the system. The final design adequately meets the station energy requirement. Based on a life expectancy of twenty-five years, a cost-benefit analysis of the HPSS was carried out. This analysis shows that the HPSS has a lower cost as compared to a conventional diesel generator power supply, thus recommending the HPSS as a more cost-effective solution for this application.

  18. The effects of solar-geomagnetically induced currents on electrical systems in nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subudhi, M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Carroll, D.P. [Florida Univ., Gainesville, FL (United States); Kasturi, S. [MOS, Inc., Melville, NY (United States)

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study to evaluate the potential effects of geomagnetically induced currents (GICs) caused by the solar disturbances on the in-plant electrical distribution system and equipment in nuclear power stations. The plant-specific electrical distribution system for a typical nuclear plant is modeled using the ElectroMagnetic Transient Program (EMTP). The computer model simulates online equipment and loads from the station transformer in the switchyard of the power station to the safety-buses at 120 volts to which all electronic devices are connected for plant monitoring. The analytical model of the plant`s electrical distribution system is studied to identify the transient effects caused by the half-cycle saturation of the station transformers due to GIC. This study provides results of the voltage harmonics levels that have been noted at various electrical buses inside the plant. The emergency circuits appear to be more susceptible to high harmonics due to the normally light load conditions. In addition to steady-state analysis, this model was further analyzed simulating various plant transient conditions (e.g., loss of load or large motor start-up) occurring during GIC events. Detail models of the plant`s protective relaying system employed in bus transfer application were included in this model to study the effects of the harmonic distortion of the voltage input. Potential harmonic effects on the uniterruptable power system (UPS) are qualitatively discussed as well.

  19. The European fossil-fuelled power station database used in the SEI CASM model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, P. [comp.] [Stockholm Environment Inst. at York (United Kingdom)

    1996-06-01

    The database contains details of power stations in Europe that burn fossil-fuels. All countries are covered from Ireland to the European region of Russia as far as the Urals. The following data are given for each station: Location (country and EMEP square), capacity (net MW{sub e} and boiler size), year of commissioning, and fuels burnt. A listing of the database is included in the report. The database is primarily used for estimation of emissions and abatement costs of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the SEI acid rain model CASM. 24 refs, tabs

  20. Technology for Space Station Evolution. Volume 4: Power Systems/Propulsion/Robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    NASA's Office of Aeronautics and Space Technology (OAST) conducted a workshop on technology for space station evolution on 16-19 Jan. 1990. The purpose of this workshop was to collect and clarify Space Station Freedom technology requirements for evolution and to describe technologies that can potentially fill those requirements. These proceedings are organized into an Executive Summary and Overview and five volumes containing the Technology Discipline Presentations. Volume 4 consists of the technology discipline sections for Power, Propulsion, and Robotics. For each technology discipline, there is a Level 3 subsystem description, along with the papers.

  1. Estimation of Power Production Potential from Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations in Pakistan Using ASPEN HYSYS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Nazir Unar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pakistan is a gas rich but power poor country. It consumes approximately 1, 559 Billion cubic feet of natural gas annually. Gas is transported around the country in a system of pressurized transmission pipelines under a pressure range of 600-1000 psig exclusively operated by two state owned companies i.e. SNGPL (Sui Northern Gas Pipelines Limited and SSGCL (Sui Southern Gas Company Limited. The gas is distributed by reducing from the transmission pressure into distribution pressure up to maximum level of 150 psig at the city gate stations normally called SMS (Sales Metering Station. As a normal practice gas pressure reduction at those SMSs is accomplished in pressure regulators (PCVs or in throttle valves where isenthalpic expansion takes place without producing any energy. Pressure potential of natural gas is an untapped energy resource which is currently wasted by its throttling. This pressure reduction at SMS (pressure drop through SMS may also be achieved by expansion of natural gas in TE, which converts its pressure into the mechanical energy, which can be transmitted any loading device for example electric generator. The aim of present paper is to explore the expected power production potential of various Sales Metering Stations of SSGCL company in Pakistan. The model of sales metering station was developed in a standard flow sheeting software Aspen HYSYS®7.1 to calculate power and study other parameters when an expansion turbine is used instead of throttling valves. It was observed from the simulation results that a significant power (more than 140 KW can be produced at pressure reducing stations of SSGC network with gas flows more than 2.2 MMSCFD and pressure ration more than 1.3.

  2. Proceedings of scientific-technical seminar: materials investigation for power stations and power grid; Seminarium naukowo-techniczne: Badania materialowe na potrzeby elektrowni i sieci elektroenergetycznych

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    This report is an assembly of the papers concerning the material problems occurring during the exploitation of power stations as well as power grid. The diagnostic methods are also discussed. (author).

  3. 47 CFR 73.6012 - Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of Class A TV, low power TV and TV... of Class A TV, low power TV and TV translator stations. An application to change the facilities of an existing Class A TV station will not be accepted if it fails to protect other authorized Class A TV, low...

  4. 76 FR 81542 - In the Matter of ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station; Independent Spent Fuel Storage...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-28

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of ZIONSOLUTIONS, LLC; Zion Nuclear Power Station; Independent Spent Fuel Storage..., Licensing and Inspection Directorate, Division of Spent Fuel Storage and Transportation, Office of Nuclear... providing notice, in the matter of Zion Nuclear ] Power Station Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation...

  5. 75 FR 10833 - In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION In the Matter of Entergy Nuclear Operations; Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station; Demand for.... The license authorizes the operation of the Vermont Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Vermont Yankee) in...

  6. Knowledge Sources and Opinions of Prospective Social Studies Teachers about Possible Risk and Benefit Analysis: Nuclear Energy and Power Stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazici, Hakki; Bulut, Ramazan; Yazici, Sibel

    2016-01-01

    In this study, it was aimed to determine the trust status of prospective social studies teachers regarding various knowledge sources related to nuclear energy and power stations regarded as a controversial socio-scientific issue and their perceptions on the possible risks and benefits of nuclear energy and power stations. Target population of the…

  7. Instrumentation and control system for the prototype fast breeder reactor 'MONJU' power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hara, Hiroshi (Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Tokyo (Japan)); Mae, Yoshinori; Ishida, Takayuki; Hashiura, Kazuhiko; Kasai, Shozo; Yamamoto, Hajime

    1989-10-01

    The fast breeder reactor 'Monju' power station is constructed as the nuclear power station of next generation in Tsuruga City, Fukui Prefecture. In order to realize high safety and operational reliability as the newest nuclear power station, the measurement and control system of Monju (electric power output 280 MW) has been designed and manufactured by reflecting the experiences of construction and operation of the experimental FBR 'Joyo' and the results of various research and development of sodium instrumentation and others, and by using the latest digital control technology and multiplexing system technology. In this paper, the results of development of the characteristic measurement and control technology as fast breeder reactors and the state of application to the measurement and control system which was designed and manufactured for Monju are described. Central monitoring panel, plant control system, sodium instrumentation, preheating control system and so on are reported. In the case of Monju, the heat capacity and thermal inertia of the primary and secondary cooling systems are large, and the system comprises three loops. (K.I.).

  8. Modeling of a Photovoltaic-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station with Vehicle-to-Grid Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azhar Ul-Haq

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is aimed at modelling of a distinct smart charging station for electric vehicles (EVs that is suitable for DC quick EV charging while ensuring minimum stress on the power grid. Operation of the charging station is managed in such a way that it is either supplied by photovoltaic (PV power or the power grid, and the vehicle-to-grid (V2G is also implemented for improving the stability of the grid during peak load hours. The PV interfaced DC/DC converter and grid interfaced DC/AC bidirectional converter share a DC bus. A smooth transition of one operating mode to another demonstrates the effectiveness of the employed control strategy. Modelling and control of the different components are explained and are implemented in Simulink. Simulations illustrate the feasible behaviour of the charging station under all operating modes in terms of the four-way interaction among PV, EVs and the grid along with V2G operation. Additionally, a business model is discussed with comprehensive analysis of cost estimation for the deployment of charging facilities in a residential area. It has been recognized that EVs bring new opportunities in terms of providing regulation services and consumption flexibility by varying the recharging power at a certain time instant. The paper also discusses the potential financial incentives required to inspire EV owners for active participation in the demand response mechanism.

  9. Operation and maintenance of thermal power stations best practices and health monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Chanda, Pradip

    2016-01-01

    This book illustrates operation and maintenance practices/guidelines for economic generation and managing health of a thermal power generator beyond its regulatory life. The book provides knowledge for professionals managing power station operations, through its unique approach to chemical analysis of water, steam, oil etc. to identify malfunctioning/defects in equipment/systems much before the physical manifestation of the problem. The book also contains a detailed procedure for conducting performance evaluation tests on different equipment, and for analyzing test results for predicting maintenance requirements, which has lent a new dimension to power systems operation and maintenance practices. A number of real life case studies also enrich the book. This book will prove particularly useful to power systems operations professionals in the developing economies, and also to researchers and students involved in studying power systems operations and control. .

  10. Surveys of Food Intake Just after the Nuclear Accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirakawa, Sachiko; Yoshizawa, Nobuaki; Murakami, Kana; Takizawa, Mari; Kawai, Masaki; Sato, Osamu; Takagi, Shunji; Suzuki, Gen

    2017-01-01

    As a result of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station (FDNPS) after the Great East Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, volatile radionuclides including iodine-131 were released into the environment and contaminated open-field vegetables, raw milk, tap water, etc. It is important for the health care of residents to correctly comprehend the level of their exposure to radioactive substances released following the accident. However, an evaluation of the internal exposure doses of residents of Fukushima Prefecture as a result of the ingestion of foods, which is indicated in the report issued by United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR)1 is based on a number of assumptions. For instance, the estimation assumes that foods were ingested as usual, without regard to the places to which residents were evacuated after the accident, the places where food shipment restrictions were imposed, and so forth. The present report aims to improve the accuracy of estimation of the amount of food actually ingested at evacuation areas, in order to reduce as much as possible the level of uncertainty in conventional values estimated directly after the accident, which were in fact values based on conservative assumptions. More concretely, as basic source material to more accurately estimate internal exposure doses from food ingestion, various patterns of evacuation and dietary habits at the time of the accident of the residents of 13 municipalities in Fukushima Prefecture who were evacuated during the period from directly after the accident of March 11, 2011 until the end of March are clarified in this report. From survey results, most of the food that evacuees took immediately after the accident was confirmed to have been sourced from either stockpiles prepared before the accident, or relief supplies from outside of the affected areas. The restriction orders of food supplies such as contaminated vegetables and milk, and tap

  11. Influence of electron motion in target atom on stopping power for low-energetic ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanović Nenad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the stopping power was calculated, representing the electrons of the target atom as an assembly of quantum oscillators. It was considered that the electrons in the atoms have some velocity before interaction with the projectile, which is the main contribution of this paper. The influence of electron velocity on stopping power for different projectiles and targets was investigated. It was found that the velocity of the electron stopping power has the greatest influence at low energies of the projectile.

  12. Solar-assisted MED treatment of Eskom power station waste water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Thomas H.; Rogers, David E. C.; Gericke, Gerhard

    2017-06-01

    The comparative benefits of multi-effect distillation (MED) used in conjunction with Nano Filtration (NF), Reverse Osmosis (RO) and Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC) are determined for waste water minimization for inland coal fired power stations for Zero Liquid Effluent Discharge (ZLED). A sequence of technologies is proposed to achieve maximal water recovery and brine concentration: NF - physico-chemical treatment - MED - EFC. The possibility of extending the concentration of RO reject arising from minewater treatment at the Lethabo power station with MED alone is evaluated with mineral formation modelling using the thermochemical modelling software Phreeq-C. It is shown that pretreatment is essential to extend the amount of water that can be recovered, and this can be beneficially supported by NF.

  13. The Mighty Atom? The Development of Nuclear Power Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    The use of nuclear energy for the generation of electricity started in the 1950s and was viewed, at the time, as a source of virtually free power. Development flourished and some countries adopted the nuclear option as their principal source for producing electrical energy. However, a series of nuclear incidents and concern about the treatment of…

  14. Augmentation of coal handling plant for Nasik Thermal Power Station, India

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakkar, M.C.; Bandhu, K.K.; Vyas, M.R.

    1989-08-01

    The augmentation of the coal handling plant at Nasik Thermal Power Station, India, was necessary, because the volume of coal to be handled increased due to the poor coal quality. The Maharashtra State Electricity Board therefore decided to install an additional conveying system consisting of a rotary-type wagon tippler (car dumper), a three-stage crushing plant, stacking and reclaiming equipment, and a motorized tripper bunkering system. 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. Artificial reefs: Using coal-fired power station wastes constructively for fishery enhancement

    OpenAIRE

    Collins, K J; Jensen, A.C.; Lockwood, Apm

    1991-01-01

    Large quantities of pulverised fuel ash (PFA) are produced by coal-fired power stations, some of which is currently dumped into the sea. The planned fitting of flue gas desulphurisation (FGD) plant in the UK would produce comparable quantities of gypsum. While a fraction of both these wastes may be used commercially, an alternative, environmentally acceptable, use for the surplus material, the construction of artificial reefs, is being investigated. Possible leaching of heavy metal ions from ...

  16. [Evaluating psychophysiologic adaptation state in operators of Bilibino nuclear power station].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaeva, N A; Torubarov, F S; Denisova, E A; Zvereva, Z F; Koronotova, M A

    2014-01-01

    The study revealed that 60% operators of Bilibino nuclear power station suffer from psychosomatic diseases, 41.7% of them are assigned to occupational group of workers, and major part of the examinees with psychosomatic diseases (45.82%) are aged 41-50, high integral level ofpsychophysiologic adaptation is revealed in 5 examinees (12.5%), medium integral level--in 12 examinees (30%). Lower integral level of psychophysiologic adaptation manifested in decrease in psychophysiologic and physiologic levels.

  17. Generating power stations and optimization energetic of processes; Centrales generadoras y optimacion energetica de procesos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez Ramirez, Ranulfo; Fernandez Montiel, Manuel Francisco [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    Some recent experiences of the Management of Thermal Processes of the Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) related to the works on generating power stations of electricity, plants of cogeneration and energy saving are presented. [Spanish] Se presentan algunas experiencias recientes de la Gerencia de Procesos Termicos del Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas (IIE) relacionadas con los trabajos sobre centrales generadoras de electricidad, plantas de cogeneracion y ahorro de energia.

  18. Modelling a reliable wind/PV/storage power system for remote radio base station sites without utility power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    The development of photovoltaic (PV) cells has made steady progress from the early days, when only the USA space program could afford to deploy them, to now, seeing them applied to roadside applications even in our Northern European climes. The manufacturing cost per watt has fallen and the daylight-to-power conversion efficiency increased. At the same time, the perception that the sun has to be directly shining on it for a PV array to work has faded. On some of those roadside applications, particularly for remote emergency telephones or for temporary roadwork signage where a utility electrical power connection is not practical, the keen observer will spot, usually in addition to a PV array, a small wind-turbine and an electrical cabinet quite obviously (by virtue of its volume) containing a storage battery. In the UK, we have the lions share (>40%) of Europe's entire wind power resource although, despite press coverage of the "anti-wind" lobby to the contrary, we have hardly started to harvest this clean and free energy source. Taking this (established and proven) roadside solution one step further, we will consider higher power applications. A cellular phone system is one where a multitude of remote radio base stations (RBS) are required to provide geographical coverage. With networks developing into the so called "3G" technologies the need for base stations has tripled, as each 3G cell covers only 1/3 the geographical area of its "2G" counterpart. To cover >90% of the UK's topology (>97% population coverage) with 3G cellular technology will requires in excess of 12,000 radio base stations per operator network. In 2001, there were around 25,000 established sites and, with an anticipated degree of collocation by necessity, that figure is forecast to rise to >47,000. Of course, the vast majority of these sites have a convenient grid connection. However, it is easy to see that the combination of wind and PV power generation and an energy storage system may be an

  19. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karimian, N., E-mail: Noushin.Karimian@Manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Wilson, J.W.; Peyton, A.J.; Yin, W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, M60 1QD (United Kingdom); Liu, J.; Davis, C.L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2014-02-15

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B–H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method. - Highlights: • We analysed the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels. • The B–H curves, differential and incremental permeability were measured. • We established correlations between EM properties and microstructure changes. • This technique will be used to develop a tool for in-situ inspection of steels.

  20. The emissions of heavy metals and persistent organic pollutants from modern coal-fired power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meij, Ruud; te Winkel, Henk

    Extensive research for establishing the emissions of heavy metals from coal-fired power stations is performed in the Netherlands for the past 25 years. In the Netherlands coal is fired from all over the world. This means that the emissions are established for coal of various origins. In the eighties, the emissions of installations equipped with ESPs (electrostatic precipitators) were measured. In the nineties, the influence of wet FGD (flue gas desulphurisation) on the emissions was studied. The effect of co-combustion of biomass and other secondary fuels is the main item for the last 10 years. Fifty-five elements were measured in the solid state and eight elements in the gaseous phase. It appeared that at low particulate concentration the influence of calcium containing evaporated water droplets downstream the wet FGD on the emissions of heavy metals is bigger than the composition of the coal. Also it appeared that at modern coal-fired power stations the emissions are hardly influenced by co-combustion of biomass. All the results are used for modelling, resulting in the KEMA TRACE MODEL ®, by which the emissions can be predicted. The established emission factors are for most elements in good agreement with literature values for comparable modern installations. Persistence organic pollutants (POPs) that were detected in the flue gases of coal-fired power stations are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and dioxins/furans. Measurements during full coal-firing and during co-firing of biomass have indicated that these emissions are negligible.

  1. Radioactive contamination of food chain around coal mine and coal-fired power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitorović Gordana S.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to investigate the impact of the coal mine in Lazarevac, and the coal-fired power stations in Obrenovac, on the activity concentrations of radionuclides 40K, 238U, 232Th, and 137Cs in some parts of human food chain of people living in the surrounding area. The obtained results showed that natural environment around the examined coal mine and the coal-fired power stations are not significantly affected by the emission of primordial radionuclides. The activity concentrations of 238U in the soil around the open coal mine and the coal processing installations (66.4-76.0 Bq/kg and in the soil around the coal-fired power stations (55.5-61.2 Bq/kg were not significantly higher than the average values in Serbia. The significant increase in the activity concentrations of natural radioisotopes in the samples of soil, vegetation, and animal products, was not confirmed. Food of animal origin used in human consumption is safe, i. e. not contaminated by radiation. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31003 i br. TR34013

  2. Technical Feasible Study for Future Solar Thermal Steam Power Station in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohari, Z. H.; Atira, N. N.; Jali, M. H.; Sulaima, M. F.; Izzuddin, T. A.; Baharom, M. F.

    2017-10-01

    This paper proposed renewable energy which is potential to be used in Malaysia in generating electricity to innovate and improve current operating systems. Thermal and water act as the resources to replace limited fossil fuels such as coal which is still widely used in energy production nowadays. Thermal is also known as the heat energy while the water absorbs energy from the thermal to produce steam energy. By combining both of the sources, it is known as thermal steam renewable energy. The targeted area to build this power station has constant high temperature and low humidity which can maximize the efficiency of generating power.

  3. Feasibility Study of a Solar-Powered Electric Vehicle Charging Station Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Ye

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In China, the power sector is currently the largest carbon emitter and the transportation sector is the fastest-growing carbon emitter. This paper proposes a model of solar-powered charging stations for electric vehicles to mitigate problems encountered in China’s renewable energy utilization processes and to cope with the increasing power demand by electric vehicles for the near future. This study applies the proposed model to Shenzhen City to verify its technical and economic feasibility. Modeling results showed that the total net present value of a photovoltaic power charging station that meets the daily electricity demand of 4500 kWh is $3,579,236 and that the cost of energy of the combined energy system is $0.098/kWh. In addition, the photovoltaic powered electric vehicle model has pollutant reduction potentials of 99.8%, 99.7% and 100% for carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides, respectively, compared with a traditional gasoline-fueled car. Sensitivity analysis results indicated that interest rate has a relatively strong influence on COE (Cost of Energy. An increase in the interest rate from 0% to 6% increases COE from $0.027/kWh to $0.097/kWh. This analysis also suggests that carbon pricing promotes renewable energy only when the price of carbon is above $20/t.

  4. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    OpenAIRE

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem; Baseem Khan

    2017-01-01

    There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs) uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV) solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station loca...

  5. Business Models for Solar Powered Charging Stations to Develop Infrastructure for Electric Vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Robinson

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Electric power must become less dependent on fossil fuels and transportation must become more electric to decrease carbon emissions and mitigate climate change. Increasing availability and accessibility of charging stations is predicted to increase purchases of electric vehicles. In order to address the current inadequate charging infrastructure for electric vehicles, major entities must adopt business models for solar powered charging stations (SPCS. These SPCS should be located in parking lots to produce electricity for the grid and provide an integrated infrastructure for charging electric vehicles. Due to the lack of information related to SPCS business models, this manuscript designs several models for major entities including industry, the federal and state government, utilities, universities, and public parking. A literature review of the available relevant business models and case studies of constructed charging stations was completed to support the proposals. In addition, a survey of a university’s students, staff, and faculty was conducted to provide consumer research on people’s opinion of SPCS construction and preference of business model aspects. Results showed that 69% of respondents would be more willing to invest in an electric vehicle if there was sufficient charging station infrastructure at the university. Among many recommendations, the business models suggest installing level 1 charging for the majority of entities, and to match entities’ current pricing structures for station use. The manuscript discusses the impacts of fossil fuel use, and the benefits of electric car and SPCS use, accommodates for the present gap in available literature on SPCS business models, and provides current consumer data for SPCS and the models proposed.

  6. Stability of large DC power systems using switching converters, with application to the international space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, B.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1996-01-01

    As space direct current (dc) power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When designing a large dc system using power converters of this type, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. In the design of the electric power system (EPS) of the International Space Station (ISS), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and its contractor team led by Boeing Defense & Space Group has placed a great deal of emphasis on designing for system and load stability. To achieve this goal, the team has expended considerable effort deriving a dear concept on defining system stability in both a general sense and specifically with respect to the space station. The ISS power system presents numerous challenges with respect to system stability, such as high power, complex sources and undefined loads. To complicate these issues, source and load components have been designed in parallel by three major subcontractors (Boeing, Rocketdyne, and McDonnell Douglas) with interfaces to both sources and loads being designed in different countries (Russia, Japan, Canada, Europe, etc.). These issues, coupled with the program goal of limiting costs, have proven a significant challenge to the program. As a result, the program has derived an impedance specification approach for system stability. This approach is based on the significant relationship between source and load impedances and the effect of this relationship on system stability. This approach is limited in its applicability by the theoretical and practical limits on component designs as presented by each system segment. As a result, the overall approach to system stability implemented by the ISS program consists of specific hardware requirements coupled with extensive system analysis and hardware testing. Following this approach, the ISS program plans to begin

  7. Simulations of thermal-hydraulic processes in heat exchangers- station of the cogeneration power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Studovic, M.; Stevanovic, V.; Ilic, M.; Nedeljkovic, S. [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering of Belgrade (Croatia)

    1995-12-31

    Design of the long district heating system to Belgrade (base load 580 MJ/s) from Thermal Power Station `Nikola Tesla A`, 30 km southwest from the present gas/oil burning boilers in New Belgrade, is being conducted. The mathematical model and computer code named TRP are developed for the prediction of the design basis parameters of heat exchangers station, as well as for selection of protection devices and formulation of operating procedures. Numerical simulations of heat exchangers station are performed for various transient conditions: up-set and abnormal. Physical model of multi-pass, shell and tube heat exchanger in the station represented is by unique steam volume, and with space discretised nodes both for water volume and tube walls. Heat transfer regimes on steam and water side, as well as hydraulic calculation were performed in accordance with TEMA standards for transient conditions on both sides, and for each node on water side. Mathematical model is based on balance equations: mass and energy for lumped parameters on steam side, and energy balances for tube walls and water in each node. Water mass balance is taken as boundary/initial condition or as specified control function. The physical model is proposed for (s) heat exchangers in the station and (n) water and wall volumes. Therefore, the mathematical model consists of 2ns+2, non-linear differential equations, including equations of state for water, steam and tube material, and constitutive equations for heat transfer on steam and water side, solved by the Runge-Kutt method. Five scenarios of heat exchangers station behavior have been simulated with the TRP code and obtained results are presented. (author)

  8. Power-law load dependence of atomic friction

    OpenAIRE

    Fusco, C.; Fasolino, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a theoretical study of the dynamics of a tip scanning a graphite surface as a function of the applied load. From the analysis of the lateral forces, we extract the friction force and the corrugation of the effective tip-surface interaction potential. We find both the friction force and potential amplitude to have a power-law dependence on applied load with exponent similar to1.6. We interpret these results as characteristic of sharp undeformable tips in contrast to the case of macr...

  9. A Circuit to Improve Power Amplitude Stability in Miniature Rubidium Atomic Frequency Standard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Qi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The radiofrequency circuit of traditional miniature rubidium atomic frequency standard (RAFS uses saturated output, which can stabilize the amplitude, but not the waveform, of the radiofrequency signal. This would lead to insufficient microwave power stability. In this study, an improved circuit for stabilizing power amplitude in miniature rubidium atomic frequency standard was described. The circuit took the bias voltage of step recovery diode (SRD as a reference to achieve automatic gain control (AGC through controlling the gain of the variable gain amplifier (VGA. This scheme controlled both the amplitude and the waveform of the radiofrequency signal. The results showed that this scheme can effectively improve power stability of the microwave signal in miniature rubidium atomic frequency standard.

  10. Water chemistry of the secondary circuit at a nuclear power station with a VVER power reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyapkov, V. F.; Erpyleva, S. F.

    2017-05-01

    Results of implementation of the secondary circuit organic amine water chemistry at Russian nuclear power plant (NPP) with VVER-1000 reactors are presented. The requirements for improving the reliability, safety, and efficiency of NPPs and for prolonging the service life of main equipment items necessitate the implementation of new technologies, such as new water chemistries. Data are analyzed on the chemical control of power unit coolant for quality after the changeover to operation with the feed of higher amines, such as morpholine and ethanolamine. Power units having equipment containing copper alloy components were converted from the all-volatile water chemistry to the ethanolamine or morpholine water chemistry with no increase in pH of the steam generator feedwater. This enables the iron content in the steam generator feedwater to be decreased from 6-12 to 2.0-2.5 μg/dm3. It is demonstrated that pH of high-temperature water is among the basic factors controlling erosion and corrosion wear of the piping and the ingress of corrosion products into NPP steam generators. For NPP power units having equipment whose construction material does not include copper alloys, the water chemistries with elevated pH of the secondary coolant are adopted. Stable dosing of correction chemicals at these power units maintains pH25 of 9.5 to 9.7 in the steam generator feedwater with a maximum iron content of 2 μg/dm3 in the steam generator feedwater.

  11. System studies of coal fired-closed cycle MHD for central station power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zauderer, B.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the closed-cycle MHD results obtained in a recent study of various advanced energy-conversion power systems. The direct coal-fired MHD topping-steam bottoming cycle was established as the current choice for central station power generation. Emphasis is placed on the background assumptions and the conclusions that can be drawn from the closed-cycle MHD analysis. It is concluded that closed-cycle MHD has efficiencies comparable to that of open-cycle MHD. Its cost will possibly be slightly higher than that of the open-cycle MHD system. Also, with reasonable fuel escalation assumptions, both systems can produce lower-cost electricity than conventional steam power plants. Suggestions for further work in closed-cycle MHD components and systems are made.

  12. A study of some features of ac and dc electric power systems for a space station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanania, J. I.

    1983-01-01

    This study analyzes certain selected topics in rival dc and high frequency ac electric power systems for a Space Station. The interaction between the Space Station and the plasma environment is analyzed, leading to a limit on the voltage for the solar array and a potential problem with resonance coupling at high frequencies. Certain problems are pointed out in the concept of a rotary transformer, and further development work is indicated in connection with dc circuit switching, special design of a transmission conductor for the ac system, and electric motors. The question of electric shock hazards, particularly at high frequency, is also explored. and a problem with reduced skin resistance and therefore increased hazard with high frequency ac is pointed out. The study concludes with a comparison of the main advantages and disadvantages of the two rival systems, and it is suggested that the choice between the two should be made after further studies and development work are completed.

  13. Program for the thermal design and simulation of the operation of a steam condenser for thermal and nuclear power stations and its application to the condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia Bartual, R.; Pallares Huici, E.

    A program is being developed for an IBM-PC or AT computer based on a calculation system which synthesises the heat transfer process which takes place in the steam condensors at conventional thermal power stations. The program incorporates a useful tool capable of representing characteristic operating curves for a given condensor. Describes its application to the steam condenser at the Cofrentes nuclear power station. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. 78 FR 33091 - Limitations on the Filing and Processing of Full Power and Class A Television Station...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-03

    ... 69933 (Nov. 21, 2012),\\2\\ Class A minor change applications to implement the digital transition (flash cut and digital companion channel) may continue to be filed and will be processed subject to the... 73.622(e)(1) (defining ``service area'' of a full power TV broadcast station). As to Class A stations...

  15. Space solar power stations. Problems of energy generation and using its on the earth surface and nearest cosmos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkevich, OA; Gerasimov, DN; Glazkov, VV

    2017-11-01

    Three important physical and technical problems for solar power stations (SPS) are considered: collection of solar energy and effective conversion of this energy to electricity in space power stations, energy transportation by the microwave beam to the Earth surface and direct utilization of the microwave beam energy for global environmental problems. Effectiveness of solar energy conversion into electricity in space power stations using gas and steam turbines plants, and magneto-hydrodynamic generator (MHDG) are analyzed. The closed cycle MHDG working on non–equilibrium magnetized plasmas of inert gases seeded with the alkaline metal vapors are considered. The special emphases are placed on MHDG and gas-turbine installations that are operating without compressor. Also opportunities for using the produced by space power stations energy for ecological needs on Earth and in Space are discussed.

  16. Sustainable Development Commission Scotland response to the Scottish Government 'Consultation on the consenting process for thermal power stations in Scotland'

    OpenAIRE

    Sustainable Development Commission Scotland

    2009-01-01

    This document is the response of the Sustainable Development Commission Scotland to the Scottish Government’s 'Consultation on the consenting process for thermal power stations in Scotland' Publisher PDF

  17. Performance Analyses of Renewable and Fuel Power Supply Systems for Different Base Station Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Lorincz

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Base station sites (BSSs powered with renewable energy sources have gained the attention of cellular operators during the last few years. This is because such “green” BSSs impose significant reductions in the operational expenditures (OPEX of telecom operators due to the possibility of on-site renewable energy harvesting. In this paper, the green BSSs power supply system parameters detected through remote and centralized real time sensing are presented. An implemented sensing system based on a wireless sensor network enables reliable collection and post-processing analyses of many parameters, such as: total charging/discharging current of power supply system, battery voltage and temperature, wind speed, etc. As an example, yearly sensing results for three different BSS configurations powered by solar and/or wind energy are discussed in terms of renewable energy supply (RES system performance. In the case of powering those BSS with standalone systems based on a fuel generator, the fuel consumption models expressing interdependence among the generator load and fuel consumption are proposed. This has allowed energy-efficiency comparison of the fuel powered and RES systems, which is presented in terms of the OPEX and carbon dioxide (CO2 reductions. Additionally, approaches based on different BSS air-conditioning systems and the on/off regulation of a daily fuel generator activity are proposed and validated in terms of energy and capital expenditure (CAPEX savings.

  18. Reliability measurement for mixed mode failures of 33/11 kilovolt electric power distribution stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwan, Faris M; Baharum, Adam; Hassan, Geehan S

    2013-01-01

    The reliability of the electrical distribution system is a contemporary research field due to diverse applications of electricity in everyday life and diverse industries. However a few research papers exist in literature. This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the reliability of 33/11 Kilovolt high-power stations based on average time between failures. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal fit for the failure data via time between failures. We determine the parameter estimation for all components of the station. We also estimate the reliability value of each component and the reliability value of the system as a whole. The best fitting distribution for the time between failures is a three parameter Dagum distribution with a scale parameter [Formula: see text] and shape parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Our analysis reveals that the reliability value decreased by 38.2% in each 30 days. We believe that the current paper is the first to address this issue and its analysis. Thus, the results obtained in this research reflect its originality. We also suggest the practicality of using these results for power systems for both the maintenance of power systems models and preventive maintenance models.

  19. Reliability measurement for mixed mode failures of 33/11 kilovolt electric power distribution stations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faris M Alwan

    Full Text Available The reliability of the electrical distribution system is a contemporary research field due to diverse applications of electricity in everyday life and diverse industries. However a few research papers exist in literature. This paper proposes a methodology for assessing the reliability of 33/11 Kilovolt high-power stations based on average time between failures. The objective of this paper is to find the optimal fit for the failure data via time between failures. We determine the parameter estimation for all components of the station. We also estimate the reliability value of each component and the reliability value of the system as a whole. The best fitting distribution for the time between failures is a three parameter Dagum distribution with a scale parameter [Formula: see text] and shape parameters [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text]. Our analysis reveals that the reliability value decreased by 38.2% in each 30 days. We believe that the current paper is the first to address this issue and its analysis. Thus, the results obtained in this research reflect its originality. We also suggest the practicality of using these results for power systems for both the maintenance of power systems models and preventive maintenance models.

