Sample records for atomic nucleus

  1. Contemporary models of the atomic nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Nemirovskii, P E


    Contemporary Models of the Atomic Nucleus discusses nuclear structure and properties, expounding contemporary theoretical concepts of the low-energy nuclear processes underlying in nuclear models. This book focuses on subjects such as the optical nuclear model, unified or collective model, and deuteron stripping reaction. Other topics discussed include the basic nuclear properties; shell model; theoretical analysis of the shell model; and radiative transitions and alpha-decay. The deuteron theory and the liquid drop nuclear model with its application to fission theory are also mentioned, but o

  2. The Confined Hydrogen Atom with a Moving Nucleus (United States)

    Fernandez, Francisco M.


    We study the hydrogen atom confined to a spherical box with impenetrable walls but, unlike earlier pedagogical articles on the subject, we assume that the nucleus also moves. We obtain the ground-state energy approximately by means of first-order perturbation theory and show that it is greater than that for the case in which the nucleus is clamped…

  3. The Screening Effect in Electromagnetic Production of Electron Positron Pairs in Relativistic Nucleus-Atom Collisions (United States)

    Wu, Jianshi; Derrickson, J. H.; Parnell, T. A.; Strayer, M. R.


    We study the screening effects of the atomic electrons in the electromagnetic production of electron-positron pairs in relativistic nucleus-atom collisions for fixed target experiments. Our results are contrasted with those obtained in bare collisions, with particular attention given to its dependence on the beam energy and the target atom.

  4. Effect of energy transfer from atomic electron shell to an α particle emitted by decaying nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Igashov, S. Yu., E-mail: [All-Russian Research Institute of Automatics (Russian Federation); Tchuvil’sky, Yu. M. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)


    The process of energy transfer from the electron shell of an atom to an α particle propagating through the shell is formulated mathematically. Using the decay of the {sup 226}Ra nucleus as an example, it is demonstrated that this phenomenon increases the α-decay intensity in contrast with other known effects of similar type. Moreover, the α decay of the nucleus is more strongly affected by the energy transfer than by all other effects taken together.

  5. Complex wave-interference phenomena: From the atomic nucleus to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the ...

  6. Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus A Sixty Year Journey 1896 — 1956

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez, Bernard


    Unravelling the Mystery of the Atomic Nucleus tells the story of how, in the span of barely sixty years, we made a transition from the belief that matter was composed of indivisible atoms, to the discovery that in the heart of each atom lies a nucleus which is ten thousand times smaller than the atom, which nonetheless carries almost all its mass, and the transformations of which involve energies that could never be reached by chemical reactions. It was not a smooth transition. The nature of nuclei, their properties, the physical laws which govern their behaviour, and the possibility of controlling to some extent their transformations, were discovered in discontinuous steps, following paths which occasionally led to errors which in turn were corrected by further experimental discoveries. The story begins in 1896 when radioactivity was unexpectedly discovered and continues up to the nineteen-sixties. The authors describe the spectacular progress made by physics during that time, which not only revealed a new f...

  7. Precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms as a probe of low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi H.


    Full Text Available In the exotic atoms where one atomic 1s electron is replaced by a K−, the strong interaction between the K− and the nucleus introduces an energy shift and broadening of the low-lying kaonic atomic levels which are determined by only the electromagnetic interaction. By performing X-ray spectroscopy for Z = 1,2 kaonic atoms, the SIDDHARTA experiment determined with high precision the shift and width for the 1s state of K− p and the 2p state of kaonic helium-3 and kaonic helium-4. These results provided unique information of the kaon-nucleus interaction in the low energy limit.

  8. Improved lower bounds for the atomic charge density at the nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galvez, F.J.; Porras, I.; Angulo, J.C.; Dehesa, J.S.


    Lower bounds F(..cap alpha.., ..beta..) for the electronic charge density of atomic systems with N electrons at the nucleus, p (O), are given by means of any two radial expectation values and , for real ..cap alpha.. not ..beta.., in a rigorous and simple way. In particular, p (O) greater than or equal to (N/8 ..pi..)/sup 2// which improves bounds found previously. An interesting property of these bounds is that they are equal to the exact value p(O) in the limit ..beta.. -> -3 for any fixed ..cap alpha.. value.

  9. Cloud condensation nucleus (CCN behavior of organic aerosol particles generated by atomization of water and methanol solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Rissman


    Full Text Available Cloud condensation nucleus (CCN experiments were carried out for malonic acid, succinic acid, oxalacetic acid, DL-malic acid, glutaric acid, DL-glutamic acid monohydrate, and adipic acid, using both water and methanol as atomization solvents, at three operating supersaturations (0.11%, 0.21%, and 0.32% in the Caltech three-column CCN instrument (CCNC3. Predictions of CCN behavior for five of these compounds were made using the Aerosol Diameter Dependent Equilibrium Model (ADDEM. The experiments presented here expose important considerations associated with the laboratory measurement of the CCN behavior of organic compounds. Choice of atomization solvent results in significant differences in CCN activation for some of the compounds studied, which could result from residual solvent, particle morphology differences, and chemical reactions between the particle and gas phases. Also, significant changes in aerosol size distribution occurred after classification in a differential mobility analyzer (DMA for malonic acid and glutaric acid, preventing confident interpretation of experimental data for these two compounds. Filter analysis of adipic acid atomized from methanol solution indicates that gas-particle phase reactions may have taken place after atomization and before methanol was removed from the sample gas stream. Careful consideration of these experimental issues is necessary for successful design and interpretation of laboratory CCN measurements.

  10. Elastic response of the atomic nucleus in gauge space: Giant Pairing Vibrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortignon, P.F. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy); INFN Sez. di Milano, Milan (Italy); Broglia, R.A. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy); University of Copenhagen, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Due to quantal fluctuations, the ground state of a closed shell system A{sub 0} can become virtually excited in a state made out of the ground state of the neighbour nucleus vertical stroke gs(A{sub 0}+2) right angle (vertical stroke gs(A{sub 0}-2) right angle) and of two uncorrelated holes (particles) below (above) the Fermi surface. These J{sup π} = 0{sup +} pairing vibrational states have been extensively studied with two-nucleon transfer reactions. Away from closed shells, these modes eventually condense, leading to nuclear superfluidity and thus to pairing rotational bands with excitation energies much smaller than ℎω{sub 0}, the energy separation between major shells. Pairing vibrations are the plastic response of the nucleus in gauge space, in a similar way in which low-lying quadrupole vibrations, i.e. surface vibrations with energies much smaller than ℎω{sub 0} whose eventual condensation leads to quadrupole deformed nuclei, provide an example of the plastic nuclear response in 3D space. While much is known, in particular concerning its damping, regarding the counterpart of quadrupole plastic modes, i.e. regarding the giant quadrupole resonances (GQR), J{sup π} = 2{sup +} elastic response of the nucleus with energies of the order of ℎω{sub 0}, little is known regarding this subject concerning pairing modes (giant pairing vibrations, GPV). Consequently, the recently reported observation of L = 0 resonances, populated in the reactions {sup 12}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 14}C and {sup 13}C({sup 18}O,{sup 16}O){sup 15}C and lying at an excitation energy of the order of ℎω{sub 0}, likely constitutes the starting point of a new field of research, that of the study of the elastic response of nuclei in gauge space. Not only that, but also the fact that the GPV have likely been serendipitously observed in these light nuclei when it has failed to show up in more propitious nuclei like Pb, provides unexpected and fundamental insight into the relation

  11. Statistical wave scattering: from the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)


    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, discusses the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to account for the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The main application of the model is the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities whose classical dynamics is chaotic, although it can be applied to the propagation of microwaves through cavities of a similar shape. The model describes well the results from the numerical solutions of the Schrodinger equation for two-dimensional cavities. (Author)

  12. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy and the fascinating angular momentum realm of the atomic nucleus (United States)

    Riley, M. A.; Simpson, J.; Paul, E. S.


    In 1974 Aage Bohr and Ben Mottelson predicted the different ‘phases’ that may be expected in deformed nuclei as a function of increasing angular momentum and excitation energy all the way up to the fission limit. While admitting their picture was highly conjectural they confidently stated ‘...with the ingenious experimental approaches that are being developed, we may look forward with excitement to the detailed spectroscopic studies that will illuminate the behaviour of the spinning quantised nucleus’. High resolution gamma-ray spectroscopy has indeed been a major tool in studying the structure of atomic nuclei and has witnessed numerous significant advances over the last four decades. This article will select highlights from investigations at the Niels Bohr Institute, Denmark, and Daresbury Laboratory, UK, in the late 1970s and early 1980s, some of which have continued at other national laboratories in Europe and the USA to the present day. These studies illustrate the remarkable diversity of phenomena and symmetries exhibited by nuclei in the angular momentum-excitation energy plane that continue to surprise and fascinate scientists.

  13. The estimation of production rates of $\\pi^+K^-, \\pi^-K^+$ and $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atoms in proton-nucleus interactions at 450 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Gorchakov, O


    Short-lived (τ ∼ 3 × 10 − 15 s) π+ K− , K+ π− and π+ π− atoms as well as long- lived (τ ≥ 1 × 10 − 11 s) π+ π− atoms produced in proton-nucleus interactions at 24 GeV/c are observed and studied in the DIRAC experiment at the CERN PS. The purpose of this paper is to show that the yields of the short-lived π+ K−, K+ π− and π+ π− atoms in proton-nucleus interactions at 450 GeV/c and θ lab = 4◦ are estimated to be, respectively, 17, 38 and 16 times higher per time unit. This may allow significantly improving the precision of their lifetime measurement and ππ and πK scattering length combinations |a0 − a2| and |a 1/2 − a3/2| . The yields of the long-lived π+ K− , K+ π− and π+ π− atoms at 450 GeV/c are estimated to be 370, 1600 and 750 times higher than at 24 GeV/c. This may allow the resonance method to be used for measuring the Lamb shift in the ππ atom and a new ππ scattering length combination 2 a0 + a2 to be obtained.

  14. A Radio Jet Drives a Molecular and Atomic Gas Outflow in Multiple Regions within One Square Kiloparsec of the Nucleus of the nearby Galaxy IC5063 (United States)

    Dasyra, K. M.; Bostrom, A. C.; Combes, F.; Vlahakis, N.


    We analyzed near-infrared data of the nearby galaxy IC5063 taken with the Very Large Telescope SINFONI instrument. IC5063 is an elliptical galaxy that has a radio jet nearly aligned with the major axis of a gas disk in its center. The data reveal multiple signatures of molecular and atomic gas that has been kinematically distorted by the passage of the jet plasma or cocoon within an area of ˜1 kpc2. Concrete evidence that the interaction of the jet with the gas causes the gas to accelerate comes from the detection of outflows in four different regions along the jet trail: near the two radio lobes, between the radio emission tip and the optical narrow-line-region cone, and at a region with diffuse 17.8 GHz emission midway between the nucleus and the north radio lobe. The outflow in the latter region is biconical, centered 240 pc away from the nucleus, and oriented perpendicularly to the jet trail. The diffuse emission that is observed as a result of the gas entrainment or scattering unfolds around the trail and away from the nucleus with increasing velocity. It overall extends for ≳700 pc parallel and perpendicular to the trail. Near the outflow starting points, the gas has a velocity excess of 600-1200 km s-1 with respect to ordered motions, as seen in [Fe ii], {Pa}α , or {{{H}}}2 lines. High {{{H}}}2 (1-0) S(3)/S(1) flux ratios indicate non-thermal excitation of gas in the diffuse outflow.

  15. Atomic Number Dependence of Hadron Production at Large Transverse Momentum in 300 GeV Proton--Nucleus Collisions (United States)

    Cronin, J. W.; Frisch, H. J.; Shochet, M. J.; Boymond, J. P.; Mermod, R.; Piroue, P. A.; Sumner, R. L.


    In an experiment at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory we have compared the production of large transverse momentum hadrons from targets of W, Ti, and Be bombarded by 300 GeV protons. The hadron yields were measured at 90 degrees in the proton-nucleon c.m. system with a magnetic spectrometer equipped with 2 Cerenkov counters and a hadron calorimeter. The production cross-sections have a dependence on the atomic number A that grows with P{sub 1}, eventually leveling off proportional to A{sup 1.1}.

  16. The estimation of production rates of $π^+ K^−, π^− K^+$ and $π^+π^−$ atoms in proton-nucleus interactions at 24 and 450 GeV/c

    CERN Document Server

    Gorchakov, O


    Short-lived ( τ ∼ 3 × 10 − 15 s ) π + K − , K + π − and π + π − atoms as well as long-lived ( τ ≥ 1 × 10 − 11 s) π + π − atoms produced in proton-nucleus interactions at 24 GeV/c are observed and studied in the DIRAC experiment at the CERN P S. The purpose of this paper is to show that the yields of the short-lived π + K − , K + π − and π + π − atoms in proton-nucleus interactions at 450 GeV/c and θ lab = 4 ◦ are estimated to be, respectively, 17, 38 and 16 times higher. This may allow sign ificantly improving the precision of their lifetime measurement and ππ and πK scattering length combinations | a 0 − a 2 | and | a 1 / 2 − a 3 / 2 | . The yields of the long-lived π + K − , K + π − and π + π − atoms at 450 GeV/c are estimated to be 180,800 and 370 times higher p er time unit than at 24 GeV/c. This may allow the resonance method to be used for measuring the Lamb shift in the ππ atom and a new ππ scattering length combination 2a0 + a2 to be obtaine...

  17. Into the atom and beyond

    CERN Document Server


    Magnifying an atom to football pitch size. The dense nucleus, carrying almost all the atomic mass, is much smaller than the ball. The players (the electrons) would see something about the size of a marble!

  18. Multifractal analysis of nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, K.; Cherry, M.L.; Jones, W.V.; Wefel, J.P. (Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States)); Dabrowska, A.; Holynski, R.; Jurak, A.; Olszewski, A.; Szarska, M.; Trzupek, A.; Wilczynska, B.; Wilczynski, H.; Wolter, W.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K. (Institute of Nuclear Physics, Kawiory 26 A, 30-055, Krakow (Poland)); Freier, P.S.; Waddington, C.J. (School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55455 (United States)); (KLM Collaboration)


    We have performed a multifractal ([ital G]-moment) analysis of 14.6--200 GeV/nucleon nucleus-nucleus and 200--800 GeV proton-nucleus interactions from KLM and Fermilab E-90 and E-508 emulsion data, including explicit corrections for the finite statistical sample. The corrected slopes of the [ital G] moments for protons, [sup 16]O, [sup 28]Si, and [sup 32]S nuclei show only slight evidence for departures from random behavior, while the normalized entropies appear to show a more consistent departure from randomness, particularly for protons. Given the size of the uncertainties, the results of the fractal analysis are not consistent either with results of intermittency analyses for nucleus-nucleus collisions or with the nonrandom behavior previously reported for leptonic and hadronic collisions. However, because of the effects of statistical noise, the fractal analysis is not as sensitive as the intermittency analysis for detecting nonrandom fluctuations.

  19. Solar Spectroscopy: Atomic Processes (United States)

    Mason, H.; Murdin, P.


    A Greek philosopher called DEMOCRITUS (c. 460-370 BC) first introduced the concept of atoms (which means indivisible). His atoms do not precisely correspond to our atoms of today, which are not indivisible, but made up of a nucleus (protons with positive charge and neutrons which have no charge) and orbiting electrons (with negative charge). Indeed, in the solar atmosphere, the temperature is suc...

  20. Onuf's nucleus X

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D


    The first, second and third sacral segments of 59 human spinal cords were examined in order to localize and describe Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus was found to be situated in the ventral horn of the segments S2 and S3; only in very few spinal cords did it extend into S1. A significant variation...... in the length of the nucleus was observed. Based on the cytoarchitecture the nucleus could be divided in three parts, a cranial, a dorsomedial and a ventrolateral. All parts of the nucleus consisted of chromatin-rich medium-sized neurons, and apparent direct appositions between different cells bodies as well...... as between cell bodies and large dendrites were observed. Characteristic findings in the neuropil surrounding the nucleus were the sparsity of myelinated fibers and the presence of dendritic bundles. The present observations are compared to the descriptions of a morphologically similar nucleus...

  1. Nuclear effects in atomic transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Pálffy, Adriana


    Atomic electrons are sensitive to the properties of the nucleus they are bound to, such as nuclear mass, charge distribution, spin, magnetization distribution, or even excited level scheme. These nuclear parameters are reflected in the atomic transition energies. A very precise determination of atomic spectra may thus reveal information about the nucleus, otherwise hardly accessible via nuclear physics experiments. This work reviews theoretical and experimental aspects of the nuclear effects that can be identified in atomic structure data. An introduction to the theory of isotope shifts and hyperfine splitting of atomic spectra is given, together with an overview of the typical experimental techniques used in high-precision atomic spectroscopy. More exotic effects at the borderline between atomic and nuclear physics, such as parity violation in atomic transitions due to the weak interaction, or nuclear polarization and nuclear excitation by electron capture, are also addressed.

  2. Atomic Particle Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hellman, Hal


    This booklet tells how scientists observe the particles and electromagnetic radiation that emerges from an atomic nucleus. The equipment used falls into two general categories: counters which count each particle as it passes by, and track detectors, which make a photographic record of the particle's track.

  3. Study of Relativistic Nucleus - Nucleus Collisions

    CERN Multimedia


    The aim of the experiment is to survey the reaction mechanisms involved in the collision of 60~GeV/nucleon and 200~GeV/nucleon light ions ($^{16}$0 and $^{32}$S provided by a new GSI-LBL injector) with different nuclei, to determine the stopping power of nuclear matter and to search for evidence of the formation of quark matter by comparison to hadron-nucleus reactions at the same incident energies. \\\\ The experimental set-up consists of a 2 m Streamer Chamber in the Vertex Magnet used to detect all the charged particles emerging from the interaction as well as the neutral strange particles that decay inside the chamber. The high energy of the forward-going particles are detected by four sets of calorimeters. A highly segmented Photon Position Detector (PPD) backed up by a 240 segment Ring Calorimeter will cover one unit of rapidity around mid-rapidity. An Intermediate Calorimeter will cover the rest of the forward phase space except for the region around beam rapidity, where a Veto Calorimeter will detect be...

  4. A pomeron approach to hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus 'soft' interaction at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bondarenko, S; Levin, E; Maor, U


    We formulate a generalization of the Glauber formalism for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions based on the pomeron approach to high-energy interaction. Our treatment is based on two physical assumptions (i.e. two small parameters): (i) that only sufficiently small distances contribute to the pomeron structure; and (ii) the triple-pomeron vertex G sub 3 sub P /g sub P sub N <<1 (where g sub P sub N is the pomeron-nucleon vertex) is small. A systematic method is developed for calculating the total, elastic and diffractive dissociation cross sections as well as the survival probability of large rapidity gap processes and inclusive observables, both for hadron-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions. Our approach suggests saturation of the density of the produced hadrons in nucleus-nucleus collisions, the value of the saturation density turns out to be large.

  5. Nucleus-independent chemical shift criterion for aromaticity in π-extended tetraoxa[8]circulenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baryshnikov, Gleb V.; Minaev, Boris F.; Pittelkow, Michael


    Recently synthesized p-extended symmetrical tetraoxa[8]circulenes that exhibit electroluminescent properties were calculated at the density functional theory (DFT) level using the quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) approach to electron density distribution analysis. Nucleus-independent ...

  6. Nucleus-Nucleus Collision as Superposition of Nucleon-Nucleus Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orlova, G.I.; Adamovich, M.I.; Aggarwal, M.M.; Alexandrov, Y.A.; Andreeva, N.P.; Badyal, S.K.; Basova, E.S.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhasin, A.; Bhatia, V.S.; Bradnova, V.; Bubnov, V.I.; Cai, X.; Chasnikov, I.Y.; Chen, G.M.; Chernova, L.P.; Chernyavsky, M.M.; Dhamija, S.; Chenawi, K.El; Felea, D.; Feng, S.Q.; Gaitinov, A.S.; Ganssauge, E.R.; Garpman, S.; Gerassimov, S.G.; Gheata, A.; Gheata, M.; Grote, J.; Gulamov, K.G.; Gupta, S.K.; Gupta, V.K.; Henjes, U.; Jakobsson, B.; Kanygina, E.K.; Karabova, M.; Kharlamov, S.P.; Kovalenko, A.D.; Krasnov, S.A.; Kumar, V.; Larionova, V.G.; Li, Y.X.; Liu, L.S.; Lokanathan, S.; Lord, J.J.; Lukicheva, N.S.; Lu, Y.; Luo, S.B.; Mangotra, L.K.; Manhas, I.; Mittra, I.S.; Musaeva, A.K.; Nasyrov, S.Z.; Navotny, V.S.; Nystrand, J.; Otterlund, I.; Peresadko, N.G.; Qian, W.Y.; Qin, Y.M.; Raniwala, R.; Rao, N.K.; Roeper, M.; Rusakova, V.V.; Saidkhanov, N.; Salmanova, N.A.; Seitimbetov, A.M.; Sethi, R.; Singh, B.; Skelding, D.; Soderstrem, K.; Stenlund, E.; Svechnikova, L.N.; Svensson, T.; Tawfik, A.M.; Tothova, M.; Tretyakova, M.I.; Trofimova, T.P.; Tuleeva, U.I.; Vashisht, Vani; Vokal, S.; Vrlakova, J.; Wang, H.Q.; Wang, X.R.; Weng, Z.Q.; Wilkes, R.J.; Yang, C.B.; Yin, Z.B.; Yu, L.Z.; Zhang, D.H.; Zheng, P.Y.; Zhokhova, S.I.; Zhou, D.C


    Angular distributions of charged particles produced in {sup 16}O and {sup 32}S collisions with nuclear track emulsion were studied at momenta 4.5 and 200 A GeV/c. Comparison with the angular distributions of charged particles produced in proton-nucleus collisions at the same momentum allows to draw the conclusion, that the angular distributions in nucleus-nucleus collisions can be seen as superposition of the angular distributions in nucleon-nucleus collisions taken at the same impact parameter b{sub NA}, that is mean impact parameter between the participating projectile nucleons and the center of the target nucleus.

  7. Neutrino-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallagher, H.; /Tufts U.; Garvey, G.; /Los Alamos; Zeller, G.P.; /Fermilab


    The study of neutrino oscillations has necessitated a new generation of neutrino experiments that are exploring neutrino-nuclear scattering processes. We focus in particular on charged-current quasi-elastic scattering, a particularly important channel that has been extensively investigated both in the bubble-chamber era and by current experiments. Recent results have led to theoretical reexamination of this process. We review the standard picture of quasi-elastic scattering as developed in electron scattering, review and discuss experimental results, and discuss additional nuclear effects such as exchange currents and short-range correlations that may play a significant role in neutrino-nucleus scattering.

  8. Higgs-Boson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (United States)

    Norbury, John W.


    Cross section calculations are presented for the production of intermediate-mass Higgs bosons produced in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions via two photon fusion. The calculations are performed in position space using Baur's method for folding together the Weizsacker-Williams virtual-photon spectra of the two colliding nuclei. It is found that two photon fusion in nucleus-nucleus collisions is a plausible way of finding intermediate-mass Higgs bosons at the Superconducting Super Collider or the CERN Large Hadron Collider.

  9. Rescattering effects and intermittent exponents in nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pajares, C. (Universidad de Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dept. de Particulas Elementales)


    It is shown that the rescattering in nucleus-nucleus collisions provides a natural branching mechanism which explains the dependence of the intermittent exponents on the energy, projectile and target. The possibility of finding some new coherent phenomena by studying the dependence of the intermittent exponents on the number of collisions is discussed. (orig.).

  10. The intercalatus nucleus of Staderini. (United States)

    Cascella, Marco


    Rutilio Staderini was one of the leading Italian anatomists of the twentieth century, together with some scientists, such as Giulio Chiarugi, Giovanni Vitali, and others. He was also a member of a new generation of anatomists. They had continued the tradition of the most famous Italian scientists, which started from the Renaissance up until the nineteenth century. Although he carried out important studies of neuroanatomy and comparative anatomy, as well as embryology, his name is rarely remembered by most medical historians. His name is linked to the nucleus he discovered: the Staderini nucleus or intercalated nucleus, a collection of nerve cells in the medulla oblongata located lateral to the hypoglossal nucleus. This article focuses on the biography of the neuroanatomist as well as the nucleus that carries his name and his other research, especially on comparative anatomy and embryology.

  11. Atom Wavelike Nature Solved Mathematically (United States)

    Sven, Charles


    Like N/S poles of a magnet the strong force field surrounding, confining the nucleus exerts an equal force [noted by this author] driving electrons away from the attraction of positively charged protons force fields in nucleus -- the mechanics for wavelike nature of electron. Powerful forces corral closely packed protons within atomic nucleus with a force that is at least a million times stronger than proton's electrical attraction that binds electrons. This then accounts for the ease of electron manipulation in that electron is already pushed away by the very strong atomic N/S force field; allowing electrons to drive photons when I strike a match. Ageless atom's electron requirements, used to drive light/photons or atom bomb, without batteries, must be supplied from a huge, external, super high frequency, super-cooled source, undetected by current technology, one that could exist 14+ billion years without degradation -- filling a limitless space prior to Big Bang. Using only replicable physics, I show how our Universe emanated from that event.

  12. Machines géantes pour sonder l'univers de l'atome

    CERN Multimedia

    Wilde, M, S


    To always more deeply explore the infinitely small world of the atom, Science is paradoxically brought to build buildings and machines increasingly larger - Giant accelerators producing high energy particle beams that can dissociate the structures of the atomic nucleus

  13. From the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the results are analyzed statistically, they appear to have a close relation with those of the complex systems. Experimentally, two types of situations involving simple scatter- ing systems have been studied: electron transport through microstructures called 'ballistic quantum dots', whose dimensions are of the order of 1 m, and ...

  14. The subthalamic nucleus, Part I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marani, Enrico; Heida, Tjitske; Lakke, Egbert A.J.F.; Usunoff, Kamen G.


    Part I. Development, cytology, topography and connections. This monograph on the subthalamic nucleus accentuates in Part I the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections. The light and electron microscopical cytology

  15. Heavy flavors in nucleus-nucleus and proton-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nardi Marzia


    Full Text Available A multi-step setup for heavy-flavor studies in high-energy nucleus-nucleus (AA and proton-nucleus (pA collisions is presented. The propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described in a framework provided by the relativistic Langevin equation, here solved using weak-coupling transport coefficients. Successively, the heavy quarks hadronize in the medium. We compute the nuclear modification factor and the elliptic flow parameter of the final Dmesons both in AA and in pA collisions and compare our results to experimental data.

  16. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)


    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  17. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J


    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  18. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.


    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  19. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    controls the electrons around it, and like a strong spring pushes other nuclei away. Later experiments ... 6Cl 2, because its mass number (A) = 12 and its nucleus contains 6 protons and 6 neutrons. However, ... gamma-radiation. Enrico Fermi, the Italian physicist made impor- tant contributions here. It occurred to him to use.

  20. Fast mixing condensation nucleus counter


    Flagan, Richard C.; Wang, Jian


    A fast mixing condensation nucleus counter useful for detecting particles entrained in a sample gas stream is provided. The fast mixing condensation nucleus counter comprises a detector and a mixing condensation device having a mixing chamber adapted to allow gas to flow from an inlet to an outlet, wherein the outlet directs the gas flow to the detector. The mixing chamber has an inlet for introducing vapor-laden gas into the chamber and at least one nozzle for introducing a sample gas having...

  1. Functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor (United States)

    Pines, Alexander; Wemmer, David E.; Spence, Megan; Rubin, Seth


    A functionalized active-nucleus complex sensor that selectively associates with one or more target species, and a method for assaying and screening for one or a plurality of target species utilizing one or a plurality of functionalized active-nucleus complexes with at least two of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes having an attraction affinity to different corresponding target species. The functionalized active-nucleus complex has an active-nucleus and a targeting carrier. The method involves functionalizing an active-nucleus, for each functionalized active-nucleus complex, by incorporating the active-nucleus into a macromolucular or molecular complex that is capable of binding one of the target species and then bringing the macromolecular or molecular complexes into contact with the target species and detecting the occurrence of or change in a nuclear magnetic resonance signal from each of the active-nuclei in each of the functionalized active-nucleus complexes.

  2. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max


    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  3. Early Atomism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Keywords. Atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; atomic weights; periodic table; valence; molecular weights; molecular formula; isomerism. Author Affiliations. S Ramasesha1. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  4. Heavy-ion nucleus scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Rahman, M A; Haque, S


    Heavy ion-nucleus scattering is an excellent laboratory to probe high spin phenomena, exotic nuclei and for the analysis of various exit channels. The Strong Absorption Model or the generalized diffraction models, which are semi-classical in nature, have been employed in the description of various heavy ion-nucleus scattering phenomena with reasonable success. But one needs to treat the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically in the Wave Mechanical picture for the appropriate description of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering phenomena. We have brought the mathematics for the cross-section of the heavy-ion nucleus scattering to an analytic expression taking account of the deflection function (scattering angles) quantum mechanically. sup 9 Be, sup 1 sup 6 O, sup 2 sup 0 Ne and sup 3 sup 2 S heavy-ion beams elastic scattering from sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 2 sup 4 Mg and sup 4 sup 0 Ca target nuclei at various projectile energies over the range 20-151 MeV have been analysed in terms of the 2-paramet...

  5. Developments in the studies of pear-shaped nuclei and their impact on searches for CP-violation in atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butler, Peter A.; Willmann, Lorenz


    The atomic nucleus is a many-body quantum system, and hence its shape is determined by the number of nucleons present in the nucleus and the interactions between them. The long-range correlations between valence nucleons distort the shape from spherical symmetry and the nucleus becomes deformed. In

  6. Cell nucleus - physical limitation of a quasar-galaxy association. Cell, DNA and cosmological background

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muheim, J.T. (Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule, Zurich (Switzerland). Lab. fuer Festkoerperphysik)


    The author extends his analogy of atomic structure to cosmological structures to include the cell nucleus and DNA replication. From this the author believes that there is extraterrestrial life within 34 light years of us and that telepathy is possible within the solar system.

  7. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH


    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  8. Absence of jet quenching in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions (United States)

    Loizides, Constantin; Morsch, Andreas


    Medium effects on the production of high-pT particles in nucleus-nucleus (AA) collisions are generally quantified by the nuclear modification factor (RAA), defined to be unity in absence of nuclear effects. Modeling particle production including a nucleon-nucleon impact parameter dependence, we demonstrate that RAA at midrapidity in peripheral AA collisions can be significantly affected by event selection and geometry biases. Even without jet quenching and shadowing, these biases cause an apparent suppression for RAA in peripheral collisions, and are relevant for all types of hard probes and all collision energies. Our studies indicate that calculations of jet quenching in peripheral AA collisions should account for the biases, or else they will overestimate the relevance of parton energy loss. Similarly, expectations of parton energy loss in light-heavy collision systems based on comparison with apparent suppression seen in peripheral RAA should be revised. Our interpretation of the peripheral RAA data would unify observations for lighter collision systems or lower energies where significant values of elliptic flow are observed despite the absence of strong jet quenching.

  9. Observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanford, Glenn DelFosse


    An observation of relativistic antihydrogen atoms is reported in this dissertation. Experiment 862 at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory observed antihydrogen atoms produced by the interaction of a circulating beam of high momentum (3 < p < 9 GeV/c) antiprotons and a jet of molecular hydrogen gas. Since the neutral antihydrogen does not bend in the antiproton source magnets, the detectors could be located far from the interaction point on a beamline tangent to the storage ring. The detection of the antihydrogen is accomplished by ionizing the atoms far from the interaction point. The positron is deflected by a magnetic spectrometer and detected, as are the back to back photons resulting from its annihilation. The antiproton travels a distance long enough for its momentum and time of flight to be measured accurately. A statistically significant sample of 101 antihydrogen atoms has been observed. A measurement of the cross section for {bar H}{sup 0} production is outlined within. The cross section corresponds to the process where a high momentum antiproton causes e{sup +} e{sup -} pair creation near a nucleus with the e{sup +} being captured by the antiproton. Antihydrogen is the first atom made exclusively of antimatter to be detected. The observation experiment's results are the first step towards an antihydrogen spectroscopy experiment which would measure the n = 2 Lamb shift and fine structure.

  10. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic Power. By Denis Taylor: Dr. Taylor was formerly Chief UNESCO Advisor at the University. College, Nairobi, Kenya and is now Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Uni- versity of ... method of producing radioactive isotopes, which are materials .... the sealing and the pressure balancing, all can be carried out ...

  11. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  12. Determination of Coil Inductances Cylindrical Iron Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azeddine Mazouz


    Full Text Available The paper describes the investigation and development of a structure and performance characteristics of a coil iron nucleus cylindrical (C.I.N.C. The coil iron nucleus cylindrical is a nonlinear electro radio in which the moving of the nucleus in a sense or in other causes change in inductance and can reach extreme values at the superposition of nucleus and coil centers. The variation of the inductance and the degree of freedom of movement of the nucleus can lead to a device with electromechanical conversion The aim of this paper is the determination and visualization of self inductance and mutual of the (C.I.N.C based on geometric dimensions and the displacement of the nucleus.  

  13. Toward a cancer therapy with boron-rich oligomeric phosphate diesters that target the cell nucleus (United States)

    Nakanishi, Akira; Guan, Lufeng; Kane, Robert R.; Kasamatsu, Harumi; Hawthorne, M. Frederick


    The viability of boron neutron capture therapy depends on the development of tumor-targeting agents that contain large numbers of boron-10 (10B) atoms and are readily taken up by cells. Here we report on the selective uptake of homogeneous fluorescein-labeled nido-carboranyl oligomeric phosphate diesters (nido-OPDs) by the cell nucleus and their long-term retention after their delivery into the cytoplasm of TC7 cells by microinjection. All nido-OPDs accumulated in the cell nucleus within 2 h after microinjection. However, nido-OPDs in which the carborane cage was located on a side chain attached to the oligomeric backbone were redistributed between both the cytoplasm and nucleus after 24 h of incubation, whereas nido-OPDs in which the carborane cage was located along the oligomeric backbone remained primarily in the nucleus. Furthermore, cell-free incubation of digitonin-permeabilized TC7 cells with the nido-OPDs resulted in nuclear accumulation of the compounds, thus corroborating the microinjection studies. Our observation of fluorescence primarily located in the cell nucleus indicates that nuclear-specific uptake of sufficient amounts of 10B for effective boron neutron capture therapy (≈108–109 10B atoms/tumor cell) via nido-OPDs is achievable. PMID:9874802

  14. Atomic arias (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.


    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  15. Atomic rivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.


    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  16. Hadron-nucleus bound states

    CERN Document Server

    Yamazaki, T


    A new type of nuclear spectroscopy to study hadron-nucleus bound states is described. The first successful experiment was to search for deeply bound pi sup - states in heavy nuclei using the sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb(d, sup 3 He) reaction at GSI, in which a narrow peak arising from the 2p pi sup - orbital coupled with the neutron-hole states was observed at 135 MeV excitation energy. An improved experiment has just been carried out to separately identify the 1s and 2p pi sup - states. These experiments provide important information on the local potential strength, from which the effective mass of pi sup - is deduced to be 20 MeV. This method will be extended to search for eta and omega bound states as well as for K sup - bound states. The advantage of the bound-state spectroscopy versus invariant mass spectroscopy is emphasized.

  17. Computer Simulation of Atoms Nuclei Structure Using Information Coefficients of Proportionality


    Labushev, Mikhail M.


    The latest research of the proportionality of atomic weights of chemical elements made it possible to obtain 3 x 3 matrices for the calculation of information coefficients of proportionality Ip that can be used for 3D modeling of the structure of atom nucleus. The results of computer simulation show high potential of nucleus structure research for the characterization of their chemical and physical properties.

  18. Atomic Parity Violation Overview and Perspectives

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit


    Optical experiments have demonstrated cases in which mirror symmetry in stable atoms is broken during absorption or emission of light. Such results are in conflict with standard electromagnetic (EM) theory, but can be explained within the unified electroweak theory. Their interpretation is based on exchanges of virtual weak neutral Z_0 bosons between the electrons and the atomic nucleus. These effects were predicted to increase in heavy atoms a little faster than the cube of the atomic number. Moreover, in a highly forbidden transition, like the 6S-7S transition in cesium, the EM interaction is suppressed, leaving the Z_0 exchange a chance to show up. For achieving the determination of the Cs nucleus weak charge, Q_W(Cs), the basic experimental parameter playing in Z_0, exchange the same role as the nuclear charge in the Coulomb interaction, both experimental and theoretical hurdles had to be overcome: first, the excitation and detection of an atomic line with a transition rate about 10^{14} times less than a...

  19. Action potentials: to the nucleus and beyond. (United States)

    Saha, Ramendra N; Dudek, Serena M


    The neuronal nucleus is now widely accepted as playing a vital role in maintaining long-term changes in synaptic effectiveness. To act, however, the nucleus must be appropriately relayed with information regarding the latest round of synaptic plasticity. Several constraints of doing so in a neuron pertain to the often significant spatial distance of synapses from the nucleus and the number of synapses required for such a signal to reach functional levels in the nucleus. Largely based on the sensitivity of transcriptional responses to NMDA receptor antagonists, it has been postulated that the signals are physically relayed by biochemical messengers from the synapse to the nucleus. Alternatively, a second, less often considered but equally viable method of signal transduction may be initiated by action potentials generated proximal to the nucleus, wherefrom the signal can be relayed directly by calcium or indirectly by biochemical second messengers. We consider action potential-dependent signaling to the nucleus to have its own computational advantages over the synapse-to-nucleus signal for some functions. This minireview summarizes the logic and experimental support for these two modes of signaling and attempts to validate the action potential model as playing an important role in transcriptional regulation relating specifically to long-term synaptic plasticity.

  20. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.


    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  1. Music and the nucleus accumbens. (United States)

    Mavridis, Ioannis N


    Music is a universal feature of human societies over time, mainly because it allows expression and regulation of strong emotions, thus influencing moods and evoking pleasure. The nucleus accumbens (NA), the most important pleasure center of the human brain (dominates the reward system), is the 'king of neurosciences' and dopamine (DA) can be rightfully considered as its 'crown' due to the fundamental role that this neurotransmitter plays in the brain's reward system. Purpose of this article was to review the existing literature regarding the relation between music and the NA. Studies have shown that reward value for music can be coded by activity levels in the NA, whose functional connectivity with auditory and frontal areas increases as a function of increasing musical reward. Listening to music strongly modulates activity in a network of mesolimbic structures involved in reward processing including the NA. The functional connectivity between brain regions mediating reward, autonomic and cognitive processing provides insight into understanding why listening to music is one of the most rewarding and pleasurable human experiences. Musical stimuli can significantly increase extracellular DA levels in the NA. NA DA and serotonin were found significantly higher in animals exposed to music. Finally, passive listening to unfamiliar although liked music showed activations in the NA.

  2. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    CERN Document Server

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof


    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the $^8$B nucleus.

  3. Two-electron atom with a screened interaction


    Downing, C. A.


    We present analytical solutions to a quantum-mechanical three-body problem in three dimensions, which describes a helium-like two-electron atom. Similarly to Hooke's atom, the Coulombic electron-nucleus interaction potentials are replaced by harmonic potentials. The electron-electron interaction potential is taken to be both screened (decaying faster than the inverse of the interparticle separation) and regularized (in the limit of zero separation). We reveal the exactly solvable few-electron...

  4. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps (United States)


    Final Performance Report on ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0608 High atom number in microsized atom traps for the period 15 May 2012 through 14 September...TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/15/2012-09/14/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High atom number in microsized atom traps...forces for implementing a small-footprint, large-number atom -chip instrument. Bichromatic forces rely on absorption and stimulated emission to produce

  5. Study of Hadron Production in Hadron-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    Selyuzhenkov, I; Klochkov, V; Herve, A E; Kowalski, S; Kaptur, E A; Kowalik, K L; Dominik, W M; Matulewicz, T N; Krasnoperov, A; Feofilov, G; Vinogradov, L; Kovalenko, V; Johnson, S R; Mills, G B; Planeta, R J; Rubbia, A; Marton, K; Messerly, B A; Puzovic, J; Bogomilov, M V; Bravar, A; Renfordt, R A E; Deveaux, M; Engel, R R; Grzeszczuk, A; Davis, N; Kuich, M; Lyubushkin, V; Kondratev, V; Kadija, K; Diakonos, F; Slodkowski, M A; Rauch, W H; Pistillo, C; Laszlo, A; Nakadaira, T; Hasegawa, T; Sadovskiy, A; Morozov, S; Petukhov, O; Mathes, H; Roehrich, D; Marcinek, A J; Marino, A D; Grebieszkow, K; Wlodarczyk, Z; Rybczynski, M A; Wojtaszek-szwarc, A; Nirkko, M C; Sakashita, K; Golubeva, M; Kurepin, A; Manic, D; Kolev, D I; Kisiel, J E; Koziel, M E; Rondio, E; Larsen, D T; Czopowicz, T R; Seyboth, P; Turko, L; Guber, F; Marin, V; Busygina, O; Strikhanov, M; Taranenko, A; Cirkovic, M; Roth, M A; Pulawski, S M; Aduszkiewicz, A M; Bunyatov, S; Vechernin, V; Nagai, Y; Anticic, T; Dynowski, K M; Mackowiak-pawlowska, M K; Stefanek, G; Pavin, M; Fodor, Z P; Nishikawa, K; Tada, M; Blondel, A P P; Stroebele, H W; Posiadala, M Z; Kolesnikov, V; Andronov, E; Zimmerman, E D; Antoniou, N; Majka, Z; Di luise, S; Veberic, D; Dumarchez, J; Naskret, M; Ivashkin, A; Tsenov, R V; Koziel, M G; Schmidt, K J; Melkumov, G; Popov, B; Panagiotou, A; Richter-was, E M; Ereditato, A; Paolone, V; Damyanova, A; Gazdzicki, M; Unger, M T; Wilczek, A G; Stepaniak, J M; Seryakov, A; Susa, T; Staszel, P P; Brzychczyk, J; Maksiak, B; Tefelski, D B


    The NA61/SHINE (SHINE = SPS Heavy Ion and Neutrino Experiment) experiment is a large acceptance hadron spectrometer at the CERN SPS for the study of the hadronic final states produced in interactions of various beam particles (pions, protons, C, S and In) with a variety of fixed targets at the SPS energies. The main components of the current detector were constructed and used by the NA49 experiment. The physics program of NA61/SHINE consists of three main subjects. In the first stage of data taking (2007-2009) measurements of hadron production in hadron-nucleus interactions needed for neutrino (T2K) and cosmic-ray (Pierre Auger and KASCADE) experiments will be performed. In the second stage (2009-2011) hadron production in proton-proton and proton-nucleus interactions needed as reference data for a better understanding of nucleus-nucleus reactions will be studied. In the third stage (2009-2013) energy dependence of hadron production properties will be measured in nucleus-nucleus collisions as well as in p+p a...

  6. Nucleus accumbens surgery for addiction. (United States)

    Li, Nan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Xue-lian; Chang, Chong-wang; Ge, Shun-nan; Gao, Li; Wu, He-ming; Zhao, Hai-kang; Geng, Ning; Gao, Guo-dong


    Opiate addiction remains intractable in a large percentage of patients, and relapse is the biggest hurdle to recovery because of psychological dependence. Multiple studies identify a central role of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in addiction; several studies note decreased addictive behavior after interventions in this area. Based on animal experiments, our institute started the clinical trial for the treatment of drug addicts' psychological dependence by making lesions in the bilateral NAc with stereotactic surgery from July 2000. The short-term outcomes were encouraging and triggered rapid application of this treatment in China from 2003 to 2004. However, lack of long-term outcomes and controversy eventually led to halting the surgery for addiction by the Ministry of Health of China in November 2004 and a nationwide survey about it later. Our institute had performed this surgery in 272 patients with severe heroin addiction. The follow-up study showed that the 5-year nonrelapse rate was 58% and the quality of life was significantly improved. Patients had several kinds of side effects, but the incidence rate was relatively low. The patients gradually recovered more than 5 years after the surgery. The side effects did not severely influence an individual's life or work. Nationwide surgery showed that the nonrelapse rate was 50% in the sample of 150 cases, from 1167 patients overall who underwent stereotactic surgery in China. Although sometimes accompanied by neuropsychological adverse events, stereotactic ablation of NAc may effectively treat opiate addiction. Lesion location has a significant impact on treatment efficacy and requires further study. Because ablation is irreversible, the NAc surgery for addiction should be performed with cautiousness, and deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an ideal alternative. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Asymptotics for Two-dimensional Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nam, Phan Thanh; Portmann, Fabian; Solovej, Jan Philip


    We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E^{\\TF}(\\lambd......We prove that the ground state energy of an atom confined to two dimensions with an infinitely heavy nucleus of charge $Z>0$ and $N$ quantum electrons of charge -1 is $E(N,Z)=-{1/2}Z^2\\ln Z+(E^{\\TF}(\\lambda)+{1/2}c^{\\rm H})Z^2+o(Z^2)$ when $Z\\to \\infty$ and $N/Z\\to \\lambda$, where $E......^{\\TF}(\\lambda)$ is given by a Thomas-Fermi type variational problem and $c^{\\rm H}\\approx -2.2339$ is an explicit constant. We also show that the radius of a two-dimensional neutral atom is unbounded when $Z\\to \\infty$, which is contrary to the expected behavior of three-dimensional atoms....

  8. Decaying Dark Atom Constituents and Cosmic Positron Excess

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belotsky, K.; Khlopov, M.; Kouvaris, C.


    of dark matter is in the form of a bound state between a helium nucleus and a -2 particle and a small component is in the form of a WIMP-like dark atom compatible with direct searches in underground detectors. One of the constituents of this WIMP-like state is a +2 metastable particle with a mass of 1 Te...

  9. Large philipsite crystal as ferromanganese nodule nucleus

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ghosh, A.K.; Mukhopadhyay, R.

    We report here the occurrence of, to date, the largest (21 x 10 x 8 mm) phillipsite crystal forming the nucleus of a diagenetically formed ferromanganese nodule from the Central Indian Ocean Basin (CIOB). Assuming an average rate of ferromanganese...

  10. Testing string dynamics in lepton nucleus reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gyulassy, M.; Pluemer, M.


    The sensitivity of nuclear attenuation of 10-100 GeV lepton nucleus ({ell}A) reactions to space-time aspects of hadronization is investigated within the context of the Lund string model. We consider two mechanisms for attenuation in a nucleus: final state cascading and string flip excitations. Implications for the evolution of the energy density in nuclear collisions are discussed. 16 refs., 10 figs.

  11. Advances in hard nucleus cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cui


    Full Text Available Security and perfect vision and fewer complications are our goals in cataract surgery, and hard-nucleus cataract surgery is always a difficulty one. Many new studies indicate that micro-incision phacoemulsification in treating hard nucleus cataract is obviously effective. This article reviews the evolution process of hard nuclear cataract surgery, the new progress in the research of artificial intraocular lens for microincision, and analyse advantages and disadvantages of various surgical methods.

  12. Improved Cloud Condensation Nucleus Spectrometer (United States)

    Leu, Ming-Taun


    An improved thermal-gradient cloud condensation nucleus spectrometer (CCNS) has been designed to provide several enhancements over prior thermal- gradient counters, including fast response and high-sensitivity detection covering a wide range of supersaturations. CCNSs are used in laboratory research on the relationships among aerosols, supersaturation of air, and the formation of clouds. The operational characteristics of prior counters are such that it takes long times to determine aerosol critical supersaturations. Hence, there is a need for a CCNS capable of rapid scanning through a wide range of supersaturations. The present improved CCNS satisfies this need. The improved thermal-gradient CCNS (see Figure 1) incorporates the following notable features: a) The main chamber is bounded on the top and bottom by parallel thick copper plates, which are joined by a thermally conductive vertical wall on one side and a thermally nonconductive wall on the opposite side. b) To establish a temperature gradient needed to establish a supersaturation gradient, water at two different regulated temperatures is pumped through tubes along the edges of the copper plates at the thermally-nonconductive-wall side. Figure 2 presents an example of temperature and supersaturation gradients for one combination of regulated temperatures at the thermally-nonconductive-wall edges of the copper plates. c) To enable measurement of the temperature gradient, ten thermocouples are cemented to the external surfaces of the copper plates (five on the top plate and five on the bottom plate), spaced at equal intervals along the width axis of the main chamber near the outlet end. d) Pieces of filter paper or cotton felt are cemented onto the interior surfaces of the copper plates and, prior to each experimental run, are saturated with water to establish a supersaturation field inside the main chamber. e) A flow of monodisperse aerosol and a dilution flow of humid air are introduced into the main

  13. Ionization of atoms by slow heavy particles

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, B M; Gribakin, G F


    Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9 sigma annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusp-like behaviour of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, meaning that nonrelativistic calculations m...

  14. "Bohr's Atomic Model." (United States)

    Willden, Jeff


    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  15. A-Dependence of $\\pi^0$-Meson Production in Proton-Nucleus and Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at High Energies

    CERN Document Server

    Tokarev, M V; Dedovich, T G


    The A-dependence of pi^0-meson production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus collisions at a high transverse momentum is studied. The concept of z-scaling reflecting the general features of particle interactions is developed for the description of pi^0-meson production. Experimental data on the cross section obtained at ISR, SpS and Tevatron are usen in the analysis. The A-dependence of scale transformation z to alpha cdot z, psi to alpha^-1 cdot psi is established. An indication of the power law, psi (z) approx z^-beta, at high p_T > 4 GeV/c is found. Based on the properties of z-scaling, the dependence of the cross section of pi^0-mesons produced in pA and AA collisions on transverse momentum over the central rapidity range at RHIC energies is predicted.

  16. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon


    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  17. Playing pinball with atoms. (United States)

    Saedi, Amirmehdi; van Houselt, Arie; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Harold J W


    We demonstrate the feasibility of controlling an atomic scale mechanical device by an external electrical signal. On a germanium substrate, a switching motion of pairs of atoms is induced by electrons that are directly injected into the atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. By precisely controlling the tip current and distance we make two atom pairs behave like the flippers of an atomic-sized pinball machine. This atomic scale mechanical device exhibits six different configurations.

  18. Open heavy-flavour production in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mischke, A.


    Heavy quarks (charm and bottom) provide sensitive penetrating probes of hot quark matter produced in high energy nucleus-nucleus collisions. Due to their large mass, heavy quarks are believed to be predominantly produced in the initial state of the collision by gluon fusion processes. The study

  19. Observation of high energy gamma rays in intermediate energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beard, K.B.; Benenson, W.; Bloch, C.; Kashy, E.; Stevenson, J.; Morrissey, D.J.; Plicht, J. van der; Sherrill, B.; Winfield, J.S.


    High energy electrons and positrons observed in medium energy nucleus-nucleus collisions are shown to be primarily due to the external conversion of high energy gamma rays. The reaction 14N+Cu was studied at E/A=40 MeV, and a magnetic spectrograph was used with a specially constructed multiwire

  20. Computational code in atomic and nuclear quantum optics: Advanced computing multiphoton resonance parameters for atoms in a strong laser field (United States)

    Glushkov, A. V.; Gurskaya, M. Yu; Ignatenko, A. V.; Smirnov, A. V.; Serga, I. N.; Svinarenko, A. A.; Ternovsky, E. V.


