WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic matter waves

  1. Coherent matter wave optics on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2006-01-01

    Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip.......Coherent manipulation of matter waves in microscopic trapping potentials facilitates both fundamental and technological applications. Here we focus on experiments with a microscopic integrated interferometer that demonstrate coherent operation on an atom chip....

  2. Imaging with neutral atoms: a new matter-wave microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M; Rehbein, S; Schmahl, G; Reisinger, T; Bracco, G; Ernst, W E; Holst, B

    2008-01-01

    Matter-wave microscopy can be dated back to 1932 when Max Knoll and Ernst Ruska published the first image obtained with a beam of focussed electrons. In this paper a new step in the development of matter-wave microscopy is presented. We have created an instrument where a focussed beam of neutral, ground-state atoms (helium) is used to image a sample. We present the first 2D images obtained using this new technique. The imaged sample is a free-standing hexagonal copper grating (with a period of about 36 microm and rod thickness of about 8 microm). The images were obtained in transmission mode by scanning the focussed beam, which had a minimum spot size of about 2.0 microm in diameter (full width at half maximum) across the sample. The smallest focus achieved was 1.9 +/- 0.1 microm. The resolution for this experiment was limited by the speed ratio of the atomic beam through the chromatic aberrations of the zone plate that was used to focus. Ultimately the theoretical resolution limit is set by the wavelength of the probing particle. In praxis, the resolution is limited by the source and the focussing optics.

  3. Dynamics of Atomic Matter Waves in Optical Lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeves, Jeremy Brian

    Quantum gases in optical lattices allow for fundamental studies in atomic and condensed-matter physics and the exploration of novel effects. After a brief introduction to the fundamentals of quantum gas experiments in optical lattices, we discuss two recent experiments focusing on driven matter waves in a one-dimensional optical lattice. The first experiment uses a tilted bichromatic optical lattice to investigate the interplay of disorder and collisional interactions in the accelerated transport of a Bose-Einstein condensate. Here, a screening effect is observed, in which the interactions effectively cancel the damping of Bloch oscillations induced by a (quasi-)disordered potential. This effect can be understood through a modification of the underlying band structure by the interactions. The second experiment studies the dynamics of a weakly trapped condensate resonantly coupled to the orbitals of a strongly confining state-selective lattice. We observe momentum distributions that correspond to matter wave diffraction from a periodic structure; however, the diffractive dynamics remain strongly linked to the internal-state Rabi oscillations. In the regime investigated, which we call the nonadiabatic regime, no diffracting potential can be defined. We show how only for much stronger coupling, the internal and external dynamics decouple, transitioning from nonadiabatic diffraction to the well-studied Kapitza-Dirac diffraction. We further investigate prospects for realizing dissipative spin models in our ultracold atomic gas experiment. To this end, we develop and test in the laboratory several possible implementations of effective spins with differential coupling to a superfluid background and examine their viability for a realization of the spin-boson model.

  4. Atom loss in a matter-wave soliton train

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Rick; Hazzard, Kaden R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Solitons are localized perturbations that propagate and collide without distortion, which appear in integrable models. One such notable model is the Gross-Pitaevskii equation realized in Bose-Einstein condensates (BEC), which allow one to control the model parameters and tunably break integrability. One approach to forming solitons in a BEC is to sweep the interaction strength to a negative value, forming a train of 10 matter-wave solitons . Even though this was realized in a BEC over a decade ago, questions remain about details of their formation and decay. For example, which properties are manifestations of the physics of single solitons, and which arise from inter-soliton interactions? Recent experiments at Rice University find surprising behavior in the atom loss after an interaction quench. To understand the atom loss mechanism better, we numerically solve the Gross-Piteaevskii equation including dissipation. We compare these results to simpler analytic models that include the effects of dissipation in simplified manners, for example including the effect of dissipation by a rate equation. We find that some aspects of the non-trivial behavior of the number of atoms can be captured by simple models of single soliton physics.

  5. Using a matter wave model to study the structure of the electron inside an atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Donald

    In Bohr's atomic model, the atom was conceptually modeled as a miniature solar system. With the development of the Schrödinger equation, the wave function of the electron inside an atom becomes much better known. But the electron is still regarded as a pointed object; according to the Copenhagen Interpretation, the wave function is thought to describe only the probability of finding the electron. Such an interpretation, however, has raised some conceptual questions. For example, how can a point-like electron form a chemical bond between neighboring atoms? In an attempt to overcome this difficulty, we use a matter wave theory to model the structure of an electron inside the atom. This model is inspired by noticing the similarity between a free electron and a photon; both particles behave like a corpuscular object as well as a physical wave. Thus, we hypothesize that, like the photon, an electron is an excitation wave of a real physical field. Based on this hypothesis, we have derived a basic wave equation for the free electron. We show that, in the presence of an electrical potential, this basic wave equation can lead to the Schrödinger equation. This work implies that the solution of the Schrödinger equation actually represents the physical waves of the electron. Thus, the electron inside the atom should behave more like a topologically distributive wave than a pointed object. In this presentation, we will discuss the advantages and limitations of this model.

  6. Matter-wave interferometry in a double well on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.; Andersson, L. M.

    2005-01-01

    that can manipulate matter waves at the same time as preserving their coherence and phase. Here, we present an integrated interferometer based on a simple, coherent matter-wave beam splitter constructed on an atom chip. Through the use of radio-frequency-induced adiabatic double-well potentials, we...... condensate, we measure the deterministic phase evolution throughout the splitting process.We show that we can control the relative phase between the two fully separated samples and that our beam splitter is phase-preserving....

  7. Les Houches Summer School of Theoretical Physics : Session 72, Coherent Atomic Matter Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Westbrook, C; David, F; Coherent Atomic Matter Waves

    2001-01-01

    Progress in atomic physics has been so vigorous during the past decade that one is hard pressed to follow all the new developments. In the early 1990s the first atom interferometers opened a new field in which we have been able to use the wave nature of atoms to probe fundamental quantum me chanics questions as well as to make precision measurements. Coming fast on the heels of this development was the demonstration of Bose Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapors which intensified research interest in studying the wave nature of matter, especially in a domain in which "macro scopic" quantum effects (vortices, stimulated scattering of atomic beams) are visible. At the same time there has been much progress in our understanding of the behavior of waves (notably electromagnetic) in complex media, both periodic and disordered. An obvious topic of speculation and probably of future research is whether any new insight or applications will develop if one examines the behavior of de Broglie waves in ana...

  8. Wave Atom Based Watermarking

    OpenAIRE

    Bukhari, Ijaz; Nuhman-ul-Haq; Hyat, Khizar

    2013-01-01

    Watermarking helps in ensuring originality, ownership and copyrights of a digital image. This paper aims at embedding a Watermark in an image using Wave Atom Transform. Preference of Wave Atoms on other transformations has been due to its sparser expansion, adaptability to the direction of local pattern, and sharp frequency localization. In this scheme, we had tried to spread the watermark in an image so that the information at one place is very small and undetectable. In order to extract the...

  9. Negative-Index Media for Matter Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perales, F.; Bocvarski, V.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.

    2010-02-01

    One reviews the recently introduced field of matter-wave "meta-optics", i.e. the extension of optical negative-index media (NIM) to atom optics. After emphasizing the differences with light meta-optics and particularly the necessary transient character of NIM's in atom optics, we present the way of generating matter-wave NIM's and their general properties: negative refraction, atom meta-lenses. Finally their specific features are reviewed: longitudinal wave packet narrowing associated to a time-reversal effect, transient revivals of evanescent matter waves and atom reflection echoes at a potential barrier.

  10. Matter-Wave Tractor Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorlach, Alexey A.; Gorlach, Maxim A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2017-01-01

    Optical and acoustic tractor beams are currently the focus of intense research due to their counterintuitive property of exerting a pulling force on small scattering objects. In this Letter we propose a matter-wave tractor beam and utilize the de Broglie waves of nonrelativistic matter particles...... in analogy to "classical" tractor beams. We reveal the presence of the quantum-mechanical pulling force for the variety of quantum mechanical potentials observing the resonant enhancement of the pulling effect under the conditions of the suppressed scattering known as the Ramsauer-Townsend effect. We also...... are compared, and the matter-wave pulling force is found to have exclusive properties of dragging slow particles in short-range potentials. We envisage that the use of tractor beams could lead to the unprecedented precision in manipulation with atomic-scale quantum objects....

  11. Dynamics of evanescent matter waves in negative-index media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.

    2010-11-01

    Semi-evanescent and evanescent matter waves produced by an atom wave packet impinging on a repulsive barrier can be back-refracted and reconstructed by the application of negative-index 'comoving' potential pulses. One shows that those collapses and revivals generate a matter wave confined on both sides of the barrier border ('surface matter wave') and should be observable via the retardation of atom reflection from the barrier interface. This property, joined to the possibility recently demonstrated of inducing negative refraction of atom waves, makes such potentials a matter-wave counterpart of negative-index materials or 'meta materials' well known in light optics.

  12. The Mystery of Matter, World of the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, William G.

    This booklet is one in the "World of the Atome Series" for junior high school students and their teachers. It describes the fascinating story of the search for the key to the structure of matter. These topics are reviewed: the chemical atom of the 19th century, the planetary atom, the wave atom, inside the elementary particles, and the mystery of…

  13. Negative-Index Media for Matter-Wave Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Grucker, J.; Boustimi, M.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Ducloy, M.

    2009-04-01

    We consider the extension of optical metamaterials to matter waves and then the down scaling of metaoptics to nanometric wavelengths. We show that the generic property of pulsed comoving magnetic fields allows us to fashion the wave-number dependence of the atomic phase shift. It can be used to produce a transient negative group velocity of an atomic wave packet, which results into a negative refraction of the matter wave. Application to slow metastable argon atoms Ar*(P23) shows that the device is able to operate either as an efficient beam splitter or an atomic metalens.

  14. Dynamics of evanescent matter waves in negative-index media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamamda, M; Bocvarski, V; Perales, F; Baudon, J; Dutier, G; Mainos, C; Boustimi, M; Ducloy, M, E-mail: jacques.baudon@univ-paris13.f [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, CNRS-UMR 7538, Universite Paris 13, 99 Av. J B Clement, 93430-Villetaneuse (France)

    2010-11-14

    Semi-evanescent and evanescent matter waves produced by an atom wave packet impinging on a repulsive barrier can be back-refracted and reconstructed by the application of negative-index 'comoving' potential pulses. One shows that those collapses and revivals generate a matter wave confined on both sides of the barrier border ('surface matter wave') and should be observable via the retardation of atom reflection from the barrier interface. This property, joined to the possibility recently demonstrated of inducing negative refraction of atom waves, makes such potentials a matter-wave counterpart of negative-index materials or 'meta materials' well known in light optics.

  15. Time reversal in matter-wave optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamda, M.; Perales, F.; Dutier, G.; Mainos, C.; Baudon, J.; Boustimi, M.; Ducloy, M.