  20. Improving the efficiency of fine coal grinding circuits - Tarong Power Station sitework

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can Ozer; Frank Shi; Bill Whiten [JKMRC (Australia)

    2009-03-15

    The objective of the research is to improve the efficiency of power station fine coal grinding circuits through the application of modelling and simulation technology. The overall project is expected to complete in 3.5 years as a PhD study program. ACARP funded the first two years (Project C15079) related to the site work conducted at Tarong Power Station, the results of which are presented in this report. A new sampling technique has been developed to collect samples from a fully enclosed vertical spindle ball-race mill and air classifier system and that around the milling circuit. This is crucial in providing reliable data of various streams in the system for model development. Seven surveys on the full scale fine coal grinding operation were conducted at Tarong Power Station using this sampling technique. Extensive sample processing work has been completed. This included size analysis of 217 samples, float-sink tests on 255 samples, and ash content determination on 461 samples. A new float-sink testing technique was developed to process the fine coal samples. Preliminary breakage characterisation using HGI (Hardgrove Grindability Index) tests, DWT (Drop Weight Tester) on single coal particle, and DWT on coal beds of four coal samples was conducted at the JKMRC. This report covers the details of the sampling technique, plant surveys, and preliminary coal breakage characterisation. The observed trends of size distributions, the washability curves, the density - size relation, the density - ash content - size relation, and the correlation among the three breakage characterisation methods are presented and discussed.

  1. Assessment of spatial variation of ambient volatile organic compound levels at a power station in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Ashraf

    2017-11-01

    Twenty-four-hour integrated ambient air samples were collected in canisters at 10 locations within Kuwait's major power station: Doha West Power Station to assess the spatial distribution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) within the perimeter of the station. A total of 30 samples, i.e., three samples per location, were collected during February and March. The samples were analyzed using a gas chromatography with flame ionization detection (GC-FID) system and following the U.S. EPA Method TO-14A with modification. The results reflected the emission activities on the site and the meteorological conditions during sampling. Generally speaking, there was a negative correlation between the ambient temperature and the VOC concentrations, which indicates the sources were local. The halogenated compounds formed the highest proportion (i.e. 50-75 %) of the total VOC concentrations at the ten locations. 1,2,4-Trichlorobenzene and Vinyl Chloride concentrations were the highest amongst the other halogenated compounds. The aromatic compounds formed the least proportion (i.e. 1-4%) of the total VOC levels at all locations with Toluene having the highest concentrations amongst the aromatic compounds at seven locations. Propene, which is a major constituent of the fuel used, was the highest amongst the aliphatic compounds. The findings of this study and other relevant work suggests the measured VOC levels were the highest over the year, nevertheless, further work is required to assess the precisely temporal variation of VOC due to change in meteorological conditions and the emission rates. Assessment of VOC concentrations around a power plant in Kuwait during the peak season showed halogenated compounds to be the dominant group. The calculated indoor concentrations were lower than those reported in a residential area about 12 km away.

  2. POLLUTANT EMISSION TO THE ATMOSPHERE AND HIGH-TECHNOLOGY ON THE EX AMPLE OF JAWORZNO III POWER STATION IN JAWORZNO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Wierzbińska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper technologies of pollution elimination from waste gases in Jaworzno Power Station III are presented. Mixture of coal and biomass (9:1 is combusted there. In waste gases there are dust and gaseous pollutants which are eliminated using high-technology filters and technologies of desulfurization, NOx elimination and deslagging. Changes in pollution quantities before and after Power Station modernization are presented on graphs.

  3. Mercury emissions from South Africa’s coal-fired power stations

    OpenAIRE

    Belinda L. Garnham; Kristy E. Langerman

    2016-01-01

    Mercury is a persistent and toxic substance that can be bio-accumulated in the food chain. Natural and anthropogenic sources contribute to the mercury emitted in the atmosphere. Eskom’s coal-fired power stations in South Africa contributed just under 93% of the total electricity produced in 2015 (Eskom 2016). Trace amounts of mercury can be found in coal, mostly combined with sulphur, and can be released into the atmosphere upon combustion. Coal-fired electricity generation plants are the hig...

  4. Investigation on Main Radiation Source at Operation Floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirayama, Hideo; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Seishiro; Hamamoto, Shimpei; Iwanaga, Kohei

    2017-09-01

    Pulse height distributions were measured using a LaBr3 detector set in a 1 cm lead collimator to investigate main radiation source at the operation floor of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Unit 4. It was confirmed that main radiation source above the reactor well was Co-60 from the activated steam dryer in the DS pool (Dryer-Separator pool) and that at the standby area was Cs-134 and Cs-137 from contaminated buildings and debris at the lower floor. Full energy peak count rate of Co-60 was reduced about 1/3 by 12mm lead sheet placed on the floor of the fuel handling machine.

  5. Impact of selected parameters on the behaviour of mercury in pulverised coal-fired power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorwarth, Harald [EnBW Kraftwerke AG, Stuttgart (DE). Process Engineering Operation and Maintenance Services (TQT)

    2010-07-01

    At coal-fired thermal power stations fuel is fed to the system. With the fuel organic but also inorganic substances and trace elements like mercury are fed to the process, too. Mercury can leave the system with the bottom ash or fly ash, with gypsum or waste-water via the flue gas desulphurisation plant or with the clean gas through the stack. The behaviour of mercury in the system is influenced by a number of different parameters, the meaning and influence of which are being presented and discussed. (orig.)

  6. Selection of alternative central-station technologies for the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsa, M.

    1980-01-01

    An important effort is the Satellite Power System (SPS) comparative Assessment is the selection and characterization of alternative technologies to be compared with the SPS concept. The ground rules, criteria, and screening procedure applied in the selection of those alternative technologies are summarized. The final set of central station alternatives selected for comparison with the SPS concept includes: (1) light water reactor with improved fuel utilization, (2) conventional coal combustion with improved environmental controls, (3) open cycle gas turbine with integral low Btu gasifier, (4) terrestrial photovoltaic, (5) liquid metal fast breeder reactor, and (6) magnetic confinement fusion.

  7. Modern power station practice mechanical boilers, fuel-, and ash-handling plant

    CERN Document Server

    Sherry, A; Cruddace, AE

    2014-01-01

    Modern Power Station Practice, Second Edition, Volume 2: Mechanical (Boilers, Fuel-, and Ash-Handling Plant) focuses on the design, manufacture and operation of boiler units and fuel-and ash-handling plants.This book is organized into five main topics-furnace and combustion equipment, steam and water circuits, ancillary plant and fittings, dust extraction and draught plant, and fuel-and ash-handling plant.In these topics, this text specifically discusses the influence of nature of coal on choice of firing equipment; oil-burner arrangements, ignition and control; disposition of the heating surf

  8. Component monitoring during operation in nuclear power stations. Betriebsbegleitende Bauteilueberwachung in Kernkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacher, H. (Technischer Ueberwachungs-Verein Bayern e.V., Muenchen (Germany, F.R.))

    1990-09-01

    In the design of nuclear power stations all stresses on the pressure-bearing enclosure in respect of their effect on component strength and integrity are investigated. In addition, local and global monitoring during operation is carried out, in order to detect also those stresses which have been hitherto unknown or are caused by malfunctions of components. In this way a realistic assessment of the condition of the pressure-bearing enclosure is possible and any irregularities which can imply malfunctions of components or physical effects not hitherto known can be detected early. (orig.).

  9. The closure of Trawsfynydd power station - effects on staff and the local community and identifying a strategy for decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, J.M.; Ellis, A.T.; Williams, T.W. [Nuclear Electric plc, Barnwood (United Kingdom)

    1995-12-31

    The decision to close Trawsfynydd power station had implications for staff and the local community. It was necessary to take immediate steps to prepare for decommissioning the station and to devise an appropriate staff structure. At the same time, there was also a need for Nuclear Electric to adopt a clear and well defined decommissioning strategy. As the station is located within a National Park, as local employment opportunities are very limited and as the nuclear industry was approaching a Government Review, Nuclear Electric took steps to consult the staff and the local public on the options for decommissioning the station. This consultation influenced the decommissioning strategy chosen for Trawsfynydd. (Author).

  10. The counter effects of the accident at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Kenta

    2017-01-01

    The counter effects of the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station are discussed in this paper. Though decommission and remediation have been conducted in the facility and surrounding area, ninety thousand residences near the facility are still under the evacuation order. Four nuclear power units have already restarted under the new regulatory framework, but two of them in Fukui prefecture stop the operation due to the provisional disposition declared by Ohtsu district court in Shiga prefecture. Reinforcement of the latter layer of the defense in depth has been improved in many ways. The improvement of decision-making process is very important in latter layers of the defense in depth, in contrast the plant behaviors are automatically decided based on their design in the prior layers.

  11. Low speed permanent magnet synchronous generators for wind power stations: comparative analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khrisanov, V.I.; Szymczak, P.; Kaminski, W. [Szczecin Univ. of Tech., Inst. of Electrical Engineering, Szczecin (Poland)

    2005-07-01

    The paper is dedicated the problem of gearless turbine - generator module on the base of permanent magnet synchronous machines (PMSM). The concrete goal of the paper is the presentation of an engineering method for comparative analysis of two types of PMSM: with cylindrical (radial magnetic flux) and disk (axial magnetic flux) designs intended for wind power stations. The latter type fits to a greatest extent for designing multi pole low speed generators connected directly to turbines. The suggested method is based on the sizing equation when only one but fundamental criterion - torque (power) density is used. It differs from before published papers by the simplicity, a short time of calculation and treatment. New approach derives from the comparison of geometrical dimensions of machines at the similar electromagnetic loads so it may be called as ''geometrical'' and distinct from analytical and digital methods, suggested rather for theoretical and comprehensive than engineering analysis. (orig.)

  12. Optimization Study of Shaft Tubular Turbine in a Bidirectional Tidal Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinfeng Ge

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The shaft tubular turbine is a form of tidal power station which can provide bidirectional power. Efficiency is an important turbine performance indicator. To study the influence of runner design parameters on efficiency, a complete 3D flow-channel model of a shaft tubular turbine was developed, which contains the turbine runner, guide vanes, and flow passage and was integrated with hybrid grids calculated by steady-state calculation methods. Three aspects of the core component (turbine runner were optimized by numerical simulation. All the results were then verified by experiments. It was shown that curved-edge blades are much better than straight-edge blades; the optimal blade twist angle is 7°, and the optimal distance between the runner and the blades is 0.75–1.25 times the diameter of the runner. Moreover, the numerical simulation results matched the experimental data very well, which also verified the correctness of the optimal results.

  13. Detailed conceptual designs and economic analyses of a reference Photovoltaic Central Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, D. J.; Heller, B. W.; Stephenson, J. E.

    Detailed conceptual designs and economic analyses of a reference 100MWe Photovoltaic Central Power Station (PV CPS) have been completed. Both flat plate dendritic WEB and point focus fresnel concentrator (100X concentration) arrays were used to develop two individual central station reference designs. Design requirements, detailed drawings and system, subsystem and component specifications form the basis for a plant construction cost estimate. The flat plate array PV CPS costs range from $179M to $483M (1982 U.S. Dollars) for array costs ranging from $1/Wp to $3.50/Wp and power conditioning unit (PCU) costs from $.05/Wp to $.50/Wp. Similar costs for the concentrator PV CPS range from $201M to $505M, respectively. Using representative utility financial parameters, in-house economic models, and a plant performance estimate, levelized busbar energy costs (BBEC) are derived for both flat plate and concentrator designs. BBEC range from $.15/kWh to $.41/kWh for the flat plate PV CPS from $.15/kWh to $.37/kWh for the concentrator PV CPS.

  14. Prefeasibility Study of a Solar Power Plant Project and Optimization of a Meteorological Station Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Derouich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A prefeasibility study of a solar power plant project was carried out in order to study and search the best location to install a concentrated solar power plant according to a tender with the Algerian electricity company “SPE” following a specific criteria and methodology in order to obtain a site with a maximum possible irradiation along with other economic constraints. Normally, eleven years of solar irradiation data from an on-ground weather station is needed for site assessment, such data are not available, hence the typical meteorological year irradiation based on satellite imagery results is needed in order to have the accurate value, therefore we can give the right evaluation for the site candidate. Additionally, an analysis of a weather measurement station was carried out to ensure the proper functioning of the weather data reception and analysis processes, and thus to optimize the algorithm of a data logger in order to get the right measurement with a minimum error. The correction algorithm was developed by weather scientists and was added to the data logger main program.

  15. Differential permeability behaviour of P9 and T22 power station Steels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimian, N.; Wilson, J. W.; Peyton, A. J.; Yin, W.; Liu, J.; Davis, C. L.

    2014-02-01

    Analysis of the electromagnetic (EM) properties of power station steels, measured using a non-contact magnetic sensor, is of significance as such properties are indicative of the microstructure of the material and can be potentially exploited for non-destructive testing. In this paper, we present EM measurements of cylindrical power station steel samples (P9 and T22 grades) with different microstructures: normalised and tempered (representative of the initial condition), as normalised and after service exposure. In order to obtain the magnetic properties the B-H curves of these samples were measured. Cylindrical air-cored and printed circuit board (PCB) coil integrated sensors were used to measure the incremental permeability. Analytical and numerical methods (Finite Elements Methods) were employed to calculate the sensor response of these samples. The electromagnetic properties of the different steels were inferred by fitting the finite element models to the measured results. In addition, sensitivity and error analysis were carried out to evaluate the accuracy of the method.

  16. The EURISOL Multi Megawatt Target Station, a liquid metal target for a High Power spallation source.

    CERN Document Server

    Kharoua, C; Blumenfeld, L; Milenkovich, R; Wagner, W; Thomsen, K; Dementjevs, S; Platacis, E; Kravalis, K; Zik, A

    The European Isotope Separation On-Line Radioactive Ion Beam Facility (EURISOL) is set to be the ‘next-generation’ European Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) facility. It will extend and amplify current research in nuclear physics, nuclear astrophysics and fundamental interactions beyond the year 2013.In EURISOL, four target stations are foreseen, three direct targets of approximately 100 kW of beam power and one multi-MW liquid metal proton-to-neutron converter, all driven by a high-power particle accelerator. In the aforementioned multi-MW target assembly, high-intensity RIBs of neutron-rich isotopes will be obtained by inducing fission in several actinide targets surrounding a liquid metal spallation neutron source.This presentation summarises the work carried out for the Multi Megawatt target station of the EURISOL Design Study with particular attention to the coupled neutronic of the liquid converter and the overall performance of the facility, which will sustain fast neutr...

  17. A feasibility assessment of nuclear reactor power system concepts for the NASA Growth Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomfield, H. S.; Heller, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    A preliminary feasibility assessment of the integration of reactor power system concepts with a projected growth Space Station architecture was conducted to address a variety of installation, operational, disposition and safety issues. A previous NASA sponsored study, which showed the advantages of Space Station - attached concepts, served as the basis for this study. A study methodology was defined and implemented to assess compatible combinations of reactor power installation concepts, disposal destinations, and propulsion methods. Three installation concepts that met a set of integration criteria were characterized from a configuration and operational viewpoint, with end-of-life disposal mass identified. Disposal destinations that met current aerospace nuclear safety criteria were identified and characterized from an operational and energy requirements viewpoint, with delta-V energy requirement as a key parameter. Chemical propulsion methods that met current and near-term application criteria were identified and payload mass and delta-V capabilities were characterized. These capabilities were matched against concept disposal mass and destination delta-V requirements to provide a feasibility of each combination.

  18. Year Round Operation of Autonomous, Low Power Geophysical Stations in Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaudoin, B. C.; White, S.; Bonnett, B.; Parker, T.; Johns, B.; Anderson, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Year round operation of autonomous, low power geophysical stations in Antarctica presents both technical and logistical challenges. Prior to 2005, few if any autonomous seismic or GPS stations operated continuously throughout the austral winter. There are two basic environmental challenges in Antarctica beyond the logistical challenge: the margins with relatively mild temperatures but extreme winds and the Polar Plateau with extreme temperatures but relatively little wind. Large caches of lead-acid batteries can operate stations on the Antarctic margins where temperatures are relatively high, but are logistically expensive and will not survive the extreme temperatures of the Polar Plateau. Primary lithium thionyl chloride batteries have been proven to be successful and economical for use in the extreme plateau environment. These technical and logistical challenges were the focus of an IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration to design power and communications for a logistical constrains for increased efficiency in polar operations. These year-round systems can now be deployed in a single twin otter flight. The IRIS/PASSCAL-UNAVCO collaboration has resulted in deployable systems backed by facilities with proven track records of longevity of technical field support. Our expertise and sustained engineering has resulted in a robust community product. We have significantly lowered the barriers of entry to scientists who desire year-round autonomous data collection in the Polar regions. A transparent development process with broad community support and input has resulted in a new generation of GPS and seismic systems fielded on several major IPY projects. The challenge now is how to keep the development and testing effort sustained to take advantage of the evolving renewable energy research.

  19. Artificial neural network application for space station power system fault diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momoh, James A.; Oliver, Walter E.; Dias, Lakshman G.

    1995-01-01

    This study presents a methodology for fault diagnosis using a Two-Stage Artificial Neural Network Clustering Algorithm. Previously, SPICE models of a 5-bus DC power distribution system with assumed constant output power during contingencies from the DDCU were used to evaluate the ANN's fault diagnosis capabilities. This on-going study uses EMTP models of the components (distribution lines, SPDU, TPDU, loads) and power sources (DDCU) of Space Station Alpha's electrical Power Distribution System as a basis for the ANN fault diagnostic tool. The results from the two studies are contrasted. In the event of a major fault, ground controllers need the ability to identify the type of fault, isolate the fault to the orbital replaceable unit level and provide the necessary information for the power management expert system to optimally determine a degraded-mode load schedule. To accomplish these goals, the electrical power distribution system's architecture can be subdivided into three major classes: DC-DC converter to loads, DC Switching Unit (DCSU) to Main bus Switching Unit (MBSU), and Power Sources to DCSU. Each class which has its own electrical characteristics and operations, requires a unique fault analysis philosophy. This study identifies these philosophies as Riddles 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The results of the on-going study addresses Riddle-1. It is concluded in this study that the combination of the EMTP models of the DDCU, distribution cables and electrical loads yields a more accurate model of the behavior and in addition yielded more accurate fault diagnosis using ANN versus the results obtained with the SPICE models.

  20. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controls the electrons around it, and like a strong spring pushes other nuclei away. Later experiments ... 6Cl 2, because its mass number (A) = 12 and its nucleus contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons. However, ... gamma-radiation. Enrico Fermi, the Italian physicist made impor- tant contributions here. It occurred to him to use.

  1. Ground state atomic oxygen in high-power impulse magnetron sputtering: a quantitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britun, Nikolay; Belosludtsev, Alexandr; Silva, Tiago; Snyders, Rony

    2017-02-01

    The ground state density of oxygen atoms in reactive high-power impulse magnetron sputtering discharges has been studied quantitatively. Both time-resolved and space-resolved measurements were conducted. The measurements were performed using two-photon absorption laser-induced fluorescence (TALIF), and calibrated by optical emission actinometry with multiple Ar emission lines. The results clarify the dynamics of the O ground state atoms in the discharge afterglow significantly, including their propagation and fast decay after the plasma pulse, as well as the influence of gas pressure, O2 admixture, etc.

  2. Development of a Power Electronics Unit for the Space Station Plasma Contactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamley, John A.; Hill, Gerald M.; Patterson, Michael J.; Saggio, Joseph, Jr.; Terdan, Fred; Mansell, Justin D.

    1994-01-01

    A hollow cathode plasma contactor has been baselined as a charge control device for the Space Station (SS) to prevent deleterious interactions of coated structural components with the ambient plasma. NASA LeRC Work Package 4 initiated the development of a plasma contactor system comprised of a Power Electronics Unit (PEU), an Expellant Management Unit (EMU), a command and data interface, and a Plasma Contactor Unit (PCU). A breadboard PEU was designed and fabricated. The breadboard PEU contains a cathode heater and discharge power supply, which were required to operate the PCU, a control and auxiliary power converter, an EMU interface, a command and telemetry interface, and a controller. The cathode heater and discharge supplies utilized a push-pull topology with a switching frequency of 20 kHz and pulse-width-modulated (PWM) control. A pulse ignition circuit derived from that used in arcjet power processors was incorporated in the discharge supply for discharge ignition. An 8088 based microcontroller was utilized in the breadboard model to provide a flexible platform for controller development with a simple command/data interface incorporating a direct connection to SS Mulitplexer/Demultiplexer (MDM) analog and digital I/O cards. Incorporating this in the flight model would eliminate the hardware and software overhead associated with a 1553 serial interface. The PEU autonomously operated the plasma contactor based on command inputs and was successfully integrated with a prototype plasma contactor unit demonstrating reliable ignition of the discharge and steady-state operation.

  3. The micro power station of Verbois; Ouvrage Micro-centrale de Verbois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quercia, P.; Martinez, J.-L. [Services industriels de Geneve, Service de l' electricite, Geneva (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    The policy of the public utilities of the City of Geneva includes the promotion of renewable energy and the conservation of the environment. The erection of the most important hydroelectric power plant in the canton of Geneva at Verbois, on the Rhone River dates back to the years 1938 to 1944. Several retrofits have been made since then, the last dating from 1996 to 1998. In 2000, due to ecological considerations, a fish ladder was added, resulting in a loss of generated power equivalent to a water flow of 2 m{sup 3}/s at a height of 18.35 meters. In order to compensate for this energy loss, a micro hydropower station with a maximum output power of 316 kW was added. It is fitted with a Francis turbine with horizontal axis and fixed opening; the rotation speed is 605 rpm. A reduced power output could be traced back to the deposition of solids on the grids upstream of the water supply duct. The necessary modifications are discussed.

  4. Models for the transient stability of conventional power generating stations connected to low inertia systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarifakis, Marios; Coffey, William T.; Kalmykov, Yuri P.; Titov, Sergei V.

    2017-06-01

    An ever-increasing requirement to integrate greater amounts of electrical energy from renewable sources especially from wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations exists and recent experience in the island of Ireland demonstrates that this requirement influences the behaviour of conventional generating stations. One observation is the change in the electrical power output of synchronous generators following a transient disturbance especially their oscillatory behaviour accompanied by similar oscillatory behaviour of the grid frequency, both becoming more pronounced with reducing grid inertia. This behaviour cannot be reproduced with existing mathematical models indicating that an understanding of the behaviour of synchronous generators, subjected to various disturbances especially in a system with low inertia requires a new modelling technique. Thus two models of a generating station based on a double pendulum described by a system of coupled nonlinear differential equations and suitable for analysis of its stability corresponding to infinite or finite grid inertia are presented. Formal analytic solutions of the equations of motion are given and compared with numerical solutions. In particular the new finite grid model will allow one to identify limitations to the operational range of the synchronous generators used in conventional power generation and also to identify limits, such as the allowable Rate of Change of Frequency which is currently set to ± 0.5 Hz/s and is a major factor in describing the volatility of a grid as well as identifying requirements to the total inertia necessary, which is currently provided by conventional power generators only, thus allowing one to maximise the usage of grid connected non-synchronous generators, e.g., wind turbines and solar photo-voltaic installations.

  5. Externality costs of the coal-fuel cycle: The case of Kusile Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonophile P. Nkambule

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Coal-based electricity is an integral part of daily life in South Africa and globally. However, the use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. We developed a model based on a system dynamics approach for understanding the measurable and quantifiable coal-fuel cycle burdens and externality costs, over the lifespan of a supercritical coal-fired power station that is fitted with a flue-gas desulfurisation device (i.e. Kusile Power Station. The total coal-fuel cycle externality cost on both the environment and humans over Kusile's lifespan was estimated at ZAR1 449.9 billion to ZAR3 279 billion or 91c/kWh to 205c/kWh sent out (baseline: ZAR2 172.7 billion or 136c/kWh. Accounting for the life-cycle burdens and damages of coal-derived electricity conservatively, doubles to quadruples the price of electricity, making renewable energy sources such as wind and solar attractive alternatives. Significance: The use of coal for electricity generation carries a heavy cost for social and ecological systems that goes far beyond the price we pay for electricity. The estimation of social costs is particularly important to the electric sector because of non-differentiation of electricity prices produced from a variety of sources with potentially very dissimilar environmental and human health costs. Because all electricity generation technologies are associated with undesirable side effects in their fuelcycle and lifespan, comprehensive comparative analyses of life-cycle costs of all power generation technologies is indispensable to guide the development of future energy policies in South Africa.

  6. 47 CFR 74.789 - Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low... AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES Low Power TV, TV Translator, and TV Booster Stations § 74.789 Broadcast regulations applicable to digital low power television and television translator...

  7. 78 FR 11904 - Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Zion Nuclear Power Station, Units 1 and 2; ZionSolutions, LLC; Consideration of Indirect Transfer... the indirect transfer of Facility Operating License Nos. DPR-39 and DPR-48 for Zion Nuclear Power...

  8. Modern concepts of thermodynamic optimization in Mexican thermoelectric power stations; Conceptos modernos de optimacion termodinamica en centrales termoelectricas mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervantes de Gortari, J.; Vidal Santo, A.; Mendez Lavielle, F.; Bautista Godinez, O. [Facultad de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2002-03-01

    In this paper, a summary review of the current thermodynamic concepts to the maximum power generation and minimum entropy production are presented. The results of the analysis are considered in Mexican power stations using conventional cycles and are compared with other power stations around the world. [Spanish] En este trabajo se revisa el analisis de maxima generacion de potencia que implica la minimizacion de la produccion de entropia en centrales generadoras de potencia, de acuerdo con los lineamientos mas recientes publicados en la literatura. Los conceptos y resultados del analisis se aplican a varias centrales mexicanas y se comparan con otras centrales en el mundo.

  9. 75 FR 76495 - Virginia Electric and Power Company North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2 Surry Power...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-08

    ... Evaluation of Radiological Emergency Response Plan and Preparedness in Support of Nuclear Power Plants,'' to... members of the public. No changes will be made to plant buildings or the site property. Therefore, no... Renewal of Nuclear Plants: Supplements 6 and 7 Regarding Surry and NAPS--Final Report (NUREG-1437...

  10. Characterization of ash cenospheres in fly ash from Australian power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling-ngee Ngu; Hongwei Wu; Dong-ke Zhang [Curtin University of Technology, Perth, WA (Australia). Centre for Fuels and Energy and Department of Chemical Engineering

    2007-12-15

    Ash cenospheres in fly ashes from five Australian power stations have been characterized. The experimental data show that ash cenosphere yield varies across the power stations. Ash partitioning occurred in the process of ash cenosphere formation during combustion. Contradictory to conclusions from the literature, iron does not seem to be essential to ash cenosphere formation in the cases examined in the present work. Further investigation was also undertaken on a series of size-fractioned ash cenosphere samples from Tarong power station. It is found that about 70 wt% of ash cenospheres in the bulk sample have sizes between 45 and 150 {mu}m. There are two different ash cenosphere structures, that is, single-ring structure and network structure. The percentage of ash cenospheres of a network structure increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. Small ash cenospheres (in the size fractions {lt}150 {mu}m) have a high SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and the majority of the ash cenospheres are spherical and of a single-ring structure. Large ash cenosphere particles (in the size fractions of 150-250 {mu}m and {gt}250 {mu}m) have a low SiO{sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} ratio, and a high proportion of the ash cenospheres are nonspherical and of a network structure. A novel quantitative technique has been developed to measure the diameter and wall thickness of ash cenospheres on a particle-to-particle basis. A monolayer of size-fractioned ash cenospheres was dispersed on a pellet, which was then polished carefully before being examined using a scanning electron microscope and image analysis. The ash cenosphere wall thickness broadly increases with increasing ash cenosphere size. The ratios between wall thickness and diameter of ash cenospheres are limited between an upper bound of about 10.5% and a lower bound of about 2.5%, irrespective of the ash cenosphere size. 52 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. LIGHTWEIGHT CONCRETES WITH FLY–ASH OF PRYDNIPROVSK THERMAL POWER STATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Netesa

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Determination of conformities to law of influence of expense of components of easy concretes, which turn out on the basis of local afterproducts of industry, on their basic properties under conditions of enhanceable efficiency of the use of cement. Methodology. Experimental studies on optimization of structures and properties of concrete were carried out with use of mathematical planning experiments methods. All experiments were carried out on orthogonal design with three variables. Cement, water and additives PLKP-2 consumption were taken as varied factors. Findings. Vast experimental studies on determination of rational compositions of concrete mixtures were conducted with the use as fillers of granulated slag from iron and steel plant named after Petrovskiy and Dnepr sand, as binding agent Krivoy Rog portland-cement II/B-Ш-400, as filler fly-ash of Pridneprovsk Thermal Power Station. Efficiency coefficient of cement use was adopted as basic criterion of concrete composition rationality, it is determined on the relation of the attained durability per unit weight of used cement. For greater efficiency coefficient of cement use regularity of rational grain composition of components previously obtained was adopted, it is provided at a ratio of a large fraction consumption to medium and small 52:23:25, and their sizes are approximately 100:10:1. Experimental studies with use of mathematical planning experiments method were carried out. By results of their processing isofields were constructed according to the strength and effectiveness of the use of cement ratio of the studied factors. Originality. By strength comparative tests of hardened concrete with various local secondary resources, modified with complex plasticizer PLKP-2 additive, it was found that lightweight concrete with the density of 1700…1800 kg/m3 and concrete compressive strength from 5 to 20 MPa on the basis of granulated slag from the iron and steel plant named after

  12. 76 FR 41532 - Yankee Atomic Electric Company, Yankee Nuclear Power Station (Yankee-Rowe); Notice of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-14

    ... submission form. In order to serve documents through EIE, users will be required to install a Web browser... installation of the Web browser plug-in, is available on the NRC's public Web site at http://www.nrc.gov/site... requested not to include personal privacy information, such as social security numbers, home addresses, or...

  13. 76 FR 48184 - Exelon Nuclear, Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Security...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... special nuclear material at fixed sites and in transit and of plants in which special nuclear material is... National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) for reprocessing was completed on February 17... transit, and records and reports, contained in these or other sections of Part 73 continue to apply. To...

  14. Engineering work for the Tachibana-Bay Thermal Power Station; Tachibana Wan Karyoku Hatsudensho no doboku koji

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onishi, M.; Tada, K. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-10-25

    The Tachibana-Bay Thermal Power Station is a coal-fired thermal power station of a generated output of 2.8 million kW (two 1.05 million kW plants of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. and one 0.7 million kW plant of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc.), constructed by the two companies jointly on Kokatsu-jima Island set in the Tachibana-Bay, in the southeastern part of Tokushima Prefecture, and this power station is scheduled to supply electric power to the western Japan in and after the year 2000. This paper introduces the outline of the plan of the Tachibana-Bay Thermal Power Station and the engineering work being carried out at present. The engineering work started after the preparatory work including the installation of pollution preventing screens was carried out since 1995. The engineering work includes the land developing work comprising the shore protection work, the quay building work, site preparing work and earth dump preparing work, and the construction of the cooling water intake/discharge facility and the coal unloading pier. This coal unloading pier is a berth for coal ships in 140,000-ton class, and has a straight pile type lateral pier structure using steel pipe piles of 1600 mm in maximum diameter. Two coal unloaders of a capacity of about 2700 t/h are scheduled to be installed on the pier. 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Study of mercury in by-products from a Dutch co-combustion power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rallo, Manuela; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Meij, Ruud; Perry, Ron; Maroto-Valer, M Mercedes

    2010-02-15

    Fly ashes and gypsum are one of the main wastes produced in coal-fired power stations which may be sent to landfills for their disposal. In this work, leaching and speciation of mercury in fly ashes and gypsum from a modern co-combustion power plant equipped with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) unit in the Netherlands were studied. The mercury leachable contents were checked against different regulations, including Dutch, German and the Council Directive 2003/33/EC. The speciation of mercury in coal combustion products is essential not only to determine the risk when the wastes are finally disposed but also to understand the behaviour of mercury during combustion and therefore to select the appropriate mercury removal technology. A temperature-programmed decomposition technique was used in order to identify and quantify which mercury species are associated with coal combustion products. The main mercury species identified in fly ash samples was mercury sulphate, whereas in the gypsum sample the mercury present was mercury chloride. The quantitative mercury results carried out using the thermal desorption method may be considered accurate. The results obtained show that fly ash and gypsum samples from this power plant can be acceptable at landfills as a non-hazardous waste.

  16. A fault diagnosis system for PV power station based on global partitioned gradually approximation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, X. N.; Gao, D. D.; Liu, H. X.; Ye, J.; Li, L. R.