    The consistent relativistic energy approach to the finite Fermi-systems (atoms and nuclei) in a strong realistic laser field is presented and applied to computing the multiphoton resonances parameters in some atoms and nuclei. The approach is based on the Gell-Mann and Low S-matrix formalism, multiphoton resonance lines moments technique and advanced Ivanov-Ivanova algorithm of calculating the Green’s function of the Dirac equation. The data for multiphoton resonance width and shift for the Cs atom and the 57Fe nucleus in dependence upon the laser intensity are listed.

  1. Structural dynamics of the cell nucleus (United States)

    Wiegert, Simon; Bading, Hilmar


    Neuronal morphology plays an essential role in signal processing in the brain. Individual neurons can undergo use-dependent changes in their shape and connectivity, which affects how intracellular processes are regulated and how signals are transferred from one cell to another in a neuronal network. Calcium is one of the most important intracellular second messengers regulating cellular morphologies and functions. In neurons, intracellular calcium levels are controlled by ion channels in the plasma membrane such as NMDA receptors (NMDARs), voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and certain α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors (AMPARs) as well as by calcium exchange pathways between the cytosol and internal calcium stores including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Synaptic activity and the subsequent opening of ligand and/or voltage-gated calcium channels can initiate cytosolic calcium transients which propagate towards the cell soma and enter the nucleus via its nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) embedded in the nuclear envelope. We recently described the discovery that in hippocampal neurons the morphology of the nucleus affects the calcium dynamics within the nucleus. Here we propose that nuclear infoldings determine whether a nucleus functions as an integrator or detector of oscillating calcium signals. We outline possible ties between nuclear mophology and transcriptional activity and discuss the importance of extending the approach to whole cell calcium signal modeling in order to understand synapse-to-nucleus communication in healthy and dysfunctional neurons. PMID:21738832

  2. Cell Biology of the Caenorhabditis elegans Nucleus. (United States)

    Cohen-Fix, Orna; Askjaer, Peter


    Studies on the Caenorhabditis elegans nucleus have provided fascinating insight to the organization and activities of eukaryotic cells. Being the organelle that holds the genetic blueprint of the cell, the nucleus is critical for basically every aspect of cell biology. The stereotypical development of C. elegans from a one cell-stage embryo to a fertile hermaphrodite with 959 somatic nuclei has allowed the identification of mutants with specific alterations in gene expression programs, nuclear morphology, or nuclear positioning. Moreover, the early C. elegans embryo is an excellent model to dissect the mitotic processes of nuclear disassembly and reformation with high spatiotemporal resolution. We review here several features of the C. elegans nucleus, including its composition, structure, and dynamics. We also discuss the spatial organization of chromatin and regulation of gene expression and how this depends on tight control of nucleocytoplasmic transport. Finally, the extensive connections of the nucleus with the cytoskeleton and their implications during development are described. Most processes of the C. elegans nucleus are evolutionarily conserved, highlighting the relevance of this powerful and versatile model organism to human biology. Copyright © 2017 by the Genetics Society of America.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Günthardt, G. I.; Camperi, J. A. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba (Argentina); Agüero, M. P. [Observatorio Astronómico, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, and CONICET (Argentina); Díaz, R. J.; Gomez, P. L.; Schirmer, M. [Gemini Observatory, AURA (United States); Bosch, G., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Instituto de Astrofísica de La Plata (CONICET-UNLP) (Argentina)


    NGC 253 is the nearest spiral galaxy with a nuclear starburst that becomes the best candidate for studying the relationship between starburst and active galactic nucleus activity. However, this central region is veiled by large amounts of dust, and it has been so far unclear which is the true dynamical nucleus to the point that there is no strong evidence that the galaxy harbors a supermassive black hole co-evolving with the starburst as was supposed earlier. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, especially NIR emission line analysis, could be advantageous in shedding light on the true nucleus identity. Using Flamingos-2 at Gemini South we have taken deep K-band spectra along the major axis of the central structure and through the brightest infrared source. In this work, we present evidence showing that the brightest NIR and mid-infrared source in the central region, already known as radio source TH7 and so far considered just a large stellar supercluster, in fact presents various symptoms of a genuine galactic nucleus. Therefore, it should be considered a valid nucleus candidate. Mentioning some distinctive aspects, it is the most massive compact infrared object in the central region, located at 2.″0 of the symmetry center of the galactic bar, as measured in the K-band emission. Moreover, our data indicate that this object is surrounded by a large circumnuclear stellar disk and it is also located at the rotation center of the large molecular gas disk of NGC 253. Furthermore, a kinematic residual appears in the H{sub 2} rotation curve with a sinusoidal shape consistent with an outflow centered in the candidate nucleus position. The maximum outflow velocity is located about 14 pc from TH7, which is consistent with the radius of a shell detected around the nucleus candidate, observed at 18.3 μm (Qa) and 12.8 μm ([Ne ii]) with T-ReCS. Also, the Brγ emission line profile shows a pronounced blueshift and this emission line also has the highest equivalent width at this

  4. Decoding calcium signaling across the nucleus. (United States)

    Oliveira, André G; Guimarães, Erika S; Andrade, Lídia M; Menezes, Gustavo B; Fatima Leite, M


    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is an important multifaceted second messenger that regulates a wide range of cellular events. A Ca(2+)-signaling toolkit has been shown to exist in the nucleus and to be capable of generating and modulating nucleoplasmic Ca(2+) transients. Within the nucleus, Ca(2+) controls cellular events that are different from those modulated by cytosolic Ca(2+). This review focuses on nuclear Ca(2+) signals and their role in regulating physiological and pathological processes. ©2014 Int. Union Physiol. Sci./Am. Physiol. Soc.

  5. Control the fear atomic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Gwan [I and Book, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This book has a lot of explanation of nuclear energy with articles. Their titles are the bad man likes atomic, the secret of atom, nuclear explosion, NPT?, the secret of uranium fuel rod, nuclear power plant vs nuclear bomb, I hate atomic, keep plutonium in control, atomic in peace and find out alternative energy.

  6. Direct projection from the suprachiasmatic nucleus to hypophysiotrophic corticotropin-releasing factor immunoreactive cells in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus demonstrated...

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.; Mikkelsen, J.D.


    Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry......Suprachiasmatic nucleus, paraventricular nucleus, circadian rhythms, phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin, corticotropin-releasing factor, dual immunocytochemistry...

  7. Weak interaction and nucleus: the relationship keeps on; Interaction faible et noyau: l'histoire continue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martino, J. [Subatech, Ecole des Mines de Nantes, 44 - Nantes (France); Frere, J.M.; Naviliat-Cuncic, O.; Volpe, C.; Marteau, J.; Lhuillier, D.; Vignaud, D.; Legac, R.; Marteau, J.; Legac, R


    This document gathers the lectures made at the Joliot-Curie international summer school in 2003 whose theme, that year, was the relationship between weak interaction and nucleus. There were 8 contributions whose titles are: 1) before the standard model: from beta decay to neutral currents; 2) the electro-weak theory and beyond; 3) testing of the standard model at low energies; 4) description of weak processes in nuclei; 5) 20.000 tonnes underground, an approach to the neutrino-nucleus interaction; 6) parity violation from atom to nucleon; 7) how neutrinos got their masses; and 8) CP symmetry.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z{sup 2} up to an energy of {approx} 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented.

  9. Two-photon physics in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, J.; Klein, S.


    Ultra-relativistic heavy-ions carry strong electromagnetic and nuclear fields. Interactions between these fields in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions can probe many interesting physics topics. This presentation will focus on coherent two-photon and photonuclear processes at RHIC. The rates for these interactions will be high. The coherent coupling of all the protons in the nucleus enhances the equivalent photon flux by a factor Z{sup 2} up to an energy of {approx} 3 GeV. The plans for studying coherent interactions with the STAR experiment will be discussed. Experimental techniques for separating signal from background will be presented.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    The subcellular morphology of the mesencephalic trigeminal (Me5) nucleus in the rat was studied by transmission electron microscopy. Most neurons in the thin rostral as well as in the major caudal part of Me5 appeared as large (40-50-mu-m), round-to ovoid-shaped unipolar cells. A few neurons

  11. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de los Andes, Bogota, Colombia. E-mail: Abstract. We locate resonances in η-light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the t-matrices and hence ...

  12. Oral alprazolam acutely increases nucleus accumbens perfusion


    Wolf, Daniel H.; Pinkham, Amy E.; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Ruparel, Kosha; Elliott, Mark A.; Valdez, Jeffrey; Smith, Mark A.; Detre, John A.; Gur, Ruben C.; Gur, Raquel E.


    Benzodiazepines treat anxiety, but can also produce euphoric effects, contributing to abuse. Using perfusion magnetic resonance imaging, we provide the first direct evidence in humans that alprazolam (Xanax) acutely increases perfusion in the nucleus accumbens, a key reward-processing region linked to addiction.

  13. Resonances in η-light nucleus systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We locate resonances in -light nucleus elastic scattering using the time delay method. We solve few-body equations within the finite rank approximation in order to calculate the -matrices and hence the time delay for the - 3He and - 4He systems. We find a resonance very close to the threshold in - 3 He elastic ...

  14. The Checkerboard Model of the Nucleus (United States)

    Lach, Theodore


    The Checker Board Model (CBM) of the nucleus and the associated extended standard model predicts that nature has 5 generations of quarks not 3 and that Nucleus is 2 dimensional. The CBM theory began with an insight into the structure of the He nucleus around the year 1989. Details of how this theory evolved which took many years, and is found on my web site ( or in the following references One independent check of this model is that the wavelength of the ``up'' quark orbiting inside the proton at 84.8123% the speed of light (around the ``dn'' quark in the center of the proton) turns out to be exactly one de Broglie wavelength something determined after the mass and speed of the up quark were determined by other means. This theory explains the mass of the proton and neutron and their magnetic moments and this along with the beautiful symmetric 2D structure of the He nucleus led to the evolution of this theory. When this theory was first presented at Argonne in 1996, it was the first time that anyone had predicted the quarks orbited inside the proton at relativistic speeds and it was met with skepticism.

  15. Compound nucleus studies withy reverse kinematics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretto, L.G.


    Reverse kinematics reactions are used to demonstrate the compound nucleus origin of intermediate mass particles at low energies and the extension of the same mechanism at higher energies. No evidence has appeared in our energy range for liquid-vapor equilibrium or cold fragmentation mechanisms. 11 refs., 12 figs.

  16. Regularity and Chaos in the Hydrogen Atom Highly Excited with a Strong Magnetic Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amdouni


    Full Text Available The effects of the relativistic corrections on the energy spectra are analyzed. Effective simulations based on manipulations of operators in the Sturmian basis are developed. Discrete and continuous energy spectra of a hydrogen atom with realistic nucleus mass in a strong magnetic field are computed. The transition from regularity to chaos in diamagnetic problem with the effect of the nucleus recoil energy is explored. Anticrossing of energy levels is observed for strong magnetic field.

  17. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.


    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  18. Nonequilibrium distribution functions of nucleons in relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Anchishkin


    Full Text Available The collision smearing of the nucleon momenta about their initial values during relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions is investigated. To a certain degree, our model belongs to the transport type, and we investigate the evolution of the nucleon system created at a nucleus-nucleus collision. However, we parameterize this development by the number of collisions of every particle during evolution rather than by the time variable. It is assumed that the group of nucleons which leave the system after the same number of collisions can be joined in a particular statistical ensemble. The nucleon nonequilibrium distribution functions are derived which depend on a certain number of collisions of a nucleon before a freeze-out.

  19. The production of strangeness and charmonium in nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Geiss, J


    The aim of the present theis is to study the space-time evolution of highly relativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions in a microscopic purely hadronic transport theory. Especially the production of strangeness in nucleus-nucleus collisions over a large energy range from SIS- (E sub l sub a sub b =1-2 A.GeV) up to SPS-energies (E sub l sub a sub b +200 A.GeV) for many different systems are studied, whereby for the elementary production cross sections as conservative assumptions as possible are made. The aim is to obtain an excitation function for the production of strangeness over the whole energy range. Furthermore the production of J/psi particles at SPS energies is studied for different systems, whereby a new absorption mechanism of the c anti c pairs is tested.

  20. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  1. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J


    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  2. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J


    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  3. Atomic vapor density monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, N.; Harris, W.; Beeler, R.; Wooldridge, J.; Chen, H.L.


    This report presents information on the Atomic Vapor Density Monitor (AVDM) system that measures the density of a vapor by measuring the absorption of light from a swept-wavelength laser that passes through an atomic vapor stream.

  4. Strangeness production in antiproton-nucleus annihilation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mosel U.


    Full Text Available The results of the microscopic transport calculations of p¯ $ar p$-nucleus interactions within a GiBUU model are presented. The dominating mechanism of hyperon production is the strangeness exchange processes K¯N $ar KN$ → γπ and K¯N $ar KN$ → ΞK. The calculated rapidity spectra of Ξ hyperons are significantly shifted to forward rapidities with respect to the spectra of S = −1 hyperons. We argue that this shift should be a sensitive test for the possible exotic mechanisms of p¯ $ar p$-nucleus annihilation. The production of the double Λ-hypernuclei by Ξ− interaction with a secondary target is calculated.

  5. Protein quality control in the nucleus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Sofie V.; Poulsen, Esben Guldahl; Rebula, Caio A.


    to aggregate, cells have evolved several elaborate quality control systems to deal with these potentially toxic proteins. First, various molecular chaperones will seize the misfolded protein and either attempt to refold the protein or target it for degradation via the ubiquitin-proteasome system...... to be particularly active in protein quality control. Thus, specific ubiquitin-protein ligases located in the nucleus, target not only misfolded nuclear proteins, but also various misfolded cytosolic proteins which are transported to the nucleus prior to their degradation. In comparison, much less is known about...... these mechanisms in mammalian cells. Here we highlight recent advances in our understanding of nuclear protein quality control, in particular regarding substrate recognition and proteasomal degradation....

  6. Cell Biology of the Plant Nucleus. (United States)

    Meier, Iris; Richards, Eric J; Evans, David E


    The eukaryotic nucleus is enclosed by the nuclear envelope, which is perforated by the nuclear pores, the gateways of macromolecular exchange between the nucleoplasm and cytoplasm. The nucleoplasm is organized in a complex three-dimensional fashion that changes over time and in response to stimuli. Within the cell, the nucleus must be viewed as an organelle (albeit a gigantic one) that is a recipient of cytoplasmic forces and capable of morphological and positional dynamics. The most dramatic reorganization of this organelle occurs during mitosis and meiosis. Although many of these aspects are less well understood for the nuclei of plants than for those of animals or fungi, several recent discoveries have begun to place our understanding of plant nuclei firmly into this broader cell-biological context.

  7. Development of a Mobile Ice Nucleus Counter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, Gregory [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States); Kulkarni, Gourihar [Droplet Measurement Technologies, Boulder, CO (United States)


    An ice nucleus counter has been constructed. The instrument uses built-in refrigeration systems for wall cooling. A cascade refrigeration system will allow the cold wall to operate as low as -70°C, and a single stage system can operate the warm wall at -45C. A unique optical particle counter has been constructed using polarization detection of the scattered light. This allows differentiation of the particles exiting the chamber to determine if they are ice or liquid.

  8. Systematics of $\\alpha$--nucleus optical potentials


    Mohr, P; Abele, H.; Atzrott, U.; Staudt, G.; Bieber, R; Grün, K.; Oberhummer, H.; Rauscher, T.; Somorjai, E.


    Double--folded optical $\\alpha$--nucleus potentials can be used to calculate elastic scattering cross sections in a wide mass-- and energy region. Because of the systematic behavior of the potential parameters we are able to obtain reliable optical potentials for astrophysically relevant reactions even without scattering data in low--energy region. As example we analyze the capture reaction ${^{144}{\\rm Sm}}(\\alpha,\\gamma){^{148}{\\Gd}}$.

  9. Improved Neuroimaging Atlas of the Dentate Nucleus. (United States)

    He, Naying; Langley, Jason; Huddleston, Daniel E; Ling, Huawei; Xu, Hongmin; Liu, Chunlei; Yan, Fuhua; Hu, Xiaoping P


    The dentate nucleus (DN) of the cerebellum is the major output nucleus of the cerebellum and is rich in iron. Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) provides better iron-sensitive MRI contrast to delineate the boundary of the DN than either T2-weighted images or susceptibility-weighted images. Prior DN atlases used T2-weighted or susceptibility-weighted images to create DN atlases. Here, we employ QSM images to develop an improved dentate nucleus atlas for use in imaging studies. The DN was segmented in QSM images from 38 healthy volunteers. The resulting DN masks were transformed to a common space and averaged to generate the DN atlas. The center of mass of the left and right sides of the QSM-based DN atlas in the Montreal Neurological Institute space was -13.8, -55.8, and -36.4 mm, and 13.8, -55.7, and -36.4 mm, respectively. The maximal probability and mean probability of the DN atlas with the individually segmented DNs in this cohort were 100 and 39.3%, respectively, in contrast to the maximum probability of approximately 75% and the mean probability of 23.4 to 33.7% with earlier DN atlases. Using QSM, which provides superior iron-sensitive MRI contrast for delineating iron-rich structures, an improved atlas for the dentate nucleus has been generated. The atlas can be applied to investigate the role of the DN in both normal cortico-cerebellar physiology and the variety of disease states in which it is implicated.

  10. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  11. Playing Pinball with Atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saedi, A.; van Houselt, Arie; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    We demonstrate the feasibility of controlling an atomic scale mechanical device by an external electrical signal. On a germanium substrate, a switching motion of pairs of atoms is induced by electrons that are directly injected into the atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. By precisely

  12. Possible violation of the Pauli principle in atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Okun, Lev Borisovich


    A free field model with an explicit violation of the Pauli principle is constructed. The difficulties which arise in incorporating an electromagnetic interaction and in extending the model to the relativistic case are discussed. Some experiments which might be carried out to search for 'non-Pauli' atoms, with an anomalous filling of electron shells or of nucleon levels of the nucleus, are proposed. (9 refs).

  13. Low P sub T hadron-nucleus interactions (United States)

    Holynski, R.; Wozniak, K.


    The possibility of describing hadron-nucleus (hA) interactions is discussed in terms of a number of independent collisions of the projectile inside the target nucleus. This multiple rescattering may occur on a particle or quark parton level. To investigate the characteristics of hA interactions as a function of antineutrinos advantage is taken of the correlation between the average number antineutrinos of collisions of the projectile inside the nucleus and the number Ng of fast protons ejected from the struck nucleus. The relation antineutrinos vs Ng obtained in antineutrinos was used. For a given target nucleus this allows the selection of interactions occurring at different impact parameters.

  14. Saturation Effect of Projectile Excitation in Ion-Atom Collisions (United States)

    Mukoyama, Takeshi; Lin, Chii-Dong

    Calculations of projectile K-shell electron excitation cross sections for He-like ions during ion-atom collisions have been performed in the distortion approximation by the use of Herman-Skillman wave functions. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data for several targets. The excitation cross sections deviate from the first-Born approximation and show the saturation effect as a function of target atomic number. This effect can be explained as the distortion of the projectile electronic states by the target nucleus.

  15. Semiclassical approach to atomic decoherence by gravitational waves (United States)

    Quiñones, D. A.; Varcoe, B. T. H.


    A new heuristic model of interaction of an atomic system with a gravitational wave (GW) is proposed. In it, the GW alters the local electromagnetic field of the atomic nucleus, as perceived by the electron, changing the state of the system. The spectral decomposition of the wave function is calculated, from which the energy is obtained. The results suggest a shift in the difference of the atomic energy levels, which will induce a small detuning to a resonant transition. The detuning increases with the quantum numbers of the levels, making the effect more prominent for Rydberg states. We performed calculations on the Rabi oscillations of atomic transitions, estimating how they would vary as a result of the proposed effect.

  16. Calculation of magnetic response properties using atoms in molecules (United States)

    Keith, T. A.; Bader, R. F. W.


    A new method (IGAIM — individual gauges for atoms in molecules) is presented for relatively accurate ab initio calculations of molecular magnetic response properties. The current density induced within an atom in a molecule by an external magnetic field is well described by the coupled, perturbed Hartree—Fock method when the gauge origin of the vector potential is placed at its nucleus, the natural origin for the free atom, even though it may be poorly described in the rest of the molecule. Since the molecular magnetic susceptibility and nuclear magnetic shielding tensors can be expressed in terms of the induced current density as a sum of separately determined atomic contributions, these properties are, in general, accurately predicted even with basis sets that are insufficient for conventional CPHF.

  17. Atomization characteristics of a prefilming airblast atomizer (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigeru; Koito, Atsushi; Hishiki, Manabu


    The size distribution of water test sprays generated by a prefilming airblast atomizer used for aeroengines was measured in swirling and non-swirling flows with the well established laser scattering particle sizing technique. Atomizing air velocity (or pressure difference) was varied in a range wider than the conditions of actual engines. The Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) decreased at approximately a 1.5 power of the atomizing air velocity, being a higher velocity index than the previously reported values of 1 to 1.2. It was unexpectedly found that the effect of the liquid/air flow ratio was small. Since swirling flow increased the SMD at lower air velocities yet decreased it at higher ones, it is suggested that the reverse flow near the nozzle pintle adversely affects atomization.

  18. Single atom electrochemical and atomic analytics (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama

    In the past decade, advances in electron and scanning-probe based microscopies have led to a wealth of imaging and spectroscopic data with atomic resolution, yielding substantial insight into local physics and chemistry in a diverse range of systems such as oxide catalysts, multiferroics, manganites, and 2D materials. However, typical analysis of atomically resolved images is limited, despite the fact that image intensities and distortions of the atoms from their idealized positions contain unique information on the physical and chemical properties inherent to the system. Here, we present approaches to data mine atomically resolved images in oxides, specifically in the hole-doped manganite La5/8Ca3/8MnO3, on epitaxial films studied by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Through application of bias to the STM tip, atomic-scale electrochemistry is demonstrated on the manganite surface. STM images are then further analyzed through a suite of algorithms including 2D autocorrelations, sliding window Fourier transforms, and others, and can be combined with basic thermodynamic modelling to reveal relevant physical and chemical descriptors including segregation energies, existence and strength of atomic-scale diffusion barriers, surface energies and sub-surface chemical species identification. These approaches promise to provide tremendous insights from atomically resolved functional imaging, can provide relevant thermodynamic parameters, and auger well for use with first-principles calculations to yield quantitative atomic-level chemical identification and structure-property relations. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, BES, DOE. Research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which also provided support and is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  19. Multilevel Atomic Coherent States and Atomic Holomorphic Representation (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Haake, Fritz


    The notion of atomic coherent states is extended to the case of multilevel atom collective. Based on atomic coherent states, a holomorphic representation for atom collective states and operators is defined. An example is given to illustrate its application.

  20. Biosynthesis of vitamin B12: concerning the origin of the methine protons of the corrin nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, A.I.; Kajiwara, M.; Santander, P.J.


    13C NMR spectroscopy has been used to locate six deuterium atoms incorporated biosynthetically on the periphery of the corrin nucleus of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin) derived from cells of Propionibacterium shermanii grown in a medium containing 50% /sup 2/H/sub 2/O and /sup 13/C-enriched delta-aminolevulinic acid. The implications of these results for the mechanism of vitamin B12 biosynthesis are discussed, and it is concluded that the same oxidation level of the intermediates is maintained throughout the biosynthetic pathway, from delta-aminolevulinic acid to corrin.

  1. High precision spectroscopy of pionic and antiprotonic atoms; Spectroscopie de precision des atomes pioniques et antiprotoniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Khoury, P


    The study of exotic atoms, in which an orbiting electron of a normal atom is replaced by a negatively charged particle ({pi}{sup -}, {mu}{sup -}, p, {kappa}{sup -}, {sigma}{sup -},...) may provide information on the orbiting particle and the atomic nucleus, as well as on their interaction. In this work, we were interested in pionic atoms ({pi}{sup -14} N) on the one hand in order to determine the pion mass with high accuracy (4 ppm), and on the other hand in antiprotonic atoms (pp-bar) in order to study the strong nucleon-antinucleon interaction at threshold. In this respect, a high-resolution crystal spectrometer was coupled to a cyclotron trap which provides a high stop density for particles in gas targets at low pressure. Using curved crystals, an extended X-ray source could be imaged onto the detector. Charge-Coupled Devices were used as position sensitive detectors in order to measure the Bragg angle of the transition to a high precision. The use of gas targets resolved the ambiguity owing to the number of K electrons for the value of the pion mass, and, for the first time, strong interaction shift and broadening of the 2p level in antiprotonic hydrogen were measured directly. (author)

  2. J/$\\psi$ production in proton-nucleus and nucleus-nucleus interactions at the CERN SPS

    CERN Document Server

    Abreu, M C; Alexa, C; Arnaldi, R; Ataian, M R; Baglin, C; Baldit, A; Bedjidian, Marc; Beolè, S; Boldea, V; Bordalo, P; Borges, G; Bussière, A; Capelli, L; Castanier, C; Castor, J I; Chaurand, B; Chevrot, I; Cheynis, B; Chiavassa, E; Cicalò, C; Claudino, T; Comets, M P; Constans, N; Constantinescu, S; Cortese, P; De Falco, A; De Marco, N; Dellacasa, G; Devaux, A; Dita, S; Drapier, O; Ducroux, L; Espagnon, B; Fargeix, J; Force, P; Gallio, M; Gavrilov, Yu K; Gerschel, C; Giubellino, P; Golubeva, M B; Gonin, M; Grigorian, A A; Grossiord, J Y; Guber, F F; Guichard, A; Gulkanian, H R; Hakobyan, R S; Haroutunian, R; Idzik, M; Jouan, D; Karavitcheva, T L; Kluberg, L; Kurepin, A B; Le Bornec, Y; Lourenço, C; Macciotta, P; MacCormick, M; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Masera, M; Masoni, A; Monteno, M; Musso, A; Petiau, P; Piccotti, A; Pizzi, J R; Prado da Silva, W L; Prino, F; Puddu, G; Quintans, C; Ramello, L; Ramos, S; Rato-Mendes, P; Riccati, L; Romana, A; Santos, H; Saturnini, P; Scalas, E; Scomparin, E; Serci, S; Shahoyan, R; Sigaudo, F; Silva, S; Sitta, M; Sonderegger, P; Tarrago, X; Topilskaya, N S; Usai, G L; Vercellin, Ermanno; Villatte, L; Willis, N


    The NA38 and NA50 experiments at the CERN SPS have measured charmonium production in different colliding systems with the aim of observing a phase transition from ordinary hadronic matter towards a state in which quarks and gluons are deconfined (quark-gluon plasma, QGP). This experimental research is based on the prediction that the J/ psi yield should be suppressed in deconfined matter. The analysis of the data collected by the NA50 experiment with Pb-Pb collisions at 158 GeV/c per nucleon shows that the J/ psi is anomalously suppressed with respect to the pattern observed in proton-nucleus and light ion reactions. (9 refs).

  3. Meson-nucleus potentials and the search for meson-nucleus bound states (United States)

    Metag, V.; Nanova, M.; Paryev, E. Ya.


    Recent experiments studying the meson-nucleus interaction to extract meson-nucleus potentials are reviewed. The real part of the potentials quantifies whether the interaction is attractive or repulsive while the imaginary part describes the meson absorption in nuclei. The review is focused on mesons which are sufficiently long-lived to potentially form meson-nucleus quasi-bound states. The presentation is confined to meson production off nuclei in photon-, pion-, proton-, and light-ion induced reactions and heavy-ion collisions at energies near the production threshold. Tools to extract the potential parameters are presented. In most cases, the real part of the potential is determined by comparing measured meson momentum distributions or excitation functions with collision model or transport model calculations. The imaginary part is extracted from transparency ratio measurements. Results on K+ ,K0 ,K- , η ,η‧ , ω, and ϕ mesons are presented and compared with theoretical predictions. The interaction of K+ and K0 mesons with nuclei is found to be weakly repulsive, while the K- , η ,η‧ , ω and ϕ meson-nucleus potentials are attractive, however, with widely different strengths. Because of meson absorption in the nuclear medium the imaginary parts of the meson-nucleus potentials are all negative, again with a large spread. An outlook on planned experiments in the charm sector is given. In view of the determined potential parameters, the criteria and chances for experimentally observing meson-nucleus quasi-bound states are discussed. The most promising candidates appear to be the η and η‧ mesons.

  4. Inversion symmetry breaking of atomic bound states in strong and short laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Stooß, Veit; Ott, Christian; Blättermann, Alexander; Ding, Thomas; Pfeifer, Thomas


    In any atomic species, the spherically symmetric potential originating from the charged nucleus results in fundamental symmetry properties governing the structure of atomic states and transition rules between them. If atoms are exposed to external electric fields, these properties are modified giving rise to energy shifts such as the AC Stark-effect in varying fields and, contrary to this in a constant (DC) electric field for high enough field strengths, the breaking of the atomic symmetry which causes fundamental changes in the atom's properties. This has already been observed for atomic Rydberg states with high principal quantum numbers. Here, we report on the observation of symmetry breaking effects in Helium atoms for states with principal quantum number n=2 utilizing strong visible laser fields. These findings were enabled by temporally resolving the dynamics better than the sub-optical cycle of the applied laser field, utilizing the method of attosecond transient absorption spectroscopy (ATAS). We ident...

  5. Aspects of Coulomb dissociation and interference in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystrand, Joakim; Baltz, Anthony; Klein, Spencer R.


    Coherent vector meson production in peripheral nucleus-nucleus collisions is discussed. These interactions may occur for impact parameters much larger than the sum of the nuclear radii. Since the vector meson production is always localized to one of the nuclei, the system acts as a two-source interferometer in the transverse plane. By tagging the outgoing nuclei for Coulomb dissociation it is possible to obtain a measure of the impact parameter and thus the source separation in the interferometer. This is of particular interest since the life-time of the vector mesons are generally much shorter than the impact parameters of the collisions.

  6. On the trends of Fukui potential and hardness potential derivatives in isolated atoms vs. atoms in molecules. (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rituparna; Roy, Ram Kinkar


    In the present study, trends of electronic contribution to molecular electrostatic potential [Vel(r¯)(r=0)], Fukui potential [v(+)f|(r=0) and v(-)f|(r=0)] and hardness potential derivatives [Δ(+)h(k) and Δ(-)h(k)] for isolated atoms as well as atoms in molecules are investigated. The generated numerical values of these three reactivity descriptors in these two electronically different situations are critically analyzed through the relevant formalism. Values of Vel(r¯) (when r → 0, i.e., on the nucleus) are higher for atoms in molecules than that of isolated atoms. In contrast, higher values of v(+)|(r=0) and v(-)|(r=0) are observed for isolated atoms compared to the values for atoms in a molecule. However, no such regular trend is observed for the Δ(+)h(k) and Δ(-)h(k) values, which is attributed to the uncertainty in the Fukui function values of atoms in molecules. The sum of Fukui potential and the sum of hardness potential derivatives in molecules are also critically analyzed, which shows the efficacy of orbital relaxation effects in quantifying the values of these parameters. The chemical consequence of the observed trends of these descriptors in interpreting electron delocalization, electronic relaxation and non-negativity of atomic Fukui function indices is also touched upon. Several commonly used molecules containing carbon as well as heteroatoms are chosen to make the investigation more insightful.

  7. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations


    Cvitas, Marko T.; Soldan, Pavel; Hutson, Jeremy M.


    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  8. An exceptionally bright, compact starburst nucleus (United States)

    Margon, Bruce; Anderson, Scott F.; Mateo, Mario; Fich, Michel; Massey, Philip


    Observations are reported of a remarkably bright (V about 13) starburst nucleus, 0833 + 652, which has been detected at radio, infrared, optical, ultraviolet, and X-ray wavelengths. Despite an observed flux at each of these wavelengths which is comparable to that of NGC 7714, often considered the 'prototypical' example of the starburst phenomenon, 0833 + 652 appears to be a previously uncataloged object. Its ease of detectability throughout the electromagnetic spectrum should make it useful for a variety of problems in the study of compact emission-line galaxies.

  9. Lectures on the theory of the nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Sitenko, Aleksej Grigorevich


    Provides an advanced and up-to-date account of the theory of nuclear structure and discusses in considerable detail both the superfluid and collective models of the nucleus, in addition to earlier complementary models and theories. The book also examines other important topics such as the rotational and vibrational spectra of nuclei which have not previously been treated in such depth. To summarize, it covers a large amount of theoretical ground in one volume and attempts to fill a serious gap in the literature. Many problems are included

  10. Modern atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant


    Much of our understanding of physics in the last 30-plus years has come from research on atoms, photons, and their interactions. Collecting information previously scattered throughout the literature, Modern Atomic Physics provides students with one unified guide to contemporary developments in the field. After reviewing metrology and preliminary material, the text explains core areas of atomic physics. Important topics discussed include the spontaneous emission of radiation, stimulated transitions and the properties of gas, the physics and applications of resonance fluorescence, coherence, cooling and trapping of charged and neutral particles, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments. Covering standards, a different way of looking at a photon, stimulated radiation, and frequency combs, the appendices avoid jargon and use historical notes and personal anecdotes to make the topics accessible to non-atomic physics students. Written by a leader in atomic and optical physics, this text gives a state-of-the...

  11. Single atom microscopy. (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos


    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  12. Atomic Force Microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    microscopes, but AFM can be used to image four molecules of p53 bound to a small fragment of DNA. Here we can also ..... another useful feature to the AFM systems. .... tion: AFM has been used extensively to understand the structure– function organization of different sub-nuclear organelle. Nucleus. Figure 7a. Eukaryotic.

  13. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J


    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  14. Experimental studies of pion-nucleus interactions at intermediate energies. Annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This report summarizes the work on experimental research in intermediate energy nuclear physics carried out at New Mexico State University in 1991 under a great from the US Department of Energy. Most of these studies have involved investigations of various pion-nucleus interactions. The work has been carried out both with the LAMPF accelerator at the Los Alamos National Laboratory and with the cyclotron at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) near Zurich, Switzerland. Part of the experimental work involves measurements of new data on double-charge-exchange scattering, using facilities at LAMPF which we helped modify, and on pion absorption, using a new detector system at PSI that covers nearly the full solid-angle region which we helped construct. Other work involved preparation for future experiments using polarized nuclear targets and a new high-resolution spectrometer system for detecting {pi}{sup 0} mesons. We also presented several proposals for works to be done in future years, involving studies related to pi-mesonic atoms, fundamental pion-nucleon interactions, studies of the difference between charged and neutral pion interactions with the nucleon, studies of the isospin structure of pion-nucleus interactions, and pion scattering from polarized {sup 3}He targets. This work is aimed at improving our understanding of the pion-nucleon interaction, of the pion-nucleus interaction mechanism, and of nuclear structure.

  15. Challenges in the description of the atomic nucleus: Unification and interdisciplinarity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bortignon, P.F. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy); INFN, Milan (Italy); Broglia, R.A. [University of Milan, Department of Physics, Milan (Italy); University of Copenhagen, The Niels Bohr Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark)


    Nuclear physics, in general, and theoretical nuclear physics, in particular, have provided the physics community at large, among other things, with the paradigm of spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomena in finite many-body systems. The study of the associated mechanisms of symmetry restoration has shed light on the microscopic structure of the corresponding condensates, in particular on the superfluid phase, allowing to study Cooper pair tunnelling into superfluid nuclei (related to the Josephson effect), in terms of individual quantum states and reaching, in doing so, a new milestone: that of unifying structure and reactions, these last processes being found at the basis of the formulation of quantum mechanics (probability interpretation, Born). In the process, nuclear physicists have extended the validity of BCS theory of superconductivity to the single Cooper pair situation, let alone discovering unexpected mechanism to break gauge invariance. The insight obtained from pair transfer research is likely to have important consequences in the study of double charge exchange processes, and thus in the determination of the nuclear matrix element associated with neutrinoless double beta decay, eventually providing an important test of the Standard Model. Time, thus, seems ripe for nuclear theorists to take centre stage, backed by a wealth of experimental information and by their interdisciplinary capacity to connect basic physical concepts across the borders. With the help of these elements they can aim at fully revealing the many facets of their femtometer many-body system, from vacuum zero point fluctuations to new exotic modes of nuclear excitations and of their interweaving, resulting in powerful effective field theories. Unless. Unless they are not able to free themselves from words like ab initio or fundamental, and to adapt a relax attitude concerning Skyrme, tensor, etc., forces, as well as regarding the quest for ''the'' Hamiltonian. (orig.)

  16. Neurochemical organization of the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis in the human


    Baizer, Joan S.; Baker, James F.; Haas, Kristin; Lima, Raquel


    We have characterized the neurochemical organization of a small brainstem nucleus in the human brain, the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis (PMD). PMD is located adjacent and medial to the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PH) in the dorsal medulla, and is distinguished by the pattern of immunoreactivity of cells and fibers to several markers including calcium-binding proteins, a synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS) and a nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (a...

  17. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip


    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  18. Atoms, Molecules and Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Refresher Course in Applications of Quantum Mechanics to 'Atoms, Molecules and Radiation' will be held at the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore from December 8 to 20. 2014. The Course is primarily aimed at teachers teaching quantum mechanics and/ or atomic and molecular physics at the UG / PG level.

  19. When Atoms Want (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente


    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  20. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce, (United States)


    Atomicity in Electronic Commerce J. D. Tygar January 1996 CMU-CS-96-112 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213...other research sponsor. Keywords: electronic commerce , atomicity, NetBill, IBIP, cryptography, transaction pro- cessing, ACID, franking, electronic ...goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work. Unfortunately, much of that work ignores traditional transaction

  1. Nucleus and nucleus-cytoskeleton connections in 3D cell migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Lingling, E-mail:; Luo, Qing, E-mail:; Sun, Jinghui, E-mail:; Song, Guanbin, E-mail:


    Cell migration plays an important role in many physiological and pathological settings, ranging from embryonic development to cancer metastasis. Currently, accumulating data suggest that cells migrating in three-dimensional (3D) environments show well-defined differences compared to their well-established two-dimensional (2D) counterparts. During 3D migration, the cell body and nucleus must deform to allow cellular passage through the available spaces, and the deformability of the relatively rigid nucleus may constitute a limiting step. Here, we highlight the key evidence regarding the role of the nuclear mechanics in 3D migration, including the molecular components that govern the stiffness of the nucleus and review how the nuclear dynamics are connected to and controlled by cytoskeleton-based migration machinery. Intriguingly, nuclear movement must be coordinated with the cytoskeletal dynamics at the leading and trailing edges, which in turn impact the cytoplasmic dynamics that affect the migration efficiency. Thus, we suggest that alterations in the nuclear structure may facilitate cellular reorganizations that are necessary for efficient migration. - Graphical abstract: Schematic representations of a cell migrating on a 2D substrate and a cell migrating in a 3D extracellular matrix environment. (A) Nucleus-cytoskeleton connections are essential to 3D migration. Mechanical signals are transduced by integrins at the cell surface and channeled to cytoskeletal proteins, which generates prestress. The nucleus-cytoskeleton connections can either act as a stable skeleton to anchor the nuclei or provide active force to move the nuclei. The LINC complex is responsible for the nucleo-cytoskeletal coupling. Nesprins connect the cytoskeletal proteins to the inner nuclear membrane proteins SUN1 and SUN2. The SUN proteins connect to the lamins that form the lamina, which attaches to the chromatin. This physical connectivity transmits the mechanical signals from receptors at

  2. Theoretical atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald


    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  3. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques


    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  4. Maximally Atomic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Brzozowski


    Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.

  5. Delta-nucleus dynamics: proceedings of symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T.S.H.; Geesaman, D.F.; Schiffer, J.P. (eds.)


    The appreciation of the role in nuclear physics of the first excited state of the nucleon, the delta, has grown rapidly in the past decade. The delta resonance dominates nuclear reactions induced by intermediate energy pions, nucleons, and electromagnetic probes. It is also the most important non-nucleonic degree of freedom needed to resolve many fundamental problems encountered in the study of low-energy nuclear phenomena. Clearly, a new phase of nuclear physics has emerged and conventional thinking must be extended to account for this new dimension of nuclear dynamics. The most challenging problem we are facing is how a unified theory can be developed to describe dynamics at all energies. In exploring this new direction, it is important to have direct discussions among researchers with different viewpoints. Separate entries were prepared for the 49 papers presented. (WHK)

  6. Observation of the antimatter helium-4 nucleus. (United States)


    High-energy nuclear collisions create an energy density similar to that of the Universe microseconds after the Big Bang; in both cases, matter and antimatter are formed with comparable abundance. However, the relatively short-lived expansion in nuclear collisions allows antimatter to decouple quickly from matter, and avoid annihilation. Thus, a high-energy accelerator of heavy nuclei provides an efficient means of producing and studying antimatter. The antimatter helium-4 nucleus (4He), also known as the anti-α (α), consists of two antiprotons and two antineutrons (baryon number B = -4). It has not been observed previously, although the α-particle was identified a century ago by Rutherford and is present in cosmic radiation at the ten per cent level. Antimatter nuclei with B antimatter nuclei and a benchmark for possible future observations of 4He in cosmic radiation.

  7. Calcium microdomains in mitochondria and nucleus. (United States)

    Alonso, María Teresa; Villalobos, Carlos; Chamero, Pablo; Alvarez, Javier; García-Sancho, Javier


    Endomembranes modify the progression of the cytosolic Ca(2+) wave and contribute to generate Ca(2+) microdomains, both in the cytosol and inside the own organella. The concentration of Ca(2+) in the cytosol ([Ca(2+)](C)), the mitochondria ([Ca(2+)](M)) and the nucleus ([Ca(2+)](N)) are similar at rest, but may become very different during cell activation. Mitochondria avidly take up Ca(2+) from the high [Ca(2+)](C) microdomains generated during cell activation near Ca(2+) channels of the plasma membrane and/or the endomembranes and prevent propagation of the high Ca(2+) signal to the bulk cytosol. This shaping of [Ca(2+)](C) signaling is essential for independent regulation of compartmentalized cell functions. On the other hand, a high [Ca(2+)](M) signal is generated selectively in the mitochondria close to the active areas, which tunes up respiration to the increased local needs. The progression of the [Ca(2+)](C) signal to the nucleus may be dampened by mitochondria, the nuclear envelope or higher buffering power inside the nucleoplasm. On the other hand, selective [Ca(2+)](N) signals could be generated by direct release of stored Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm. Ca(2+) release could even be restricted to subnuclear domains. Putative Ca(2+) stores include the nuclear envelope, their invaginations inside the nucleoplasm (nucleoplasmic reticulum) and nuclear microvesicles. Inositol trisphosphate, cyclic ADP-ribose and nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate have all been reported to produce release of Ca(2+) into the nucleoplasm, but contribution of these mechanisms under physiological conditions is still uncertain.

  8. Resonant two-electron processes in ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zavodszky, P.A. E-mail:; Richard, P.; Bhalla, C.P


    A review of some of the recent results in an effort to obtain electron-ion differential scattering cross sections using fast ion-atom collisions is given. In the projectile frame, if we neglect the effects from the target nucleus, the ion-atom collision can be described as an electron-ion scattering process where the energy distribution of the impinging quasi-free electrons is determined by the Compton-profile of the target. In this electron scattering model (ESM), in addition to the direct electron scattering, doubly excited state formation of the projectile ion is also possible. This is a resonant process in which the doubly excited states can subsequently decay by ejecting Auger-electrons. We have studied elastic, inelastic and superelastic electron scattering as a function of incoming electron energy by observing the outgoing electron energy in the ion-atom collision emission spectra.

  9. Nuclear Excitations by Antiprotons and Antiprotonic Atoms

    CERN Multimedia


    The proposal aims at the investigation of nuclear excitations following the absorption and annihilation of stopped antiprotons in heavier nuclei and at the same time at the study of the properties of antiprotonic atoms. The experimental arrangement will consist of a scintillation counter telescope for the low momentum antiproton beam from LEAR, a beam degrader, a pion multiplicity counter, a monoisotopic target and Ge detectors for radiation and charged particles. The data are stored by an on-line computer.\\\\ \\\\ The Ge detectors register antiprotonic x-rays and nuclear @g-rays which are used to identify the residual nucleus and its excitation and spin state. Coincidences between the two detectors will indicate from which quantum state the antiprotons are absorbed and to which nuclear states the various reactions are leading. The measured pion multiplicity characterizes the annihilation process. Ge&hyphn. and Si-telescopes identify charged particles and determine their energies.\\\\ \\\\ The experiment will gi...

  10. Physics of atomic nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Zelevinsky, Vladimir


    This advanced textbook presents an extensive and diverse study of low-energy nuclear physics considering the nucleus as a quantum system of strongly interacting constituents. The contents guide students from the basic facts and ideas to more modern topics including important developments over the last 20 years, resulting in a comprehensive collection of major modern-day nuclear models otherwise unavailable in the current literature. The book emphasizes the common features of the nucleus and other many-body mesoscopic systems currently in the center of interest in physics. The authors have also included full problem sets that can be selected by lecturers and adjusted to specific interests for more advanced students, with many chapters containing links to freely available computer code. As a result, readers are equipped for scientific work in mesoscopic physics.

  11. Experimental and phenomenological investigations of QCD matter in high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andronic, Anton


    This thesis is heterogeneous, comprising experimental papers at low energies (SIS-18 at GSI) and at the LHC, papers on phenomenology of high-energy nucleus-nucleus collisions, and papers on detectors. The overview covers the experimental papers and those on phenomenology. I have chosen to write it in a general manner, intended to be accessible to non-experts. It emphasizes recent measurements and their understanding at the LHC. The detector papers, which address many principle aspects of gaseous detectors, are summarized and placed in context in the review I co-wrote and which closes the stack. The detector papers included here are the outcome of an R and D program for the Transition Radiation Detector of ALICE.

  12. Dynamical and statistical aspects in nucleus-nucleus collisions around the Fermi energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamain, B.; Bocage, F.; Bougault, R.; Brou, R. [Caen Univ., 14 (France). Lab. de Physique Corpusculaire; Assenard, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 44 - Nantes (France). Lab. de Physique Subatomique et des Technologies Associees; Auger, G.; Benlliure, J. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Bacri, C.O.; Borderie, B. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Bisquer, E. [Lyon-1 Univ., 69 - Villeurbanne (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire] [and others


    Nucleus-nucleus collisions at low incident energy are mainly governed by statistical dissipative processes, fusion and deep inelastic reactions being the most important ones. Conversely, in the relativistic energy regime, dynamical effects play a dominant role and one should apply a participant-spectator picture in order to understand the data. In between, the intermediate energy region is a transition one in which it is necessary to disentangle dynamics from statistical effects. Moreover, the Fermi energy region corresponds to available energies comparable with nuclear binding energies and one may except to observe phase transition effects. Experiments performed recently with 4{pi} devices have given quite new data and a much better insight into involved mechanisms and hot nuclear matter properties. INDRA data related to reaction mechanisms and multifragmentation are presented. (author) 53 refs.

  13. A versatile dielectron trigger for nucleon-nucleon and nucleus-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Schicker, R; Tsertos, H


    A novel approach for a versatile first level dielectron trigger is presented. This trigger operates in the low multiplicity environment of nucleon-nucleon reactions as well as in the high multiplicity situation of nucleus-nucleus collisions. For optimal trigger performance, time of flight conditions for the two fastest particles of the event are combined with event multiplicity requirements. The dielectron trigger efficiency is given. The event reduction factor of such a trigger approach is studied for a low, a medium and a high multiplicity environment. The impact parameter dependence of the event reduction is given. The timing properties of the trigger signal are described. The losses due to deadtime are specified. Finally, the first level trigger rate is reported.

  14. New quasibound states of the compound nucleus in α -particle capture by the nucleus (United States)

    Maydanyuk, Sergei P.; Zhang, Peng-Ming; Zou, Li-Ping


    We generalize the theory of nuclear decay and capture of Gamow that is based on tunneling through the barrier and internal oscillations inside the nucleus. In our formalism an additional factor is obtained, which describes distribution of the wave function of the the α particle inside the nuclear region. We discover new most stable states (called quasibound states) of the compound nucleus (CN) formed during the capture of α particle by the nucleus. With a simple example, we explain why these states cannot appear in traditional calculations of the α capture cross sections based on monotonic penetrabilities of a barrier, but they appear in a complete description of the evolution of the CN. Our result is obtained by a complete description of the CN evolution, which has the advantages of (1) a clear picture of the formation of the CN and its disintegration, (2) a detailed quantum description of the CN, (3) tests of the calculated amplitudes based on quantum mechanics (not realized in other approaches), and (4) high accuracy of calculations (not achieved in other approaches). These peculiarities are shown with the capture reaction of α +44Ca . We predict quasibound energy levels and determine fusion probabilities for this reaction. The difference between our approach and theory of quasistationary states with complex energies applied for the α capture is also discussed. We show (1) that theory does not provide calculations for the cross section of α capture (according to modern models of the α capture), in contrast with our formalism, and (2) these two approaches describe different states of the α capture (for the same α -nucleus potential).

  15. Lateral geniculate nucleus histopathology in the rat experimental ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although trypanosomosis has a well knownaetiology, histopathological studies on brain regions involved in the control of circadian rhythms are scanty. Lateral geniculate nucleus works in conjunction with the suprachiasmatic nucleus, the master circadian rhythm pacemaker, in regulating circadian rhythms. The purpose of ...

  16. Single-atom nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Prati, Enrico


    Single-Atom Nanoelectronics covers the fabrication of single-atom devices and related technology, as well as the relevant electronic equipment and the intriguing new phenomena related to single-atom and single-electron effects in quantum devices. It also covers the alternative approaches related to both silicon- and carbon-based technologies, also from the point of view of large-scale industrial production. The publication provides a comprehensive picture of the state of the art at the cutting edge and constitutes a milestone in the emerging field of beyond-CMOS technology. Although there are

  17. Physics of the atom

    CERN Document Server

    Wehr, Russell M; Adair, Thomas W


    The fourth edition of Physics of the Atom is designed to meet the modern need for a better understanding of the atomic age. It is an introduction suitable for students with a background in university physics and mathematical competence at the level of calculus. This book is designed to be an extension of the introductory university physics course into the realm of atomic physics. It should give students a proficiency in this field comparable to their proficiency in mechanics, heat, sound, light, and electricity.