    2011-01-01

    The evolution of atomic wave packets experiencing so-called comoving potential pulses is examined theoretically, in the framework of the stationary-phase approximation. The negative refraction induced by this potential is a characteristic property of negative-index media, the atomic counterpart of negative-index materials of light optics. A novel process, specific of negative-index for matter waves, is evidenced, namely a narrowing of the wave packet transiently counterbalancing the natural spreading. This is the manifestation of a general property of negative-index media, i.e. a time reversal effect. It is shown that, for a statistical ensemble of wave packets leading to a moderate dispersion of the times of flight, this time reversal phenomenon should be observable.

  16. Symmetry-broken momentum distributions induced by matter-wave diffraction during time-of-flight expansion of ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonet, Juliette; Weinberg, Malte; Juergensen, Ole; Oelschlaeger, Christoph; Luehmann, Dirk-Soeren; Sengstock, Klaus

    2016-05-01

    The information about quantum gas systems is still commonly inferred from time-of-flight measurements. Here, we demonstrate that interaction during the time-of-flight expansion can strongly alter the measurement of the initial atomic momentum distribution. We discuss the observation of symmetry-broken momentum distributions for bosonic mixtures in state-dependent honeycomb lattices due to scattering processes within the first milliseconds of the expansion time. These findings are of fundamental importance in a broad range of systems, including state-dependent lattices and superlattices, where the lattice symmetry does not cancel the influence of the scattering processes on the interference pattern. Beyond that, the interactions during a free expansion can be used as an interferometric probe to reveal novel quantum phases, such as supersolids.

  17. International Conference on Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    CERN Document Server

    Mintz, Stephan; Perlmutter, Arnold; Neutrino Mass, Dark Matter and Gravitational Waves, Condensation of Atoms and Monopoles, Light-cone Quantization : Orbis Scientiae '96

    1996-01-01

    The International Conference, Orbis Scientiae 1996, focused on the topics: The Neutrino Mass, Light Cone Quantization, Monopole Condensation, Dark Matter, and Gravitational Waves which we have adopted as the title of these proceedings. Was there any exciting news at the conference? Maybe, it depends on who answers the question. There was an almost unanimous agreement on the overall success of the conference as was evidenced by the fact that in the after-dinner remarks by one of us (BNK) the suggestion of organizing the conference on a biannual basis was presented but not accepted: the participants wanted the continuation of the tradition to convene annually. We shall, of course, comply. The expected observation of gravitational waves will constitute the most exciting vindication of Einstein's general relativity. This subject is attracting the attention of the experimentalists and theorists alike. We hope that by the first decade of the third millennium or earlier, gravitational waves will be detected,...

  18. Role of atoms in atomic gravitational-wave detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norcia, Matthew A.; Cline, Julia R. K.; Thompson, James K.

    2017-10-01

    Recently, it has been proposed that space-based atomic sensors may be used to detect gravitational waves. These proposals describe the sensors either as clocks or as atom interferometers. Here, we seek to explore the fundamental similarities and differences between the two types of proposals. We present a framework in which the fundamental mechanism for sensitivity is identical for clock and atom interferometer proposals, with the key difference being whether or not the atoms are tightly confined by an external potential. With this interpretation in mind, we propose two major enhancements to detectors using confined atoms, which allow for an enhanced sensitivity analogous to large momentum transfer used in atom interferometry (though with no transfer of momentum to the atoms), and a way to extend the useful coherence time of the sensor beyond the atom's excited-state lifetime.

  19. Gravitational Wave Detection with Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-01-23

    We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. The terrestrial experiment can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment probes the same frequency spectrum as LISA with better strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The effect of the gravitational waves on the propagating laser field produces the main effect in this configuration and enables a large enhancement in the gravitational wave signal while significantly suppressing many backgrounds. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations and acceleration noise, and reduces spacecraft control requirements.

  20. Atomic Interferometric Gravitational-Wave Space Observatory (AIGSO)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Dong-Feng; Wang, Jin; Zhan, Ming-Sheng

    2018-01-01

    We propose a space-borne gravitational-wave detection scheme, called atom interferometric gravitational-wave space observatory (AIGSO). It is motivated by the progress in the atomic matter-wave interferometry, which solely utilizes the standing light waves to split, deflect and recombine the atomic beam. Our scheme consists of three drag-free satellites orbiting the Earth. The phase shift of AIGSO is dominated by the Sagnac effect of gravitational-waves, which is proportional to the area enclosed by the atom interferometer, the frequency and amplitude of gravitational-waves. The scheme has a strain sensitivity ground-based laser interferometric detectors. Thus, our proposed AIGSO can be a good complementary detection scheme to the space-borne laser interferometric schemes, such as LISA. Considering the current status of relevant technology readiness, we expect our AIGSO to be a promising candidate for the future space-based gravitational-wave detection plan. Supported by the National Key Research Program of China under Grant No. 2016YFA0302002, the National Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11227803 and 91536221, and the Strategic Priority Research Program of the Chinese Academy of Sciences under Grant No. XDB21010100

  1. Electromagnetic wave dynamics in matter-wave superradiant scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, L; Payne, M G; Hagley, E W

    2010-02-05

    We present a small-signal wave propagation theory on matter-wave superradiant scattering. We show, in a longitudinally excited condensate, that the backward-propagating, superradiantly generated optical field propagates with ultraslow group velocity and that the small-signal gain profile has a Bragg resonance. We further show a unidirectional suppression of optical superradiant scattering, and explain why matter-wave superradiance can occur only when the pump laser is red detuned. This is the first analytical theory on field propagation in matter-wave superradiance that can explain all matter-wave superradiance experiments to date that used a single-frequency, long-pulse, red-detuned laser.

  2. Vibrational dephasing in matter-wave interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Röpke, R.; Chang, W. T.; Hwang, I. S.; Günther, A.; Stibor, A.

    2017-03-01

    Matter-wave interferometry is a highly sensitive tool to measure small perturbations in a quantum system. This property allows the creation of precision sensors for dephasing mechanisms such as mechanical vibrations. They are a challenge for phase measurements under perturbing conditions that cannot be perfectly decoupled from the interferometer, e.g. for mobile interferometric devices or vibrations with a broad frequency range. Here, we demonstrate a method based on second-order correlation theory in combination with Fourier analysis, to use an electron interferometer as a sensor that precisely characterizes the mechanical vibration spectrum of the interferometer. Using the high spatial and temporal single-particle resolution of a delay line detector, the data allows to reveal the original contrast and spatial periodicity of the interference pattern from ‘washed-out’ matter-wave interferograms that have been vibrationally disturbed in the frequency region between 100 and 1000 Hz. Other than with electromagnetic dephasing, due to excitations of higher harmonics and additional frequencies induced from the environment, the parts in the setup oscillate with frequencies that can be different to the applied ones. The developed numerical search algorithm is capable to determine those unknown oscillations and corresponding amplitudes. The technique can identify vibrational dephasing and decrease damping and shielding requirements in electron, ion, neutron, atom and molecule interferometers that generate a spatial fringe pattern on the detector plane.

  3. Multifrequency perturbations in matter-wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günther, A.; Rembold, A.; Schütz, G.; Stibor, A.

    2015-11-01

    High-contrast matter-wave interferometry is essential in various fundamental quantum mechanical experiments as well as for technical applications. Thereby, contrast and sensitivity are typically reduced by decoherence and dephasing effects. While decoherence accounts for a general loss of quantum information in a system due to entanglement with the environment, dephasing is due to collective time-dependent external phase shifts, which can be related to temperature drifts, mechanical vibrations, and electromagnetic oscillations. In contrast to decoherence, dephasing can, in principle, be reversed. Here, we demonstrate in experiment and theory a method for the analysis and reduction of the influence of dephasing noise and perturbations consisting of several external frequencies in an electron interferometer. This technique uses the high spatial and temporal resolution of a delay-line detector to reveal and remove dephasing perturbations by second-order correlation analysis. It allows matter-wave experiments under perturbing laboratory conditions and can be applied, in principle, to electron, atom, ion, neutron, and molecule interferometers.

  4. Extracting dark matter signatures from atomic clock stability measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaydzhyan, Tigran; Yu, Nan

    2017-10-01

    We analyze possible effects of the dark matter environment on the atomic clock stability measurements. The dark matter is assumed to exist in the form of waves of ultralight scalar fields or in the form of topological defects (monopoles and strings). We identify dark matter signal signatures in clock Allan deviation plots that can be used to constrain the dark matter coupling to the Standard Model fields. The existing data on the Al+/Hg+ clock comparison are used to put new limits on the dilaton dark matter in the region of masses mϕ>10-15 eV . We also estimate the sensitivities of future atomic clock experiments in space, including the cesium microwave and strontium optical clocks aboard the International Space Station, as well as a potential nuclear clock. These experiments are expected to put new limits on the topological dark matter in the range of masses 10-10 eV

  5. Electronic Structure of Matter Wave Functions and Density Functionals.

    CERN Document Server

    Kohn, W

    1999-01-01

    Since the 1920's Schroedinger wave functions have been the principal theoretical concept for understanding and computing the electronic structure of matter. More recently, Density Functional Theory (DFT), couched in terms of the electronic density distribution, n(r), has provided a new perspective and new computational possibilities, especially for systems consisting of very many (up to ~1000) atoms. In this talk some fundamental limitations of wave function methods for very-many-atom-systems will be discussed. The DFT approach will be explained together with some physical/chemical applications and a discussion of its strenghts and weaknesses.

  6. An Atomic Gravitational Wave Interferometric Sensor (AGIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimopoulos, Savas; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Graham, Peter W.; /SLAC; Hogan, Jason M.; Kasevich, Mark A.; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.; Rajendran, Surjeet; /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept.

    2008-08-01

    We propose two distinct atom interferometer gravitational wave detectors, one terrestrial and another satellite-based, utilizing the core technology of the Stanford 10m atom interferometer presently under construction. Each configuration compares two widely separated atom interferometers run using common lasers. The signal scales with the distance between the interferometers, which can be large since only the light travels over this distance, not the atoms. The terrestrial experiment with baseline {approx} 1 km can operate with strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -19}/{radical}Hz in the 1 Hz-10 Hz band, inaccessible to LIGO, and can detect gravitational waves from solar mass binaries out to megaparsec distances. The satellite experiment with baseline {approx} 1000 km can probe the same frequency spectrum as LISA with comparable strain sensitivity {approx} 10{sup -20}/{radical}Hz. The use of ballistic atoms (instead of mirrors) as inertial test masses improves systematics coming from vibrations, acceleration noise, and significantly reduces spacecraft control requirements. We analyze the backgrounds in this configuration and discuss methods for controlling them to the required levels.

  7. Quantum interference of molecules -- probing the wave nature of matter

    CERN Document Server

    Venugopalan, Anu

    2012-01-01

    The double slit interference experiment has been famously described by Richard Feynman as containing the "only mystery of quantum mechanics". The history of quantum mechanics is intimately linked with the discovery of the dual nature of matter and radiation. While the double slit experiment for light is easily undertsood in terms of its wave nature, the very same experiment for particles like the electron is somewhat more difficult to comprehend. By the 1920s it was firmly established that electrons have a wave nature. However, for a very long time, most discussions pertaining to interference experiments for particles were merely gedanken experiments. It took almost six decades after the establishment of its wave nature to carry out a 'double slit interference' experiment for electrons. This set the stage for interference experiments with larger particles. In the last decade there has been spectacular progress in matter-wave interefernce experiments. Today, molecules with over a hundred atoms can be made to i...