    2016-08-01

    As the solar photovoltaic (PV) power is applied extensively, more attentions are paid to the maintenance and fault diagnosis of PV power plants. Based on analysis of the structure of PV power station, the global partitioned gradually approximation method is proposed as a fault diagnosis algorithm to determine and locate the fault of PV panels. The PV array is divided into 16x16 blocks and numbered. On the basis of modularly processing of the PV array, the current values of each block are analyzed. The mean current value of each block is used for calculating the fault weigh factor. The fault threshold is defined to determine the fault, and the shade is considered to reduce the probability of misjudgments. A fault diagnosis system is designed and implemented with LabVIEW. And it has some functions including the data realtime display, online check, statistics, real-time prediction and fault diagnosis. Through the data from PV plants, the algorithm is verified. The results show that the fault diagnosis results are accurate, and the system works well. The validity and the possibility of the system are verified by the results as well. The developed system will be benefit for the maintenance and management of large scale PV array.

  17. The Opportunity Analyses of Using Thermosyphons in Cooling Systems of Power Transformers on Thermal Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurpeiis Аtlant

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The opportunity analyses of using the thermosyphons as the main elements in the systems of thermal regime supplying has been conducted under the conditions of their usage in power transformers on thermal stations. Mathematical modeling of jointly proceeding processes of conduction, forced convection and phase transitions (evaporation and condensation of coolant in the thermosyphon of rectangular cross section has been carried out. The problem of conjugated conductive-convective heat transfer was formulated in dimensionless variables “vorticity/stream function/temperature” and solved by finite difference method. The effect of the heat flux density supplied to the bottom cover of the thermosyphon from a transformer tank on the temperature drop in the steam channel was shown based on the analysis of numerical simulation results (temperature fields and velocities of steam. The parameters of energy-saturated equipment of thermal stations were found to be controlled by an intensification of heat removal from the top cover surface of the thermosyphon.

  18. Hybrid wind-PV grid connected power station case study: Al Tafila, Jordan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Tous, Yousif [Department of Electrical Engineering/Faculty of Engineering Technology/ Al-Balqa' Applied University, Amman, P.O.Box (15008), Marka Ashamalia (Jordan); Al-Battat, Saleh [Department of substation maintenance and protection, National Electric Power Company (NEPCO), Amman (Jordan); Abdel Hafith, Sandro [Department of technical support and project supervision/Integrated power systems co., Amman (Jordan)

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we are providing an attempt to highlight the importance of renewable energy, more specifically, the one produced from a wind-solar hybrid system. This purpose will be achieved through providing a detailed case study for such system that would be applied in Al-Tafila, Jordan. First and foremost site assessment has been conducted based on an intensive literature review for the data available regarding the availability of wind and solar energy in Jordan and resulted in the selection of Al-Tafila 2 district as the best option among all. Then, the components of the power station and its size have been selected based on specific criteria that make the station as much efficient and competitive as possible. To obtain the output of the different components with respect to the demand for a period of 25 years, a system model was built using HOMER. Finally, the total capital cost of the system was calculated and resulted to be (63400168) $ and with a cost of energy of (0.053) $/kWh which is a very competitive and feasible cost compared to similar international projects and to the conventional energy price.

  19. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    OpenAIRE

    Hao Bai; Shihong Miao; Xiaohong Ran; Chang Ye

    2015-01-01

    A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation mo...

  20. Model simulations of the radioactive material plumes in the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Goto, Daisuke; Morino, Yu; Misawa, Shota; Tsuruta, Haruo; Uchida, Junya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Satoh, Masaki

    2017-04-01

    We like to present an analysis of a model-simulated and observed data comparison for depiction of the atmospheric transportation of the 137Cs emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. This method employs a combination of the results of two aerosol model ensembles and the hourly observed atmospheric 137Cs concentration during 14-23 March 2011 at 90 sites in the Suspended Particulate Matter monitoring network. The result elucidates accurate transport routes and the distribution of the surface-level atmospheric 137Cs relevant to eight plume events that were previously identified. The model ensemble simulates the main features of the observed distribution of surface-level atmospheric 137Cs. However, significant differences were found in some cases. Through the analysis we discuss the important processes to control the characteristic shape and movement of each plume. We also report the status of the 2nd international model intercomparison in progress.

  1. Analysis and evaluation of "noise" of occupational hazards in pumped storage power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xin; Yang, Hongjian; Zhang, Huafei; Chen, Tao

    2017-05-01

    Aiming at the influence of "noise" of occupational hazards on the physical health of workers, the noise intensity of a working area of a hydropower station in China was evaluated comprehensively. Under the condition of power generation, noise detection is conducted on the main patrol area of the operator, and the noise samples in different regions are analyzed and processed by the single factor analysis of variance. The results show that the noise intensity of different working areas is significantly different, in which the overall noise level of the turbine layer is the highest and beyond the national standard, the protection measures need to be strengthened and the noise intensity of the rest area is normal

  2. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1994; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-04-01

    Within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering), an active exchange of experience has been cultivated over a period of more than 25 years. It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. This paper reports on operating results obtaned in 1994 and also on safety-related incidents, important rehabilitation measures and annual discharge rates of radio activity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 Jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 28 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1994 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  3. Operating experience with nuclear power stations 1995; Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1996-04-01

    For more than 25 years, an active exchange of experience has been cultivated within the VGB Technical Committee `Exchange of Operating Experience` - ABE - (Nuclear Engineering). It embraces 28 nuclear power stations in Germany, Finland, France, The Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland and Spain. The paper reports operating results achieved in 1995 and also safety-related incidents, important retrofitting measures and annual emission rates of radioactivity. (orig.) [Deutsch] Innerhalb des VGB-Fachausschusses `Austausch von Betriebserfahrungen` - ABE - (Kerntechnik) wird seit mehr als 25 jahren ein reger Erfahrungsaustausch gepflegt. Er schliesst 36 Kernkraftwerke in Deutschland, Finnland, Frankreich, den Niederlanden, Schweden, der Schweiz und Spanien ein. Ueber die im Jahre 1995 erzielten Betriebsergebnisse sowie ueber sicherheitsrelevante Ereignisse, wichtige Umruestmassnahmen und Jahresabgaberaten an Radioaktivitaet wird berichtet. (orig.)

  4. Ticks (Acari: Ixodidae on wild animals from the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo B Labruna

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available From June 2000 to June 2001, a total of 741 ticks were collected from 51 free-living wild animals captured at the Porto-Primavera Hydroelectric power station area, located alongside an approximately 180 km course of the Paraná river, between the states of São Paulo and Mato Grosso do Sul, comprising 9 species of 3 genera: Ambly-omma (7 species, Boophilus (1 and Anocentor (1. A total of 421 immature Amblyomma ticks were reared in laboratory until the adult stage, allowing identification of the species. A. cajennense was the most frequent tick species (mostly immature stages collected on 9 host species: Myrmecophaga tridactyla, Tamandua tetradactyla,Cerdocyon thous, Puma concolor,Tayassu tajacu, Mazama gouazoubira,Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris,Alouatta caraya, Cebus apella. Other tick species were less common, generally restricted to certain host taxa.

  5. Concentration of (3)H in plants around Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakiuchi, Hideki; Akata, Naofumi; Hasegawa, Hidenao; Ueda, Shinji; Tokonami, Shinji; Yamada, Masatoshi; Hosoda, Masahiro; Sorimachi, Atsuyuki; Tazoe, Hirofumi; Noda, Kaori; Hisamatsu, Shun'ichi

    2012-01-01

    A large amount of radionuclides was released from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) following the damage caused by the tsunami due to the Great East Japan Earthquake on 11 March 2011. Although many radionuclides in various environmental samples around the FDNPS have been measured, (3)H in the terrestrial environment has not yet been reported. We present here the first survey results of (3)H concentrations in plant samples collected around the FDNPS in 2011 from shortly after the accident. The free-water (3)H concentrations in herbaceous plant shoots and evergreen tree leaves were considerably higher than the previous background concentration, and diminished with distance from the FDNPS. Although reconstruction of atmospheric (3)H concentrations after the accident is difficult, a rough estimate of the radiation dose due to (3)H inhalation about 20 km from the FDNPS is on the order of a few microsieverts (μSv).

  6. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, preliminary public design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-06-01

    This preliminary Public Design Report (PDR) provides design information about Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit No. 1, which will demonstrate in a commercial 250 MW unit the benefits of the integration of oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasification with advanced combined cycle technology. This project is partially funded by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Round III of its Clean Coal Technology (CCT) Program under the provisions of Cooperative Agreement between DOE and Tampa Electric Company, novated on March 5,1992. The project is highlighted by the inclusion of a new hot gas cleanup system. DOE`s project management is based at its Morgantown Energy Technology Center (METC) in West Virginia. This report is preliminary, and the information contained herein is subject to revision. Definitive information will be available in the final PDR, which will be published at the completion of detailed engineering.

  7. The 'Lehn' small hydro-power station; KWKW Lehn Vorprojekt - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruff, H.; Widmer, P.

    2009-02-15

    This illustrated final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at the refurbishment of a small hydro-power station in the UNESCO biosphere region in the Entlebuch, Switzerland. The five grounds for the refurbishment are examined - repair of the water intake, flood protection, regulation of residual water, reduction of floating debris and sand and optimisation of the system by using automatic control. Figures on the cost of the refurbishment and electricity production are presented and discussed, as is the economic viability of the project. The existing installations are described and the hydrology of the stream is discussed, as are legal requirements and technical basics. Variants for the refurbishment are examined and operational aspects are looked at. A comprehensive appendix provides details on the proposal in graphical and tabular form.

  8. Structural cost optimization of photovoltaic central power station modules and support structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, P. D.; Stolte, W. J.; Marsh, R. O.

    1979-01-01

    The results of a comprehensive study of photovoltaic module structural support concepts for photovoltaic central power stations and their associated costs are presented. The objective of the study has been the identification of structural cost drivers. Parametric structural design and cost analyses of complete array systems consisting of modules, primary support structures, and foundations were performed. Area related module cost was found to be constant with design, size, and loading. A curved glass module concept was evaluated and found to have the potential to significantly reduce panel structural costs. Conclusions of the study are: array costs do not vary greatly among the designs evaluated; panel and array costs are strongly dependent on design loading; and the best support configuration is load dependent

  9. Realisation and instrumentation of high current power station for superconducting cables testing; Realisation et instrumentation d'une station fort courant pour le test de cables supraconducteurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Regnaud, S

    2000-05-01

    This report deals with the designing of a high current station able to test electric properties of superconductors. This test station will be used for testing the superconducting wires of large hadron collider detectors in CERN. The high current test station will have to generate high intensity continuous current in a magnetic field of 0 to 5 tesla and in temperature conditions of 4.2 K. The length of wire samples submitted to the uniform magnetic field is 300 mm and the installation is fitted with equipment able to measure the magnetic field perpendicular to either faces of the wire. The peculiarity of this station is to use a superconducting transformer in order to generate the high current. The first part of this work recalls important notions concerning superconductivity. The second part presents the high current station by describing the superconducting transformer and the sample-holder. We have studied the designing of a transformer able to yield a secondary current whose intensity reaches 100 kA, such intensity generates powerful electromagnetic forces (566 kN/m) in case of defect, so the sample-holder has to be carefully design to bear them. The third part presents the cryogenic component of the station, the instrumentation of the sample-holder and the method used to measure secondary currents. In the last part we present the performance of a prototype transformer, this prototype is able to deliver a 22 kA secondary current for a 160 A primary current, the uncertainty on the measured value of the secondary current is about 3%.

  10. The assessment of external photon dose rate in the vicinity of nuclear power stations. An intercomparison of different monitoring systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thompson, I.M.G.; Bøtter-Jensen, L.; Lauterbach, U.

    1993-01-01

    to a nuclear power station. The responses of each of these detectors to the natural radiation and to the radiation from the power station are given. Estimations by three of the dose rate instruments of the air kerma from all the radiation components are intercompared with the results from three different types...... of thermoluminescence dosemeter. The results clearly demonstrate that accurate estimations of doses in the environment arising from a nuclear facility can only be obtained if the responses of the detectors used to the different radiation components at that location are accurately evaluated. By correcting the measured...

  11. Radiation situation in Kamchatka after the Fukushima nuclear power station accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidorin, A. I.

    2013-12-01

    The chronology of events in Kamchatka related to the threat of radioactive contamination of the territory as a result of the Fukushima-1 nuclear power station (NPS) accident in Japan is briefly reviewed based on the published data. The accident happened on March 11, 2011, after a strong earthquake near the coast of Japan and the giant tsunami followed by the earthquake. The power supply was damaged and, as a result, the cooling system of NPS reactors was destroyed. Although the reactors did not explode, radioactive emissions from the damaged NPS discharged into the atmosphere and spread over large areas by the air flows. Information about the radiation situation in Kamchatka is controversial. Therefore, the author carried out regular monitoring of the radiation background during a hiking trip in Kamchatka in August 2011. The data are presented in this paper. It was concluded that the radiation background along the route of the trip was consistent (within the accuracy of measurement methods) with the normal values of a natural background. A thorough analysis of air, soil, food samples, etc., is required for a more detailed study to identify the presence of radionuclides in the atmospheric emissions from the damaged NPS in Japan.

  12. Evaluation of Lyse wind power station 1992-1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thor, S.E. [comp.] [National Defence Research Establishment (Sweden)

    1996-11-01

    The main aim of the project was to test and evaluate a new wind power technique, partly through detailed measurements of the NWP 400 and partly through comparisons with the Danish standard unit. At the same time, it was a demand that the two units of the Power Station could be run as a production plant once the evaluation was complete. The overall conclusion from operation, and from the various measurements and studies carried out, is that the new technique functions as intended and that the calculations and estimates made in connection with design work were largely correct. The evaluation confirms that the unit can meet expected production levels, that it can cope with different operation situations and that it can be expected to meet the demands set for loads and safety with regard to fatigue. The evaluation has also shown that the calculation tools used to design the unit and calculate the production capacity have given correct results and good estimates. Certain sub-systems did not, however, function as intended and modifications were required. Additional modifications may be required in a series production of NWP 400. In its present form the unit has difficulties at high wind speeds due to large teeter movements. According to calculations, it should be possible to further reduce these teeter movements and thus increase the availability. The comparison between the units shows that both of the units have largely achieved the expected production capacity. 83 figs, 17 tabs

  13. Nova Scotia Power shows how to generate electricity from ocean. [Annapolis Tidal Generating station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-02-01

    The first tidal power plant in North America has completed a successful first year of operation, reports Nova Scotia Power Corp., the utility that built it and operates it. Rated at 19 MW, it's the largest tidal generating plant in the world, but the Canadians consider it a pilot-scale installation built to test the feasibility of harnessing the unusually large tides in the Bay of Fundy on Canada's east coast. Called the Annapolis Tidal Generating station it's located on a narrow neck of land separating the Annapolis River from the Bay of Fundy. The tides there range from 15 to 25 feet, averaging 21 feet. In the average tidal cycle the plant generates electricity for about six hours, sluices water into the reservoir for about three hours, and is at a standstill for about three hours. During the first year of operation the plant produced 25 million kWh. Reported availability was 99%. It missed only eight tides out of a possible 728.

  14. Tape transfer atomization patterning of liquid alloys for microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-12

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape transferred adhesive mask, a universal fabrication process is provided for high quality patterns of liquid conductors in a meter scale. With the developed multilayer fabrication technique, a microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer device with an integrated LED was demonstrated, which could survive cycling between 0% and 25% strain over 1,000 times.

  15. Tape Transfer Atomization Patterning of Liquid Alloys for Microfluidic Stretchable Wireless Power Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Seung Hee; Hjort, Klas; Wu, Zhigang

    2015-02-01

    Stretchable electronics offers unsurpassed mechanical compliance on complex or soft surfaces like the human skin and organs. To fully exploit this great advantage, an autonomous system with a self-powered energy source has been sought for. Here, we present a new technology to pattern liquid alloys on soft substrates, targeting at fabrication of a hybrid-integrated power source in microfluidic stretchable electronics. By atomized spraying of a liquid alloy onto a soft surface with a tape transferred adhesive mask, a universal fabrication process is provided for high quality patterns of liquid conductors in a meter scale. With the developed multilayer fabrication technique, a microfluidic stretchable wireless power transfer device with an integrated LED was demonstrated, which could survive cycling between 0% and 25% strain over 1,000 times.

  16. Second periodic safety review of Angra Nuclear Power Station, unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Carlos F.O.; Crepaldi, Roberto; Freire, Enio M., E-mail: ottoncf@tecnatom.com.br, E-mail: emfreire46@gmail.com, E-mail: robcrepaldi@hotmail.com [Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Campello, Sergio A., E-mail: sacampe@eletronuclear.gov.br [Eletrobras Termonuclear S.A. (ELETRONUCLEAR), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes the second Periodic Safety Review (PSR2-A1) of Angra Nuclear Power Station, Unit 1, prepared by Eletrobras Eletronuclear S.A. and Tecnatom do Brasil Engenharia e Servicos Ltda., during Jul.2013-Aug.2014, covering the period of 2004-2013. The site, in Angra dos Reis-RJ, Brazil, comprises: Unit 1, (640 MWe, Westinghouse PWR, operating), Unit 2 (1300 MWe, KWU/Areva, operating) and Unit 3 (1405 MWe, KWU/Areva, construction). The PSR2-A1 attends the Standards 1.26-Safety in Operation of Nuclear Power Plants, Brazilian Nuclear Regulatory Commission (CNEN), and IAEA.SSG.25-Periodic Safety Review of Nuclear Power Plants. Within 18 months after each 10 years operation, the operating organization shall perform a plant safety review, to investigate the evolution consequences of safety code and standards, regarding: Plant design; structure, systems and components behavior; equipment qualification; plant ageing management; deterministic and probabilistic safety analysis; risk analysis; safety performance; operating experience; organization and administration; procedures; human factors; emergency planning; radiation protection and environmental radiological impacts. The Review included 6 Areas and 14 Safety Parameters, covered by 33 Evaluations.After document evaluations and discussions with plant staff, it was generated one General and 33 Specific Guide Procedures, 33 Specific and one Final Report, including: Description, Strengths, Deficiencies, Areas for Improvement and Conclusions. An Action Plan was prepared by Electronuclear for the recommendations. It was concluded that the Unit was operated within safety standards and will attend its designed operational lifetime, including possible life extensions. The Final Report was submitted to CNEN, as one requisite for renewal of the Unit Permanent Operation License. (author)

  17. The monitoring of the terrestrial environment around Almirante Alvaro Alberto nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavares, P.G.; Souza, R.F.; Cardoso, S.N.M., E-mail: pgtares@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: rfsouza@eletronuclear.gov.b, E-mail: sergion@eletronuclear.gov.b [ELETROBRAS Eletronuclear S.A., Paraty, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Monitoracao Ambiental

    2011-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate the environmental monitoring around Almirante Alvaro Alberto Nuclear Power Station after the beginning the operation of Unit II, in July 2000. The Environmental Monitoring Laboratory (EML) has, for purpose, to monitor the environment around the station to verify if there is a potential impact caused by the operation of the units. The EML collects several environmental samples and analyses radiometrically to determine the presence of artificial radionuclides. The types of the samples are marine samples (sea water, fish, algae, beach sand and sediments), terrestrial (milk, banana, soil, grass, superficial and underground water and river water and sediment) and aerial samples (rain water, airborne for iodine and particulate). This paper only describes the monitoring of terrestrial samples. At the EML, the samples are prepared and analysed following international procedures. The samples of milk, banana, soil, grass, surface and underground water, river water and river sediment are analysed by gamma spectrometry in a multi-channel analyser GENIE-2000 System with High-purity Germanium (HpGe) detectors to determine the activities of the detectable radionuclides. The EML also analyses tritium in surface water by liquid scintillation counting. In addition, analysis of {sup 89}Sr/{sup 90}Sr, by beta counting and {sup 131}I by gamma spectrometry are performed in the processed milk. The results are, then, compared with those obtained in pre-operational time of Angra 1 (1978 - 1982) and those obtained in operational time of the units until 2010. The results show us that, from 1982 until now, there is no impact in terrestrial environment caused by the operation neither of Angra 1 nor both Angra 1 and Angra 2. (author)

  18. Conversion of the lignite-fired power stations of the upper Austrian power station company to bituminous coal-firing; Umruestung der Braunkohle-Kraftwerke der Oberoesterreichischen Kraftwerke AG auf Steinkohle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenbrunner, M.; Madlsperger, G [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), Linz (Austria). Abt. Kraftwerkserrichtung; Pfeffer, S. [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), St. Pantaleon (Austria). Kraftwerk Riedersbach; Steiner, H. [Oberoesterreichische Kraftwerke AG (OKA), Timelkam (Austria). Kraftwerk Timelkam

    1998-08-01

    The Upper Austrian Power Station Company operates coal-fired power stations at the Riedersbach and Timelkam sites. Because the adjacent supply sources of the original main fules of lignite had been shut down for economic reasons, the necessity to convert to bituminous coal-firing resulted. This paper quotes characteristic data for the lignite and bituminous coal used in the Upper Austrian Power Stations. It describes the conversion measures taken at each individual Upper Austrian coalfired power station, in which special arrangements and burner designs are represented. The reduction in fuel costs through the utilisation of bituminous coal available at world market prices was advantageous. (orig.) [Deutsch] Die Oberoesterreichischen Kraftwerke betreiben an den Standorten Riedersbach und Timelkam kohlebefeuerte Kraftwerke. Weil die nahe gelegenen Foerderstaetten des urspruenglichen Hauptbrennstoffes Braunkohle aus Wirtschaftlichkeitsgruenden eingestellt wurden, ergab sich die Notwendigkeit des Umbaues auf Steinkohlefeuerung. Charakteristische Daten der in den OKA-Kohlekraftwerken eingesetzten Braun- und Steinkohle werden angegeben. Die Umbaumassnahmen jedes einzelnen OKA-Kohlekraftwerkes werden erlaeutert, wobei insbesondere Dispositionen und Brennerausfuehrungen dargestellt werden. Vorteilhaft war die Reduktion der Brennstoffkosten durch den Einsatz der zu Weltmarktpreisen erhaeltlichen Steinkohle. (orig.)

  19. Boiling water reactor in a prestressed reinforced concrete vessel for an atomic central heating-and-power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokarev, Yu.I.; Sokolov, I.N.; Skvortsov, S.A.; Sidorov, A.M.; Krauze, L.V.

    1978-04-01

    The possibility of using a boiling water reactor in a prestressed reinforced concrete vessel for an atomic central heating-and-power plant (CHPP) was considered, with design features of the reactor intended for a two-purpose plant. A prestressed reinforced concrete vessel and integral arrangement of the primary circuit ensured reliability of the atomic CHPP using various CHPP flowsheets.

  20. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao Bai

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations, so as to integrate them as an entity to exchange energy with the power market. This paper studies the optimal dispatch strategy of a virtual power plant, based on a unified electricity market combining day-ahead trading with real-time trading. The operation models of interruptible loads, energy storage systems and battery switch stations are specifically described in the paper. The virtual power plant applies an optimal dispatch strategy to earn the maximal expected profit under some fluctuating parameters, including market price, retail price and load demand. The presented model is a nonlinear mixed-integer programming with inter-temporal constraints and is solved by the fruit fly algorithm.

  1. Situation and future developments in the power station engineering of the GDR. Situation und kuenftige Entwicklungen bei der Kraftwerkstechnik in der DDR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Effenberger, H.; Weidlich, H.G.

    1990-09-01

    Starting with the present state of power stations in the GDR and their evaluation in respect of energy and ecology, the authors have developed a concept for the future objectives and possibilities of the power stations. With regard to the modification of the power station engineering, considered as urgently required due to reasons of energy and environment, there was suggestions for modern plant conceptions, such as fluidized bed combustors, combined and gas/steam power plants, besides the retrofitting and the new building of proven conventional plants. It includes also the extension of combined heat and power systems, of nuclear energy, and the use of regenerative energy sources as parts of this concept. The power station modifications intended are shown in tables for the various power station locations. (orig.).

  2. An Implementation of Estimation Techniques to a Hydrological Model for Prediction of Runoff to a Hydroelectric Power-Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magne Fjeld

    1981-01-01

    Full Text Available Parameter and state estimation algorithms have been applied to a hydrological model of a catchment area in southern Norway to yield improved control of the household of water resources and better economy and efficiency in the running of the power station, as experience proves since the system was installed on-line in the summer of 1978.

  3. Improved grid operation through power smoothing control strategies utilizing dedicated energy storage at an electric vehicle charging station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinsen, Thomas; Holjevac, Ninoslav; Bremdal, Bernt A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the principal service aspects for electric vehicles (EV), as well as issues related to energy storage design, charging station integration into power system and load management issues. It builds on the research conducted in the Flexible Electric Vehicle Charging Infrastructure...

  4. 78 FR 22347 - GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-15

    ... COMMISSION GPU Nuclear Inc., Three Mile Island Nuclear Power Station, Unit 2, Exemption From Certain Security... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: 1.0 Background GPU Nuclear, Inc. (GPUN, the licensee) is the licensee and holder of... responsibility of the licensee. Therefore, the Commission hereby grants GPU Nuclear, Inc., an exemption from the...

  5. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report, calendar year 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations.

  6. Complex use of waste in wastewater and circulating water treatment from oil in heat power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaeva, L. A.; Iskhakova, R. Ya.

    2017-06-01

    Sewage and circulating water from oil of thermal power plants (TPP) generated in fuel-oil shops during washing of electrical equipment and its running into the storm drainage system from the industrial site has been considered in the paper. It has been suggested to use the carbonate sludge of water treatment modified with hydrophobing emulsion as a sorption material for waste and circulating water treatment in thermal power plants. The carbonate sludge is waste accumulated in clarifiers at the stage of natural water pretreatment. General technical characteristics of the sludge, such as moisture, bulk density, total pore volume, ash, etc., have been determined. It has been found that the sludge without additional treatment is a hydrophilic material that has low adsorption capacity and wettability with nonpolar compounds. Therefore, the sludge is treated with organosilicon compounds to reduce the moisture capacity and increase its floatation. Several types of sorption materials based on the carbonate sludge subjected to surface and volume hydrophobization have been developed. During the volume treatment, the hydrophobing compound has been introduced into the material along with the plastifier. In case of the surface treatment, heat-treated granules have been soaked into hydrophobing emulsion. It has been shown that surface hydrophobization is most economically advantageous, because it reduces the consumption of water-repelling agent, wherein the total pore volume and sorption capacity during surface hydrophobization increase by 45 and 25% compared to that during volume hydrophobization. Based on the obtained results, the most effective sorption material has been chosen. To produce this material, it is necessary to sequentially carry out mixing of carbonate sludge with the binder, granulation, calcination, impregnation with a waterrepellent emulsion, and drying of the finished material. The suggested technology to produce the material and use it as a sorbent allows

  7. Design of FPGA Based Neural Network Controller for Earth Station Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Automation of generating hardware description language code from neural networks models can highly decrease time of implementation those networks into a digital devices, thus significant money savings. To implement the neural network into hardware designer, it is required to translate generated model into device structure. VHDL language is used to describe those networks into hardware. VHDL code has been proposed to implement ANNs as well as to present simulation results with floating point arithmetic of the earth station and the satellite power systems using ModelSim PE 6.6 simulator tool. Integration between MATLAB and VHDL is used to save execution time of computation. The results shows that a good agreement between MATLAB and VHDL and a fast/flexible feed forward NN which is capable of dealing with floating point arithmetic operations; minimum number of CLB slices; and good speed of performance. FPGA synthesis results are obtained with view RTL schematic and technology schematic from Xilinix tool. Minimum number of utilized resources is obtained by using Xilinix VERTIX5.

  8. Risk Assessment Strategy for Decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Yamaguchi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Risk management of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station decommissioning is a great challenge. In the present study, a risk management framework has been developed for the decommissioning work. It is applied to fuel assembly retrieval from Unit 3 spent fuel pool. Whole retrieval work is divided into three phases: preparation, retrieval, and transportation and storage. First of all, the end point has been established and the success path has been developed. Then, possible threats, which are internal/external and technical/societal/management, are identified and selected. “What can go wrong?” is a question about the failure scenario. The likelihoods and consequences for each scenario are roughly estimated. The whole decommissioning project will continue for several decades, i.e., long-term perspective is important. What should be emphasized is that we do not always have enough knowledge and experience of this kind. It is expected that the decommissioning can make steady and good progress in support of the proposed risk management framework. Thus, risk assessment and management are required, and the process needs to be updated in accordance with the most recent information and knowledge on the decommissioning works.

  9. Risk assessment strategy for decommissioning of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Jang, Sung Hoon [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hida, Kazuki [Nuclear Damage Compensation and Decommissioning Facilitation Corporation, Tokyo (Japan); Yamanaka, Yasunori [Tokyo Electric Power Company Holdings, Tokyo (Japan); Narumiya, Yoshiyuki [The Kansai Electric Power Co., Inc., Osaka (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Risk management of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station decommissioning is a great challenge. In the present study, a risk management framework has been developed for the decommissioning work. It is applied to fuel assembly retrieval from Unit 3 spent fuel pool. Whole retrieval work is divided into three phases: preparation, retrieval, and transportation and storage. First of all, the end point has been established and the success path has been developed. Then, possible threats, which are internal/external and technical/societal/management, are identified and selected. “What can go wrong?” is a question about the failure scenario. The likelihoods and consequences for each scenario are roughly estimated. The whole decommissioning project will continue for several decades, i.e., long-term perspective is important. What should be emphasized is that we do not always have enough knowledge and experience of this kind. It is expected that the decommissioning can make steady and good progress in support of the proposed risk management framework. Thus, risk assessment and management are required, and the process needs to be updated in accordance with the most recent information and knowledge on the decommissioning works.

  10. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.

    1983-12-22

    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented. (orig./BWI).

  11. Tower reflector for focussing solar power stations. Turmreflektor fuer konzentrierende Solarkraftwerke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, G.

    1978-12-06

    The invention concerns a tower collector for focussing solar power stations according to the method of two stage focussing. The purpose of the invention is to create an efficient tower reflector, which can be built simply and which can guarantee a long life by simple measures, particularly with regard to the mirrors. The problem is solved by building up a reflector structure so that the mirrors are carried on a profile structure, which can be cooled. In a first version of the ideas of the invention, the tower reflector is produced by having the galvanised profile structure consisting of material of high conductivity and making it possible to galvanise the mirrors, so that a galvanised covering is deposited on the back forming closed cooling ducts, and by depositing a covering of galvanised armouring of great strength for fixing the supporting element afterwards. This galvanised construction can achieve the required high optical surface accuracy and prolonged use due to the active cooling. The temperature of the mirror surface is always kept low, so that radiation losses are prevented.

  12. Microbiological Contamination at Workplaces in a Combined Heat and Power (CHP) Station Processing Plant Biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szulc, Justyna; Otlewska, Anna; Okrasa, Małgorzata; Majchrzycka, Katarzyna; Sulyok, Michael; Gutarowska, Beata

    2017-01-21

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the microbial contamination at a plant biomass processing thermal power station (CHP). We found 2.42 × 10³ CFU/m³ of bacteria and 1.37 × 10⁴ CFU/m³ of fungi in the air; 2.30 × 10⁷ CFU/g of bacteria and 4.46 × 10⁵ CFU/g of fungi in the biomass; and 1.61 × 10² CFU/cm² bacteria and 2.39 × 10¹ CFU/cm² fungi in filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs). Using culture methods, we found 8 genera of mesophilic bacteria and 7 of fungi in the air; 10 genera each of bacteria and fungi in the biomass; and 2 and 5, respectively, on the FFRs. Metagenomic analysis (Illumina MiSeq) revealed the presence of 46 bacterial and 5 fungal genera on the FFRs, including potential pathogens Candida tropicalis, Escherichia coli, Prevotella sp., Aspergillus sp., Penicillium sp.). The ability of microorganisms to create a biofilm on the FFRs was confirmed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). We also identified secondary metabolites in the biomass and FFRs, including fumigaclavines, quinocitrinines, sterigmatocistin, and 3-nitropropionic acid, which may be toxic to humans. Due to the presence of potential pathogens and mycotoxins, the level of microbiological contamination at workplaces in CHPs should be monitored.