  18. Vacuum low-temperature superconductivity is the essence of superconductivity - Atomic New Theory (United States)

    Yongquan, Han


    The universe when the temperature closest to the Big Bang the temperature should be nuclear. Because, after the big bang, instant formation of atoms, nuclei and electrons between the absolute vacuum, the nucleus can not emit energy. (Radioactive elements, except in fact, radiation Yuan Su limited power emitted) which causes atomic nuclei and external temperature difference are so enormous that a large temperature difference reasons, all external particles became closer to the nucleus, affect the motion of electrons. When the conductor conductivity and thus affect the conductivity, the formation of resistance. Assumption that no particles affect the motion of electrons (except outside the nucleus) to form a potential difference will not change after the vector form, is now talking about the phenomenon of superconductivity, and then to introduce general, the gap between atoms in molecules or between small, valence electron number of high temperature superconducting conductors. This theory of atomic nuclei, but also explain the atomic and hydrogen bombs can remain after an explosion Why can release enormous energy reasons. Can also explain the ``super flow'' phenomenon. natural world. Tel 13241375685

  19. Studies of atomic properties of francium and rubidium (United States)

    Perez Galvan, Adrian

    High precision measurements of atomic properties are excellent probes for electroweak interaction studies at the lowest possible energy range. The extraction of standard model coupling constants relies on a unique combination of experimental measurements and theoretical atomic structure calculations. It is only through stringent comparison between experimental and theoretical values of atomic properties that a successful experiment can take place. Francium, with its heavy nucleus and alkali structure that makes it amenable to laser cooling and trapping, stands as an ideal test bed for such studies. Our group has successfully created, trapped and cooled several isotopes of francium, the heaviest of the alkalies, and demonstrated that precision studies of atomic properties, such as the measurement of the 8S 1/2 excited state lifetime of 210Fr presented here, are feasible. Further work in our program of electroweak studies requires a better control of the electromagnetic environment observed by the sample of cold atoms as well as a lower background pressure (10-10 torr or better). We have designed and adapted to our previous setup a new "science" vacuum chamber that fulfills these requirements and the transport system that will transfer the francium atoms to the new chamber. We use this new experimental setup as well as a rubidium glass cell to perform precision studies of atomic and nuclear properties of rubidium. Spectroscopic studies of the most abundant isotopes of rubidium, 85Rb and 87Rb, are a vital component in our program. Performing measurements in rubidium allows us to do extensive and rigorous searches of systematics that can be later extrapolated to francium. We present a precision lifetime measurement of the 5D 3/2 state of 87Rb and a measurement of hyperfine splittings of the 6S1/2 level of 87Rb and 85Rb. The quality of the data of the latter allows us to observe a hyperfine anomaly attributed to an isotopic difference of the magnetization distribution

  20. Atomic & Molecular Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on Atomic & Molecular Interactions was held at Roger Williams University, Bristol, RI. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  1. The Casimir atomic pendulum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Razmi, H. [Department of Physics, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:; Abdollahi, M. [Department of Physics, University of Qom, Qom 37185-359 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail:


    We want to introduce an atomic pendulum whose driving force (torque) is due to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Applying the well-known Casimir-Polder effect to a special configuration (a combined structure of an atomic nanostring and a conducting plate), an atomic pendulum (Casimir atomic pendulum) is designed. Using practically acceptable data corresponding to the already known world of nanotechnology and based on reasonable/reliable numerical estimates, the period of oscillation for the pendulum is computed. This pendulum can be considered as both a new micro(nano)-electromechanical system and a new simple vacuum machine. Its design may be considered as a first step towards realizing the visualized vacuum (Casimir) clock{exclamation_point}.

  2. The Casimir atomic pendulum (United States)

    Razmi, H.; Abdollahi, M.


    We want to introduce an atomic pendulum whose driving force (torque) is due to the quantum vacuum fluctuations. Applying the well-known Casimir-Polder effect to a special configuration (a combined structure of an atomic nanostring and a conducting plate), an atomic pendulum (Casimir atomic pendulum) is designed. Using practically acceptable data corresponding to the already known world of nanotechnology and based on reasonable/reliable numerical estimates, the period of oscillation for the pendulum is computed. This pendulum can be considered as both a new micro(nano)-electromechanical system and a new simple vacuum machine. Its design may be considered as a first step towards realizing the visualized vacuum (Casimir) clock!

  3. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J


    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  4. Dalton's Atomic Theory

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library



    WITH reference to the communications from the authors and from the reviewer of the "New View of the Origin of Dalton's Atomic Theory," published in NATURE for May 14, I beg leave to offer the following remarks...

  5. Atomic Interferometry Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs) is a new technology which can be used for developing high performance laser components for atom-based sensors...

  6. Topics in atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Burkhardt, Charles E


    The study of atomic physics propelled us into the quantum age in the early twentieth century and carried us into the twenty-first century with a wealth of new and, in some cases, unexplained phenomena. Topics in Atomic Physics provides a foundation for students to begin research in modern atomic physics. It can also serve as a reference because it contains material that is not easily located in other sources. A distinguishing feature is the thorough exposition of the quantum mechanical hydrogen atom using both the traditional formulation and an alternative treatment not usually found in textbooks. The alternative treatment exploits the preeminent nature of the pure Coulomb potential and places the Lenz vector operator on an equal footing with other operators corresponding to classically conserved quantities. A number of difficult to find proofs and derivations are included as is development of operator formalism that permits facile solution of the Stark effect in hydrogen. Discussion of the classical hydrogen...

  7. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.


    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given. (WHK)

  8. Atomic Clocks Research - An Overview. (United States)


    magnet. Since atomic deflection in an inhomogeneous magnetic field is inversely proportional to the square of the atomic speed, the atomic velocity...purifier and controlled leak; an atomic source (i.e., the dissociator under 39 study); a dipole electromagnetic with pole pieces shaped to produce an...34Relaxation Magnetique d’Atomes de Rubidium sur des Parois Paraffines," J. Phys. (Paris) 24, 379 (1963). 21. S. Wexler, "Deposition of Atomic Beams

  9. Wave Atom Based Watermarking


    Bukhari, Ijaz; Nuhman-ul-Haq; Hyat, Khizar


    Watermarking helps in ensuring originality, ownership and copyrights of a digital image. This paper aims at embedding a Watermark in an image using Wave Atom Transform. Preference of Wave Atoms on other transformations has been due to its sparser expansion, adaptability to the direction of local pattern, and sharp frequency localization. In this scheme, we had tried to spread the watermark in an image so that the information at one place is very small and undetectable. In order to extract the...

  10. Hirshfeld atom refinement. (United States)

    Capelli, Silvia C; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Dittrich, Birger; Grabowsky, Simon; Jayatilaka, Dylan


    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly-l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree-Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs) are freely refined without constraints or restraints - even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's), all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules), the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å(2) as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements - an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  11. Atoms, molecules & elements

    CERN Document Server

    Graybill, George


    Young scientists will be thrilled to explore the invisible world of atoms, molecules and elements. Our resource provides ready-to-use information and activities for remedial students using simplified language and vocabulary. Students will label each part of the atom, learn what compounds are, and explore the patterns in the periodic table of elements to find calcium (Ca), chlorine (Cl), and helium (He) through hands-on activities.

  12. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits


    Luckey, T. D.


    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation,...

  13. Atomic interferometry; Interferometrie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudon, J.; Robert, J. [Paris-13 Univ., 93 - Saint-Denis (France)


    Since the theoretical works of L. De Broglie (1924) and the famous experiment of Davisson and Germer (1927), we know that a wave is linked with any particle of mass m by the relation {lambda} = h/(mv), where {lambda} is the wavelength, v the particle velocity and h is the Planck constant. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves (with well-defined relative phases) are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves. An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques, different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc. The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. (J.S.)

  14. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  15. Functional network inference of the suprachiasmatic nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, John H.; Meeker, Kirsten; Granados-Fuentes, Daniel; St. John, Peter C.; Wang, Thomas J.; Bales, Benjamin B.; Doyle, Francis J.; Herzog, Erik D.; Petzold, Linda R.


    In the mammalian suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), noisy cellular oscillators communicate within a neuronal network to generate precise system-wide circadian rhythms. Although the intracellular genetic oscillator and intercellular biochemical coupling mechanisms have been examined previously, the network topology driving synchronization of the SCN has not been elucidated. This network has been particularly challenging to probe, due to its oscillatory components and slow coupling timescale. In this work, we investigated the SCN network at a single-cell resolution through a chemically induced desynchronization. We then inferred functional connections in the SCN by applying the maximal information coefficient statistic to bioluminescence reporter data from individual neurons while they resynchronized their circadian cycling. Our results demonstrate that the functional network of circadian cells associated with resynchronization has small-world characteristics, with a node degree distribution that is exponential. We show that hubs of this small-world network are preferentially located in the central SCN, with sparsely connected shells surrounding these cores. Finally, we used two computational models of circadian neurons to validate our predictions of network structure.

  16. Subthalamic nucleus detects unnatural android movement. (United States)

    Ikeda, Takashi; Hirata, Masayuki; Kasaki, Masashi; Alimardani, Maryam; Matsushita, Kojiro; Yamamoto, Tomoyuki; Nishio, Shuichi; Ishiguro, Hiroshi


    An android, i.e., a realistic humanoid robot with human-like capabilities, may induce an uncanny feeling in human observers. The uncanny feeling about an android has two main causes: its appearance and movement. The uncanny feeling about an android increases when its appearance is almost human-like but its movement is not fully natural or comparable to human movement. Even if an android has human-like flexible joints, its slightly jerky movements cause a human observer to detect subtle unnaturalness in them. However, the neural mechanism underlying the detection of unnatural movements remains unclear. We conducted an fMRI experiment to compare the observation of an android and the observation of a human on which the android is modelled, and we found differences in the activation pattern of the brain regions that are responsible for the production of smooth and natural movement. More specifically, we found that the visual observation of the android, compared with that of the human model, caused greater activation in the subthalamic nucleus (STN). When the android's slightly jerky movements are visually observed, the STN detects their subtle unnaturalness. This finding suggests that the detection of unnatural movements is attributed to an error signal resulting from a mismatch between a visual input and an internal model for smooth movement.

  17. Control of nucleus accumbens activity with neurofeedback. (United States)

    Greer, Stephanie M; Trujillo, Andrew J; Glover, Gary H; Knutson, Brian


    The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) plays critical roles in healthy motivation and learning, as well as in psychiatric disorders (including schizophrenia and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder). Thus, techniques that confer control of NAcc activity might inspire new therapeutic interventions. By providing second-to-second temporal resolution of activity in small subcortical regions, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can resolve online changes in NAcc activity, which can then be presented as "neurofeedback." In an fMRI-based neurofeedback experiment designed to elicit NAcc activity, we found that subjects could increase their own NAcc activity, and that display of neurofeedback significantly enhanced their ability to do so. Subjects were not as capable of decreasing their NAcc activity, however, and enhanced control did not persist after subsequent removal of neurofeedback. Further analyses suggested that individuals who recruited positive aroused affect were better able to increase NAcc activity in response to neurofeedback, and that NAcc neurofeedback also elicited functionally correlated activity in the medial prefrontal cortex. Together, these findings suggest that humans can modulate their own NAcc activity and that fMRI-based neurofeedback may augment their efforts. The observed association between positive arousal and effective NAcc control further supports an anticipatory affect account of NAcc function. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Comparing Realistic Subthalamic Nucleus Neuron Models (United States)

    Njap, Felix; Claussen, Jens C.; Moser, Andreas; Hofmann, Ulrich G.


    The mechanism of action of clinically effective electrical high frequency stimulation is still under debate. However, recent evidence points at the specific activation of GABA-ergic ion channels. Using a computational approach, we analyze temporal properties of the spike trains emitted by biologically realistic neurons of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) as a function of GABA-ergic synaptic input conductances. Our contribution is based on a model proposed by Rubin and Terman and exhibits a wide variety of different firing patterns, silent, low spiking, moderate spiking and intense spiking activity. We observed that most of the cells in our network turn to silent mode when we increase the GABAA input conductance above the threshold of 3.75 mS/cm2. On the other hand, insignificant changes in firing activity are observed when the input conductance is low or close to zero. We thus reproduce Rubin's model with vanishing synaptic conductances. To quantitatively compare spike trains from the original model with the modified model at different conductance levels, we apply four different (dis)similarity measures between them. We observe that Mahalanobis distance, Victor-Purpura metric, and Interspike Interval distribution are sensitive to different firing regimes, whereas Mutual Information seems undiscriminative for these functional changes.

  19. Parity Measurements in the 70Ga Nucleus (United States)

    Venegas Vargas, D. C.; Haring-Kaye, R. A.; Jones, K. D.; Le, K. Q.; Harbin, B. L.; Döring, J.; Abromeit, B.; Dungan, R.; Lubna, R.; Tabor, S. L.; Tai, P.-L.; Tripati, Vandana; Vonmoss, J. M.; Morrow, S. I.


    The odd-odd 70Ga nucleus was studied at high spin after being produced at Florida State University using the 62Ni(14C,αpn) fusion-evaporation reaction at a beam energy of 50 MeV. The resulting γ rays were detected in coincidence using an array of Compton-suppressed Ge detectors consisting of three Clover detectors and seven single-crystal detectors. The linear polarizations of eight γ-ray transitions in 70Ga were measured by comparing their scattering yields within a Clover detector in the parallel and perpendicular directions relative to the beam axis, under the requirement that at least one other γ ray in 70Ga was recorded by a single-crystal detector in the array. As a result of these measurements, the parities of six states were confirmed and those of two other states were established for the first time based on a comparison of the experimental polarizations with the predicted ones determined from known spin assignments. The resulting level spectrum of 70Ga shows both similarities and differences with the predictions of previous shell-model calculations. This work was supported by the U.S. National Science Foundation and the Ohio Wesleyan University Summer Science Research Program.

  20. Restoring Segmental Biomechanics Through Nucleus Augmentation: An In Vitro Study. (United States)

    Pelletier, Matthew H; Cohen, Charles S; Ducheyne, Paul; Walsh, William R


    In vitro biomechanical laboratory study. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a mechanical treatment to create a degenerative motion segment and the ability of nucleus augmentation to restore biomechanics. In cases with an intact annulus fibrosus, the replacement or augmentation of the nucleus pulposus alone may provide a less invasive option to restore normal biomechanics and disk height when compared with spinal fusion or total disk replacement. Laboratory testing allows these changes to be fully characterized. However, without preexisting pathology, nucleus augmentation therapies are difficult to evaluate in vitro. The present study evaluated pure moment bending and compressive biomechanics in 3 states (n=6): (1) intact, (2) after creep loading and nucleus disruption to induce degenerative biomechanical changes, and (3) after nucleus augmentation through an injectable polymer (DiscCell). Neutral zone and ROM were increased in all modes of bending after the degenerative treatment. The most sensitive mode of bending was lateral bending, with intact ROM (20.0±2.9 degrees) increased to 22.3±2.6 degrees after degenerative treatment and reduced to 18.4±1.6 degrees after injection of the polymer. All bending ROM and NZ changes induced by the degenerative treatment were reversed by nucleus augmentation. This material was shown to be effective at altering motion segment biomechanics and restoring disk height during time zero tests. This technique may provide a model to examine the time zero performance of a nucleus augmentation device/material.

  1. Quarkonium-nucleus bound states from lattice QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beane, S.  R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Chang, E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Cohen, S.  D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Detmold, W. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Lin, H. -W. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Orginos, K. [College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (United States); Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF), Newport News, VA (United States); Parreño, A. [Univ., de Barcelona, Marti Franques (Spain); Savage, M.  J. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)


    Quarkonium-nucleus systems are composed of two interacting hadronic states without common valence quarks, which interact primarily through multi-gluon exchanges, realizing a color van der Waals force. We present lattice QCD calculations of the interactions of strange and charm quarkonia with light nuclei. Both the strangeonium-nucleus and charmonium-nucleus systems are found to be relatively deeply bound when the masses of the three light quarks are set equal to that of the physical strange quark. Extrapolation of these results to the physical light-quark masses suggests that the binding energy of charmonium to nuclear matter is B < 40 MeV.

  2. Universal bosonic tetramers of dimer-atom-atom structure


    Deltuva, A.


    Unstable four-boson states having an approximate dimer-atom-atom structure are studied using momentum-space integral equations for the four-particle transition operators. For a given Efimov trimer the universal properties of the lowest associated tetramer are determined. The impact of this tetramer on the atom-trimer and dimer-dimer collisions is analyzed. The reliability of the three-body dimer-atom-atom model is studied.

  3. The nucleus retroambiguus control of respiration. (United States)

    Subramanian, Hari H; Holstege, Gert


    The role of the nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) in the context of respiration control has been subject of debate for considerable time. To solve this problem, we chemically (using d, l-homocysteic acid) stimulated the NRA in unanesthetized precollicularly decerebrated cats and studied the respiratory effect via simultaneous measurement of tracheal pressure and electromyograms of diaphragm, internal intercostal (IIC), cricothyroid (CT), and external oblique abdominal (EO) muscles. NRA-stimulation 0-1 mm caudal to the obex resulted in recruitment of IIC muscle and reduction in respiratory frequency. NRA-stimulation 1-3 mm caudal to the obex produced vocalization along with CT activation and slight increase in tracheal pressure, but no change in respiratory frequency. NRA-stimulation 3-5 mm caudal to the obex produced CT muscle activation and an increase in respiratory frequency, but no vocalization. NRA-stimulation 5-8 mm caudal to the obex produced EO muscle activation and reduction in respiratory frequency. A change to the inspiratory effort was never observed, regardless of which NRA part was stimulated. The results demonstrate that NRA does not control eupneic inspiration but consists of topographically separate groups of premotor interneurons each producing detailed motor actions. These motor activities have in common that they require changes to eupneic breathing. Different combination of activation of these premotor neurons determines the final outcome, e.g., vocalization, vomiting, coughing, sneezing, mating posture, or child delivery. Higher brainstem regions such as the midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) decides which combination of NRA neurons are excited. In simple terms, the NRA is the piano, the PAG one of the piano players.

  4. Sampling the Hydrogen Atom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graves N.


    Full Text Available A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the electron is an objectively real particle orbiting at very near to light speed. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms associated with orbiting bodies can be considered as being af- fected by relativity. This leads to a model for the atom in which the stable electron orbits are associated with orbital velocities where Gamma is n /α , leading to the idea that it is Gamma that is quantized and not angular momentum as in the Bohr and other models. The model provides a mechanism which leads to quantization of energy levels within the atom and also provides a simple mechanical explanation for the Fine Struc- ture Constant. The mechanism is closely associated with the Sampling theorem and the related phenomenon of aliasing developed in the mid-20th century by engineers at Bell labs.

  5. Quantitative analysis of the fusion cross sections using different microscopic nucleus-nucleus interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adel, A. [Cairo University, Physics Department, Faculty of Science, Giza (Egypt); Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia); Alharbi, T. [Majmaah University, Physics Department, College of Science, Al-Zulfi (Saudi Arabia)


    The fusion cross sections for reactions involving medium and heavy nucleus-nucleus systems are investigated near and above the Coulomb barrier using the one-dimensional barrier penetration model. The microscopic nuclear interaction potential is computed by four methods, namely: the double-folding model based on a realistic density-dependent M3Y NN interaction with a finite-range exchange part, the Skyrme energy density functional in the semiclassical extended Thomas-Fermi approximation, the generalized Proximity potential, and the Akyuez-Winther interaction. The comparison between the calculated and the measured values of the fusion excitation functions indicates that the calculations of the DFM give quite satisfactory agreement with the experimental data, being much better than the other methods. New parameterized forms for the fusion barrier heights and positions are presented. Furthermore, the effects of deformation and orientation degrees of freedom on the distribution of the Coulomb barrier characteristics as well as the fusion cross sections are studied for the reactions {sup 16}O + {sup 70}Ge and {sup 28}Si + {sup 100}Mo. The calculated values of the total fusion cross sections are compared with coupled channel calculations using the code CCFULL and compared with the experimental data. Our results reveal that the inclusion of deformations and orientation degrees of freedom improves the comparison with the experimental data. (orig.)

  6. Formation and identification of Centauro and Strangelets in nucleus- nucleus collisions at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Angelis, Aris L S; Bogolyubsky, M Yu; Filippov, S N; Gladysz-Dziadus, E; Kharlov, Yu V; Kurepin, A B; Maevskaya, A I; Mavromanolakis, G; Panagiotou, A D; Sadovsky, S A; Stefanski, P; Wlodarczyk, Z


    We present a phenomenological model for the formation and decay of a cosmic ray Centauro fireball in the baryon-rich projectile fragmentation rapidity region in nucleus-nucleus interactions. Our model naturally incorporates the $9 possibility of strangelet formation, Strangelets being conjectured to be the "strongly penetrating component" observed in hadron-rich cosmic ray events. Based on this model we have performed Monte-Carlo simulations to study the $9 Centauro and strangelet dynamic and kinematic characteristics in central Pb+Pb collisions at LHC energies, as well as their identification by the detector system CASTOR. CASTOR is being developed for the ALICE heavy ion experiment at $9 the LHC and will probe the very forward pseudorapidity region 5.6

  7. EOS: A time projection chamber for the study of nucleus-nucleus collisions at the Bevalac

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pugh, H.G.; Odyniec, G.; Rai, G.; Seidl, P.


    The conceptual design is presented for a detector to identify and measure ( approx. = 1%) most of the 200 or so mid-rapidity charged particles (p, d, t, /sup 3/He, /sup 4/He, ..pi../sup + -/, K/sup + -/) produced in each central nucleus-nucleus collision (Au + Au) at Bevalac energies, as well as K/sub 3//sup 0/ and ..lambda../sup 0/. The beam particles and heavy spectator fragments are excluded from the detection volume by means of a central vacuum pipe. Particle identification is achieved by a combination of dE/dx measurements in the TPC, and of time-of-flight measurements in a scintillator array. The TPC is single-ended and its end cap is entirely covered with cathode pads (about 25,000 pads and about 1000 anode wires). A non-uniform pad distribution is proposed to accommodate the high multiplicity of particles emitted at forward angles. The performance of the detector is assessed with regard to multihit capability, tracking, momentum resolution, particle identification, ..lambda../sup 0/ reconstruction, space charge effects, field non-uniformity, dynamic range, data acquisition rate, and data analysis rate. 72 refs., 48 figs., 11 tabs.

  8. Atomic Force Microscope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Day, R.D.; Russell, P.E.


    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) is a recently developed instrument that has achieved atomic resolution imaging of both conducting and non- conducting surfaces. Because the AFM is in the early stages of development, and because of the difficulty of building the instrument, it is currently in use in fewer than ten laboratories worldwide. It promises to be a valuable tool for obtaining information about engineering surfaces and aiding the .study of precision fabrication processes. This paper gives an overview of AFM technology and presents plans to build an instrument designed to look at engineering surfaces.

  9. Hirshfeld atom refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia C. Capelli


    Full Text Available Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR is a method which determines structural parameters from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data by using an aspherical atom partitioning of tailor-made ab initio quantum mechanical molecular electron densities without any further approximation. Here the original HAR method is extended by implementing an iterative procedure of successive cycles of electron density calculations, Hirshfeld atom scattering factor calculations and structural least-squares refinements, repeated until convergence. The importance of this iterative procedure is illustrated via the example of crystalline ammonia. The new HAR method is then applied to X-ray diffraction data of the dipeptide Gly–l-Ala measured at 12, 50, 100, 150, 220 and 295 K, using Hartree–Fock and BLYP density functional theory electron densities and three different basis sets. All positions and anisotropic displacement parameters (ADPs are freely refined without constraints or restraints – even those for hydrogen atoms. The results are systematically compared with those from neutron diffraction experiments at the temperatures 12, 50, 150 and 295 K. Although non-hydrogen-atom ADPs differ by up to three combined standard uncertainties (csu's, all other structural parameters agree within less than 2 csu's. Using our best calculations (BLYP/cc-pVTZ, recommended for organic molecules, the accuracy of determining bond lengths involving hydrogen atoms from HAR is better than 0.009 Å for temperatures of 150 K or below; for hydrogen-atom ADPs it is better than 0.006 Å2 as judged from the mean absolute X-ray minus neutron differences. These results are among the best ever obtained. Remarkably, the precision of determining bond lengths and ADPs for the hydrogen atoms from the HAR procedure is comparable with that from the neutron measurements – an outcome which is obtained with a routinely achievable resolution of the X-ray data of 0.65 Å.

  10. Optically pumped atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Happer, William; Walker, Thad


    Covering the most important knowledge on optical pumping of atoms, this ready reference is backed by numerous examples of modelling computation for optical pumped systems. The authors show for the first time that modern scientific computing software makes it practical to analyze the full, multilevel system of optically pumped atoms. To make the discussion less abstract, the authors have illustrated key points with sections of MATLAB codes. To make most effective use of contemporary mathematical software, it is especially useful to analyze optical pumping situations in the Liouville spa

  11. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee


    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  12. From Atoms to Solids (United States)


    Honea. M.L. Homer, J.L. Persson, R.L. Whetten , Chem. atoms Phys. Lett. 171 (1990) 147. [17] M.R. Hoare, Adv. Chem. Phys. 40 (1979) 49. Two types of...Persson, M.E. LaVilla, R.L. tal conditions, the clusters become rigid. Thereafter, Whetten , J. Phys. Chem. 93 (1989) 2869. each newly added atom condenses...106 (1981) 265. M. Broyer, Phys. Rev. A 39 (1989) 6056. [9] W. Ekardt, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 88 (1984) 289. [38] R.L. Whetten , private

  13. Korean atomic bomb victims. (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo


    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  14. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Masao; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Matsuo, Tatsuki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Characteristic features of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for CML in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. In the distribution of AML subtypes of FAB classification, there was no M3 cases in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral blood of proximal survivors. (author).

  15. Nucleus management in manual small incision cataract surgery by phacosection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra M


    Full Text Available Nucleus management is critical in manual small incision cataract surgery (MSICS, as the integrity of the tunnel, endothelium and posterior capsule needs to be respected. Several techniques of nucleus management are in vogue, depending upon the specific technique of MSICS. Nucleus can be removed in toto or bisected or trisected into smaller segments. The pressure in the eye can be maintained at the desired level with the use of an anterior chamber maintainer or kept at atmospheric levels. In MSICS, unlike phacoemulsification, there is no need to limit the size of the tunnel or restrain the size of capsulorrhexis. Large well-structured tunnels and larger capsulorrhexis provide better control on the surgical maneuvers. Safety and simplicity of MSICS has made it extremely popular. The purpose of this article is to describe nucleus management by phacosection in MSICS.

  16. Colour, albedo and nucleus size of Halley's comet (United States)

    Cruikshank, D. P.; Tholen, D. J.; Hartmann, W. K.


    Photometry of Halley's comet in the B, J, V, and K broadband filters during a time when the coma was very weak and presumed to contribute negligibly to the broadband photometry is reported. The V-J and J-K colors suggest that the color of the nucleus of Halley's comet is similar to that of the D-type asteroids, which in turn suggests that the surface of the nucleus has an albedo less than 0.1.

  17. The TLC: A Novel Auditory Nucleus of the Mammalian Brain


    Saldaña Fernández, Enrique; Viñuela, Antonio; Marshall, Allen F.; Fitzpatrick, Douglas C.; Aparicio Vaquero, María Auxiliadora


    [EN]We have identified a novel nucleus of the mammalian brain and termed it the tectal longitudinal column (TLC). Basic histologic stains, tract-tracing techniques and three-dimensional reconstructions reveal that the rat TLC is a narrow, elongated structure spanning themidbrain tectum longitudinally. This paired nucleus is located close to the midline, immediately dorsal to the periaqueductal gray matter.It occupies what has traditionally been considered the most medial region of the deep su...

  18. The 7-azanorbornane nucleus of epibatidine: 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey N. Britvin


    Full Text Available 7-Azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane (7-azanorbornane is a bridged heterocyclic nucleus found in epibatidine, the alkaloid isolated from the skin of the tropical poison frog Epipedobates tricolor. Since epibatidine is known as one of the most potent acetylcholine nicotinic receptor agonists, a plethora of literature has been devoted to this alkaloid. However, there are no structural data on the unsubstituted 7-azanorbornane, the parent bicyclic ring of epibatidine and its derivatives. We herein present the structural characterization of the 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane parent ring as its hydrochloride salt, namely 7-azabicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-7-ium chloride, C6H12N+·Cl−. The compete cation is generated by a crystallographic mirror plane with the N atom lying on the mirror, as does the chloride anion. In the crystal, the cations are linked to the anions by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, which generate [001] chains.

  19. Neutron resonances in the compound nucleus: Parity nonconservation to dynamic temperature measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, V.W.


    Experiments using epithermal neutrons that interact to form compound-nuclear resonances serve a wide range of scientific applications. Changes in transmission which are correlated to polarization reversal in incident neutrons have been used to study parity nonconservation in the compound nucleus for a wide range of targets. The ensemble of measured parity asymmetries provides statistical information for the extraction of the rms parity-violating mean-square matrix element as a function of mass. Parity nonconservation in neutron resonances can also be used to determine the polarization of neutron beams. Finally the motion of target atoms results in an observed temperature-dependent Doppler broadening of resonance line widths. This broadening can be used to determine temperatures on a fast time scale of one microsecond or less.

  20. Chaotic behavior of the compound nucleus, open quantum dots and other nanostructures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hussein, M.S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Instituto de Estudos Avancados; Ramos, J.G.G.S. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica


    It is well established that physical systems exhibit both ordered and chaotic behavior. The chaotic behavior of nanostructures such as open quantum dots has been confirmed experimentally and discussed exhaustively theoretically. This is manifested through random fluctuations in the electronic conductance. What useful information can be extracted from this noise in the conductance? In this contribution we shall address this question. In particular, we will show that the average maxima density in the conductance is directly related to the correlation function whose characteristic width is a measure of the energy- or applied magnetic field- correlation length. The idea behind the above was originally discovered in the context of the atomic nucleus, a mesoscopic system. Our findings are directly applicable to graphene. (author)

  1. NuSTEC White Paper: Status and Challenges of Neutrino-Nucleus Scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez-Ruso, L.; et al.


    The precise measurement of neutrino properties is among the highest priorities in fundamental particle physics, involving many experiments worldwide. Since the experiments rely on the interactions of neutrinos with bound nucleons inside atomic nuclei, the planned advances in the scope and precision of these experiments requires a commensurate effort in the understanding and modeling of the hadronic and nuclear physics of these interactions, which is incorporated as a nuclear model in neutrino event generators. This model is essential to every phase of experimental analyses and its theoretical uncertainties play an important role in interpreting every result. In this White Paper we discuss in detail the impact of neutrino-nucleus interactions, especially the nuclear effects, on the measurement of neutrino properties using the determination of oscillation parameters as a central example. After an Executive Summary and a concise Overview of the issues, we explain how the neutrino event generators work, what can be learned from electron-nucleus interactions and how each underlying physics process - from quasi-elastic to deep inelastic scattering - is understood today. We then emphasize how our understanding must improve to meet the demands of future experiments. With every topic we find that the challenges can be met only with the active support and collaboration among specialists in strong interactions and electroweak physics that include theorists and experimentalists from both the nuclear and high energy physics communities.

  2. A review of electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung cross sections between 1 and 10 MeV (United States)

    Mangiarotti, A.; Martins, M. N.


    More than 80 years have passed since the first calculations of electron-nucleus bremsstrahlung cross sections were published by Sommerfeld, for non-relativistic electrons, and, independently, by Sauter, Bethe and Heitler, and Racah, for relativistic electrons. The Bethe-Heitler expression, that is based on the first Born approximation and includes the screening of the Coulomb field of the nucleus by the atomic electrons, has proven to work well at moderately high energies where the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect is negligible. We review the current theoretical and experimental status with a highlight on electrons with kinetic energies between 1 and 10 MeV. The choice is motivated by the peculiar difficulties present in this energy region, where it is necessary to treat simultaneously the interaction with the Coulomb field beyond the first Born approximation and the effect of screening. A fully numerical approach within the S-matrix formalism has proven to be extremely difficult above a few MeV, because the number of partial waves needed for an accurate evaluation is prohibitively large. Here we focus on analytic results, including the more complex ones employing the Furry-Sommerfeld-Maue wave functions and taking into account the next-to-leading order, and discuss the advantages and limitations in light of the best available data. The influence of multiple scattering in the target is investigated under the actual experimental conditions. A comparison with the widely used cross section tabulations by Seltzer and Berger is also presented.

  3. FAC: Flexible Atomic Code (United States)

    Gu, Ming Feng


    FAC calculates various atomic radiative and collisional processes, including radiative transition rates, collisional excitation and ionization by electron impact, energy levels, photoionization, and autoionization, and their inverse processes radiative recombination and dielectronic capture. The package also includes a collisional radiative model to construct synthetic spectra for plasmas under different physical conditions.

  4. Atomic physics and reality

    CERN Multimedia


    An account of the long standing debate between Niels Bohr and Albert Einstein regarding the validity of the quantum mechanical description of atomic phenomena.With physicts, John Wheeler (Texas), John Bell (CERN), David Rohm (London), Abner Shimony (Boston), Alain Aspect (Paris)

  5. Ludwig Boltzmann: Atomic genius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercignani, C. [Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)]. E-mail:


    On the centenary of the death of Ludwig Boltzmann, Carlo Cercignani examines the immense contributions of the man who pioneered our understanding of the atomic nature of matter. The man who first gave a convincing explanation of the irreversibility of the macroscopic world and the symmetry of the laws of physics was the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who tragically committed suicide 100 years ago this month. One of the key figures in the development of the atomic theory of matter, Boltzmann's fame will be forever linked to two fundamental contributions to science. The first was his interpretation of 'entropy' as a mathematically well-defined measure of the disorder of atoms. The second was his derivation of what is now known as the Boltzmann equation, which describes the statistical properties of a gas as made up of molecules. The equation, which described for the first time how a probability can evolve with time, allowed Boltzmann to explain why macroscopic phenomena are irreversible. The key point is that while microscopic objects like atoms can behave reversibly, we never see broken coffee cups reforming because it would involve a long series of highly improbable interactions - and not because it is forbidden by the laws of physics. (U.K.)

  6. Atomic Force Microscopy

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 15; Issue 7. Atomic Force Microscopy - A Tool to Unveil the Mystery of Biological Systems ... Transcription and Disease Laboratory, Molecular Biology and Genetics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Jakkur, Bangalore 560 ...

  7. Observational Evidence for Atoms. (United States)

    Jones, Edwin R., Jr.; Childers, Richard L.


    Discusses the development of the concept of atomicity and some of the many which can be used to establish its validity. Chemical evidence, evidence from crystals, Faraday's law of electrolysis, and Avogadro's number are among the areas which show how the concept originally developed from a purely philosophical idea. (JN)

  8. Study of high energy densities over extended nuclear volumes via nucleus-nucleus collisions at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia


    This experiment examines in detail the characteristics of ultra-relativistic nucleus-nucleus interactions using $^{16}$O beams of 200 GeV/A from the SPS. The experiment combines 4$\\pi$ calorimeter coverage with measurements of inclusive particle spectra, two-particle correlations, low and high-mass lepton pairs and photons. A multiwire active target allows maximum interaction rates with a minimum of secondary interactions. Additional data are taken with an emulsion target.

  9. Future projects of light kaonic atom X-ray spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuno H.


    Full Text Available X-ray spectroscopy of light kaonic atoms is a unique tool to provide precise information on the fundamental K̄N interaction at the low-energy limit and the in-medium nuclear interaction of K−. The future experiments of kaonic deuterium strong-interaction shift and width (SIDDHARTA-2 and J-PARC E57 can extract the isospin dependent K−N interaction at threshold. The high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic helium with microcalorimeters (J-PARC E62 has the possibility to solve the long-standing potential-strength problem of the attractive K−-nucleus interaction. Here, the recent experimental results and the future projects of X-ray spectroscopy of light kaonic atoms are presented.

  10. Towards improved measurements of parity violation in atomic ytterbium (United States)

    Antypas, D.; Fabricant, A.; Bougas, L.; Tsigutkin, K.; Budker, D.


    We report on progress towards performing precision measurements of parity violation in Yb, in which the theoretical prediction for a strong weak-interaction-induced effect in the 6s2 1S0→ 5d6s3D1 optical transition at 408 nm has already been confirmed, with a measurement of the effect at the ≈10 % level of accuracy. With a new atomic-beam apparatus offering enhanced sensitivity, we are aiming at precisely determining the parity violation observable in Yb, which will allow us to probe the distributions of neutrons in different isotopes, investigate physics beyond the Standard Model, as well as to study intra-nucleus weak interactions, through an observation of the anapole moment of Yb nuclei with nonzero spin. We present the experimental principle employed to probe atomic parity violation, describe our new apparatus, and discuss the attained experimental sensitivity as well as the methods for characterizing systematics in these measurements.

  11. Electron quantum dynamics in atom-ion interaction. (United States)

    Sabzyan, H; Jenabi, M J


    Electron transfer (ET) process and its dependence on the system parameters are investigated by solving two-dimensional time-dependent Schrödinger equation numerically using split operator technique. Evolution of the electron wavepacket occurs from the one-electron species hydrogen atom to another bare nucleus of charge Z > 1. This evolution is quantified by partitioning the simulation box and defining regional densities belonging to the two nuclei of the system. It is found that the functional form of the time-variations of these regional densities and the extent of ET process depend strongly on the inter-nuclear distance and relative values of the nuclear charges, which define the potential energy surface governing the electron wavepacket evolution. Also, the initial electronic state of the single-electron atom has critical effect on this evolution and its consequent (partial) electron transfer depending on its spreading extent and orientation with respect to the inter-nuclear axis.

  12. Scalar-pseudoscalar interaction in the francium atom (United States)

    Skripnikov, L. V.; Maison, D. E.; Mosyagin, N. S.


    Fr atom can be successively used to search for the atomic permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) [Hyperfine Interact. 236, 53 (2015), 10.1007/s10751-015-1193-1; J. Phys.: Conference Series 691, 012017 (2016), 10.1088/1742-6596/691/1/012017]. It can be induced by the permanent electron EDM predicted by modern extensions of the standard model to be nonzero at the level accessible by the new generation of EDM experiments. We consider another mechanism of the atomic EDM generation in Fr. This is caused by the scalar-pseudoscalar nucleus-electron neutral current interaction with the dimensionless strength constant kT ,P. Similar to the electron EDM this interaction violates both spatial parity and time-reversal symmetries and can also induce permanent atomic EDM. It was shown in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 056006 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevD.89.056006] that the scalar-pseudoscalar contribution to the atomic EDM can dominate over the direct contribution from the electron EDM within the standard model. We report high-accuracy combined all-electron and two-step relativistic coupled cluster treatment of the effect from the scalar-pseudoscalar interaction in the Fr atom. Up to the quadruple cluster amplitudes within the coupled cluster method with single, double, triple, and noniterative quadruple amplitudes, CCSDT(Q), were included in correlation treatment. This calculation is required for the interpretation of the experimental data in terms of kT ,P. The resulted EDM of the Fr atom expressed in terms of kT ,P is dFr=kT ,P4.50 ×10-18e cm , where e is the (negative) charge of the electron. The value of the ionization potential of the 2S1 /2 ground state of Fr calculated within the same methods is in very good agreement with the experimental datum.

  13. Search for a permanent EDM with laser cooled radioactive atom (United States)

    Sakemi, Yasuhiro


    To explore the mechanism for the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in the universe, the study on fundamental symmetry violation using the trapped radioactive atoms with laser cooling techniques is being promoted. An Electric Dipole Moment (EDM) of the elementary particle is a good prove to observe the phenomena beyond the Standard Model. A finite value of EDM means the violation of the time reversal symmetry, and the CP violation under the CPT invariance. In paramagnetic atoms, an electron EDM results in an atomic EDM enhanced by the factor of the 3rd power of the charge of the nucleus due the relativistic effects. A heaviest alkali element francium (Fr), which is the radioactive atom, has the largest enhancement factor K ~ 895 in atomic system. Then, we are developing a high intensity laser cooled Fr factory at Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center (CYRIC), Tohoku University to search for the EDM of Fr with the accuracy of 10-29 e cm. To overcome the current accuracy limit of the EDM, it is necessary to realize the high intensity Fr source and to reduce the systematic error due to the motional magnetic field and inhomogeneous applied field. To reduce the dominant component of the systematic errors mentioned above, we will confine the Fr atoms in the small region with the Magneto-Optical Trap (MOT) and optical lattice using the laser cooling and trapping techniques. The construction of the experimental apparatus is making progress, and the new thermal ionizer already produces the Fr of ~ 10 6 ions/s with the primary beam intensity 200 nA. The extracted Fr ion beam is transported to the neutralizer, which is located 10 m downstream, and the produced neutral Fr atoms are introduced into the MOT to load the next trapping system such as the optical dipole force trap and optical lattice. The coherence time will be increased in the laser trapping system, and the present status of the experiment will be reported.

  14. Fluctuations and correlations in nucleus-nucleus collisions within transport approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konchakovski, Volodymyr P.


    The current thesis is devoted to a systematic study of fluctuations and correlations in heavy-ion collisions, which might be considered as probes for the phase transition and the critical point in the phase diagram, within the Hadron-String- Dynamics (HSD) microscopic transport approach. This is a powerful tool to study nucleus-nucleus collisions and allows to completely simulate experimental collisions on an event-by-event basis. Thus, the transport model has been used to study fluctuations and correlations including the influence of experimental acceptance as well as centrality, system size and collision energy. The comparison to experimental data can separate the effects induced by a phase transition since there is no phase transition in the HSD version used here. Firstly the centrality dependence of multiplicity fluctuations has been studied. Different centrality selections have been performed in the analysis in correspondence to the experimental situation. For the fixed target experiment NA49 events with fixed numbers of the projectile participants have been studied while in the collider experiment PHENIX centrality classes of events have been defined by the multiplicity in certain phase space region. A decrease of participant number fluctuations (and thus volume fluctuations) in more central collisions for both experiments has been obtained. Another area of this work addresses to transport model calculations of multiplicity fluctuations in nucleus-nucleus collisions as a function of colliding energy and system size. This study is in full correspondence to the experimental program of the NA61 Collaboration at the SPS. Central C+C, S+S, In+In, and Pb+Pb nuclear collisions at Elab = 10, 20, 30, 40, 80, 158 AGeV have been investigated. The expected enhanced fluctuations - attributed to the critical point and phase transition - can be observed experimentally on top of a monotonic and smooth 'hadronic background'. These findings should be helpful for the

  15. Modelling the Energetics of Encapsulation of Atoms and Atomic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)



    Jul 4, 2015 ... Modelling the Energetics of Encapsulation of. Atoms and Atomic Clusters into Carbon. Nanotubes: Insights from Analytical Approaches. R. S. Swathi. School of Chemistry. Indian Institute of Science Education and Research. Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India ...

  16. Role of atoms in atomic gravitational-wave detectors (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew A.; Cline, Julia R. K.; Thompson, James K.


    Recently, it has been proposed that space-based atomic sensors may be used to detect gravitational waves. These proposals describe the sensors either as clocks or as atom interferometers. Here, we seek to explore the fundamental similarities and differences between the two types of proposals. We present a framework in which the fundamental mechanism for sensitivity is identical for clock and atom interferometer proposals, with the key difference being whether or not the atoms are tightly confined by an external potential. With this interpretation in mind, we propose two major enhancements to detectors using confined atoms, which allow for an enhanced sensitivity analogous to large momentum transfer used in atom interferometry (though with no transfer of momentum to the atoms), and a way to extend the useful coherence time of the sensor beyond the atom's excited-state lifetime.

  17. PREFACE: 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) (United States)

    Li, Bao-An; Natowitz, Joseph B.


    The 11th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2012) was held from 27 May to 1 June 2012, in San Antonio, Texas, USA. It was jointly organized and hosted by The Cyclotron Institute at Texas A&M University, College Station and The Department of Physics and Astronomy at Texas A&M University-Commerce. Among the approximately 300 participants were a large number of graduate students and post-doctoral fellows. The Keynote Talk of the conference, 'The State of Affairs of Present and Future Nucleus-Nucleus Collision Science', was given by Dr Robert Tribble, University Distinguished Professor and Director of the TAMU Cyclotron Institute. During the conference a very well-received public lecture on neutrino astronomy, 'The ICEcube project', was given by Dr Francis Halzen, Hilldale and Gregory Breit Distinguished Professor at the University of Wisconsin, Madison. The Scientific program continued in the general spirit and intention of this conference series. As is typical of this conference a broad range of topics including fundamental areas of nuclear dynamics, structure, and applications were addressed in 42 plenary session talks, 150 parallel session talks, and 21 posters. The high quality of the work presented emphasized the vitality and relevance of the subject matter of this conference. Following the tradition, the NN2012 International Advisory Committee selected the host and site of the next conference in this series. The 12th International Conference on Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions (NN2015) will be held 21-26 June 2015 in Catania, Italy. It will be hosted by The INFN, Laboratori Nazionali del Sud, INFN, Catania and the Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia of the University of Catania. The NN2012 Proceedings contains the conference program and 165 articles organized into the following 10 sections 1. Heavy and Superheavy Elements 2. QCD and Hadron Physics 3. Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collisions 4. Nuclear Structure 5. Nuclear Energy and Applications of

  18. Absorption imaging of ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, David A.; Aigner, Simon; Hofferberth, Sebastian


    Imaging ultracold atomic gases close to surfaces is an important tool for the detailed analysis of experiments carried out using atom chips. We describe the critical factors that need be considered, especially when the imaging beam is purposely reflected from the surface. In particular we present...... methods to measure the atom-surface distance, which is a prerequisite for magnetic field imaging and studies of atom surface-interactions....

  19. Heterogeneous calretinin expression in the avian cochlear nucleus angularis. (United States)

    Bloom, S; Williams, A; MacLeod, K M


    Multiple calcium-binding proteins (CaBPs) are expressed at high levels and in complementary patterns in the auditory pathways of birds, mammals, and other vertebrates, but whether specific members of the CaBP family can be used to identify neuronal subpopulations is unclear. We used double immunofluorescence labeling of calretinin (CR) in combination with neuronal markers to investigate the distribution of CR-expressing neurons in brainstem sections of the cochlear nucleus in the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus). While CR was homogeneously expressed in cochlear nucleus magnocellularis, CR expression was highly heterogeneous in cochlear nucleus angularis (NA), a nucleus with diverse cell types analogous in function to neurons in the mammalian ventral cochlear nucleus. To quantify the distribution of CR in the total NA cell population, we used antibodies against neuronal nuclear protein (NeuN), a postmitotic neuron-specific nuclear marker. In NA neurons, NeuN label was variably localized to the cell nucleus and the cytoplasm, and the intensity of NeuN immunoreactivity was inversely correlated with the intensity of CR immunoreactivity. The percentage of CR + neurons in NA increased from 31 % in embryonic (E)17/18 chicks, to 44 % around hatching (E21), to 51 % in postnatal day (P) 8 chicks. By P8, the distribution of CR + neurons was uniform, both rostrocaudal and in the tonotopic (dorsoventral) axis. Immunoreactivity for the voltage-gated potassium ion channel Kv1.1, used as a marker for physiological type, showed broad and heterogeneous postsynaptic expression in NA, but did not correlate with CR expression. These results suggest that CR may define a subpopulation of neurons within nucleus angularis.

  20. Atomic Absorption, Atomic Fluorescence, and Flame Emission Spectrometry. (United States)

    Horlick, Gary


    This review is presented in six sections. Sections focus on literature related to: (1) developments in instrumentation, measurement techniques, and procedures; (2) performance studies of flames and electrothermal atomizers; (3) applications of atomic absorption spectrometry; (4) analytical comparisons; (5) atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and (6)…

  1. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry. (United States)

    Crepaz, Herbert; Ley, Li Yuan; Dumke, Rainer


    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  2. Cavity enhanced atomic magnetometry

    CERN Document Server

    Crepaz, Herbert; Dumke, Rainer


    Atom sensing based on Faraday rotation is an indispensable method for precision measurements, universally suitable for both hot and cold atomic systems. Here we demonstrate an all-optical magnetometer where the optical cell for Faraday rotation spectroscopy is augmented with a low finesse cavity. Unlike in previous experiments, where specifically designed multipass cells had been employed, our scheme allows to use conventional, spherical vapour cells. Spherical shaped cells have the advantage that they can be effectively coated inside with a spin relaxation suppressing layer providing long spin coherence times without addition of a buffer gas. Cavity enhancement shows in an increase in optical polarization rotation and sensitivity compared to single-pass configurations.

  3. Atomes et rayonnement


    Dalibard, Jean; Haroche, Serge


    Matière et lumière sont intimement liées dans notre modélisation du monde physique. De l’élaboration de la théorie quantique à l’invention du laser, l’interaction entre atomes et rayonnement a joué un rôle central dans le développement de la science et de la technologie d’aujourd’hui. La maîtrise de cette interaction permet désormais d’atteindre les plus basses températures jamais mesurées. Le refroidissement de gaz d’atomes par la lumière d’un laser conduit à une « matière quantique » aux pr...

  4. Atomic emission spectroscopy (United States)

    Andrew, K. H.


    The relationship between the Slater-Condon theory and the conditions within the atom as revealed by experimental data was investigated. The first spectrum of Si, Rb, Cl, Br, I, Ne, Ar, and Xe-136 and the second spectrum of As, Cu, and P were determined. Methods for assessing the phase stability of fringe counting interferometers and the design of an autoranging scanning system for digitizing the output of an infrared spectrometer and recording it on magnetic tape are described.

  5. Navigation with Atom Interferometers (United States)


    stability of the design and will be measured at a future time. Angle random walk can be calculated from first principles from the shot-noise limited...interferometer cannot distinguish between the two sources of phase shifts. We describe a design for a dual atom interferometer to simultaneously...stability. This paper is organized as follows: we first describe the basic building blocks of the interferometer: beam splitters and mirrors. We then

  6. Calculated dynamical evolution of the nucleus of comet Hartley 2 (United States)

    Ksanfomality, Leonid


    The nucleus of comet Hartley 2 has a relatively regular dumbbell shape with unequal heads. The narrow part of elongated shape contains a relatively smooth region whose covering material is highly different in its shallow structure compared to other parts of this celestial body. The surface of crudely spherical parts of the nucleus is different from the surface of the "neck", which implies a hypothesis that the shape of the nucleus of Hartley 2 is indicative of destruction of this celestial body occurring in our days. The nucleus rotates around its axis passing through the center of mass, and centrifugal forces arise. This process is hindered by gravitation between parts of the nucleus and gradual slowing of rotation due to body lengthening because of the increase in the moment of inertia (proportional to R2) and due to friction losses in the neck material. We posed the task to determine centrifugal and gravitational forces in the neck (and, respectively, the strains of stretching and compression), the moment of inertia of the body and supply of its rotational energy E, the volume of the nucleus and its average density, and the position of the barycenter and center of rotation. It can be assumed that these forces cause slow but progressive lengthening of the neck which should eventually result in fragmentation of the nucleus. Centrifugal forces can be found as a result of summation of forces produced by parts of the body. According to the calculation model, the total stretching forces in the section passing through the narrowest cut of the neck are 1.21E6 N. The corresponding compression forces in the section passing through the narrow section are 1.04E6 N. The comparison of these values indicates a paradoxical result: stretching strains dominate in the neck, while compressions are dominant in the section passing through the common center of mass. The excess of stretching strains in the neck is 11%. The inference is as follows: the right part of the neck and the

  7. Qualitative analysis neurons in the adult human dentate nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić Dušica


    Full Text Available Although many relevant findings regarding to the morphology and cytoarchitectural development of the dentate nucleus have been presented so far, very little qualitative information has been collected on neuronal morphology in the adult human dentate nucleus. The neurons were labelled by Golgi staining from thirty human cerebella, obtained from medico-legal forensic autopsies of adult human bodies and free of significant brain pathology. The human dentate neurons were qualitatively analyzed and these cells were classified into two main classes: the small and the large multipolar neurons. Considering the shape of the cell body, number of the primary dendrites, shape of the dendritic tree and their position within the dentate nucleus, three subclasses of the large multipolar neurons have been recognized. The classification of neurons from the human dentate nucleus has been qualitatively confirmed in fetuses and premature infants. This study represents the first qualitative analysis and classification of the large multipolar neurons in the dentate nucleus of the adult human.

  8. Classical cadherins control nucleus and centrosome position and cell polarity. (United States)

    Dupin, Isabelle; Camand, Emeline; Etienne-Manneville, Sandrine


    Control of cell polarity is crucial during tissue morphogenesis and renewal, and depends on spatial cues provided by the extracellular environment. Using micropatterned substrates to impose reproducible cell-cell interactions, we show that in the absence of other polarizing cues, cell-cell contacts are the main regulator of nucleus and centrosome positioning, and intracellular polarized organization. In a variety of cell types, including astrocytes, epithelial cells, and endothelial cells, calcium-dependent cadherin-mediated cell-cell interactions induce nucleus and centrosome off-centering toward cell-cell contacts, and promote orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis toward free cell edges. Nucleus and centrosome off-centering is controlled by N-cadherin through the regulation of cell interactions with the extracellular matrix, whereas the orientation of the nucleus-centrosome axis is determined by the geometry of N-cadherin-mediated contacts. Our results demonstrate that in addition to the specific function of E-cadherin in regulating baso-apical epithelial polarity, classical cadherins control cell polarization in otherwise nonpolarized cells.