  8. Damping of gravitational waves by matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baym, Gordon; Patil, Subodh P.; Pethick, C. J.

    2017-10-01

    We develop a unified description, via the Boltzmann equation, of damping of gravitational waves by matter, incorporating collisions. We identify two physically distinct damping mechanisms—collisional and Landau damping. We first consider damping in flat spacetime, and then generalize the results to allow for cosmological expansion. In the first regime, maximal collisional damping of a gravitational wave, independent of the details of the collisions in the matter is, as we show, significant only when its wavelength is comparable to the size of the horizon. Thus damping by intergalactic or interstellar matter for all but primordial gravitational radiation can be neglected. Although collisions in matter lead to a shear viscosity, they also act to erase anisotropic stresses, thus suppressing the damping of gravitational waves. Damping of primordial gravitational waves remains possible. We generalize Weinberg's calculation of gravitational wave damping, now including collisions and particles of finite mass, and interpret the collisionless limit in terms of Landau damping. While Landau damping of gravitational waves cannot occur in flat spacetime, the expansion of the universe allows such damping by spreading the frequency of a gravitational wave of given wave vector.

  9. Self-induced dipole force and filamentation instability of a matter wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saffman, M.

    1998-01-01

    The interaction of copropagating electromagnetic and matter waves is described with a set of coupled higher-order nonlinear Schrodinger equations. Optical self-focusing modulates an initially planar wave leading to the generation of dipole forces on the atoms. Atomic channeling due to the dipole...... forces leads, in the nonlinear regime, to filamentation of the atomic beam. Instability growth rates are calculated for atomic beams with both low and high phase space densities. In one transverse dimension an exact solution is found that describes a coupled optical and atomic soliton....

  10. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid. (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave.

  11. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to know the better wave length on measuring cobalt content in forage sorghum hybrid (Sorghum bicolor) with an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The analysis was on background correction mode with three wave lengths; 240.8, 240.7 (determined wave length or recommended wave length) and 240.6 ...

  12. Coherent transport of matter waves in disordered optical potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhn, Robert

    2007-07-01

    The development of modern techniques for the cooling and the manipulation of atoms in recent years, and the possibility to create Bose-Einstein condensates and degenerate Fermi gases and to load them into regular optical lattices or disordered optical potentials, has evoked new interest for the disorder-induced localization of ultra-cold atoms. This work studies the transport properties of matter waves in disordered optical potentials, which are also known as speckle potentials. The effect of correlated disorder on localization is first studied numerically in the framework of the Anderson model. The relevant transport parameters in the configuration average over many different realizations of the speckle potential are then determined analytically, using self-consistent diagrammatic perturbation techniques. This allows to make predictions for a possible experimental observation of coherent transport phenomena for cold atoms in speckle potentials. Of particular importance are the spatial correlations of the speckle fluctuations, which are responsible for the anisotropic character of the single scattering processes in the effective medium. Coherent multiple scattering leads to quantum interference effects, which entail a renormalization of the diffusion constant as compared to the classical description. This so-called weak localization of matter waves is studied as the underlying mechanism for the disorder-driven transition to the Anderson-localization regime, explicitly taking into account the correlations of the speckle fluctuations. (orig.)

  13. Fifteen years of cold matter on the atom chip: promise, realizations, and prospects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keil, Mark; Amit, Omer; Zhou, Shuyu; Groswasser, David; Japha, Yonathan; Folman, Ron

    2016-01-01

    Here we review the field of atom chips in the context of Bose–Einstein Condensates (BEC) as well as cold matter in general. Twenty years after the first realization of the BEC and 15 years after the realization of the atom chip, the latter has been found to enable extraordinary feats: from producing BECs at a rate of several per second, through the realization of matter-wave interferometry, and all the way to novel probing of surfaces and new forces. In addition, technological applications are also being intensively pursued. This review will describe these developments and more, including new ideas which have not yet been realized. PMID:27499585

  14. Experimental methods of molecular matter-wave optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus

    2013-08-01

    We describe the state of the art in preparing, manipulating and detecting coherent molecular matter. We focus on experimental methods for handling the quantum motion of compound systems from diatomic molecules to clusters or biomolecules.Molecular quantum optics offers many challenges and innovative prospects: already the combination of two atoms into one molecule takes several well-established methods from atomic physics, such as for instance laser cooling, to their limits. The enormous internal complexity that arises when hundreds or thousands of atoms are bound in a single organic molecule, cluster or nanocrystal provides a richness that can only be tackled by combining methods from atomic physics, chemistry, cluster physics, nanotechnology and the life sciences.We review various molecular beam sources and their suitability for matter-wave experiments. We discuss numerous molecular detection schemes and give an overview over diffraction and interference experiments that have already been performed with molecules or clusters.Applications of de Broglie studies with composite systems range from fundamental tests of physics up to quantum-enhanced metrology in physical chemistry, biophysics and the surface sciences.Nanoparticle quantum optics is a growing field, which will intrigue researchers still for many years to come. This review can, therefore, only be a snapshot of a very dynamical process.

  15. Experimental methods of molecular matter-wave optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus

    2013-08-01

    We describe the state of the art in preparing, manipulating and detecting coherent molecular matter. We focus on experimental methods for handling the quantum motion of compound systems from diatomic molecules to clusters or biomolecules. Molecular quantum optics offers many challenges and innovative prospects: already the combination of two atoms into one molecule takes several well-established methods from atomic physics, such as for instance laser cooling, to their limits. The enormous internal complexity that arises when hundreds or thousands of atoms are bound in a single organic molecule, cluster or nanocrystal provides a richness that can only be tackled by combining methods from atomic physics, chemistry, cluster physics, nanotechnology and the life sciences. We review various molecular beam sources and their suitability for matter-wave experiments. We discuss numerous molecular detection schemes and give an overview over diffraction and interference experiments that have already been performed with molecules or clusters. Applications of de Broglie studies with composite systems range from fundamental tests of physics up to quantum-enhanced metrology in physical chemistry, biophysics and the surface sciences. Nanoparticle quantum optics is a growing field, which will intrigue researchers still for many years to come. This review can, therefore, only be a snapshot of a very dynamical process.

  16. Sorghum cobalt analysis on not determined wave length with atomic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-08-24

    Aug 24, 2011 ... right wave length for cobalt analysis with the atomic absorption spectrophotometer method. And this problem on wave length might exist also on the inductively coupled plasma spectroscopy (ICP) method. The wave length generally employed for cobalt determination is. 240.7 nm (Shapiro and Martin, 1988) ...

  17. Formation of matter-wave soliton trains by modulational instabillity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jason H. V.; Luo, De; Hulet, Randall G.

    2017-04-01

    Matter-wave soliton trains were initially observed following an interaction quench in a condensate of 7 Li atoms. The solitons in the train were observed to interact repulsively, an indication of a phase difference of π between neighboring solitons. Although the formation of soliton trains can be understood as resulting from a modulational instability, an explanation for the observed phase-structure remains elusive. We study the formation of soliton trains by characterizing modulational instability across a wide range of scattering lengths. We find universal scaling laws for the number of solitons created by the quench and for the decay in atom number. Through minimally-destructive imaging, we observe real-time dynamics, and show that soliton trains are created with an alternating phase structure, rather than evolving into one. Work supported by the NSF, an ARO MURI Grant, and the Welch Foundation.

  18. Condensed matter applied atomic collision physics, v.4

    CERN Document Server

    Datz, Sheldon

    1983-01-01

    Applied Atomic Collision Physics, Volume 4: Condensed Matter deals with the fundamental knowledge of collision processes in condensed media.The book focuses on the range of applications of atomic collisions in condensed matter, extending from effects on biological systems to the characterization and modification of solids. This volume begins with the description of some aspects of the physics involved in the production of ion beams. The radiation effects in biological and chemical systems, ion scattering and atomic diffraction, x-ray fluorescence analysis, and photoelectron and Auger spectrosc

  19. Atomic physics precise measurements and ultracold matter

    CERN Document Server

    Inguscio, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Atomic Physics provides an expert guide to two spectacular new landscapes in physics: precision measurements, which have been revolutionized by the advent of the optical frequency comb, and atomic physics, which has been revolutionized by laser cooling. These advances are not incremental but transformative: they have generated a consilience between atomic and many-body physics, precipitated an explosion of scientific and technological applications, opened new areas of research, and attracted a brilliant generation of younger scientists. The research is advancing so rapidly, the barrage of applications is so dazzling, that students can be bewildered. For both students and experienced scientists, this book provides an invaluable description of basic principles, experimental methods, and scientific applications.

  20. Laser Source for Atomic Gravity Wave Detector Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop an Atom Interferometry-based gravity wave detector (vs Optical Interferometry). Characterize a high power laser. Use Goddard Space Flight Center Mission...

  1. Reconstruction of Casimir—Polder interactions from matter-wave interference experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, Johannes; Broer, Wijnand; Scheel, Stefan

    2017-08-01

    Interference of matter waves at nanostructures has been studied in a variety of experiments to explore the quantum nature of atoms, molecules and clusters. The detection process typically focuses on an amplitude measurement of the matter wave. However, more information can be gained about the physical mechanism behind the scattering process at the nanostructure by also investigating the phase properties of the matter wave. Measurement devices for the wavefront, known as Hartmann-Shack sensors, rely on a lens array to refocus the wavefront onto a screen and to detect lateral deviations of the focal position. Here we show that the construction of a similar device is possible for matter waves. In particular, we propose an experiment where the Casimir-Polder potential between a small polarisable particle and the nanostructure is reconstructed by measuring both the amplitude in a conventional set-up and the wavefront in a Hartmann-Shack configuration.

  2. Newtonian noise limit in atom interferometers for gravitational wave detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vetrano, Flavio; Vicere, Andrea [Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' ' Carlo Bo' ' , Dipartimento di Scienze di Base e Fondamenti - DiSBeF, Urbino (Italy); INFN, Sezione di Firenze, Sesto Fiorentino (Italy)

    2013-10-15

    In this work we study the influence of the Newtonian noise on atom interferometers applied to the detection of gravitational waves, and we compute the resulting limits to the sensitivity in two different configurations: a single atom interferometer, or a pair of atom interferometers operated in a differential configuration. We find that for the instrumental configurations considered, and operating in the frequency range [0.1-10] Hz, the limits would be comparable to those affecting large scale optical interferometers. (orig.)

  3. Parametric amplification of matter waves in dipolar spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deuretzbacher, F.; Gebreyesus, G.; Topic, O.