  13. The internal microstructure and fibrous mineralogy of fly ash from coal-burning power stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Patrick; Jones, Tim; BéruBé, Kelly

    2011-12-01

    Coal fly ash (CFA) is a significant environmental pollutant that presents a respiratory hazard when airborne. Although previous studies have identified the mineral components of CFA, there is a paucity of information on the structural habits of these minerals. Samples from UK, Polish and Chinese power stations were studied to further our understanding of the factors that affect CFA geochemistry and mineralogy. ICP-MS, FE-SEM/EDX, XRD, and laser diffraction were used to study physicochemical characteristics. Analysis revealed important differences in the elemental compositions and particle size distributions of samples between sites. Microscopy of HF acid-etched CFA revealed the mullite present possesses a fibrous habit; fibres ranged in length between 1 and 10 μm. Respirable particles (<10 μm) were frequently observed to contain fibrous mullite. We propose that the biopersistence of these refractory fibres in the lung environment could be contributing towards chronic lung diseases seen in communities and individuals continually exposed to high levels of CFA. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental study of properties of heavy concrete with bottom ash from power stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondar Victor

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the influence of cement quantity, plasticizing additives and compaction time on the strength and water consumption of concrete during its manufacturing using bottom ash from a thermal power station. The study was carried out using three factorial experiments. Variables varied on three levels. The obtained pattern functions characterize a relationship between strength, water consumption and variable factors. These factors include cement quantity, plasticize additives and compaction time. Compilation of Pareto effect charts allowed estimation of the significance of function indexes. Analysis of surface pattern function has revealed the optimal correlation between additive quantity and compaction time, cement quantity and additive quantity, cement quantity and compaction time. Compression strength of concrete was taken as the pattern in the pattern function. When analyzing the pattern function with water consumption as a pattern, optimal correlations between additive quantity and compaction time, cement quantity and additive quantity, cement quantity and compaction time were revealed. Application of STATISTICA 12 software has specified values of factors when the maximum strength is achieved. Correlations of components which have an impact on water consumption have been determined. The conclusions contain the quantitative findings of the study.

  15. Stress analysis of a repair weld to boiler in a nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, G.; Moyes, N.; Laird, A.; Mills, P. [Mitsui Babcock Technology Centre, Renfrew, Scotland (United Kingdom); Pennick, A.; Stewart, G. [BNFL, Reactor Integrity Assessments, R and T, BNFL Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2001-04-01

    A routine inspection on Hex No. 6 boiler at Chapelcross nuclear power station revealed the existence of a crack in the bottom dome of the boiler. To enable continued operation of the boiler, it was required that the crack be repaired. Due to the position of the repair in the boiler it was undesirable to carry out post-weld heat treatment (PWHT) as the process could cause damage to neighbouring components and attachments. MBEL was engaged by BNFL to take part in a programme to investigate a non-PWHT repair methodology which would not compromise the structural integrity of the vessel and would satisfy the stringent safety requirements of the Nuclear Installations Inspectorate. Using the latest finite-element modelling techniques, in conjunction with experimental measurements made both on specimens and on the boiler shell, a full residual stress analysis of the repair was carried out which showed that the tolerable defect size in the repair was increased to a level within the non-destructive testing detection range. The employment of the foregoing methods has enabled the BNFL programme to justify a non-PWHT repair to the boiler. (author)

  16. Rancang Bangun Maximum Power Point Tracking pada Panel Photovoltaic Berbasis Logika Fuzzy di Buoy Weather Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bayu Prima Juliansyah Putra

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Salah satu aplikasi yang sering digunakan dalam bidang energi terbarukan adalah panel photovoltaic. Panel ini memiliki prinsip kerja berdasarkan efek photovoltaic dimana lempengan logam akan menghasilkan energi listrik apabila diberi intensitas cahaya. Untuk menghasilkan daya keluaran panel yang maksimal, maka diperlukan suatu algoritma yang biasa disebut Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT.MPPT yang diterapkan pada sistem photovoltaic berfungsi untuk mengatur nilai tegangan keluaran panel sehingga titik ker-janya beroperasi pada kondisi maksimal. Algoritma MPPT pada panel ini telah dilakukan dengan menggunakan logika fuzzy melalui mikrokontroler Arduino Uno sebagai pem-bangkit sinyal Pulse Width Modulation (PWM yang akan dikirimkan menuju DC-DC Buck Boost Converter. Keluaran dari buck boost converterakan dihubungkan secara langsung dengan buoy weather station untuk menyuplai energi listrik tiap komponen yang berada di dalamnya. Untuk menguji performansi dari algoritma MPPT yang telah dirancang, maka sistem akan diuji menggunakan variasi beban antara metode direct-coupled dengan MPPT menggunakan logika fuzzy. Hasil pengujian menunjukkan bahwa MPPT dengan logika fuzzy dapat menghasilkan daya maksimum daripada direct-coupled. Pada sistem panel photovoltaic ini memiliki range efisiensi 33.07589 % hingga 74.25743 %. Daya mak-simal dapat dicapai oleh sistem untuk tiap variasi beban dan efisiensi maksimal dapat dicapai pada beban 20 Ohm dari hasil pengujian sistem MPPT.

  17. A radiological assessment of space nuclear power operations near Space Station Freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Steve

    1990-01-01

    In order to accomplish NASA's more ambitious exploration goals, nuclear reactors may be used in the vicinity of Space Station Freedom (SSF) either as power sources for coorbiting platforms or as part of the propulsion system for departing and returning personnel or cargo vehicles. This study identifies ranges of operational parameters, such as parking distances and reactor cooldown times, which would reasonably guarantee that doses to the SSF crew from all radiation sources would be below guidelines recently recommended by the National Council of Radiation Protection and Measurements. The specific scenarios considered include: (1) the launch and return of a nuclear electric propulsion vehicle, (2) the launch and return of a nuclear thermal rocket vehicle, (3) the operation of an SP-100 class reactor on a coorbiting platform, (4) the activation of materials near operating reactors, (5) the storage and handling of radioisotope thermal generator units, and (6) the storage and handling of fresh and previously operated reactors. Portable reactor shield concepts were examined for relaxing the operational constraints imposed by unshielded (for human proximity operations) reactors and that might also be used to provide additional SSF crew protection from natural background radiation.

  18. Retrieval of intermediate-level waste at Trawsfynydd nuclear power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wall, S.; Shaw, I. [RWE Nukem, Harwell (United Kingdom)

    2002-12-01

    Trawsfynydd nuclear power station has two Magnox-type reactors which were shut down in 1995 at the end of their working life. During normal operations two types of intermediate-level waste (ILW) have accumulated on site namely miscellaneous activated components (MAC) and fuel element debris (FED). MAC is predominantly components which have been activated by the reactor core and then discharged. FED mainly consists of fuel cladding produced when fuel elements were prepared for dispatch to the reprocessing facility. As part of the decommissioning programme for the site, these waste streams are to be retrieved from storage vaults, monitored, packed and immobilised in a form suitable for on-site storage in the medium term and for eventual disposal in the long-term waste repository to be commissioned by Nirex at a later date. In 1996, BNFL Magnox Generation defined the waste storage strategy and awarded two contracts to AEA Technology Nuclear Engineering for the design, supply, commissioning and operation of equipment to retrieve, pack and immobilise the two waste streams. This included waste recovery from vaults in both reactor and pond locations and the final decommissioning and removal of plant from the site after successful completion of the waste recovery programme. This paper describes the technical solutions that were successfully applied to this project. (author)

  19. Weather and Dispersion Modeling of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, Thomas; Businger, Steven

    2014-05-01

    The surface deposition of radioactive material from the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power station was investigated for 11 March to 17 March 2011. A coupled weather and dispersion modeling system was developed and simulations of the accident performed using two independent source terms that differed in emission rate and height and in the total amount of radioactive material released. Observations in Japan during the first week of the accident revealed a natural grouping between periods of dry (12-14 March) and wet (15-17 March) weather. The distinct weather regimes served as convenient validation periods for the model predictions. Results show significant differences in the distribution of cumulative surface deposition of 137Cs due to wet and dry removal processes. A comparison of 137Cs deposition predicted by the model with aircraft observations of surface-deposited gamma radiation showed reasonable agreement in surface contamination patterns during the dry phase of the accident for both source terms. It is suggested that this agreement is because of the weather model's ability to simulate the extent and timing of onshore flow associated with a sea breeze circulation that developed around the time of the first reactor explosion. During the wet phase of the accident the pattern is not as well predicted. It is suggested that this discrepancy is because of differences between model predicted and observed precipitation distributions.

  20. In situ measurement of electrostatic charge and charge distribution on flyash particles in power station exhaust stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guang, D.

    1992-01-01

    The electrostatic charges and charge distributions on individual flyash particles were experimentally measured in situ at four power stations in New South Wales and in the laboratory with an Electrostatic Charge Classifier. The global charge of these flyashes was also measured. The electrostatic charge on flyash particles of four power stations was found to be globally native. The median charge on the flyash particles varies linearly with particle diameter for all four flyashes. The electrostatic charge on the Tallawarra flyash particles was found to increase after passage through the air heater having huge metal surface areas, suggesting that triboelectrification was the primary charging mechanism for flyash particles. Distinctly different characteristics of the electrostatic charge, particle size and particle shape were found between the Eraring and the Tallawarra flyashes. The spherical Eraring ash has the highest proportion of lines and positively charged particles, but the lowest global charge level among the four flyashes. In contrast, the Tallawarra flyash has just the opposite. It is the distinct characteristics of the flyashes from Eraring and Tallawarra power stations that are responsible for the significant differences in their baghouse performance. The napping feature on the surface of the filter bags used in the Eraring and Tallawarra power stations provides an upstream surface of low fibre density above the fabric bulk. This feature presents and advantage to highly charged particles, like the Tallawarra flyash particles. Highly charged particles tend to deposit on such an upstream surface resulting in a porous dust cake with much less contact areas with the fabric medium than would otherwise be formed. This cake is easy to remove and provides less resistance to the gas flow. After singeing the naps on the filter bag surface at the Eraring power station, the problems of high pressure drop and retention of dust cake on the bas surface have been resolved.

  1. Capacity Calculation of Shunt Active Power Filters for Electric Vehicle Charging Stations Based on Harmonic Parameter Estimation and Analytical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niancheng Zhou

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The influence of electric vehicle charging stations on power grid harmonics is becoming increasingly significant as their presence continues to grow. This paper studies the operational principles of the charging current in the continuous and discontinuous modes for a three-phase uncontrolled rectification charger with a passive power factor correction link, which is affected by the charging power. A parameter estimation method is proposed for the equivalent circuit of the charger by using the measured characteristic AC (Alternating Current voltage and current data combined with the charging circuit constraints in the conduction process, and this method is verified using an experimental platform. The sensitivity of the current harmonics to the changes in the parameters is analyzed. An analytical harmonic model of the charging station is created by separating the chargers into groups by type. Then, the harmonic current amplification caused by the shunt active power filter is researched, and the analytical formula for the overload factor is derived to further correct the capacity of the shunt active power filter. Finally, this method is validated through a field test of a charging station.

  2. Probabilistic Physics-Based Risk Tools Used to Analyze the International Space Station Electrical Power System Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhogila M.; Hoge, Peter A.; Nagpal, Vinod K.; Hojnicki, Jeffrey S.; Rusick, Jeffrey J.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the methods employed to apply probabilistic modeling techniques to the International Space Station (ISS) power system. These techniques were used to quantify the probabilistic variation in the power output, also called the response variable, due to variations (uncertainties) associated with knowledge of the influencing factors called the random variables. These uncertainties can be due to unknown environmental conditions, variation in the performance of electrical power system components or sensor tolerances. Uncertainties in these variables, cause corresponding variations in the power output, but the magnitude of that effect varies with the ISS operating conditions, e.g. whether or not the solar panels are actively tracking the sun. Therefore, it is important to quantify the influence of these uncertainties on the power output for optimizing the power available for experiments.

  3. Experimental investigations of overvoltages in 6kV station service cable networks of thermal power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vukelja, P.I.; Naumov, R.M.; Drobnjak, G.V.; Mrvic, J.D. [Nikola Tesla Inst., Belgrade (Yugoslavia)

    1996-12-31

    The paper presents the results of experimental investigations of overvoltages on 6kV isolated neutral station service cable networks of thermal power plants. The overvoltages were recorded with capacitive voltage measurement systems made at the Nikola Tesla Institute. Wideband capacitive voltage measurement systems recorded a flat response from below power frequencies to 10MHz. Investigations of overvoltages were performed for appearance and interruption of metal earth faults, intermittent earth faults, switching operation of HV motors switchgear, switching operation of transformers switchgear, and transfer of the network supply from one transformer to another. On the basis of these investigations, certain measures are proposed for limiting overvoltages and for the reliability of station service of thermal power plants.

  4. Application of a hazard and operability study method to hazard evaluation of a chemical unit of the power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habibi, E; Zare, M; Barkhordari, A; Mirmohammadi, Sj; Halvani, Ghh

    2008-12-28

    The aim of this study was to identify the hazards, evaluate their risk factors and determine the measure for promotion of the process and reduction of accidents in the chemical unit of the power station. In this case and qualitative study, HAZOP technique was used to recognize the hazards and problems of operations on the chemical section at power station. Totally, 126 deviations were documented with various causes and consequences. Ranking and evaluation of identified risks indicate that the majority of deviations were categorized as "acceptable" and less than half of that were "unacceptable". The highest calculated risk level (1B) related to both the interruption of acid entry to the discharge pumps and an increased density of the acid. About 27% of the deviations had the lowest risk level (4B). The identification of hazards by HAZOP indicates that it could, systemically, assess and criticize the process of consumption or production of acid and alkali in the chemical unit of power plant.

  5. Assessing the Integrated Computerized Maintenance Management System of O&M Company for Combined Cycle Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocel D. Gualberto

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to describe and assess the integrated Computerized Maintenance Management System applied by an Operation and Management (O&M company to a Combined Cycle Power Station and come up with possible enhancement activities based on the results of the evaluation. The integrated Computerized Maintenance Management System is an electronic database which provides a powerful tool to deal with mechanical maintenance problems. It is a comprehensive approach that directs the maintenance personnel on what specific activity is to be applied on the equipment. The maintenance program was evaluated in terms of the maintenance organization, maintenance activities, spare parts and procurement, management assessment, program review and record keeping. Key performance indicators such as availability, reliability, efficiency and percentage of breakdown maintenance of the combined cycle power station were evaluated and measured the effectiveness of the maintenance program. The proposed enhancement activities would remediate the identified weak points of the maintenance program.

  6. Low tide for tidal power stations? Low capacities of tidal power stations. No breakthrough for wave power stations; Ebbe bei Meereskraftwerken? Bisher nur wenig Strom aus Ebbe und Flut. Kein Durchbruch bei Wellenkraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, U. [Verband Schweizerischer Elektrizititaetswerke, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-02-07

    High tide and low tide occur twice a day. They are caused by the gravitational force acting between the Earth and the Moon and by the Earth`s rotation. The difference in the water levels of high and low tide is called tidal rise. The shape of the coastline is very important for constructing a tidal power plant. If the tidal rise is sufficiently high, hydroelectric power can be generated by constructing a dam across a bay. However, there are few regions in the world where this form of renewable energy can be harvested. Positive examples are the existing plants on the Rance River in Brittany and in the Bay of Fundy in Eastern Canada. (orig.) [Deutsch] Auf den Meeren gibt es zweimal taeglich Ebbe und Flut. Dieser Effekt ist auf die Anziehungskraft zwischen Erde und Mond sowie auf die Rotation der Erde zurueckzufuehren. Die Hoehendifferenz zwischen Ebbe und Flut wird als Tidenhub bezeichnet. Dabei spielt die Form der Kuestenlinie eine wesentliche Rolle. Ist der Tidenhub genuegend gross, so laesst sich in einer mit dem Damm absperrbaren Bucht Wasserkraft gewinnen. Nur wenige Kuestengebiete weltweit eignen sich jedoch fuer diese Form von erneuerbarer Energie. Positive Beispiele sind die bestehenden Anlagen an der Rance und in der Bay of Fundy. (orig.)

  7. 77 FR 12885 - Millstone Power Station, Units 1, 2 and 3, Dominion Nuclear Connecticut, Inc.; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-02

    ..., ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20-30, 1992... hurricane force winds at the Millstone site. A subsequent response to requests for additional information... hurricane response organization (HRO). The exemption request states that the station HRO typically consists...

  8. OFFSET - RAY TRACING OPTICAL ANALYSIS OF OFFSET SOLAR COLLECTOR FOR SPACE STATION SOLAR DYNAMIC POWER SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, K.

    1994-01-01

    OFFSET is a ray tracing computer code for optical analysis of a solar collector. The code models the flux distributions within the receiver cavity produced by reflections from the solar collector. It was developed to model the offset solar collector of the solar dynamic electric power system being developed for Space Station Freedom. OFFSET has been used to improve the understanding of the collector-receiver interface and to guide the efforts of NASA contractors also researching the optical components of the power system. The collector for Space Station Freedom consists of 19 hexagonal panels each containing 24 triangular, reflective facets. Current research is geared toward optimizing flux distribution inside the receiver via changes in collector design and receiver orientation. OFFSET offers many options for experimenting with the design of the system. The offset parabolic collector model configuration is determined by an input file of facet corner coordinates. The user may choose other configurations by changing this file, but to simulate collectors that have other than 19 groups of 24 triangular facets would require modification of the FORTRAN code. Each of the roughly 500 facets in the assembled collector may be independently aimed to smooth out, or tailor, the flux distribution on the receiver's wall. OFFSET simulates the effects of design changes such as in receiver aperture location, tilt angle, and collector facet contour. Unique features of OFFSET include: 1) equations developed to pseudo-randomly select ray originating sources on the Sun which appear evenly distributed and include solar limb darkening; 2) Cone-optics technique used to add surface specular error to the ray originating sources to determine the apparent ray sources of the reflected sun; 3) choice of facet reflective surface contour -- spherical, ideal parabolic, or toroidal; 4) Gaussian distributions of radial and tangential components of surface slope error added to the surface normals at

  9. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  10. Treatment of IGCC power station effluents by physico-chemical and advanced oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán, A; Monteagudo, J M; Sanmartín, I; García-Peña, F; Coca, P

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the quality of aqueous effluents coming from the Gasification Unit in an Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Thermoelectric Power Station, with the purpose of fulfilling the future more demanding normative. To this end, an integral wastewater treatment including coagulation, flocculation, neutralization, photocatalytic oxidation, and ion-exchange has been studied. A final scheme has been proposed to remove pollutants. All the parameters of the treated wastewater are below pouring specifications. In the first stage, the wastewater was treated with CaCl2 (optimal dose=11 g CaCl2/g F-) as coagulant and a commercial anionic polyelectrolyte (optimal dose=0.02 g/g F-) as flocculant to remove fluoride ions (99%) and suspended solids (92%). The water was then neutralized, improving the degree of transmission of ultraviolet light, allowing the faster photo-degradation of pollutants. The photochemical study included different systems (H2O2, UV/H2O2, Fenton, Fenton-like, UV/Fenton, UV/Fenton-like and UV/H2O2/O2). In the Fenton-like system, the influence of two parameters (initial concentration of H2O2 and amount of Cu(II)) on the degradation of cyanide and formate (taken as the reference of the process) was studied. Experimental results were fit using neural networks (NNs). Results showed that the photocatalytic process was effective for total cyanide destruction after 60 min, while 180 min was needed to remove 80% of formates. However, a more simple system with UV/H2O2/O2 yields similar results and is preferred for industrial application due to fewer complications. Finally, an ion-exchange process with Amberlite IRA-420 was proposed to remove the excess of chlorides added as a consequence of the initial coagulation process.

  11. Comprehensive investigation of the metal in drums of boilers at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozhigov, L. S.; Mitrofanov, A. S.; Tolstolutskaya, G. D.; Vasilenko, R. L.; Rudenko, A. G.; Ruzhytskyi, V. V.; Ribalchenko, N. D.; Shramchenko, S. V.

    2017-05-01

    A comparative investigation of the metal of drums of two TP-100 boilers at the Starobeshevskaya and the Lugansk thermal power stations (TPS) was performed. Their operation time was approximately 300000 hours; the shell of one drum was ruptured during a hydraulic test, and the other drum is in operation. According to the results of the technical diagnostics and a strength analysis, both drums comply with the applicable regulatory requirements. The objects of the investigation were fragments of the ruptured drum and a "plug" cut out of the shell during a scheduled inspection. The investigation was carried out by microscopic metallography methods and the scanning electron microscopy technique. Mechanical tests of metal specimens were performed, and the hydrogen content in these specimens was measured. Prior to the material research, the metal was examined using a magnetic memory method. The investigation yielded specifics of the metal microstructure, mechanical properties, and fracture patterns of the metal specimens at various temperatures. An investigation performed by the method of thermal-desorption mass spectrometry revealed no considerable difference in the hydrogen content in the metal of both drums, thereby excluding the effect of hydrogenation in analyzing the rupture causes. It was established that the drum at the Starobeshevskaya TPS had been damaged due to its low impact strength at room temperature and high brittle-ductile transition point. Comparison of the metallographic study data with the results obtained using the magnetic memory method suggests that the fracture was caused by local formation of the Widmannstatten pattern at points where accessories are welded to the shell. The prospects are demonstrated of the comprehensive approach to nondestructive examination (NDE) of TPS drums using the magnetic memory technique and metallographic methods.

  12. Conditioning of cooling water in power stations. Feedback from twenty years of experience with acid feeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goffin, C.; Duvivier, L.; Girasa, E. [LABORELEC, Chemistry of Water (Belgium); Brognez, J. [ELECTRABEL, TIHANGE Nuclear Power Station (Belgium)

    2002-07-01

    In the late 1970's and early 1980's, with the development of the nuclear programme in many European countries, the recirculation of cooling water in power stations became an issue which required urgent attention. The concentration of several plants of 1000 MW or more on sites along inland waterways actually made simple once-through cooling impossible, owing to the risk of an unacceptable rise in the river's water temperature. The chemical composition of natural freshwater in western European waterways is such that when it becomes slightly concentrated, scale is rapidly formed. The relatively low solubility of calcium carbonate and the degassing of the carbon dioxide during close contact between the water and air in the heat exchangers of the cooling tower explain this precipitation tendency. Fairly soon, experts in the electricity power generation companies highlighted the need for on-site, pilot loop simulations, in order to foresee the physico-chemical phenomena that could arise in industrial installations. The number of financially justifiable processing possibilities could be briefly summarised by the following three solutions: to adapt the concentration factor in order to be under the calcium carbonate solubility limit and thereby avoid the need for any water conditioning; to accept concentration factors of between 1.4 and 1.9 and control the calcium carbonate precipitation through controlled acid injection in the circulation water; to raise the concentration factor over 5 and soften the makeup water through the addition of lime and flocculant. The last of these solutions was rarely ever used in Belgium and France. It was however widely used in Germany. Its application requires a greater investment and leads to higher operating costs than acid injection. Furthermore, it leads to the problem of daily drying and disposal of several dozen tonnes of sludge, which have to be recycled or dumped. In an increasingly stringent environmental context, this

  13. Cogeneration in large processing power stations; Cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munoz, Jose Manuel [Observatorio Ciudadano de la Energia A. C., (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    In this communication it is spoken of the cogeneration in large processing power stations with or without electricity surplus, the characteristics of combined cycle power plants and a comparative analysis in a graph entitled Sale price of electricity in combined cycle and cogeneration power plants. The industrial plants, such as refineries, petrochemical, breweries, paper mills and cellulose plants, among others, with steam necessities for their processes, have the technical and economical conditions to cogenerate, that is, to produce steam and electricity simultaneously. In fact, many of such facilities that exist at the moment in any country, count on cogeneration equipment that allows them to obtain their electricity at a very low cost, taking advantage of the existence steam generators that anyway are indispensable to satisfy their demand. In Mexico, given the existing legal frame, the public services of electricity as well as the oil industry are activities of obligatory character for the State. For these reasons, the subject should be part of the agenda of planning of this power sector. The opportunities to which we are referring to, are valid for the small industries, but from the point of view of the national interest, they are more important for the large size facilities and in that rank, the most numerous are indeed in PEMEX, whereas large energy surplus and capacity would result into cogenerations in refineries and petrochemical facilities and they would be of a high value, precisely for the electricity public service, that is, for the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). [Spanish] En esta ponencia se habla de la cogeneracion en grandes centrales de proceso con o sin excedentes de electricidad, las caracteristicas de plantas de ciclo combinado y se muestra el analisis comparativo en una grafica titulada precio de venta de electricidad en plantas de ciclo combinado y de cogeneracion. Las plantas industriales, tales como refinerias, petroquimicas

  14. Effects of thermal discharge on marine ecosystems. A case study from a coastal power station in Southern Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, G.; De Zio, V.; Pastorelli, A. M.; Rizzi, E.; Rositani, L.; Ungaro, N. [Laboratorio Provinciale di Biologia Marina, Molo Pizzoli, Bari (Italy)

    2000-07-01

    Environmental impact of thermal effluent from a fuel power station (potential production 660x4 MW) was monitored during 1998, when the production was 50%; the thermal discharge area was located on the south-western Adriatic coast (Mediterranean Sea) and two sampling surveys were carried out (February and November) in order to analyze the composition and distribution of phytoplankton and macrobenthos communities. The biological assemblages seemed to be poorly influenced by heat diffusion. Some differences were observed among macrozoobenthos species distribution, nearby the discharge point, probably due to the influence of strong water flow coming out of the discharge duct; in fact, the strong flowing current could affect the bottom features (sedimentation) of the nearest areas. Because of the monitoring design (sampling scheme, short and seasonal time period), the reported results have a preliminary character; additional information from other surveys (to be carried out during the hot seasons and at maximum power station capacity) is needed.

  15. Feasibility assessment of a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in the North Central region of Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilieva Liliya Mihaylova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the topical issue related to the prospects of widespread deployment of electric vehicles and their associated infrastructure in Bulgaria. The main problems hindering the development of electric vehicle transport are summarized and the current status of charging infrastructure in the country is discussed. An approach is proposed for analysis and evaluation of the financial feasibility of investment in a solar-powered charging station for electric vehicles in North Central region of Bulgaria.

  16. Book analysis: the absolute weapon: atomic power and world order. Student report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homrig, M.A.

    1988-04-01

    Bernard Brodie is one of the leading theorists from the golden age of nuclear strategy. His farsighted theories stated in The Absolute Weapon: Atomic Power and World Order, are as fresh today as when he wrote and edited the book in 1945. This paper scrutinizes four of the book's theories in relation to the historical record to confirm whether they continue to have merit as a guide for US nuclear policy. First, he clearly understood the need for a nuclear retaliatory force. Second, he believed low-intensity conflict forces would be required. Third, Brodie thought the superpowers could negotiate arms reductions but believed an arms race was just as likely. Fourth, he did not believe the Soviets would ever launch a surprise attack against the US.

  17. Low-phase noise and high-power laser for Bragg atom interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yuan; Zhang, Ke; Chen, Le-Le; Xu, Wen-Jie; Luo, Qin; Zhou, Min-Kang; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-09-01

    We present a laser system with low-phase noise and an output power up to 8.8 W at 780 nm for driving Bragg transitions in a 87Rb fountain. An optical phase-locked loop (OPLL) is employed to restrain the phase noise that arises from the spatial separation of the two Bragg beams at low frequencies. The residual phase variance is suppressed by two orders around 400 Hz. A Mach-Zehnder Bragg atom interferometer, based on the four-photon recoil scheme, has been realized using this laser system. This interferometer shows a resolution of 5 ×1 0-9g at an integration time of 1200 s for gravity measurements.

  18. Low-phase noise and high-power laser for Bragg atom interferometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Cheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a laser system with low-phase noise and an output power up to 8.8 W at 780 nm for driving Bragg transitions in a   87Rb fountain. An optical phase-locked loop (OPLL is employed to restrain the phase noise that arises from the spatial separation of the two Bragg beams at low frequencies. The residual phase variance is suppressed by two orders around 400 Hz. A Mach-Zehnder Bragg atom interferometer, based on the four-photon recoil scheme, has been realized using this laser system. This interferometer shows a resolution of 5×10−9g at an integration time of 1200 s for gravity measurements.

  19. Effects of design on cost of flat-plate solar photovoltaic arrays for terrestrial central station power applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsou, P.; Stolte, W.

    1978-01-01

    The paper examines the impact of module and array designs on the balance-of-plant costs for flat-plate terrestrial central station power applications. Consideration is given to the following types of arrays: horizontal, tandem, augmented, tilt adjusted, and E-W tracking. The life-cycle cost of a 20-year plant life serves as the costing criteria for making design and cost tradeoffs. A tailored code of accounts is developed for determining consistent photovoltaic power plant costs and providing credible photovoltaic system cost baselines for flat-plate module and array designs by costing several varying array design approaches.

  20. Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations, Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer as well, Published in 2010, 1:2400 (1in=200ft) scale, Effingham County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Electric Power Plants and Generation Stations dataset current as of 2010. Power Plants - is a seperate layer, however, we have them included in local building layer...

  1. 76 FR 59745 - Virginia Electric and Power Company; North Anna Power Station, Unit Nos. 1 and 2; Exemption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-27

    ..., ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear Generating Station from August 20- 30, 1992... consistent with the recommendations in NUREG-1474, ``Effect of Hurricane Andrew on the Turkey Point Nuclear...) during declarations of severe weather conditions such as tropical storm and hurricane force winds at the...

  2. Construction project and its current situation of Hekinan thermal power station. Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho no kensetsu keikaku oyobi jokyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mita, T. (Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan))

    1990-07-31

    Chubu Power Supply Co. started the construction project of No.1, 2 and 3 machines of Hekinan Thermal Power Station using coal in stable supply as its fuel on the seaside reclaimed land of Hekinan City, Aichi Prefecture in order to secure a power supply for the next term and diversify its power supplies aiming at starting of their respective commercial operations in October, 1991, June, 1992 and June, 1993. This article introduces the construction project of the above power station and its stage of construction. Concerning the steam conditions thereof, 246kg/cm {sup 2} g and 538 centigrade/566 centigrade were adopted for No.1 and 2 machines and for No.3 machine, improvement of its performance is intended by raising its reheating steam temperature to 593 centigrade. The boiler facilities are indoor type and adopt the coal burning supercritical pressure once-through type variable pressure operating system. They are designed to be able to cope with any intermediate load operation. Concerning the turbine equipment, the steam turbine is a machine of 3600 rpm which adopts 40 inch long vanes for its final stage vanes in order to improve its efficiency. For the environmental protection facility, the measures of reducing nitrogen oxides, dust and sulfur oxides, etc. are adopted. 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-01-01

    Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks) powered by solar energy sources a long-term promisi...

  4. Atmospheric pollution from power stations: current situation and prospects with regard to legislation. Contaminacion atmosferica de las centrales termicas: situacion actual y perspectivas legislativas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castiella Villacampa, E.; Asuar Alonso, O.

    1989-11-01

    The monitoring of emissions into the atmosphere from thermal power plants is of vital importance. The recently published Board Directive of 24 November 1988 is therefore one step further towards the protection of the environment. As a consequence, power stations need to make a great effort to adapt. We have also seen that power stations have the technology to quantify their emissions and that they appear to have sufficient time available to reduce them. 5 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Distributions of Pu isotopes in seawater and bottom sediments in the coast of the Japanese archipelago before and soon after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, Shinji; Watabe, Teruhisa; Takata, Hyoe

    2015-04-01

    A radioactivity measurement survey was carried out from 24 April 2008 to 3 June 2011 to determine the levels of plutonium isotopes and (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios in the marine environments off the sites of commercial nuclear power stations around the Japanese islands; the sampling period extended to two months after the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station accident. In our previous study (Oikawa et al., 2015), data on Pu isotopes and (241)Am in sediments have already been reported. In this study, we report those on Pu isotopes in seawater as well as sediments, and the characteristics of sediments in addition (e.g., ignition loss and biogenic opals). Concentrations of (239+240)Pu in seawater and bottom sediments remained nearly constant at all sampling locations during the survey period. In addition, no regional differences were observed in the (239+240)Pu concentrations in surface waters. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were found in bottom waters at deeper sampling locations, but the (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios were nearly constant regardless of the water depth. Higher (239+240)Pu concentrations were also found in bottom sediments at deeper sampling locations, but vice versa for (240)Pu/(239)Pu atom ratios as reported in the previous report. The sediments samples from deeper locations showed the higher percentage of ignition loss as well as the higher content of biogenic opal. There was likely to be some driving force participating in the transfer of Pu isotopes associated with biogenic substances to the deeper seabed. The present survey showed that the accident at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station did not contribute much to the inventory of Pu isotopes in the adjacent sea area. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  6. VUV absorption spectroscopy measurements of the role of fast neutral atoms in a high-power gap breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filuk; Bailey; Cuneo; Lake; Nash; Noack; Maron

    2000-12-01

    The maximum power achieved in a wide variety of high-power devices, including electron and ion diodes, z pinches, and microwave generators, is presently limited by anode-cathode gap breakdown. A frequently discussed hypothesis for this effect is ionization of fast neutral atoms injected throughout the anode-cathode gap during the power pulse. We describe a newly developed diagnostic tool that provides a direct test of this hypothesis. Time-resolved vacuum-ultraviolet absorption spectroscopy is used to directly probe fast neutral atoms with 1-mm spatial resolution in the 10-mm anode-cathode gap of the SABRE 5 MV, 1 TW applied-B ion diode. Absorption spectra collected during Ar RF glow discharges and with CO2 gas fills confirm the reliability of the diagnostic technique. Throughout the 50-100 ns ion diode pulses no measurable neutral absorption was seen, setting upper limits of (0.12-1.5)x10(14) cm(-3) for ground-state fast neutral atom densities of H, C, N, O, and F. The absence of molecular absorption bands also sets upper limits of (0.16-1.2)x10(15) cm(-3) for common simple molecules. These limits are low enough to rule out ionization of fast neutral atoms as a breakdown mechanism. Breakdown due to ionization of molecules is also found to be unlikely. This technique can now be applied to quantify the role of neutral atoms in other high-power devices.