  9. Atomic and Molecular Physics Program (United States)


    Atomic Quantum Memories in Nano-Scale Optical Circuits: Jeff Kimble, Oskar Painter (CalTech) • Demonstration of a nanofiber atom trap: A. al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 109, 033603 (2012) • Cavity QED with atomic mirrors: D. Chang, et al, N. J. Phys. 14, 063003 (2012) • Fiber -coupled chip... PMMA -diamond hybrid cavities, coupling stable NV centers • Cavity Optomechanics with Cold Atoms: Dan Stamper-Kurn (UC Berkeley) • Squeezed light

  10. Cochlear nucleus whole mount explants promote the differentiation of neuronal stem cells from the cochlear nucleus in co-culture experiments. (United States)

    Rak, Kristen; Völker, Johannes; Jürgens, Lukas; Völker, Christine; Frenz, Silke; Scherzad, Agmal; Schendzielorz, Philipp; Jablonka, Sibylle; Mlynski, Robert; Radeloff, Andreas; Hagen, Rudolf


    The cochlear nucleus is the first brainstem nucleus to receive sensory input from the cochlea. Depriving this nucleus of auditory input leads to cellular and molecular disorganization which may potentially be counteracted by the activation or application of stem cells. Neuronal stem cells (NSCs) have recently been identified in the neonatal cochlear nucleus and a persistent neurogenic niche was demonstrated in this brainstem nucleus until adulthood. The present work investigates whether the neurogenic environment of the cochlear nucleus can promote the survival of engrafted NSCs and whether cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs can differentiate into neurons and glia in brain tissue. Therefore, cochlear nucleus whole-mount explants were co-cultured with NSCs extracted from either the cochlear nucleus or the hippocampus and compared to a second environment using whole-mount explants from the hippocampus. Factors that are known to induce neuronal differentiation were also investigated in these NSC-explant experiments. NSCs derived from the cochlear nucleus engrafted in the brain tissue and differentiated into all cells of the neuronal lineage. Hippocampal NSCs also immigrated in cochlear nucleus explants and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. Laminin expression was up-regulated in the cochlear nucleus whole-mounts and regulated the in vitro differentiation of NSCs from the cochlear nucleus. These experiments confirm a neurogenic environment in the cochlear nucleus and the capacity of cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs to differentiate into neurons and glia. Consequently, the presented results provide a first step for the possible application of stem cells to repair the disorganization of the cochlear nucleus, which occurs after hearing loss. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Lasers, Understanding the Atom Series. (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. Basic information for understanding the laser is provided including discussion of the electromagnetic spectrum, radio waves, light and the atom, coherent light, controlled…

  12. Breaking the atom with Samson

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Väänänen, J.; Coecke, B.; Ong, L.; Panangaden, P.


    The dependence atom =(x,y) was introduced in [11]. Here x and y are finite sets of attributes (or variables) and the intuitive meaning of =(x,y) is that the attributes x completely (functionally) determine the attributes y. One may wonder, whether the dependence atom is truly an atom or whether it

  13. Current Trends in Atomic Spectroscopy. (United States)

    Wynne, James J.


    Atomic spectroscopy is the study of atoms/ions through their interaction with electromagnetic radiation, in particular, interactions in which radiation is absorbed or emitted with an internal rearrangement of the atom's electrons. Discusses nature of this field, its status and future, and how it is applied to other areas of physics. (JN)

  14. Bohmian picture of Rydberg atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    lished the nearly elliptical shapes for the centre-of-mass motion in Rydberg atoms using numerical simulations, we show analytically that the Bohmian trajectories in Rydberg atoms are nearly ellipti- cal. Keywords. Rydberg atom; quantum trajectory. PACS No. 03.65.Ge. 1. Introduction. Ever since the advent of quantum ...

  15. Atomic Spectroscopy and Collisions Using Slow Antiprotons \\\\ ASACUSA Collaboration

    CERN Multimedia

    Matsuda, Y; Lodi-rizzini, E; Kuroda, N; Schettino, G; Hori, M; Pirkl, W; Mascagna, V; Malbrunot, C L S; Yamazaki, Y; Eades, J; Simon, M; Massiczek, O; Sauerzopf, C; Nagata, Y; Knudsen, H; Uggerhoj, U I; Mc cullough, R W; Toekesi, K M; Venturelli, L; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J; Kanai, Y; Hayano, R; Kristiansen, H; Todoroki, K; Bartel, M A; Moller, S P; Charlton, M; Leali, M; Diermaier, M; Kolbinger, B


    ASACUSA (\\underline{A}tomic \\underline{S}pectroscopy \\underline{A}nd \\underline{C}ollisions \\underline{U}sing \\underline{S}low \\underline{A}ntiprotons) is a collaboration between a number of Japanese and European research institutions, with the goal of studying bound and continuum states of antiprotons with simple atoms.\\\\ Three phases of experimentation are planned for ASACUSA. In the first phase, we use the direct $\\overline{p}$ beam from AD at 5.3 MeV and concentrate on the laser and microwave spectroscopy of the metastable antiprotonic helium atom, $\\overline{p}$He$^+$, consisting of an electron and antiproton bound by the Coulomb force to the helium nucleus. Samples of these are readily created by bringing AD antiproton beam bunches to rest in helium gas. With the help of techniques developed at LEAR for resonating high precision laser beams with antiproton transitions in these atoms, ASACUSA achieved several of these first-phase objectives during a few short months of AD operation in 2000. Six atomic tr...

  16. Insulin induces calcium signals in the nucleus of rat hepatocytes. (United States)

    Rodrigues, Michele A; Gomes, Dawidson A; Andrade, Viviane A; Leite, M Fatima; Nathanson, Michael H


    Insulin is an hepatic mitogen that promotes liver regeneration. Actions of insulin are mediated by the insulin receptor, which is a receptor tyrosine kinase. It is currently thought that signaling via the insulin receptor occurs at the plasma membrane, where it binds to insulin. Here we report that insulin induces calcium oscillations in isolated rat hepatocytes, and that these calcium signals depend upon activation of phospholipase C and the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor, but not upon extracellular calcium. Furthermore, insulin-induced calcium signals occur in the nucleus, and are temporally associated with selective depletion of nuclear phosphatidylinositol bisphosphate and translocation of the insulin receptor to the nucleus. These findings suggest that the insulin receptor translocates to the nucleus to initiate nuclear, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate-mediated calcium signals in rat hepatocytes. This novel signaling mechanism may be responsible for insulin's effects on liver growth and regeneration.

  17. Benchmark calculations of low-lying triplet states of Be atom (United States)

    Bubin, Sergiy

    Benchmark variational calculations of several lowest triplet states of the beryllium atom are reported. The wave functions of the states were expanded in terms of highly optimized explicitly correlated Gaussian basis sets and accurate energies are deterimed assuming finite nuclear mass of the atom. These wave functions were used to compute various expectation values, including those that appear in the leading relativistic and QED corrections. Density distributions and pair correlation functions are analyzed for both electrons an nucleus. This work has been supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Kazakhstan.

  18. Mapping the Two-Component Atomic Fermi Gas to the Nuclear Shell-Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Özen, C.; Zinner, Nikolaj Thomas


    of the external potential becomes important. A system of two-species fermionic cold atoms with an attractive zero-range interaction is analogous to a simple model of nucleus in which neutrons and protons interact only through a residual pairing interaction. In this article, we discuss how the problem of a two......-component atomic fermi gas in a tight external trap can be mapped to the nuclear shell model so that readily available many-body techniques in nuclear physics, such as the Shell Model Monte Carlo (SMMC) method, can be directly applied to the study of these systems. We demonstrate an application of the SMMC method...

  19. Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom – its energy levels and state lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi


    The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

  20. The FrPNC experiment at TRIUMF: Atomic parity non-conservation in francium (United States)

    Aubin, S.; Gomez, E.; Behr, J. A.; Pearson, M. R.; Sheng, D.; Zhang, J.; Collister, R.; Melconian, D.; Flambaum, V. V.; Sprouse, G. D.; Orozco, L. A.; Gwinner, G.


    The FrPNC collaboration has begun the construction of an on-line laser cooling and trapping apparatus at TRIUMF to measure atomic parity non-conservation (PNC) and the nuclear anapole moment in a string of artificially produced francium isotopes. Atomic PNC experiments provide unique high precision tests of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model at very low energies. Furthermore, precision measurements of spin-dependent atomic PNC can determine nuclear anapole moments and probe the weak force within the nucleus. Francium is an excellent candidate for precision measurements of atomic PNC due to its simple electronic structure and enhanced parity violation: both the optical PNC and anapole moment signals are expected to be over an order of magnitude larger than in cesium.

  1. Evidence for involvement of the subcoeruleus nucleus and nucleus raphe magnus in urine storage and penile erection in decerebrate rats. (United States)

    Sugaya, K; Ogawa, Y; Hatano, T; Koyama, Y; Miyazato, T; Oda, M


    Micturition and male sexual activity require the lower urinary tract to function. During the sexual act, micturition must be inhibited and urine stored in the bladder. We studied the role of the brainstem in relation to both micturition/urine storage and penile erection in rats. Wire electrodes were placed on the dorsal nerve of the penis and microelectrodes for stimulation were introduced into the brainstem in decerebrate male rats. Electrical stimulation was used to locate optimally responding sites by monitoring the isovolumetric intravesical pressure and intracavernous pressure. Electrical stimulation of the dorsal nerve of the penis, the subcoeruleus nucleus in the rostral pons, and the nucleus raphe magnus in the caudal pons increased intracavernous pressure, but inhibited rhythmic bladder contractions. Electrical stimulation of Barrington's nucleus (the pontine micturition center in the rat) in the rostral pons induced bladder contraction. Stimulation of the pontine reticular formation did not increase intracavernous pressure. Acute transection of the thoracic spinal cord eliminated rhythmic bladder contractions, but gave rise to sporadic increments of intracavernous pressure. This electrophysiological study demonstrated that the subcoeruleus nucleus and nucleus raphe magnus are involved in both urine storage and penile erection, and that their physiological functions are reciprocally controlled; so that erection leads to inhibition of micturition.

  2. Lattice model for amyloid peptides: OPEP force field parametrization and applications to the nucleus size of Alzheimer’s peptides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tran, Thanh Thuy; Nguyen, Phuong H., E-mail:; Derreumaux, Philippe, E-mail: [Laboratoire de Biochimie Théorique, UPR 9080, CNRS, Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité IBPC, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France)


    Coarse-grained protein lattice models approximate atomistic details and keep the essential interactions. They are, therefore, suitable for capturing generic features of protein folding and amyloid formation at low computational cost. As our aim is to study the critical nucleus sizes of two experimentally well-characterized peptide fragments Aβ{sub 16−22} and Aβ{sub 37−42} of the full length Aβ{sub 1−42} Alzheimer’s peptide, it is important that simulations with the lattice model reproduce all-atom simulations. In this study, we present a comprehensive force field parameterization based on the OPEP (Optimized Potential for Efficient protein structure Prediction) force field for an on-lattice protein model, which incorporates explicitly the formation of hydrogen bonds and directions of side-chains. Our bottom-up approach starts with the determination of the best lattice force parameters for the Aβ{sub 16−22} dimer by fitting its equilibrium parallel and anti-parallel β-sheet populations to all-atom simulation results. Surprisingly, the calibrated force field is transferable to the trimer of Aβ{sub 16−22} and the dimer and trimer of Aβ{sub 37−42}. Encouraged by this finding, we characterized the free energy landscapes of the two decamers. The dominant structure of the Aβ{sub 16−22} decamer matches the microcrystal structure. Pushing the simulations for aggregates between 4-mer and 12-mer suggests a nucleus size for fibril formation of 10 chains. In contrast, the Aβ{sub 37−42} decamer is largely disordered with mixed by parallel and antiparallel chains, suggesting that the nucleus size is >10 peptides. Our refined force field coupled to this on-lattice model should provide useful insights into the critical nucleation number associated with neurodegenerative diseases.

  3. Silk fibroin porous scaffolds for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Chao; Yang, Qiang [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhu, Meifeng [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Du, Lilong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Tianjin Medical University, Tianjin 300070 (China); Zhang, Jiamin [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China); Ma, Xinlong [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Xu, Baoshan, E-mail: [Department of Spine Surgery, Tianjin Hospital, Tianjin 300211 (China); Wang, Lianyong, E-mail: [The Key Laboratory of Bioactive Materials, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)


    Intervertebral discs (IVDs) are structurally complex tissue that hold the vertebrae together and provide mobility to spine. The nucleus pulposus (NP) degeneration often results in degenerative IVD disease that is one of the most common causes of back and neck pain. Tissue engineered nucleus pulposus offers an alternative approach to regain the function of the degenerative IVD. The aim of this study is to determine the feasibility of porous silk fibroin (SF) scaffolds fabricated by paraffin-sphere-leaching methods with freeze-drying in the application of nucleus pulposus regeneration. The prepared scaffold possessed high porosity of 92.38 ± 5.12% and pore size of 165.00 ± 8.25 μm as well as high pore interconnectivity and appropriate mechanical properties. Rabbit NP cells were seeded and cultured on the SF scaffolds. Scanning electron microscopy, histology, biochemical assays and mechanical tests revealed that the porous scaffolds could provide an appropriate microstructure and environment to support adhesion, proliferation and infiltration of NP cells in vitro as well as the generation of extracellular matrix. The NP cell–scaffold construction could be preliminarily formed after subcutaneously implanted in a nude mice model. In conclusion, The SF porous scaffold offers a potential candidate for tissue engineered NP tissue. - Highlights: • Paraffin microsphere-leaching method is used to fabricate silk fibroin scaffold. • The scaffold has appropriate mechanical property, porosity and pore size • The scaffold supports growth and infiltration of nucleus pulposus cells. • Nucleus pulposus cells can secrete extracellular matrix in the scaffolds. • The scaffold is a potential candidate for tissue engineered nucleus pulposus.

  4. Brain networks modulated by subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation. (United States)

    Accolla, Ettore A; Herrojo Ruiz, Maria; Horn, Andreas; Schneider, Gerd-Helge; Schmitz-Hübsch, Tanja; Draganski, Bogdan; Kühn, Andrea A


    Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an established treatment for the motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. Given the frequent occurrence of stimulation-induced affective and cognitive adverse effects, a better understanding about the role of the subthalamic nucleus in non-motor functions is needed. The main goal of this study is to characterize anatomical circuits modulated by subthalamic deep brain stimulation, and infer about the inner organization of the nucleus in terms of motor and non-motor areas. Given its small size and anatomical intersubject variability, functional organization of the subthalamic nucleus is difficult to investigate in vivo with current methods. Here, we used local field potential recordings obtained from 10 patients with Parkinson's disease to identify a subthalamic area with an analogous electrophysiological signature, namely a predominant beta oscillatory activity. The spatial accuracy was improved by identifying a single contact per macroelectrode for its vicinity to the electrophysiological source of the beta oscillation. We then conducted whole brain probabilistic tractography seeding from the previously identified contacts, and further described connectivity modifications along the macroelectrode's main axis. The designated subthalamic 'beta' area projected predominantly to motor and premotor cortical regions additional to connections to limbic and associative areas. More ventral subthalamic areas showed predominant connectivity to medial temporal regions including amygdala and hippocampus. We interpret our findings as evidence for the convergence of different functional circuits within subthalamic nucleus' portions deemed to be appropriate as deep brain stimulation target to treat motor symptoms in Parkinson's disease. Potential clinical implications of our study are illustrated by an index case where deep brain stimulation of estimated predominant non-motor subthalamic nucleus induced hypomanic behaviour. © The

  5. Cold atoms close to surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Wildermuth, Stephan; Hofferberth, Sebastian


    Microscopic atom optical devices integrated on atom chips allow to precisely control and manipulate ultra-cold (T atoms and Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) close to surfaces. The relevant energy scale of a BEC is extremely small (down to ... be utilized as a sensor for variations of the potential energy of the atoms close to the surface. Here we describe how to use trapped atoms as a measurement device and analyze the performance and flexibility of the field sensor. We demonstrate microscopic magnetic imaging with simultaneous high spatial...

  6. Topics in atomic collision theory

    CERN Document Server

    Geltman, Sydney; Brueckner, Keith A


    Topics in Atomic Collision Theory originated in a course of graduate lectures given at the University of Colorado and at University College in London. It is recommended for students in physics and related fields who are interested in the application of quantum scattering theory to low-energy atomic collision phenomena. No attention is given to the electromagnetic, nuclear, or elementary particle domains. The book is organized into three parts: static field scattering, electron-atom collisions, and atom-atom collisions. These are in the order of increasing physical complexity and hence necessar

  7. Final State Interactions Effects in Neutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golan, Tomasz [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Juszczak, Cezary [Univ. of Wroctaw (Poland); Sobczyk, Jan T. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Final State Interactions effects are discussed in the context of Monte Carlo simulations of neutrino-nucleus interactions. A role of Formation Time is explained and several models describing this effect are compared. Various observables which are sensitive to FSI effects are reviewed including pion-nucleus interaction and hadron yields in backward hemisphere. NuWro Monte Carlo neutrino event generator is described and its ability to understand neutral current $\\pi^0$ production data in $\\sim 1$ GeV neutrino flux experiments is demonstrated.

  8. Intrinsically disordered proteins in the nucleus of human cells. (United States)

    Frege, Telma; Uversky, Vladimir N


    Intrinsically disordered proteins are known to perform a variety of important functions such as macromolecular recognition, promiscuous binding, and signaling. They are crucial players in various cellular pathway and processes, where they often have key regulatory roles. Among vital cellular processes intimately linked to the intrinsically disordered proteins is transcription, an intricate biological performance predominantly developing inside the cell nucleus. With this work, we gathered information about proteins that exist in various compartments and sub-nuclear bodies of the nucleus of the human cells, with the goal of identifying which ones are highly disordered and which functions are ascribed to the disordered nuclear proteins.

  9. Formation and decay of a hot compound nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, B.V.; Dalmolin, F.T.; Dutra, M.; Santos, T.J., E-mail: [Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (ITA), Sao Jose dos Campos SP (Brazil); Souza, S.R. [Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS, (Brazil); Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Instituto de Fisica; Donangelo, R. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad de la Republica de Uruguay, Montevideo (Uruguay); Universidade Federal de Rio Grande do Sul (UFRS), Porto Alegre RS, (Brazil)


    The compound nucleus plays an important role in nuclear reactions over a wide range of projectile-target combinations and energies. The limits that angular momentum places on its formation and existence are, for the most part, well understood. The limits on its excitation energy are not as clear. Here we first analyze general geometrical and thermodynamical features of a hot compound nucleus. We then discuss the manners by which it can decay and close by speculating on the high energy limit to its formation and existence. (author)

  10. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge G. Morfín


    Full Text Available Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  11. Recent Developments in Neutrino/Antineutrino-Nucleus Interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morfín, Jorge G.; Nieves, Juan; Sobczyk, Jan T.


    Recent experimental results and developments in the theoretical treatment of neutrino-nucleus interactions in the energy range of 1–10 GeV are discussed. Difficulties in extracting neutrino-nucleon cross sections from neutrino-nucleus scattering data are explained and significance of understanding nuclear effects for neutrino oscillation experiments is stressed. Detailed discussions of the status of two-body current contribution in the kinematic region dominated by quasielastic scattering and specific features of partonic nuclear effects in weak DIS scattering are presented.

  12. Cavity QED with atomic mirrors (United States)

    Chang, D. E.; Jiang, L.; Gorshkov, A. V.; Kimble, H. J.


    A promising approach to merge atomic systems with scalable photonics has emerged recently, which consists of trapping cold atoms near tapered nanofibers. Here, we describe a novel technique to achieve strong, coherent coupling between a single atom and photon in such a system. Our approach makes use of collective enhancement effects, which allow a lattice of atoms to form a high-finesse cavity within the fiber. We show that a specially designated ‘impurity’ atom within the cavity can experience strongly enhanced interactions with single photons in the fiber. Under realistic conditions, a ‘strong coupling’ regime can be reached, wherein it becomes feasible to observe vacuum Rabi oscillations between the excited impurity atom and a single cavity quantum. This technique can form the basis for a scalable quantum information network using atom-nanofiber systems.

  13. Chameleon Induced Atomic Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe


    The chameleon is a scalar field whose mass depends on the density of its environment. Chameleons are necessarily coupled to matter particles and will excite transitions between atomic energy levels in an analogous manner to photons. When created inside an optical cavity by passing a laser beam through a constant magnetic field, chameleons are trapped between the cavity walls and form a standing wave. This effect will lead to an afterglow phenomenon even when the laser beam and the magnetic field have been turned off, and could be used to probe the interactions of the chameleon field with matter.

  14. Atomic mechanics of solids

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A K


    This volume brings together some of the presently available theoretical techniques which will be useful in the design of solid-state materials. At present, it is impossible to specify the atomic composition of a material and its macroscopic physical properties. However, the future possibilities for such a science are being laid today. This is coming about due to the development of fast, cheap computers which will be able to undertake the calculations which are necessary.Since this field of science is fairly new, it is not yet quite clear which direction of analysis will eventually prov

  15. Electroless atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, David Bruce; Cappillino, Patrick J.; Sheridan, Leah B.; Stickney, John L.; Benson, David M.


    A method of electroless atomic layer deposition is described. The method electrolessly generates a layer of sacrificial material on a surface of a first material. The method adds doses of a solution of a second material to the substrate. The method performs a galvanic exchange reaction to oxidize away the layer of the sacrificial material and deposit a layer of the second material on the surface of the first material. The method can be repeated for a plurality of iterations in order to deposit a desired thickness of the second material on the surface of the first material.

  16. Atomic data for fusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hunter, H.T.; Kirkpatrick, M.I.; Alvarez, I.; Cisneros, C.; Phaneuf, R.A. (eds.); Barnett, C.F.


    This report provides a handbook of recommended cross-section and rate-coefficient data for inelastic collisions between hydrogen, helium and lithium atoms, molecules and ions, and encompasses more than 400 different reactions of primary interest in fusion research. Published experimental and theoretical data have been collected and evaluated, and the recommended data are presented in tabular, graphical and parametrized form. Processes include excitation and spectral line emission, charge exchange, ionization, stripping, dissociation and particle interchange reactions. The range of collision energies is appropriate to applications in fusion-energy research.

  17. Neuromorphic atomic switch networks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audrius V Avizienis

    Full Text Available Efforts to emulate the formidable information processing capabilities of the brain through neuromorphic engineering have been bolstered by recent progress in the fabrication of nonlinear, nanoscale circuit elements that exhibit synapse-like operational characteristics. However, conventional fabrication techniques are unable to efficiently generate structures with the highly complex interconnectivity found in biological neuronal networks. Here we demonstrate the physical realization of a self-assembled neuromorphic device which implements basic concepts of systems neuroscience through a hardware-based platform comprised of over a billion interconnected atomic-switch inorganic synapses embedded in a complex network of silver nanowires. Observations of network activation and passive harmonic generation demonstrate a collective response to input stimulus in agreement with recent theoretical predictions. Further, emergent behaviors unique to the complex network of atomic switches and akin to brain function are observed, namely spatially distributed memory, recurrent dynamics and the activation of feedforward subnetworks. These devices display the functional characteristics required for implementing unconventional, biologically and neurally inspired computational methodologies in a synthetic experimental system.

  18. Delay in atomic photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kheifets, A S


    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence $ns$ and $np$ sub-shells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. By solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and carefully examining the time evolution of the photoelectron wave packet, we establish the apparent "time zero" when the photoelectron leaves the atom. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the quantum phase of the dipole transition matrix element, the energy dependence of which defines the emission timing. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the $2s$ and $2p$ sub-shells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [{\\em Science} {\\bf 328}, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than a half of the measured time delay of $21\\pm5$~as. We argue that the XUV pulse alone cannot produce such a larg...

  19. Nucleus geometry and mechanical properties of resistance spot ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    show that nugget diameter, indentation depth and tensile load-bearing capacity are affected by weld parameters. Coating prevents full joining at low parameters. Microhardness increased in heat-affected zone and weld metal. Keywords. Automotive steels; resistance spot welding; mechanical properties; nucleus geometry.

  20. Study of the variability of the nucleus of Centaurus A. (United States)

    Fernandes de Mello Rabaca, D.; Abraham, Z.


    ABSTRACT. This work consists in the study of the variability of the nucleus of the peculiar galaxy NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) at the radio continuum frequency of 43 GHz. The data were obtained with the 13.7 m itapetinga Radiotelescope. The radio source presents a pair of inner radio lobes and a compact variable nucleus. The observational technique used was scans through the inner radio lobes and the nucleus. The quasi- simultaneous measurements of the flux density of each source allowed us to derive accurately the relative flux between them, and to obtain the real variability of the nucleus. RESUMO. Este trabalho consiste no estudo da variabilidade do nucleo da galaxia peculiar NGC 5128 (Centaurus A) no de radio na de 43 GHz. Os dados foram obtidos com 0 Radiotelescopio do Itapetinga. A radio fonte apresenta um par de lobulos internos e um nucleo compacto variavel. A tetnica observacional utilizada foi a de varreduras passando pelos lobulos e pelo nucleo. As medidas quase simultaneas da densidade de fluxo de cada fonte permitiu obter precisa- mente 0 fluxo relativo entre elas e a variabilidade real do nucleo. Keq woit : GALAXIES-RADIO

  1. Deexcitation of superdeformed bands in the nucleus Tb-151

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Finck, C; Appelbe, D; Beck, FA; Byrski, T; Cullen, D; Curien, D; deFrance, G; Duchene, G; Erturk, S; Haas, B; Khadiri, N; Kharraja, B; Prevost, D; Rigollet, C; Stezowski, O; Twin, P; Vivien, JP; Zuber, K


    The aim of this work is to get more informations about the decay-out of superdeformed bands. One of the best candidates in the mass A similar or equal to 150 region for that kind of research is the nucleus Tb-151. From previous works, it has been established that the first excited band goes lower in

  2. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation reverses mediofrontal influence over decision threshold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cavanagh, J.F.; Wiecki, T.V.; Cohen, M.X.; Figueroa, C.M.; Samanta, J.; Sherman, S.J.; Frank, M.J.


    It takes effort and time to tame one's impulses. Although medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is broadly implicated in effortful control over behavior, the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is specifically thought to contribute by acting as a brake on cortico-striatal function during decision conflict, buying

  3. Inelastic magnetic electron scattering form factors of the Mg nucleus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    states of the 26Mg nucleus have been studied using shell model calculations. The universal sd of the Wildenthal interaction, universal sd-shell interaction A, universal sd-shell interaction B, are used for the sd-shell orbits. Core polarization effects accord- ing to microscopic theory are taken into account by the excitations of ...

  4. Nuclear structure in odd-odd nucleus [sup 138]Pr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rizzutto, M.A.; Cybulska, E.W.; Vanin, V.R.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Emediato, L.G.R.; Ribas, R.V.; Seale, W.A.; Rao, M.N.; Medina, N.H.; Botelho, S.; Acquadro, J.C.; Lima, C.L. (Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Lab. Pelletron)


    With the view of extending the systematics of odd-odd Pr nuclei toward the N=82 closed shell, high-spin states in [sup 138]Pr nucleus have been investigated with the [sup 128]Te([sup 14]N, 4n[gamma]) reaction. Configurations and spin assignments are suggested for three of the observed band-structures. (orig.).

  5. Sex hormone receptors are present in the human suprachiasmatic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruijver, Frank P. M.; Swaab, Dick F.


    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is the clock of the brain that orchestrates circadian and circannual biological rhythms, such as the rhythms of hormones, body temperature, sleep and mood. These rhythms are frequently disturbed in menopause and even more so in dementia and can be restored in


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Using a spectrum obtained under moderate (similar to 1 arcsec) seeing, we show that the double nucleus in M31 produces a strong kinematic signature even though the individual components are not spatially resolved. The signature consists of a significant asymmetric wing in the stellar velocity

  7. CTP synthase forms cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gou, Ke-Mian [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); State Key Laboratory for Agrobiotechnology, College of Biological Sciences, China Agricultural University, Beijing 100193 (China); Chang, Chia-Chun [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shen, Qing-Ji [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom); Sung, Li-Ying, E-mail: [Institute of Biotechnology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Ji-Long, E-mail: [MRC Functional Genomics Unit, Department of Physiology, Anatomy and Genetics, University of Oxford, Oxford OX1 3PT (United Kingdom)


    CTP synthase is an essential metabolic enzyme responsible for the de novo synthesis of CTP. Multiple studies have recently showed that CTP synthase protein molecules form filamentous structures termed cytoophidia or CTP synthase filaments in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells, as well as in bacteria. Here we report that CTP synthase can form cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm, but also in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Both glutamine deprivation and glutamine analog treatment promote formation of cytoplasmic cytoophidia (C-cytoophidia) and nuclear cytoophidia (N-cytoophidia). N-cytoophidia are generally shorter and thinner than their cytoplasmic counterparts. In mammalian cells, both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 can form cytoophidia. Using live imaging, we have observed that both C-cytoophidia and N-cytoophidia undergo multiple rounds of fusion upon glutamine analog treatment. Our study reveals the coexistence of cytoophidia in the cytoplasm and nucleus, therefore providing a good opportunity to investigate the intracellular compartmentation of CTP synthase. - Highlights: • CTP synthase forms cytoophidia not only in the cytoplasm but also in the nucleus. • Glutamine deprivation and Glutamine analogs promotes cytoophidium formation. • N-cytoophidia exhibit distinct morphology when compared to C-cytoophidia. • Both CTP synthase 1 and CTP synthase 2 form cytoophidia in mammalian cells. • Fusions of cytoophidia occur in the cytoplasm and nucleus.

  8. Calcium-regulated import of myosin IC into the nucleus. (United States)

    Maly, Ivan V; Hofmann, Wilma A


    Myosin IC is a molecular motor involved in intracellular transport, cell motility, and transcription. Its mechanical properties are regulated by calcium via calmodulin binding, and its functions in the nucleus depend on import from the cytoplasm. The import has recently been shown to be mediated by the nuclear localization signal located within the calmodulin-binding domain. In the present paper, it is demonstrated that mutations in the calmodulin-binding sequence shift the intracellular distribution of myosin IC to the nucleus. The redistribution is displayed by isoform B, described originally as the "nuclear myosin," but is particularly pronounced with isoform C, the normally cytoplasmic isoform. Furthermore, experimental elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration induces a rapid import of myosin into the nucleus. The import is blocked by the importin β inhibitor importazole. These findings are consistent with a mechanism whereby calmodulin binding prevents recognition of the nuclear localization sequence by importin β, and the steric inhibition of import is released by cell signaling leading to the intracellular calcium elevation. The results establish a mechanistic connection between the calcium regulation of the motor function of myosin IC in the cytoplasm and the induction of its import into the nucleus. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species in the nucleus revisited. (United States)

    Provost, Chantale; Choufani, Faten; Avedanian, Levon; Bkaily, Ghassan; Gobeil, Fernand; Jacques, Danielle


    Recent work from our group showed that the nuclear envelope membranes contain several G protein-coupled receptors, including prostaglandin E2 (EP3R) and endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors. Activation of EP3R increased endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) RNA expression in nuclei. eNOS and inducible NOS (iNOS) are reported to also be present at the nuclear level. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also localized at the nuclear level. In this review, we show that stimulation with NO donor sodium nitroprusside results in an increase of intranuclear calcium that was dependent on guanylate cyclase activation, but independent of MAPK. This increase in nuclear calcium correlated with an increase in nuclear transcription of iNOS. H2O2 and ET-1 increase both cytosolic and nuclear ROS in human endocardial endothelial cells and in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. This increase in ROS levels by H2O2 and ET-1 was reversed by the antioxidant glutathione. In addition, our results strongly suggest that cytosolic signalization is not only transmitted to the nucleus but is also generated by the nucleus. Furthermore, we demonstrate that oxidative stress can be sensed by the nucleus. These results highly suggest that ROS formation is also generated directly by the nucleus and that free radicals may contribute to ET-1 regulation of nuclear Ca2+ homeostasis.

  10. Inclusive jet production in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions

    CERN Document Server

    Perepelitsa, Dennis

    High-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ processes in proton- and deuteron-nucleus collisions at TeV energies are the best presently available way to study the partonic structure of the nucleus in a high-density regime. Jet production over a wide range of phase space can significantly constrain the current knowledge of nuclear parton distribution functions (nPDFs), which are substantially less well understood than the corresponding PDFs in protons and which have only recently begun to be treated in a spatially-dependent way. An accurate knowledge of nPDFs is crucial for a definitive control of perturbative processes in a cold nuclear environment, since high-$p_\\mathrm{T}$ probes are used to quantitatively investigate the hot QCD matter created in ultrarelativistic nucleus-nucleus collisions. Furthermore, jets from low Bjorken-$x$ partons can probe the transition from the dilute to saturated nuclear regimes. Jet production is investigated in $d$+Au collisions at $\\sqrt{s} = 200$ GeV with the PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Hea...

  11. The human granulocyte nucleus: Unusual nuclear envelope and heterochromatin composition. (United States)

    Olins, Ada L; Zwerger, Monika; Herrmann, Harald; Zentgraf, Hanswalter; Simon, Amos J; Monestier, Marc; Olins, Donald E


    The human blood granulocyte (neutrophil) is adapted to find and destroy infectious agents. The nucleus of the human neutrophil has a segmented appearance, consisting of a linear or branched array of three or four lobes. Adequate levels of lamin B receptor (LBR) are necessary for differentiation of the lobulated nucleus. The levels of other components of the nuclear envelope may also be important for nuclear shape determination. In the present study, immunostaining and immunoblotting procedures explored the levels of various components of the nuclear envelope and heterochromatin, comparing freshly isolated human neutrophils with granulocytic forms of HL-60 cells, a tissue culture model system. In comparison to granulocytic HL-60 cells, blood neutrophil nuclear envelopes contain low-to-negligible amounts of LBR, lamins A/C, B1 and B2, LAP2beta and emerin. Surprisingly, a "mitotic" chromosome marker, H3(S10)phos, is elevated in neutrophil nuclei, compared to granulocytic HL-60 cells. Furthermore, neutrophil nuclei appear to be more fragile to methanol fixation, than observed with granulocytic HL-60 cells. Thus, the human neutrophil nucleus appears to be highly specialized, possessing a paucity of nuclear envelope-stabilizing proteins. In consequence, the neutrophil nucleus appears to be very malleable, supporting rapid migration through tight tissue spaces.

  12. Cortically evoked potentials in the human subthalamic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwartjes - de Klerk, D.G.M; Janssen, M.L.F; Heida, Tjitske; van Kranen-Mastenbroek, V.; Bour, L.; Temel, Y.; Visser-Vandewalle, V.; Martens, H.C.F.; Veltink, Petrus H.


    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) alleviates motor symptoms in Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients. However, in a substantial number of patients the beneficial effects of STN DBS are overshadowed by psychiatric side effects. We hypothesize that stimulation of the STN motor

  13. Saturating Cronin effect in ultrarelativistic proton-nucleus collisions


    Papp, Gabor; Levai, Peter; Fai, George


    Pion and photon production cross sections are analyzed in proton-proton and proton-nucleus collisions at energies 20 GeV < s^1/2 < 60 GeV. We separate the proton-proton and nuclear contributions to transverse-momentum broadening and suggest a new mechanism for the nuclear enhancement in the high transverse-momentum region.

  14. Red nucleus connectivity as revealed by constrained spherical deconvolution tractography. (United States)

    Milardi, Demetrio; Cacciola, Alberto; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Marino, Silvia; Irrera, Mariangela; Cacciola, Giorgio; Santoro, Giuseppe; Ciolli, Pietro; Anastasi, Giuseppe; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Quartarone, Angelo


    Previous Diffusion Tensor Imaging studies have demonstrated that the human red nucleus is widely interconnected with sensory-motor and prefrontal cortices. In this study, we assessed red nucleus connectivity by using a multi-tensor model called non- negative Constrained Spherical Deconvolution (CSD), which is able to resolve more than one fiber orientation per voxel. Connections of the red nuclei of fifteen volunteers were studied at 3T using CSD axonal tracking. We found significant connectivity between RN and the following cortical and subcortical areas: cerebellar cortex, thalamus, paracentral lobule, postcentral gyrus, precentral gyrus, superior frontal gyrus and dentate nucleus. We confirmed that red nucleus is tightly linked with the cerebral cortex and has dense subcortical connections with thalamus and cerebellar cortex. These findings may be useful in a clinical context considering that RN is involved in motor control and it is known to have potential to compensate for injury of the corticospinal tract. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Glucocorticoids suppress vasopressin gene expression in human suprachiasmatic nucleus.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, R.-Y.; Unmehopa, U.A.; Zhou, J.-N.; Swaab, D.F.


    Sleep impairment is one of the major side effects of glucocorticoid therapy. The mechanism responsible for this circadian disorder is unknown, but alterations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock of the human brain, are presumed to play a major role. In the present study, the

  16. Glucocorticoids suppress vasopressin gene expression in human suprachiasmatic nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Rong-Yu; Unmehopa, Unga A.; Zhou, Jiang-Ning; Swaab, Dick F.


    Sleep impairment is one of the major side effects of glucocorticoid therapy. The mechanism responsible for this circadian disorder is unknown, but alterations in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN), the biological clock of the human brain, are presumed to play a major role. In the present study, the

  17. Recognizing nitrogen dopant atoms in graphene using atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van der Heijden, Nadine J.; Smith, Daniel; Calogero, Gaetano


    Doping graphene by heteroatoms such as nitrogen presents an attractive route to control the position of the Fermi level in the material. We prepared N-doped graphene on Cu(111) and Ir(111) surfaces via chemical vapor deposition of two different molecules. Using scanning tunneling microscopy images...... as a benchmark, we show that the position of the dopant atoms can be determined using atomic force microscopy. Specifically, the frequency shift-distance curves Delta f(z) acquired above a N atom are significantly different from the curves measured over a C atom. Similar behavior was found for N-doped graphene...

  18. Can atom-surface potential measurements test atomic structure models? (United States)

    Lonij, Vincent P A; Klauss, Catherine E; Holmgren, William F; Cronin, Alexander D


    van der Waals (vdW) atom-surface potentials can be excellent benchmarks for atomic structure calculations. This is especially true if measurements are made with two different types of atoms interacting with the same surface sample. Here we show theoretically how ratios of vdW potential strengths (e.g., C₃(K)/C₃(Na)) depend sensitively on the properties of each atom, yet these ratios are relatively insensitive to properties of the surface. We discuss how C₃ ratios depend on atomic core electrons by using a two-oscillator model to represent the contribution from atomic valence electrons and core electrons separately. We explain why certain pairs of atoms are preferable to study for future experimental tests of atomic structure calculations. A well chosen pair of atoms (e.g., K and Na) will have a C₃ ratio that is insensitive to the permittivity of the surface, whereas a poorly chosen pair (e.g., K and He) will have a ratio of C₃ values that depends more strongly on the permittivity of the surface.

  19. Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus (United States)

    Fulle, Marco; Alice Team; Stern, Alan; CONSTERT Team; Kofman, Wlodek; COSIMA Team; Hilchenbach, Martin; GIADA Team; Rotundi, Alessandra; MIDAS Team; Bentley, Mark; MIRO Team; Hofstadter, Mark; OSIRIS Team; Sierks, Holger; ROSINA Team; Altwegg, Kathrin; RPC Team; Nilsson, Hans; Burch, James; Eriksson, Anders; Heinz-Glassmeier, Karl; Henri, Pierre; Carr, Christopher; RSI Team; Paetzold, Martin; , VIRTIS Team; Capaccioni, Fabrizio; Lander Team; Boehnhardt, Hermann; Bibring, Jean-Pierre; IDS Team; Gruen, Eberhard; Fulchignoni, Marcello; Weissman, Paul; Project Scientist Team; Taylor, Matt; Buratti, Bonnie; Altobelli, Nicolas; Choukroun, Mathieu; Ground-Based Observations Team; Snodgrass, Colin


    The Rosetta mission has been taking measurements of its target comet Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko since early 2014 and will complete operations at the end of September 2016. The mission Science Management Plan, in 1994, laid out the the prime goals and themes of the mission. These five themes were: 1) To study the global characterisation of the Nuclues, the determination of the dynamics properties , surface morpholy and composition of the comet. 2) Examination of the Chemical, Mineralogical and isotopic compositions of volatiles and refractories in a cometary nucleus.3) Physical interrelation of volatile and refractories in a cometary nucleus4) Study the development of cometary activity and the process in the surface layer of the nucleus and in the inner coma5) The origins of comets, the relationship between cometary and interstellar material and the implications for the origin of the solar system,To cover all aspects of the Rosetta mission in this special Show case session, this abstracts is one of 5, with this particular presentation focusing on theme 3, in particular on a) The dust-to-gas ratio; b) distributed sources of volatiles; c) seasonal evolution of the dust size distribution.a) The dust-to-gas ratio has been provided by coma observations measuring the gas and dust loss rates from the nucleus surface. The ratio of these two loss rates provides a lower limit of the dust-to-gas ratio at the nucleus surface, since it does not take into account the largest chunks unable to leave the nucleus, or falling back due to the dominant gravity. We review the value inferred so far, its time evolution, and new techniques to directly measure it in the nucleus.b) Evidences offered by Rosetta observations of gas sublimating from dust particles are up to now faint. We report the few available observations and an estimate of the probable average water content in dust particles inferred by 3D gas-dynamical codes of 67P coma.c) The dust-size distribution tunes the sizes

  20. Structures and functions in the crowded nucleus: new biophysical insights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald eHancock


    Full Text Available Concepts and methods from the physical sciences have catalysed remarkable progress in understanding the cell nucleus in recent years. To share this excitement with physicists and encourage their interest in this field, this review offers an overview of how the physics which underlies structures and functions in the nucleus is becoming more clear thanks to methods which have been developed to simulate and study macromolecules, polymers, and colloids. The environment in the nucleus is very crowded with macromolecules, making entropic (depletion forces major determinants of interactions. Simulation and experiments are consistent with their key role in forming membraneless compartments such as nucleoli, PML and Cajal bodies, and discrete territories for chromosomes. The chromosomes, giant linear polyelectrolyte polymers, exist in vivo in a state like a polymer melt. Looped conformations are predicted in crowded conditions, and have been confirmed experimentally and are central to the regulation of gene expression. Polymer theory has revealed how the chromosomes are so highly compacted in the nucleus, forming a crumpled globule with fractal properties which avoids knots and entanglements in DNA while allowing facile accessibility for its replication and transcription. Entropic repulsion between looped polymers can explain the confinement of each chromosome to a discrete region of the nucleus. Crowding and looping are predicted to facilitate finding the specific targets of factors which modulate activities of DNA. Simulation shows that entropic effects contribute to finding and repairing potentially lethal double-strand breaks in DNA by increasing the mobility of the broken ends, favouring their juxtaposition for repair. Signaling pathways are strongly influenced by crowding, which favours a processive mode of response (consecutive reactions without releasing substrates. This new information contributes to understanding the sometimes counter

  1. Cochlear nucleus neuron analysis in individuals with presbycusis. (United States)

    Hinojosa, Raul; Nelson, Erik G


    The aim of this study was to analyze the cochlear nucleus neuron population in individuals with normal hearing and presbycusis. Retrospective study of archival human temporal bone and brain stem tissues. Using strict inclusion criteria, the temporal bones and cochlear nuclei from six normal hearing individuals and four individuals with presbycusis were selected for analysis. The spiral ganglion cell population, the cochlear nucleus neuron population, and the cell body size of the neurons were quantified in these cases. A relationship was not observed between age and the spiral ganglion cell population in the normal hearing group. Presbycusis subjects exhibited a reduced spiral ganglion cell population. The mean cochlear nucleus neuron population was observed to be significantly higher in the presbycusis group (mean ± standard deviation: 114,170 ± 10,570) compared to the normal hearing group (91,470 ± 9,510) (P = .019). This difference was predominantly the result of greater multipolar and granule cell neuron populations. Only the fusiform neuron type exhibited a significantly different mean cell body cross-sectional area between the normal hearing group (242 ± 27) and the presbycusis group (300 ± 37) (P = .033). This investigation is the first time, to our knowledge, that the populations of the eight neuron types in the cochlear nucleus have been quantified in both normal hearing individuals and individuals with presbycusis. The data support the concept that presbycusis is not an effect of aging alone but instead may be a condition that predisposes one to hearing loss with advancing age and is characterized by a congenitally elevated cochlear nucleus neuron population. Copyright © 2011 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Optical angular momentum and atoms. (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja


    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Nieddu, Thomas; Chormaic, Sile Nic


    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed ...

  4. Atomic iodine laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fisk, G.A.; Gusinow, M.A.; Hays, A.K.; Padrick, T.D.; Palmer, R.E.; Rice, J.K.; Truby, F.K.; Riley, M.E.


    The atomic iodine photodissociation laser has been under intensive study for a number of years. The physics associated with this system is now well understood and it is possible to produce a 0.1 nsec (or longer) near-diffraction-limited laser pulse which can be amplified with negligible temporal distortion and little spatial deformation. The output of either a saturated or unsaturated amplifier consists of a high-fidelity near-diffraction-limited, energetic laser pulse. The report is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 is a survey of the important areas affecting efficient laser operation and summarizes the findings of Chap. 2. Chapter 2 presents detailed discussions and evaluations pertinent to pumps, chemical regeneration, and other elements in the overall laser system. Chapter 3 briefly discusses those areas that require further work and the nature of the work required to complete the full-scale evaluation of the applicability of the iodine photodissociation laser to the inertial confinement program.

  5. Nucleus structure and dust morphology: Post-Rosetta understanding and implications (United States)

    Levasseur-Regourd, A.; Bentley, Mark; Ciarletti, Valérie; Kofman, Woldek; Lasue, Jeremie; Mannel, Thurid; Herique, Alain


    The structure of cometary nuclei and the morphology of dust particles they eject have long been unknowns in cometary science. The combination of these two subjects, as revealed by the Rosetta mission at 67P/C-G, is currently providing an unprecedented insight about Solar System formation and early evolution.Rosetta has established that the bulk porosity of 67P/C-G nucleus is high, in the 70% to 85% range, both from the determination of its density and from permittivity measurements with CONSERT bistatic radar experiment [1-2]. CONSERT, through operations after Philae landing on 12-13 November 2014, has also allowed us to estimate that i) the porosity is likely to be higher inside the nucleus than on its subsurface, ii) a major component of the nucleus is refractory carbonaceous compounds, and iii) the small lobe is homogeneous at a scale of a few wavelengths (i.e., about 10 m), while heterogeneities in the 3-m range (similar to the rounded nodules noticed on walls of large pits) cannot be ruled out [2-4].Rosetta has also established, through its 26 months rendezvous with 67P/C-G, the aggregated structure of dust particles within a wide range of sizes in the inner cometary coma. The MIDAS atomic force microscope experiment has given us evidence (from 3D topographic images with nano- to micrometer resolution) for i) a hierarchical structure of aggregated dust particles, down to tens of nm-sized grains, ii) one extremely porous dust particle, with a fractal dimension of (1.7 ± 0.1) [5-6]. The accuracy of comparisons between cometary dust particles and interplanetary dust particles collected in the stratosphere (including CP-IDPs) could thus be improved.Such results should further refine the main processes (e.g., low velocity aggregation) that allowed the formation of comets in the early Solar System, and the implications of a possible late heavy bombardment on the interplanetary dust clouds and on telluric planets.References. 1. Pätzold et al. Nature 530 63 2016. 2

  6. Quantum information with Rydberg atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, Mark; Walker, T.G.; Mølmer, Klaus


    Rydberg atoms with principal quantum number n»1 have exaggerated atomic properties including dipole-dipole interactions that scale as n4 and radiative lifetimes that scale as n3. It was proposed a decade ago to take advantage of these properties to implement quantum gates between neutral atom...... of multiqubit registers, implementation of robust light-atom quantum interfaces, and the potential for simulating quantum many-body physics. The advances of the last decade are reviewed, covering both theoretical and experimental aspects of Rydberg-mediated quantum information processing....

  7. HPAM: Hirshfeld partitioned atomic multipoles (United States)

    Elking, Dennis M.; Perera, Lalith; Pedersen, Lee G.


    An implementation of the Hirshfeld (HD) and Hirshfeld-Iterated (HD-I) atomic charge density partitioning schemes is described. Atomic charges and atomic multipoles are calculated from the HD and HD-I atomic charge densities for arbitrary atomic multipole rank l on molecules of arbitrary shape and size. The HD and HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are tested by comparing molecular multipole moments and the electrostatic potential (ESP) surrounding a molecule with their reference ab initio values. In general, the HD-I atomic charges/multipoles are found to better reproduce ab initio electrostatic properties over HD atomic charges/multipoles. A systematic increase in precision for reproducing ab initio electrostatic properties is demonstrated by increasing the atomic multipole rank from l=0 (atomic charges) to l=4 (atomic hexadecapoles). Both HD and HD-I atomic multipoles up to rank l are shown to exactly reproduce ab initio molecular multipole moments of rank L for L⩽l. In addition, molecular dipole moments calculated by HD, HD-I, and ChelpG atomic charges only ( l=0) are compared with reference ab initio values. Significant errors in reproducing ab initio molecular dipole moments are found if only HD or HD-I atomic charges used. Program summaryProgram title: HPAM Catalogue identifier: AEKP_v1_0 Program summary URL: Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License v2 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 500 809 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 13 424 494 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C Computer: Any Operating system: Linux RAM: Typically, a few hundred megabytes Classification: 16.13 External routines: The program requires 'formatted checkpoint' files obtained from the Gaussian 03 or Gaussian 09 quantum chemistry program. Nature of problem: An ab initio

  8. Linear Atom Guides: Guiding Rydberg Atoms and Progress Toward an Atom Laser (United States)

    Traxler, Mallory A.

    In this thesis, I explore a variety of experiments within linear, two-wire, magnetic atom guides. Experiments include guiding of Rydberg atoms; transferring between states while keeping the atoms contained within the guide; and designing, constructing, and testing a new experimental apparatus. The ultimate goal of the atom guiding experiments is to develop a continuous atom laser. The guiding of 87Rb 59D5/2 Rydberg atoms is demonstrated. The evolution of the atoms is driven by the combined effects of dipole forces acting on the center-of-mass degree of freedom as well as internal-state transitions. Time delayed microwave and state-selective field ionization, along with ion detection, are used to investigate the evolution of the internal-state distribution as well as the Rydberg atom motion while traversing the guide. The observed decay time of the guided-atom signal is about five times that of the initial state. A population transfer between Rydberg states contributes to this lengthened lifetime, and also broadens the observed field ionization spectrum. The population transfer is attributed to thermal transitions and, to a lesser extent, initial state-mixing due to Rydberg-Rydberg collisions. Characteristic signatures in ion time-of-flight signals and spatially resolved images of ion distributions, which result from the coupled internal-state and center-of-mass dynamics, are discussed. Some groups have used a scheme to make BECs where atoms are optically pumped from one reservoir trap to a final state trap, irreversibly transferring those atoms from one trap to the other. In this context, transfer from one guided ground state to another is studied. In our setup, before the atoms enter the guide, they are pumped into the | F = 1, mF = --1> state. Using two repumpers, one tuned to the F = 1 → F' = 0 transition (R10) and the other tuned to the F = 1 → F' = 2 transition (R12), the atoms are pumped between these guided states. Magnetic reflections within the guide

  9. Introduction to light forces, atom cooling, and atom trapping


    Savage, Craig


    This paper introduces and reviews light forces, atom cooling and atom trapping. The emphasis is on the physics of the basic processes. In discussing conservative forces the semi-classical dressed states are used rather than the usual quantized field dressed states.