    2010-01-01

    Spin-changing collisions may lead under proper conditions to the parametric amplification of matter waves in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates. Magnetic dipole-dipole interactions, although typically very weak in alkali-metal atoms, are shown to play a very relevant role in the amplification process...

  4. Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng

    2017-11-16

    Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose-Einstein condensates have revealed matter-wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose-Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.

  5. Diffraction of an atomic beam by standing-wave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. E.; Gould, P. L.; Atlas, S. R.; Pritchard, D. E.

    1983-08-01

    Preliminary experimental results are reported for the deflection of Na atoms in an atomic beam by a transverse standing-wave laser field whose frequency is tuned between the two ground-state hyperfine components of the D2 line. In contrast to the two experiments done previously, a splitting of the beam into two symmetric peaks whose separation increases with the electric-field is seen here. In addition, the data show evidence for atomic diffraction: a tendency for scattered atoms to acquire momentum in multiples of 2h(bar)k.

  6. Deflection of atoms by standing-wave radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, P. E.; Gould, P. L.; Pritchard, D. E.

    1985-11-01

    Momentum transfer from a standing-wave light field to an atomic beam has been observed. The atomic beam is split symmetrically into two peaks whose separation increases with field strength. The short interaction time ensures that this deflection is due to induced forces; these are described using a semiclassical dressed-atom treatment, which gives good agreement with the data. In addition to the splitting, diffraction of the atomic beam due to the exchange of even numbers of photons with the field has been observed.

  7. Concept of an ionizing time-domain matter-wave interferometer

    OpenAIRE

    Nimmrichter, Stefan; Haslinger, Philipp; Hornberger, Klaus; Arndt, Markus

    2011-01-01

    We discuss the concept of an all-optical and ionizing matter-wave interferometer in the time domain. The proposed setup aims at testing the wave nature of highly massive clusters and molecules, and it will enable new precision experiments with a broad class of atoms, using the same laser system. The propagating particles are illuminated by three pulses of a standing ultraviolet laser beam, which detaches an electron via efficient single photon-absorption. Optical gratings may have periods as ...

  8. Wave mechanics of the hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Ogilvie, J. F.

    2016-01-01

    The hydrogen atom is a system amenable to an exact treatment within Schroedinger's formulation of quantum mechanics according to coordinates in four systems -- spherical polar, paraboloidal, ellipsoidal and spheroconical coordinates; the latter solution is reported for the first time. Applications of these solutions include angular momenta, a quantitative calculation of the absorption spectrum and accurate plots of surfaces of amplitude functions. The shape of an amplitude function, and even ...

  9. Semiclassical approach to atomic decoherence by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, D. A.; Varcoe, B. T. H.

    2018-01-01

    A new heuristic model of interaction of an atomic system with a gravitational wave (GW) is proposed. In it, the GW alters the local electromagnetic field of the atomic nucleus, as perceived by the electron, changing the state of the system. The spectral decomposition of the wave function is calculated, from which the energy is obtained. The results suggest a shift in the difference of the atomic energy levels, which will induce a small detuning to a resonant transition. The detuning increases with the quantum numbers of the levels, making the effect more prominent for Rydberg states. We performed calculations on the Rabi oscillations of atomic transitions, estimating how they would vary as a result of the proposed effect.

  10. Explicitly correlated wave function for a boron atom

    CERN Document Server

    Puchalski, Mariusz; Pachucki, Krzysztof

    2015-01-01

    We present results of high-precision calculations for a boron atom's properties using wave functions expanded in the explicitly correlated Gaussian basis. We demonstrate that the well-optimized 8192 basis functions enable a determination of energy levels, ionization potential, and fine and hyperfine splittings in atomic transitions with nearly parts per million precision. The results open a window to a spectroscopic determination of nuclear properties of boron including the charge radius of the proton halo in the $^8$B nucleus.

  11. Spatially Homogeneous Entanglement for Matter-Wave Interferometry Created with Time-Averaged Measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Kevin C; Wu, Baochen; Thompson, James K

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a method to generate spatially homogeneous entangled, spin-squeezed states of atoms appropriate for maintaining a large amount of squeezing even after release into the arm of a matter-wave interferometer or other free space quantum sensor. Using an effective intracavity dipole trap, we allow atoms to move along the cavity axis and time average their coupling to the standing wave used to generate entanglement via collective measurements, demonstrating 11(1) dB of directly observed spin squeezing. Our results show that time averaging in collective measurements can greatly reduce the impact of spatially inhomogeneous coupling to the measurement apparatus.

  12. Collective emission of matter-wave jets from driven Bose–Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Logan W.; Gaj, Anita; Feng, Lei; Chin, Cheng

    2017-11-01

    Scattering is used to probe matter and its interactions in all areas of physics. In ultracold atomic gases, control over pairwise interactions enables us to investigate scattering in quantum many-body systems. Previous experiments on colliding Bose–Einstein condensates have revealed matter–wave interference, haloes of scattered atoms, four-wave mixing and correlations between counter-propagating pairs. However, a regime with strong stimulation of spontaneous collisions analogous to superradiance has proved elusive. In this regime, the collisions rapidly produce highly correlated states with macroscopic population. Here we find that runaway stimulated collisions in Bose–Einstein condensates with periodically modulated interaction strength cause the collective emission of matter-wave jets that resemble fireworks. Jets appear only above a threshold modulation amplitude and their correlations are invariant even when the number of ejected atoms grows exponentially. Hence, we show that the structures and atom occupancies of the jets stem from the quantum fluctuations of the condensate. Our findings demonstrate the conditions required for runaway stimulated collisions and reveal the quantum nature of matter-wave emission.

  13. Searching for dark matter with optical atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Wcislo, Piotr; Bober, Marcin; Cygan, Agata; Lisak, Daniel; Ciurylo, Roman; Zawada, Michal

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental questions of modern physics is the existence of yet unknown forms of matter and interactions. The total mass density of the Universe appears to be dominated by some hypothetical dark matter (DM). However, beyond its gravitational interaction at galactic scale, little is known about the DM nature and properties. One possibility is that it has a form of stable topological defects built from light scalar fields which, for nonzero DM-SM coupling, would result in transient variations of fundamental constants. Optical atomic clocks, highly sensitive to variations of the fine-structure constant, seem to be natural candidates for such searches. Here we demonstrate the first experimental constraint on the strength of transient DM-SM coupling determined with optical atomic clocks. Instead of measuring the phase difference between two distant clocks we determine a common component of their readouts. We show that our constraint, even for one-day measurement, greatly exceeds previous laboratory...

  14. Complex wave-interference phenomena: From the atomic nucleus to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the ...

  15. Atom Interferometry for Fundamental Physics and Gravity Measurements in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohel, James M.

    2012-01-01

    Laser-cooled atoms are used as freefall test masses. The gravitational acceleration on atoms is measured by atom-wave interferometry. The fundamental concept behind atom interferometry is the quantum mechanical particle-wave duality. One can exploit the wave-like nature of atoms to construct an atom interferometer based on matter waves analogous to laser interferometers.

  16. Reinterpretation of Matter-Wave Interference Experiments Based on the Local-Ether Wave Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Su, Ching-Chuan

    2002-01-01

    Based on the local-ether wave equation for free particle, the dispersion of matter wave is examined. From the dispersion relation, the angular frequency and wavelength of matter wave are derived. These formulas look like the postulates of de Broglie in conjunction with the Lorentz mass-variation law. However, the fundamental difference is that for terrestrial particles their speeds are referred specifically to a geocentric inertial frame and hence incorporate the speed due to earth's rotation...

  17. Gravitational wave detection with optical lattice atomic clocks

    CERN Document Server

    Kolkowitz, Shimon; Langellier, Nicholas; Lukin, Mikhail D; Walsworth, Ronald L; Ye, Jun

    2016-01-01

    We propose a space-based gravitational wave detector consisting of two spatially separated, drag-free satellites sharing ultra-stable optical laser light over a single baseline. Each satellite contains an optical lattice atomic clock, which serves as a sensitive, narrowband detector of the local frequency of the shared laser light. A synchronized two-clock comparison between the satellites will be sensitive to the effective Doppler shifts induced by incident gravitational waves (GWs) at a level competitive with other proposed space-based GW detectors, while providing complementary features. The detected signal is a differential frequency shift of the shared laser light due to the relative velocity of the satellites, rather than a phase shift arising from the relative satellite positions, and the detection window can be tuned through the control sequence applied to the atoms' internal states. This scheme enables the detection of GWs from continuous, spectrally narrow sources, such as compact binary inspirals, ...

  18. Attosecond science in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Stephen R; Neumark, Daniel M

    2016-12-16

    Attosecond science represents a new frontier in atomic, molecular, and condensed matter physics, enabling one to probe the exceedingly fast dynamics associated with purely electronic dynamics in a wide range of systems. This paper presents a brief discussion of the technology required to generate attosecond light pulses and gives representative examples of attosecond science carried out in several laboratories. Attosecond transient absorption, a very powerful method in attosecond science, is then reviewed and several examples of gas phase and condensed phase experiments that have been carried out in the Leone/Neumark laboratories are described.

  19. Shock wave compression of condensed matter a primer

    CERN Document Server

    Forbes, Jerry W

    2012-01-01

    This book introduces the core concepts of the shock wave physics of condensed matter, taking a continuum mechanics approach to examine liquids and isotropic solids. The text primarily focuses on one-dimensional uniaxial compression in order to show the key features of condensed matter’s response to shock wave loading. The first four chapters are specifically designed to quickly familiarize physical scientists and engineers with how shock waves interact with other shock waves or material boundaries, as well as to allow readers to better understand shock wave literature, use basic data analysis techniques, and design simple 1-D shock wave experiments. This is achieved by first presenting the steady one-dimensional strain conservation laws using shock wave impedance matching, which insures conservation of mass, momentum and energy. Here, the initial emphasis is on the meaning of shock wave and mass velocities in a laboratory coordinate system. An overview of basic experimental techniques for measuring pressure...

  20. Multiple scattering induced negative refraction of matter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsker, Florian

    2016-01-01

    Starting from fundamental multiple scattering theory it is shown that negative refraction indices are feasible for matter waves passing a well-defined ensemble of scatterers. A simple approach to this topic is presented and explicit examples for systems of scatterers in 1D and 3D are stated that imply negative refraction for a generic incoming quantum wave packet. Essential features of the effective scattering field, densities and frequency spectrum of scatterers are considered. Additionally it is shown that negative refraction indices allow perfect transmission of the wave passing the ensemble of scatterers. Finally the concept of the superlens is discussed, since it is based on negative refraction and can be extended to matter waves utilizing the observations presented in this paper which thus paves the way to ‘untouchable’ quantum systems in analogy to cloaking devices for electromagnetic waves. PMID:26857266

  1. The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA: New perspectives for fundamental physics and geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We are building a hybrid detector of new concept that couples laser and matter-wave interferometry to study sub Hertz variations of the strain tensor of space-time and gravitation. Using a set of atomic interferometers simultaneously manipulated by the resonant optical field of a 200 m cavity, the MIGA instrument will allow the monitoring of the evolution of the gravitational field at unprecedented sensitivity, which will be exploited both for geophysical studies and for Gravitational Waves (GWs detection. This new infrastructure will be embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise.