  7. On maximizing profit of wind-battery supported power station based on wind power and energy price forecasting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Muhammad; Aguilera, Ricardo P.; Savkin, Andrey V.

    2017-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework to develop an optimal power dispatch strategy for grid-connected wind power plants containing a Battery Energy Storage System (BESS). Considering the intermittent nature of wind power and rapidly varying electricity market price, short-term forecasting...... Dynamic Programming tool which can incorporate the predictions of both wind power and market price simultaneously as inputs in a receding horizon approach. The proposed strategy is validated using real electricity market price and wind power data in different scenarios of BESS power and capacity...... of these variables is used for efficient energy management. The predicted variability trends in market price assist in earning additional income which subsequently increase the operational profit. Then on the basis of income improvement, optimal capacity of the BESS can be determined. The proposed framework utilizes...

  8. Design of an off-grid hybrid PV/wind power system for remote mobile base station: A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mulualem T. Yeshalem

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a clear challenge to provide reliable cellular mobile service at remote locations where a reliable power supply is not available. So, the existing Mobile towers or Base Transceiver Station (BTSs uses a conventional diesel generator with backup battery banks. This paper presents the solution to utilizing a hybrid of photovoltaic (PV solar and wind power system with a backup battery bank to provide feasibility and reliable electric power for a specific remote mobile base station located at west arise, Oromia. All the necessary modeling, simulation, and techno-economic evaluation are carried out using Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewable (HOMER software. The best optimal system configurations namely PV/Battery and PV/Wind/Battery hybrid systems are compared with the conventional stand-alone diesel generator (DG system. Findings indicated that PV array and battery is the most economically viable option with the total net present cost (NPC of $\\$$57,508 and per unit cost of electricity (COE of $\\$$0.355. Simulation results show that the hybrid energy systems can minimize the power generation cost significantly and can decrease CO2 emissions as compared to the traditional diesel generator only. The sensitivity analysis is also carried out to analysis the effects of probable variation in solar radiation, wind speed, diesel price and average annual energy usage of the system load in the optimal system configurations.

  9. An Electric Power Consumption Analysis System for the Installation of Electric Vehicle Charging Stations

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Seongpil Cheon; Suk-Ju Kang

    2017-01-01

    .... Therefore, it is difficult to calculate and predict the power load in real time. In this paper, we propose a new model for estimating the electric power consumption from the supplied information, i.e...

  10. CONVERSION OF BOILER-HOUSES IN MINI-THERMAL POWER STATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Sednin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available One of the methods that makes it possible to increase operational efficiency of heat supply  systems is development of power-and-heat generation on the basis of boiler houses of small and average power. The paper gives main prerequisites for selection of variants and power of power-and-heat generation (cogeneration installations on the basis of gas-piston engines which are to be used at heating boiler houses.

  11. COMBINED CYCLE GAS TURBINE FOR THERMAL POWER STATIONS: EXPERIENCE IN DESIGNING AND OPERATION, PROSPECTS IN APPLICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Karnitsky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper has reviewed main world tendencies in power consumption and power system structure. Main schemes of combined cycle gas turbines have been considered in the paper. The paper contains an operational analysis of CCGT blocks that are operating within the Belarusian energy system. The analysis results have been given in tables showing main operational indices of power blocks

  12. Overview of insoluble radioactive cesium particles emitted from the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satou, Yukihiko

    2017-04-01

    In the early stage of the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Station (F1NPS) accident, number of spot type contamination has been observed in computed autoradiography (Kashimura 2013, Shibata 2013, Satou 2014). It's means presence of radioactive particles, however, insoluble cesium particle was overlooked because cesium, which is dominant radioactive element in the accident, becomes ionized in the environment. Adachi et al. (2013) showed presence of cesium (Cs)-bearing particles within air dust sample collected at Tsukuba, 170 km south from the Fukushima site, in midnight of 14 to morning of 15 March 2011. These particles were micrometer order small particles and Cs was could be detectable as element using an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). However, other radioactive elements such as Co-60, Ru-103 and uranium, which were dominant element of radioactive particles delivered from Chernobyl accident, could not detected. Abe et al. (2014) employed a synchrotron radiation (SR)-micro(μ)-X-ray analysis to the Cs-bearing particles, and they were concluded that (1) contained elements derived from nuclear fission processes and from nuclear reactor and fuel materials; (2) were amorphous; (3) were highly oxidized; and (4) consisted of glassy spherules formed from a molten mixture of nuclear fuel and reactor material. In addition, Satou et al. (2016) and Yamaguchi et al. (2016) disclosed that silicate is main component of Cs-bearing particles. Satou et al. (2015) discovered two types of radioactive particles from soil samples collected in the vicinity of the F1NPS. These particles were remained in the natural environment more than four years, silicate is main component in common of each group particles. Group A particles were very similar to Cs-bearing particles reported by Adachi et al. except particle shape. On the other hand, group B is big particles found in north area from the F1NPS, and the strongest particles contained 20 kBq of Cs-137 within a particle

  13. Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project, Polk Power Station -- Unit No. 1. Annual report, October 1993--September 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    This describes the Tampa Electric Company`s Polk Power Station Unit 1 (PPS-1) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) demonstration project which will use a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown, entrained-flow coal gasifier to convert approximately 2,300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) coupled with a combined cycle power block to produce a net 250 MW electrical power output. Coal is slurried in water, combined with 95% pure oxygen from an air separation unit, and sent to the gasifier to produce a high temperature, high pressure, medium-Btu syngas with a heat content of about 250 Btu/scf (LHV). The syngas then flows through a high temperature heat recovery unit which cools the syngas prior to its entering the cleanup systems. Molten coal ash flows from the bottom of the high temperature heat recovery unit into a water-filled quench chamber where it solidifies into a marketable slag by-product.

  14. Evaluation of environmental data relating to selected nuclear power plant sites. The Zion Nuclear Power Station site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murarka, I.P.; Policastro, A.; Daniels, E.; Ferrante, J.; Vaslow, F.

    1976-11-01

    Environmental monitoring data for the years 1972 through 1975 pertaining to the Zion Station, which began commercial operation in 1974, were analyzed by the most practical qualitative and quantitative methods. Thermal plume, water chemistry and aquatic biota data were evaluated and the results are presented. The results showed no significant immediate deleterious effects, thus confirming preoperational predictions. Although the plant has not operated long enough to reveal long-term deleterious effects, the present indications do not lead to a concerned prediction that any are developing. The data utilized, the methods of analysis, and the results obtained are presented in detail, along with recommendations for improving monitoring techniques.

  15. 77 FR 36300 - In the Matter of Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Haddam Neck Plant; Confirmatory Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... ownership of any registered classes of Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company stock. V In accordance with... system does not support unlisted software, and the NRC Meta System Help Desk will not be able to offer... adjudicatory E- Filing system may seek assistance by contacting the NRC Meta System Help Desk through the...

  16. 75 FR 24755 - DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-05

    ... COMMISSION DTE ENERGY; Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant Unit 1; Exemption From Certain Low-Level Waste Shipment Tracking Requirements In 10 CFR Part 20 Appendix G 1.0 Background DTE Energy (DTE) is the licensee.... DTE is in the process of decommissioning Fermi-1 and radioactive waste shipments from the site are...

  17. 52 years of Kahl pilot nuclear power station. A special chapter in German technology history come to an end; 52 Jahre Versuchsatomkraftwerk Kahl. Ein besonderes Kapitel deutscher Technikgeschichte ist zu Ende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackel, Walter [VAK GmbH, Karlstein am Main (Germany)

    2011-06-15

    Since October 2010, the site of the former Kahl Experimental Nuclear Power Station (VAK) has been returned to the desired green-field condition. A special chapter in the German history of the use of nuclear power, which has played a major role in the technical and economic development of this energy resource, has come to an end after 52 years. When nuclear power pioneer Heinrich Mandel ordered VAK from AEG in 1958, the mood associated with using this source of energy was different from what it is now. Politicians of all parties were euphoric about the use of nuclear power, while power plant operators were more reluctant. Finally, also RWE was convinced and planned the construction of VAK as a joint venture with the Bayernwerk AG (now E.ON) utility in Grosswelzheim, Bavaria. The objective was clear: 'The order was placed so that the atomic power plant to be built could be used to accumulate experience in planning, operation, in capital cost and operating cost.' After a construction period of only 29 months, VAK was commissioned on November 13, 1960 as the first German nuclear power plant. The US-designed boiling water reactor had been designed for a power of 16,000 kilowatt. After synchronization with the power grid, the first electricity produced from nuclear power in Germany was fed into the interconnected grid system on June 17, 1961. In its 25 years of operation, VAK proved to be a valuable experimental facility. The plant was decommissioned on November 25, 1985 as planned. In order to maintain its experimental character also beyond the operating phase, the operators had agreed from the beginning to demolish VAK completely to green-field conditions immediately after the end of operations. This became official on May 17, 2010, when the plant was released from the scope of the Atomic Energy Act and was granted a permit for demolition under conventional building law. (orig.)

  18. Characterization of aerosol in the atmosphere at Syowa Station by Helium Microwave Induced Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (He-MIP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitoshi Asano

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols at Syowa Station, Antarctica were characterized by helium microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (He-MIP-AES. The He-MIP-AES can be considered as a suitable method for the characterization of the atmospheric particulate matter since measurements of grain size distribution, elemental analysis for each particle, and chemical state analysis can be available simultaneously. Previous characterization methods such as XRF, PIXE and ICP-MS cannot provide in situ analysis and they need a long time to measure of the distribution of the particle diameter and elemental analysis of each particle. The particle samples in the atmosphere were collected on the membrane lter at Syowa Station in Antarctica. The obtained particles were analyzed by the He-MIP-AES (HORIBA, particle analyzer DP-1000. Elemental analysis, chemical state analysis, and grain diameter distribution analysis were performed. The collected particles mainly contain sea salt (Na, Mg and Ca and soil origin constituents (Si and Fe. The counts of each element increase under blizzard and strong wind condition.

  19. Analysis of 2016 Meteorological Data from the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory and Kesselring Site Operations Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aluzzi, F. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-03-16

    Both the Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) in Schenectady, N.Y. and the Kesselring Site Operations (KSO) facility near Ballston Spa, N.Y. are required to estimate the effects of hypothetical emissions of radiological material from their respective facilities by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), which regulates both sites. An atmospheric dispersion model known as CAP88, which was developed and approved by the EPA for such purposes, is used by KAPL and KSO to meet this requirement. CAP88 calculations over a given time period are based on statistical data on the meteorological conditions for that period. Both KAPL and KSO have on-site meteorological towers which take atmospheric measurements at a frequency ideal for EPA regulatory model input. However, an independent analysis and processing of the meteorological data from each tower is required to derive a data set appropriate for use in the CAP88 model. The National Atmospheric Release Advisory Center (NARAC) was contracted to process the meteorological tower data for the 2016 calendar year from both on-site meteorological towers.

  20. Isolation and Characterization of a Thermotolerant Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. JPCCT2 from a Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Itoh, Yoshikane; Sakagami, Keiko; Uchino, Yoshihito; Boonmak, Chanita; Oriyama, Tetsuro; Tojo, Fuyumi; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    A thermotolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacterium strain JPCCT2 was isolated from activated sludge in a thermal power station. Cells of JPCCT2 are short non-motile rods or ellipsoidal. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that JPCCT2 belongs to the genus Nitrosomonas with the highest similarity to Nitrosomonas nitrosa Nm90 (100%), Nitrosomonas sp. Nm148 (99.7%), and Nitrosomonas communis Nm2 (97.7%). However, G+C content of JPCCT2 DNA was 49.1 mol% and clearly di...

  1. Universal turbine for drinking-water power stations; Universell einsetzbare Turbine fuer Wasserversorgungen. Nutzung von Druckreduzierenergie im Gegendruckbereich - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schindelholz, B.; Fritschi, M.

    2009-03-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) takes a look at a universal turbine for use in drinking-water power stations. The aims of the project are discussed and the importance of the turbine's axle seal is stressed. The use of this Pelton turbine operating in a cushion of compressed air is discussed. Counter-pressure control is discussed, as is the air inflow which is needed to replace the air carried out by the water. Industry-partners involved in the project are noted. The importance of using such small-hydro schemes to help meet energy needs is discussed.

  2. Group excitation control of generators in state regional electric power plant transformer station automatic control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gumin, M.I.; Rosman, L.V.; Tarnavskii, V.M.

    1983-01-01

    Group excitation control of electric generators according to standard methods is essential for the management of power plant conditions according to voltage and reactive power. A system is described that provides coordinated changes in the automatic excitation controller set point for generators that operate on common buses. The advantages of the excitation control system are discussed.

  3. High power laser source for atom cooling based on reliable telecoms technology with all fibre frequency stabilisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legg, Thomas; Farries, Mark

    2017-02-01

    Cold atom interferometers are emerging as important tools for metrology. Designed into gravimeters they can measure extremely small changes in the local gravitational field strength and be used for underground surveying to detect buried utilities, mineshafts and sinkholes prior to civil works. To create a cold atom interferometer narrow linewidth, frequency stabilised lasers are required to cool the atoms and to setup and measure the atom interferometer. These lasers are commonly either GaAs diodes, Ti Sapphire lasers or frequency doubled InGaAsP diodes and fibre lasers. The InGaAsP DFB lasers are attractive because they are very reliable, mass-produced, frequency controlled by injection current and simply amplified to high powers with fibre amplifiers. In this paper a laser system suitable for Rb atom cooling, based on a 1560nm DFB laser and erbium doped fibre amplifier, is described. The laser output is frequency doubled with fibre coupled periodically poled LiNbO3 to a wavelength of 780nm. The output power exceeds 1 W at 780nm. The laser is stabilised at 1560nm against a fibre Bragg resonator that is passively temperature compensated. Frequency tuning over a range of 1 GHz is achieved by locking the laser to sidebands of the resonator that are generated by a phase modulator. This laser design is attractive for field deployable rugged systems because it uses all fibre coupled components with long term proven reliability.

  4. 77 FR 24541 - Virginia Electric and Power Company, North Anna Power Station Units 1 and 2, Independent Spent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ... significantly impact the quality of the human environment. The NRC staff concludes that there are no changes... of the environment. The Environmental Assessment and the Finding of No Significant Impact are... Fuel Storage Installation; Exemption 1.0 Background Virginia Electric and Power Company (Dominion, the...

  5. MODEL PREDICTIVE CONTROL FOR PHOTOVOLTAIC STATION MAXIMUM POWER POINT TRACKING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Elzein

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to present an alternative maximum power point tracking, MPPT, algorithm for a photovoltaic module, PVM, to produce the maximum power, Pmax, using the optimal duty ratio, D, for different types of converters and load matching.We present a state-based approach to the design of the maximum power point tracker for a stand-alone photovoltaic power generation system. The system under consideration consists of a solar array with nonlinear time-varying characteristics, a step-up converter with appropriate filter.The proposed algorithm has the advantages of maximizing the efficiency of the power utilization, can be integrated to other MPPT algorithms without affecting the PVM performance, is excellent for Real-Time applications and is a robust analytical method, different from the traditional MPPT algorithms which are more based on trial and error, or comparisons between present and past states. The procedure to calculate the optimal duty ratio for a buck, boost and buck-boost converters, to transfer the maximum power from a PVM to a load, is presented in the paper. Additionally, the existence and uniqueness of optimal internal impedance, to transfer the maximum power from a photovoltaic module using load matching, is proved.

  6. Higher Efficiency and Temperature Reliability of Steam Generators at Thermal Power Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Kelbaliev

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Methods for higher power unit efficiency and decrease of specific fuel consumption for electric-power generation have been considered in the paper. The paper reveals that a heat exchange intensification makes a positive effect on efficiency and temperature reliability of power engineering equipment while using coil and artificially turbulized (contoured pipes. Results of experimental investigations on metal temperature at various mode parameters are proposed in the paper. The paper contains equations for determination of conditions initiating heat-transfer drop.

  7. Measurement of the magnetic properties of P9 and T22 steel taken from service in power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Karimian, N.; Liu, J.; Yin, W.; Davis, C. L.; Peyton, A. J.

    2014-06-01

    With the UK's aging power generation network, life-extension of steel plant components is a critical issue. However, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, techniques must be developed to properly assess the level of degradation in power station steels. Electromagnetic inspection has the potential to quantify the level of degradation through in-situ measurements at elevated temperatures. This paper reports the results of tests carried out on thermally treated P9 and T22 steel samples with different microstructural states using major and minor B-H loop measurements and magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements. The results show that by careful selection of minor loop parameters, specific to the material under inspection and the material change under consideration, correlations can established between EM properties and material properties such as Vickers hardness. These results will be used as a basis for the further development of a fully field deployable device.

  8. Selection of site coolant intake and discharge of shore based power stations - coastal oceanographic considerations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Swamy, G.N.; Suryanarayana, A.; Krishnakumar, V.

    Many new nuclear power plants, reactors are proposed along coastal area of Indian coastline apart from the existing ones. All these, being ultimately a heat exchange process, necessitate enormous quantity of cooling water drawn from the sea...

  9. Construction and environmental aspects of hydroelectric power stations; Bauliche Gestaltung und Umweltaspekte von Wasserkraftanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesecke, J. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Wasserbau

    1997-12-31

    In terms of environmental-friendliness, inexhaustibility, availability, non-pollution and cost conditions, hydro power is the most obvious renewable energy source. Harnessing of hydro power does interfere with nature. But there are ways of reconciling economic and ecological concerns. (orig.) [Deutsch] Im Hinblick auf Umweltfreundlichkeit, Unerschoepflichkeit, Verfuegbarkeit, Schadstofffreiheit und Kostenlage stellt die Wasserkraft die vorrangige erneuerbare Energiequelle dar. Ihre Nutzung fuehrt zu Eingriffen in die Natur. Es gibt jedoch Wege, die Belange der Oekonomie und der Oekologie ausgewogen aufeinander abzustimmen. (orig.)

  10. Evaluation of the prompt alerting systems at four nuclear power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Towers, D.A.; Anderson, G.S.; Keast, D.N.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Desrosiers, A.E.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents evaluations of the prompt notification siren systems at the following four US nuclear power facilities: Trojan, Three Mile Island, Indian Point, and Zion. The objective of these evaluations was to provide examples of an analytical procedure for predicting siren-system effectiveness under specific conditions in the 10-mile emergency planning zone (EPZ) surrounding nuclear power plants. This analytical procedure is discussed in report No. PNL-4227.

  11. Design Analysis of SNS Target StationBiological Shielding Monoligh with Proton Power Uprate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bekar, Kursat B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Ibrahim, Ahmad M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    This report documents the analysis of the dose rate in the experiment area outside the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) target station shielding monolith with proton beam energy of 1.3 GeV. The analysis implemented a coupled three dimensional (3D)/two dimensional (2D) approach that used both the Monte Carlo N-Particle Extended (MCNPX) 3D Monte Carlo code and the Discrete Ordinates Transport (DORT) two dimensional deterministic code. The analysis with proton beam energy of 1.3 GeV showed that the dose rate in continuously occupied areas on the lateral surface outside the SNS target station shielding monolith is less than 0.25 mrem/h, which complies with the SNS facility design objective. However, the methods and codes used in this analysis are out of date and unsupported, and the 2D approximation of the target shielding monolith does not accurately represent the geometry. We recommend that this analysis is updated with modern codes and libraries such as ADVANTG or SHIFT. These codes have demonstrated very high efficiency in performing full 3D radiation shielding analyses of similar and even more difficult problems.

  12. Transmit Power Minimization and Base Station Planning for High-Speed Trains with Multiple Moving Relays in OFDMA Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghazzai, Hakim

    2016-03-15

    High-speed railway system equipped with moving relay stations placed on the middle of the ceiling of each train wagon is investigated. The users inside the train are served in two hops via the orthogonal frequency-division multiple access (OFDMA) technology. In this work, we first focus on minimizing the total downlink power consumption of the base station (BS) and the moving relays while respecting specific quality of service (QoS) constraints. We first derive the optimal resource allocation solution in terms of OFDMA subcarriers and power allocation using the dual decomposition method. Then, we propose an efficient algorithm based on the Hungarian method in order to find a suboptimal but low complexity solution. Moreover, we propose an OFDMA planning solution for high-speed train by finding the maximal inter-BS distance given the required user data rates in order to perform seamless handover. Our simulation results illustrate the performance of the proposed resource allocation schemes in the case of the 3GPP Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) and compare them with previously developed algorithms as well as with the direct transmission scenario. Our results also highlight the significant planning gain obtained thanks to the use of multiple relays instead of the conventional single relay scenario.

  13. Optimization of the operating conditions of gas-turbine power stations considering the effect of equipment deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Kozhevnikov, A. I.

    2017-10-01

    In recent years in most power systems all over the world, a trend towards the growing nonuniformity of energy consumption and generation schedules has been observed. The increase in the portion of renewable energy sources is one of the important challenges for many countries. The ill-predictable character of such energy sources necessitates a search for practical solutions. Presently, the most efficient method for compensating for nonuniform generation of the electric power by the renewable energy sources—predominantly by the wind and solar energy—is generation of power at conventional fossil-fuel-fired power stations. In Russia, this problem is caused by the increasing portion in the generating capacity structure of the nuclear power stations, which are most efficient when operating under basic conditions. Introduction of hydropower and pumped storage hydroelectric power plants and other energy-storage technologies does not cover the demand for load-following power capacities. Owing to a simple design, low construction costs, and a sufficiently high economic efficiency, gas turbine plants (GTPs) prove to be the most suitable for covering the nonuniform electric-demand schedules. However, when the gas turbines are operated under varying duty conditions, the lifetime of the primary thermostressed components is considerably reduced and, consequently, the repair costs increase. A method is proposed for determination of the total operating costs considering the deterioration of the gas turbine equipment under varying duty and start-stop conditions. A methodology for optimization of the loading modes for the gas turbine equipment is developed. The consideration of the lifetime component allows varying the optimal operating conditions and, in some cases, rejecting short-time stops of the gas turbine plants. The calculations performed in a wide range of varying fuel prices and capital investments per gas turbine equipment unit show that the economic effectiveness can

  14. Nanolithography with metastable helium atoms in a high-power standing-wave light field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petra, S.J.H.; Feenstra, L.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2004-01-01

    We have created periodic nanoscale structures in a gold substrate with a lithography process using metastable triplet helium atoms that damage a hydrophobic resist layer on top of the substrate. A beam of metastable helium atoms is transversely collimated and guided through an intense standing-wave

  15. Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory annual environmental monitoring report. Calendar Year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    The results of the effluent and environmental monitoring programs at the three Knolls Atomic Power Laboratory (KAPL) sites are summarized and assessed in this report. Operations at the three KAPL sites resulted in no significant release of hazardous substances or radioactivity to the environment. The effluent and environmental monitoring programs conducted by KAPL are designed to determine the effectiveness of treatment and control methods, to provide measurement of the concentrations in effluents for comparison with applicable standards, and to assess resultant concentrations in the environment. The monitoring programs include analyses of samples of liquid and gaseous effluents for chemical constituents and radioactivity as well as monitoring of environmental air, water, sediment, and fish. Radiation measurements are also made around the perimeter of each site and at off-site background locations. KAPL environmental controls are subject to applicable state and federal regulations governing use, emission, treatment, storage and/or disposal of solid, liquid and gaseous materials. Some non-radiological water and air emissions are generated and treated on-site prior to discharge to the environment. Liquid effluents and air emissions are controlled and monitored in accordance with permits issued by the Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection (CTDEP) for the Windsor Site and by the New York State Department of Environmental Conservation (NYSDEC) for the Knolls and Kesselring Sites. The liquid effluent monitoring data show that KAPL has maintained a high degree of compliance with permit requirements. Where required, radionuclide air emission sources are authorized by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The non-radiological air emissions, with the exception of opacity for the boilers, are not required to be monitored.

  16. The Definition Method and Optimization of Atomic Strain Tensors for Nuclear Power Engineering Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguo Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A common measure of deformation between atomic scale simulations and the continuum framework is provided and the strain tensors for multiscale simulations are defined in this paper. In order to compute the deformation gradient of any atom m, the weight function is proposed to eliminate the different contributions within the neighbor atoms which have different distances to atom m, and the weighted least squares error optimization model is established to seek the optimal coefficients of the weight function and the optimal local deformation gradient of each atom. The optimization model involves more than 9 parameters. To guarantee the reliability of subsequent parameters identification result and lighten the calculation workload of parameters identification, an overall analysis method of parameter sensitivity and an advanced genetic algorithm are also developed.

  17. Magnetic Surveys for Mapping of Ultramafic Bodies on the Site of the Ohi Nuclear Power Station, Central Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okuma, S.; Makino, M.; Miyakawa, A.; Nakatsuka, T.; Iwamori, A.; Tanaka, Y.; Kudo, S.; Yanagida, M.; Sasaki, T.; Sugimori, T.; Kitao, H.; Asahi, N.; Shiomi, T.; Higashida, Y.

    2016-12-01

    The Ohi nuclear power station is located at the northern Oshima Peninsula in the Wakasa Bay on the coast of Japan Sea, central Japan. The geology of the site of the power station is composed mainly of shales, diabases, gabbros and ultramafic rocks of the Paleozoic Yakuno Ophiolite. An evaluation of the power station on conformity to the new regulatory requirements for nuclear power plants has been conducted. Various surveys such as tectonic geomorphological, trenching and drilling were conducted to better understand the fracture zones in the gabbro and ultramafic complex. As a result, the fracture zones can be classified into two types: faults found only in the complex and landslides seen in the upper parts of the ultramafic bodies. Whereas, magnetic susceptibilities were measured for whole cores from drilling and the upper parts of the ultramafic bodies showed high magnetic susceptibilities (> 10-2 SI). To map the distribution of ultramafic bodies, we conducted magnetic surveys on ground and at sea around Daibahama beach in December 2015. A ground magnetic survey was carried out on a grid and along a specified line on a small peninsula and some reeves by using a proton magnetometer. A seaborne magnetic survey was also conducted by a small rubber boat on which a Cesium magnetometer was mounted. Both observed data were merged and an IGRF residual magnetic anomaly map was compiled. According to the map, several positive magnetic anomalies lie over the southeastern edge of the estimated distribution area of ultramafic bodies on land, while negative magnetic anomalies are dominant at the northwestern edge. Magnetic susceptibility and NRM measurements were carried out for columnar specimens sampled from drill cores. As a preliminary analysis, we conducted 2D modeling of the specific survey line on a basis of the rock magnetic measurements. A thin dipping-dike with a reverse magnetization can account for the observed magnetic anomalies. However there still remain

  18. Feasibility study and energy efficiency estimation of geothermal power station based on medium enthalpy water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borsukiewicz-Gozdur Aleksandra

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the work presented are the results of investigations regarding the effectiveness of operation of power plant fed by geothermal water with the flow rate of 100, 150, and 200 m3/h and temperatures of 70, 80, and 90 °C, i. e. geothermal water with the parameters available in some towns of West Pomeranian region as well as in Stargard Szczecinski (86.4 °C, Poland. The results of calculations regard the system of geothermal power plant with possibility of utilization of heat for technological purposes. Analyzed are possibilities of application of different working fluids with respect to the most efficient utilization of geothermal energy. .

  19. Simulation of station blackout scenario in low-power and shutdown condition of Westinghouse two-loop plant with RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Se Yun; Ha, Sang Jun [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    A station blackout scenario in low power and shutdown condition of Westinghouse two-loop plant is simulated with RELAP5 code. To evaluate plant safety in station blackout scenario for low-power and shutdown condition, the transient calculation with RELAP5 code has been carried out for a Westinghouse two-loop plant. Without core cooling, the boiling in core and spent fuel pit occurs. The core uncovery is observed about 160 hours and the peak cladding temperature exceeds 1206K at 161.1. Station blackout is the complete loss of alternating current (AC) electrical power to the essential and nonessential switchgear buses in a nuclear power plant. Because many safety systems required for reactor core cooling and containment heat removal depend on AC power, the consequences of a station blackout could be severe. Especially, station blackout in low-power and shutdown condition is one of the current issues. Therefore, the evaluation of plant safety with safety analysis code is opportune.

  20. Electromembrane recycling of highly mineralized alkaline blowdown water from evaporative water treatment plants at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chichirova, N. D.; Chichirov, A. A.; Lyapin, A. I.; Minibaev, A. I.; Silov, I. Yu.; Tolmachev, L. I.

    2016-12-01

    Thermal power stations (TPS) are the main source of highly mineralized effluents affecting the environment. An analysis of their water systems demonstrates that alkaline effluents prevail at TPSs. Extraction of an alkali from highly mineralized effluents can make the recycling of effluents economically feasible. A method is proposed of electromembrane recycling of liquid alkaline highly mineralized wastes from TPSs. The process includes electromembrane apparatuses of two types, namely, a diffusion dialysis extractor (DDE) intended for extraction of the alkali from a highly mineralized solution having a complex composition and an electrodialysis concentrator for increasing the concentration of the extracted solution to a value suitable for use in water treatment plants at TPSs. For implementation of the first process (i.e. the extraction of alkali from alkaline-salt solution) various membranes from various manufacturers were studied: CM-PAD and AM-PAD (Ralex, Czechia), MK-40, MA-40, MA-41, MA-414, and MB-2 (OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot", Russia), AR103-QDF and CR61-CMP (Ionies Inc., USA). The experiments demonstrate that the acceptable degree of separation of the alkali and the salt is achieved in a pair of cation-exchange membranes with the efficiency of separation being higher without an electric field. The highest efficiency was attained with Russian-made membranes (MK-40, OOO OKhK "Shchekinoazot"). A full scale experiment on recycling of highly-mineralized blowdown water from the evaporating water treatment system at the Kazan cogeneration power station No. 3 (TETs-3) was performed in a pilot unit consisting of two electromembrane apparatuses made by UAB "Membraninės Technologijos LT". In the experiments every ton of blowdown water yielded 0.1 t of concentrated alkaline solution with an alkali content of up to 4 wt % and 0.9 t of the softened salt solution suitable for the reuse in the TPS cycle. The power rate is 6 kWh / ton of blowdown water.

  1. Natural radiation exposure in the Campo Arañuelo region in the surroundings of Almaraz nuclear power station (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poncela, L S Quindós; Navarro, P L Fernández; Fernández, C Sainz; Matarranz, J L Martin; García, J Arteche

    2005-01-01

    During 1998 regional surveys were conducted to evaluate natural radiation exposure of people in the vicinity of the six Spanish nuclear power stations. Indoor radon, external gamma dose rates outdoors and indoors and radioactivity in soil were measured in these surveys. The highest mean annual effective dose to the population was found in the surroundings of the Almaraz nuclear power plant in the province of Cáceres and was mainly due to the presence of high radon concentrations in homes. In order to make a more accurate assessment of the dose coming from the radon in this area, a new and more extensive surgery on indoor radon with a total of 380 measurements was carried out in 2000 in the Campo Arañuelo region around the Almaraz nuclear power station. From the results obtained in this survey, a population-weighted mean annual effective dose from radon exposure of 1.7 mSv y(-1), 44% lower than that previously reported in 1998, was estimated for the whole Campo Arañuelo region. The maximum dose value due to radon exposure, about 4 mSv y(-1), was reached in the so-called La Vera area located in the north of this region. The relationship between the indoor radon concentrates experimentally measured, the geological characteristics of this geographic area and the information provided by the radiation map of the Spanish MARNA Project is also analyzed, confirming that La Vera area should be considered as a high radon level area.

  2. Practical experiences with animal fat as added fuel in the Ingolstadt power station; Praktische Erfahrungen bei der versuchsweisen Mitverbrennung von Tierfett im Kraftwerk Ingolstadt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerischer, C.N. [E.ON Kraftwerke GmbH, Kraftwerksgruppe Ingolstadt/Irsching, Grossmehring (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    In 2001 the market was overflowing with animal fat due to the discussion about the bovine spongiform encephalopathy disease. One solution was the use as additional fuel in power plants. The fundamental technical requirements existed in Ingolstadt power station. Economical considerations led to the decision to test animal fat as added fuel. The main experiences are presented and discussed. (orig.)

  3. Cluster Control of Offshore Wind Power Plants Connected to a Common HVDC Station

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Göksu, Ömer; Sakamuri, Jayachandra N.; Rapp, C. Andrea

    2016-01-01

    In this paper a coordinated control for cluster of offshore WPPs connected to the same HVDC connection is being implemented and analyzed. The study is targeting two cases as; coordination of reactive power flow between HVDC converter and the WPP cluster while providing offshore AC grid voltage co...