  10. Atomic Force Microscopy and Real Atomic Resolution. Simple Computer Simulations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koutsos, V.; Manias, E.; Brinke, G. ten; Hadziioannou, G.


    Using a simple computer simulation for AFM imaging in the contact mode, pictures with true and false atomic resolution are demonstrated. The surface probed consists of two f.c.c. (111) planes and an atomic vacancy is introduced in the upper layer. Changing the size of the effective tip and its

  11. Intermolecular atom-atom bonds in crystals - a chemical perspective. (United States)

    Thakur, Tejender S; Dubey, Ritesh; Desiraju, Gautam R


    Short atom-atom distances between molecules are almost always indicative of specific intermolecular bonding. These distances may be used to assess the significance of all hydrogen bonds, including the C-H⋯O and even weaker C-H⋯F varieties.

  12. DMPD: TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. [Dynamic Macrophage Pathway CSML Database

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 10611754 TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Roberts AB. Microbes Inf...leus. PubmedID 10611754 Title TGF-beta signaling from receptors to the nucleus. Authors Roberts AB. Publicat


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This data set presents images of the nucleus of comet 1P/Halley obtained by the various contributing observers of the International Halley Watch (IHW) Near-Nucleus...

  14. Anatomical evidence for direct connections between the shell and core subregions of the rat nucleus accumbens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dongen, Y.C.; Deniau, J.M.; Pennartz, C.M.A.; Galis-de Graaf, Y.; Voorn, P.; Thierry, A.M.; Groenewegen, H.J.


    The nucleus accumbens is thought to subserve different aspects of adaptive and emotional behaviors. The anatomical substrates for such actions are multiple, parallel ventral striatopallidal output circuits originating in the nucleus accumbens shell and core subregions. Several indirect ways of

  15. Projections from the raphe nuclei to the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Vrang, N.; Larsen, P.J.


    Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)......Hypothalamus, Circadian rhythm, Serotonin, Nucleus, Neuronal connections, Phaseolus vulgaris-leucoagglutinin (PHA-L), Cholera toxin (ChB)...

  16. Atom-surface studies with Rb Rydberg atoms (United States)

    Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Sedlacek, Jonathon; Shaffer, James


    We report on experimental and theoretical progress studying atom-surface interactions using rubidium Rydberg atoms. Rydberg atoms can be strongly coupled to surface phonon polariton (SPhP) modes of a dielectric material. The coherent interaction between Rydberg atoms and SPhPs has potential applications for quantum hybrid devices. Calculations of TM-mode SPhPs on engineered surfaces of periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) and lithium tantalate (PPLT) for different periodic domains and surface orientations, as well as natural materials such as quartz, are presented. Our SPhP calculations account for the semi-infinite anisotropic nature of the materials. In addition to theoretical calculations, we show experimental results of measurements of adsorbate fields and coupling of Rydberg atoms to SPhPs on quartz.

  17. Coherent Atom Optics with fast metastable rare gas atoms (United States)

    Grucker, J.; Baudon, J.; Karam, J.-C.; Perales, F.; Bocvarski, V.; Vassilev, G.; Ducloy, M.


    Coherent atom optics experiments making use of an ultra-narrow beam of fast metastable atoms generated by metastability exchange are reported. The transverse coherence of the beam (coherence radius of 1.7 μm for He*, 1.2 μm for Ne*, 0.87 μm for Ar*) is demonstrated via the atomic diffraction by a non-magnetic 2μm-period reflection grating. The combination of the non-scalar van der Waals (vdW) interaction with the Zeeman interaction generated by a static magnetic field gives rise to "vdW-Zeeman" transitions among Zeeman sub-levels. Exo-energetic transitions of this type are observed with Ne*(3P2) atoms traversing a copper micro-slit grating. They can be used as a tunable beam splitter in an inelastic Fresnel bi-prism atom interferometer.

  18. Responses of primate caudal parabrachial nucleus and Kolliker-fuse nucleus neurons to whole body rotation (United States)

    Balaban, Carey D.; McGee, David M.; Zhou, Jianxun; Scudder, Charles A.


    The caudal aspect of the parabrachial (PBN) and Kolliker-Fuse (KF) nuclei receive vestibular nuclear and visceral afferent information and are connected reciprocally with the spinal cord, hypothalamus, amygdala, and limbic cortex. Hence, they may be important sites of vestibulo-visceral integration, particularly for the development of affective responses to gravitoinertial challenges. Extracellular recordings were made from caudal PBN cells in three alert, adult female Macaca nemestrina through an implanted chamber. Sinusoidal and position trapezoid angular whole body rotation was delivered in yaw, roll, pitch, and vertical semicircular canal planes. Sites were confirmed histologically. Units that responded during rotation were located in lateral and medial PBN and KF caudal to the trochlear nerve at sites that were confirmed anatomically to receive superior vestibular nucleus afferents. Responses to whole-body angular rotation were modeled as a sum of three signals: angular velocity, a leaky integration of angular velocity, and vertical position. All neurons displayed angular velocity and integrated angular velocity sensitivity, but only 60% of the neurons were position-sensitive. These responses to vertical rotation could display symmetric, asymmetric, or fully rectified cosinusoidal spatial tuning about a best orientation in different cells. The spatial properties of velocity and integrated velocity and position responses were independent for all position-sensitive neurons; the angular velocity and integrated angular velocity signals showed independent spatial tuning in the position-insensitive neurons. Individual units showed one of three different orientations of their excitatory axis of velocity rotation sensitivity: vertical-plane-only responses, positive elevation responses (vertical plane plus ipsilateral yaw), and negative elevation axis responses (vertical plane plus negative yaw). The interactions between the velocity and integrated velocity components

  19. Regional Difference in Sex Steroid Action on Formation of Morphological Sex Differences in the Anteroventral Periventricular Nucleus and Principal Nucleus of the Bed Nucleus of the Stria Terminalis (United States)

    Kanaya, Moeko; Tsuda, Mumeko C.; Sagoshi, Shoko; Nagata, Kazuyo; Morimoto, Chihiro; Tha Thu, Chaw Kyi; Toda, Katsumi; Kato, Shigeaki; Ogawa, Sonoko; Tsukahara, Shinji


    Sex steroid action is critical to form sexually dimorphic nuclei, although it is not fully understood. We previously reported that masculinization of the principal nucleus of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNSTp), which is larger and has more neurons in males than in females, involves aromatized testosterone that acts via estrogen receptor-α (ERα), but not estrogen receptor-β (ERβ). Here, we examined sex steroid action on the formation of the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) that is larger and has more neurons in females. Morphometrical analysis of transgenic mice lacking aromatase, ERα, or ERβ genes revealed that the volume and neuron number of the male AVPV were significantly increased by deletion of aromatase and ERα genes, but not the ERβ gene. We further examined the AVPV and BNSTp of androgen receptor knockout (ARKO) mice. The volume and neuron number of the male BNSTp were smaller in ARKO mice than those in wild-type mice, while no significant effect of ARKO was found on the AVPV and female BNSTp. We also examined aromatase, ERα, and AR mRNA levels in the AVPV and BNSTp of wild-type and ARKO mice on embryonic day (ED) 18 and postnatal day (PD) 4. AR mRNA in the BNSTp and AVPV of wild-type mice was not expressed on ED18 and emerged on PD4. In the AVPV, the aromatase mRNA level was higher on ED18, although the ERα mRNA level was higher on PD4 without any effect of AR gene deletion. Aromatase and ERα mRNA levels in the male BNSTp were significantly increased on PD4 by AR gene deletion. These results suggest that estradiol signaling via ERα during the perinatal period and testosterone signaling via AR during the postnatal period are required for masculinization of the BNSTp, whereas the former is sufficient to defeminize the AVPV. PMID:25398007

  20. Large contribution of virtual Delbrueck scattering to the emission of photons by relativistic nuclei in nucleus-nucleus and electron-nucleus collisions


    Ginzburg, I. F.; Jentschura, U. D.; Serbo, V G


    Delbrueck scattering is an elastic scattering of a photon in the Coulomb field of a nucleus via a virtual electron loop. The contribution of this virtual subprocess to the emission of a photon in the collision of ultra-relativistic nuclei Z_1 Z_2 -> Z_1 Z_2 gamma is considered. We identify the incoming virtual photon as being generated by one of the relativistic nuclei involved in the binary collision and the scattered photon as being emitted in the process. The energy and angular distributio...

  1. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R


    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  2. The Stair-Step Atom. (United States)

    Jordan, Thomas M.; And Others


    Presents a model of a generic atom that is used to represent the movement of electrons from lower to higher levels and vice-versa due to excitation and de-excitation of the atom. As the process of de-excitation takes place, photons represented by colored ping-pong balls are emitted, indicating the emission of light. (MDH)

  3. Atomic collisions involving pulsed positrons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Merrison, J. P.; Bluhme, H.; Field, D.


    instantaneous intensities be achieved with in-beam accumulation, but more importantly many orders of magnitude improvement in energy and spatial resolution can be achieved using positron cooling. Atomic collisions can be studied on a new energy scale with unprecedented precion and control. The use...... of accelerators for producing intense positron pulses will be discussed in the context of atomic physics experiments....

  4. Bohmian picture of Rydberg atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Unlike the previous theoretical results based on standard quantum mechanics that established the nearly elliptical shapes for the centre-of-mass motion in Rydberg atoms using numerical simulations, we show analytically that the Bohmian trajectories in Rydberg atoms are nearly elliptical.

  5. File list: His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 ...

  6. File list: His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 ...

  7. File list: His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998283,SRX9...98285 ...

  8. File list: ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 ...

  9. File list: ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.50.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 ...

  10. File list: ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.10.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285...,SRX998283 ...

  11. File list: His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available His.Neu.20.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 Histone Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998285,SRX9...98283 ...

  12. File list: ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus [Chip-atlas[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ALL.Neu.05.AllAg.Caudate_Nucleus hg19 All antigens Neural Caudate Nucleus SRX998283...,SRX998285 ...

  13. Cellular Neurophysiology of the Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus: Electrical Properties, Neurotransmission, and Mechanisms of Synchronization (United States)


    available concerning the important role of the suprachi- asmatic nucleus (SCN) in the generation of circadian rhythms (Klein et al., 1991), very little is...neurons are schematicized in terms of their numbers of asmatic nucleus; SDN, sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area; primary dendrites. ac

  14. Symmetry energy of the nucleus in the relativistic Thomas–Fermi ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The symmetry energy of a nucleus is determined in a local density approximation and integrating over the entire density distribution of the nucleus, calculated utilizing the relativistic density-dependent Thomas-Fermiapproach. The symmetry energy is found to decrease with increasing neutron excess in the nucleus.

  15. Atoms in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Eissner, W; Hummer, D; Percival, I


    It is hard to appreciate but nevertheless true that Michael John Seaton, known internationally for the enthusiasm and skill with which he pursues his research in atomic physics and astrophysics, will be sixty years old on the 16th of January 1983. To mark this occasion some of his colleagues and former students have prepared this volume. It contains articles that de­ scribe some of the topics that have attracted his attention since he first started his research work at University College London so many years ago. Seaton's association with University College London has now stretched over a period of some 37 years, first as an undergraduate student, then as a research student, and then, successively, as Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Reader, and Professor. Seaton arrived at University College London in 1946 to become an undergraduate in the Physics Department, having just left the Royal Air Force in which he had served as a navigator in the Pathfinder Force of Bomber Command. There are a number of stories of ho...

  16. Deep atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H.; Drake, B.; Randall, C.; Hansma, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)


    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) possesses several desirable imaging features including the ability to produce height profiles as well as two-dimensional images, in fluid or air, at high resolution. AFM has been used to study a vast selection of samples on the scale of angstroms to micrometers. However, current AFMs cannot access samples with vertical topography of the order of 100 μm or greater. Research efforts have produced AFM scanners capable of vertical motion greater than 100 μm, but commercially available probe tip lengths are still typically less than 10 μm high. Even the longest probe tips are below 100 μm and even at this range are problematic. In this paper, we present a method to hand-fabricate “Deep AFM” probes with tips of the order of 100 μm and longer so that AFM can be used to image samples with large scale vertical topography, such as fractured bone samples.

  17. Atom mapping with constraint programming. (United States)

    Mann, Martin; Nahar, Feras; Schnorr, Norah; Backofen, Rolf; Stadler, Peter F; Flamm, Christoph


    Chemical reactions are rearrangements of chemical bonds. Each atom in an educt molecule thus appears again in a specific position of one of the reaction products. This bijection between educt and product atoms is not reported by chemical reaction databases, however, so that the "Atom Mapping Problem" of finding this bijection is left as an important computational task for many practical applications in computational chemistry and systems biology. Elementary chemical reactions feature a cyclic imaginary transition state (ITS) that imposes additional restrictions on the bijection between educt and product atoms that are not taken into account by previous approaches. We demonstrate that Constraint Programming is well-suited to solving the Atom Mapping Problem in this setting. The performance of our approach is evaluated for a manually curated subset of chemical reactions from the KEGG database featuring various ITS cycle layouts and reaction mechanisms.

  18. Exotic objects of atomic physics (United States)

    Eletskii, A. V.


    There has been presented a short survey of physical properties, methods of production and exploration as well as directions of practical usage of the objects of atomic physics which are not yet described in detail in modern textbooks and manuals intended for students of technical universities. The family of these objects includes negative and multicharged ions, Rydberg atoms, excimer molecules, clusters. Besides of that, in recent decades this family was supplemented with new nanocarbon structures such as fullerenes, carbon nanotubes and graphene. The textbook “Exotic objects of atomic physics” [1] edited recently contains some information on the above-listed objects of the atomic physics. This textbook can be considered as a supplement to classic courses of atomic physics teaching in technical universities.

  19. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio


    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  20. Gamma-ray spectroscopy of the nucleus {sup 139}Ce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D.; Cata-Danil, G.; Cata-Danil, I.; Ivascu, M.; Marginean, N.; Marginean, R.; Mihailescu, L.C.; Rusu, C.; Suliman, G. [Horia Hulubei National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering, P.O. Box MG-6, Bucharest (Romania)


    Gamma-ray coincidence techniques are used to determine new level structures in the N=81 nucleus {sup 139}Ce, at low spins and excitation energies with the {sup 139}La(p,n{gamma}) reaction at 5.0 and 6.0 MeV incident energy, and at high spins with the {sup 130}Te({sup 12}C,3n{gamma}) reaction at 50.5 MeV, respectively. Lifetime determinations are also made in the (p,n{gamma}) reaction with the centroid DSA method. The observed level structures are discussed by comparison with existing calculations and with those in the neighbouring nucleus {sup 140}Ce. (orig.)

  1. From Nucleons to Nucleus Concepts of Microscopic Nuclear Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Suhonen, Jouni


    From Nucleons to Nucleus deals with single-particle and collective features of spherical nuclei. Each nuclear model is introduced and derived in detail. The formalism is then applied to light and medium-heavy nuclei in worked-out examples, and finally the acquired skills are strengthened by a wide selection of exercises, many relating the models to experimental data. Nuclear properties are discussed using particles, holes and quasiparticles. A large number of matrix elements of standard operators have been tabulated for reference. From Nucleons to Nucleus is based on lectures on nuclear physics given by the author. Its main scope is thus to serve as a textbook for advanced students. But also researchers will appreciate it as wellbalanced reference to theoretical nuclear physics.

  2. Experiments on parity violation in the compound nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowman, J.D.


    Results from experiments that measure parity-violating longitudinal asymmetries in the scattering of epithermal neutrons from compound-nuclear resonances at the Manuel Lujan Neutron Scattering Center at Los Alamos are discussed. Parity non-conserving asymmetries have been observed for many p-wave resonances in a single target. Measurements were performed on several nuclei in the mass region of A-100 and A-230. The statistical model of the compound nucleus provides a theoretical basis for extracting mean-squared matrix elements from the experimental asymmetry data, and for interpreting the mean-squared matrix elements. The constraints on the weak meson-exchange couplings calculated from the compound-nucleus asymmetry data agree qualitatively with the results from few-body and light-nuclei experiments. For all nuclei but {sup 232}Th measured asymmetries have random signs. For {sup 232}Th eight of eight measured asymmetries are positive. This phenomenon is discussed in terms or doorway models.

  3. The abducens nucleus in the carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabella. (United States)

    Montgomery, J C; Housley, G D


    This study utilizes retrograde axonal transport of cobaltous-lysine, and conventional silver and Golgi staining techniques to study the abducens motor nucleus innervating the external rectus muscle of the carpet shark. The nucleus consists of 300-400 motoneurons located immediately ventrolateral to the medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF), distributed over about 1.25 mm in a rostrocaudal direction at the level of exit of the VI nerve. The axons of the motoneurons form seven or eight discrete ventrally directed fascicles which, having exited from the brainstem, group together to form the abducens (VI) nerve. The motoneurons are on average about 16 micron in diameter, are bipolar, and their dendrites have a transverse orientation. Typically one set of dendrites penetrates the MLF and the other set extends ventrally into the reticular formation.

  4. The cellular mastermind(?) – Mechanotransduction and the nucleus (United States)

    Kaminski, Ashley; Fedorchak, Gregory R.; Lammerding, Jan


    Cells respond to mechanical stimulation by activation of specific signaling pathways and genes that allow the cell to adapt to its dynamic physical environment. How cells sense the various mechanical inputs and translate them into biochemical signals remains an area of active investigation. Recent reports suggest that the cell nucleus may be directly implicated in this cellular mechanotransduction process. In this chapter, we discuss how forces applied to the cell surface and cytoplasm induce changes in nuclear structure and organization, which could directly affect gene expression, while also highlighting the complex interplay between nuclear structural proteins and transcriptional regulators that may further modulate mechanotransduction signaling. Taken together, these findings paint a picture of the nucleus as a central hub in cellular mechanotransduction—both structurally and biochemically—with important implications in physiology and disease. PMID:25081618

  5. Epilepsy, electroacupuncture and the nucleus of the solitary tract. (United States)

    Cakmak, Yusuf Ozgur


    Vagal nerve stimulation and electroacupuncture have some promise as neuroprotective therapies for patients with poorly controlled epilepsy. It has been demonstrated that stimulation of acupuncture points on the extremities results in stimulation of the vagus nerve. It is possible that the antiepileptic effects of these two applications might be targeting the same centre in the brain. The nucleus of the solitary tract, which is a primary site at which vagal afferents terminate, is also the site for afferent pathways of facial, scalp and auricular acupuncture via trigeminal, cervical spinal and glossopharyngeal nerves. Taken together with laboratory findings, the neuroprotective pathways of electroacupuncture in epileptic models may stem from the collaboration of its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic actions through the nucleus of the solitary tract via vagus nerve stimulation.

  6. Electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus in Halo EFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hammer H.-W.


    Full Text Available We compute electromagnetic properties of the Beryllium-11 nucleus using an effective field theory that exploits the separation of scales in this halo system. We fix the parameters of the EFT from measured data on levels and scattering lengths in the 10Be plus neutron system. We then obtain predictions for the B(E1 strength of the 1/2+ to 1/2− transition in the 11Be nucleus. We also compute the charge radius of the ground state of 11Be. Agreement with experiment within the expected accuracy of a leading-order computation in this EFT is obtained. We also indicate how higher-order corrections that affect both s-wave and p-wave 10 Be-neutron interactions will affect our results.

  7. QCD evolution of the gluon density in a nucleus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayala Filho, A.L. [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica]|[Universidade Federal de Pelotas, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica e Matematica; Ducati, M.B. Gay [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Levin, E.M. [Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas (CBPF), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)]|[Petersburg Nuclear Physics Inst., St. Petersburg (Russian Federation). Theory Dept.


    The Glauber approach to the gluon density in a nucleus, suggested by A. Mueller, is developed and studied in detail. Using the GRV parameterization for the gluon density in a nucleon, the value as well as energy and Q{sup 2} dependence of the gluon density in a nucleus is calculated. It is shown that the shadowing corrections are under theoretical control and are essential in the region of small x. The change crucially the value of the gluon density as well as the value of the anomalous dimension of the nuclear structure function, unlike of the nucleon one. The systematic theoretical way to treat the correction to the Glauber approach is developed and a new evolution equation is derived and solved. It is shown that the solution of the new evolution equation can provide a self consistent matching of `soft` high energy phenomenology with `hard` QCD physics. (author). 51 refs., 25 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Atomic form factor for twisted vortex photons interacting with atoms (United States)

    Guthrey, Pierson; Kaplan, Lev; McGuire, J. H.


    The relatively new atomic form factor for twisted (vortex) beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), is considered and compared to the conventional atomic form factor for plane-wave beams that carry only spin angular momentum. Since the vortex symmetry of a twisted photon is more complex that that of a plane wave, evaluation of the atomic form factor is also more complex for twisted photons. On the other hand, the twisted photon has additional parameters, including the OAM quantum number, ℓ, the nodal radial number, p, and the Rayleigh range, zR, which determine the cone angle of the vortex. This Rayleigh range may be used as a variable parameter to control the interaction of twisted photons with matter. Here we address (i) normalization of the vortex atomic form factor, (ii) displacement of target atoms away from the center of the beam vortex, and (iii) formulation of transition probabilities for a variety of photon-atom processes. We attend to features related to experiments that can test the range of validity and accuracy of calculations of these variations of the atomic form factor. Using the absolute square of the form factor for vortex beams, we introduce a vortex factor that can be directly measured.

  9. Atomic Configuration and Conductance of Tantalum Single-Atom Contacts and Single-Atom Wires (United States)

    Kizuka, Tokushi; Murata, Satoshi


    The tensile deformation and successive fracture process of tantalum (Ta) nanocontacts (NCs) while applying various bias voltages was observed in situ by high-resolution transmission electron microscopy using a picometer-precision dual-goniometer nanotip manipulation technique. Simultaneously, the variation in the conductance of the contacts was measured. The NCs were thinned atom by atom during mechanical elongation, resulting in the formation of two types of single-atom cross-sectional contacts: single-atom contacts (SACs) and single-atom wires (SAWs), in which two electrodes, typically nanotips, are connected by a single shared atom or a one-line array of single atoms, respectively. When the bias voltage was 11 mV, Ta SACs were formed during tensile deformation; however, elongation of the single-atom cross-sectional part did not occur. In contrast, when the bias voltage was increased to 200 mV, Ta SACs were first formed during the tensile deformation, followed by elongation of the single-atom cross section up to a length of three atoms, i.e., the formation of SAWs. Thus, the present observation shows that Ta SAWs are stable even at such a high bias voltage. The conductance of the SACs was approximately 0.10G0 (G0 = 2e2/h, where e is the electron charge and h is Planck’s constant), whereas the conductance of the three-atom-long SAWs ranged from 0.01G0 to 0.22G0. Lower conductances were observed for linear SAWs, whereas higher conductances resulted from kinked SAWs.

  10. Hidden Glashow resonance in neutrino–nucleus collisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Alikhanov


    Full Text Available Today it is widely believed that s-channel excitation of an on-shell W boson, commonly known as the Glashow resonance, can be initiated in matter only by the electron antineutrino in the process ν¯ee−→W− at the laboratory energy around 6.3 PeV. In this Letter we argue that the Glashow resonance within the Standard Model also occurs in neutrino–nucleus collisions. The main conclusions are as follows. 1 The Glashow resonance can be excited by both neutrinos and antineutrinos of all the three flavors scattering in the Coulomb field of a nucleus. 2 The Glashow resonance in a neutrino–nucleus reaction does not manifest itself as a Breit–Wigner-like peak in the cross section but the latter exhibits instead a slow logarithmic-law growth with the neutrino energy. The resonance turns thus out to be hidden. 3 More than 98% of W bosons produced in the sub-PeV region in neutrino-initiated reactions in water/ice will be from the Glashow resonance. 4 The vast majority of the Glashow resonance events in a neutrino detector are expected at energies from a few TeV to a few tens of TeV, being mostly initiated by the conventional atmospheric neutrinos dominant in this energy range. Calculations of the cross sections for Glashow resonance excitation on the oxygen nucleus as well as on the proton are carried out in detail. The results of this Letter can be useful for studies of neutrino interactions at large volume water/ice neutrino detectors. For example, in the IceCube detector one can expect 0.3 Glashow resonance events with shower-like topologies and the deposited energies above 300 TeV per year. It is therefore likely already to have at least one Glashow resonance event in the IceCube data set.

  11. mRNA-Producing Pseudo-nucleus System. (United States)

    Shin, Seung Won; Park, Kyung Soo; Shin, Woo Jung; Um, Soong Ho


    A pseudo-eukaryotic nucleus (PEN) system consisting of a gene-containing DNA hydrogel encapsulated in a liposome is fabricated. Owing to the structural characteristics of gene-containing DNA hydrogel, mRNA transcription efficiency is promoted 2.57-fold. Through the use of PEN as a platform for mRNA delivery to the cytosol, prolonged protein translation is achieved. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Magnetic rotation in the nucleus 141Eu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcinkowska, Z.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Droste, C.; Morek, T.; Czajkowska, B.; Urban, W.; Marcinkowski, R.; Olbratowski, P.; Lieder, R. M.; Brans, H.; Gast, W.; Jager, H. M.; Mihailescu, L.; Bazzacco, D.; Falconi, G.; Menegazzo, R.; Lunardi, S.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; De Angelis, G.; Farnea, E.; Gadea, A.; Napoli, D. R.; Podolyak, Z.


    The previously known level scheme of 141 Eu nucleus was revised and substantially extended. Three dipole cascades, characterized by large B(M1)/B(E2) ratios, have been found. Spin and parity assignments were based on the angular distribution ratios and linear polarizations of γ-rays. The experimental results have been compared with the calculations of Tilted Axis Cranking (TAC) model.

  13. Depolarizing Actions of Hydrogen Sulfide on Hypothalamic Paraventricular Nucleus Neurons


    C Sahara Khademullah; Ferguson, Alastair V.


    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel neurotransmitter that has been shown to influence cardiovascular functions as well and corticotrophin hormone (CRH) secretion. Since the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) is a central relay center for autonomic and endocrine functions, we sought to investigate the effects of H2S on the neuronal population of the PVN. Whole cell current clamp recordings were acquired from the PVN neurons and sodium hydrosulfide hydrate (NaHS) was bath applied a...

  14. Isospin symmetry violation, meson production and η-nucleus ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    nucleus interaction is the behaviour of N∗(1535) resonance in nuclear matter. Due to the large mass of η-meson (547 MeV), this S11 resonance is very close to η-N threshold. The resonance is also very broad with Γ ∼ 150 MeV covering the whole low energy region of η-nucleon interaction. The η-nucleon interaction at low ...

  15. Integration of sensory quanta in cuneate nucleus neurons in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Bengtsson

    Full Text Available Discriminative touch relies on afferent information carried to the central nervous system by action potentials (spikes in ensembles of primary afferents bundled in peripheral nerves. These sensory quanta are first processed by the cuneate nucleus before the afferent information is transmitted to brain networks serving specific perceptual and sensorimotor functions. Here we report data on the integration of primary afferent synaptic inputs obtained with in vivo whole cell patch clamp recordings from the neurons of this nucleus. We find that the synaptic integration in individual cuneate neurons is dominated by 4-8 primary afferent inputs with large synaptic weights. In a simulation we show that the arrangement with a low number of primary afferent inputs can maximize transfer over the cuneate nucleus of information encoded in the spatiotemporal patterns of spikes generated when a human fingertip contact objects. Hence, the observed distributions of synaptic weights support high fidelity transfer of signals from ensembles of tactile afferents. Various anatomical estimates suggest that a cuneate neuron may receive hundreds of primary afferents rather than 4-8. Therefore, we discuss the possibility that adaptation of synaptic weight distribution, possibly involving silent synapses, may function to maximize information transfer in somatosensory pathways.

  16. The Nuclear Option: Evidence Implicating the Cell Nucleus in Mechanotransduction. (United States)

    Szczesny, Spencer E; Mauck, Robert L


    Biophysical stimuli presented to cells via microenvironmental properties (e.g., alignment and stiffness) or external forces have a significant impact on cell function and behavior. Recently, the cell nucleus has been identified as a mechanosensitive organelle that contributes to the perception and response to mechanical stimuli. However, the specific mechanotransduction mechanisms that mediate these effects have not been clearly established. Here, we offer a comprehensive review of the evidence supporting (and refuting) three hypothetical nuclear mechanotransduction mechanisms: physical reorganization of chromatin, signaling at the nuclear envelope, and altered cytoskeletal structure/tension due to nuclear remodeling. Our goal is to provide a reference detailing the progress that has been made and the areas that still require investigation regarding the role of nuclear mechanotransduction in cell biology. Additionally, we will briefly discuss the role that mathematical models of cell mechanics can play in testing these hypotheses and in elucidating how biophysical stimulation of the nucleus drives changes in cell behavior. While force-induced alterations in signaling pathways involving lamina-associated polypeptides (LAPs) (e.g., emerin and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3)) and transcription factors (TFs) located at the nuclear envelope currently appear to be the most clearly supported mechanism of nuclear mechanotransduction, additional work is required to examine this process in detail and to more fully test alternative mechanisms. The combination of sophisticated experimental techniques and advanced mathematical models is necessary to enhance our understanding of the role of the nucleus in the mechanotransduction processes driving numerous critical cell functions.

  17. Ground control to major TOM: mitochondria-nucleus communication. (United States)

    Eisenberg-Bord, Michal; Schuldiner, Maya


    Mitochondria have crucial functions in the cell, including ATP generation, iron-sulfur cluster biogenesis, nucleotide biosynthesis, and amino acid metabolism. All of these functions require tight regulation on mitochondrial activity and homeostasis. As mitochondria biogenesis is controlled by the nucleus and almost all mitochondrial proteins are encoded by nuclear genes, a tight communication network between mitochondria and the nucleus has evolved, which includes signaling cascades, proteins which are dual-localized to the two compartments, and sensing of mitochondrial products by nuclear proteins. All of these enable a crosstalk between mitochondria and the nucleus that allows the 'ground control' to get information on mitochondria's status. Such information facilitates the creation of a cellular balance of mitochondrial status with energetic needs. This communication also allows a transcriptional response in case mitochondrial function is impaired aimed to restore mitochondrial homeostasis. As mitochondrial dysfunction is related to a growing number of genetic diseases as well as neurodegenerative conditions and aging, elucidating the mechanisms governing the mitochondrial/nuclear communication should progress a better understanding of mitochondrial dysfunctions. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  18. Incorporation of mammalian actin into microfilaments in plant cell nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paves Heiti


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Actin is an ancient molecule that shows more than 90% amino acid homology between mammalian and plant actins. The regions of the actin molecule that are involved in F-actin assembly are largely conserved, and it is likely that mammalian actin is able to incorporate into microfilaments in plant cells but there is no experimental evidence until now. Results Visualization of microfilaments in onion bulb scale epidermis cells by different techniques revealed that rhodamine-phalloidin stained F-actin besides cytoplasm also in the nuclei whereas GFP-mouse talin hybrid protein did not enter the nuclei. Microinjection of fluorescently labeled actin was applied to study the presence of nuclear microfilaments in plant cells. Ratio imaging of injected fluorescent rabbit skeletal muscle actin and phalloidin staining of the microinjected cells showed that mammalian actin was able to incorporate into plant F-actin. The incorporation occurred preferentially in the nucleus and in the perinuclear region of plant cells whereas part of plant microfilaments, mostly in the periphery of cytoplasm, did not incorporate mammalian actin. Conclusions Microinjected mammalian actin is able to enter plant cell's nucleus, whereas incorporation of mammalian actin into plant F-actin occurs preferentially in the nucleus and perinuclear area.

  19. The granulocyte nucleus and lamin B receptor: avoiding the ovoid. (United States)

    Hoffmann, Katrin; Sperling, Karl; Olins, Ada L; Olins, Donald E


    The major human blood granulocyte, the neutrophil, is an essential component of the innate immunity system, emigrating from blood vessels and migrating through tight tissue spaces to the site of bacterial or fungal infection where they kill and phagocytose invading microbes. Since the late nineteenth century, it has been recognized that the human neutrophil nucleus is distinctly not ovoid as in other cell types, but possesses a lobulated (segmented) shape. This deformable nucleus enhances rapid migration. Recent studies have demonstrated that lamin B receptor (LBR) is necessary for the non-ovoid shape. LBR is an integral membrane protein of the nuclear envelope. A single dominant mutation in humans leads to neutrophils with hypolobulated nuclei (Pelger-Huet anomaly); homozygosity leads to ovoid granulocyte nuclei. Interestingly, LBR is also an enzyme involved in cholesterol metabolism. Homozygosity for null mutations is frequently lethal and associated with severe skeletal deformities. In addition to the necessity for LBR, formation of the mature granulocyte nucleus also depends upon lamin composition and microtubule integrity. These observations are part of a larger question on the relationships between nuclear shape and cellular function.

  20. Projections from the subdivisions of the fastigial nucleus to the vestibular complex and the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus in the albino rat: an anterograde tracing study using biocytin. (United States)

    Omori, O; Umetani, T; Sugioka, K


    Differential projections from the subdivisions of the fastigial nucleus to the vestibular complex and the prepositus hypoglossal nucleus were investigated by an anterograde tracing method using biocytin in the albino rat. The caudomedial subdivision of the nucleus projected ipsilaterally to the dorsal and medial parts of the superior vestibular nucleus (Su Ve), the dorsomedial part of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVe), and the dorsal parts of the medial (MVe) and spinal (Sp Ve) vestibular nuclei, and projected contralaterally to the ventrolateral corners of the Su Ve and LVe, the ventral part of the MVe, and the lateral part of the Sp Ve. The bilateral prepositus hypoglossal nuclei received sparse projections from the caudomedial subdivision. The middle subdivision of the fastigial nucleus projected ipsilaterally to the dorsal and/or ventral parts of the Su Ve, the dorsomedial pats of the LVe and Sp Ve, and the dorsolateral part of the MVe, and projected contralaterally to the dorsal margin of the Su Ve, the ventrolateral part of the LVe, and the lateral part of the Sp Ve. The dorsolateral protuberance of the fastigial nucleus projected ipsilaterally to the dorsal margin of the Su Ve, the dorsomedial part of the LVe, the dorsal or lateral parts of the Sp Ve, and the lateral part of the MVe, and projected contralaterally to the ventrolateral part of the LVe and the lateral part of the Sp Ve. The subnuclei x, y, and f, interstitial nucleus of the vestibular nerve, and the infracerebellar nucleus received bilateral or ipsilateral fastigiovestibular projections.

  1. Optically polarized atoms understanding light-atom interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Auzinsh, Marcis; Rochester, Simon M


    This book is addressed at upper-level undergraduate and graduate students involved in research in atomic, molecular, and optical Physics. It will also be useful to researchers practising in this field. It gives an intuitive, yet sufficiently detailed and rigorous introduction to light-atom interactions with a particular emphasis on the symmetry aspects of the interaction, especially those associated with the angular momentum of atoms and light. The book will enable readers to carryout practical calculations on their own, and is richly illustrated with examples drawn from current research topic

  2. Measurement of the Magnetic Moment of the Negative Muon Bound in Different Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Mamedov, T N; Gritsaj, K I; Kormann, O; Major, J V; Stoikov, A V; Zimmermann, U


    Theoretical calculations show that the magnetic moment of the electron and the negative muon in a bound state in an atom should be different from the magnetic moment of the free particle due to their relativistic motion. There are also additional radiative corrections to the magnetic moment of a bound electron (muon) due to the presence of the strong Coulomb field of the atomic nucleus. The results of the measurements of the magnetic moment of the negative muon in carbon, oxygen, magnesium, silicon, sulfur, and zinc are presented. The accuracy of the measurements makes it possible to prove the dependence of the relativistic correction to the magnetic moment of a bound muon on Z of the atom.

  3. Classical and quantum binding of a particle with arbitrary spin in the magnetic field of a current-carrying wire: a simple guide for atoms (United States)

    Schmiedmayer, Jörg; Scrinzi, Armin


    A neutral atom with a magnetic moment can be bound to, and guided along, a current-carrying wire. The atom is attracted to regions of high field strength (high-field seeking state) and repelled from the wire by the centrifugal barrier. In the classical regime the atoms move in Kepler-like orbits. In the quantum regime, the system resembles a two-dimensional hydrogen atom in Rydberg-like states. The wire replaces the nucleus and the atom plays the role of the electron. We give a quantum mechanical and a classical description of the system. We rigorously prove the existence of infinitely many bound states for zero or finite wire cross section and any spin (F) of the atom. The bound-state energies closely follow a Coulomb-like behaviour with an effective angular momentum, 1355-5111/8/3/029/img5.

  4. Atoms, Light, and Lasers (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le


    Up to now, the spatial properties of quantum particles played no more than a secondary role: we only needed the de Broglie relation (1.4) which gives the quantum particles wavelength, and our discussion of the quantum properties of photons was based mainly on their polarization, which is an internal degree of freedom of the photon. The probability amplitudes which we used did not involve the positions or velocities of the particles, which are spatial, or external degrees of freedom. In the present chapter, we shall introduce spatial dependence by defining probability amplitudes a(ěc r) that are functions of the position ěc r. In full generality, a(ěc r) is a complex number, but we shall avoid this complication and discuss only cases where the probability amplitudes may be taken real. For simplicity, we also limit ourselves to particles propagating along a straight line, which we take as the Ox axis: x will define the position of the particle and the corresponding probability amplitude will be a function of x, a(x). In our discussion, we shall need to introduce the so-called potential well, where a particle travels back and forth between two points on the straight line. One important particular case is the infinite well, where the particle is confined between two infinitely high walls over which it cannot pass. This example is not at all academic, and we shall meet it again in Chapter 6 when explaining the design of a laser diode! Furthermore, it will allow us to introduce the notion of energy level, to write down the Heisenberg inequalities, to understand the interaction of a light wave with an atom and finally to explain schematically the principles of the laser.

  5. A transport set-up for heavy-flavour observables in nucleus-nucleus collisions at RHIC and LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Nardi, Marzia; Beraudo, A; De Pace, A; Molinari, A; Monteno, M; Prino, F; Sitta, M


    A multi-step setup for heavy-flavour studies in high-energy nucleus–nucleus collisions is presented. The initial hard production of View the MathML sourceQ$\\bar{Q}$ pairs is simulated with the POWHEG pQCD event generator, interfaced with the PYTHIA parton shower. In a nucleus–nucleus collision the propagation of the heavy quarks in the medium is described through the relativistic Langevin equation. The numerical results are compared to experimental data from the RHIC and the LHC. In particular we show the comparisons of the nuclear modification factor of D-mesons, non-prompt J/ψJ/ψ's and heavy-flavour electrons. Furthermore, first results on azimuthal correlations of heavy quark pair and open charm/beauty meson pairs are presented.

  6. Dielectron Cross Section Measurements in Nucleus-Nucleus Reactions at 1.0{ital A} GeV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porter, R.J.; Bossingham, R.; Gong, W.G.; Heilbronn, L.; Huang, H.Z.; Krebs, G.; Letessier-Selvon, A.; Matis, H.S.; Miller, J.; Naudet, C.; Roche, G.; Schroeder, L.S.; Seidl, P.; Wilson, W.K.; Yegneswaran, A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Beedoe, S.; Carroll, J.; Huang, H.Z.; Igo, G. [University of California at Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Bougteb, M.; Manso, F.; Prunet, M.; Roche, G. [Universite Blaise Pascal/IN2P3, 63177 Aubiere Cedex (France); Christie, W.B.; Hallman, T.; Madansky, L.; Welsh, R.C. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Kirk, P.; Wang, Z.F. [Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803 (United States); Wilson, W.K. [Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan 48201 (United States)


    We present measured dielectron production cross sections for Ca+Ca, C+C, He+Ca, and d+Ca reactions at 1.0 A GeV . Statistical uncertainties and systematic effects are smaller than in previous dilepton spectrometer (DLS) nucleus-nucleus data. For pair mass M{le}0.35 GeV/c{sup 2} we obtain (1) the Ca+Ca cross section is larger than the previous DLS measurement and current model results, (2) the mass spectra suggest large contributions from {pi}{sup 0} and {eta} Dalitz decays, and (3) d{sigma}/dM{proportional_to}A{sub P}A{sub T}. For M{gt}0.5 GeV/c{sup 2} the Ca+Ca to C+C cross section ratio is significantly larger than the ratio of A{sub P}A{sub T} values. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  7. Long noncoding RNAs coordinate functions between mitochondria and the nucleus. (United States)

    Dong, Yaru; Yoshitomi, Takeshi; Hu, Ji-Fan; Cui, Jizhe


    In animal cells, mitochondria are the primary powerhouses and metabolic factories. They also contain genomes and can produce mitochondrial-specific nucleic acids and proteins. To maintain homeostasis of the entire cell, an intense cross-talk between mitochondria and the nucleus, mediated by encoded noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), as well as proteins, is required. Long ncRNAs (lncRNAs) contain characteristic structures, and they are involved in the regulation of almost every stage of gene expression, as well as being implicated in a variety of disease states, such as cancer. In the coordinated signaling system, several lncRNAs, transcribed in the nucleus but residing in mitochondria, play a key role in regulating mitochondrial functions or dynamics. For example, RMRP, a component of the mitochondrial RNase MRP, is important for mitochondrial DNA replication and RNA processing, and the steroid receptor RNA activator, SRA, is a key modulator of hormone signaling and is present in both the nucleus and mitochondria. Some RNA-binding proteins maybe play a role in the lncRNAs transport system, such as HuR, GRSF1, SHARP, SLIRP, PPR, and PNPASE. Furthermore, a series of nuclear DNA-encoded lncRNAs were implicated in mitochondria-mediated apoptosis, mitochondrial bioenergetics and biosynthesis, and glutamine metabolism. The mitochondrial genome can also encode a set of lncRNAs, and they are divided into three categories: (1) lncND5, lncND6, and lncCyt b RNA; (2) chimeric mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs; and (3) putative mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs. It has been reported that the mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs appear to operate in the nucleus. The molecular mechanisms underlying trafficking of the mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs to the nucleus in mammals are only now beginning to emerge. In conclusion, both nuclear- and mitochondrial DNA-encoded lncRNAs mediate an intense intercompartmental cross-talk, which opens a rich field for investigation of the mechanism

  8. Nucleus-encoded periplastid-targeted EFL in chlorarachniophytes. (United States)

    Gile, Gillian H; Keeling, Patrick J


    Chlorarachniophytes are cercozoan amoeboflagellates that acquired photosynthesis by enslaving a green alga, which has retained a highly reduced nucleus called a nucleomorph. The nucleomorph lacks many genes necessary for its own maintenance and expression, suggesting that some genes have been moved to the host nucleus and their products are now targeted back to the periplastid compartment (PPC), the reduced eukaryotic cytoplasm of the endosymbiont. Protein trafficking in chlorarachniophytes is therefore complex, including nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, nucleomorph-encoded plastid-targeted proteins, and nucleus-encoded periplastid-targeted proteins. A major gap in our understanding of this system is the PPC-targeted proteins because none have been described in any chlorarachniophytes. Here we describe the first such protein, the GTPase EFL. EFL was characterized from 7 chlorarachniophytes, and 2 distinct types were found. One is related to foraminiferan EFL and lacks an amino-terminal extension. The second, distantly related, type encodes an amino-terminal extension consisting of a signal peptide followed by sequence sharing many characteristics with transit peptides from nucleus-encoded plastid-targeted proteins and which we conclude is most likely PPC targeted. Western blotting with antibodies specific to putative host and PPC-targeted EFL from the chlorarachniophytes Bigelowiella natans and Gymnochlora stellata is consistent with posttranslational cleavage of the leaders from PPC-targeted proteins. Immunolocalization of both proteins in B. natans confirmed the cytosolic location of the leaderless EFL and a distinct localization pattern for the PPC-targeted protein but could not rule out a plastid location (albeit very unlikely). We sought other proteins with a similar leader and identified a eukaryotic translation initiation factor 1 encoding a bipartite extension with the same properties. Transit peptide sequences were characterized from all 3

  9. Electronic structure of atoms: atomic spectroscopy information system (United States)

    Kazakov, V. V.; Kazakov, V. G.; Kovalev, V. S.; Meshkov, O. I.; Yatsenko, A. S.


    The article presents a Russian atomic spectroscopy, information system electronic structure of atoms (IS ESA) (, and describes its main features and options to support research and training. The database contains over 234 000 records, great attention paid to experimental data and uniform filling of the database for all atomic numbers Z, including classified levels and transitions of rare earth and transuranic elements and their ions. Original means of visualization of scientific data in the form of spectrograms and Grotrian diagrams have been proposed. Presentation of spectral data in the form of interactive color charts facilitates understanding and analysis of properties of atomic systems. The use of the spectral data of the IS ESA together with its functionality is effective for solving various scientific problems and training of specialists.

  10. Alpha decay properties of the semi-magic nucleus 219Np (United States)

    Yang, H. B.; Ma, L.; Zhang, Z. Y.; Yang, C. L.; Gan, Z. G.; Zhang, M. M.; Huang, M. H.; Yu, L.; Jiang, J.; Tian, Y. L.; Wang, Y. S.; Wang, J. G.; Liu, Z.; Liu, M. L.; Duan, L. M.; Zhou, S. G.; Ren, Z. Z.; Zhou, X. H.; Xu, H. S.; Xiao, G. Q.


    The semi-magic nucleus 219Np was produced in the fusion reaction 187Re(36Ar, 4n)219Np at the gas-filled recoil separator SHANS (Spectrometer for Heavy Atoms and Nuclear Structure). A fast electronics system based on waveform digitizers was used in the data acquisition and the sampled pulses were processed by digital algorithms. The reaction products were identified using spatial and time correlations between the implants and subsequent α decays. According to the observed α-decay chain, an energy of Eα = 9039 (40) keV and a half-life of T1/2 =0.15-0.07 + 0.72 ms were determined for 219Np. The deduced proton binding energy of 219Np fits well into the systematics, which gives another evidence of that there is no sub-shell closure at Z = 92. The influence of the N = 126 shell closure on the stability of Np isotopes is discussed within the framework of α-decay reduced widths.

  11. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren


    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  12. Fundamentals in hadronic atom theory

    CERN Document Server

    Deloff, A


    Hadronic atoms provide a unique laboratory for studying hadronic interactions essentially at threshold. This text is the first book-form exposition of hadronic atom theory with emphasis on recent developments, both theoretical and experimental. Since the underlying Hamiltonian is a non-self-adjoined operator, the theory goes beyond traditional quantum mechanics and this book covers topics that are often glossed over in standard texts on nuclear physics. The material contained here is intended for the advanced student and researcher in nuclear, atomic or elementary-particle physics. A good know

  13. Ab initio MCDHF calculations of electron-nucleus interactions (United States)

    Bieroń, Jacek; Froese Fischer, Charlotte; Fritzsche, Stephan; Gaigalas, Gediminas; Grant, Ian P.; Indelicato, Paul; Jönsson, Per; Pyykkö, Pekka


    We present recent advances in the development of atomic ab initio multiconfiguration Dirac-Hartree-Fock theory, implemented in the GRASP relativistic atomic structure code. For neutral atoms, the deviations of properties calculated within the Dirac-Hartree-Fock (DHF) method (based on independent particle model of an atomic cloud) are usually dominated by electron correlation effects, i.e. the non-central interactions of individual electrons. We present the recent advances in accurate calculations of electron correlation effects in small, medium, and heavy neutral atoms. We describe methods of systematic development of multiconfiguration expansions leading to systematic, controlled improvement of the accuracy of the ab initio calculations. These methods originate from the concept of the complete active space (CAS) model within the DHF theory, which, at least in principle, permits fully relativistic calculations with full account of electron correlation effects. The calculations within the CAS model on currently available computer systems are feasible only for very light systems. For heavier atoms or ions with more than a few electrons, restrictions have to be imposed on the multiconfiguration expansions. We present methods and tools, which are designed to extend the numerical calculations in a controlled manner, where multiconfiguration expansions account for all leading electron correlation effects. We show examples of applications of the GRASP code to calculations of hyperfine structure constants, but the code may be used for calculations of arbitrary bound-state atomic properties. In recent years it has been applied to calculations of atomic and ionic spectra (transition energies and rates), to determinations of nuclear electromagnetic moments, as well as to calculations related to interactions of bound electrons with nuclear electromagnetic moments leading to violations of discrete symmetries.

  14. AtomPy: an open atomic-data curation environment (United States)

    Bautista, Manuel; Mendoza, Claudio; Boswell, Josiah S; Ajoku, Chukwuemeka


    We present a cloud-computing environment for atomic data curation, networking among atomic data providers and users, teaching-and-learning, and interfacing with spectral modeling software. The system is based on Google-Drive Sheets, Pandas (Python Data Analysis Library) DataFrames, and IPython Notebooks for open community-driven curation of atomic data for scientific and technological applications. The atomic model for each ionic species is contained in a multi-sheet Google-Drive workbook, where the atomic parameters from all known public sources are progressively stored. Metadata (provenance, community discussion, etc.) accompanying every entry in the database are stored through Notebooks. Education tools on the physics of atomic processes as well as their relevance to plasma and spectral modeling are based on IPython Notebooks that integrate written material, images, videos, and active computer-tool workflows. Data processing workflows and collaborative software developments are encouraged and managed through the GitHub social network. Relevant issues this platform intends to address are: (i) data quality by allowing open access to both data producers and users in order to attain completeness, accuracy, consistency, provenance and currentness; (ii) comparisons of different datasets to facilitate accuracy assessment; (iii) downloading to local data structures (i.e. Pandas DataFrames) for further manipulation and analysis by prospective users; and (iv) data preservation by avoiding the discard of outdated sets.

  15. Dimer-atom-atom recombination in the universal four-boson system


    Deltuva, A.


    The dimer-atom-atom recombination process in the system of four identical bosons with resonant interactions is studied. The description uses the exact Alt, Grassberger and Sandhas equations for the four-particle transition operators that are solved in the momentum-space framework. The dimer-dimer and atom-trimer channel contributions to the ultracold dimer-atom-atom recombination rate are calculated. The dimer-atom-atom recombination rate greatly exceeds the three-atom recombination rate.