  2. Search for Ultralight Scalar Dark Matter with Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tilburg, Ken; Leefer, Nathan; Bougas, Lykourgos; Budker, Dmitry

    2015-07-03

    We report new limits on ultralight scalar dark matter (DM) with dilatonlike couplings to photons that can induce oscillations in the fine-structure constant α. Atomic dysprosium exhibits an electronic structure with two nearly degenerate levels whose energy splitting is sensitive to changes in α. Spectroscopy data for two isotopes of dysprosium over a two-year span are analyzed for coherent oscillations with angular frequencies below 1  rad s-1. No signal consistent with a DM coupling is identified, leading to new constraints on dilatonlike photon couplings over a wide mass range. Under the assumption that the scalar field comprises all of the DM, our limits on the coupling exceed those from equivalence-principle tests by up to 4 orders of magnitude for masses below 3×10(-18)  eV. Excess oscillatory power, inconsistent with fine-structure variation, is detected in a control channel, and is likely due to a systematic effect. Our atomic spectroscopy limits on DM are the first of their kind, and leave substantial room for improvement with state-of-the-art atomic clocks.

  3. On wave dark matter in spiral and barred galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Medina, Luis A.; Matos, Tonatiuh [Departamento de Física, Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del IPN, A.P. 14-740, 07000 México D.F., México. (Mexico); Bray, Hubert L., E-mail: lmedina@fis.cinvestav.mx, E-mail: bray@math.duke.edu, E-mail: tmatos@fis.cinvestav.mx [Mathematics Department, Duke University, Box 90320, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-12-01

    We recover spiral and barred spiral patterns in disk galaxy simulations with a Wave Dark Matter (WDM) background (also known as Scalar Field Dark Matter (SFDM), Ultra-Light Axion (ULA) dark matter, and Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter). Here we show how the interaction between a baryonic disk and its Dark Matter Halo triggers the formation of spiral structures when the halo is allowed to have a triaxial shape and angular momentum. This is a more realistic picture within the WDM model since a non-spherical rotating halo seems to be more natural. By performing hydrodynamic simulations, along with earlier test particles simulations, we demonstrate another important way in which wave dark matter is consistent with observations. The common existence of bars in these simulations is particularly noteworthy. This may have consequences when trying to obtain information about the dark matter distribution in a galaxy, the mere presence of spiral arms or a bar usually indicates that baryonic matter dominates the central region and therefore observations, like rotation curves, may not tell us what the DM distribution is at the halo center. But here we show that spiral arms and bars can develop in DM dominated galaxies with a central density core without supposing its origin on mechanisms intrinsic to the baryonic matter.

  4. Basic atomic interactions of accelerated heavy ions in matter atomic interactions of heavy ions

    CERN Document Server

    Tolstikhina, Inga; Winckler, Nicolas; Shevelko, Viacheslav

    2018-01-01

    This book provides an overview of the recent experimental and theoretical results on interactions of heavy ions with gaseous, solid and plasma targets from the perspective of atomic physics. The topics discussed comprise stopping power, multiple-electron loss and capture processes, equilibrium and non-equilibrium charge-state fractions in penetration of fast ion beams through matter including relativistic domain. It also addresses mean charge-states and equilibrium target thickness in ion-beam penetrations, isotope effects in low-energy electron capture, lifetimes of heavy ion beams, semi-empirical formulae for effective cross sections. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students working in atomic, plasma and accelerator physics.

  5. Strong CMB constraint on P-wave annihilating dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Haipeng; Wise, Mark B.; Zhang, Yue

    2017-10-01

    We consider a dark sector consisting of dark matter that is a Dirac fermion and a scalar mediator. This model has been extensively studied in the past. If the scalar couples to the dark matter in a parity conserving manner then dark matter annihilation to two mediators is dominated by the P-wave channel and hence is suppressed at very low momentum. The indirect detection constraint from the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background is usually thought to be absent in the model because of this suppression. In this letter we show that dark matter annihilation via bound state formation occurs through the S-wave and hence there is a constraint on the parameter space of the model from the Cosmic Microwave Background.

  6. Millimeter-wave Signature of Strange Matter Stars

    OpenAIRE

    Broderick, J. J.; Herrin, E. T.; Krisher, T. P.; Morgan, D L; Rosenbaum, D. C.; Sher, M.; Teplitz, V. L.

    1997-01-01

    One of the most important questions in the study of compact objects is the nature of pulsars, including whether they consist of neutron star matter or strange quark matter (SQM). However, few mechanisms for distinguishing between these two possibilities have been proposed. The purpose of this Letter is to show that a strange star (one made of SQM) will have a vibratory mode with an oscillation frequency of approximately 250 GHz (millimeter wave). This mode corresponds to motion of the center ...

  7. Gravitational wave generation by interaction of high power lasers with matter. Part I: Shock wave model

    CERN Document Server

    Kadlecová, Hedvika; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We analyze theoretical models of gravitational wave generation in the interaction of high power lasers with matter in linear approximation of gravitational theory. We derive the analytical formulas and estimates for the metric perturbations and the radiated power of the generated gravitational waves. Furthermore we investigate the characteristics of polarization and the behavior of test particles in the presence of gravitational wave which will be important for the detection.

  8. Treatment of Ion-Atom Collisions Using a Partial-Wave Expansion of the Projectile Wavefunction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, T. G.; Foster, M.; Colgan, J.; Madison, D. H.

    2009-01-01

    We present calculations of ion-atom collisions using a partial-wave expansion of the projectile wavefunction. Most calculations of ion-atom collisions have typically used classical or plane-wave approximations for the projectile wavefunction, since partial-wave expansions are expected to require prohibitively large numbers of terms to converge…

  9. Wave atom transform generated strong image hashing scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Cheng, Lee-Ming; Leung, Hon-Yin; Fu, Qi-Kai

    2012-11-01

    The rapid development of multimedia technology has resulted in a rising rate on digital unauthorized utilization and forgery, which makes the situation of image authentication increasingly severe. A novel strong image hashing scheme is proposed based on wave atom transform, which can better authenticate images by precisely distinguishing the malicious tampered images from the non-maliciously processed ones. Wave atom transform is employed since it has significantly sparser expansion and better characteristics of texture feature extraction than other traditional transforms. For better detection sensitivity, gray code is applied instead of natural binary code to optimize the hamming distance. Randomizations are also performed using Rényi chaotic map for the purposes of secure image hashing and key sensitivity. The experimental results show that the proposed strong scheme is robust to non-malicious content-preserving operations and also fragile to malicious content-altering operations. The scheme also outperforms DCT and DWT based schemes in terms of receiving operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Moreover, to provide an application-defined tradeoff, a security enhancement approach based on Rényi map is presented, which can further protect the integrity and secrecy of images.

  10. Formation of two-dimensional nonspreading atomic wave packets in the field of two standing light waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Efremov, MA; Petropavlovsky, SV; Fedorov, MV; Schleich, WP; Yakovlev, VP

    The formation of two-dimensional nonspreading atomic wave packets produced in the interaction of a beam of two-level atoms with two standing light waves polarised in the same plane is considered. The mechanism providing a dispersionless particle dynamics is the balance of two processes: a rapid

  11. Mean-Field Dynamics and Fisher Information in Matter Wave Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haine, Simon A.

    2016-06-01

    There has been considerable recent interest in the mean-field dynamics of various atom-interferometry schemes designed for precision sensing. In the field of quantum metrology, the standard tools for evaluating metrological sensitivity are the classical and quantum Fisher information. In this Letter, we show how these tools can be adapted to evaluate the sensitivity when the behavior is dominated by mean-field dynamics. As an example, we compare the behavior of four recent theoretical proposals for gyroscopes based on matter-wave interference in toroidally trapped geometries. We show that while the quantum Fisher information increases at different rates for the various schemes considered, in all cases it is consistent with the well-known Sagnac phase shift after the matter waves have traversed a closed path. However, we argue that the relevant metric for quantifying interferometric sensitivity is the classical Fisher information, which can vary considerably between the schemes.

  12. Matter-wave bright solitons in effective bichromatic lattice potentials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Bose–Einstein condensate; optical lattices; inhomogeneous nonlinearity. Abstract. Matter-wave bright solitons in bichromatic lattice potentials are considered and their dynamics for different lattice environments are studied. Bichromatic potentials are created from superpositions of (i) two linear optical lattices and ...

  13. Atoms in the counter-propagating frequency-modulated waves: splitting, cooling, confinement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanenko, Victor I.; Kornilovska, Nataliya V.

    2017-09-01

    We show that the counter-propagating frequency-modulated (FM) waves of the same intensity can split an orthogonal atomic beam into two beams. We calculate the temperature of the atomic ensemble for the case when the atoms are grouped around zero velocity in the direction of the waves propagation. The high-intensity laser radiation with a properly chosen carrier frequency can form a one-dimensional trap for atoms. We carry out the numerical simulation of the atomic motion (two-level model of the atom-field interaction) using parameters appropriate for sodium atoms and show that sub-Doppler cooling can be reached. We suppose that such a cooling is partly based on the cooling without spontaneous emission in polychromatic waves [H. Metcalf, Phys. Rev. A 77, 061401 (2008)]. We calculate the state of the atom in the field by the Monte Carlo wave-function method and describe its mechanical motion by the classical mechanics.

  14. Geometric optics with atomic beams scattered by a detuned standing laser wave

    CERN Document Server

    Prants, S V; Konkov, L E

    2012-01-01

    We report on theoretical and numerical study of propagation of atomic beams crossing a detuned standing-wave laser beam in the geometric oprics limit. The interplay between external and internal atomic degrees of freedom is used to manipulate the atomic motion along the optical axis by light. By adjusting the atom-laser detuning, we demonstrate how to focus, split and scatter atomic beams in a real experiment. The novel effect of chaotic scattering of atoms at a regular near-resonant standing wave is found numerically and explained qualitatively. Some applications of the effects found are discussed.

  15. Matter-wave coherence limit owing to cosmic gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steane, Andrew M.

    2017-12-01

    We study matter-wave interferometry in the presence of a stochastic background of gravitational waves. It is shown that if the background has a scale-invariant spectrum over a wide bandwidth (which is expected in a class of inflationary models of Big Bang cosmology), then separated-path interference cannot be observed for a lump of matter of size above a limit which is very insensitive to the strength and bandwidth of the fluctuations, unless the interferometer is servo-controlled or otherwise protected. For ordinary solid matter this limit is of order 1-10 mm. A servo-controlled or cross-correlated device would also exhibit limits to the observation of macroscopic interference, which we estimate for ordinary matter moving at speeds small compared to c.