  4. 47 CFR 74.6 - Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power auxiliary stations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and low power...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO, AUXILIARY, SPECIAL BROADCAST AND OTHER PROGRAM DISTRIBUTIONAL SERVICES General; Rules Applicable to All Services in Part 74 § 74.6 Licensing of broadcast auxiliary and...

  5. A New Stand-Alone Hybrid Power System with Wind Turbine Generator and Photovoltaic Modules for a Small-Scale Radio Base Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Shigeo; Yachi, Toshiaki; Tani, Tatsuo

    This paper proposes a new stand-alone hybrid power system with a wind turbine generator and photovoltaic modules for a small-scale radio base station. We studied the system characteristics by simulation of operation on Yonaguni Island, where wind speed exceeds 4.0m/s throughout the year, and average annual wind speed is about 7.0m/s. The results of simulation show that, to attain a system operation rate of 100%, the base station equipment requires a wind turbine generator output power of 8kW, a photovoltaic output power of 7.6kW, and 3-day backup storage batteries.

  6. Tampa Electric Company, Polk Power Station Unit No. 1. Annual report, January--December 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1993-10-01

    As part of the Tampa Electric Polk Power Unit No. 1, a Texaco pressurized, oxygen-blown entrained-flow coal gasifier will convert approximately 2300 tons per day of coal (dry basis) into a medium-BTU fuel gas with a heat content of about 250 BTU/scf (LHV). Syngas produced in the gasifier flows through a high-temperature heat recovery unit which cools the gases prior to entering two parallel clean-up areas. A portion (up to 50%) of the hot syngas is cooled to 1000{degrees}F and passed through a moving bed of zinc titanate sorbent which removed sulfur containing components of the fuel gas. The project will be the first in the world to demonstrate this advanced metal oxide hot gas desulfurization technology at a commercial scale. The remaining portion of the syngas is cooled to 400{degrees}F for conventional acid gas removal. This portion of the plant is capable of processing between 50% and 100% of the dirty syngas. The cleaned low-BTU syngas is then routed to the combined cycle power generation system where it is mixed with air and burned in the gas turbine combustor. Heat is extracted from the expanded exhaust gases by a heat recovery steam generator to produce high pressure steam. This steam, along with the steam generated in the gasification process, drives a steam turbine to generate an additional 132MW of power. Internal process power consumption is approximately 62MW, and includes power for coal grinding, air separation, and feed pumps. Net output from the IGCC demonstration plant will be 260MW.

  7. Influence of the quality of Greek brown coals on NO{sub x}-SO{sub x} emissions from thermal power stations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kakaras, E.; Ntouros, Z.; Founti, M.; Papageorgiou, N. [National Technical University of Athens, Athens (Greece). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    In the paper, measurements of NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} emissions from the Greek Public Power Corporation power stations at Megalopolis and Ag. Dimitrios are presented. The adopted measuring techniques are described and the effects of fuel and firing system on NO{sub x} emissions and on the natural SO{sub 2} retention in the flue gases are discussed. The Megalopolis power station does not emit considerable levels of NO{sub x} because of the low calorific value of the Megalopolis-lignite. The same does not hold true for the Northern Greece (Ag. Dimitrios) power stations. The different ash composition of the two fuels considerably affects then natural desulphurization of the flue gases. 16 refs., 12 figs., 8 tabs.

  8. [Hygienic problems in the location of modern wind electric power stations in their design].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kireeva, I S; Makhniuk, V M; Akimenko, V Ia; Dumanskiĭ, Iu D; Semashko, P V

    2013-01-01

    Hygienic aspects of the placement of wind power plants (WPP) in connection with the intensive development of wind power and the lack of systematic information on their effects of the environment and living conditions of the population are becoming more actual. In the article there are considered results of the sanitary-epidemiological expertise of the construction project of three modern large wind farm (the South - Ukrainian, Tiligulskaya and Pokrovskaya) with a total capacity offrom 180 to 500 MW of wind farms with 2.3 MW power generators of wind turbines. It is shown that in the process of wind farm construction a contamination of the environment (air soil, ground water) may take place due to the working of construction equipment and vehicle, excavation, welding and other operations, in the exploitation of wind farm there can be created elevated levels of acoustic and electromagnetic pollution in the neighborhood and emergencies with the destruction of WPP in adverse weather conditions. Based on the calculations presented in the projects, and the analysis of data on the impact offoreign windfarm on the environment it was found that the limiting factor of the influence is the wind farm noise pollution in the audio frequency range that extends beyond the territory of wind fields, electromagnetic radiation is recorded within the hygienic standards and below only in the immediate vicinity of its sources (electrical equipment and power lines). For considered modern wind farms there was grounded sanitary protective zone with dimensions of 700 mfrom the outermost wind turbines by the noise and it was recommended compliance distance of200 mfrom the wind turbine to limit any activity and people staying in times of possible emergency situations in adverse weather conditions.

  9. Optimization of hybrid PV/wind power system for remote telecom station

    OpenAIRE

    Paudel, S Subodh; Shrestha, JN; Neto, FJ; Ferreira, JAF; Adhikari, M

    2011-01-01

    The rapid depletion of fossil fuel resources and environmental concerns has given awareness on generation of renewable energy resources. Among the various renewable resources, hybrid solar and wind energy seems to be promising solutions to provide reliable power supply with improved system efficiency and reduced storage requirements for stand-alone applications. This paper presents a feasibility assessment and optimum size of photovoltaic (PV) array, wind turbine and battery bank for a standa...

  10. Operating experience from nuclear power stations in 1993. Betriebserfahrungen mit Kernkraftwerken 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1994-04-01

    This contribution gives a comprehensive survey of the 1993 results of nuclear power plant operation in the Federal Republic of Germany, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden, Switzerland, and Spain. There is information on safety-relevant occurrences, significant backfitting activities, and radioactivity emission throughout the year. After a general survey, individual reactor reports are presented, covering data compilations, illustrations, full-text information, and diagrams such as the annual operating diagram. (UA)

  11. Process optimisation in coal-fired power stations; Prozessoptimierung in Kohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georg, E.

    2004-07-01

    Profitable operation of a power plants requires reconciliation of different goals, i.e. high efficiency, high flexibility, high availability, and low emissions. Optimisation of operation therefore is a time-variable compromise depending on market conditions and load requirements. This is why process optimisation is a difficult task requiring efficient I and C and IT systems which are well matched and integrated. Siemens produces a wide spectrum of such systems for all functions connected with process guidance. (orig.)

  12. A performance study of PEMS applied to the Hsinta power station of Taipower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, T. W.; Chu, H.; Hsu, W. C.; Tu, Y. Y.; Tsai, H. S.; Chen, K. Y.

    2005-01-01

    Predictive emission monitoring systems (PEMS) have been shown to be a promising technology for calculating the emissions from gas-fired stationary sources. One of the first demonstration PEMS in Taiwan was installed and operated successfully at the Hsinta power plant of the Taiwan Power Company (Taipower) in 2000. To improve the accuracy of this PEMS model, further studies were conducted at the same combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) unit #1 of the Hsinta power plant. To optimize the NOX PEMS model, several functions were progressively developed including a log model, a one-level linear model, a three-level linear model, a 15-variable linear model, and a 15-variable with start-up mode model. The latter gave the relative accuracies (RA) and correlation coefficients between PEMS and a continuous emission monitoring system (CEMS) in the range of 3.38-14.77% and 0.955-0.989, respectively, which fulfill the criteria of the USEPA draft on PEMS performance specifications. Similarly, this model demonstrated RAs for low, medium, high level, and a three-level average less than 20% which meet CEMS requirements set out by Taiwan EPA.

  13. Implications of Climate Change on the Heat Budget of Lentic Systems Used for Power Station Cooling: Case Study Clinton Lake, Illinois.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quijano, Juan C; Jackson, P Ryan; Santacruz, Santiago; Morales, Viviana M; García, Marcelo H

    2016-01-05

    We use a numerical model to analyze the impact of climate change-in particular higher air temperatures-on a nuclear power station that recirculates the water from a reservoir for cooling. The model solves the hydrodynamics, the transfer of heat in the reservoir, and the energy balance at the surface. We use the numerical model to (i) quantify the heat budget in the reservoir and determine how this budget is affected by the combined effect of the power station and climate change and (ii) quantify the impact of climate change on both the downstream thermal pollution and the power station capacity. We consider four different scenarios of climate change. Results of simulations show that climate change will reduce the ability to dissipate heat to the atmosphere and therefore the cooling capacity of the reservoir. We observed an increase of 25% in the thermal load downstream of the reservoir, and a reduction in the capacity of the power station of 18% during the summer months for the worst-case climate change scenario tested. These results suggest that climate change is an important threat for both the downstream thermal pollution and the generation of electricity by power stations that use lentic systems for cooling.

  14. [Transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of nuclear power station in closed water body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Guo-Zheng; Xu, Zong-Xue

    2012-07-01

    The transport processes of low-level radioactive liquid effluent of Xianning nuclear power station in the closed water body Fushui Reservoir are simulated using the EFDC model. Six nuclides concentration distribution with different half-lives in the reservoir are analyzed under the condition of 97% guarantee rate incoming water and four-running nuclear power units. The results show that the nuclides concentration distribution is mainly affected by the flow field of the reservoir and the concentration is decided by the half-lives of nuclide and the volume of incoming water. In addition, the influence region is enlarged as increasing of half-life and tends to be stable when the half-life is longer than 5 years. Moreover, the waste water discharged from the outlet of the nuclear power plant has no effect on the water-intake for the outlet located at the upstream of the water-intake and the flow field flows to the dam of the reservoir.

  15. Investigation of Main Radiation Source above Shield Plug of Unit 3 at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratama, Hideo; Kondo, Kenjiro; Suzuki, Seishiro; Tanimura, Yoshihiko; Iwanaga, Kohei; Nagata, Hiroshi

    2017-09-01

    Pulse height distributions were measured using a CdZnTe detector inside a lead collimator to investigate main source producing high dose rates above the shield plugs of Unit 3 at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. It was confirmed that low energy photons are dominant. Concentrations of Cs-137 under 60 cm concrete of the shield plug were estimated to be between 8.1E+9 and 5.7E+10 Bq/cm2 from the measured peak count rate of 0.662 MeV photons. If Cs-137 was distributed on the surfaces of the gaps with radius 6m and with the averaged concentration of 5 points, 2.6E+10 Bq/cm2, total amount of Cs-137 is estimated to be 30 PBq.

  16. XOQDOQ: computer program for the meteorological evaluation of routine effluent releases at nuclear power stations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sagendorf, J.F.; Goll, J.T.; Sandusky, W.F.

    1982-09-01

    Provided is a user's guide for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's (NRC) computer program X0QDOQ which implements Regulatory Guide 1.111. This NUREG supercedes NUREG-0324 which was published as a draft in September 1977. This program is used by the NRC meteorology staff in their independent meteorological evaluation of routine or anticipated intermittent releases at nuclear power stations. It operates in a batch input mode and has various options a user may select. Relative atmospheric dispersion and deposition factors are computed for 22 specific distances out to 50 miles from the site for each directional sector. From these results, values for 10 distance segments are computed. The user may also select other locations for which atmospheric dispersion deposition factors are computed. Program features, including required input data and output results, are described. A program listing and test case data input and resulting output are provided.

  17. Investigation of Main Radiation Source above Shield Plug of Unit 3 at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiratama Hideo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pulse height distributions were measured using a CdZnTe detector inside a lead collimator to investigate main source producing high dose rates above the shield plugs of Unit 3 at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station. It was confirmed that low energy photons are dominant. Concentrations of Cs-137 under 60 cm concrete of the shield plug were estimated to be between 8.1E+9 and 5.7E+10 Bq/cm2 from the measured peak count rate of 0.662 MeV photons. If Cs-137 was distributed on the surfaces of the gaps with radius 6m and with the averaged concentration of 5 points, 2.6E+10 Bq/cm2, total amount of Cs-137 is estimated to be 30 PBq.

  18. Finite element analysis of residual stresses in a letter-box excavation repair weld for Chapelcross Power Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinas, George [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd, Porterfield Road, Renfrew PA4 8UW (United Kingdom); Dauda, Tamba [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd, Porterfield Road, Renfrew PA4 8UW (United Kingdom)]. E-mail: tdauda@mitsuibabcock.com; Moyes, Nicola [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd, Porterfield Road, Renfrew PA4 8UW (United Kingdom); Laird, Alan [Mitsui Babcock Energy Ltd, Porterfield Road, Renfrew PA4 8UW (United Kingdom)

    2005-04-01

    A routine inspection on the heat exchanger 6 boiler in Chapelcross Nuclear Power Station revealed the existence of a crack in the bottom dome of the boiler. A 'letter-box' repair procedure was developed to repair the damage and justify the return to service of the boiler. Due to the location of the repair, it was undesirable to conduct post weld heat treatment (PWHT) because this could result in damage to neighbouring components. A full residual stress programme was conducted in order to justify a non-PWHT repair to the boiler using a temper bead technique on a boiler shell section of up to 44 mm. This paper describes the work conducted during the project and subsequently regarding residual stresses in letterbox excavation repairs.

  19. Establishing an effective dose equivalent monitoring program for a commercial nuclear power station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Barbara Jane

    The purpose of this thesis is to determine whether monitoring personnel with multiple dosimeter badges to determine effective dose equivalent (EDE) is both acceptable to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and practical for the nuclear power industry. Until now, most nuclear power plants have used a single dosimeter or occasionally multiple dosimeters to monitor the "deep dose equivalent (DDE)" as defined by the International Commission on Radiological Units (ICRU). The measurement of EDE, to replace DDE, is now deemed by international and regulatory agencies to better approximate a worker's dose related to long-term risks of occupational radiation exposure. The definition of DDE, and the formulation of EDE for use as a new indicator of occupational exposure, are presented in this thesis. Radiation exposure measurements using multiple dosimeters on each worker for certain tasks were collected for this thesis on workers at a Dominion/Virginia Company nuclear power plant. These multiple dosimeter measurements have been examined to determine how such a new personnel monitoring system compares to the former one at the Dominion plant, in which only one dosimeter reading was used predominately to calculated deep dose equivalent. This is based on the assumption that most workers were exposed to uniform radiation fields and that the single dosimeter reading was representative of the highest average exposure for the worker's task. These multiple dosimetry measurements show that it is both feasible and advantageous to provide such dosimetry in situations where exposures may be non-uniform and significant enough to approach yearly exposure limits in a single day, such as in the tasks required during refueling outages.

  20. Damodar Valley Corporation, Chandrapura Unit 2 Thermal Power Station Residual Life Assessment Summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    The BHEL/NTPC/PFC/TVA teams assembled at the DVC`s Chadrapura station on July 19, 1994, to assess the remaining life of Unit 2. The workscope was expanded to include major plant systems that impact the unit`s ability to sustain generation at 140 MW (Units 1-3 have operated at average rating of about 90 MW). Assessment was completed Aug. 19, 1994. Boiler pressure parts are in excellent condition except for damage to primary superheater header/stub tubes and economizer inlet header stub tubes. The turbine steam path is in good condition except for damage to LP blading; the spar rotor steam path is in better condition and is recommended for Unit 2. Nozzle box struts are severely cracked from the flame outs; the cracks should not be repaired. HP/IP rotor has surface cracks at several places along the steam seal areas; these cracks are shallow and should be machined out. Detailed component damage assessments for above damaged components have been done. The turbine auxiliary systems have been evaluated; cooling tower fouling/blockage is the root cause for the high turbine back pressure. The fuel processing system is one of the primary root causes for limiting unit capacity. The main steam and hot reheat piping systems were conservatively designed and have at least 30 years left;deficiencies needing resolution include restoration of insulation, replacement of 6 deformed hanger clamp/bolts, and adjustment of a few hanger settings. The cold reheat piping system is generally in good condition; some areas should be re-insulated and the rigid support clamps/bolts should be examined. The turbine extraction piping system supports all appeared to be functioning normally.

  1. Prediction of SO{sub 2} pollution incidents near a power station using partially linear models and an historical matrix of predictor-response vectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prada-Sanchez, J.M.; Febrero-Bande, M.; Gonzalez-Manteiga, W. [Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Costos-Yanez, T. [Universidad de Vigo, Dept. de Estadistica e Investigacion Operativa, Orense (Spain); Bermudez-Cela, J.L.; Lucas-Dominguez, T. [Laboratorio, Central Termica de As Pontes, La Coruna (Spain)

    2000-07-01

    Atmospheric SO{sub 2} concentrations at sampling stations near the fossil fuel fired power station at As Pontes (La Coruna, Spain) were predicted using a model for the corresponding time series consisting of a self-explicative term and a linear combination of exogenous variables. In a supplementary simulation study, models of this kind behaved better than the corresponding pure self-explicative or pure linear regression models. (Author)

  2. Model Predictive Control of Offshore Power Stations With Waste Heat Recovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pierobon, Leonardo; Chan, Richard; Li, Xiangan

    2016-01-01

    Rankine cycle (ORC) turbogenerator to increase the energy conversion efficiency. Results show a potential reduction of frequency drop up to 40%for a step in the load set-point of 4 MW, compared to proportional–integral control systems. Fuel savings in the range of 2–3% are also expected by optimizing on...... control (MPC) coupled with a steady-state performance optimizer has been developed in the SIMULINK language and is documented in the paper. The test case is the regulation of a power system serving an oil and gas platform in the Norwegian Sea. One of the three gas turbines is combined with an organic...

  3. Rebuilding the Chalberhoeni small hydro power station in Saanen, Switzerland; Chalberhoeni - Rapport Final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavin, G. [Stucky SA, Renens (Switzerland); Wagner, T. [Sigmaplan, Berne (Switzerland)

    2009-07-01

    These two final illustrated reports for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deal with various aspects of the Chalberhoeni small hydro project in Saanen, Switzerland. The first report presents data on the catchment area involved, available head, residual water quantities, installed power and annual production figures. Investments and operating costs are looked at. The second report describes the project and discusses regional planning aspects, hydrological basics and environmental issues in connection with the renewal project, including details on invertebrates found in the stream and their relevance to fishing and nature protection issues.

  4. Techno-Economic Evaluation of a Stand-Alone Power System Based on Solar Power/Batteries for Global System for Mobile Communications Base Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy consumption in cellular networks is receiving significant attention from academia and the industry due to its significant potential economic and ecological influence. Energy efficiency and renewable energy are the main pillars of sustainability and environmental compatibility. Technological advancements and cost reduction for photovoltaics are making cellular base stations (BSs; a key source of energy consumption in cellular networks powered by solar energy sources a long-term promising solution for the mobile cellular network industry. This paper addresses issues of deployment and operation of two solar-powered global system for mobile communications (GSM BSs that are being deployed at present (GSM BS 2/2/2 and GSM BS 4/4/4. The study is based on the characteristics of South Korean solar radiation exposure. The optimum criteria as well as economic and technical feasibility for various BSs are analyzed using a hybrid optimization model for electric renewables. In addition, initial capital, replacement, operations, maintenance, and total net present costs for various solar-powered BSs are discussed. Furthermore, the economic feasibility of the proposed solar system is compared with conventional energy sources in urban and remote areas.

  5. Design and construction of coal unloading pier for Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station; Tachibanawan sekitan karyoku hatsudensho yotan sanbashi no sekkei to seko

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tada, K.; Sudo, T. [Electric Power Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-01-05

    Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station located at Kokatsu Island in Tachibana Bay, Anan City, Tokushima Prefecture, Japan is a power station with a power output 2.8 million kW constructed jointly by Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. and Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. Civil works were started in March, 1995. Construction works are carried out for the operation start of No.1 Unit of Shikoku Electric Power Co., Inc. and Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. in July, 2000 and for the operation start of No.2 Unit of Electric Power Development Co., Ltd. in January, 2001. This paper describes an outline of design and construction of a coal unloading pier for the Tachibana Bay Coal-fired Power Station. For the design calculation, loads of unloaders which have a weight over 1,000 tons per unit are dominant on the pier. To endure the horizontal force during earthquake, steel pipe piles with a diameter 1,600 mm were used for the foundation, and RC girder slabs were used for the superstructure. This is called a straight pile-type pier structure. To avoid corrosion of steel piles, FRP cover and polyethylene coating were adopted depending on the place. Electric anticorrosion was adopted in the sea water and sea soil. Placing works of a total of 541 steel pipe piles including 300 piles with a diameter 1,600 mm were successfully completed for 12 months. 4 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Transmission of microwave beamed-power from an orbiting space station to the ground

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Welch, R.M. (Johannes Gutenberg Univ., Mainz, Germany); Davis, J.M.; Cox, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    Transmission efficiencies and surface power densities are calculated from the interaction of a 10 GW microwave beam with rain clouds. Computations are made as a function of (a) frequency (2.45 to 10 GHz); (b) beam nadir angle; (c) raindrop size distribution; and (d) cloud shape. Scattered surface power densities outside of the receiving rectenna do not exceed 10 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/ for frequencies of 2.45 and 3.3 GHz, even for extremely heavy rainfall rates. At higher frequencies exposure levels outside of the rectenna may reach 100 ..mu..W/cm/sup 2/, or two orders of magnitude less than the US safety standard. From the standpoint of public health and safety, the scattering of microwaves by rain clouds is not a serious problem, with scattered fluxes outside of the rectenna much smaller than sidelobe fluxes. Beam losses due to absorption in rain clouds are significant in some cases, with absorption losses far more important than scattering losses. The amount of scattering increases with increasing microwave frequency, increasing drop size and drop concentration and increasing nadir angle of the beam.

  7. District Heating Mode Analysis Based on an Air-cooled Combined Heat and Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pei Feng Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available As an important research subject, district heating with combined heat and power (CHP has significant potential for energy conservation. This paper utilised a 200 MW air-cooled unit as an actual case and presented a design scheme and energy consumption analysis of three typical CHP modes, including the low vacuum mode (LVM, the extraction condensing mode (ECM, and the absorbing heat pump mode (AHPM. The advantages and disadvantages of each mode (including their practical problems were analysed, and suggestions for the best mode were proposed. The energy consumption of the three heating modes changed with the heating load. When the heating load was increased, the net power of the entire system decreased to different degrees. In this paper, the energy conservation effect of the LVM was the most ideal, followed by the ECM and the AHPM. Besides, the LVM and AHPM were able to supply larger heat loads than the ECM, which was limited by the minimum cooling flow of the low pressure cylinder. Furthermore, in order to get a more general conclusion, a similar case with an air-cooled 300 MW unit is studied, showing that the fuel consumption levels of ECM and AHPM have changed.

  8. DC wiring system grounding and ground fault protection issues for central station photovoltaic power plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simburger, E. J.

    1983-01-01

    The DC wiring system for a photovoltaic power plant presents a number of unique challenges to be overcome by the plant designers. There are a number of different configurations that the grounding of the DC wiring system can take, and the choice will affect the number and type of protective devices required to ensure safety of personnel and protection of equipment. The major grounding and fault protection considerations that must be taken into account when selecting the basic overall circuit configuration are summarized. The inherent advantages and disadvantages of each type of circuit grounding (resistance or solid) along with the personnel safety and equipment protection issues for each of these grounding methods are presented.

  9. The Deisch drinking-water power station in Grengiols - Concession project; Trinkwasserkraftwerk Deisch Grengiols VS. Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiller, B.

    2005-07-01

    In this final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE), a project that aims to make use of the potential energy in the drinking-water supply system in Grengiols, Switzerland is looked at. A project is described that aims to make use of the height difference between the Martisberg springs and the reservoir in Grengiols. The specially designed 20 kW Pelton turbine proposed is described. A second, 40 kW turbine is to use excess water from the reservoir. Figures are presented on the energy production to be expected from the installation and the costs involved. The advantages offered by the construction of drinking-water power generation systems are stressed.

  10. A solar powered distillation plant and pump station for use in ocean side desert areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dearien, J.A.; Priebe, S.J.

    1994-12-31

    There are thousands of miles of ocean shoreline which could sustain a productive human existence if sufficient fresh water were available for human consumption and for irrigation of crops. While solar stills can be built to produce fresh water at or close to sea level, raising water to a height sufficient to irrigate crops, even with minimum water usage crops, requires a significant amount of energy. This paper describes a ``no-external power`` process by which seawater can be purified and raised to a height above sea level sufficient to carry on a productive living in certain areas of the world. This device, the Solar Evaporation and Pumping System (SEAPS) is described as to function and areas of use.

  11. Strengthening of poor subsoil: utilization of power station gypsum and coal ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamatsu, T.; Himiya, S.; Ariga, A.; Tokugawa, M.

    1985-01-01

    A current research theme in Japan is the utilisation of flue gas desulfurization gypsum and fly ash (produced as by-products at coal-fired power plants) for improving soil quality and cutting construction costs. In the present report, the authors outline a series of on-site experiments scheduled to be carried out in connection with the slope faces of embankments at the new site of Kanazawa University. The experiments are designed to clarify the best procedures for the use of mixtures of gypsum, fly ash, cement and lime in soil, so as to prevent collapse of slope faces constructed from poor subsoils. A second development target is to ensure that suitable plants can subsequently be grown on embankments built from strengthened soil.

  12. A low-power data acquisition system for geomagnetic observatories and variometer stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Morschhauser

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A modern geomagnetic observatory must provide data of high stability, continuity, and resolution. The INTERMAGNET network has therefore specified quantitative criteria to ensure a high quality standard of geomagnetic observatories. Here, we present a new data acquisition system which was designed to meet these criteria, in particular with respect to 1 Hz data. This system is based on a Raspberry Pi embedded PC and runs a C+ +  data acquisition software. As a result, the data acquisition system is modular, cheap, and flexible, and it can be operated in remote areas with limited power supply. In addition, the system is capable of near-real-time data transmission, using a reverse SSH tunnel to work with any network available. The system hardware was successfully tested at the Niemegk observatory for a period of 1 year and subsequently installed at the Tatuoca observatory in Brazil.

  13. A low-power data acquisition system for geomagnetic observatories and variometer stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morschhauser, Achim; Haseloff, Jürgen; Bronkalla, Oliver; Müller-Brettschneider, Carsten; Matzka, Jürgen

    2017-09-01

    A modern geomagnetic observatory must provide data of high stability, continuity, and resolution. The INTERMAGNET network has therefore specified quantitative criteria to ensure a high quality standard of geomagnetic observatories. Here, we present a new data acquisition system which was designed to meet these criteria, in particular with respect to 1 Hz data. This system is based on a Raspberry Pi embedded PC and runs a C+ + data acquisition software. As a result, the data acquisition system is modular, cheap, and flexible, and it can be operated in remote areas with limited power supply. In addition, the system is capable of near-real-time data transmission, using a reverse SSH tunnel to work with any network available. The system hardware was successfully tested at the Niemegk observatory for a period of 1 year and subsequently installed at the Tatuoca observatory in Brazil.

  14. Leaching study of trace elements from coal ashes: A case study of Bokaro Thermal Power Station "B".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bihari; Kumar, Sanjay; Kumar, Madanjeet

    2004-07-01

    Electricity generation has been increasing at a rapid rate due to rapid industrialization and changing life styles. In our Country coal is the major source of energy since India has vast reserves of thermal power grade coal. Nearly every naturally occurring element is likely to be present in coal and these get entertained in the resultant coal ash. Indian coals contain high ash coupled with low calorific value and consequently resulting huge amount of coal ashes. This ash accumulates in on site piles and ponds thereby resulting in serious environmental problems particularly trace elements contamination of ground and surface waters. This study envisages the environmental assessment of coal ashes from Bokaro Thermal Power Station- Leaching study of coal ashes was made through analysis of leachates from open percolation leaching column experiments over a period of 300 days. Trace elements were observed within the regulatory limits. Many of the trace elements evaluated viz. Ni., Co, Se, Al, As, B, Ba, Sb, Hg, were observed at below detection limits of AAS. Na, K, Ca, Fe, Pb, Cd and other dissolved ions leached at significant concentration levels. This study suggests low cost high volume utilisation of bottom ash as fill material for reclaiming surrounding abandoned mined out areas in an environmentally acceptable manner.

  15. The bioaccumulation of heavy metals in Brassica napus L. in the area around Turów Power Station, Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niedźwiecka Alicja

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Brassica napus L. is a known bioaccumulator of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, chromium, nickel and arsenic from soils. The metal ions are accumulated in the roots, stems, leaves and seeds of the oilseed rape. The samples of soils and plants were collected in the area around the Turów power station (Bogatynia city, Lower Silesia. The soil samples were collected from the surface layer of 0-25 cm. Roots, stems and pods of the oilseed rape were used in the study. The environmental samples were digested in HNO3, 60%, using the Microwave Digestion System. Metal concentrations have been dermined through the FAAS method. Three heavy metals - zinc, copper and lead – have been analyzed. The content of zinc was higher than the content of copper in all samples (plants and soils. In the roots of the oilseed rape higher concentration of metals compared to other parts of the plant was observed. In the soil samples, there was no correlation between the concentration of pollution and the distance from the power plant. Permissible concentrations of heavy metals relative to the standard according to the Polish Ministry of Environment Regulation from September 1st, 2016, have not been exceeded. The permissible pollution indexes (Wn in soils were exceeded compared to the geochemical background in uncontaminated soils of Poland. The bioaccumulation coefficients of heavy metals indicate lower metal concentrations in plants than in soils

  16. Measurement of the magnetic properties of P9 and T22 steel taken from service in power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.W., E-mail: John.Wilson@manchester.ac.uk [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Karimian, N. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Liu, J. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Yin, W. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Davis, C.L. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Peyton, A.J. [School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)

    2014-06-01

    With the UK's aging power generation network, life-extension of steel plant components is a critical issue. However, in order to evaluate the likelihood of component failure, techniques must be developed to properly assess the level of degradation in power station steels. Electromagnetic inspection has the potential to quantify the level of degradation through in-situ measurements at elevated temperatures. This paper reports the results of tests carried out on thermally treated P9 and T22 steel samples with different microstructural states using major and minor B–H loop measurements and magnetic Barkhausen noise measurements. The results show that by careful selection of minor loop parameters, specific to the material under inspection and the material change under consideration, correlations can established between EM properties and material properties such as Vickers hardness. These results will be used as a basis for the further development of a fully field deployable device. - Highlights: • T22 and P9 steel samples thermally treated to create different microstructures. • Major and minor BH loop and Barkhausen noise signals measured. • Permeability curves derived from three different types of minor loop. • Minor loop Barkhausen noise shows loop amplitude required to overcome pinning sites. • Correlations established between EM signal features and Vickers hardness.

  17. Calculating the maintenance demand of power stations; Kalkulation von Instandhaltungsarbeiten an Kraftwerksanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechthold, T.; Schneider, W.

    1995-12-31

    In order to assure economically efficient generation of steam or power one must not leave maintenance to the free play of forces but plan in properly instead. The time requested for maintenance is an essential parameter. In order to determine how much time is needed for maintenance one may use different calculation methods. RWE Energie AG uses a time manangement system which is based on system of predetermined times. Time units of different intensities are prepared with the help of data processing systems, these units are then used to plan and calculate the time needed for maintenance measures. Planned times and planned costs are then used for the planning and calculation of individual commissions and for performance lists of jobs which are given to subcontracting companies. Results from commissioning and operation are described here. (orig.) [Deutsch] Um wirtschaftlich Dampf oder Strom zu produzieren, darf die Abwicklung der Instandhaltung nicht dem freien Spiel der Kraefte ueberlassen werden, sondern muss geplant werden. Dabei ist der Zeitbedarf eine wesentliche Planungsgroesse. Um den notwendigen Zeitbedarf fuer Instandhaltungsmassnahmen zu ermitteln, stehen verschiedene Zeitermittlungsmethoden zur Verfuegung. Die RWE Energie AG verwendet ein Zeitwirtschaftssystem, welches auf den Systemen vorbestimmter Zeiten basiert. Mit Hilfe der Datenverarbeitung werden Zeitbausteine unterschiedlicher Verdichtungsstufen erstellt, die zur Planzeitkalkulation von Instandhaltungsmassnahmen verwendet werden. Die so ermittelten Planzeiten und Plankosten finden sowohl bei der Planung und Kalkulation von Einzelauftraegen als auch bei der Erstellung von Leistungsverzeichnissen zur Fremdvergabe von Instandhaltungsarbeiten Anwendung. (orig.)

  18. Environmentally important elements in fly ashes and their leachates of the power stations of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgakopoulos, A.; Filippidis, A.; Kassoli-Fournaraki, A.; Iordanidis, A.; Fernandez-Turiel, J.L.; Llorens, J.F.; Gimeno, D. [Aristotelian University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Geology

    2002-01-01

    The relative mass of major and trace elements that potentially can be released from the fly ashes generated in the main Greek power plants (Megalopolis A, Amynteon, Agios Dimitrios, Ptolemais, and Kardia) when they are landfilled and exposed to water have been determined. These fly ashes were subject to a one-stage leaching procedure using the Synthetic Groundwater Leaching Procedure (SGLP) test to simulate this situation. Results show that the elements with the highest potential hazard for the environment are S, Ca, Br, I, Mo, and Sr. The elements with a moderate mobility are K, Na, Ti, B, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cs, Li, Rb, Sb, Se, Sn, W, and Zn. Si, Al, Fe, Mg, Ag, As, Be, Bi, Ce, Co, Cu, Dy, Er, Eu, Ga, Gd, Ge, Hf, Ho, La, Lu, Mn, Nb, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sc, Sm, Ta, Tb, Th, Tl, Tm, U, V, Y, Yb, and Zr have a low mobility and, consequently, a low potential hazard for the environment.