  16. Hearing preservation outcomes with different cochlear implant electrodes: Nucleus® Hybrid™-L24 and Nucleus Freedom™ CI422. (United States)

    Jurawitz, Marie-Charlot; Büchner, Andreas; Harpel, Theo; Schüssler, Mark; Majdani, Omid; Lesinski-Schiedat, Anke; Lenarz, Thomas


    In recent years, it has been possible to preserve hearing after cochlear implantation in patients with significant amounts of low-frequency residual hearing. Due to the dimensions and characteristics of the cochlear implants (CIs) Nucleus® Hybrid™-L24 and Nucleus Freedom™ CI422, both can be used to preserve residual hearing. The aim was to investigate the degree and progression of hearing preservation over a longitudinal postoperative period in a large consecutive cohort of implanted patients with preoperative residual hearing who received either the Nucleus Hybrid-L24 or the Nucleus Freedom CI422 implant. The intention was to examine potential characteristics and triggers of resulting postoperative hearing loss which may support a differentiation of CI candidacy criteria for a certain implant type. A retrospective data analysis of patient files on consecutively implanted subjects presenting with a severe-to-profound sensorineural hearing loss at frequencies>1,500 Hz and substantial residual hearing at frequencies≤1,500 Hz, implanted with a Nucleus Hybrid-L24 (n=97) or a CI422 implant (n=100), was undertaken. A single-subject repeated-measure design comparing the mean threshold shift for pure-tone thresholds under headphones up to 24 months after implantation was used. Hearing preservation is observed in the majority of subjects with either implant (250-1,500 Hz frequency range). Hybrid-L24 patients exhibited a median hearing loss of 10 dB at initial fitting (n=97) and of 15 dB after 24 months (n=51). A 14.4-dB decrease in median hearing loss at initial fitting (n=100) and a 30-dB decrease after 24 months (n=28) was observed with the CI422 electrode. At initial fitting, 54.6% of the Hybrid-L24 (n=97) and 49.0% of the CI422 (n=100) subjects showed a mean threshold shifthearing was preserved for the majority of implanted patients with the Hybrid-L24 and the CI422 implant. Patients implanted with the Hybrid-L24 implant demonstrate greater stability and less

  17. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A


    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  18. PubChem atom environments. (United States)

    Hähnke, Volker D; Bolton, Evan E; Bryant, Stephen H


    Atom environments and fragments find wide-spread use in chemical information and cheminformatics. They are the basis of prediction models, an integral part in similarity searching, and employed in structure search techniques. Most of these methods were developed and evaluated on the relatively small sets of chemical structures available at the time. An analysis of fragment distributions representative of most known chemical structures was published in the 1970s using the Chemical Abstracts Service data system. More recently, advances in automated synthesis of chemicals allow millions of chemicals to be synthesized by a single organization. In addition, open chemical databases are readily available containing tens of millions of chemical structures from a multitude of data sources, including chemical vendors, patents, and the scientific literature, making it possible for scientists to readily access most known chemical structures. With this availability of information, one can now address interesting questions, such as: what chemical fragments are known today? How do these fragments compare to earlier studies? How unique are chemical fragments found in chemical structures? For our analysis, after hydrogen suppression, atoms were characterized by atomic number, formal charge, implicit hydrogen count, explicit degree (number of neighbors), valence (bond order sum), and aromaticity. Bonds were differentiated as single, double, triple or aromatic bonds. Atom environments were created in a circular manner focused on a central atom with radii from 0 (atom types) up to 3 (representative of ECFP_6 fragments). In total, combining atom types and atom environments that include up to three spheres of nearest neighbors, our investigation identified 28,462,319 unique fragments in the 46 million structures found in the PubChem Compound database as of January 2013. We could identify several factors inflating the number of environments involving transition metals, with many

  19. Atomic layer deposition for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Hwang, Cheol Seong


    This edited volume discusses atomic layer deposition (ALD) for all modern semiconductor devices, moving from the basic chemistry of ALD and modeling of ALD processes to sections on ALD for memories, logic devices, and machines.

  20. Rydberg atoms: Two to tango (United States)

    Löw, Robert


    The old adage that you can't tango alone is certainly true for humans. But recent experiments show that it may also be applicable to Rydberg atoms, which keep a beat through the coherent exchange of energy.

  1. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G


    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  2. Chain formation of metal atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahn, Sune Rastad; Jacobsen, Karsten Wedel


    The possibility of formation of single-atomic chains by manipulation of nanocontacts is studied for a selection of metals (Ni, Pd, Pt, Cu, Ag, Au). Molecular dynamics simulations show that the tendency for chain formation is strongest for Au and Pt. Density functional theory calculations indicate...... that the metals which form chains exhibit pronounced many-atom interactions with strong bonding in low coordinated systems....

  3. Copper atomic-scale transistors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqing Xie


    Full Text Available We investigated copper as a working material for metallic atomic-scale transistors and confirmed that copper atomic-scale transistors can be fabricated and operated electrochemically in a copper electrolyte (CuSO4 + H2SO4 in bi-distilled water under ambient conditions with three microelectrodes (source, drain and gate. The electrochemical switching-on potential of the atomic-scale transistor is below 350 mV, and the switching-off potential is between 0 and −170 mV. The switching-on current is above 1 μA, which is compatible with semiconductor transistor devices. Both sign and amplitude of the voltage applied across the source and drain electrodes (Ubias influence the switching rate of the transistor and the copper deposition on the electrodes, and correspondingly shift the electrochemical operation potential. The copper atomic-scale transistors can be switched using a function generator without a computer-controlled feedback switching mechanism. The copper atomic-scale transistors, with only one or two atoms at the narrowest constriction, were realized to switch between 0 and 1G0 (G0 = 2e2/h; with e being the electron charge, and h being Planck’s constant or 2G0 by the function generator. The switching rate can reach up to 10 Hz. The copper atomic-scale transistor demonstrates volatile/non-volatile dual functionalities. Such an optimal merging of the logic with memory may open a perspective for processor-in-memory and logic-in-memory architectures, using copper as an alternative working material besides silver for fully metallic atomic-scale transistors.

  4. Systematics of ground state multiplets of atomic nuclei in the delta-interaction approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imasheva, L. T.; Ishkhanov, B. S.; Stepanov, M. E., E-mail: [Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics (Russian Federation); Tretyakova, T. Yu. [Moscow State University, Skobeltsyn Institute of Nuclear Physics (Russian Federation)


    Pairing forces between nucleons in an atomic nucleus strongly influence its structure. One of the manifestations of pair interaction is the ground state multiplet (GSM) formation in the spectrum of low-lying excited states of even–even nuclei. The value of GSM splitting is determined by the value of pair interaction of nucleons; for each isotope, it can be estimated on the basis of experimental nuclear masses. The quality of this estimate is characterized by the degree of reproduction of GSM levels in the nucleus. The GSM systematics in even–even nuclei with a pair of identical nucleons in addition to the filled nuclear core is considered on the basis of delta interaction.

  5. High precision X-ray spectroscopy in hydrogen-like fermionic and bosonic atomic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borchert, G.L.; Anagnostopoulos, D.; Augsburger, M.; Belmiloud, D.; Castelli, C.; Chatellard, D.; Daum, M.; Egger, J.P.; El-Khoury, P.; Elble, M.; Frosch, R.; Gorke, H.; Gotta, D.; Hauser, P.; Indelicato, P.; Kirch, K.; Lenz, S.; Nelms, N.; Rashid, K.; Schult, O.W.B. (and others)


    Some time after its formation an exotic atom may be considered a hydrogen-like system consisting of a nucleus and an exotic particle in a bound state. In this situation it is an ideal tool to study cascade properties, while for the innermost orbits it can be used to probe the interaction with the nucleus. From an extended series of experiments using high resolution X-ray spectroscopy for both aspects typical examples are reported and preliminary results are given: 1. To determine the complex scattering length in p-barH the 3D{yields}2P hyperfine transitions have been measured. 2. To determine the pion mass the 5 {yields} 4 transitions in {pi}{sup 14}N have been studied. In all cases a major contribution to the uncertainty originates from the calibration. Therefore a new method is proposed that will establish a universal set of high precision calibration lines for pionic, muonic and electronic systems.

  6. Rydberg Atom Quantum Hybrid Systems (United States)

    Chao, Yuanxi; Sheng, Jiteng; Kumar, Santosh; Bigelow, Nicholas P.; Shaffer, James P.


    We report on our recent experimental and theoretical work with Rydberg atom-cavity and Rydberg atom-surface hybrid quantum systems. In the atom-cavity system, Rb contained in a dipole trap is transported into a high-finesse optical cavity using a focus-tunable lens. Cavity assisted Rydberg EIT is observed in the cavity transmission and used to characterize the electric fields in the cavity. The electric fields are attributed to surface adsorbates adhering to the cavity mirrors. We also investigate the coupling of a Rydberg atom ensemble to surface phonon polaritons (SPhPs) propagating on piezoelectric superlattices made from thin film ferroelectric materials. Strong coupling between the atomic and surface excitations can be achieved, due to the large Rydberg transition dipole moments and the local field enhancement of the SPhP modes. The system has many advantages for information transport since the atoms need only be placed at distances on the order of mms from the surface and the SPhPs do not couple to free space electro-magnetic fields. Experimental progress will be discussed, including the fabrication of submicron-period periodically poled Lithium Niobate using the direct e-beam writing technique. This work is supported by AFOSR.

  7. Neurochemical organization of the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis in the human. (United States)

    Baizer, Joan S; Baker, James F; Haas, Kristin; Lima, Raquel


    We have characterized the neurochemical organization of a small brainstem nucleus in the human brain, the nucleus paramedianus dorsalis (PMD). PMD is located adjacent and medial to the nucleus prepositus hypoglossi (PH) in the dorsal medulla and is distinguished by the pattern of immunoreactivity of cells and fibers to several markers including calcium-binding proteins, a synthetic enzyme for nitric oxide (neuronal nitric oxide synthase, nNOS) and a nonphosphorylated neurofilament protein (antibody SMI-32). In transverse sections, PMD is oval with its long axis aligned with the dorsal border of the brainstem. We identified PMD in eight human brainstems, but found some variability both in its cross-sectional area and in its A-P extent among cases. It includes calretinin immunoreactive large cells with oval or polygonal cell bodies. Cells in PMD are not immunoreactive for either calbindin or parvalbumin, but a few fibers immunoreactive to each protein are found within its central region. Cells in PMD are also immunoreactive to nNOS, and immunoreactivity to a neurofilament protein shows many labeled cells and fibers. No similar region is identified in atlases of the cat, mouse, rat or monkey brain, nor does immunoreactivity to any of the markers that delineate it in the human reveal a comparable region in those species. The territory that PMD occupies is included in PH in other species. Since anatomical and physiological data in animals suggest that PH may have multiple subregions, we suggest that the PMD in human may be a further differentiation of PH and may have functions related to the vestibular control of eye movements.

  8. Separable representation of multichannel nucleon-nucleus optical potentials (United States)

    Hlophe, L.; Elster, Ch.


    Background: One important ingredient for many applications of nuclear physics to astrophysics, nuclear energy, and stockpile stewardship is cross sections for reactions of neutrons with rare isotopes. Since direct measurements are often not feasible, indirect methods, e.g., (d ,p ) reactions, should be used. Those (d ,p ) reactions may be viewed as three-body reactions and described with Faddeev techniques. Purpose: Faddeev equations in momentum space have a long tradition of utilizing separable interactions in order to arrive at sets of coupled integral equations in one variable. Optical potentials representing the effective interactions in the neutron (proton) nucleus subsystem are usually non-Hermitian as well as energy dependent. Including excitations of the nucleus in the calculation requires a multichannel optical potential. The purpose of this paper is to introduce a separable, energy-dependent multichannel representation of complex, energy-dependent optical potentials that contain excitations of the nucleus and that fulfill reciprocity exactly. Methods: Momentum space Lippmann-Schwinger integral equations are solved with standard techniques to obtain the form factors for the separable representation. Results: Starting from energy-dependent multichannel optical potentials for neutron and proton scattering from 12C, separable representations based on a generalization of the Ernst-Shakin-Thaler (EST) scheme are constructed which fulfill reciprocity exactly. Applications to n +12C and p +12C scattering are investigated for energies from 0 to 50 MeV. Conclusions: We find that the energy-dependent separable representation of complex, energy-dependent phenomenological multichannel optical potentials describes scattering data with the same quality as the original potential.

  9. Neutrino–nucleus cross sections for oscillation experiments (United States)

    Katori, Teppei; Martini, Marco


    Neutrino oscillations physics is entering an era of high precision. In this context, accelerator-based neutrino experiments need a reduction in systematic errors to the level of a few percent. Today, one of the most important sources of systematic errors are neutrino–nucleus cross sections which, in the energy region of hundreds of MeV to a few GeV, are known to a precision not exceeding 20%. In this article we review the present experimental and theoretical knowledge of neutrino–nucleus interaction physics. After introducing neutrino-oscillation physics and accelerator-based neutrino experiments, we give an overview of general aspects of neutrino–nucleus cross sections, from both the theoretical and experimental point of view. Then, we focus on these cross sections in different reaction channels. We start with the quasi-elastic and quasi-elastic-like cross section, placing a special emphasis on the multinucleon emission channel, which has attracted a lot of attention in the last few years. We review the main aspects of the different microscopic models for this channel by discussing analogies and the differences among them. The discussion is always driven by a comparison with the experimental data. We then consider the one-pion production channel where agreement between data and theory remains highly unsatisfactory. We describe how to interpret pion data, and then analyze, in particular, the puzzle related to the difficulty of theoretical models and Monte Carlo to simultaneously describe MiniBooNE and MINERvA experimental results. Inclusive cross sections are also discussed, as well as the comparison between the {ν }μ and {ν }e cross sections, relevant for the charge-conjugation-parity violation experiments. The impact of nuclear effects on the reconstruction of neutrino energy and on the determination of the neutrino-oscillation parameters is also reviewed. Finally, we look to the future by discussing projects and efforts in relation to future detectors

  10. Identification of penile inputs to the rat gracile nucleus. (United States)

    Cothron, Kyle J; Massey, James M; Onifer, Stephen M; Hubscher, Charles H


    Neurons in the medullary reticular formation (MRF) of the rat receive a vast array of urogenital inputs. Using select acute and chronic spinal cord lesions to identify the location of the ascending neural circuitries providing either direct or indirect inputs to MRF from the penis, our previous studies demonstrated that the dorsal columns and dorsal half of the lateral funiculus convey low- and high-threshold inputs, respectively. In the present study, the gracile nucleus was targeted as one of the likely sources of low-threshold information from the penis to MRF. Both electrophysiological recordings and neuroanatomical tracing [injection of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) into a dorsal nerve of the penis] were used. After discrimination of a single neuron responding to penile stimulation, testing for somatovisceral convergence was done (mechanical stimulation of the distal colon and the skin over the entire hindquarters). In 12 rats, a limited number of neurons (43 in total) responded to penile stimulation. Many of these neurons also responded to scrotal stimulation (53.5%, dorsal and/or ventral scrotum) and/or prepuce stimulation (46.5%). Histological reconstruction of the electrode tracks showed that the majority of neurons responding to penile stimulation were located ventrally within the medial one-third of the gracile nucleus surrounding obex. This location corresponded to sparse innervation by CTB-immunoreactive primary afferent terminals. These results indicate that neurons in the gracile nucleus are likely part of the pathway that provides low-threshold penile inputs to MRF, a region known to play an important role in mating processes.

  11. Cloud condensation nucleus behaviour of selected dicarboxylic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mia Frosch Mogensbæk; Nielsen, Ole Faurskov; Bilde, Merete

    Due to relatively high water solubilities and low volatilities under ambient conditions, dicarboxylic acids have a high potential for forming aerosols, i.e. act as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Futhermore, dicarboxylic acids have been detected in atmospheric aerosols on many different sites (e.......g. Anttila et al, 2005). Particles composed of two such compounds, namely glutaric acid and pimelic acid, have been studied using a cloud condensation nucleus counter (University of Wyoming, Model 100B). The behaviour of pimelic acid seems to agree quite well with the predictions of Köhler theory. This...

  12. First allowed bandcrossing in neutron deficient nucleus {sup 141}Tb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medina, N.H.; Oliveira, J.R.B.; Cybulska, E.W.; Rao, M.N.; Ribas, R.V.; Rizzutto, M.A.; Seale, W.A. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Inst. de Fisica; Espinoza-Quinones, F.R. [Universidade Estadual do Oeste do Parana, Toledo, PR (Brazil). Centro de Engenharia e Ciencias Exatas; Bazzacco, D.; Brandolini, F.; Lunardi, S.; Petrache, C.M.; Podolyak, Zs.; Rossi-Alvarez, C.; Soramel, F.; Ur, C.A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padova (Italy); Cardona, M.A.; Angelis, G. de; Napoli, D.R.; Spolaore, P.; Gadea, A.; Acua, D. de; Poli, M. de; Farnea, E.; Foltescu, D.; Ionescu-Bujor, M.; Iordachescu, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali


    The neutron deficient {sup 141}Tb nucleus has been studied with the {sup 92}Mo ({sup 54}Fe, {alpha}-) reaction at 240-MeV incident energy and the multidetector array GASP. For the yrast {pi}h{sub 11/2} decoupled band, excited states up to 6.7 MeV and spin up to 47=2{sup -} have been observed. This band presents an upbend at rotational frequency of Plank constant{omega}=0:38 MeV due to the alignment of h{sub 11}/{sub 2} protons. The results are discussed in terms of the Cranking model. (author)

  13. Neutrino-nucleus interactions and the determination of oscillation parameters (United States)

    Benhar, Omar; Huber, Patrick; Mariani, Camillo; Meloni, Davide


    We review the status and prospects of theoretical studies of neutrino-nucleus interactions, and discuss the influence of the treatment of nuclear effects on the determination of oscillation parameters. The models developed to describe the variety of reaction mechanisms contributing to the nuclear cross sections are analyzed, with emphasis placed on their capability to explain the large body of available electron scattering data. The impact of the uncertainties associated with the description of nuclear structure and dynamics on the determination of oscillation parameters is illustrated through examples, and possible avenues towards a better understanding of the signals detected by accelerator-based experiments are outlined.

  14. Atom-by-Atom Construction of a Quantum Device. (United States)

    Petta, Jason R


    Scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) are conventionally used to probe surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent advances in STM include tunneling from spin-polarized and superconducting tips, time-domain spectroscopy, and the fabrication of atomically precise Si nanoelectronics. In this issue of ACS Nano, Tettamanzi et al. probe a single-atom transistor in silicon, fabricated using the precision of a STM, at microwave frequencies. While previous studies have probed such devices in the MHz regime, Tettamanzi et al. probe a STM-fabricated device at GHz frequencies, which enables excited-state spectroscopy and measurements of the excited-state lifetime. The success of this experiment will enable future work on quantum control, where the wave function must be controlled on a time scale that is much shorter than the decoherence time. We review two major approaches that are being pursued to develop spin-based quantum computers and highlight some recent progress in the atom-by-atom fabrication of donor-based devices in silicon. Recent advances in STM lithography may enable practical bottom-up construction of large-scale quantum devices.

  15. Red nucleus and rubrospinal tract disorganization in the absence of Pou4f1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesus E. eMartinez-Lopez


    Full Text Available The red nucleus is a neuronal population that plays an important role in forelimb motor control and locomotion. Histologically it is subdivided into two subpopulations, the parvocellular red nucleus located in the diencephalon and the magnocellular red nucleus in the mesencephalon. The red nucleus integrates signals from motor cortex and cerebellum and projects to spinal cord interneurons and motor neurons through the rubrospinal tract. Pou4f1 is a transcription factor highly expressed in this nucleus that has been related to its specification. Here we profoundly analyzed consequences of Pou4f1 loss-of-function in development, maturation and axonal projection of the red nucleus. Surprisingly, red nucleus neurons are specified and maintained in the mutant, no cell death was detected. Nevertheless, the nucleus appeared disorganized with a strong delay in radial migration and with a wider neuronal distribution; the neurons did not form a compacted population as they do in controls, Robo1 and Slit2 were miss-expressed. Cplx1 and Npas1, expressed in the red nucleus, are transcription factors involved in neurotransmitter release, neuronal maturation and motor function processes among others. In our mutant mice, both transcription factors are lost, suggesting an abnormal maturation of the red nucleus. The resulting altered nucleus occupied a wider territory. Finally, we examined rubrospinal tract development and found that the red nucleus neurons were able to project to the spinal cord but their axons appeared defasciculated. These data suggest that Pou4f1 is necessary for the maturation of red nucleus neurons but not for their specification and maintenance.

  16. On the error in the nucleus-centered multipolar expansion of molecular electron density and its topology: A direct-space computational study (United States)

    Michael, J. Robert; Koritsanszky, Tibor


    The convergence of nucleus-centered multipolar expansion of the quantum-chemical electron density (QC-ED), gradient, and Laplacian is investigated in terms of numerical radial functions derived by projecting stockholder atoms onto real spherical harmonics at each center. The partial sums of this exact one-center expansion are compared with the corresponding Hansen-Coppens pseudoatom (HC-PA) formalism [Hansen, N. K. and Coppens, P., "Testing aspherical atom refinements on small-molecule data sets," Acta Crystallogr., Sect. A 34, 909-921 (1978)] commonly utilized in experimental electron density studies. It is found that the latter model, due to its inadequate radial part, lacks pointwise convergence and fails to reproduce the local topology of the target QC-ED even at a high-order expansion. The significance of the quantitative agreement often found between HC-PA-based (quadrupolar-level) experimental and extended-basis QC-EDs can thus be challenged.

  17. Preformed template fluctuations promote fibril formation: Insights from lattice and all-atom models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kouza, Maksim, E-mail:; Kolinski, Andrzej [Faculty of Chemistry, University of Warsaw, ul. Pasteura 1, 02-093 Warszaw (Poland); Co, Nguyen Truong [Department of Physics, Institute of Technology, National University of HCM City, 268 Ly Thuong Kiet Street, District 10, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Institute for Computational Science and Technology, Quang Trung Software City, Tan Chanh Hiep Ward, District 12, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam); Nguyen, Phuong H. [Laboratoire de Biochimie Theorique, UPR 9080 CNRS, IBPC, Universite Paris 7, 13 rue Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Li, Mai Suan, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Al. Lotnikow 32/46, 02-668 Warsaw (Poland)


    Fibril formation resulting from protein misfolding and aggregation is a hallmark of several neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Despite the fact that the fibril formation process is very slow and thus poses a significant challenge for theoretical and experimental studies, a number of alternative pictures of molecular mechanisms of amyloid fibril formation have been recently proposed. What seems to be common for the majority of the proposed models is that fibril elongation involves the formation of pre-nucleus seeds prior to the creation of a critical nucleus. Once the size of the pre-nucleus seed reaches the critical nucleus size, its thermal fluctuations are expected to be small and the resulting nucleus provides a template for sequential (one-by-one) accommodation of added monomers. The effect of template fluctuations on fibril formation rates has not been explored either experimentally or theoretically so far. In this paper, we make the first attempt at solving this problem by two sets of simulations. To mimic small template fluctuations, in one set, monomers of the preformed template are kept fixed, while in the other set they are allowed to fluctuate. The kinetics of addition of a new peptide onto the template is explored using all-atom simulations with explicit water and the GROMOS96 43a1 force field and simple lattice models. Our result demonstrates that preformed template fluctuations can modulate protein aggregation rates and pathways. The association of a nascent monomer with the template obeys the kinetics partitioning mechanism where the intermediate state occurs in a fraction of routes to the protofibril. It was shown that template immobility greatly increases the time of incorporating a new peptide into the preformed template compared to the fluctuating template case. This observation has also been confirmed by simulation using lattice models and may be invoked to understand the role of template fluctuations in

  18. Towards improved measurements of parity violation in atomic ytterbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antypas, D., E-mail: [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany); Fabricant, A.; Bougas, L. [Johannes Gutenberg-Universität Mainz, Institut für Physik (Germany); Tsigutkin, K. [ASML (Netherlands); Budker, D. [Helmholtz-Institut Mainz (Germany)


    We report on progress towards performing precision measurements of parity violation in Yb, in which the theoretical prediction for a strong weak-interaction-induced effect in the 6s{sup 2} {sup 1}S{sub 0}→ 5d6s{sup 3}D{sub 1} optical transition at 408 nm has already been confirmed, with a measurement of the effect at the ≈10 % level of accuracy. With a new atomic-beam apparatus offering enhanced sensitivity, we are aiming at precisely determining the parity violation observable in Yb, which will allow us to probe the distributions of neutrons in different isotopes, investigate physics beyond the Standard Model, as well as to study intra-nucleus weak interactions, through an observation of the anapole moment of Yb nuclei with nonzero spin. We present the experimental principle employed to probe atomic parity violation, describe our new apparatus, and discuss the attained experimental sensitivity as well as the methods for characterizing systematics in these measurements.

  19. Muonic atoms in super-intense laser fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahbaz, Atif


    Nuclear effects in hydrogenlike muonic atoms exposed to intense high-frequency laser fields have been studied. Systems of low nuclear charge number are considered where a nonrelativistic description applies. By comparing the radiative response for different isotopes we demonstrate characteristic signatures of the finite nuclear mass, size and shape in the high-harmonic spectra. Cutoff energies in the MeV domain can be achieved, offering prospects for the generation of ultrashort coherent {gamma}-ray pulses. Also, the nucleus can be excited while the laser-driven muon moves periodically across it. The nuclear transition is caused by the time-dependent Coulomb field of the oscillating charge density of the bound muon. A closed-form analytical expression for electric multipole transitions is derived within a fully quantum mechanical approach and applied to various isotopes. The excitation probabilities are in general very small. We compare the process with other nuclear excitation mechanisms through coupling with atomic shells and discuss the prospects to observe it in experiment. (orig.)

  20. Fully variational average atom model with ion-ion correlations. (United States)

    Starrett, C E; Saumon, D


    An average atom model for dense ionized fluids that includes ion correlations is presented. The model assumes spherical symmetry and is based on density functional theory, the integral equations for uniform fluids, and a variational principle applied to the grand potential. Starting from density functional theory for a mixture of classical ions and quantum mechanical electrons, an approximate grand potential is developed, with an external field being created by a central nucleus fixed at the origin. Minimization of this grand potential with respect to electron and ion densities is carried out, resulting in equations for effective interaction potentials. A third condition resulting from minimizing the grand potential with respect to the average ion charge determines the noninteracting electron chemical potential. This system is coupled to a system of point ions and electrons with an ion fixed at the origin, and a closed set of equations is obtained. Solution of these equations results in a self-consistent electronic and ionic structure for the plasma as well as the average ionization, which is continuous as a function of temperature and density. Other average atom models are recovered by application of simplifying assumptions.

  1. Finding Hierarchical and Overlapping Dense Subgraphs using Nucleus Decompositions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seshadhri, Comandur [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States); Pinar, Ali [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sariyuce, Ahmet Erdem [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Catalyurek, Umit [The Ohio State Univ., Columbus, OH (United States)


    Finding dense substructures in a graph is a fundamental graph mining operation, with applications in bioinformatics, social networks, and visualization to name a few. Yet most standard formulations of this problem (like clique, quasiclique, k-densest subgraph) are NP-hard. Furthermore, the goal is rarely to nd the \\true optimum", but to identify many (if not all) dense substructures, understand their distribution in the graph, and ideally determine a hierarchical structure among them. Current dense subgraph nding algorithms usually optimize some objective, and only nd a few such subgraphs without providing any hierarchy. It is also not clear how to account for overlaps in dense substructures. We de ne the nucleus decomposition of a graph, which represents the graph as a forest of nuclei. Each nucleus is a subgraph where smaller cliques are present in many larger cliques. The forest of nuclei is a hierarchy by containment, where the edge density increases as we proceed towards leaf nuclei. Sibling nuclei can have limited intersections, which allows for discovery of overlapping dense subgraphs. With the right parameters, the nuclear decomposition generalizes the classic notions of k-cores and k-trusses. We give provable e cient algorithms for nuclear decompositions, and empirically evaluate their behavior in a variety of real graphs. The tree of nuclei consistently gives a global, hierarchical snapshot of dense substructures, and outputs dense subgraphs of higher quality than other state-of-theart solutions. Our algorithm can process graphs with tens of millions of edges in less than an hour.

  2. Neutrino-nucleus reactions based on recent structure studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Toshio [Department of Physics and Graduate School of Integrated Basic Sciences, College of Humanities and Sciences, Nihon University, Sakurajosui 3-25-40, Setagaya-ku, Tokyo 156-8550 (Japan); National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588 (Japan)


    Neutrino-nucleus reactions are studied with the use of new shell model Hamiltonians, which have proper tensor components in the interactions and prove to be successful in the description of Gamow-Teller (GT) strengths in nuclei. The new Hamiltonians are applied to obtain new neutrino-nucleus reaction cross sections in {sup 12}C, {sup 13}C, {sup 56}Fe and {sup 56}Ni induced by solar and supernova neutrinos. The element synthesis by neutrino processes in supernova explosions is discussed with the new cross sections. The enhancement of the production yields of {sup 7}Li, {sup 11}B and {sup 55}Mn is obtained while fragmented GT strength in {sup 56}Ni with two-peak structure is found to result in smaller e-capture rates at stellar environments. The monopole-based universal interaction with tensor force of π+ρ meson exchanges is used to evaluate GT strength in {sup 40}Ar and ν-induced reactions on {sup 40}Ar. It is found to reproduce well the experimental GT strength in {sup 40}Ar.

  3. Axonal branching patterns of nucleus accumbens neurons in the rat. (United States)

    Tripathi, Anushree; Prensa, Lucía; Cebrián, Carolina; Mengual, Elisa


    The patterns of axonal collateralization of nucleus accumbens (Acb) projection neurons were investigated in the rat by means of single-axon tracing techniques using the anterograde tracer biotinylated dextran amine. Seventy-three axons were fully traced, originating from either the core (AcbC) or shell (AcbSh) compartment, as assessed by differential calbindin D28k-immunoreactivity. Axons from AcbC and AcbSh showed a substantial segregation in their targets; target areas were either exclusively or preferentially innervated from AcbC or AcbSh. Axon collaterals in the subthalamic nucleus were found at higher than expected frequencies; moreover, these originated exclusively in the dorsal AcbC. Intercompartmental collaterals were observed from ventral AcbC axons into AcbSh, and likewise, interconnections at pallidal and mesencephalic levels were also observed, although mostly from AcbC axons toward AcbSh targets, possibly supporting crosstalk between the two subcircuits at several levels. Cell somata giving rise to short-range accumbal axons, projecting to the ventral pallidum (VP), were spatially intermingled with others, giving rise to long-range axons that innervated VP and more caudal targets. This anatomical organization parallels that of the dorsal striatum and provides the basis for possible dual direct and indirect actions from a single axon on either individual or small sets of neurons. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Commissural neurons in the rat ventral cochlear nucleus. (United States)

    Doucet, John R; Lenihan, Nicole M; May, Bradford J


    Commissural neurons connect the cochlear nucleus complexes of both ears. Previous studies have suggested that the neurons may be separated into two anatomical subtypes on the basis of percent apposition (PA); that is, the percentage of the soma apposed by synaptic terminals. The present study combined tract tracing with synaptic immunolabeling to compare the soma area, relative number, and location of Type I (low PA) and Type II (high PA) commissural neurons in the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of rats. Confocal microscopic analysis revealed that 261 of 377 (69%) commissural neurons have medium-sized somata with Type I axosomatic innervation. The commissural neurons also showed distinct topographical distributions. The majority of Type I neurons were located in the small cell cap of the VCN, which serves as a nexus for regulatory pathways within the auditory brainstem. Most Type II neurons were found in the magnocellular core. This anatomical dichotomy should broaden current views on the function of the commissural pathway that stress the fast inhibitory interactions generated by Type II neurons. The more prevalent Type I neurons may underlie slow regulatory influences that enhance binaural processing or the recovery of function after injury.

  5. Monte Carlo Simulation for Statistical Decay of Compound Nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chadwick M.B.


    Full Text Available We perform Monte Carlo simulations for neutron and γ-ray emissions from a compound nucleus based on the Hauser-Feshbach statistical theory. This Monte Carlo Hauser-Feshbach (MCHF method calculation, which gives us correlated information between emitted particles and γ-rays. It will be a powerful tool in many applications, as nuclear reactions can be probed in a more microscopic way. We have been developing the MCHF code, CGM, which solves the Hauser-Feshbach theory with the Monte Carlo method. The code includes all the standard models that used in a standard Hauser-Feshbach code, namely the particle transmission generator, the level density module, interface to the discrete level database, and so on. CGM can emit multiple neutrons, as long as the excitation energy of the compound nucleus is larger than the neutron separation energy. The γ-ray competition is always included at each compound decay stage, and the angular momentum and parity are conserved. Some calculations for a fission fragment 140Xe are shown as examples of the MCHF method, and the correlation between the neutron and γ-ray is discussed.

  6. Gas inflows towards the nucleus of NGC 1358 (United States)

    Schnorr-Müller, Allan; Storchi-Bergmann, Thaisa; Nagar, Neil M.; Robinson, Andrew; Lena, Davide


    We use optical spectra from the inner 1.8 × 2.5 kpc2 of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1358, obtained with the GMOS integral field spectrograph on the Gemini South telescope at a spatial resolution of ≈ 165 pc, to assess the feeding and feedback processes in this nearby active galaxy. Five gaseous kinematical components are observed in the emission line profiles. One of the components is present in the entire field-of-view and we interpret it as due to gas rotating in the disc of the galaxy. Three of the remaining components we interpret as associated with active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback: a compact unresolved outflow in the inner 1 arcsec and two gas clouds observed at opposite sides of the nucleus, which we propose have been ejected in a previous AGN burst. The disc component velocity field is strongly disturbed by a large-scale bar. The subtraction of a velocity model combining both rotation and bar flows reveals three kinematic nuclear spiral arms: two in inflow and one in outflow. We estimate the mass inflow rate in the inner 180 pc obtaining \\dot{M}_{in} ≈ 1.5 × 10-2 M⊙ yr-1, about 160 times larger than the accretion rate necessary to power this AGN.

  7. Pion-nucleus scattering at around the DELTA (1232) resonance

    CERN Document Server

    Ahmed, H S; Rahman, M A; Rahman, S N


    The pion-nucleus scattering around 200 MeV and just above 1200 MeV is dominated by strong, broad DELTA (3,3) and weak resonances in the pi sup+-N interaction. The interaction to a first approximation can be described as diffraction process. Since it is well known that the strength of the pi sup + N and pi sup - N interactions are quite different from each other at the resonances, the analyses of differential cross section for pi sup + N and pi sup - N elastic scattering data in the region of low-lying pion-nucleus resonances will be a good test of different strengths. In the present work we analyze pions scattering from nuclei sup 9 Be, sup 2 sup 8 Si, sup 5 sup 8 Ni, sup 8 sup 9 Y and sup 2 sup 0 sup 8 Pb at incident pion energies between 50 and 291 MeV within the framework of the three parameter version of the Strong Absorption Model of Frahn and Venter. All the oscillations in the elastic scattering experimental data and for the experimental angular distribution leading to 2 sup + and 3 sup - collective st...

  8. Calcium signaling in synapse-to-nucleus communication. (United States)

    Hagenston, Anna M; Bading, Hilmar


    Changes in the intracellular concentration of calcium ions in neurons are involved in neurite growth, development, and remodeling, regulation of neuronal excitability, increases and decreases in the strength of synaptic connections, and the activation of survival and programmed cell death pathways. An important aspect of the signals that trigger these processes is that they are frequently initiated in the form of glutamatergic neurotransmission within dendritic trees, while their completion involves specific changes in the patterns of genes expressed within neuronal nuclei. Accordingly, two prominent aims of research concerned with calcium signaling in neurons are determination of the mechanisms governing information conveyance between synapse and nucleus, and discovery of the rules dictating translation of specific patterns of inputs into appropriate and specific transcriptional responses. In this article, we present an overview of the avenues by which glutamatergic excitation of dendrites may be communicated to the neuronal nucleus and the primary calcium-dependent signaling pathways by which synaptic activity can invoke changes in neuronal gene expression programs.

  9. Cajal's contribution to the knowledge of the neuronal cell nucleus. (United States)

    Lafarga, Miguel; Casafont, Iñigo; Bengoechea, Rocio; Tapia, Olga; Berciano, Maria T


    In 1906, the Spanish neurobiologist Santiago Ramón y Cajal was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in recognition of his work on the structure of neurons and their connections. Cajal is commonly regarded as the father of modern neuroscience. What is less well known is that Cajal also had a great interest in intracellular neuronal structures and developed the reduced silver nitrate method for the study of neurofibrils (neurofilaments) and nuclear subcompartments. It was in 1903 that Cajal discovered the "accessory body" ("Cajal body") and seven years later, published an article on the organization of the cell nucleus in mammalian neurons that represents a masterpiece of nuclear structure at the light microscopy level. In addition to the accessory body, it includes the analysis of several nuclear components currently recognized as fibrillar centers of the nucleolus, nuclear speckles of splicing factors, transcription foci, nuclear matrix, and the double nuclear membrane. The aim of this article is to revisit Cajal's contributions to the knowledge of the neuronal nucleus in light of our current understanding of nuclear structure and function.

  10. Inositide-specific phospholipase C signalling in the nucleus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FA Manzoli


    Full Text Available The nucleus of eukaryotic cells contains all the information needed for cell proliferation and differentiation, however the initiation of these programmes are dependent on the signalling pathway elicited by different agonists. The existence of a nuclear phosphoinositide signalling stems from the early evidence that isolated nuclei posses the lipid kinases capable of phosphorylating phosphatidylinositol (PI and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (PIP. The synthesis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5- phosphate (PIP2 was clearly increased only in the nuclear fraction from Friend cells terminally differentiated towards erythrocytes (Cocco et al., 1987. On the contrary its amount along with that of PIP was decreased in nuclei of Swiss 3T3 cells stimulated to grow with insulin-like growth factor-I (IGFI (Manzoli et al., 1989. Following these early observations we and others have demonstrated in several cell type the participation of the whole phosphoinositide cycle in the nucleus (Cocco et al., 1994; Martelli et al., 1992; Divecha et al., 1991; Martelli et al., 1994; Mazzoni et al., 1992. Here we review the most recent achievements on this issue.

  11. Cerebellar fastigial nucleus influence on ipsilateral abducens activity during saccades. (United States)

    Kojima, Yoshiko; Robinson, Farrel R; Soetedjo, Robijanto


    To characterize the cerebellar influence on neurons in the abducens (ABD) nucleus, we recorded ABD neurons before and after we inactivated the caudal part of the ipsilateral cerebellar fastigial nucleus (cFN) with muscimol injection. cFN activity influences the horizontal component of saccades. cFN inactivation increased the activity of most ipsilateral ABD neurons (19/22 in 2 monkeys) during ipsiversive (hypermetric) saccades, primarily by increasing burst duration. During contraversive (hypometric) saccades, the off-direction pause of most (10/15) ABD neurons was shorter than normal because of the early resumption of ABD activity. Early ABD firing caused the early contraction of antagonist muscles that reduced eye rotation and made contraversive saccades hypometric. Thus the cerebellum controls ipsilateral ABD activity by truncating on-direction bursts during ipsiversive saccades and extending off-direction pauses during contraversive saccades. We conclude that cFN output keeps saccades accurate by controlling when ABD on-direction bursts and off-direction pauses end.

  12. Atomic-cascade experiment with detection of the recoil atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelga, S.F. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain)); Ferrero, M. (Dept. de Fisica, Univ. de Oviedo (Spain)); Santos, E. (Dept. de Fisica Moderna, Univ. de Cantabria (Spain))


    Bell's inequalities cannot be violated in atomic-cascade experiments, even with ideal apparatus, due to the three-body character of the atomic decay. Here we propose a new experiment that would block this loophole by means of a suitable selection of an ensemble of photon pairs. A threshold value for the quantum efficiency is found which may allow the discrimination between quantum mechanics and local-hidden-variables theories. Experimental requirements for performing such a test are discussed. (orig.).

  13. Efficient transfer of francium atoms (United States)

    Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Gorelov, Alexander; Pearson, Matt; Tandecki, Michael; Collister, Robert; Gwinner, Gerald; Shiells, Kyle; Gomez, Eduardo; Orozco, Luis; Zhang, Jiehang; Zhao, Yanting; FrPNC Collaboration


    We report on the progress of the FrPNC collaboration towards Parity Non Conservation Measurements (PNC) using francium atoms at the TRIUMF accelerator. We demonstrate efficient transfer (higher than 40%) to the science vacuum chamber where the PNC measurements will be performed. The transfer uses a downward resonant push beam from the high-efficiency capture magneto optical trap (MOT) towards the science chamber where the atoms are recaptured in a second MOT. The transfer is very robust with respect to variations in the parameters (laser power, detuning, alignment, etc.). We accumulate a growing number of atoms at each transfer pulse (limited by the lifetime of the MOT) since the push beam does not eliminate the atoms already trapped in the science MOT. The number of atoms in the science MOT is on track to meet the requirements for competitive PNC measurements when high francium rates (previously demonstrated) are delivered to our apparatus. The catcher/neutralizer for the ion beam has been tested reliably to 100,000 heating/motion cycles. We present initial tests on the direct microwave excitation of the ground hyperfine transition at 45 GHz. Support from NSERC and NRC from Canada, NSF and Fulbright from USA, and CONACYT from Mexico.

  14. Atomic memory access hardware implementations (United States)

    Ahn, Jung Ho; Erez, Mattan; Dally, William J


    Atomic memory access requests are handled using a variety of systems and methods. According to one example method, a data-processing circuit having an address-request generator that issues requests to a common memory implements a method of processing the requests using a memory-access intervention circuit coupled between the generator and the common memory. The method identifies a current atomic-memory access request from a plurality of memory access requests. A data set is stored that corresponds to the current atomic-memory access request in a data storage circuit within the intervention circuit. It is determined whether the current atomic-memory access request corresponds to at least one previously-stored atomic-memory access request. In response to determining correspondence, the current request is implemented by retrieving data from the common memory. The data is modified in response to the current request and at least one other access request in the memory-access intervention circuit.

  15. Laser manipulation of atoms and nanofabrication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurdík, Erich


    Fundamental interaction processes between atoms and photons are exploited to control external degrees of freedom of the atoms. Laser light, when properly tuned near an atomic resonance, exerts such forces that the atoms are repelled from or attracted to the regions with low light intensities. We use

  16. Trapping fermionic and bosonic helium atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stas, R.J.W.


    This thesis presents experimental and theoretical work performed at the Laser Centre of the Vrije Universiteit in Amsterdam to study laser-cooled metastable triplet helium atoms. Samples containing about 3x10^8 helium atoms-either fermionic helium-3 atoms, bosonic helium-4 atoms or mixtures

  17. Tolerance to Sound Intensity of Binaural Coincidence Detection in the Nucleus Laminaris of the Owl


    Peña, Jose Luis; Viete, Svenja; Albeck, Yehuda; Konishi, Masakazu


    Neurons of the owl's nucleus laminaris serve as coincidence detectors for measurement of interaural time difference. The discharge rate of nucleus laminaris neurons for both monaural and binaural stimulation increased with sound intensity until they reached an asymptote. Intense sounds affected neither the ratio between binaural and monaural responses nor the interaural time difference for which nucleus laminaris neurons were selective. Theoretical analysis showed that high afferent discharge...

  18. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder (United States)

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G.; Scalettar, Richard T.


    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.

  19. Quantum tiltmeter with atom interferometry (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Min-Kang; Zhao, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Ke; Hu, Zhong-Kun


    Matter-wave sensors with cold atoms have progressed tremendously over recent decades. We report a sensitive tilt sensor based on quantum technology employing cold atoms. This quantum tiltmeter is constructed with the configuration of a Ramsey-Bordé atom interferometer, achieving an improvement of nearly three orders of magnitude for tilt measurements with a short-term sensitivity of 1.3 μ rad/Hz 1 /2 , with resolution down to 55 nrad at an integration time of 1000 s. The deformation of the Earth's surface has been monitored in a continuous run of 31 h, showing that a quantum tiltmeter can be applied to record tilt tides and can be an valuable sensor in geophysics and various scientific facilities.

  20. Atom-specific surface magnetometry (United States)

    Sirotti, Fausto; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio


    A powerful atom-specific surface magnetometry can be based on efficient measurements of magnetic dichroism in l>~0 core level photoemission. The temperature dependence M(T) of the Fe(100) surface magnetization was obtained from the photoemission magnetic asymmetry of 3p core levels, providing the measure of the surface exchange coupling via the spin-wave stiffness and of the surface critical exponent. Beyond the magnetic order the photoemission dichroism allows us to derive the energy splitting of the magnetic sublevels of the photoexcited core hole. Fe 3p photoemission dichroism probes directly the magnetic moment changes of iron atoms at Fe(100) surfaces as a function of structural disorder or sulfur segregation. The appearance of dichroism in the 2p photoemission of segregated sulfur atoms in the c(2×2)S/Fe(100) superstructure measures the magnetic-moment transfer and shows the possibility of investigating surface magnetochemistry in a very direct way.

  1. Electric field imaging of single atoms (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi


    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures.

  2. Electric field imaging of single atoms (United States)

    Shibata, Naoya; Seki, Takehito; Sánchez-Santolino, Gabriel; Findlay, Scott D.; Kohno, Yuji; Matsumoto, Takao; Ishikawa, Ryo; Ikuhara, Yuichi


    In scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), single atoms can be imaged by detecting electrons scattered through high angles using post-specimen, annular-type detectors. Recently, it has been shown that the atomic-scale electric field of both the positive atomic nuclei and the surrounding negative electrons within crystalline materials can be probed by atomic-resolution differential phase contrast STEM. Here we demonstrate the real-space imaging of the (projected) atomic electric field distribution inside single Au atoms, using sub-Å spatial resolution STEM combined with a high-speed segmented detector. We directly visualize that the electric field distribution (blurred by the sub-Å size electron probe) drastically changes within the single Au atom in a shape that relates to the spatial variation of total charge density within the atom. Atomic-resolution electric field mapping with single-atom sensitivity enables us to examine their detailed internal and boundary structures. PMID:28555629

  3. Plasma Effects On Atomic Data For The K-Vacancy States Of Highly Charged Iron Ions


    Deprince, J; Fritzsche, S; Kallman, T. R.; Palmeri, P; Quinet, Pascal


    The main goal of the present work is to estimate the effects of plasma environment on the atomic parameters associated with the K-vacancy states in highly charged iron ions within the astrophysical context of accretion disks around black holes. In order to do this, multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock computations have been carried out by considering a time averaged Debye-H\\"uckel potential for both the electron-nucleus and electron-electron interactions. In the present paper, a first sample of resu...

  4. Spectroscopy of antiprotonic helium atoms and its contribution to the fundamental physical constants (United States)

    Hayano, Ryugo S.


    Antiprotonic helium atom, a metastable neutral system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus, was serendipitously discovered, and has been studied at CERN’s antiproton decelerator facility. Its transition frequencies have recently been measured to nine digits of precision by laser spectroscopy. By comparing these experimental results with three-body QED calculations, the antiproton-to-electron massratio was determined as 1836.152674(5). This result contributed to the CODATA recommended values of the fundamental physical constants. PMID:20075605

  5. Existence of a ground state for the confined hydrogen atom in non-relativistic QED

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amour, Laurent; Faupin, Jeremy


    We consider a system of a hydrogen atom interacting with the quantized electromagnetic field. Instead of fixing the nucleus, we assume that the system is confined by its center of mass. This model is used in theoretical physics to explain the Lamb-Dicke effect. After a brief review...... of the literature, we explain how to verify some properly chosen binding conditions which, by [25], lead to the existence of a ground state for our model, and for all values of the fine-structure constant...

  6. Atomic horror deal; Atom-Deal des Grauens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Hanne


    The German government is opting out of the decided nuclear phaseout and will ensure good profits for operators of nuclear power plants. Complex contracts and the disregard of safety regulations will result in a continued atomic energy policy, even beyond the next elections and in disrespect of democratic procedures and bodies. (orig.)

  7. Intrinsic functional connectivity of the central nucleus of the amygdala and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis. (United States)

    Gorka, Adam X; Torrisi, Salvatore; Shackman, Alexander J; Grillon, Christian; Ernst, Monique


    The central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST), two nuclei within the central extended amygdala, function as critical relays within the distributed neural networks that coordinate sensory, emotional, and cognitive responses to threat. These structures have overlapping anatomical projections to downstream targets that initiate defensive responses. Despite these commonalities, researchers have also proposed a functional dissociation between the CeA and BNST, with the CeA promoting responses to discrete stimuli and the BNST promoting responses to diffuse threat. Intrinsic functional connectivity (iFC) provides a means to investigate the functional architecture of the brain, unbiased by task demands. Using ultra-high field neuroimaging (7-Tesla fMRI), which provides increased spatial resolution, this study compared the iFC networks of the CeA and BNST in 27 healthy individuals. Both structures were coupled with areas of the medial prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, thalamus, and periaqueductal gray matter. Compared to the BNST, the bilateral CeA was more strongly coupled with the insula and regions that support sensory processing, including thalamus and fusiform gyrus. In contrast, the bilateral BNST was more strongly coupled with regions involved in cognitive and motivational processes, including the dorsal paracingulate gyrus, posterior cingulate cortex, and striatum. Collectively, these findings suggest that responses to sensory stimulation are preferentially coordinated by the CeA and cognitive and motivational responses are preferentially coordinated by the BNST. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Hearing assessment during deep brain stimulation of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus and dentate cerebellar nucleus in rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper V. Smit


    Full Text Available Background Recently it has been shown in animal studies that deep brain stimulation (DBS of auditory structures was able to reduce tinnitus-like behavior. However, the question arises whether hearing might be impaired when interfering in auditory-related network loops with DBS. Methods The auditory brainstem response (ABR was measured in rats during high frequency stimulation (HFS and low frequency stimulation (LFS in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (CIC, n = 5 or dentate cerebellar nucleus (DCBN, n = 5. Besides hearing thresholds using ABR, relative measures of latency and amplitude can be extracted from the ABR. In this study ABR thresholds, interpeak latencies (I–III, III–V, I–V and V/I amplitude ratio were measured during off-stimulation state and during LFS and HFS. Results In both the CIC and the CNBN groups, no significant differences were observed for all outcome measures. Discussion DBS in both the CIC and the CNBN did not have adverse effects on hearing measurements. These findings suggest that DBS does not hamper physiological processing in the auditory circuitry.

  9. Deep brain stimulation of globus pallidus interna, subthalamic nucleus, and pedunculopontine nucleus for Parkinson's disease: which target? (United States)

    Follett, Kenneth A; Torres-Russotto, Diego


    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an accepted therapy for people with Parkinson's disease (PD) motor symptoms that are refractory to pharmacologic therapy. Standard DBS targets are globus pallidus interna (GPi) and subthalamic nucleus (STN). The pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN) is being investigated as a novel target. Which target provides the best outcomes is unknown. The utility of GPi and STN as targets has been confirmed in numerous studies, including randomized comparisons of GPi DBS and STN DBS that demonstrated no difference in motor outcomes. DBS at either site improves appendicular motor symptoms, but beneficial effects on axial manifestations of PD such as postural instability or gait dysfunction (PIGD) are less apparent. PPN has been introduced as a DBS target due to failure of GPi and STN DBS to improve PIGD. Small observational studies indicate improved PIGD with PPN DBS, but small blinded trials show only subjective reduction in falls with no other impact on PIGD or other PD manifestations. No single DBS target is superior to the others. Each target offers relative advantages. Further studies are needed to better define the roles of each target, particularly PPN. Choice of target should be individualized according to providers' preferences and patients' needs. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Generalized folding model for elastic and inelastic nucleus-nucleus scattering using realistic density dependent nucleon-nucleon interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Khoa, D T


    A generalized double-folding model for elastic and inelastic nucleus-nucleus scattering is presented. It is designed to accommodate effective nucleon-nucleon (NN) interactions that depend upon the density of nuclear matter in which the two nucleons are immersed. A recently parametrized density dependent M3Y interaction, based on the G-matrix elements of the Paris NN potential, has been used in the present folding calculation. The effects of knock-on exchange of the interacting nucleon pair are included in an accurate local approximation. Examples of the application of this model to study the refractive elastic and inelastic scattering data of sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 1 sup 2 C and alpha+ sup 5 sup 8 sup , sup 6 sup 0 Ni systems are presented. A detailed comparison of the use of deformed optical potential (DP) and microscopic folded potential in the analysis of inelastic scattering has shown that the use of DP fails to reproduce the inelastic sup 1 sup 2 C+ sup 1 sup 2 C scattering data measured over a wide angular ...