  16. Effect of light assisted collisions on matter wave coherence in superradiant Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kampel, Nir Shlomo; Griesmaier, Axel Rudolf; Steenstrup, Mads Peter Hornbak

    2012-01-01

    We investigate experimentally the effects of light assisted collisions on the coherence between momentum states in Bose-Einstein condensates. The onset of superradiant Rayleigh scattering serves as a sensitive monitor for matter-wave coherence. A subtle interplay of binary and collective effects...... leads to a profound asymmetry between the two sides of the atomic resonance and provides far bigger coherence loss rates for a condensate bathed in blue detuned light than previously estimated. We present a simplified quantitative model containing the essential physics to explain our experimental data...

  17. Formation of matter-wave soliton trains by modulational instability

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Jason H. V.; Luo MR; Hulet, Randall G.

    2017-01-01

    Nonlinear systems can exhibit a rich set of dynamics that are inherently sensitive to their initial conditions. One such example is modulational instability, which is believed to be one of the most prevalent instabilities in nature. By exploiting a shallow zero-crossing of a Feshbach resonance, we characterize modulational instability and its role in the formation of matter-wave soliton trains from a Bose-Einstein condensate. We examine the universal scaling laws exhibited by the system, and ...

  18. Orbital dependent functionals: An atom projector augmented wave method implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao

    This thesis explores the formulation and numerical implementation of orbital dependent exchange-correlation functionals within electronic structure calculations. These orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals have recently received renewed attention as a means to improve the physical representation of electron interactions within electronic structure calculations. In particular, electron self-interaction terms can be avoided. In this thesis, an orbital-dependent functional is considered in the context of Hartree-Fock (HF) theory as well as the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) method and the approximate OEP method developed by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate, known as the KLI approximation. In this thesis, the Fock exchange term is used as a simple well-defined example of an orbital-dependent functional. The Projected Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by P. E. Blochl has proven to be accurate and efficient for electronic structure calculations for local and semi-local functions because of its accurate evaluation of interaction integrals by controlling multiple moments. We have extended the PAW method to treat orbital-dependent functionals in Hartree-Fock theory and the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly in the KLI approximation. In the course of study we develop a frozen-core orbital approximation that accurately treats the core electron contributions for above three methods. The main part of the thesis focuses on the treatment of spherical atoms. We have investigated the behavior of PAW-Hartree Fock and PAW-KLI basis, projector, and pseudopotential functions for several elements throughout the periodic table. We have also extended the formalism to the treatment of solids in a plane wave basis and implemented PWPAW-KLI code, which will appear in future publications.

  19. Gravitational Wave Detection with Single-Laser Atom Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Nan; Tinto, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    A new design for a broadband detector of gravitational radiation relies on two atom interferometers separated by a distance L. In this scheme, only one arm and one laser are used for operating the two atom interferometers. The innovation here involves the fact that the atoms in the atom interferometers are not only considered as perfect test masses, but also as highly stable clocks. Atomic coherence is intrinsically stable, and can be many orders of magnitude more stable than a laser.

  20. Dark Matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: quark nuggets and newtorites

    CERN Document Server

    Bassan, M; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G.V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.

    2016-01-01

    Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 $\\rm m^2$ sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than $10^{-5}$ g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another examp...

  1. The matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna : a new tool for underground geophysical studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouyer, P.

    2015-12-01

    Since its first demonstration in 1991, Atomic Interferometry (AI) has shown to be an extremely performing probe of inertial forces. More recently, AI has revealed sensitivities to acceleration or rotation competing with or even beating state-of-the art sensors based on other technologies. The high stability and accuracy of AI sensors relying on cold atoms is at the basis of several applications ranging from fundamental physics (e.g. tests of general relativity and measurements of fundamental constants), geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry) and inertial navigation. We are currently building a large scale matter-wave detector which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. In contrast to standard AI based sensors, our matter-wave laser interferometer gravitation antenna (MIGA) exploits the superb seismic environment of a low noise underground laboratory. This new infrastructure is embedded into the LSBB underground laboratory, in France, ideally located away from major anthropogenic disturbances and benefitting from very low background noise. MIGA combines atom and laser interferometry techniques, manipulating an array of atomic ensembles distributed along the antenna to simultanously read out seismic effects, inertial effects and eventually the passage of a gravity wave. The first version uses a set of three atomic sensors placed along an optical cavity. The spatial resolution obtained with this configuration will enable the separation of the seismic, inertial and GW contributions. This technique will bring unprecedented sensitivities to gravity gradients variations and open new perspectives for sub Hertz gravity wave and geodesic detection. MIGA will provide measurements of gravity gradients variations limited only by the AI shot noise, which will allow sensitivities of about 10-13 s-2Hz-1/2@ 2Hz. This instrument will then be capable to spatially resolve 1 m3 of water a distances of about 100 m, which opens important potential applications

  2. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J

    2007-01-01

    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  3. Atom Interferometry for detection of Gravity Waves-a Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Atom interferometers are more sensitive to inertial effects. This is because atoms in their inertial frame are ideal test masses for detection of gravity effects...

  4. Search for domain wall dark matter with atomic clocks on board global positioning system satellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Benjamin M; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Dailey, Conner; Murphy, Mac; Pospelov, Maxim; Rollings, Alex; Sherman, Jeff; Williams, Wyatt; Derevianko, Andrei

    2017-10-30

    Cosmological observations indicate that dark matter makes up 85% of all matter in the universe yet its microscopic composition remains a mystery. Dark matter could arise from ultralight quantum fields that form macroscopic objects. Here we use the global positioning system as a ~ 50,000 km aperture dark matter detector to search for such objects in the form of domain walls. Global positioning system navigation relies on precision timing signals furnished by atomic clocks. As the Earth moves through the galactic dark matter halo, interactions with domain walls could cause a sequence of atomic clock perturbations that propagate through the satellite constellation at galactic velocities ~ 300 km s -1 . Mining 16 years of archival data, we find no evidence for domain walls at our current sensitivity level. This improves the limits on certain quadratic scalar couplings of domain wall dark matter to standard model particles by several orders of magnitude.

  5. Temperature oscillations and sound waves in hadronic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilk, G.; Włodarczyk, Z.

    2017-11-01

    Recent high energy CERN LHC experiments on transverse momenta distributions of produced particles seem to show the existence of some (small but persistent) log-periodic oscillation in the ratios R =σdata(pT) /σfit(pT). We argue that they can provide us with so far unnoticed information on the production process, which can be interpreted as the presence of some kind of sound waves formed during the collision process in the bulk of the produced high density matter.

  6. Formation of matter-wave soliton trains by modulational instability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Jason H. V.; Luo, De; Hulet, Randall G.

    2017-04-01

    Nonlinear systems can exhibit a rich set of dynamics that are inherently sensitive to their initial conditions. One such example is modulational instability, which is believed to be one of the most prevalent instabilities in nature. By exploiting a shallow zero-crossing of a Feshbach resonance, we characterize modulational instability and its role in the formation of matter-wave soliton trains from a Bose-Einstein condensate. We examine the universal scaling laws exhibited by the system and, through real-time imaging, address a long-standing question of whether the solitons in trains are created with effectively repulsive nearest-neighbor interactions or rather evolve into such a structure.

  7. Interaction of matter-wave gap solitons in optical lattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabrowska, Beata J; Ostrovskaya, Elena A; Kivshar, Yuri S [Nonlinear Physics Centre and Australian Centre for Quantum-Atom Optics, Research School of Physical Sciences and Engineering, Canberra ACT 0200 (Australia)

    2004-10-01

    We study the mobility and interaction of gap solitons in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) confined by an optical lattice potential. Such localized wavepackets can exist only in the gaps of the matter-wave band-gap spectrum and their interaction properties are shown to serve as a measure of the discreteness imposed on a BEC by the lattice potential. We show that inelastic collisions of two weakly localized near-band-edge gap solitons provide a simple and effective means for generating strongly localized in-gap solitons through soliton fusion.

  8. Dynamics of Bose-Einstein Condensates: Exact Representation and Topological Classification of Coherent Matter Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilei Jia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available By using the bifurcation theory of dynamical systems, we present the exact representation and topological classification of coherent matter waves in Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs, such as solitary waves and modulate amplitude waves (MAWs. The existence and multiplicity of such waves are determined by the parameter regions selected. The results show that the characteristic of coherent matter waves can be determined by the “angular momentum” in attractive BECs while for repulsive BECs; the waves of the coherent form are all MAWs. All exact explicit parametric representations of the above waves are exhibited and numerical simulations support the result.

  9. Ultracold atoms in radio-frequency dressed potentials beyond the rotating-wave approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofferberth, S.; Fischer, B.; Schumm, Thorsten

    2007-01-01

    We study dressed Bose-Einstein condensates in an atom chip radio-frequency trap. We show that in this system sufficiently strong dressing can be achieved to cause the widely used rotating-wave approximation (RWA) to break down. We present a full calculation of the atom-field coupling which shows...

  10. Nanolithography with metastable helium atoms in a high-power standing-wave light field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petra, S.J.H.; Feenstra, L.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2004-01-01

    We have created periodic nanoscale structures in a gold substrate with a lithography process using metastable triplet helium atoms that damage a hydrophobic resist layer on top of the substrate. A beam of metastable helium atoms is transversely collimated and guided through an intense standing-wave

  11. Effects of ion-atom collisions on the propagation and damping of ion-acoustic waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H.K.; D'Angelo, N.; Jensen, Vagn Orla

    1968-01-01

    Experiments are described on ion-acoustic wave propagation and damping in alkali plasmas of various degrees of ionization. An increase of the ratio Te/Ti from 1 to approximately 3-4, caused by ion-atom collisions, results in a decrease of the (Landau) damping of the waves. At high gas pressure and....../or low wave frequency a "fluid" picture adequately describes the experimental results....

  12. Probing double Rydberg wave packets in a helium atom with fast single-cycle pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Robicheaux, F.

    2017-10-01

    Fully quantum and classical calculations on a helium atom with two excited, radially localized Rydberg wave packets are performed. The differences between classical and quantum methods are compared for a wide range of principal quantum numbers to study the validity of the classical method for low-lying states. The effects of fast terahertz single-cycle pulses on an atomic system with one or two Rydberg wave packets are also studied using classical equations of motion. These results suggest that single-cycle pulses can be used as time-resolved probes to detect motion of the wave packets and to investigate autoionization properties.

  13. Dispersive shock waves in nonlinear and atomic optics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamchatnov Anatoly

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A brief review is given of dispersive shock waves observed in nonlinear optics and dynamics of Bose-Einstein condensates. The theory of dispersive shock waves is developed on the basis of Whitham modulation theory for various situations taking place in these two fields. In particular, the full classification is established for types of wave structures evolving from initial discontinuities for propagation of long light pulses in fibers with account of steepening effect and for dynamics of the polarization mode in two-component Bose-Einstein condensates.

  14. Competition between atomic coherence and electromagnetically induced population grating in multi-wave mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Lin; Sun, Jia; Feng, Weikang; Wu, Zhenkun; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng

    2014-12-01

    We study the competition and transfer between atomic coherence and electromagnetically induced population grating of multi-wave mixing (MWM) in four- and five-level atomic systems. The MWM signal falls into a new type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window that depends on propagating directions of the related fields rather than atomic system configuration. By blocking different coupling laser beams, we experimentally distinguish different wave mixing processes. In addition, by changing the detuning of pump beams, we can observe double peaks for both EIT and MWM signals. The results may have potential applications in correlated photon-pair generations in four-wave mixing as well as six-wave mixing and quantum information processing.