  19. MEASUREMENTS OF THE CONFINEMENT LEAKTIGHTNESS AT THE KOLA NUCLEAR POWER STATION (UNIT 2) IN RUSSIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREENE,G.A.; GUPPY,J.G.

    1998-08-01

    This is the final report on the INSP project entitled, ``Kola Confinement Leaktightness'' conducted by BNL under the authorization of Project Work Plan WBS 1.2.2.1. This project was initiated in February 1993 to assist the Russians to reduce risks associated with the continued operation of older Soviet-designed nuclear power plants, specifically the Kola VVER-440/230 Units 1 and 2, through upgrades in the confinement performance to reduce the uncontrolled leakage rate. The major technical objective of this-project was to improve the leaktightness of the Kola NPP VVER confinement boundaries, through the application of a variety of sealants to penetrations, doors and hatches, seams and surfaces, to the extent that current technology permitted. A related objective was the transfer, through training of Russian staff, of the materials application procedures to the staff of the Kola NPP. This project was part of an overall approach to minimizing uncontrolled releases from the Kola NPP VVER440/230s in the event of a serious accident, and to thereby significantly mitigate the consequences of such an accident. The US provided materials, application technology, and applications equipment for application of sealant materials, surface coatings, potting materials and gaskets, to improve the confinement leaktightness of the Kola VVER-440/23Os. The US provided for training of Russian personnel in the applications technology.

  20. 78 FR 63506 - Exelon Generation Company, LLC; Peach Bottom Atomic Power Station, Units 2 and 3; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    .... Unit 1 is permanently shut down, defueled, and is maintained in a safe storage, surveillance, security... PBAPS, Units 2 and 3, consists of hazardous (chemical) wastes, lubrication oil wastes, and sanitary... batteries and discarded fluorescent lights are recycled. Sanitary waste is sent to the onsite sewage...

  1. Demolition of the Rheinsberg nuclear power station. Current status, special occurrences, experience; Der Rueckbau des KKW Rheinsberg. Aktueller Stand, Besonderheiten, Erfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krause, F. [EWN Energiewerke Nord GmbH, Betriebsteil Kernkraftwerk Rheinsberg (Germany)

    2008-04-15

    The Rheinsberg nuclear power station (KKR), like the Greifswald nuclear power station (KGR), is part of Energiewerke Nord GmbH (EWN). Consequently, the demolition strategy, the licensing strategy, the waste management strategy, and project management of both demolition projects follow the principles valid at EWN. As KKR and KGR are located in different federal states, 2 nuclear supervisory authorities in the respective federal states are competent. One licensing procedure applying to both locations was out of the question. In addition to the administrative setup and the technical parameters, there are also differences and special features in the technical equipment of the 2 nuclear power plants and the conditions applying at the locations of KGR and KKR, which must be taken into account. The article refers to some key items of decommissioning the Rheinsberg nuclear power station in the period between 2002 and 2007. On the whole, demolition of the Rheinsberg nuclear power station has progressed well. By late 2007, approx. 76% of the equipment to be demolished has been dismantled. Demolition of the equipment of KKR is to be completed probably by 2012. Since the closure of the Morsleben repository for radioactive waste (ERAM) in September 1998, the solid radioactive waste arising has been disposed of in the Nord interim store (ZLN) near Lubmin. (orig.)

  2. Performance Assessment of a Solar powered Air Quality and Weather Station Placed on a School Rooftop in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summary of compact, roof version of a Village Green Project station installed on a secondary school rooftop in Hong Kong. Preliminary comparison of the station's data against nearby regulatory monitors are summarized.

  3. 700-MW coal fired sliding pressure operation boiler with improving operational characteristics. ; Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc. Hekinan thermal power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuda, J.; Kiyama, K. (Babcock-Hitachi K.K., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-02-01

    In response to requirements of improvements of efficiency and operability to provide demand control and environmental preservation in coal fired boilers, Babcock-Hitachi has endeavored to develop a large capacity coal fired boiler. As a result, Babcock-Hitachi has installed a 700MW supercritical sliding pressure operation coal fired once through boiler at the Hekinan Thermal Power Station Unit No.2 of Chubu Electric Power Co. For this coal fired boiler, spiral water wall construction was adopted to stabilize the furnace outlet water temperature via uniform heat absorption at the furnace. A three-stage spray-type attemperator was also applied to the main steam temperature control to improve load controllability and to correspond to a fluctuation of heat absorption at the furnace and the convection pass zone. Moreover, gas recirculation system, parallel gas damper, and intermediate spray attemperator were used to control the reheat steam temperature. The present article describes design summary and results of trial operation of this large capacity coal fired boiler. 11 figs., 3 tabs.

  4. Control structures design for fossil power station units; Diseno de estructuras de control para unidades termoelectricas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomares Gonzalez, Daniel; Ricano Castillo, Juan Manuel [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1989-12-31

    In this paper are designed an analyzed the control ties of a 300MW fossil unit at different operation levels. The design and analysis were developed on an operation range of 50% to 100% load. The main control ties were studied among which are the feedwater flow, the superheating zone temperatures and the generated output. The technique used for the design is the decomposition in singular values (DSV) of the plant transference matrix. This is a recent technique that permits finding the most important interactions among output-input variables, over a significative frequencies range for the transference matrix of the plant. For this purpose utilizes the control properties of the transference matrix, such as: control effort, output-input interaction and ruggedness with respect to uncertainties. The control structures obtained were tested in a digital model of a fossil plant unit. A comparison study of both structures (original and modified) showed enhancement in the performance of the power plant with modified structure. [Espanol] En este trabajo se disenan y analizan los lazos de control de una unidad termoelectrica de 300 MW, a diferentes niveles de operacion. El diseno y analisis se desarrollo sobre un rango de operacion de 50 a 100 por ciento de carga. Se estudiaron los principales lazos de control entre los que se encuentran el flujo de agua de alimentacion, las temperaturas de la zona de sobrecalentamiento y la potencia generada. La tecnica utilizada para el diseno es la descomposicion en valores singulares (DVS) de la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Esta es una tecnica reciente que permite encontrar las interacciones mas importantes entre variables entrada-salida, sobre un rango de frecuencias significativas para la matriz de transferencia de la planta. Utiliza para ello las propiedades de control de la matriz de transferencia, como son: esfuerzo de control, interaccion entrada-salida y robustez con respecto a incertidumbres. Las estructuras de control

  5. Biomass as auxiliary fuel in brown coal power stations; Verwertung von Biomasse als Zusatzbrennstoff in Braunkohlekraftwerken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papageorgiou, N.; Kakaras, E. [National Technical Univ. Athens (Greece). Thermal Engineering Section

    1998-12-31

    Greek lignite is characterized by a high water and ash content (water content between 56 and 60%, ash content between 11 and 18%), and its calorific value is between 3 200 and 6 000 KJ/kg. The varying coal quality considerably affects the generating performance, and at certain times the planned performance can only be achieved by adding diesel oil, respectively hard coal. In Greece, some 400 000 tons of olive kernel granulated material per year are obtained as by-product during olive oil production. Due to the calorific value of this granulated material with H{sub u} 16 740 KJ/kg, the high content of volatile matter of approximately 75% and an ash content of 17.2% (waterfree), the application of this fuel as additional fuel is interesting with a view to the increase of the calorific value, respectively the stabilizing of the firing. As an alternative to imported coal or oil the co-combustion of this indigenious biomass was examined. In this context, pyrolyse and combustion trials have been carried out at NTUA, Athens. Furthermore, various mixtures of lignite and olive kernel granulated material have been burnt in the Megalopolis Power Plant. This Contribution describes the results of the examination. (orig.) [Deutsch] Griechische Braunkohle ist durch einen hohen Wasser- und Aschegehalt (Wassergehalt 56 bis 60%, Asche 11 bis 18%) gekennzeichnet. Sie hat einen Heizwert von 3 200 bis 6 000 KJ/kg. Die Schwankung der Kohlequalitaet beeinflusst die erzeugte Leistung erheblich, und zu gewissen Zeiten ist es ohne Beimischung von Dieseloel bzw. Steinkohle unmoeglich, die erforderliche Leistung zu erreichen. In Griechenland fallen jaehrlich etwa 400 000 Tonnen Olivenkerngranulat bei der Olivenoelgewinnung als Nebenprodukt an. Der Heizwert dieses Granulats mit H{sub u}{proportional_to}16 740 KJ/kg, der hohe Gehalt an fluechtigen Bestandteilen von etwa 75% (w.f.) und der Ascheanteil von 17,2% machen diesen Brennstoff als Zusatzbrennstoff fuer die Erhoehung des Heizwertes bzw

  6. Train of high-power femtosecond pulses: Probe wave in a gas of prepared atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradyan, Gevorg; Muradyan, Atom Zh.

    2009-09-01

    We present a method for generating a regular train of ultrashort optical pulses in a prepared two-level medium. The train develops from incident monochromatic probe radiation traveling in a medium of atoms, which are in a quantum mechanical superposition of dressed internal states. In the frame of linear theory for the probe radiation, the energy of individual pulses is an exponentially growing function of atom density and of interaction cross section. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the pump field’s generalized Rabi frequency and can be around 1 THz and greater. We also show that the terms, extra to the dipole approximation, endow the gas by a new property: nonsaturating dependence of refractive index on dressing monochromatic field intensity. Contribution of these nonsaturating terms can be compatible with the main dipole approximation term contribution in the wavelength region of about ten micrometers (the range of CO2 laser) or larger.

  7. Efficiency at maximum power of a heat engine working with a two-level atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Rui; Wang, Jianhui; He, Jizhou; Ma, Yongli

    2013-04-01

    We consider the finite-time operation of a quantum heat engine whose working substance is composed of a two-level atomic system. The engine cycle, consisting of two quantum adiabatic and two quantum isochoric (constant-frequency) processes and working between two heat reservoirs at temperatures T(h) and T(c)(engine model based on a mesoscopic or macroscopic system. If the internal friction is included, we find that the EMP decreases as the friction coefficient increases.

  8. Woody biomass-based bioenergy development at the Atikokan Power Generating Station: Local perceptions and public opinions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baten, Cassia Sanzida

    To tackle climate change, reduce air pollution and promote development of renewable energy, the Ontario government is investing in the conversion of the coal-based Atikokan Power Generating Station (APGS) in Atikokan, Ontario, to woody biomass feedstock. This research offers one of the first looks at the perspectives of different individuals and groups on converting woody biomass to energy. Using a combination of study instruments which include literature review, surveys, interviews with key informants, semi-structured interviews, and focus group discussions, this dissertation uses qualitative research to provide a picture of the public's opinions and attitudes towards the APGS biomass energy development. Given Ontario's huge and sustainably managed forest resource, woody biomass is expected to be a major component of renewable energy production in Ontario. The move towards renewable energy that replaces fossil fuels with woody biomass will have considerable socio-economic implications for local and First Nation communities living in and around the bioenergy power generating station. Findings indicate that there is wide support for biomass utilization at the APGS by local people, especially since the project would create sustainable employment. The connection of woody biomass-based energy generation and rural community development provides opportunities and challenges for Atikokan's economic development. Respondents identified economic, environmental and social barriers to biomass utilization, and emphasized trust and transparency as key elements in the successful implementation of the APGS project. As demand for woody biomass-based energy increases, special attention will be needed to ensure and maintain the social, economic and environmental sustainability of biomass use at the APGS. In this research, respondents' views about biomass utilization for energy mainly focused on forest-related issues rather than energy. In Atikokan much of the project's social

  9. The pollution intensity of Australian power stations: a case study of the value of the National Pollutant Inventory (NPI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Minmeng; Mudd, Gavin M

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive analysis of the pollutant emissions from electrical generation facilities reported to Australia's National Pollutant Inventory (NPI). The data, in terms of pollutant intensity with respect to generation capacity and fuel source, show significant variability. Based on reported data, the dominant pathway and environmental segment for emissions is point-source air emissions. Surprisingly, pollutant emissions from power stations are generally a very small fraction of Australia's facility and diffuse emissions, except for F, HCl, NO(x), PM2.5, SO2 and H2SO4 (where it constitutes between 30 and 90% of emissions). In general, natural gas and diesel facilities have higher organic pollutant intensities, while black and brown coal have higher metal/metalloid pollutant intensities and there is a wide variability for inorganic pollutant intensities. When examining pollutant intensities with respect to capacity, there is very little evidence to show that increased scale leads to more efficient operation or lower pollutant intensity. Another important finding is that the pollutant loads associated with transfers and reuse are substantial, and often represent most of the reported pollutants from a given generation facility. Finally, given the issues identified with the NPI data and its use, some possible improvements include the following: (i) linking site generation data to NPI data (especially generation data, i.e., MWh); (ii) better validation and documentation of emissions factors, especially the methods used to derive and report estimates to the NPI; (iii) using NPI data to undertake comparative life cycle impact assessment studies of different power stations and fuel/energy sources, or even intensive industrial regions (especially from a toxicity perspective) and (iv) linking NPI data in a given region to ongoing environmental monitoring, so that loads can be linked to concentrations for particular pollutants and the relevant guidelines

  10. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 1. Main report. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE.

  11. The effects of power station entrainment passage on three species of marine planktonic crustacean, Acartia tonsa (Copepoda), Crangon crangon (Decapoda) and Homarus gammarus (Decapoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Roger N; Seaby, Richard M H

    2004-05-01

    Experiments have been undertaken exposing larval common shrimp (Crangon crangon) and lobster (Homarus gammarus) and adult copepods (Acartia tonsa) to the key stresses of entrainment within power-station cooling-water systems. The apparatus has enabled the testing of mechanical, thermal, chlorine and realistic pressure effects both alone and in combination, the range of stressors spanning the standard conditions found within a temperate coastal direct-cooled power station. Mechanical stresses affected only lobster larvae, pressure changes affected only the Acartia adults. Residual chlorine caused significant mortality of Acartia and shrimp larvae, but had no effect on lobster larvae even at 1 ppm. The temperature increment significantly affected all three species, with a synergistic effect on chlorine sensitivity in the shrimp larvae, but only temperatures higher than would be experienced in a normally-operating power station affected the copepods. The majority of individuals of each species would survive passage through a power-station system under normal conditions. It is notable that, within the species tested, generalizations from the responses of one species to those of another are not valid.

  12. Mapping power-law rheology of living cells using multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Okajima, Takaharu, E-mail: okajima@ist.hokudai.ac.jp [Graduate School of Information Science and Technology, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku N14 W9, Sapporo 060-0814 (Japan)

    2015-10-26

    We present multi-frequency force modulation atomic force microscopy (AFM) for mapping the complex shear modulus G* of living cells as a function of frequency over the range of 50–500 Hz in the same measurement time as the single-frequency force modulation measurement. The AFM technique enables us to reconstruct image maps of rheological parameters, which exhibit a frequency-dependent power-law behavior with respect to G{sup *}. These quantitative rheological measurements reveal a large spatial variation in G* in this frequency range for single cells. Moreover, we find that the reconstructed images of the power-law rheological parameters are much different from those obtained in force-curve or single-frequency force modulation measurements. This indicates that the former provide information about intracellular mechanical structures of the cells that are usually not resolved with the conventional force measurement methods.

  13. The accident at TEPCO's Fukushima-Daiichi Nuclear Power Station: What went wrong and what lessons are universal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omoto, Akira

    2013-12-01

    After a short summary of the nuclear accident at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station, this paper discusses “what went wrong” by illustrating the problems of the specific layers of defense-in-depth (basic strategy for assuring nuclear safety) and “what lessons are universal.” Breaches in the multiple layers of defense were particularly significant in respective protection (a) against natural disasters (first layer of defense) as well as (b) against severe conditions, specifically in this case, a complete loss of AC/DC power and isolation from the primary heat sink (fourth layer of defense). Confusion in crisis management by the government and insufficient implementation of offsite emergency plans revealed problems in the fifth layer of defense. By taking into consideration managerial and safety culture that might have relevance to this accident, in the author's view, universal lessons are as follows: Resilience: the need to enhance organizational capabilities to respond, monitor, anticipate, and learn in changing conditions, especially to prepare for the unexpected. This includes increasing distance to cliff edge by knowing where it exists and how to increase safety margin. Responsibility: the operator is primarily responsible for safety, and the government is responsible for protecting public health and environment. For both, their right decisions are supported by competence, knowledge, and an understanding of the technology, as well as humble attitudes toward the limitations of what we know and what we can learn from others. Social license to operate: the need to avoid, as much as possible regardless of its probability of occurrence, the reasonably anticipated environmental impact (such as land contamination), as well as to build public confidence/trust and a renewed liability scheme.

  14. Effect of water chemistry upsets on the dynamics of corrective reagent dosing systems at thermal power stations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronov, V. N.; Yegoshina, O. V.; Bolshakova, N. A.; Yarovoi, V. O.; Latt, Aie Min

    2016-12-01

    Typical disturbances in the dynamics of a corrective reagent dosing system under unsteady-state conditions during the unsatisfactory operation of a chemical control system with some water chemistry upsets at thermal and nuclear power stations are considered. An experimental setup representing a physical model for the water chemistry control system is described. The two disturbances, which are most frequently encountered in water chemistry control practice, such as a breakdown or shutdown of temperature compensation during pH measurement and an increase in the heat-transfer fluid flow rate, have been modeled in the process of study. The study of the effect produced by the response characteristics of chemical control analyzers on the operation of a reagent dosing system under unsteady-state conditions is important for the operative control of a water chemistry regime state. The effect of temperature compensation during pH measurement on the dynamics of an ammonia-dosing system in the manual and automatic cycle chemistry control modes has been studied. It has been demonstrated that the reading settling time of a pH meter in the manual ammonia- dosing mode grows with a breakdown in temperature compensation and a simultaneous increase in the temperature of a heat-transfer fluid sample. To improve the efficiency of water chemistry control, some systems for the quality control of a heat-transfer fluid by a chemical parameter with the obligatory compensation of a disturbance in its flow rate have been proposed for use. Experimental results will possibly differ from industrial data due to a great length of sampling lines. For this reason, corrective reagent dosing systems must be adapted to the conditions of a certain power-generating unit in the process of their implementation.

  15. Updating source term and atmospheric dispersion simulations for the dose reconstruction in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagai Haruyasu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to assess the radiological dose to the public resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS accident in Japan, especially for the early phase of the accident when no measured data are available for that purpose, the spatial and temporal distribution of radioactive materials in the environment are reconstructed by computer simulations. In this study, by refining the source term of radioactive materials discharged into the atmosphere and modifying the atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition model (ATDM, the atmospheric dispersion simulation of radioactive materials is improved. Then, a database of spatiotemporal distribution of radioactive materials in the air and on the ground surface is developed from the output of the simulation. This database is used in other studies for the dose assessment by coupling with the behavioral pattern of evacuees from the FDNPS accident. By the improvement of the ATDM simulation to use a new meteorological model and sophisticated deposition scheme, the ATDM simulations reproduced well the 137Cs and 131I deposition patterns. For the better reproducibility of dispersion processes, further refinement of the source term was carried out by optimizing it to the improved ATDM simulation by using new monitoring data.

  16. Source Term Analysis for the Nuclear Power Station Goesgen-Daeniken; Quelltermanalysen fuer das Kernkraftwerk Goesgen-Daeniken

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosemann, J.P.; Megaritis, G.; Guentay, S.; Hirschmann, H.; Luebbesmeyer, D.; Lieber, K.; Jaeckel, B.; Birchley, J.; Duijvestijn, G

    2001-08-01

    Analyses are performed for three accident scenarios postulated to occur in the Goesgen Nuclear Power Plant, a 900 MWe Pressurised Water Reactor of Siemens design. The scenarios investigated comprise a Station Blackout and two separate cases of small break loss-of-coolant accident which lead, respectively, to high, intermediate and low pressure conditions in the reactor system. In each case the accident assumptions are highly pessimistic, so that the sequences span a large range of plant states and a damage phenomena. Thus the plant is evaluated for a diversity of potential safety challenges. A suite of analysis tools are used to examine the reactor coolant system response, the core heat-up, melting, fission product release from the reactor system, the transport and chemical behaviour of those fission products in the containment building, and the release of radioactivity (source term) to the environment. Comparison with reference values used by the licensing authority shows that the use of modern analysis tools and current knowledge can provide substantial reduction in the estimated source term. Of particular interest are insights gained from the analyses which indicate opportunities for operators to reduce or forestall the release. (author)

  17. Updating source term and atmospheric dispersion simulations for the dose reconstruction in Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station Accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Haruyasu; Terada, Hiroaki; Tsuduki, Katsunori; Katata, Genki; Ota, Masakazu; Furuno, Akiko; Akari, Shusaku

    2017-09-01

    In order to assess the radiological dose to the public resulting from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident in Japan, especially for the early phase of the accident when no measured data are available for that purpose, the spatial and temporal distribution of radioactive materials in the environment are reconstructed by computer simulations. In this study, by refining the source term of radioactive materials discharged into the atmosphere and modifying the atmospheric transport, dispersion and deposition model (ATDM), the atmospheric dispersion simulation of radioactive materials is improved. Then, a database of spatiotemporal distribution of radioactive materials in the air and on the ground surface is developed from the output of the simulation. This database is used in other studies for the dose assessment by coupling with the behavioral pattern of evacuees from the FDNPS accident. By the improvement of the ATDM simulation to use a new meteorological model and sophisticated deposition scheme, the ATDM simulations reproduced well the 137Cs and 131I deposition patterns. For the better reproducibility of dispersion processes, further refinement of the source term was carried out by optimizing it to the improved ATDM simulation by using new monitoring data.

  18. Isolation and characterization of a thermotolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacterium Nitrosomonas sp. JPCCT2 from a thermal power station.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Yoshikane; Sakagami, Keiko; Uchino, Yoshihito; Boonmak, Chanita; Oriyama, Tetsuro; Tojo, Fuyumi; Matsumoto, Mitsufumi; Morikawa, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    A thermotolerant ammonia-oxidizing bacterium strain JPCCT2 was isolated from activated sludge in a thermal power station. Cells of JPCCT2 are short non-motile rods or ellipsoidal. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated that JPCCT2 belongs to the genus Nitrosomonas with the highest similarity to Nitrosomonas nitrosa Nm90 (100%), Nitrosomonas sp. Nm148 (99.7%), and Nitrosomonas communis Nm2 (97.7%). However, G+C content of JPCCT2 DNA was 49.1 mol% and clearly different from N. nitrosa Nm90, 47.9%. JPCCT2 was capable of growing at temperatures up to 48 °C, while N. nitrosa Nm90 and N. communis Nm2 could not grow at 42°C. Moreover, JPCCT2 grew similarly at concentrations of carbonate 0 and 5 gL(-1). This is the first report that Nitrosomonas bacterium is capable of growing at temperatures higher than 37°C.

  19. Production of demineralized water for use in thermal power stations by advanced treatment of secondary wastewater effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Gkotsis, Petros; Castellana, Massimo; Cartechini, Fabricio; Zouboulis, Anastasios I

    2017-04-01

    The operation and efficiency of a modern, high-tech industrial full-scale water treatment plant was investigated in the present study. The treated water was used for the supply of the boilers, producing steam to feed the steam turbine of the power station. The inlet water was the effluent of municipal wastewater treatment plant of the city of Bari (Italy). The treatment stages comprised (1) coagulation, using ferric chloride, (2) lime softening, (3) powdered activated carbon, all dosed in a sedimentation tank. The treated water was thereafter subjected to dual-media filtration, followed by ultra-filtration (UF). The outlet of UF was subsequently treated by reverse osmosis (RO) and finally by ion exchange (IX). The inlet water had total organic carbon (TOC) concentration 10-12 mg/L, turbidity 10-15 NTU and conductivity 3500-4500 μS/cm. The final demineralized water had TOC less than 0.2 mg/L, turbidity less than 0.1 NTU and conductivity 0.055-0.070 μS/cm. Organic matter fractionation showed that most of the final DOC concentration consisted of low molecular weight neutral compounds, while other compounds such as humic acids or building blocks were completely removed. It is notable that this plant was operating under "Zero Liquid Discharge" conditions, implementing treatment of any generated liquid waste. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Construction of Hekinan thermal power station. ; Founation of stacker and reclaimer. Hekinan karyoku hatsudensho. ; Chountanki kiso no kensetsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanatani, Y.; Tamaki, S. (The Chubu Electric Power Co. Inc., Nagoya (Japan)); Ando, Y.; Nagai, S. (Fudo Construction Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-25

    Hekinan thermal power station is now being constructed at the site on the port of Kinuura in Chita Bay, Aichi Prefecture. Its coal yard has the ground with complex soil layer structures and weak strata of various thickness. Therefore the ground has been improved for the purpose of promoting the settlement due to consolidation and increasing the ground strength. The ballast as a direct foundation of total length 3.1km has been constructed on this ground. Various tests were carried out before constructing the ballast, and the results were reflected in the design. The most important problems to be solved in this construction were how to determine the ground reaction coefficient and how to grasp the residual settlement. The ground reaction coefficient was confirmed by the large plate load test, and the residual settlement was grasped in the reevaluation of the foundation ground of the ballast by the results of promoting consolidation. Consequently, consolidation due to load banking of the improved ground has been promoted a little more than expected, and there has been only a little residual settlement dueto the load of stackers and reclaimers. Thus the reinforcement of the ballast has been minimized. 5 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs.

  1. Further experience with amine form operation of deep bed, full flow condensate polishers at Millstone power station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crone, Lewis E. [Dominion Energy, Inc., Waterford, CT (United States). Millstone Nuclear Power Station

    2012-03-15

    This paper reports on a process for converting and operating deep bed condensate polishing resins in the amine form that has been designed, tested, and implemented at Dominion's Millstone Power Station. The plant employs amine form polishers as part of a strategy to reduce balance of plant corrosion and iron transport, while continuously providing protection of the primary pressure boundary inside the steam generators from chemical assault in the event of a condenser tube leak. Over the last year, Millstone Unit 2 (MP2) has been able to elevate secondary cycle pH to a level congruent with non-polishing plants, and the corresponding decrease in iron transport has allowed Millstone 2 to enter the industry top decile for final feedwater iron concentration. The paper describes the method by which MP2 was able to increase pH using a combination of hydrazine injection and full flow amine form polishers, and the effect on steam generator and balance of plant control parameters. (orig.)

  2. Model depiction of the atmospheric flows of radioactive cesium emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Teruyuki; Misawa, Shota; Morino, Yu; Tsuruta, Haruo; Goto, Daisuke; Uchida, Junya; Takemura, Toshihiko; Ohara, Toshimasa; Oura, Yasuji; Ebihara, Mitsuru; Satoh, Masaki

    2017-12-01

    In this study, a new method is proposed for the depiction of the atmospheric transportation of the 137Cs emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident. This method employs a combination of the results of two aerosol model ensembles and the hourly observed atmospheric 137Cs concentration at surface level during 14-23 March 2011 at 90 sites in the suspended particulate matter monitoring network. The new method elucidates accurate transport routes and the distribution of the surface-level atmospheric 137Cs relevant to eight plume events that were previously identified. The model ensemble simulates the main features of the observed distribution of surface-level atmospheric 137Cs. However, significant differences were found in some cases, and this suggests the need to improve the modeling of the emission scenario, plume height, wet deposition process, and plume propagation in the Abukuma Mountain region. The contributions of these error sources differ in the early and dissipating phases of each event, depending on the meteorological conditions.

  3. Characterisation of fly ashes from 4th Thermal Power Station of Ulaanbaatar city and its applicability for a zeolite synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Temuujin

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fly ash from 4th thermal power station of Ulaanbaatar city have been characterised by x-ray fluorescence (XRF, x-ray diffractometry (XRD, particle size analyzer, specific surface area measurement (BET and scanning electron microscope (SEM observation. It was found that fly ash from Baganuur coal contains over 15 wt.% of calcium oxide (CaO and could be assigned as class C fly ash, according to the International classification. Specific surface area of this fly ash was 2.75 m2/g and mean particle diameter was 59.5 μm. Zeolitic compounds were synthesised by using mixture of this fly ash and a transition aluminium oxide under hydrothermal treatment at 100, 150 and 200°C temperatures for a different duration. Various zeolitic compounds including Na-faujasite and sodium aluminosilicate were synthesised as reaction products.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5564/mjc.v12i0.164 Mongolian Journal of Chemistry Vol.12 2011: 16-19 

  4. High-power Ti:sapphire lasers for spectroscopy of antiprotonic atoms and radioactive ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hori, M., E-mail: Masaki.Hori@mpq.mpg.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany); Dax, A. [University of Tokyo, Department of Physics (Japan); Soter, A. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Quantenoptik (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    The ASACUSA collaboration has developed injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers of linewidth {Gamma}{sub pl} {approx} 6 MHz, pulse energy 50-100 mJ, and output wavelength {lambda} = 726-941 nm. They are being used in two-photon spectroscopy experiments of antiprotonic helium atoms at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN. Ti:sapphire lasers of larger linewidth {Gamma}{sub pl} {approx} 100 MHz but more robust design will also be used in collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) experiments of neutron-deficient francium ions at the ISOLDE facility.

  5. High-power Ti:sapphire lasers for spectroscopy of antiprotonic atoms and radioactive ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, M.; Dax, A.; Soter, A.

    The ASACUSA collaboration has developed injection-seeded Ti:sapphire lasers of linewidth Γpl ˜ 6 MHz, pulse energy 50-100 mJ, and output wavelength λ = 726-941 nm. They are being used in two-photon spectroscopy experiments of antiprotonic helium atoms at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) of CERN. Ti:sapphire lasers of larger linewidth Γpl ˜ 100 MHz but more robust design will also be used in collinear resonance ionization spectroscopy (CRIS) experiments of neutron-deficient francium ions at the ISOLDE facility.

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrese, Marica; Guarino, Vincenzo; Ambrosio, Luigi

    2017-02-13

    Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles).

  7. Atomic Force Microscopy: A Powerful Tool to Address Scaffold Design in Tissue Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marica Marrese

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Functional polymers currently represent a basic component of a large range of biological and biomedical applications including molecular release, tissue engineering, bio-sensing and medical imaging. Advancements in these fields are driven by the use of a wide set of biodegradable polymers with controlled physical and bio-interactive properties. In this context, microscopy techniques such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM are emerging as fundamental tools to deeply investigate morphology and structural properties at micro and sub-micrometric scale, in order to evaluate the in time relationship between physicochemical properties of biomaterials and biological response. In particular, AFM is not only a mere tool for screening surface topography, but may offer a significant contribution to understand surface and interface properties, thus concurring to the optimization of biomaterials performance, processes, physical and chemical properties at the micro and nanoscale. This is possible by capitalizing the recent discoveries in nanotechnologies applied to soft matter such as atomic force spectroscopy to measure surface forces through force curves. By tip-sample local interactions, several information can be collected such as elasticity, viscoelasticity, surface charge densities and wettability. This paper overviews recent developments in AFM technology and imaging techniques by remarking differences in operational modes, the implementation of advanced tools and their current application in biomaterials science, in terms of characterization of polymeric devices in different forms (i.e., fibres, films or particles.