  11. The Spectator-Induced Electromagnetic Effect on Meson Production in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at SPS Energies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rybicki Andrzej


    Full Text Available The electromagnetic interaction between the spectator system and the charged mesons produced in the course of the high energy heavy ion collision was studied experimentally and theoretically in earlier works [1,2]. This effect was found to result in very large distortions of the final state spectra of the produced mesons [3] and to bring new information on the space-time evolution of the non-perturbative meson production process [4]. In this paper a more extended analysis of this effect will be presented, including a comparative study between charged meson spectra produced in Pb+Pb collisions as well as collisions of Pb ions with smaller nuclei. The experimental results will be compared with Monte Carlo simulations, giving a fair overall understanding of the interplay between the strong and the electromagnetic interaction in the heavy ion collision. A universal behaviour of charged meson spectra emerges from the above comparative study. This gives a unique chance of using the spectator charge as a tool to study the space-time evolution of the high energy nucleus-nucleus reaction.

  12. Study of the Pion Production Mechanisms in Nucleus-Nucleus Collisions at the CERN SC using the Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia


    The aim of this experiment is to study the pion production mechanism in nucleus-nucleus collisions with the |3He and |1|2C beams of the CERN SC using the Omicron Spectrometer. The high intensity ion beams delivered now by the SC combined with the favourable characteristics of the Omicron Spectrometer offer a unique possibility of measuring very low cross-sections (typically in the order of 1 pb/(sr~MeV/c). In a first stage we will measure with an energy resolution of about 3~MeV the spectra of @p@+ emitted at 0|0 in two-body reactions induced by |3He ions of 910~MeV on targets of |6Li, |7Li, |9Be and |1|2C. The aim is to understand the reaction mechanisms and the nuclear wave functions most appropriate to describe the formation of nuclear bound states at momentum transfers of about 1.6@/1.7~GeV/c. The apparatus is shown in the figure. The same instrument will allow the measurement of the @p@+ inclusive spectra emitted at 0|0 after the interaction of the |1|2C|4|+ beam at 1032 MeV with the same targets. At 86 ...

  13. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  14. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E


    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  15. Acceleration effects on atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Dahia, F


    We consider a free massive particle inside a box which is dragged by Rindler observers. Admitting that the particle obeys the Klein-Gordon equation, we find the frequencies of the stationary states of this system. Transitions between the stationary states are employed to set a standard frequency for a toy atomic clock. Comparing the energy spectrum of the accelerated system with the energy spectrum of an identical system in an inertial frame, we determine the influence of the instantaneous acceleration on the rate of atomic clocks. We argue that our result does not violate the clock hypothesis.

  16. Pathology of atomic bomb casualties. (United States)

    Iijima, S


    Thirty seven years ago, 6 August 1945 marks the date of the first atomic bombing never experienced in human history. It was dropped on Hiroshima and this was followed by a second bombing three days later on Nagasaki. The total deaths following exposure to the bomb by the end of 1945 totalled 140,000 (+/- 10,000) in Hiroshima and 70,000 (+/- 10,000) in Nagasaki. The present article described and outline of the physical effects of the atomic bomb and injury to the human body by exposure to the bomb.

  17. Collective dynamics of accelerated atoms (United States)

    Richter, Benedikt; Terças, Hugo; Omar, Yasser; de Vega, Inés


    We study the collective dynamics of accelerated atoms interacting with a massless field via an Unruh-deWitt-type interaction. We first derive a general Hamiltonian describing such a system and then, employing a Markovian master equation, we study the corresponding collective dynamics. In particular, we observe that the emergence of entanglement between two-level atoms is linked to the building up of coherences between them and to superradiant emission. In addition, we show that the derived Hamiltonian can be experimentally implemented by employing impurities in Bose-Einstein condensates.

  18. Tone Recognition of Continuous Mandarin Speech Based on Tone Nucleus Model and Neural Network (United States)

    Wang, Xiao-Dong; Hirose, Keikichi; Zhang, Jin-Song; Minematsu, Nobuaki

    A method was developed for automatic recognition of syllable tone types in continuous speech of Mandarin by integrating two techniques, tone nucleus modeling and neural network classifier. The tone nucleus modeling considers a syllable F0 contour as consisting of three parts: onset course, tone nucleus, and offset course. Two courses are transitions from/to neighboring syllable F0 contours, while the tone nucleus is intrinsic part of the F0 contour. By viewing only the tone nucleus, acoustic features less affected by neighboring syllables are obtained. When using the tone nucleus modeling, automatic detection of tone nucleus comes crucial. An improvement was added to the original detection method. Distinctive acoustic features for tone types are not limited to F0 contours. Other prosodic features, such as waveform power and syllable duration, are also useful for tone recognition. Their heterogeneous features are rather difficult to be handled simultaneously in hidden Markov models (HMM), but are easy in neural networks. We adopted multi-layer perception (MLP) as a neural network. Tone recognition experiments were conducted for speaker dependent and independent cases. In order to show the effect of integration, experiments were conducted also for two baselines: HMM classifier with tone nucleus modeling, and MLP classifier viewing entire syllable instead of tone nucleus. The integrated method showed 87.1% of tone recognition rate in speaker dependent case, and 80.9% in speaker independent case, which was about 10% relative error reduction as compared to the baselines.


    Gottesman-Davis, Adria; Peusner, Kenna D.


    Biocytin was injected into the oculomotor, trochlear, or abducens nucleus on one side using isolated chicken brainstem preparations or brain slices to identify the medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurons projecting to these targets. Oculomotor nucleus injections produced retrogradely labeled neurons in the contralateral ventrolateral MVN (MVNVL), with few labeled neurons in the ipsilateral MVNVL, and rarely in the dorsomedial MVN on either side. Labeled MVNVL neurons were identified as stellate (95%) and elongate cells (5%). Trochlear nucleus injections produced a similar pattern of MVN neuron labeling. Abducens nucleus injections resulted in retrogradely labeled stellate (87%) and elongate (13%) neurons in the MVNVL which had smaller cell bodies than those projecting to the oculomotor nucleus. Anteroposteriorly, labeled MVNVL neurons were coextensive with the tangential nucleus, with neurons projecting to the oculomotor nucleus distributed lateral to and intermixed with the more medially situated neurons projecting to the abducens nucleus. The fundamental pattern of vestibuloocular projecting neurons was similar at both embryonic ages studied, E16 and E13. In contrast to mammals, where most vestibuloocular projection neurons reside within the MVN, the majority of retrogradely labeled neurons in these chicken preparations were found within the ventrolateral vestibular, descending vestibular, and tangential nuclei. The morphological identification and mapping of vestibuloocular projection neurons in the chicken MVN described here represents the first step in a systematic evaluation of the relationship between avian vestibuloocular neuron structure and function. PMID:19705454

  20. Sub-Angstrom Atomic-Resolution Imaging of Heavy Atoms to Light Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Michael A.; Shao-Horn, Yang


    Three decades ago John Cowley and his group at ASU achieved high-resolution electron microscope images showing the crystal unit cell contents at better than 4Angstrom resolution. Over the years, this achievement has inspired improvements in resolution that have enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the cell. More recently, this ability has been extended to light atoms as resolution has improved. Sub-Angstrom resolution has enabled researchers to image the columns of light atoms (carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures. By using sub-Angstrom focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave to image columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in a transition metal oxide structure commonly used as positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries, we show that the range of detectable light atoms extends to lithium. HRTEM at sub-Angstrom resolution will provide the essential role of experimental verification for the emergent nanotech revolution. Our results foreshadow those to be expected from next-generation TEMs with Cs-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams.

  1. Study of the scalar-pseudoscalar interaction in the francium atom

    CERN Document Server

    Skripnikov, L V; Mosyagin, N S


    Fr atom can be successively used to search for the atomic permanent electric dipole moment (EDM) [Hyperfine Interactions 236, 53 (2015); Journal of Physics: Conference Series 691, 012017 (2016)]. It can be induced by the permanent electron EDM predicted by modern extensions of the standard model to be nonzero at the level accessible by the new generation of EDM experiments. We consider another mechanism of the atomic EDM generation in Fr. This is caused by the scalar-pseudoscalar nucleus-electron neutral current interaction with the dimensionless strength constant, $k_{T,P}$. Similar to the electron EDM this interaction violates both spatial parity and time-reversal symmetries and can also induce permanent atomic EDM. It was shown in [Phys. Rev. D 89, 056006 (2014)] that the scalar-pseudoscalar contribution to the atomic EDM can dominate over the direct contribution from the electron EDM within the standard model. We report high-accuracy combined all-electron and two-step relativistic coupled cluster treatmen...

  2. Theory and computation of few-electron atoms in intense laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Moore, L


    experimental peak laser intensity measurement. At 780 nm preliminary results of a comparable calculation of double-ionization are given. In anticipation of a high intensity, high frequency radiation source becoming available in Germany by 2003, a calculation at 14 nm has also been performed. Momentum distributions have revealed the new process of double-electron above threshold ionization. In this process both electrons absorb excess photons during double-ionization. The study of the helium atom-exposed to an intense laser field forms the topic of this thesis. In the context of laser-atom interactions, a laser is said to be intense if the force it exerts on an electron in an atomic orbital is comparable to the force experienced by that electron due to the binding atomic potential. The electronic response of the helium atom to an intense laser field is governed by the interactions of the two electrons between themselves, with the nucleus and with the field. The problem therefore is the fundamental three-body p...

  3. Polarizing radioactive atoms from a MOT for β-decay studies (United States)

    Gu, S.; Behr, J. A.; Melconian, D.; Cha, J.; Dube', P.; Eaton, S.; Groves, M.


    We have achieved >= 90% nuclear polarization of ^41K by trapping ^41K atoms in a weak B field environment using a time-cycled MOT, and optically pumping with an additional circular polarized D1 laser beam. The circular polarized D1 beam (S_1/2 to P_1/2 transition), can in principle optically pump the atoms to the maximum angular momentum F =2, MF = 2 state, where both nucleus and atomic angular momentum are fully polarized. The non-zero B field condition is realized by attenuating the retroreflected beams of the MOT in the horizontal plane, so the trapped atom cloud's equilibrium position is moved to finite B field. Then an additional uniform B field is applied along the axis to move the atoms back to the original MOT center. The polarizing process is to turn MOT beams and D1 beam on and off alternatively; the D1 fluorescence is monitored to measure the polarization while the MOT is off. We have also applied this technique to polarize radioactive ^37K, which has almost identical hyperfine structure, to study its nuclear β decays. *Supported by NSERC and CIPI.

  4. BOOK REVIEW: Computational Atomic Structure (United States)

    Post, Douglass E.


    The primary purpose of `Computational Atomic Structure' is to give a potential user of the Multi-Configuration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) Atomic Structure Package an outline of the physics and computational methods in the package, guidance on how to use the package, and information on how to interpret and use the computational results. The book is successful in all three aspects. In addition, the book provides a good overview and review of the physics of atomic structure that would be useful to the plasma physicist interested in refreshing his knowledge of atomic structure and quantum mechanics. While most of the subjects are covered in greater detail in other sources, the book is reasonably self-contained, and, in most cases, the reader can understand the basic material without recourse to other sources. The MCHF package is the standard package for computing atomic structure and wavefunctions for single or multielectron ions and atoms. It is available from a number of ftp sites. When the code was originally written in FORTRAN 77, it could only be run on large mainframes. With the advances in computer technology, the suite of codes can now be compiled and run on present day workstations and personal computers and is thus available for use by any physicist, even those with extremely modest computing resources. Sample calculations in interactive mode are included in the book to illustrate the input needed for the code, what types of results and information the code can produce, and whether the user has installed the code correctly. The user can also specify the calculational level, from simple Hartree-Fock to multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock. The MCHF method begins by finding approximate wavefunctions for the bound states of an atomic system. This involves minimizing the energy of the bound state using a variational technique. Once the wavefunctions have been determined, other atomic properties, such as the transition rates, can be determined. The book begins with an

  5. Hanbury Brown and Twiss and other atom-atom correlations: advances in quantum atom optics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Fifty years ago, two astronomers, R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, invented a new method to measure the angular diameter of stars, in spite of the atmospheric fluctuations. Their proposal prompted a hot debate among physicists : how might two particles (photons), emitted independently (at opposite extremities of a star) , behave in a correlated way when detected ? It was only after the development of R Glauber's full quantum analysis that the effect was understood as a two particle quantum interference effect. From a modern perspective, it can be viewed as an early example of the amazing properties of pairs of entangled particles. The effect has now been observed with bosonic and fermionic atoms, stressing its fully quantum character. After putting these experiments in a historical perspective, I will present recent results, and comment on their significance. I will also show how our single atom detection scheme has allowed us to demonstrate the creation of atom pairs by non linear mixing of matter wa...

  6. The suprachiasmatic nucleus: age-related decline in biological rhythms. (United States)

    Nakamura, Takahiro J; Takasu, Nana N; Nakamura, Wataru


    Aging is associated with changes in sleep duration and quality, as well as increased rates of pathologic/disordered sleep. While several factors contribute to these changes, emerging research suggests that age-related changes in the mammalian central circadian clock within the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) may be a key factor. Prior work from our group suggests that circadian output from the SCN declines because of aging. Furthermore, we have previously observed age-related infertility in female mice, caused by a mismatch between environmental light-dark cycles and the intrinsic, internal biological clocks. In this review, we address regulatory mechanisms underlying circadian rhythms in mammals and summarize recent literature describing the effects of aging on the circadian system.

  7. A syndrome of the dentate nucleus mimicking psychogenic ataxia. (United States)

    Salih, Farid; Breuer, Eva; Harnack, Daniel; Hoffmann, Karl-Titus; Ploner, Christoph J


    To date, cerebellar involvement in control of non-motor functions like cognition and emotion is increasingly well established. Current models suggest that motor and non-motor networks connecting the cerebellum with cortical areas operate independently in closed and segregated loops. Here, we report a 59-year-old female patient with a small cerebellar lesion that shows that cognitive activation can significantly influence cerebellar motor control. Surprisingly, this led to a clinical picture mimicking a psychogenic disorder. Similar to non-human primates, this case suggests that the human dentate nucleus consists of distinct cognitive and motor domains with additional somatotopical arrangement of the latter. Extending current models of cerebro-cerebellar interaction, this case further illustrates that there can be significant functional cross-talk between motor and cognitive cerebellar networks.

  8. Relativistic models for quasielastic electron and neutrino-nucleus scattering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meucci Andrea


    Full Text Available Relativistic models developed within the framework of the impulse approximation for quasielastic (QE electron scattering and successfully tested in comparison with electron-scattering data have been extended to neutrino-nucleus scattering. Different descriptions of final-state interactions (FSI in the inclusive scattering are compared. In the relativistic Green’s function (RGF model FSI are described consistently with the exclusive scattering using a complex optical potential. In the relativistic mean field (RMF model FSI are described by the same RMF potential which gives the bound states. The results of the models are compared for electron and neutrino scattering and, for neutrino scattering, with the recently measured charged-current QE (CCQE MiniBooNE cross sections.

  9. Observation of Top Quark Production in Proton-Nucleus Collisions. (United States)

    Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Ambrogi, F; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Escalante Del Valle, A; Flechl, M; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Grossmann, J; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; König, A; Krammer, N; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Madlener, T; Mikulec, I; Pree, E; Rad, N; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Spanring, M; Spitzbart, D; Waltenberger, W; Wittmann, J; Wulz, C-E; Zarucki, M; Chekhovsky, V; Mossolov, V; Suarez Gonzalez, J; De Wolf, E A; Di Croce, D; Janssen, X; Lauwers, J; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; De Bruyn, I; De Clercq, J; Deroover, K; Flouris, G; Lontkovskyi, D; Lowette, S; Marchesini, I; Moortgat, S; Moreels, L; Python, Q; Skovpen, K; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Parijs, I; Beghin, D; Bilin, B; Brun, H; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Delannoy, H; Dorney, B; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Goldouzian, R; Grebenyuk, A; Kalsi, A K; Lenzi, T; Luetic, J; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Seva, T; Starling, E; Vander Velde, C; Vanlaer, P; Vannerom, D; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Cornelis, T; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Gul, M; Khvastunov, I; Poyraz, D; Roskas, C; Salva, S; Tytgat, M; Verbeke, W; Zaganidis, N; Bakhshiansohi, H; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caputo, C; Caudron, A; David, P; De Visscher, S; Delaere, C; Delcourt, M; Francois, B; Giammanco, A; Komm, M; Krintiras, G; Lemaitre, V; Magitteri, A; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Piotrzkowski, K; Quertenmont, L; Saggio, A; Vidal Marono, M; Wertz, S; Zobec, J; Aldá Júnior, W L; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hensel, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Coelho, E; Da Costa, E M; Da Silveira, G G; De Jesus Damiao, D; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Melo De Almeida, M; Mora Herrera, C; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Sanchez Rosas, L J; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Thiel, M; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Torres Da Silva De Araujo, F; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; Tomei, T R Fernandez Perez; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Misheva, M; Rodozov, M; Shopova, M; Sultanov, G; Dimitrov, A; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Fang, W; Gao, X; Yuan, L; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Chen, Y; Jiang, C H; Leggat, D; Liao, H; Liu, Z; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Yazgan, E; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; Zhao, J; Ban, Y; Chen, G; Li, J; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Zhang, F; Wang, Y; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; González Hernández, C F; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Segura Delgado, M A; Courbon, B; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Sculac, T; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Ferencek, D; Kadija, K; Mesic, B; Starodumov, A; Susa, T; Ather, M W; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Finger, M; Finger, M; Carrera Jarrin, E; Assran, Y; Elgammal, S; Mahrous, A; Dewanjee, R K; Kadastik, M; Perrini, L; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Kirschenmann, H; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Havukainen, J; Heikkilä, J K; Järvinen, T; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Laurila, S; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Siikonen, H; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Faure, J L; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Ghosh, S; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Kucher, I; Leloup, C; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Negro, G; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Sahin, M Ö; Titov, M; Abdulsalam, A; Amendola, C; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Charlot, C; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Jo, M; Lisniak, S; Lobanov, A; Martin Blanco, J; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Stahl Leiton, A G; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Zghiche, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Jansová, M; Le Bihan, A-C; Tonon, N; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fay, J; Finco, L; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Grenier, G; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Popov, A; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Bagaturia, I; Autermann, C; Feld, L; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Preuten, M; Schomakers, C; Schulz, J; Teroerde, M; Zhukov, V; Albert, A; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hamer, M; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Knutzen, S; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Mukherjee, S; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Flügge, G; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Künsken, A; Müller, T; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Arndt, T; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Beernaert, K; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bermúdez Martínez, A; Bin Anuar, A A; Borras, K; Botta, V; Campbell, A; Connor, P; Contreras-Campana, C; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Eren, E; Gallo, E; Garay Garcia, J; Geiser, A; Grados Luyando, J M; Grohsjean, A; Gunnellini, P; Guthoff, M; Harb, A; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kasemann, M; Keaveney, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Krücker, D; Lange, W; Lelek, A; Lenz, T; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Ntomari, E; Pitzl, D; Raspereza, A; Savitskyi, M; Saxena, P; Shevchenko, R; Stefaniuk, N; Van Onsem, G P; Walsh, R; Wen, Y; Wichmann, K; Wissing, C; Zenaiev, O; Aggleton, R; Bein, S; Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Dreyer, T; Garutti, E; Gonzalez, D; Haller, J; Hinzmann, A; Hoffmann, M; Karavdina, A; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Kovalchuk, N; Kurz, S; Lapsien, T; Marconi, D; Meyer, M; Niedziela, M; Nowatschin, D; Pantaleo, F; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Scharf, C; Schleper, P; Schmidt, A; Schumann, S; Schwandt, J; Sonneveld, J; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Stober, F M; Stöver, M; Tholen, H; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanhoefer, A; Vormwald, B; Akbiyik, M; Barth, C; Baselga, M; Baur, S; Butz, E; Caspart, R; Chwalek, T; Colombo, F; De Boer, W; Dierlamm, A; Faltermann, N; Freund, B; Friese, R; Giffels, M; Harrendorf, M A; Hartmann, F; Heindl, S M; Husemann, U; Kassel, F; Kudella, S; Mildner, H; Mozer, M U; Müller, Th; Plagge, M; Quast, G; Rabbertz, K; Schröder, M; Shvetsov, I; Sieber, G; Simonis, H J; Ulrich, R; Wayand, S; Weber, M; Weiler, T; Williamson, S; Wöhrmann, C; Wolf, R; Anagnostou, G; Daskalakis, G; Geralis, T; Kyriakis, A; Loukas, D; Topsis-Giotis, I; Karathanasis, G; Kesisoglou, S; Panagiotou, A; Saoulidou, N; Kousouris, K; Evangelou, I; Foudas, C; Gianneios, P; Katsoulis, P; Kokkas, P; Mallios, S; Manthos, N; Papadopoulos, I; Paradas, E; Strologas, J; Triantis, F A; Tsitsonis, D; Csanad, M; Filipovic, N; Pasztor, G; Surányi, O; Veres, G I; Bencze, G; Hajdu, C; Horvath, D; Hunyadi, Á; Sikler, F; Veszpremi, V; Beni, N; Czellar, S; Karancsi, J; Makovec, A; Molnar, J; Szillasi, Z; Bartók, M; Raics, P; Trocsanyi, Z L; Ujvari, B; Choudhury, S; Komaragiri, J R; Bahinipati, S; Bhowmik, S; Mal, P; Mandal, K; Nayak, A; Sahoo, D K; Sahoo, N; Swain, S K; Bansal, S; Beri, S B; Bhatnagar, V; Chawla, R; Dhingra, N; Kaur, A; Kaur, M; Kaur, S; Kumar, R; Kumari, P; Mehta, A; Singh, J B; Walia, G; Kumar, Ashok; Shah, Aashaq; Bhardwaj, A; Chauhan, S; Choudhary, B C; Garg, R B; Keshri, S; Kumar, A; Malhotra, S; Naimuddin, M; Ranjan, K; Sharma, R; Bhardwaj, R; Bhattacharya, R; Bhattacharya, S; Bhawandeep, U; Dey, S; Dutt, S; Dutta, S; Ghosh, S; Majumdar, N; Modak, A; Mondal, K; Mukhopadhyay, S; Nandan, S; Purohit, A; Roy, A; Roy Chowdhury, S; Sarkar, S; Sharan, M; Thakur, S; Behera, P K; Chudasama, R; Dutta, D; Jha, V; Kumar, V; Mohanty, A K; Netrakanti, P K; Pant, L M; Shukla, P; Topkar, A; Aziz, T; Dugad, S; Mahakud, B; Mitra, S; Mohanty, G B; Sur, N; Sutar, B; Banerjee, S; Bhattacharya, S; Chatterjee, S; Das, P; Guchait, M; Jain, Sa; Kumar, S; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Mazumdar, K; Sarkar, T; Wickramage, N; Chauhan, S; Dube, S; Hegde, V; Kapoor, A; Kothekar, K; Pandey, S; Rane, A; Sharma, S; Chenarani, S; Eskandari Tadavani, E; Etesami, S M; Khakzad, M; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M; Naseri, M; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F; Safarzadeh, B; Zeinali, M; Felcini, M; Grunewald, M; Abbrescia, M; Calabria, C; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; Cristella, L; De Filippis, N; De Palma, M; Errico, F; Fiore, L; Iaselli, G; Lezki, S; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Miniello, G; My, S; Nuzzo, S; Pompili, A; Pugliese, G; Radogna, R; Ranieri, A; Selvaggi, G; Sharma, A; Silvestris, L; Venditti, R; Verwilligen, P; Abbiendi, G; Battilana, C; Bonacorsi, D; Borgonovi, L; Braibant-Giacomelli, S; Campanini, R; Capiluppi, P; Castro, A; Cavallo, F R; Chhibra, S S; Codispoti, G; Cuffiani, M; Dallavalle, G M; Fabbri, F; Fanfani, A; Fasanella, D; Giacomelli, P; Grandi, C; Guiducci, L; Marcellini, S; Masetti, G; Montanari, A; Navarria, F L; Perrotta, A; Rossi, A M; Rovelli, T; Siroli, G P; Tosi, N; Albergo, S; Costa, S; Di Mattia, A; Giordano, F; Potenza, R; Tricomi, A; Tuve, C; Barbagli, G; Chatterjee, K; Ciulli, V; Civinini, C; D'Alessandro, R; Focardi, E; Lenzi, P; Meschini, M; Paoletti, S; Russo, L; Sguazzoni, G; Strom, D; Viliani, L; Benussi, L; Bianco, S; Fabbri, F; Piccolo, D; Primavera, F; Calvelli, V; Ferro, F; Ravera, F; Robutti, E; Tosi, S; Benaglia, A; Beschi, A; Brianza, L; Brivio, F; Ciriolo, V; Dinardo, M E; Fiorendi, S; Gennai, S; Ghezzi, A; Govoni, P; Malberti, M; Malvezzi, S; Manzoni, R A; Menasce, D; Moroni, L; Paganoni, M; Pauwels, K; Pedrini, D; Pigazzini, S; Ragazzi, S; Tabarelli de Fatis, T; Buontempo, S; Cavallo, N; Di Guida, S; Fabozzi, F; Fienga, F; Iorio, A O M; Khan, W A; Lista, L; Meola, S; Paolucci, P; Sciacca, C; Thyssen, F; Azzi, P; Bacchetta, N; Benato, L; Bisello, D; Boletti, A; Carlin, R; Carvalho Antunes De Oliveira, A; Checchia, P; De Castro Manzano, P; Dorigo, T; Dosselli, U; Gasparini, F; Gasparini, U; Gozzelino, A; Lacaprara, S; Margoni, M; Meneguzzo, A T; Pozzobon, N; Ronchese, P; Rossin, R; Simonetto, F; Torassa, E; Zanetti, M; Zotto, P; Zumerle, G; Braghieri, A; Magnani, A; Montagna, P; Ratti, S P; Re, V; Ressegotti, M; Riccardi, C; Salvini, P; Vai, I; Vitulo, P; Alunni Solestizi, L; Biasini, M; Bilei, G M; Cecchi, C; Ciangottini, D; Fanò, L; Leonardi, R; Manoni, E; Mantovani, G; Mariani, V; Menichelli, M; Rossi, A; Santocchia, A; Spiga, D; Androsov, K; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Boccali, T; Borrello, L; Castaldi, R; Ciocci, M A; Dell'Orso, R; Fedi, G; Giannini, L; Giassi, A; Grippo, M T; Ligabue, F; Lomtadze, T; Manca, E; Mandorli, G; Messineo, A; Palla, F; Rizzi, A; Savoy-Navarro, A; Spagnolo, P; Tenchini, R; Tonelli, G; Venturi, A; Verdini, P G; Barone, L; Cavallari, F; Cipriani, M; Daci, N; Del Re, D; Di Marco, E; Diemoz, M; Gelli, S; Longo, E; Margaroli, F; Marzocchi, B; Meridiani, P; Organtini, G; Paramatti, R; Preiato, F; Rahatlou, S; Rovelli, C; Santanastasio, F; Amapane, N; Arcidiacono, R; Argiro, S; Arneodo, M; Bartosik, N; Bellan, R; Biino, C; Cartiglia, N; Cenna, F; Costa, M; Covarelli, R; Degano, A; Demaria, N; Kiani, B; Mariotti, C; Maselli, S; Migliore, E; Monaco, V; Monteil, E; Monteno, M; Obertino, M M; Pacher, L; Pastrone, N; Pelliccioni, M; Pinna Angioni, G L; Romero, A; Ruspa, M; Sacchi, R; Shchelina, K; Sola, V; Solano, A; Staiano, A; Traczyk, P; Belforte, S; Casarsa, M; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Zanetti, A; Kim, D H; Kim, G N; Kim, M S; Lee, J; Lee, S; Lee, S W; Moon, C S; Oh, Y D; Sekmen, S; Son, D C; Yang, Y C; Lee, A; Kim, H; Moon, D H; Oh, G; Brochero Cifuentes, J A; Goh, J; Kim, T J; Cho, S; Choi, S; Go, Y; Gyun, D; Ha, S; Hong, B; Jo, Y; Kim, Y; Lee, K; Lee, K S; Lee, S; Lim, J; Park, S K; Roh, Y; Almond, J; Kim, J; Kim, J S; Lee, H; Lee, K; Nam, K; Oh, S B; Radburn-Smith, B C; Seo, S H; Yang, U K; Yoo, H D; Yu, G B; Kim, H; Kim, J H; Lee, J S H; Park, I C; Choi, Y; Hwang, C; Lee, J; Yu, I; Dudenas, V; Juodagalvis, A; Vaitkus, J; Ahmed, I; Ibrahim, Z A; Md Ali, M A B; Mohamad Idris, F; Wan Abdullah, W A T; Yusli, M N; Zolkapli, Z; Reyes-Almanza, R; Ramirez-Sanchez, G; Duran-Osuna, M C; Castilla-Valdez, H; De La Cruz-Burelo, E; Heredia-De La Cruz, I; Rabadan-Trejo, R I; Lopez-Fernandez, R; Mejia Guisao, J; Sanchez-Hernandez, A; Carrillo Moreno, S; Oropeza Barrera, C; Vazquez Valencia, F; Eysermans, J; Pedraza, I; Salazar Ibarguen, H A; Uribe Estrada, C; Morelos Pineda, A; Krofcheck, D; Butler, P H; Ahmad, A; Ahmad, M; Hassan, Q; Hoorani, H R; Saddique, A; Shah, M A; Shoaib, M; Waqas, M; Bialkowska, H; Bluj, M; Boimska, B; Frueboes, T; Górski, M; Kazana, M; Nawrocki, K; Szleper, M; Zalewski, P; Bunkowski, K; Byszuk, A; Doroba, K; Kalinowski, A; Konecki, M; Krolikowski, J; Misiura, M; Olszewski, M; Pyskir, A; Walczak, M; Bargassa, P; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C; Di Francesco, A; Faccioli, P; Galinhas, B; Gallinaro, M; Hollar, J; Leonardo, N; Lloret Iglesias, L; Nemallapudi, M V; Seixas, J; Strong, G; Toldaiev, O; Vadruccio, D; Varela, J; Afanasiev, S; Bunin, P; Gavrilenko, M; Golutvin, I; Gorbunov, I; Kamenev, A; Karjavin, V; Lanev, A; Malakhov, A; Matveev, V; Palichik, V; Perelygin, V; Shmatov, S; Shulha, S; Skatchkov, N; Smirnov, V; Voytishin, N; Zarubin, A; Ivanov, Y; Kim, V; Kuznetsova, E; Levchenko, P; Murzin, V; Oreshkin, V; Smirnov, I; Sosnov, D; Sulimov, V; Uvarov, L; Vavilov, S; Vorobyev, A; Andreev, Yu; Dermenev, A; Gninenko, S; Golubev, N; Karneyeu, A; Kirsanov, M; Krasnikov, N; Pashenkov, A; Tlisov, D; Toropin, A; Epshteyn, V; Gavrilov, V; Lychkovskaya, N; Popov, V; Pozdnyakov, I; Safronov, G; Spiridonov, A; Stepennov, A; Toms, M; Vlasov, E; Zhokin, A; Aushev, T; Bylinkin, A; Chistov, R; Danilov, M; Parygin, P; Philippov, D; Polikarpov, S; Tarkovskii, E; Andreev, V; Azarkin, M; Dremin, I; Kirakosyan, M; Terkulov, A; Baskakov, A; Belyaev, A; Boos, E; Dudko, L; Ershov, A; Gribushin, A; Kodolova, O; Korotkikh, V; Lokhtin, I; Miagkov, I; Obraztsov, S; Petrushanko, S; Savrin, V; Snigirev, A; Vardanyan, I; Blinov, V; Skovpen, Y; Shtol, D; Azhgirey, I; Bayshev, I; Bitioukov, S; Elumakhov, D; Godizov, A; Kachanov, V; Kalinin, A; Konstantinov, D; Mandrik, P; Petrov, V; Ryutin, R; Sobol, A; Troshin, S; Tyurin, N; Uzunian, A; Volkov, A; Adzic, P; Cirkovic, P; Devetak, D; Dordevic, M; Milosevic, J; Rekovic, V; Alcaraz Maestre, J; Bachiller, I; Barrio Luna, M; Cerrada, M; Colino, N; De La Cruz, B; Delgado Peris, A; Fernandez Bedoya, C; Fernández Ramos, J P; Flix, J; Fouz, M C; Gonzalez Lopez, O; Goy Lopez, S; Hernandez, J M; Josa, M I; Moran, D; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Puerta Pelayo, J; Quintario Olmeda, A; Redondo, I; Romero, L; Soares, M S; Álvarez Fernández, A; Albajar, C; de Trocóniz, J F; Missiroli, M; Cuevas, J; Erice, C; Fernandez Menendez, J; Gonzalez Caballero, I; González Fernández, J R; Palencia Cortezon, E; Sanchez Cruz, S; Vischia, P; Vizan Garcia, J M; Cabrillo, I J; Calderon, A; Chazin Quero, B; Curras, E; Duarte Campderros, J; Fernandez, M; Garcia-Ferrero, J; Gomez, G; Lopez Virto, A; Marco, J; Martinez Rivero, C; Martinez Ruiz Del Arbol, P; Matorras, F; Piedra Gomez, J; Rodrigo, T; Ruiz-Jimeno, A; Scodellaro, L; Trevisani, N; Vila, I; Vilar Cortabitarte, R; Abbaneo, D; Akgun, B; Auffray, E; Baillon, P; Ball, A H; Barney, D; Bendavid, J; Bianco, M; Bloch, P; Bocci, A; Botta, C; Camporesi, T; Castello, R; Cepeda, M; Cerminara, G; Chapon, E; Chen, Y; d'Enterria, D; Dabrowski, A; Daponte, V; David, A; De Gruttola, M; De Roeck, A; Deelen, N; Dobson, M; du Pree, T; Dünser, M; Dupont, N; Elliott-Peisert, A; Everaerts, P; Fallavollita, F; Franzoni, G; Fulcher, J; Funk, W; Gigi, D; Gilbert, A; Gill, K; Glege, F; Gulhan, D; Harris, P; Hegeman, J; Innocente, V; Jafari, A; Janot, P; Karacheban, O; Kieseler, J; Knünz, V; Kornmayer, A; Kortelainen, M J; Krammer, M; Lange, C; Lecoq, P; Lourenço, C; Lucchini, M T; Malgeri, L; Mannelli, M; Martelli, A; Meijers, F; Merlin, J A; Mersi, S; Meschi, E; Milenovic, P; Moortgat, F; Mulders, M; Neugebauer, H; Ngadiuba, J; Orfanelli, S; Orsini, L; Pape, L; Perez, E; Peruzzi, M; Petrilli, A; Petrucciani, G; Pfeiffer, A; Pierini, M; Rabady, D; Racz, A; Reis, T; Rolandi, G; Rovere, M; Sakulin, H; Schäfer, C; Schwick, C; Seidel, M; Selvaggi, M; Sharma, A; Silva, P; Sphicas, P; Stakia, A; Steggemann, J; Stoye, M; Tosi, M; Treille, D; Triossi, A; Tsirou, A; Veckalns, V; Verweij, M; Zeuner, W D; Bertl, W; Caminada, L; Deiters, K; Erdmann, W; Horisberger, R; Ingram, Q; Kaestli, H C; Kotlinski, D; Langenegger, U; Rohe, T; Wiederkehr, S A; Backhaus, M; Bäni, L; Berger, P; Bianchini, L; Casal, B; Dissertori, G; Dittmar, M; Donegà, M; Dorfer, C; Grab, C; Heidegger, C; Hits, D; Hoss, J; Kasieczka, G; Klijnsma, T; Lustermann, W; Mangano, B; Marionneau, M; Meinhard, M T; Meister, D; Micheli, F; Musella, P; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Pandolfi, F; Pata, J; Pauss, F; Perrin, G; Perrozzi, L; Quittnat, M; Reichmann, M; Sanz Becerra, D A; Schönenberger, M; Shchutska, L; Tavolaro, V R; Theofilatos, K; Vesterbacka Olsson, M L; Wallny, R; Zhu, D H; Aarrestad, T K; Amsler, C; Canelli, M F; De Cosa, A; Del Burgo, R; Donato, S; Galloni, C; Hreus, T; Kilminster, B; Pinna, D; Rauco, G; Robmann, P; Salerno, D; Schweiger, K; Seitz, C; Takahashi, Y; Zucchetta, A; Candelise, V; Chang, Y H; Cheng, K Y; Doan, T H; Jain, Sh; Khurana, R; Kuo, C M; Lin, W; Pozdnyakov, A; Yu, S S; Kumar, Arun; Chang, P; Chao, Y; Chen, K F; Chen, P H; Fiori, F; Hou, W-S; Hsiung, Y; Liu, Y F; Lu, R-S; Paganis, E; Psallidas, A; Steen, A; Tsai, J F; Asavapibhop, B; Kovitanggoon, K; Singh, G; Srimanobhas, N; Bat, A; Boran, F; Cerci, S; Damarseckin, S; Demiroglu, Z S; Dozen, C; Dumanoglu, I; Girgis, S; Gokbulut, G; Guler, Y; Hos, I; Kangal, E E; Kara, O; Kayis Topaksu, A; Kiminsu, U; Oglakci, M; Onengut, G; Ozdemir, K; Sunar Cerci, D; Tali, B; Tok, U G; Turkcapar, S; Zorbakir, I S; Zorbilmez, C; Karapinar, G; Ocalan, K; Yalvac, M; Zeyrek, M; Gülmez, E; Kaya, M; Kaya, O; Tekten, S; Yetkin, E A; Agaras, M N; Atay, S; Cakir, A; Cankocak, K; Köseoglu, I; Grynyov, B; Levchuk, L; Ball, F; Beck, L; Brooke, J J; Burns, D; Clement, E; Cussans, D; Davignon, O; Flacher, H; Goldstein, J; Heath, G P; Heath, H F; Kreczko, L; Newbold, D M; Paramesvaran, S; Sakuma, T; Seif El Nasr-Storey, S; Smith, D; Smith, V J; Belyaev, A; Brew, C; Brown, R M; Calligaris, L; Cieri, D; Cockerill, D J A; Coughlan, J A; Harder, K; Harper, S; Linacre, J; Olaiya, E; Petyt, D; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C H; Thea, A; Tomalin, I R; Williams, T; Auzinger, G; Bainbridge, R; Borg, J; Breeze, S; Buchmuller, O; Bundock, A; Casasso, S; Citron, M; Colling, D; Corpe, L; Dauncey, P; Davies, G; De Wit, A; Della Negra, M; Di Maria, R; Elwood, A; Haddad, Y; Hall, G; Iles, G; James, T; Lane, R; Laner, C; Lyons, L; Magnan, A-M; Malik, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Matsushita, T; Nash, J; Nikitenko, A; Palladino, V; Pesaresi, M; Raymond, D M; Richards, A; Rose, A; Scott, E; Seez, C; Shtipliyski, A; Summers, S; Tapper, A; Uchida, K; Vazquez Acosta, M; Virdee, T; Wardle, N; Winterbottom, D; Wright, J; Zenz, S C; Cole, J E; Hobson, P R; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Reid, I D; Teodorescu, L; Zahid, S; Borzou, A; Call, K; Dittmann, J; Hatakeyama, K; Liu, H; Pastika, N; Smith, C; Bartek, R; Dominguez, A; Buccilli, A; Cooper, S I; Henderson, C; Rumerio, P; West, C; Arcaro, D; Avetisyan, A; Bose, T; Gastler, D; Rankin, D; Richardson, C; Rohlf, J; Sulak, L; Zou, D; Benelli, G; Cutts, D; Garabedian, A; Hadley, M; Hakala, J; Heintz, U; Hogan, J M; Kwok, K H M; Laird, E; Landsberg, G; Lee, J; Mao, Z; Narain, M; Pazzini, J; Piperov, S; Sagir, S; Syarif, R; Yu, D; Band, R; Brainerd, C; Burns, D; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M; Chertok, M; Conway, J; Conway, R; Cox, P T; Erbacher, R; Flores, C; Funk, G; Ko, W; Lander, R; Mclean, C; Mulhearn, M; Pellett, D; Pilot, J; Shalhout, S; Shi, M; Smith, J; Stolp, D; Tos, K; Tripathi, M; Wang, Z; Bachtis, M; Bravo, C; Cousins, R; Dasgupta, A; Florent, A; Hauser, J; Ignatenko, M; Mccoll, N; Regnard, S; Saltzberg, D; Schnaible, C; Valuev, V; Bouvier, E; Burt, K; Clare, R; Ellison, J; Gary, J W; Ghiasi Shirazi, S M A; Hanson, G; Heilman, J; Karapostoli, G; Kennedy, E; Lacroix, F; Long, O R; Olmedo Negrete, M; Paneva, M I; Si, W; Wang, L; Wei, H; Wimpenny, S; Yates, B R; Branson, J G; Cittolin, S; Derdzinski, M; Gerosa, R; Gilbert, D; Hashemi, B; Holzner, A; Klein, D; Kole, G; Krutelyov, V; Letts, J; Masciovecchio, M; Olivito, D; Padhi, S; Pieri, M; Sani, M; Sharma, V; Tadel, M; Vartak, A; Wasserbaech, S; Wood, J; Würthwein, F; Yagil, A; Zevi Della Porta, G; Amin, N; Bhandari, R; Bradmiller-Feld, J; Campagnari, C; Dishaw, A; Dutta, V; Franco Sevilla, M; Gouskos, L; Heller, R; Incandela, J; Ovcharova, A; Qu, H; Richman, J; Stuart, D; Suarez, I; Yoo, J; Anderson, D; Bornheim, A; Lawhorn, J M; Newman, H B; Nguyen, T Q; Pena, C; Spiropulu, M; Vlimant, J R; Xie, S; Zhang, Z; Zhu, R Y; Andrews, M B; Ferguson, T; Mudholkar, T; Paulini, M; Russ, J; Sun, M; Vogel, H; Vorobiev, I; Weinberg, M; Cumalat, J P; Ford, W T; Jensen, F; Johnson, A; Krohn, M; Leontsinis, S; Mulholland, T; Stenson, K; Wagner, S R; Alexander, J; Chaves, J; Chu, J; Dittmer, S; Mcdermott, K; Mirman, N; Patterson, J R; Quach, D; Rinkevicius, A; Ryd, A; Skinnari, L; Soffi, L; Tan, S M; Tao, Z; Thom, J; Tucker, J; Wittich, P; Zientek, M; Abdullin, S; Albrow, M; Alyari, M; Apollinari, G; Apresyan, A; Apyan, A; Banerjee, S; Bauerdick, L A T; Beretvas, A; Berryhill, J; Bhat, P C; Bolla, G; Burkett, K; Butler, J N; Canepa, A; Cerati, G B; Cheung, H W K; Chlebana, F; Cremonesi, M; Duarte, J; Elvira, V D; Freeman, J; Gecse, Z; Gottschalk, E; Gray, L; Green, D; Grünendahl, S; Gutsche, O; Harris, R M; Hasegawa, S; Hirschauer, J; Hu, Z; Jayatilaka, B; Jindariani, S; Johnson, M; Joshi, U; Klima, B; Kreis, B; Lammel, S; Lincoln, D; Lipton, R; Liu, M; Liu, T; Lopes De Sá, R; Lykken, J; Maeshima, K; Magini, N; Marraffino, J M; Mason, D; McBride, P; Merkel, P; Mrenna, S; Nahn, S; O'Dell, V; Pedro, K; Prokofyev, O; Rakness, G; Ristori, L; Schneider, B; Sexton-Kennedy, E; Soha, A; Spalding, W J; Spiegel, L; Stoynev, S; Strait, J; Strobbe, N; Taylor, L; Tkaczyk, S; Tran, N V; Uplegger, L; Vaandering, E W; Vernieri, C; Verzocchi, M; Vidal, R; Wang, M; Weber, H A; Whitbeck, A; Acosta, D; Avery, P; Bortignon, P; Bourilkov, D; Brinkerhoff, A; Carnes, A; Carver, M; Curry, D; Field, R D; Furic, I K; Gleyzer, S V; Joshi, B M; Konigsberg, J; Korytov, A; Kotov, K; Ma, P; Matchev, K; Mei, H; Mitselmakher, G; Shi, K; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Joshi, Y R; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Rodriguez, J L; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Kolberg, T; Martinez, G; Perry, T; Prosper, H; Saha, A; Santra, A; Sharma, V; Yohay, R; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Cavanaugh, R; Chen, X; Evdokimov, O; Gerber, C E; Hangal, D A; Hofman, D J; Jung, K; Kamin, J; Sandoval Gonzalez, I D; Tonjes, M B; Trauger, H; Varelas, N; Wang, H; Wu, Z; Zhang, J; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Blumenfeld, B; Cocoros, A; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Roskes, J; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; You, C; Al-Bataineh, A; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Boren, S; Bowen, J; Castle, J; Khalil, S; Kropivnitskaya, A; Majumder, D; Mcbrayer, W; Murray, M; Rogan, C; Royon, C; Sanders, S; Schmitz, E; Tapia Takaki, J D; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Eno, S C; Feng, Y; Ferraioli, C; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jeng, G Y; Kellogg, R G; Kunkle, J; Mignerey, A C; Ricci-Tam, F; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonwar, S C; Abercrombie, D; Allen, B; Azzolini, V; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bi, R; Brandt, S; Busza, W; Cali, I A; D'Alfonso, M; Demiragli, Z; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Hsu, D; Hu, M; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Maier, B; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Tatar, K; Velicanu, D; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Benvenuti, A C; Chatterjee, R M; Evans, A; Hansen, P; Hiltbrand, J; Kalafut, S; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Turkewitz, J; Wadud, M A; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Claes, D R; Fangmeier, C; Golf, F; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Kravchenko, I; Monroy, J; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Stieger, B; Dolen, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Nguyen, D; Parker, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Freer, C; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wamorkar, T; Wang, B; Wisecarver, A; Wood, D; Bhattacharya, S; Charaf, O; Hahn, K A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Schmitt, M H; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Bucci, R; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Hurtado Anampa, K; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Li, W; Loukas, N; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Siddireddy, P; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Wayne, M; Wightman, A; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Alimena, J; Antonelli, L; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Francis, B; Hart, A; Hill, C; Ji, W; Liu, B; Luo, W; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Cooperstein, S; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Higginbotham, S; Kalogeropoulos, A; Lange, D; Luo, J; Marlow, D; Mei, K; Ojalvo, I; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Malik, S; Norberg, S; Barker, A; Barnes, V E; Das, S; Folgueras, S; Gutay, L; Jones, M; Jung, A W; Khatiwada, A; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Peng, C C; Qiu, H; Schulte, J F; Sun, J; Wang, F; Xiao, R; Xie, W; Cheng, T; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Freed, S; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Kilpatrick, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Padley, B P; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Shi, W; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Zhang, A; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Duh, Y T; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Lo, K H; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Ciesielski, R; Goulianos, K; Mesropian, C; Agapitos, A; Chou, J P; Gershtein, Y; Gómez Espinosa, T A; Halkiadakis, E; Heindl, M; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Kyriacou, S; Lath, A; Montalvo, R; Nash, K; Osherson, M; Saka, H; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Delannoy, A G; Heideman, J; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; Thapa, K; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Celik, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Huang, T; Kamon, T; Mueller, R; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Perniè, L; Rathjens, D; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Damgov, J; De Guio, F; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Gurpinar, E; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Mengke, T; Muthumuni, S; Peltola, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Wang, Z; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Melo, A; Ni, H; Padeken, K; Sheldon, P; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Barria, P; Cox, B; Hirosky, R; Joyce, M; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Xia, F; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Poudyal, N; Sturdy, J; Thapa, P; Zaleski, S; Brodski, M; Buchanan, J; Caillol, C; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Hussain, U; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Ruggles, T; Savin, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N


    The first observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions is reported using proton-lead data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s_{NN}]=8.16  TeV. The measurement is performed using events with exactly one isolated electron or muon candidate and at least four jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 174  nb^{-1}. The significance of the tt[over ¯] signal against the background-only hypothesis is above 5 standard deviations. The measured cross section is σ_{tt[over ¯]}=45±8  nb, consistent with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  10. Static negative capacitance of a ferroelectric nano-domain nucleus (United States)

    Sluka, Tomas; Mokry, Pavel; Setter, Nava


    Miniaturization of conventional field effect transistors (FETs) approaches the fundamental limits beyond which opening and closing the transistor channel require higher gate voltage swing and cause higher power dissipation and heating. This problem could be eliminated by placing a ferroelectric layer between the FET gate electrode and the channel, which effectively amplifies the gate voltage. The original idea of using a bulk ferroelectric negative capacitor suffers however from irreversible multi-domain ferroelectric switching, which does not allow us to stabilize static negative capacitance, while a recent reversible solution with super-lattices may be difficult to integrate onto FET. Here, we introduce a solution which provides static negative capacitance from a nano-domain nucleus. Phase-field simulations confirm the robustness of this concept, the conveniently achievable small effective negative capacitance and the potentially high compatibility of such a negative nano-capacitor with FET technology.

  11. Synaptic Plasticity in the Nucleus Accumbens: Lessons Learned from Experience. (United States)

    Turner, Brandon D; Kashima, Daniel T; Manz, Kevin M; Grueter, Carrie A; Grueter, Brad A


    Synaptic plasticity contributes to behavioral adaptations. As a key node in the reward pathway, the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is important for determining motivation-to-action outcomes. Across animal models of motivation including addiction, depression, anxiety, and hedonic feeding, selective recruitment of neuromodulatory signals and plasticity mechanisms have been a focus of physiologists and behaviorists alike. Experience-dependent plasticity mechanisms within the NAc vary depending on the distinct afferents and cell-types over time. A greater understanding of molecular mechanisms determining how these changes in synaptic strength track with behavioral adaptations will provide insight into the process of learning and memory along with identifying maladaptations underlying pathological behavior. Here, we summarize recent findings detailing how changes in NAc synaptic strength and mechanisms of plasticity manifest in various models of motivational disorders.

  12. Skewering the subthalamic nucleus via a parietal approach. (United States)

    Zrinzo, Ludvic; Holl, Etienne M; Petersen, Erika A; Limousin, Patricia; Foltynie, Thomas; Hariz, Marwan I


    A frontal burr hole around the level of the coronal suture is the conventional entry point when performing subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS). However, alternative approaches may sometimes be necessary. We present a report of delayed hardware erosion through the scalp in the left frontal region after successful bilateral STN DBS for Parkinson's disease. The left STN was retargeted via a parietal entry point. Significant improvement in UPDRS motor score (59%) was obtained with bilateral stimulation 6 months after re-operation. The literature was examined for similar approaches and the rationale, risks and benefits of non-frontal entry points in functional neurosurgery were explored. Together with a brief review of STN anatomy, this report demonstrates that the parietal approach to the STN remains a viable option in addition to the more traditional frontal access. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. The LHC as a Proton-Nucleus Collider

    CERN Document Server

    Carli, C


    Following its initial operation as a proton-proton (p-p) and heavy-ion (208Pb82+-208Pb82+) collider, the LHC is expected to operate as a p-Pb collider. Later it may collide protons with other lighter nuclei such as 40Ar18+ or 16O8+. We show how the existing proton and lead-ion injector chains may be efficiently operated in tandem to provide these hybrid collisions. The two-in-one magnet design of the LHC main rings imposes different revolution frequencies for the two beams in part of the magnetic cycle. We discuss and evaluate the consequences for beam dynamics and estimate the potential performance of the LHC as a proton-nucleus collider.