  15. Electron Scattering From Atoms, Molecules, Nuclei, and Bulk Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Whelan, Colm T

    2005-01-01

    Topics that are covered include electron scattering in the scanning TEM; basic theory of inelastic electron imaging; study of confined atoms by electron excitation; helium bubbles created in extreme pressure with application to nuclear safety; lithium ion implantation; electron and positron scattering from clusters; electron scattering from physi- and chemi-absorbed molecules on surfaces; coincidence studies; electron scattering from biological molecules; electron spectroscopy as a tool for environmental science; electron scattering in the presence of intense fields; electron scattering from astrophysical molecules; electon interatctions an detection of x-ray radiation.

  16. A Gravitational Wave Detector Based on an Atom Interferometer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Gravitational waves are tiny perturbations in the curvature of space-time that arise from accelerating masses – according to Einstein’s general...

  17. Matter, dark matter and gravitational waves from a GUT-scale U(1) phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domcke, Valerie

    2013-09-15

    The cosmological realization of the spontaneous breaking of B-L, the difference of baryon and lepton number, can generate the initial conditions for the hot early universe. In particular, we show that entropy, dark matter and a matter-antimatter asymmetry can be produced in accordance with current observations. If B-L is broken at the grand unification scale, F-term hybrid inflation can be realized in the false vacuum of unbroken B-L. The phase transition at the end of inflation, governed by tachyonic preheating, spontaneously breaks the U(1){sub B-L} symmetry and sets the initial conditions for the following perturbative reheating phase. We provide a detailed, time-resolved picture of the reheating process. The competition of cosmic expansion and entropy production leads to an intermediate plateau of constant temperature, which controls both the generated lepton asymmetry and the dark matter abundance. This enables us to establish relations between the neutrino and superparticle mass spectrum, rendering this mechanism testable. Moreover, we calculate the entire gravitational wave spectrum for this setup. This yields a promising possibility to probe cosmological B - L breaking with forthcoming gravitational wave detectors such as eLISA, advanced LIGO and BBO/DECIGO. The largest contribution is obtained from cosmic strings which is, for typical parameter values, at least eight orders of magnitude higher then the contribution from inflation. Finally, we study the possibility of realizing hybrid inflation in a superconformal framework. We find that superconformal D-term inflation is an interesting possibility generically leading to a two-field inflation model, but in its simplest version disfavoured by the recently published Planck data.

  18. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    is tested by calculating atomization energies and equilibrium bulk properties of a variety of molecules and solids, comparing to the grid results. Finally, it is demonstrated how a grid-quality structure optimization can be performed with significantly reduced computational effort by switching between...

  19. Electron Rydberg wave packets in one-dimensional atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    An expression for the transition probability or form factor in one-dimensional Rydberg atom irradiated by short half-cycle pulse was constructed. In applicative contexts, our expression was found to be more useful than the corresponding result given by Landau and Lifshitz. Using the new expression for the form factor, the ...

  20. Atomic-Scale Time and Space Resolution of Terahertz Frequency Acoustic Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Evan J.; Armstrong, Michael R.; Kim, Ki-Yong; Glownia, James H.

    2008-07-01

    Using molecular dynamics simulations and analytics, we find that strain waves of terahertz frequencies can coherently generate radiation when they propagate past an interface between materials with different piezoelectric coefficients. By considering AlN/GaN heterostructures, we show that the radiation is of detectable amplitude and contains sufficient information to determine the time dependence of the strain wave with potentially subpicosecond, nearly atomic time and space resolution. We demonstrate this phenomenon within the context of high amplitude terahertz frequency strain waves that spontaneously form at the front of shock waves in GaN crystals.

  1. Unconventional Density Wave and Superfluidity in Cold Atom Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    species of fermions with unequal populations have also been considered in the study of quark matter [65]. With the rapid experimental advances in the...CDW in Fig. 6.2(f) is presence between two critical angles ( pink circle in Fig. 6.2(a)). When φD is closed to 45◦ at the same polar angle, the

  2. Correlated Monte Carlo wave functions for the atoms He through Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, K. E.; Moskowitz, J. W.

    1990-09-01

    We apply the variational Monte Carlo method to the atoms He through Ne. Our trial wave function is of the form introduced by Boys and Handy. We use the Monte Carlo method to calculate the first and second derivatives of an unreweighted variance and apply Newton's method to minimize this variance. We motivate the form of the correlation function using the local current conservation arguments of Feynman and Cohen. Using a self-consistent field wave function multiplied by a Boys and Handy correlation function, we recover a large fraction of the correlation energy of these atoms. We give the value of all variational parameters necessary to reproduce our wave functions. The method can be extended easily to other atoms and to molecules.

  3. Carrier-wave Rabi-flopping signatures in high-order harmonic generation for alkali atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciappina, M F; Pérez-Hernández, J A; Landsman, A S; Zimmermann, T; Lewenstein, M; Roso, L; Krausz, F

    2015-04-10

    We present a theoretical investigation of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in real atoms by employing numerical simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in alkali species. Given the short HHG cutoff, related to the low saturation intensity, we concentrate on the features of the third harmonic of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) atoms. For pulse areas of 2π and Na atoms, a characteristic unique peak appears, which, after analyzing the ground state population, we correlate with the conventional Rabi flopping. On the other hand, for larger pulse areas, carrier-wave Rabi flopping occurs, and is associated with a more complex structure in the third harmonic. These characteristics observed in K atoms indicate the breakdown of the area theorem, as was already demonstrated under similar circumstances in narrow band gap semiconductors.

  4. Carrier-wave Rabi flopping signatures in high-order harmonic generation for alkali atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Ciappina, M F; Landsman, A S; Zimmermann, T; Lewenstein, M; Roso, L; Krausz, F

    2015-01-01

    We present the first theoretical investigation of carrier-wave Rabi flopping in real atoms by employing numerical simulations of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) in alkali species. Given the short HHG cutoff, related to the low saturation intensity, we concentrate on the features of the third harmonic of sodium (Na) and potassium (K) atoms. For pulse areas of 2$\\pi$ and Na atoms, a characteristic unique peak appears, which, after analyzing the ground state population, we correlate with the conventional Rabi flopping. On the other hand, for larger pulse areas, carrier-wave Rabi flopping occurs, and is associated with a more complex structure in the third harmonic. These new characteristics observed in K atoms indicate the breakdown of the area theorem, as was already demonstrated under similar circumstances in narrow band gap semiconductors.

  5. Comparing laser interferometry and atom interferometry approaches to space-based gravitational-wave measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ira Thorpe, James; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul; Baker, John G.

    2012-07-01

    The science enabled by a space-based low-frequency gravitational-wave instrument is a high-priority objective of the international astronomy community. Mission concepts based on laser interferometry, such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA), have been thoroughly studied and determined to be capable of delivering significant science returns. Ongoing developments in laboratory atom interferometry techniques have inspired new gravitational-wave mission concepts. We present a comparative analysis of LISA-like light interferometer systems and atom interferometer systems for gravitational-wave detection. Specific attention is paid to the sources of instrumental noise that are most important for light interferometer systems. We find that the response to laser frequency noise is identical in light interferometer and atom interferometer systems and that similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple-arm interferometers) must be employed to reach interesting gravitational wave sensitivities. Response to acceleration of the optical platforms is slightly different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but the acceleration noise requirements are similar. Based on this analysis, we find no clear advantage of the atom interferometry approach over traditional laser interferometry.

  6. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms with dipole moments

    OpenAIRE

    Poluektov, Yu. M.; Tanatarov, I. V.

    2014-01-01

    We study the propagation of electromagnetic waves in the Bose-Einstein condensate of atoms with both intrinsic dipole moments and those induced by the electric field. The modified Gross--Pitaevskii equation is used, which takes into account relaxation and interaction with the electromagnetic field. Two cases are considered: 1) when the dispersion curves of the electromagnetic wave and of the condensate excitations do not intercross and 2) when the condensate excitations' spectrum has a gap an...

  7. A universal matter-wave interferometer with optical ionization gratings in the time-domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haslinger, Philipp; Dörre, Nadine; Geyer, Philipp; Rodewald, Jonas; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Arndt, Markus

    2015-01-01

    Matter-wave interferometry with atoms1 and molecules2 has attracted a rapidly growing interest throughout the last two decades both in demonstrations of fundamental quantum phenomena and in quantum-enhanced precision measurements. Such experiments exploit the non-classical superposition of two or more position and momentum states which are coherently split and rejoined to interfere3-11. Here, we present the experimental realization of a universal near-field interferometer built from three short-pulse single-photon ionization gratings12,13. We observe quantum interference of fast molecular clusters, with a composite de Broglie wavelength as small as 275 fm. Optical ionization gratings are largely independent of the specific internal level structure and are therefore universally applicable to different kinds of nanoparticles, ranging from atoms to clusters, molecules and nanospheres. The interferometer is sensitive to fringe shifts as small as a few nanometers and yet robust against velocity-dependent phase shifts, since the gratings exist only for nanoseconds and form an interferometer in the time-domain. PMID:25983851

  8. Dark matter searches using gravitational wave bar detectors: Quark nuggets and newtorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassan, M.; Coccia, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Fafone, V.; Giordano, G.; Marini, A.; Minenkov, Y.; Modena, I.; Pallottino, G. V.; Pizzella, G.; Rocchi, A.; Ronga, F.; Visco, M.

    2016-05-01

    Many experiments have searched for supersymmetric WIMP dark matter, with null results. This may suggest to look for more exotic possibilities, for example compact ultra-dense quark nuggets, widely discussed in literature with several different names. Nuclearites are an example of candidate compact objects with atomic size cross section. After a short discussion on nuclearites, the result of a nuclearite search with the gravitational wave bar detectors Nautilus and Explorer is reported. The geometrical acceptance of the bar detectors is 19.5 m2 sr, that is smaller than that of other detectors used for similar searches. However, the detection mechanism is completely different and is more straightforward than in other detectors. The experimental limits we obtain are of interest because, for nuclearites of mass less than 10-5 g, we find a flux smaller than that one predicted considering nuclearites as dark matter candidates. Particles with gravitational only interactions (newtorites) are another example. In this case the sensitivity is quite poor and a short discussion is reported on possible improvements.

  9. Comparative Sensitivities of Gravitational Wave Detectors Based on Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.; Thorpe, J. I.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe. Whether this potential advantage outweighs the additional complexity associated with including atom interferometers will require further study.

  10. Static response, collective frequencies, and ground-state thermodynamical properties of spin-saturated two-component cold atoms and neutron matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, A.; Lacroix, D.