  8. Influence of fly-ash produced by lignite power station on humic substances in ectohumus horizons of Podzols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Jerzy; Jerzykiewicz, Maria; Jamroz, Elżbieta; Kocowicz, Andrzej; Dębicka, Magdalena; Ćwieląg-Piasecka, Irmina

    2017-04-01

    Literature on fly-ash influence on the environment report mainly on alkalization effect on vegetation and changes in chemistry of forest floor. As far as now soils were examined only for changes in pH in surface horizons, physical properties and heavy metal solubility. Soil properties strongly depend on soil organic matter content and humic substances properties, thus their modification plays a crucial role in soil forming processes and changes in the environment. From the other side, the alkalization effects on podzolization processes and particularly on humic substances have not been recognized. The aim of this paper was to characterize changes in properties of humic substances in ectohumus horizons of Podzols affected by alkali blown out from fly-ash dumping site of power station Bełchatów, central Poland. The objects of the investigation were Podzols derived from loose quartz sand, developed under pine forest. They surround the dumping site, which was established to store wastes from lignite combustion in Bełchatów power station. The samples were collected from ectohumus horizons in direct vicinity of the dumping site (50 m) as well as in the control area (7.3 km away) in five replications. Determination of elemental composition and spectroscopic analysis (EPR, FT-IR, ICP-OES and UV-Vis) were performed for humic acids, fulvic acids and humines extracted with standard IHSS procedure. An increase of pH in ectohumus horizons caused by the influence of fly-ash leads to change in humic substances structure. Obtained results showed that humic and fulvic acids from fly-ash affected Podzols indicated higher contents of nitrogen and sulphur, as well as higher O/C and lower C/N ratios. This points out a higher degree of their humification. Also EPR analyses of humic acids and humins affected by fly-ash indicated higher metal ions concentrations. However, the increase of Mn and Fe ions concentration did not affect the Fe(III) and Mn(II) band intensities of EPR spectra

  9. Investigating the knowledge and preparedness of proximal residents to a general-emergency event at the Koeberg Nuclear Power Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto P. Francioli

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ward 23 in the City of Cape Town South Africa is situated within 16 km of Koeberg Nuclear Power Station (KNPS. Massive investments were made to provide the 13 800 residents of Ward 23 with information on emergency preparedness and evacuation procedures in case of a general-emergency event at KNPS. However, it is not known whether these efforts to inform and prepare the proximal residents for a general emergency have been effective or not. The objective of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge of and preparedness for an emergency exhibited by residents of Ward 23. Data was collected through the distribution of semi-structured questionnaires to 204 residents at the study site to ascertain their views on the provision and accessibility of emergency information and to find out whether they utilised this information to prepare themselves. The results revealed that the majority of interviewed residents had very poor knowledge concerning emergency procedures, and few had made any effort to prepare themselves. The majority of better-informed and prepared residents tended to reside closer to KNPS. The poor levels of knowledge and preparedness are attributed to residents’ lack of awareness concerning the availability of information, misconceptions regarding a nuclear hazard and a general emergency event or a lack of incentive to inform themselves due to a perceived high sense of security and the improbability of such an event occurring. To improve resident knowledge and preparedness, efforts should be made to advertise the availability and importance of such emergency information and enhance incentives for residents to inform themselves.

  10. Altitudinal characteristics of atmospheric deposition of aerosols in mountainous regions: Lessons from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanada, Yukihisa; Katata, Genki; Kaneyasu, Naoki; Nakanishi, Chika; Urabe, Yoshimi; Nishizawa, Yukiyasu

    2018-03-15

    To understand the formation process of radiologically contaminated areas in eastern Japan caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) accident, the deposition mechanisms over complex topography are the key factors to be investigated. To characterize the atmospheric deposition processes of radionuclides over complex mountainous topography, we investigated the altitudinal distributions of the radiocesium deposited during the accident. In five selected areas, altitudinal characteristics of the air dose rates observed using airborne surveys were analyzed. To examine the deposition mechanisms, we supplementarily used vertical profiles of radiocesium deposition in each area calculated in the latest atmospheric dispersion model. In southern Iwate, the vertical profile of the observed air dose rate was uniform regardless of altitude. In western Tochigi, the areas with the highest levels of contamination were characteristically distributed in the middle of the mountains, while in southern Fukushima, the areas with the highest contamination levels were enhanced near the summits of mountains. In central Fukushima, high air dose rates were limited to the bottoms of basin-like valley. In the region northwest of FDNPS, the air dose rate was the highest at the bottom of valley topography and decreased gradually with altitude. The simulation results showed that calculated wet deposition and observed vertical profiles of total deposition were similar in areas of southern Iwate and northwest of FDNPS qualitatively, suggesting that the dominant deposition mechanism was wet deposition. In contrast, the atmospheric dispersion model failed to reproduce either the timing of precipitation events or vertical profiles of radiocesium deposition in three other areas. Although it was difficult to elucidate the deposition mechanisms in these areas due to uncertainties of the present model results, potential mechanisms such as cloud water deposition were still proposed based on

  11. Preliminary study on the reactivation of the WERAP small hydro power station in Bubikon; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk WERAP Immobilien AG, Bubikon ZH. Revitalisierung des 100-jaehrigen Kraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretscher, A.; Gutzwiller, S.

    2003-07-01

    This study on the revitalisation of a small hydro power station belonging to old spinning mill in Bubikon, Switzerland, proposes ideas for the reactivation of an old hydropower installation that once helped power a spinning mill. Details are given on the history of the mill and the hydrological conditions to be expected at the site. Three variants are proposed for the refurbishment, including the revision of the power station's existing 44 kW Francis turbine dating from 1908, the addition of further, similar Francis turbine or its replacement with a new 61 kW Francis turbine. The costs and amortisation of the refurbishment variants are examined, the revenues that can be expected from its operation and other financial factors are discussed. Further, environmental and legal aspects of the project are examined and suggestions are made for the next steps to be taken towards the realisation of this small hydropower plant. An annex provides photographs of the location and the power station's equipment.

  12. Plasma enhanced ultrastable self-powered visible-blind deep ultraviolet photodetector based on atomically thin boron nitride sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Peter Xianping; Rivera, Manuel; Velazquez, Rafael; Aldalbahi, Ali

    We extend our work on the use of digitally controlled plasma deposition technique to synthesize high quality boron nitride nanosheets (BNNSs). The nanoscale morphologies and layered growth characteristics of the BNNSs were characterized using scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The experimental data indicated each sample consists of multiple atomically thin, highly transparent BNNSs that overlap one another with certain orientations. Purity and structural properties were characterized by Raman scattering, XRD, FTIR and XPS. Based on these characterizations, 2D BNNSs based self-powered, visible blind deep UV detectors were designed, fabricated, and tested. The bias, temperature, and humidity effects on the photocurrent strength were investigated. A significant increase of signal-to-noise ratio after plasma treatment was observed. The fabricated photodetectors presented exceptional properties: a very stable baseline and a high sensitivity to weak intensities of radiation in both UVC and UVB range while remaining visible-blind, a high signal-to-noise ratio, and excellent repeatability even when the operating temperature was up to 400 0C. The shift in cutoff wavelength was also observed. This work is supported by the Army Research Office/DoD Grant (62826-RT-REP) and the ISPP#0058 at King Saud University.

  13. Activities of radionuclides in the Pacific coastal area of Fukushima since the TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident - Activities of radionuclides in the coast area off Fukushima after TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aono, Tatsuo; Fukuda, Miho; Yoshida, Satoshi [National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba (Japan); Sohtome, Tadahiro; Mizuno, Takuji [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Igarashi, Satoshi [Fukushima Prefecture Fisheries Experimental Station, 970-0316, Fukushima (Japan); Fukushima Prefecture Sea-Farming Association, 970-8044, Fukushima (Japan); Ito, Yukari; Kanda, Jota; Ishimaru, Takashi [Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, 108-0075, Tokyo (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    The accident of TEPCO's Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FDNPS) has caused the release of the huge quantities of radionuclide by the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake and Tsunami, and then the serious problems gave rise to pollution in marine environment widely in the coast area off Fukushima. Monitoring of radioactivity in seawater and biota are important for understanding the dispersion of radionuclides and the effects of radioecology in the marine environment around the coast of Fukushima and the Pacific. The activities of Cs-134 and Cs-137 in seawater decreased exponentially and then were almost same levels before the accident around off Fukushima after about three years from the accident. However, the high activities of radio caesium (Cs) have been monitored in marine biota off Fukushima. The aims of the present study were to examine the temporal changes in radioactivity and to clarify the variation factor and the effect of radioecology in marine biota. Cs-134 and Cs-137, and Ag-110m, were released by this accident, determined in biota sample such as the plankton, fish and benthos, although it is well-known that molluscs and crustaceans concentrate silver in visceral parts. However, Sr-90 was not detected and the activities of plutonium were almost same level before this accident in the marine biota around off Fukushima. Concentration ratios of Cs (CR-Cs) in marine organism were from 2.6 E+1 in the muscle part of squid to 1.0 E+4 in the viscera of clam. The large differences in CR-Cs by the parts of marine organism were not observed. It is suggested that rapid change in the activities of radio Cs and silver in seawater, resuspension of particles from sediments and food chain effects led to high radionuclide activities in marine biota after this accident. CR-Cs in plankton was also calculated with the activities in seawater, which were collected around sampling area during this monitoring period. These resulting values ranged from 5.8 E+1 to 7.8 E+2

  14. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  15. Hydraulic model studies for the new RADAG-run-off hydro power station; Modelluntersuchungen fuer den Neubau des RADAG-Wehrkraftwerks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stelzer, Clemens; Seidel, Frank; Musall, Mark; Oberle, Peter; Bernhart, Hans Helmut; Nestmann, Franz [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Karlsruhe (DE). Inst. fuer Wasser und Gewaesserentwicklung (IWG)

    2010-07-01

    Manifold hydraulic model studies were accomplished within the scope of the reapplication for the concession of the hydropower station RADAG, located at the river Rhine. Main target of these studies was the hydraulic optimisation of the overall concept including the additional power house at the weir. The following article deals with the interaction of the diverse applied physical as well as numerical model parts, the realization of the developed final design and the first operational experiences after start-up. (orig.)

  16. Risk based methods for optimised operation of power stations - a pilot study; Riskbaserade metoder foer optimerad drift av kraftvaermeverk - en foerstudie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunnars, Jens; Gustavsson, Fredrik [Det Norske Veritas AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2002-03-01

    Methods for risk based planning and management of maintenance and operation of mechanical components in power stations have been studied. Risk based methods may be utilised for analysis of the risk level with reference to both safety and economy of the plant. The methods can be an important tool for planning and optimisation of the annual investment in different types of maintenance actions, with the purpose of improving long term profitability. The risk based planning can include: selection of components, inspection intervals, coverage, planning of time for replacement/repair of components, and selection of operation conditions. The first part of the report is a general survey and description of risk based methods for analyse of mechanical components. Some problems specific to power stations are discussed. Application of quantitative RBI is illustrated for the water system in steam boiler number 5 at Aabyverket. The possibilities to decrease inspection costs or increase availability also for power stations is obvious, and is expected to result in competitive advantages. The use and understanding of quantitative reliability methods are a necessary and essential part of any RBI assessment.

  17. Technology, safety and costs of decommissioning a reference boiling water reactor power station. Volume 2. Appendices. Technical report, September 1977-October 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oak, H.D.; Holter, G.M.; Kennedy, W.E. Jr.; Konzek, G.J.

    1980-06-01

    Technology, safety and cost information is given for the conceptual decommissioning of a large (1100MWe) boiling water reactor (BWR) power station. Three approaches to decommissioning, immediate dismantlement, safe storage with deferred dismantlement and entombment, were studied to obtain comparisons between costs, occupational radiation doses, potential dose to the public and other safety impacts. It also shows the sensitivity of decommissioning safety and costs to the power rating of a BWR in the range of 200 to 1100 MWE. This volume contains the appendices.

  18. Automatic Evaluation of Photovoltaic Power Stations from High-Density RGB-T 3D Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis López-Fernández

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available A low-cost unmanned aerial platform (UAV equipped with RGB (Red, Green, Blue and thermographic sensors is used for the acquisition of all the data needed for the automatic detection and evaluation of thermal pathologies on photovoltaic (PV surfaces and geometric defects in the mounting on photovoltaic power stations. RGB imagery is used for the generation of a georeferenced 3D point cloud through digital image preprocessing, photogrammetric and computer vision algorithms. The point cloud is complemented with temperature values measured by the thermographic sensor and with intensity values derived from the RGB data in order to obtain a multidimensional product (5D: 3D geometry plus temperature and intensity on the visible spectrum. A segmentation workflow based on the proper integration of several state-of-the-art geomatic and mathematic techniques is applied to the 5D product for the detection and sizing of thermal pathologies and geometric defects in the mounting in the PV panels. It consists of a three-step segmentation procedure, involving first the geometric information, then the radiometric (RGB information, and last the thermal data. No configuration of parameters is required. Thus, the methodology presented contributes to the automation of the inspection of PV farms, through the maximization of the exploitation of the data acquired in the different spectra (visible and thermal infrared bands. Results of the proposed workflow were compared with a ground truth generated according to currently established protocols and complemented with a topographic survey. The proposed methodology was able to detect all pathologies established by the ground truth without adding any false positives. Discrepancies in the measurement of damaged surfaces regarding established ground truth, which can reach the 5% of total panel surface for the visual inspection by an expert operator, decrease with the proposed methodology under the 2%. The geometric evaluation

  19. Stability of Large Direct-Current Power Systems That Use Switching Converters and the Application of Switching Converters to the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manners, Bruce A.; Gholdston, E. W.; Karimi, K.; Lee, F. C.; Rajagopalan, J.; Panov, Y.

    1997-01-01

    As direct-current space power systems continue to grow in size, switching power converters are playing an ever larger role in power conditioning and control. When a large direct-current system that uses power converters of this type is being designed, special attention must be placed on the electrical stability of the system and of the individual loads on the system. The impedance specification approach for system stability was accomplished as a result of cooperative work of the International Space Station program team, which consists of the NASA Lewis Research Center, the Boeing Company, and Rocketdyne Division/Rockwell International. In addition, major contributions were provided by the Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University working under a grant to NASA Lewis.

  20. Preliminary study on the 'Haegler-Muehle' small hydropower station in Lausen - Revitalisation of a historic power station; Vorstudie Kleinwasserkraftwerk Haegler-Muehle, Lausen. Revitalisierung des historischen Kraftwerkes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlfender, M.; Bretscher, A.; Gutzwiller, S.

    2002-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study made on the revitalisation of a 62 kW power station on the river Ergolz in Lausen in north-western Switzerland. The waters of this river have been used here for driving turbines since 1898. The report describes the proposed reactivation of the existing turbine, built in 1948, that has now been out of service for several years. Various enhancements including measures to cope with flooding and to reduce noise are described. The particular problems of reactivating this hydropower plant, whose turbine house is a listed building, and of operation next to the adjacent old mill - also listed and now converted to apartments - are examined. Also, the possible construction of a fish pass as a prerequisite for green-power certification of the plant is discussed.

  1. Magnetospheric effects of ion and atom injections by the satellite power system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, Y.T.; Luhmann, J.G.; Schulz, M.; Cornwall, J.M.

    1980-07-01

    This is the final report of a two-year assessment of magnetospheric effects of the construction and operation of a satellite power system. This assessment effort is based on application of present scientific knowledge rather than on original scientific research. As such, it appears that mass and energy injections of the system are sufficient to modify the magnetosphere substantially, to the extent of possibly requiring mitigation measures for space systems but not to the extent of causing major redirection of efforts and concepts. The scale of the SPS is so unprecedentedly large, however, that these impressions require verification (or rejection) by in-depth assessment based on original scientific treatment of the principal issues. Indeed, it is perhaps appropriate to state that present ignorance far exceeds present knowledge in regard to SPS magnetospheric effects, even though we only seek to define the approximate limits of magnetospheric modifications here. Modifications of the space radiation environment, of the atmospheric airglow background, of the auroral response to solar activity and of the fluctuations in space plasma density are identified to be the principal impacts.

  2. Atomic Energy of Canada study says nuclear cheaper power for oilsands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-07-01

    The Canadian Energy Research Institute, an independent research organization, reports in a study sponsored by AECL, a federal Crown corporation, that nuclear power is cheaper than gas in creating steam if prices for natural gas remain above $US 3.50 per million BTU. Oil sands producers use natural gas to create steam, which is injected into the ground to melt the bitumen; gas is also used in parts of the oilsands upgrading process. According to reliable estimates some $50 billion of future oilsands investment is now on the drawing board; all of that could be jeopardized by high gas prices. AECL, which has sold only three nuclear reactors since 1996, hopes that the prospect of a continuing high price of natural gas will put it in a favorable position to displace natural gas with nuclear energy as the energy source for creating steam. Environmentalists consider AECL's suggestion of building a nuclear reactor for generating steam for oilsands production as unrealistic, and one that is based on 'nothing but a hope and a prayer'.

  3. Technical and environmental aspects of combined cycle power stations with integrated gasification (CCGI); Aspectos tecnicos y medioambientales de las centrales de ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Mora, Hector Alejandro; Urias Romero, Francisco [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2004-06-15

    A description is presented of the operation of the Combined Cycle Power Stations with Integrated Gasification (CCGI) where the use of solid fuels (coal, vacuum residues, petroleum coke, and biomass) or liquids is possible in a thermal power station with the efficiency and many of the own environmental benefits of the combined cycles. The gasification process is analyzed, that is a thermo-chemical process by means of which a fuel that is in solid state or liquid becomes to the gaseous state by means of a partial oxidation and the obtained gas of this process is called synthesis gas (syngas, by its abbreviations in English) that is used in Combined Cycle Power Stations as a substitute for the natural gas. Also the other components of this type of power stations are shown, such as the air separating unit, and some of the modifications that are due to make to adapt a gas turbine so that it uses syngas, and the considerations of their integration with the air separating unit to optimize the operation of the plant are detailed. A comparison of efficiency values of power stations CCGI with the conventional carbon-electric and the power stations of combined cycle that use natural gas is also shown. Finally the emissions of pollutants of SO{sub 2}, NO{sub x} and CO{sub 2} are analyzed. The possibility of using fuels like petroleum coke and vacuum tower residues that are produced in the Cadereyta refinery is studied for the possible construction of a CCGI power station in Mexico. [Spanish] Se presenta la descripcion del funcionamiento de las centrales ciclo combinado con gasificacion integrada (CCGI) donde es posible el uso de combustibles solidos (carbon, residuos de vacio, coque de petroleo, biomasa) o liquidos en una central termica con la eficiencia y muchos de los beneficios ambientales propios de los ciclos combinados. Se analiza el proceso de gasificacion, que es un proceso termoquimico mediante el cual se convierte un combustible que se encuentra en estado solido o

  4. New construction of the Wespimuehle small hydro power station in Winterthur, Switzerland; Stadt Winterthur (ZH). Neubau Kleinwasserkraftwerk Wespimuehle - Konzessionsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-12-15

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a project concerning the renewal of an existing small hydro installation in the historical Wespimuehle on the Toess river in Winterthur, Switzerland. The existing installation is described as is the station's present concession. The proposals for the renewal of this installation are described and discussed, including water intake, electro-mechanical components and the station's tail water channel. The necessary building work and access to the installations are discussed. Investment, operating and maintenance costs are discussed. The expected profits to be gained from the new installation and the risks involved in the project are discussed.

  5. Insulation for crack protection of brick liners at Tucson Electric Power Company's Irvington Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bochicchio, V.A.; Hodder, T.; Olmsted, C.D.

    1986-04-01

    The chimney designed and constructed for Units 3 and 4 of the Irvington Generating Station Coal Conversion Project consists of a concrete shell with two acid-resistant brick liners. The liners incorporate an exterior layer of fiberglass insulation to reduce the temperature gradient through the brick wall and, hence, the tensile stresses in the brickwork. The reduction or elimination of cracking by means of insulation is expected to result in improved performance of the lining and reduced maintenance. This paper discusses the stresses involved, the usual crack development mechanism, stress testing background, and the Irvington Station brick liner insulation application.

  6. Control the fear atomic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Gwan [I and Book, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-15

    This book has a lot of explanation of nuclear energy with articles. Their titles are the bad man likes atomic, the secret of atom, nuclear explosion, NPT?, the secret of uranium fuel rod, nuclear power plant vs nuclear bomb, I hate atomic, keep plutonium in control, atomic in peace and find out alternative energy.

  7. Energy Management and Control of Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle Charging Stations in a Grid-Connected Hybrid Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidra Mumtaz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The charging infrastructure plays a key role in the healthy and rapid development of the electric vehicle industry. This paper presents an energy management and control system of an electric vehicle charging station. The charging station (CS is integrated to a grid-connected hybrid power system having a wind turbine maximum power point tracking (MPPT controlled subsystem, photovoltaic (PV MPPT controlled subsystem and a controlled solid oxide fuel cell with electrolyzer subsystem which are characterized as renewable energy sources. In this article, an energy management system is designed for charging and discharging of five different plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs simultaneously to fulfil the grid-to-vehicle (G2V, vehicle-to-grid (V2G, grid-to-battery storage system (G2BSS, battery storage system-to-grid (BSS2G, battery storage system-to-vehicle (BSS2V, vehicle-to-battery storage system (V2BSS and vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V charging and discharging requirements of the charging station. A simulation test-bed in Matlab/Simulink is developed to evaluate and control adaptively the AC-DC-AC converter of non-renewable energy source, DC-DC converters of the storage system, DC-AC grid side inverter and the converters of the CS using adaptive proportional-integral-derivate (AdapPID control paradigm. The effectiveness of the AdapPID control strategy is validated through simulation results by comparing with conventional PID control scheme.

  8. Emission and profile characteristic of volatile organic compounds emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant in Liaoning Province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Jianwu; Deng, Hao; Bai, Zhipeng; Kong, Shaofei; Wang, Xiuyan; Hao, Jiming; Han, Xinyu; Ning, Ping

    2015-05-15

    107 kinds of C₂-C₁₂ volatile organic compound (VOC) mass concentrations and profiles for four types of coal-fired stationary sources in Liaoning Province were studied by a dilution sampling system and GC-MS analysis method, which are of significant importance with regard to VOC emissions in northeast of China. The results showed that there were some differences among these VOC source profiles. The total mass concentrations of analyzed 107 VOC species varied from 10,917 to 19,652 μg m(-3). Halogenated hydrocarbons exhibited higher mass percentages for the VOC source profiles of iron smelt (48.8%) and coke production plant (37.7%). Aromatic hydrocarbons were the most abundant in heating station plant (69.1%). Ketones, alcohols and acetates held 45.0% of total VOCs in thermal power plant. For non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs), which are demanded for photochemical assessment in the USA, toluene and n-hexane were the most abundant species in the iron smelt, coke production and thermal power plant, with the mass percentages of 64.8%, 52.7% and 38.6%, respectively. Trimethylbenzene, n-propylbenzene and o,m-ethyltoluene approximately accounted for 70.0% in heating station plant. NMHCs emitted from coke production, iron smelt, heating station and power plant listed above presented different chemical reactivities. The average OH loss rate of NMHCs from heating station, was 4 to 5.6 times higher than that of NMHCs from iron smelt, coke production and power plant, which implies that VOCs emitted from heating station in northeast of China should be controlled firstly to avoid photochemical ozone pollution and protect human health. There are significant variations in the ratios of benzene/toluene and m, p-xylene/ethylbenzene of these coal-fired source profiles. The representativeness of the coal-fired sources studied and the VOC samples collected should be more closely examined. The accuracy of VOC source profiles related to coal-fired processes is highly dependent on

  9. Optimal Site Selection of Wind-Solar Complementary Power Generation Project for a Large-Scale Plug-In Charging Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjun Chen

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wind-solar hybrid power generation project combined with electric vehicle charging stations can effectively reduce the impact on the power system caused by the random charging of electric cars, contribute to the in-situ wind-solar complementary system and reduce the harm arising from its output volatility. In this paper, the site selection index system of a landscape complementary power generation project is established by using the statistical methods and statistical analysis in the literature. Subsequently, using the Analytic Network Process to calculate the index weight, a cloud model was used in combination with preference ranking organization method for enrichment evaluations to transform and sort uncertain language information. Finally, using the results of the decision-making for the location of the Shanghai wind-solar complementary project and by carrying out contrast analysis and sensitivity analysis, the superiority and stability of the decision model constructed in this study was demonstrated.

  10. Simulation of electro-slag re-melting process of 120 t large ingot for nuclear power station and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Xihai

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further research on metallic materials for the super critical rotator and the main pipe line of a nuclear power station is very important for developing the nuclear power industry. In this study, the mathematical model for 120 t large ingot was established, and the computer program ESR3D was developed to simulate the whole electro-slag re-melting (ESR process. This includes the electrode melting, metallic droplet falling, metal pool forming, metal pool and slag pool rising and moving, installation of top crystallizer, ingot solidifying, etc. The simulated average melting rate of the electrode was in good agreement with that in practical production. The optimized parameters were used to produce 80-120 t large ingots, and the quality of the ingots satisfied the specifications of nuclear power and the super critical generating unit.

  11. Hybrid Off-Grid SPV/WTG Power System for Remote Cellular Base Stations Towards Green and Sustainable Cellular Networks in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed H. Alsharif

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to address the sustainability of power resources and environmental conditions for telecommunication base stations (BSs at off-grid sites. Accordingly, this study examined the feasibility of using a hybrid solar photovoltaic (SPV/wind turbine generator (WTG system to feed the remote Long Term Evolution-macro base stations at off-grid sites of South Korea the energy necessary to minimise both the operational expenditure and greenhouse gas emissions. Three key aspects have been discussed: (i optimal system architecture; (ii energy yield analysis; and (iii economic analysis. In addition, this study compares the feasibility of using a hybrid SPV/WTG system vs. a diesel generator. The simulation results show that by applying the proposed SPV/WTG system scheme to the cellular system, the total operational expenditure can be up to 48.52% more efficient and sustainability can be ensured with better planning by providing cleaner energy.

  12. Solar Weather Ice Monitoring Station (SWIMS). A low cost, extreme/harsh environment, solar powered, autonomous sensor data gathering and transmission system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chetty, S.; Field, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Arctic ocean's continuing decrease of summer-time ice is related to rapidly diminishing multi-year ice due to the effects of climate change. Ice911 Research aims to develop environmentally respectful materials that when deployed will increase the albedo, enhancing the formation and/preservation of multi-year ice. Small scale deployments using various materials have been done in Canada, California's Sierra Nevada Mountains and a pond in Minnesota to test the albedo performance and environmental characteristics of these materials. SWIMS is a sophisticated autonomous sensor system being developed to measure the albedo, weather, water temperature and other environmental parameters. The system (SWIMS) employs low cost, high accuracy/precision sensors, high resolution cameras, and an extreme environment command and data handling computer system using satellite and terrestrial wireless communication. The entire system is solar powered with redundant battery backup on a floating buoy platform engineered for low temperature (-40C) and high wind conditions. The system also incorporates tilt sensors, sonar based ice thickness sensors and a weather station. To keep the costs low, each SWIMS unit measures incoming and reflected radiation from the four quadrants around the buoy. This allows data from four sets of sensors, cameras, weather station, water temperature probe to be collected and transmitted by a single on-board solar powered computer. This presentation covers the technical, logistical and cost challenges in designing, developing and deploying these stations in remote, extreme environments. Image captured by camera #3 of setting sun on the SWIMS station One of the images captured by SWIMS Camera #4

  13. Single Atomically Sharp Lateral Monolayer p-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with Extraordinarily High Power Conversion Efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Meng-Lin; Li, Ming-Yang; Retamal, José Ramón Durán; Lam, Kai-Tak; Lin, Yung-Chang; Suenaga, Kazu; Chen, Lih-Juann; Liang, Gengchiau; Li, Lain-Jong; He, Jr-Hau

    2017-08-01

    The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe2 -MoS2 lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Single Atomically Sharp Lateral Monolayer p-n Heterojunction Solar Cells with Extraordinarily High Power Conversion Efficiency

    KAUST Repository

    Tsai, Meng-Lin

    2017-06-26

    The recent development of 2D monolayer lateral semiconductor has created new paradigm to develop p-n heterojunctions. Albeit, the growth methods of these heterostructures typically result in alloy structures at the interface, limiting the development for high-efficiency photovoltaic (PV) devices. Here, the PV properties of sequentially grown alloy-free 2D monolayer WSe-MoS lateral p-n heterojunction are explores. The PV devices show an extraordinary power conversion efficiency of 2.56% under AM 1.5G illumination. The large surface active area enables the full exposure of the depletion region, leading to excellent omnidirectional light harvesting characteristic with only 5% reduction of efficiency at incident angles up to 75°. Modeling studies demonstrate the PV devices comply with typical principles, increasing the feasibility for further development. Furthermore, the appropriate electrode-spacing design can lead to environment-independent PV properties. These robust PV properties deriving from the atomically sharp lateral p-n interface can help develop the next-generation photovoltaics.

  15. Atom for peace, code for war. The technology policy of the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955-1970; Rauhan atomi, sodan koodi. Suomalaisen atomivoimaratkaisun teknopolitiikka 1955-1970

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkikoski, T.

    2011-07-01

    This dissertation investigates the atomic power solution in Finland between 1955 - 1970. During these years a national arrangement for atomic energy technology evolved. The foundations of the Finnish atomic energy policy; the creation of basic legislation and the first governmental bodies, were laid between 1955 - 1965. In the late 1960's, the necessary technological and political decisions were made in order to purchase the first commercial nuclear reactor. A historical narration of this process is seen in the international context of 'atoms for peace' policies and Cold War history in general. The geopolitical position of Finland made it necessary to become involved in the balanced participation in international scientific-technical exchange and assistive nuclear programs. The Paris Peace Treaty of 1947 categorically denied Finland acquisition of nuclear weapons. Accordingly, from the 'Geneva year' of 1955, the emphasis was placed on peaceful purposes for atomic energy as well as on the education of national professionals in Finland. An initiative for the governmental atomic energy commission came from academia but the ultimate motive behind it was an anticipated structural change in the supply of national energy. Economically exploitable hydro power resources were expected to be built within ten years and atomic power was seen as a promising and complementing new energy technology. While importing fuels like coal was out of the question, because of scarce foreign currency, domestic uranium mineral deposits were considered as a potential source of nuclear fuel. Nevertheless, even then nuclear energy was regarded as just one of the possible future energy options. In the mid-1960 s a bandwagon effect of light water reactor orders was witnessed in the United States and soon elsewhere in the world. In Finland, two separate invitations for bids for nuclear reactors were initiated. This study explores at length both their preceding grounds and

  16. Indirect adaptive soft computing based wavelet-embedded control paradigms for WT/PV/SOFC in a grid/charging station connected hybrid power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Sidra; Khan, Laiq; Ahmed, Saghir; Bader, Rabiah

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the indirect adaptive tracking control of renewable energy sources in a grid-connected hybrid power system. The renewable energy systems have low efficiency and intermittent nature due to unpredictable meteorological conditions. The domestic load and the conventional charging stations behave in an uncertain manner. To operate the renewable energy sources efficiently for harvesting maximum power, instantaneous nonlinear dynamics should be captured online. A Chebyshev-wavelet embedded NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT (maximum power point tracking) control paradigm is proposed for variable speed wind turbine-permanent synchronous generator (VSWT-PMSG). A Hermite-wavelet incorporated NeuroFuzzy indirect adaptive MPPT control strategy for photovoltaic (PV) system to extract maximum power and indirect adaptive tracking control scheme for Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) is developed. A comprehensive simulation test-bed for a grid-connected hybrid power system is developed in Matlab/Simulink. The robustness of the suggested indirect adaptive control paradigms are evaluated through simulation results in a grid-connected hybrid power system test-bed by comparison with conventional and intelligent control techniques. The simulation results validate the effectiveness of the proposed control paradigms.

  17. Risk-informed profitability-based analysis support of nuclear power station balance-of-plant change management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liming, J.K. [EQE International, Inc., An ABS Group Company, Irvine, CA (United States); Kee, E.J.; Grantom, C.R.; Richards, A.M. [STP Nuclear Operating Company, Wadsworth, TX (United States)

    2001-07-01

    In this paper, a three-phased method is proposed for the STP Nuclear Operating Company (STPNOC) Risk and Reliability Analysis Section (RRA) to perform analyses and decision-making support for the STPNOC Balance-of-Plant (BOP)Task Force in managing change to simultaneously optimize plant safety and maximize long-term return-on-asset (or profitability) for the South Texas Project Electric Generating Station (STPEGS). (authors)

  18. The Environmental Importance of Flue Gas Purification Systems; Case of Yatağan Thermal Power Station

    OpenAIRE

    Ersoy, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    During the production ofenergy from large combustion plants will cause the combustion process to airpollution stands out various gases. That gases are quite harmful on the urbanecosystem. Wet flue gas desulphurisation systems are preferred because of theirapplicability and easily operable structures without a deep information. TheStation flue gas purification systems are designed as a gas desulphurisationprocess. Each of these units has their own chimney and fluepurificationsystems. In flue g...

  19. Optimal Dispatch Strategy of a Virtual Power Plant Containing Battery Switch Stations in a Unified Electricity Market

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hao Bai; Shihong Miao; Xiaohong Ran; Chang Ye

    2015-01-01

      A virtual power plant takes advantage of interactive communication and energy management systems to optimize and coordinate the dispatch of distributed generation, interruptible loads, energy storage...

  20. A modular, standardised power station concept based on steam and gas turbines; Ein modulares, standardisiertes Kraftwerkskonzept auf der Basis von Dampf- und Gasturbinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeske, H.O.; Walter, P.; Pape, M. [GHH BORSIG Turbomaschinen GmbH, Oberhausen (Germany)

    1998-08-01

    Power stations of intermediate capacity for industrial and community application can today be provided based on modern gas turbines and modularised plant concepts economically in respect of capital costs and operating costs because of the high efficiencies and adherence to environmental requirements. The modular plant concept permits short construction timescales. (orig.) [Deutsch] Kraftwerke mittlerer Leistung fuer industrielle und kommunale Anwendungen lassen sich heute auf der Basis moderner Gasturbinen und modularisierter Anlagenkonzeptionen wirtschaftlich im Hinblick auf die Investitions- und Betriebskosten durch die hohen Wirkungsgrade bei Einhaltung der Umweltauflagen verwirklichen. Die modulare Anlagenkonzeption ermoeglicht kurze Bauzeiten. (orig.)