  14. Observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirunyan, Albert M; et al.


    The first observation of top quark production in proton-nucleus collisions is reported using proton-lead data collected by the CMS experiment at the CERN LHC at a nucleon-nucleon center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s_\\mathrm{NN}} =$ 8.16 TeV. The measurement is performed using events with exactly one isolated electron or muon and at least four jets. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 174 nb$^{-1}$. The significance of the $\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}$ signal against the background-only hypothesis is above five standard deviations. The measured cross section is $\\sigma_{\\mathrm{t}\\overline{\\mathrm{t}}} =$ 45$\\pm$8 nb, consistent with predictions from perturbative quantum chromodynamics.

  15. Input/output properties of the lateral vestibular nucleus (United States)

    Boyle, R.; Bush, G.; Ehsanian, R.


    This article is a review of work in three species, squirrel monkey, cat, and rat studying the inputs and outputs from the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN). Different electrophysiological shock paradigms were used to determine the synaptic inputs derived from thick to thin diameter vestibular nerve afferents. Angular and linear mechanical stimulations were used to activate and study the combined and individual contribution of inner ear organs and neck afferents. The spatio-temporal properties of LVN neurons in the decerebrated rat were studied in response to dynamic acceleration inputs using sinusoidal linear translation in the horizontal head plane. Outputs were evaluated using antidromic identification techniques and identified LVN neurons were intracellularly injected with biocytin and their morphology studied.

  16. In-beam spectroscopic studies of the 44S nucleus (United States)

    Cáceres, L.; Sohler, D.; Grévy, S.; Sorlin, O.; Dombrádi, Zs.; Bastin, B.; Achouri, N. L.; Angélique, J. C.; Azaiez, F.; Baiborodin, D.; Borcea, R.; Bourgeois, C.; Buta, A.; Bürger, A.; Chapman, R.; Dalouzy, J. C.; Dlouhy, Z.; Drouard, A.; Elekes, Z.; Franchoo, S.; Gaudefroy, L.; Iacob, S.; Laurent, B.; Lazar, M.; Liang, X.; Liénard, E.; Mrazek, J.; Nalpas, L.; Negoita, F.; Nowacki, F.; Orr, N. A.; Penionzhkevich, Y.; Podolyák, Zs.; Pougheon, F.; Poves, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Saint-Laurent, M. G.; Stanoiu, M.; Stefan, I.


    The structure of the 44S nucleus has been studied at GANIL through the one proton knock-out reaction from a 45Cl secondary beam at 42 A·MeV. The γ rays following the de-excitation of 44S were detected in flight using the 70 BaF2 detectors of the Château de Cristal array. An exhaustive γγ-coincidence analysis allowed an unambiguous construction of the level scheme up to an excitation energy of 3301 keV. The existence of the spherical 22+ state is confirmed and three new γ-ray transitions connecting the prolate deformed 21+ level were observed. Comparison of the experimental results to shell model calculations further supports a prolate and spherical shape coexistence with a large mixing of states built on the ground state band in 44S.

  17. Reward and reinforcement activity in the nucleus accumbens during learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Thomas Gale


    Full Text Available The nucleus accumbens core (NAcc has been implicated in learning associations between sensory cues and profitable motor responses. However, the precise mechanisms that underlie these functions remain unclear. We recorded single-neuron activity from the NAcc of primates trained to perform a visual-motor associative learning task. During learning, we found two distinct classes of NAcc neurons. The first class demonstrated progressive increases in firing rates at the go-cue, feedback/tone and reward epochs of the task, as novel associations were learned. This suggests that these neurons may play a role in the exploitation of rewarding behaviors. In contrast, the second class exhibited attenuated firing rates, but only at the reward epoch of the task. These findings suggest that some NAcc neurons play a role in reward-based reinforcement during learning.

  18. Nuclear receptors outside the nucleus: extranuclear signalling by steroid receptors (United States)

    Levin, Ellis R.; Hammes, Stephen R.


    Steroid hormone receptors mediate numerous crucial biological processes and are classically thought to function as transcriptional regulators in the nucleus. However, it has been known for more than 50 years that steroids evoke rapid responses in many organs that cannot be explained by gene regulation. Mounting evidence indicates that most steroid receptors in fact exist in extranuclear cellular pools, including at the plasma membrane. This latter pool, when engaged by a steroid ligand, rapidly activates signals that affect various aspects of cellular biology. Research into the mechanisms of signalling instigated by extranuclear steroid receptor pools and how this extranuclear signalling is integrated with responses elicited by nuclear receptor pools provides novel understanding of steroid hormone signalling and its roles in health and disease. PMID:27729652

  19. One-pion production in neutrino-nucleus collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, E. [Departamento de Física Fundamental e IUFFyM, Universidad de Salamanca, E-37008 Salamanca (Spain); Nieves, J. [Instituto de Física Corpuscular (IFIC), Centro Mixto CSIC-Universidad de Valencia, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain); Vicente-Vacas, J. M. [Departamento de Física Teórica e IFIC, Centro Mixto Universidad de Valencia-CSIC, Institutos de Investigación de Paterna, Apartado 22085, E-46071 Valencia (Spain)


    We use our model for neutrino pion production on the nucleon to study pion production on a nucleus. The model is conveniently modified to include in-medium corrections and its validity is extended up to 2 GeV neutrino energies by the inclusion of new resonant contributions in the production process. Our results are compared with recent MiniBooNE data measured in mineral oil. Our total cross sections are below data for neutrino energies above ≈ 1 GeV. As with other theoretical calculations, the agreement with data improves if we neglect pion final state interaction. This is also the case for differential cross sections convoluted over the neutrino flux.

  20. Role of the nucleus in apoptosis: signaling and execution. (United States)

    Prokhorova, Evgeniia A; Zamaraev, Alexey V; Kopeina, Gelina S; Zhivotovsky, Boris; Lavrik, Inna N


    Since their establishment in the early 1970s, the nuclear changes upon apoptosis induction, such as the condensation of chromatin, disassembly of nuclear scaffold proteins and degradation of DNA, were, and still are, considered as the essential steps and hallmarks of apoptosis. These are the characteristics of the execution phase of apoptotic cell death. In addition, accumulating data clearly show that some nuclear events can lead to the induction of apoptosis. In particular, if DNA lesions resulting from deregulation during the cell cycle or DNA damage induced by chemotherapeutic drugs or viral infection cannot be efficiently eliminated, apoptotic mechanisms, which enable cellular transformation to be avoided, are activated in the nucleus. The functional heterogeneity of the nuclear organization allows the tight regulation of these signaling events that involve the movement of various nuclear proteins to other intracellular compartments (and vice versa) to initiate and govern apoptosis. Here, we discuss how these events are coordinated to execute apoptotic cell death.

  1. Atomic pair-state interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nipper, J.; Balewski, Jonathan B.; Krupp, Alexander T.


    We present experiments measuring an interaction-induced phase shift of Rydberg atoms at Stark-tuned Förster resonances. The phase shift features a dispersive shape around the resonance, showing that the interaction strength and sign can be tuned coherently. We use a pair-state interferometer...

  2. Coffee Cup Atomic Force Microscopy (United States)

    Ashkenaz, David E.; Hall, W. Paige; Haynes, Christy L.; Hicks, Erin M.; McFarland, Adam D.; Sherry, Leif J.; Stuart, Douglas A.; Wheeler, Korin E.; Yonzon, Chanda R.; Zhao, Jing; Godwin, Hilary A.; Van Duyne, Richard P.


    In this activity, students use a model created from a coffee cup or cardstock cutout to explore the working principle of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Students manipulate a model of an AFM, using it to examine various objects to retrieve topographic data and then graph and interpret results. The students observe that movement of the AFM…

  3. Die sonderbare Welt der Atome

    CERN Multimedia

    Greschik, Stefan


    Is a Pinhead small? Or a grain of sand? The components of our world are still infinitely much tinier. Come with us in the dimensions, in that of the giant bacteria and even of atoms large like solar systems (3½ pages)

  4. Atomic Configuration of a ½

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hosson, J.Th.M. de; Sleeswyk, A.W.


    The atomic arrangement around a ½<111>{110} edge dislocation in an α-Fe crystallite embedded in an elastic continuum is calculated, using the Johnson-I interatomic potential. A narrow dislocation without any stacking fault results, although there is some displacement in the core parallel to the

  5. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series. (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  6. Electrostatics of Atoms and Molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 7; Issue 2. Electrostatics of Atoms and Molecules. G Narahari Sastry. Book Review Volume 7 Issue 2 February 2002 pp 90-91. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  7. Robert Dicke and Atomic Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 4. Robert Dicke and Atomic Physics. Vasant Natarajan. General Article Volume 16 Issue 4 April 2011 pp 322-332. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  8. Magnetism of a single atom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Otte, Alexander Ferdinand


    A low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope is used to perform spin-excitations on individual magnetic transition metal atoms when placed onto a crystal surface. By following these excitations while applying external magnetic fields the precise influence of the anisotropic crystal field on the

  9. Atomism from Newton to Dalton. (United States)

    Schofield, Robert E.


    Indicates that although Newton's achievements were rooted in an atomistic theory of matter resembling aspects of modern nuclear physics, Dalton developed his chemical atomism on the basis of the character of the gross behavior of substances rather than their particulate nature. (Author/SK)

  10. Atoms at the Science Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCompte, Robert G. [AEC Division of Technical Information; Wood, Burrell L. [AEC Division of Special Projects


    The United States Atomic Energy Commission has prepared this booklet to help young science fair exhibitors, their science teachers, project counselors, and parents. The booklet suggests some of the numerous nuclear topics on which students can base meaningful science projects. It offers all exhibitors advice on how to plan, design, and construct successful exhibits.

  11. Small amplitude atomic force spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Beer, Sissi; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Ebeling, Daniel; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Bhushan, Bharat


    Over the years atomic force microscopy has developed from a pure imaging technique to a tool that can be employed for measuring quantitative tip–sample interaction forces. In this chapter we provide an overview of various techniques to extract quantitative tip–sample forces focusing on both


    The operating principles and performance of a new type of spray nozzle are presented. This nozzle, termed a "ligament-controlled effervescent atomizer," was developed to allow consumer product manufacturers to replace volatile organic compound (VOC) solvents with water and hydroc...

  13. Atomic Power | Taylor | Zede Journal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Zede Journal. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 3 (1968) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Atomic Power. D Taylor. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT ...

  14. Chemistry with bigger, better atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    Why are QD-QD solids Stoichiometric. • Adjacent QD levels are <0.1 eV apart. • In contrast, atomic oxidation states are separated by. ~1 eV. • Creation of a Stoichiometric defect is 1012 times easier. × Packing Effects. × (Impossible in disordered solids). × Shell Filling. × (Insufficient level separation) ...

  15. The dolphin cochlear nucleus: topography, histology and functional implications. (United States)

    Malkemper, E P; Oelschläger, H H A; Huggenberger, S


    Despite the outstanding auditory capabilities of dolphins, there is only limited information available on the cytology of the auditory brain stem nuclei in these animals. Here, we investigated the cochlear nuclei (CN) of five brains of common dolphins (Delphinus delphis) and La Plata dolphins (Pontoporia blainvillei) using cell and fiber stain microslide series representing the three main anatomical planes. In general, the CN in dolphins comprise the same set of subnuclei as in other mammals. However, the volume ratio of the dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) in relation to the ventral cochlear nucleus (VCN) of dolphins represents a minimum among the mammals examined so far. Because, for example, in cats the DCN is necessary for reflexive orientation of the head and pinnae towards a sound source, the massive restrictions in head movability in dolphins and the absence of outer ears may be correlated with the reduction of the DCN. Moreover, the same set of main neuron types were found in the dolphin CN as in other mammals, including octopus and multipolar cells. Because the latter two types of neurons are thought to be involved in the recognition of complex sounds, including speech, we suggest that, in dolphins, they may be involved in the processing of their communication signals. Comparison of the toothed whale species studied here revealed that large spherical cells were present in the La Plata dolphin but absent in the common dolphin. These neurons are known to be engaged in the processing of low-frequency sounds in terrestrial mammals. Accordingly, in the common dolphin, the absence of large spherical cells seems to be correlated with a shift of its auditory spectrum into the high-frequency range above 20 kHz. The existence of large spherical cells in the VCN of the La Plata dolphin, however, is enigmatic asthis species uses frequencies around 130 kHz. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Intrinsic properties and neuropharmacology of midline paraventricular thalamic nucleus neurons.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miloslav eKolaj


    Full Text Available Neurons in the midline and intralaminar thalamic nuclei are components of an interconnected brainstem, limbic and prefrontal cortex neural network that is engaged during arousal, vigilance, motivated and addictive behaviors, and stress. To better understand the cellular mechanisms underlying these functions, here we review some of the recently characterized electrophysiological and neuropharmacological properties of neurons in the paraventricular thalamic nucleus (PVT, derived from whole cell patch clamp recordings in acute rat brain slice preparations. PVT neurons display firing patterns and ionic conductances (IT and IH that exhibit significant diurnal change. Their resting membrane potential is maintained by various ionic conductances that include inward rectifier (Kir, hyperpolarization-activated nonselective cation (HCN and TWIK-related acid sensitive (TASK K+ channels. Firing patterns are regulated by high voltage-activated (HVA and low voltage-activated (LVA Ca2+ conductances. Moreover, transient receptor potential (TRP-like nonselective cation channels together with Ca2+- and Na+-activated K+ conductances (KCa; KNa contribute to unique slow afterhyperpolarizing potentials (sAHPs that are generally not detectable in lateral thalamic or reticular thalamic nucleus neurons. We also report on receptor-mediated actions of GABA, glutamate, monoamines and several neuropeptides: arginine vasopressin, gastrin-releasing peptide, thyrotropin releasing hormone and the orexins (hypocretins. This review represents an initial survey of intrinsic and transmitter-sensitive ionic conductances that are deemed to be unique to this population of midline thalamic neurons, information that is fundamental to an appreciation of the role these thalamic neurons may play in normal central nervous system (CNS physiology and in CNS disorders that involve the dorsomedial thalamus.

  17. Subthalamic nucleus electrical stimulation modulates calcium activity of nigral astrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Barat

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr is a major output nucleus of the basal ganglia, delivering inhibitory efferents to the relay nuclei of the thalamus. Pathological hyperactivity of SNr neurons is known to be responsible for some motor disorders e.g. in Parkinson's disease. One way to restore this pathological activity is to electrically stimulate one of the SNr input, the excitatory subthalamic nucleus (STN, which has emerged as an effective treatment for parkinsonian patients. The neuronal network and signal processing of the basal ganglia are well known but, paradoxically, the role of astrocytes in the regulation of SNr activity has never been studied. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this work, we developed a rat brain slice model to study the influence of spontaneous and induced excitability of afferent nuclei on SNr astrocytes calcium activity. Astrocytes represent the main cellular population in the SNr and display spontaneous calcium activities in basal conditions. Half of this activity is autonomous (i.e. independent of synaptic activity while the other half is dependent on spontaneous glutamate and GABA release, probably controlled by the pace-maker activity of the pallido-nigral and subthalamo-nigral loops. Modification of the activity of the loops by STN electrical stimulation disrupted this astrocytic calcium excitability through an increase of glutamate and GABA releases. Astrocytic AMPA, mGlu and GABA(A receptors were involved in this effect. SIGNIFICANCE: Astrocytes are now viewed as active components of neural networks but their role depends on the brain structure concerned. In the SNr, evoked activity prevails and autonomous calcium activity is lower than in the cortex or hippocampus. Our data therefore reflect a specific role of SNr astrocytes in sensing the STN-GPe-SNr loops activity and suggest that SNr astrocytes could potentially feedback on SNr neuronal activity. These findings have major implications given the

  18. GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish (Carassius auratus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Angeles eLuque


    Full Text Available The mammalian oculomotor nucleus receives a strong -aminobutyric acid (GABAergic synaptic input, whereas such projections have rarely been reported in fish. In order to determine whether this synaptic organization is preserved across vertebrates, we investigated the GABAergic projections to the oculomotor nucleus in the goldfish by combining retrograde transport of biotin dextran amine, injected into the antidromically identified oculomotor nucleus, and GABA immunohistochemistry. The main source of GABAergic afferents to the oculomotor nucleus was the ipsilateral anterior octaval nucleus, with only a few, if any, GABAergic neurons being located in the contralateral tangential and descending nuclei of the octaval column. In mammals there is a nearly exclusive ipsilateral projection from vestibular neurons to the oculomotor nucleus via GABAergic inhibitory inputs; thus, the vestibulooculomotor GABAergic circuitry follows a plan that appears to be shared throughout the vertebrate phylogeny. The second major source of GABAergic projections was the rhombencephalic reticular formation, primarily from the medial area but, to a lesser extent, from the inferior area. A few GABAergic oculomotor projecting neurons were also observed in the ipsilateral nucleus of the medial longitudinal fasciculus. The GABAergic projections from neurons located in both the reticular formation surrounding the abducens nucleus and the nucleus of the medial reticular formation have primarily been related to the control of saccadic eye movements. Finally, all retrogradely labeled internuclear neurons of the abducens nucleus, and neurons in the cerebellum (close to the caudal lobe, were negative for GABA. These data suggest that the vestibuloocular and saccadic inhibitory GABAergic systems appear early in vertebrate phylogeny to modulate the firing properties of the oculomotor nucleus motoneurons.

  19. Lenticular nucleus hyperechogenicity in Wilson's disease reflects local copper, but not iron accumulation. (United States)

    Walter, Uwe; Skowrońska, Marta; Litwin, Tomasz; Szpak, Grażyna Maria; Jabłonka-Salach, Katarzyna; Skoloudík, David; Bulska, Ewa; Członkowska, Anna


    In patients with Wilson's disease (WD) transcranial brain sonography typically reveals areas of increased echogenicity (hyperechogenicity) of the lenticular nucleus (LN). Correlation with T2-hypointensity on magnetic resonance images suggested that LN hyperechogenicity in WD is caused by trace metal accumulation. Accumulation of both, copper and iron, in the brain of WD patients has been reported. The present study was designed to elucidate whether LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects accumulation of copper or iron. Post-mortem brains of 15 WD patients and one non-WD subject were studied with ultrasonography in an investigator-blinded fashion. LN hyperechogenicity was measured planimetrically by manual tracing as well as using digitized image analysis. The putaminal copper content was determined in samples of 11 WD brains and the non-WD brains using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, and iron content was assessed using flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. LN was normal on ultrasonography only in the non-WD brain, but abnormal (hyperechogenic) in all WD brains. Digitized image analysis measures of LN hyperechogenicity and, by trend, manual measures correlated with putaminal copper content (Pearson test; digitized: r = 0.77, p = 0.04; manual: r = 0.57, p = 0.051) but not with iron content (each, p > 0.18). LN hyperechogenicity measures were unrelated to age at death of patients, age at onset of WD, WD duration, age of brain specimen, serum copper or serum ceruloplasmin (each, p > 0.1). We conclude that LN hyperechogenicity in WD reflects copper, but not iron accumulation. Further studies are warranted to elucidate the use of transcranial brain sonography for monitoring therapeutic effects of chelating agents in WD patients.

  20. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  1. Corticotropin-releasing factor within the central nucleus of the amygdala and the nucleus accumbens shell mediates the negative affective state of nicotine withdrawal in rats


    Marcinkiewcz, Catherine A.; Prado, Melissa M.; Isaac, Shani K.; Marshall, Alex.; Rylkova, Daria; Bruijnzeel, Adrie W.


    Tobacco addiction is a chronic disorder that is characterized by a negative affective state upon smoking cessation and relapse after periods of abstinence. Previous research has shown that an increased central release of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) at least partly mediates the deficit in brain reward function associated with nicotine withdrawal in rats. The aim of these studies was to investigate the role of CRF in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), the lateral bed nucleus of...

  2. Observation of the continuous stern-gerlach effect on an electron bound in an atomic Ion (United States)

    Hermanspahn; Haffner; Kluge; Quint; Stahl; Verdu; Werth


    We report on the first observation of the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect on an electron bound in an atomic ion. The measurement was performed on a single hydrogenlike ion ( 12C5+) in a Penning trap. The measured g factor of the bound electron, g = 2.001 042(2), is in excellent agreement with the theoretical value, confirming the relativistic correction at a level of 0.1%. This proves the possibility of g-factor determinations on atomic ions to high precision by using the continuous Stern-Gerlach effect. The result demonstrates the feasibility of conducting experiments on single heavy highly charged ions to test quantum electrodynamics in the strong electric field of the nucleus.

  3. NPY and VGF Immunoreactivity Increased in the Arcuate Nucleus, but Decreased in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, of Type-II Diabetic Patients (United States)

    Saderi, Nadia; Salgado-Delgado, Roberto; Avendaño-Pradel, Rafael; Basualdo, Maria del Carmen; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Chávez-Macías, Laura; Escobar, Carolina; Buijs, Ruud M.


    Ample animal studies demonstrate that neuropeptides NPY and α-MSH expressed in Arcuate Nucleus and Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius, modulate glucose homeostasis and food intake. In contrast is the absence of data validating these observations for human disease. Here we compare the post mortem immunoreactivity of the metabolic neuropeptides NPY, αMSH and VGF in the infundibular nucleus, and brainstem of 11 type-2 diabetic and 11 non-diabetic individuals. α-MSH, NPY and tyrosine hydroxylase in human brain are localized in the same areas as in rodent brain. The similar distribution of NPY, α-MSH and VGF indicated that these neurons in the human brain may share similar functionality as in the rodent brain. The number of NPY and VGF immuno positive cells was increased in the infundibular nucleus of diabetic subjects in comparison to non-diabetic controls. In contrast, NPY and VGF were down regulated in the Nucleus of the Tractus Solitarius of diabetic patients. These results suggest an activation of NPY producing neurons in the arcuate nucleus, which, according to animal experimental studies, is related to a catabolic state and might be the basis for increased hepatic glucose production in type-2 diabetes. PMID:22808091

  4. Input-output organization of inhibitory neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal projecting to the contralateral trochlear and oculomotor nucleus. (United States)

    Sugiuchi, Y; Takahashi, M; Shinoda, Y


    Neurons in the interstitial nucleus of Cajal (INC) that are known to be involved in eye and head movements are excitatory. We investigated the input-output organization of inhibitory INC neurons involved in controlling vertical saccades. Intracellular recordings were made in INC neurons activated antidromically by stimulation of the contralateral trochlear or oculomotor nucleus, and their synaptic input properties from the superior colliculi (SCs) and the contralateral INC were analyzed in anesthetized cats. Many INC neurons projected to the contralateral trochlear nucleus, Forel's field H, INC, and oculomotor nucleus, and mainly received monosynaptic excitation followed by disynaptic inhibition from the ipsi- and contralateral SCs. After sectioning the commissural connections between the SCs, these neurons received monosynaptic excitation from the ipsilateral medial SC and disynaptic inhibition via the INC from the contralateral lateral SC. Another group of INC neurons were antidromically activated from the contralateral oculomotor nucleus, INC and Forel's field H, but not from the trochlear nucleus, and received monosynaptic excitation from the ipsilateral lateral SC and disynaptic inhibition from the contralateral medial SC. The former group was considered to inhibit contralateral trochlear and inferior rectus motoneurons in upward saccades, whereas the latter was considered to inhibit contralateral superior rectus and inferior oblique motoneurons in downward saccades. The mutual inhibition existed between these two groups of INC neurons for upward saccades on one side and downward saccades on the other. This pattern of input-output organization of inhibitory INC neurons suggests that the basic neural circuits for horizontal and vertical saccades are similar.

  5. Atoms, molecules and optical physics 1. Atoms and spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Ingolf V.; Schulz, Claus-Peter


    This is the first volume of textbooks on atomic, molecular and optical physics, aiming at a comprehensive presentation of this highly productive branch of modern physics as an indispensable basis for many areas in physics and chemistry as well as in state of the art bio- and material-sciences. It primarily addresses advanced students (including PhD students), but in a number of selected subject areas the reader is lead up to the frontiers of present research. Thus even the active scientist is addressed. This volume 1 provides the canonical knowledge in atomic physics together with basics of modern spectroscopy. Starting from the fundamentals of quantum physics, the reader is familiarized in well structured chapters step by step with the most important phenomena, models and measuring techniques. The emphasis is always on the experiment and its interpretation, while the necessary theory is introduced from this perspective in a compact and occasionally somewhat heuristic manner, easy to follow even for beginners.

  6. Atom Probe Tomography of Geomaterials (United States)

    Parman, S. W.; Diercks, D.; Gorman, B.; Cooper, R. F.


    From the electron microprobe to the secondary ion microprobe to laser-ablation ICP-MS, steady improvements in the spatial resolution and detection limits of geochemical micro-analysis have been central to generating new discoveries. Atom probe tomography (APT) is a relatively new technology that promises nm-scale spatial resolution (in three dimensions) with ppm level detection limits. The method is substantially different from traditional beam-based (electron, ion, laser) methods. In APT, the sample is shaped (usually with a dual-beam FIB) into a needle with typical dimensions of 1-2 μm height and 100-200 nm diameter. Within the atom probe, the needle is evaporated one atom (ideally) at a time by a high electric field (ten's of V per square nm at the needle tip). A femtosecond laser (12 ps pulse width) is used to assist in evaporating non-conducting samples. The two-dimensional detector locates where the atom was released from the needle's surface and so can reconstruct the positions of all detected atoms in three dimensions. It also records the time of flight of the ion, which is used to calculate the mass/charge ratio of the ion. We will discuss our results analyzing a range of geologic materials. In one case, naturally occurring platinum group alloys (PGA) from the Josephine Ophiolite have been imaged. Such alloys are of interest as recorders of the Os heterogeneity of the mantle [1,2]. Optimal ablation was achieved with a laser power of 120-240 pJ and laser pulse rates 500 kHz. Runs were stopped after 10 million atoms were imaged. An example analysis is: Pt 61(1), Fe 26.1(9), Rh 1.20(4), Ir 7.0(7), Ni 2.65(8), Ru 0.20(9), Cu 1.22(8), Co 0.00029(5). Values are in atomic %; values in parentheses are one-sigma standard deviations on five separate needles from the same FIB lift-out, which was 30 μm long. Assuming the sample is homogenous over the 30 μm from which the needle was extracted, the analyses suggest relative errors for major elements below 5% and for

  7. Super-Coulombic atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media (United States)

    Cortes, Cristian L.; Jacob, Zubin


    Dipole-dipole interactions, which govern phenomena such as cooperative Lamb shifts, superradiant decay rates, Van der Waals forces and resonance energy transfer rates, are conventionally limited to the Coulombic near-field. Here we reveal a class of real-photon and virtual-photon long-range quantum electrodynamic interactions that have a singularity in media with hyperbolic dispersion. The singularity in the dipole-dipole coupling, referred to as a super-Coulombic interaction, is a result of an effective interaction distance that goes to zero in the ideal limit irrespective of the physical distance. We investigate the entire landscape of atom-atom interactions in hyperbolic media confirming the giant long-range enhancement. We also propose multiple experimental platforms to verify our predicted effect with phonon-polaritonic hexagonal boron nitride, plasmonic super-lattices and hyperbolic meta-surfaces as well. Our work paves the way for the control of cold atoms above hyperbolic meta-surfaces and the study of many-body physics with hyperbolic media.

  8. Redistribution of particles across the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko (United States)

    Thomas, N.; Davidsson, B.; El-Maarry, M. R.; Fornasier, S.; Giacomini, L.; Gracia-Berná, A. G.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kührt, E.; La Forgia, F.; Lai, I. L.; Liao, Y.; Marschall, R.; Massironi, M.; Mottola, S.; Pajola, M.; Poch, O.; Pommerol, A.; Preusker, F.; Scholten, F.; Su, C. C.; Wu, J. S.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Barucci, M. A.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; de Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutierrez, P. J.; Kramm, J.-R.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. M.; Lazzarin, M.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Michalik, H.; Naletto, G.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Oklay, N.; Tubiana, C.


    Context. We present an investigation of the surface properties of areas on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. Aims: We aim to show that transport of material from one part of the cometary nucleus to another is a significant mechanism that influences the appearance of the nucleus and the surface thermal properties. Methods: We used data from the OSIRIS imaging system onboard the Rosetta spacecraft to identify surface features on the nucleus that can be produced by various transport mechanisms. We used simple calculations based on previous works to establish the plausibility of dust transport from one part of the nucleus to another. Results: We show by observation and modeling that "airfall" as a consequence of non-escaping large particles emitted from the neck region of the nucleus is a plausible explanation for the smooth thin deposits in the northern hemisphere of the nucleus. The consequences are also discussed. We also present observations of aeolian ripples and ventifacts. We show by numerical modeling that a type of saltation is plausible even under the rarified gas densities seen at the surface of the nucleus. However, interparticle cohesive forces present difficulties for this model, and an alternative mechanism for the initiation of reptation and creep may result from the airfall mechanism. The requirements on gas density and other parameters of this alternative make it a more attractive explanation for the observations. The uncertainties and implications are discussed.

  9. Prospects for measuring coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering at a stopped-pion neutrino source


    Scholberg, Kate


    Rates of coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering at a high-intensity stopped-pion neutrino source in various detector materials (relevant for novel low-threshold detectors) are calculated. Sensitivity of a coherent neutrino-nucleus elastic scattering experiment to new physics is also explored.

  10. The performance of a hydrogel nucleus pulposus prosthesis in an ex vivo canine model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergknut, N.; Smolders, L.A.; Koole, L.H.; Voorhout, G.; Hagman, R.E.; Lagerstedt, A.S.; Saralidze, K.; Hazewinkel, H.A.W.; van der Veen, A.J.; Meij, B.P.


    A nucleus pulposus prosthesis (NPP) made of the hydrogel N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone copolymerized with 2-(4'-iodobenzoyl)-oxo-ethyl methacrylate has recently been developed. The special features of this NPP, i.e. intrinsic radiopacity and its ability to swell in situ to fill the nucleus cavity and

  11. Rotational structures in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 80}Y

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bucurescu, D. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Ur, C.A. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Bazzacco, D. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Rossi-Alvarez, C. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Spolaore, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Petrache, C.M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Ionescu-Bujor, M. [Institutul de Fizica Atomica, Bucharest (Romania); Lunardi, S. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Medina, N.H. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Napoli, D.R. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; De Poli, M. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; De Angelis, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Brandolini, F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica; Gadea, A. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Pavan, P. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Legnaro (Italy). Lab. Nazionali di Legnaro; Segato, G.F. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Padua (Italy)]|[Padua Univ. (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica


    High spin states have been observed for the first time in the odd-odd nucleus {sup 80}Y, by using the {sup 24}Mg({sup 58}Ni,pn) reaction at 180 MeV. Eight rotational bands have been established, indicating a nucleus with appreciable deformation. (orig.)

  12. Methods for the mineralogical and textural analysis of comet nucleus samples (United States)

    Stoeffler, D.; Dueren, H.; Knoelker, J.


    The objectives and instrumental requirements of a petrographic analysis of porous comet nucleus material are reviewed. Assumptions about its composition and texture, and the available techniques for the microscopic analysis of comet analogue material are investigated. New techniques required for the petrographic investigation of natural and artificial comet nucleus samples are also considered.

  13. Dopamine efflux in nucleus accumbens shell and core in response to appetitive classical conditioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, J. J.; de Bruin, J. P. C.; Feenstra, M. G. P.


    Dopamine transmission within the nucleus accumbens has been implicated in associative reinforcement learning. We investigated the effect of appetitive classical conditioning on dopamine efflux in the rat nucleus accumbens shell and core, as dopamine may be differentially activated by conditioned and

  14. Three-Dimensional Organization of Chromosome Territories in the Human Interphase Nucleus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.A. Knoch (Tobias); J. Langowski (Jörg)


    textabstractDespite the successful linear sequencing of the human genome its three-dimensional structure is widely unknown. The regulation of genes has been shown to be connected closely to the three-dimensional organization of the genome in the cell nucleus. The nucleus of the cell has for a long

  15. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal Cell-Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan A H; van Doeselaar, Marina; Meij, Björn P; Tryfonidou, Marianna A; Ito, K|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/345809610


    Objectives: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  16. The Stimulatory Effect of Notochordal-Cell Conditioned Medium in a Nucleus Pulposus Explant Culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Stefan; Doeselaar, Marina van; Meij, Björn; Tryfonidou, M; Ito, Keita


    OBJECTIVES: Notochordal cell-conditioned medium (NCCM) has previously shown to have a stimulatory effect on nucleus pulposus cells (NPCs) and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) in alginate and pellet cultures. These culture methods provide a different environment than the nucleus pulposus (NP)

  17. Whisker movements evoked by stimulation of single motor neurons in the facial nucleus of the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.J. Herfst (Lucas); M. Brecht (Michael)


    textabstractThe lateral facial nucleus is the sole output structure whose neuronal activity leads to whisker movements. To understand how single facial nucleus neurons contribute to whisker movement we combined single-cell stimulation and high-precision whisker tracking. Half of the 44 stimulated

  18. Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay

    CERN Document Server

    Briz Monago, Jose Antonio; Nácher González, Enrique

    The Ph.D. thesis entitled “Shape study of the N=Z waiting-point nucleus 72Kr via beta decay” is devoted to the study of the shape of the ground state of the 72Kr nucleus. It is an N=Z nucleus in the mass region A~70-80 where shape transitions and the shape coexistence phenomena have been identified. Furthermore, this nucleus participates in the rp-process as a waiting point due to the slowdown of the process taking place at the arrival to this nucleus. The study of the properties of this nucleus is interesting from the Nuclear Structure point of view, for the phenomena occurring in its mass region and have been predicted for it, and from the Nuclear Astrophysics for the accurate performance of astrophysical calculations. The β+/EC decay of the 72Kr nucleus has been studied through two complementary experiments at the ISOLDE facility at CERN in Geneva (Switzerland). In one of them, the low-spin structure of the daughter nucleus, 72Br, has been revised via conversion electron spectroscopy where the convers...

  19. Non-compound nucleus fission in actinide and pre-actinide regions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    fragment angular distribution in 28Si+176Yb reaction did not show a large contribution from the non-compound nucleus fission. Data on the evaporation residue cross-sections, in addition to those on mass and angular distributions, are necessary for better understanding of the contribution from non-compound nucleus ...

  20. Protein Kinase C Epsilon Activity in the Nucleus Accumbens and Central Nucleus of the Amygdala Mediates Binge Alcohol Consumption. (United States)

    Cozzoli, Debra K; Courson, Justin; Rostock, Charlotte; Campbell, Rianne R; Wroten, Melissa G; McGregor, Hadley; Caruana, Amanda L; Miller, Bailey W; Hu, Jia-Hua; Wu Zhang, Ping; Xiao, Bo; Worley, Paul F; Crabbe, John C; Finn, Deborah A; Szumlinski, Karen K


    Protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) is emerging as a potential target for the development of pharmacotherapies to treat alcohol use disorders, yet little is known regarding how a history of a highly prevalent form of drinking, binge alcohol intake, influences enzyme priming or the functional relevance of kinase activity for excessive alcohol intake. Immunoblotting was employed on tissue from subregions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the amygdala to examine both idiopathic and binge drinking-induced changes in constitutive PKCε priming. The functional relevance of PKCε translocation for binge drinking and determination of potential upstream signaling pathways involved were investigated using neuropharmacologic approaches within the context of two distinct binge drinking procedures, drinking in the dark and scheduled high alcohol consumption. Binge alcohol drinking elevated p(Ser729)-PKCε levels in both the NAc and the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA). Moreover, immunoblotting studies of selectively bred and transgenic mouse lines revealed a positive correlation between the propensity to binge drink alcohol and constitutive p(Ser729)-PKCε levels in the NAc and CeA. Finally, neuropharmacologic inhibition of PKCε translocation within both regions reduced binge alcohol consumption in a manner requiring intact group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors, Homer2, phospholipase C, and/or phosphotidylinositide-3 kinase function. Taken together, these data indicate that PKCε signaling in both the NAc and CeA is a major contributor to binge alcohol drinking and to the genetic propensity to consume excessive amounts of alcohol. Copyright © 2016 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Nanoimaging and ultra structure of Entamoeba histolytica and its pseudopods by using atomic force microscope (United States)

    Joshi, Narahari V.; Medina, Honorio; Urdaneta, H.; Barboza, J.


    Nan-imaging of Entamoeba histolytica was carried out by using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM). The structure of the nucleus, endoplasm and ectoplasm were studied separately. The diameter of the nucleus in living E. histolytica was found to be of the order of 10 micrometers which is slightly higher than the earlier reported value. The presence of karysome was detected in the nucleus. Well-organized patterns of chromatoid bodies located within the endoplasm, were detected and their repetitive patterns were examined. The organized structure was also extended within the ectoplasm. The dimensions and form of the organization suggest that chromatic bodies are constituted with ribosomes ordered in the form of folded sheet. Such structures were found to be absent in non-living E. histolytica. AFM images were also captured just in the act when ameba was extending its pseudopods. Alteration in the ultrastructure caused during the process of extension was viewed. Well marked canals of width 694.05 nm. And height 211.05 nm are clearly perceptible towards the direction of the pseudopods. 3D images are presented to appreciate the height variation, which can not be achieved by conventional well-established techniques such as electron microscopy.

  2. Atomic Covalent Functionalization of Graphene (United States)

    Johns, James E.; Hersam, Mark C.


    Conspectus Although graphene’s physical structure is a single atom thick, two-dimensional, hexagonal crystal of sp2 bonded carbon, this simple description belies the myriad interesting and complex physical properties attributed to this fascinating material. Because of its unusual electronic structure and superlative properties, graphene serves as a leading candidate for many next generation technologies including high frequency electronics, broadband photodetectors, biological and gas sensors, and transparent conductive coatings. Despite this promise, researchers could apply graphene more routinely in real-world technologies if they could chemically adjust graphene’s electronic properties. For example, the covalent modification of graphene to create a band gap comparable to silicon (~1 eV) would enable its use in digital electronics, and larger band gaps would provide new opportunities for graphene-based photonics. Towards this end, researchers have focused considerable effort on the chemical functionalization of graphene. Due to its high thermodynamic stability and chemical inertness, new methods and techniques are required to create covalent bonds without promoting undesirable side reactions or irreversible damage to the underlying carbon lattice. In this Account, we review and discuss recent theoretical and experimental work studying covalent modifications to graphene using gas phase atomic radicals. Atomic radicals have sufficient energy to overcome the kinetic and thermodynamic barriers associated with covalent reactions on the basal plane of graphene but lack the energy required to break the C-C sigma bonds that would destroy the carbon lattice. Furthermore, because they are atomic species, radicals substantially reduce the likelihood of unwanted side reactions that confound other covalent chemistries. Overall, these methods based on atomic radicals show promise for the homogeneous functionalization of graphene and the production of new classes of two

  3. Separable Representation of Nucleon-Nucleus Optical Potentials as Input to (d; p) Reaction Calculations (United States)

    Hlophe, Linda D.

    The three-body description of deuteron-induced nuclear reactions requires the nucleon-nucleon (NN) and effective nucleon-nucleus interactions as input. The latter are given by Optical Model Potentials (OMPs), which are complex as well as energy-dependent. While a lot of effort has been dedicated to creating separable NN potentials, the same is not true for the nucleon-nucleus OMPs. In this work, separable representations of nucleon-nucleus OMPs are presented. To construct separable representations of neutron-nucleus OMPs, a scheme due to Ernst, Shakin, and Thaler (EST) is adopted as a starting point. It is shown that, by including both incoming and outgoing scattering states in the EST scheme, separable expansions for complex neutron-nucleus potentials that partially obey reciprocity are obtained. For the application to neutron-nucleus potentials that are complex as well as energy-dependent, a further generalization is carried out leading to an energy-dependent separable expansion that exactly fulfills reciprocity. By working exclusively with half-shell transition matrices in momentum space, the implementation of these separable representation schemes is straightforward. The proton-nucleus interaction consists of a short-ranged nuclear piece as well as the long-ranged point-Coulomb potential. After separating the point-Coulomb piece via the Gell-Mann-Goldberger relation, one is left with the short-ranged potential in the Coulomb basis. An extension of the separable representation schemes for neutron-nucleus OMPs to proton-nucleus systems thus requires scattering solutions in the Coulomb basis. This complicates a momentum space implementation of the aforementioned separable expansions. However, by employing the techniques first suggested by Elster, Liu, and Thaler, the separable representation schemes generalized for proton-nucleus OMPs are implemented in a similar manner to neutron-nucleus OMPs. Taking into account the internal structure of the nucleus leads to

  4. Remote atom entanglement in a fiber-connected three-atom system


    Yan-Qing, Guo; Jing, Chen; He-Shan, Song


    An Ising-type atom-atom interaction is obtained in a fiber-connected three-atom system. The interaction is effective when $\\Delta\\approx \\gamma _{0}\\gg g$. The preparations of remote two-atom and three-atom entanglement governed by this interaction are discussed in specific parameters region. The overall two-atom entanglement is very small because of the existence of the third atom. However, the three-atom entanglement can reach a maximum very close to 1.

  5. Neurotransmitter mechanisms in the nucleus accumbens septi and related regions in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I.


    The investigation compares the localization of different transmitter candidates, particularly the amino acide ..gamma..-aminobutyrate (GABA) and glutamate (GLU), in limbic and basal ganglia regions in the rat brain. In particular, the characteristics of nucleus accumbens septi have been studied in some detail. GABA neurons have been found in nucleus accumbens, and GABA projections from this nucleus have been identified in restricted basal forebrain and mesencephalic regions. GLU projections from the neo- or allocortex have been found to terminate in nucleus accumbens and other forebrain and hypothalamic nuclei. Neurotransmitters in local neurons have been identified in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, septum and caudatoputamen by means of local kainic acid injections, while neurons in the mediobasal hypothalamus have been studied after systemic treatment of newborn animals with monosodium glutamate. The results are discussed as a basis for a better understanding of limbic-basal ganglia interactions.

  6. Projection of secondary vestibular neurons to the abducens nucleus in the carpet shark Cephaloscyllium isabella. (United States)

    Montgomery, J C; Cotton, P


    The abducens nucleus in carpet sharks is not a discrete delimited nucleus, as the dendrites of the motoneurons extend into the reticular formation and the medial longitudinal fasciculus. Injections of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) designed to trace the inputs to these neurons are therefore difficult to confine to this system alone. Despite this problem a consistent finding from injection of HRP in the area of the abducens nucleus is the retrograde labelling of a column of cells in the contralateral octaval nuclei. The column of cells is predominantly in the ventral portion of the descending octaval nucleus, but does straddle the entrance of nerve VIII, extending into the caudal part of the ascending octaval nucleus. Labelled cells correspond in location and morphology to those cells receiving input from horizontal canal afferent fibers, confirming the trineuronal nature of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex arc in elasmobranch fishes.

  7. Preservation of the nucleus X-pelvic floor motosystem in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrøder, H D; Reske-Nielsen, E


    were observed in Onuf's nucleus X, not even in 8 cases in which other caudal motoneuron nuclei presented a severe loss of neurons. The striated sphincters proper demonstrated no signs of neurogenic atrophy in contrast to muscles in the limbs. The bulbo- and ischiocavernosus muscles, also supposedly......Fourteen cases of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) were investigated neuropathologically, emphazising the sacral spinal cord which contains Onuf's nucleus X. The nucleus innervates the pelvic sphincters. In two cases, small striated pelvic muscles were studied. No changes characteristic of ALS...... innervated by Onuf's nucleus, were without pathological changes. Moreover, the latter two muscles were found to have a composition very similar to that of the sphincters. This indicates that a characteristic morphology of the nucleus X-innervated muscles exists. A review of the clinical records of all...

  8. Influence of recipient cytoplasm cell stage on transcription in bovine nucleus transfer embryos

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Steven D.; Soloy, Eva; Kanka, Jiri


    Nucleus transfer for the production of multiple embryos derived from a donor embryo relies upon the reprogramming of the donor nucleus so that it behaves similar to a zygotic nucleus. One indication of nucleus reprogramming is the RNA synthetic activity. In normal bovine embryogenesis, the embryo...... relies upon maternally derived RNA transcripts up to the 8-cell stage, at which time it begins to transcribe its own RNA. In this experiment, RNA synthesis was detected in nucleus transfer embryos (NTE) and control embryos by pulsing with 3H-uridine, fixation, and autoradiography on semithin sections....... NTE were produced using either a MII phase (nonactivated) cytoplasts at 32 hr of maturation or S-phase (activated) cytoplasts activated with calcium ionophore A23187 and cycloheximide treatment approximately 8 hr prior to fusion with a blastomere from an in-vitro-produced morula stage embryo at 32 hr...

  9. Atomizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fixed stereo electroacoustic music, included in Robert Voisey’s (Curator) VoxNovus 60×60 Dance, 60×60 2010 International Mix and 60×60 Sanguine Mix projects. Performed internationally, including Stratford Circus, London, UK. Full performance listings and press available online....

  10. An Effective-Hamiltonian Approach to CH5+, Using Ideas from Atomic Spectroscopy (United States)

    Hougen, Jon T.


    In this talk we present the first steps in the design of an effective Hamiltonian for the vibration-rotation energy levels of CH5+. Such a Hamiltonian would allow calculation of energy level patterns anywhere along the path travelled by a hypothetical CH5+ (or CD5+) molecule as it passes through various coupling cases, and might thus provide some hints for assigning the observed high-resolution spectra. The steps discussed here, which have not yet addressed computational problems, focus on mapping the vibration-rotation problem in CH5+ onto the five-electron problem in the boron atom, using ideas and mathematical machinery from Condon and Shortley's book on atomic spectroscopy. The mapping ideas are divided into: (i) a mapping of particles, (ii) a mapping of coordinates (i.e., mathematical degrees of freedom), and (iii) a mapping of quantum mechanical interaction terms. The various coupling cases along the path correspond conceptually to: (i) the analog of a free-rotor limit, where the H atoms see the central C atom but do not see each other, (ii) the low-barrier and high-barrier tunneling regimes, and (iii) the rigid-molecule limit, where the H atoms remain locked in some fixed molecular geometry. Since the mappings considered here often involve significant changes in mathematics, a number of interesting qualitative changes occur in the basic ideas when passing from B to CH5+, particularly in discussions of: (i) antisymmetrization and symmetrization ideas, (ii) n,l,ml,ms or n,l,j,mj quantum numbers, and (iii) Russell-Saunders computations and energy level patterns. Some of the mappings from B to CH5+ to be discussed are as follows. Particles: the atomic nucleus is replaced by the C atom, the electrons are replaced by protons, and the empty space between particles is replaced by an "electron soup." Coordinates: the radial coordinates of the electrons map onto the five local C-H stretching modes, the angular coordinates of the electrons map onto three rotational

  11. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, S. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 Delaware (United States); Dussel, G. G. [Departamento de Fisica J.J. Giambiagi, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dukelsky, J.; Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)


    We describe recent efforts to study Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei. We consider a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes and compare results based on three treatments of pairing correlations: a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson Ansatz. Significant differences are seen in the pairing correlation energies. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective. Our results confirm that only a few pairs near the Fermi surface in realistic atomic nuclei are collective. (Author)

  12. Helium atom scattering from surfaces

    CERN Document Server


    High resolution helium atom scattering can be applied to study a number of interesting properties of solid surfaces with great sensitivity and accuracy. This book treats in detail experimental and theoretical aspects ofthis method as well as all current applications in surface science. The individual chapters - all written by experts in the field - are devoted to the investigation of surface structure, defect shapes and concentrations, the interaction potential, collective and localized surface vibrations at low energies, phase transitions and surface diffusion. Over the past decade helium atom scattering has gained widespread recognitionwithin the surface science community. Points in its favour are comprehensiveunderstanding of the scattering theory and the availability of well-tested approximation to the rigorous theory. This book will be invaluable to surface scientists wishing to make an informed judgement on the actual and potential capabilities of this technique and its results.

  13. Finite Element Study of a Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Nucleus Replacement Device. (United States)

    Coogan, Jessica S; Francis, W Loren; Eliason, Travis D; Bredbenner, Todd L; Stemper, Brian D; Yoganandan, Narayan; Pintar, Frank A; Nicolella, Daniel P


    Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3-L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics compared with the

  14. Finite element study of a lumbar intervertebral disc nucleus replacement device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica S Coogan


    Full Text Available Nucleus replacement technologies are a minimally invasive alternative to spinal fusion and total disc replacement that have the potential to reduce pain and restore motion for patients with degenerative disc disease. Finite element modeling can be used to determine the biomechanics associated with nucleus replacement technologies. The current study focuses on a new nucleus replacement device designed as a conforming silicone implant with an internal void. A validated finite element model of the human lumbar L3-L4 motion segment was developed and used to investigate the influence of the nucleus replacement device on spine biomechanics. In addition, the effect of device design changes on biomechanics was determined. A 3D, L3-L4 finite element model was constructed from medical imaging data. Models were created with the normal intact nucleus, the nucleus replacement device, and a solid silicone implant. Probabilistic analysis was performed on the normal model to provide quantitative validation metrics. Sensitivity analysis was performed on the silicone Shore A durometer of the device. Models were loaded under axial compression followed by flexion/extension, lateral bending, or axial rotation. Compressive displacement, endplate stresses, reaction moment, and annulus stresses were determined and compared between the different models. The novel nucleus replacement device resulted in similar compressive displacement, endplate stress, and annulus stress and slightly higher reaction moment compared with the normal nucleus. The solid implant resulted in decreased displacement, increased endplate stress, decreased annulus stress, and decreased reaction moment compared with the novel device. With increasing silicone durometer, compressive displacement decreased, endplate stress increased, reaction moment increased, and annulus stress decreased. Finite element analysis was used to show that the novel nucleus replacement device results in similar biomechanics

  15. The Future of Atomic Energy (United States)

    Fermi, E.


    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  16. Quantum state atomic force microscopy


    Passian, Ali; Siopsis, George


    New classical modalities of atomic force microscopy continue to emerge to achieve higher spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution for nanometrology of materials. Here, we introduce the concept of a quantum mechanical modality that capitalizes on squeezed states of probe displacement. We show that such squeezing is enabled nanomechanically when the probe enters the van der Waals regime of interaction with a sample. The effect is studied in the non-contact mode, where we consider the paramete...

  17. Laser Cooling of Neutral Atoms. (United States)


    wave monochromatic field interactint, with the atomic beam, the above assumption is justified. If the external field is a standing wave, and the atomo ...Substitute for the time derivatives using Schrodingers wave equation and perform some algebra to obtain, Integrate over the second term by parts twice...exponents into sin’s and cos’s. Calculating the indicated magnitude is tedious but straightforward. The real and imaginary parts of the equation are squared

  18. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.


    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  19. Plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules


    V. V. Klimov; Guzatov, D. V.


    The proposed paradigm of plasmonic atoms and plasmonic molecules allows one to describe and predict the strongly localized plasmonic oscillations in the clusters of nanoparticles and some other nanostructures in uniform way. Strongly localized plasmonic molecules near the contacting surfaces might become the fundamental elements (by analogy with Lego bricks) for a construction of fully integrated opto-electronic nanodevices of any complexity and scale of integration.

  20. Stochastic models for atomic clocks (United States)

    Barnes, J. A.; Jones, R. H.; Tryon, P. V.; Allan, D. W.


    For the atomic clocks used in the National Bureau of Standards Time Scales, an adequate model is the superposition of white FM, random walk FM, and linear frequency drift for times longer than about one minute. The model was tested on several clocks using maximum likelihood techniques for parameter estimation and the residuals were acceptably random. Conventional diagnostics indicate that additional model elements contribute no significant improvement to the model even at the expense of the added model complexity.