    2018-01-01

    The thermodynamical ground-state properties and static response in both cold atoms at or close to unitarity and neutron matter are determined using a recently proposed density functional theory (DFT) based on the s -wave scattering length as, effective range re, and unitary gas limit. In cold atoms, when the effective range may be neglected, we show that the pressure, chemical potential, compressibility modulus, and sound velocity obtained with the DFT are compatible with experimental observations or exact theoretical estimates. The static response in homogeneous infinite systems is also obtained and a possible influence of the effective range on the response is analyzed. The neutron matter differs from unitary gas due to the noninfinite scattering length and to a significant influence of effective range, which affects all thermodynamical quantities as well as the static response. In particular, we show for neutron matter that the latter response recently obtained in auxiliary-field diffusion Monte Carlo (AFDMC) can be qualitatively reproduced when the p -wave contribution is added to the functional. Our study indicates that the close similarity between the exact AFDMC static response and the free-gas response might stem from the compensation of the as effect by the effective range and p -wave contributions. We finally consider the dynamical response of both atoms or neutron droplets in anisotropic traps. Assuming the hydrodynamical regime and a polytropic equation of state, a reasonable description of the radial and axial collective frequencies in cold atoms is obtained. Following a similar strategy, we estimate the equivalent collective frequencies of neutron drops in anisotropic traps.

  11. Speckle reduction in optical coherence tomography images based on wave atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yongzhao; Liu, Gangjun; Feng, Guoying; Chen, Zhongping

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an emerging noninvasive imaging technique, which is based on low-coherence interferometry. OCT images suffer from speckle noise, which reduces image contrast. A shrinkage filter based on wave atoms transform is proposed for speckle reduction in OCT images. Wave atoms transform is a new multiscale geometric analysis tool that offers sparser expansion and better representation for images containing oscillatory patterns and textures than other traditional transforms, such as wavelet and curvelet transforms. Cycle spinning-based technology is introduced to avoid visual artifacts, such as Gibbs-like phenomenon, and to develop a translation invariant wave atoms denoising scheme. The speckle suppression degree in the denoised images is controlled by an adjustable parameter that determines the threshold in the wave atoms domain. The experimental results show that the proposed method can effectively remove the speckle noise and improve the OCT image quality. The signal-to-noise ratio, contrast-to-noise ratio, average equivalent number of looks, and cross-correlation (XCOR) values are obtained, and the results are also compared with the wavelet and curvelet thresholding techniques. PMID:24825507

  12. Quantum physics of light and matter photons, atoms, and strongly correlated systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2017-01-01

    This compact but exhaustive textbook, now in its significantly revised and expanded second edition, provides an essential introduction to the field quantization of light and matter with applications to atomic physics and strongly correlated systems. Following an initial review of the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics, individual chapters are devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field and the consequences of light field quantization for the description of electromagnetic transitions. The spin of the electron is then analyzed, with particular attention to its derivation from the Dirac equation. Subsequent topics include the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra and the properties of systems composed of many interacting identical particles. The book also provides a detailed explanation of the second quantization of the non-relativistic matter field, i.e., the Schrödinger field, which offers a powerful tool for the investigation of many-body...

  13. Multiphoton laser wave-mixing absorption spectroscopy for samarium using a graphite furnace atomizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maniaci, Michael J.; Tong, William G. E-mail: william.tong@sdsu.edu

    2004-07-30

    Nonlinear laser wave-mixing optical technique is presented as a sensitive atomic spectroscopic method for the analysis of rare earth elements using an unmodified commercially available graphite furnace (GF) atomizer. A simple nonplanar backward-scattering degenerate four-wave mixing optical arrangement offers sub-picogram detection sensitivity with sub-Doppler Lorentzian-broadened resolution. Nonlinear wave mixing is an unusually sensitive absorption-based optical method that offers both excellent detection sensitivity and sub-Doppler spectral resolution. A mass detection limit of 0.7 pg and a concentration detection limit of 70 pg/ml are determined for a rare earth element, samarium, using the 429.7-nm excitation line.

  14. Electronic wave packets in twice-kicked one-dimensional Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Aparna; Chatterjee, Supriya; Talukdar, B, E-mail: binoy123@bsnl.i [Department of Physics, Visva-Bharati University, Santiniketan 731235 (India)

    2010-05-01

    We study the coherent control of the shape of an electronic wave packet in a Rydberg atom kicked by two half-cycle pulses. The momentum transferred to excited electrons by the second pulse and its time delay with the first represent two parameters that can be used for shaping the wave packet. We find that rather than working with the momentum transfer, manipulation of the shape using time delay will be more effective in the applicative context. We establish that times of revival and superrevivals of a wave packet in a twice-kicked atom obey a definite law, namely {tau}=2mn{sup 2} (m is an integer and n, the principal quantum number of the electron that receives the initial kick), and are independent of the initial shape of the packet. The revival time is obtained for m=1, and all other values of m give superrevival times.

  15. Manipulation and detection of atoms using plasmon-enhanced evanescent waves over dielectric waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yik, Johnathan

    Atom chip devices confine atoms by using the superposition of magnetic fields due to a current along with a uniform external field, generating a linear magnetic potential well along the line of the current. These devices are used in atomic physics experiments due to their ability to produce extremely tight confinements. In particular, the high phase-space densities made available by tight confinements allow rapid creation of Bose-Einstein condensates, while the strength of the transverse confinement compared to the weak axial confinement allows 1-dimensional states of matter to be created and studied. To achieve such tight confinements, atoms must be trapped very close to the chip surface. However, detection of atoms is difficult at small separations from the surface. Additionally, irregularities in the current-carrying wires produce corrugations in the trapping potential, causing fragmentation of trapped atoms, as well as undesired excitations out of the ground state. In this thesis, the integration of optical waveguides on the surface of atom chips is proposed, in order to address the previously-mentioned problems with atom confinement near the chip surface. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  16. Direct Measurements of Terahertz Meta-atoms with Near-Field Emission of Terahertz Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serita, Kazunori; Darmo, Juraj; Kawayama, Iwao; Murakami, Hironaru; Tonouchi, Masayoshi

    2017-09-01

    We present the direct measurements of terahertz meta-atoms, an elementary unit of metamaterials, by using locally generated terahertz waves in the near-field region. In contrast to a conventional far-field terahertz spectroscopy or imaging, our technique features the localized emission of coherent terahertz pulses on a sub-wavelength scale, which has a potential for visualizing details of dynamics of each meta-atom. The obtained data show the near-field coupling among the meta-atoms and the impact of the electric field distribution from the excited meta-atom to neighbor meta-atoms. The observable LC resonance response is enhanced with an increase of numbers of meta-atoms. Furthermore, our approach also has a potential for visualizing the individual mode of meta-atom at different terahertz irradiation spots. These data can help us to understand the important role of the meta-atom in metamaterials and develop the novel terahertz components and devices such as active terahertz metamaterial and compact, high-sensitive bio-sensor devices.

  17. Twin Matter Waves for Interferometry Beyond the Classical Limit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lücke, Bernd; Scherer, Manuel; Kruse, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Interferometers with atomic ensembles constitute an integral part of modern precision metrology. However, these interferometers are fundamentally restricted by the shot noise limit, which can only be overcome by creating quantum entanglement among the atoms. We used spin dynamics in Bose-Einstein......-Einstein condensates to create large ensembles of up to 10^4 pair-correlated atoms with an interferometric sensitivity -1.61dB beyond the shot noise limit. Our proof-of-principle results point the way toward a new generation of atom interferometers....

  18. Comparison of Atom Interferometers and Light Interferometers as Space-Based Gravitational Wave Detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John G.

    2012-01-01

    We consider a class of proposed gravitational wave detectors based on multiple atomic interferometers separated by large baselines and referenced by common laser systems. We compute the sensitivity limits of these detectors due to intrinsic phase noise of the light sources, non-inertial motion of the light sources, and atomic shot noise and compare them to sensitivity limits for traditional light interferometers. We find that atom interferometers and light interferometers are limited in a nearly identical way by intrinsic phase noise and that both require similar mitigation strategies (e.g. multiple arm instruments) to reach interesting sensitivities. The sensitivity limit from motion of the light sources is slightly different and favors the atom interferometers in the low-frequency limit, although the limit in both cases is severe.

  19. The pump-probe coupling of matter wave packets to remote lattice states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sherson, Jacob F; Park, Sung Jong; Pedersen, Poul Lindholm

    2012-01-01

    The coherent manipulation of wave packets is an important tool in many areas of physics. We demonstrate the experimental realization of quasi-free wave packets of ultra-cold atoms bound by an external harmonic trap. The wave packets are produced by modulating the intensity of an optical lattice c...... selected lattice sites at a long, controllable distance of more than 100 lattice sites from the main component. This precise control mechanism for ultra-cold atoms thus enables controlled quantum state preparation and splitting for quantum dynamics, metrology and simulation....

  20. Semi-classical description of matter wave interferometers and hybrid quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Mathias

    2015-02-16

    This work considers the semi-classical description of two applications involving cold atoms. This is, on one hand, the behavior of a BOSE-EINSTEIN condensate in hybrid systems, i.e. in contact with a microscopic object (carbon nanotubes, fullerenes, etc.). On the other, the evolution of phase space distributions in matter wave interferometers utilizing ray tracing methods was discussed. For describing condensates in hybrid systems, one can map the GROSS-PITAEVSKII equation, a differential equation in the complex-valued macroscopic wave function, onto a system of two differential equations in density and phase. Neglecting quantum dispersion, one obtains a semiclassical description which is easily modified to incorporate interactions between condensate and microscopical object. In our model, these interactions comprise attractive forces (CASIMIR-POLDER forces) and loss of condensed atoms due to inelastic collisions at the surface of the object. Our model exhibited the excitation of sound waves that are triggered by the object's rapid immersion, and spread across the condensate thereafter. Moreover, local particle loss leads to a shrinking of the bulk condensate. We showed that the total number of condensed particles is decreasing potentially in the beginning (large condensate, strong mean field interaction), while it decays exponentially in the long-time limit (small condensate, mean field inetraction negligible). For representing the physics of matter wave interferometers in phase space, we utilized the WIGNER function. In semi-classical approximation, which again consists in ignoring the quantum dispersion, this representation is subject to the same equation of motion as classical phase space distributions, i.e. the LIOUVILLE equation. This implies that time evolution of theWIGNER function follows a phase space flow that consists of classical trajectories (classical transport). This means, for calculating a time-evolved distribution, one has know the initial

  1. Coherent scattering of an atom in the field of a standing wave under conditions of initial quantum correlation of subsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trubilko, A. I., E-mail: trubilko.andrey@gmail.com [St. Petersburg University of State Fire Service of the Russian Ministry of Emergency Situations (Russian Federation)

    2016-10-15

    Coherent scattering of a two-level atom in the field of a quantized standing wave of a micromaser is considered under conditions of initial quantum correlation between the atom and the field. Such a correlation can be produced by a broadband parametric source. The interaction leading to scattering of the atom from the nonuniform field occurs in the dispersion limit or in the wing of the absorption line of the atom. Apart from the quantized field, the atom simultaneously interacts with two classical counterpropagating waves with different frequencies, which are acting in the plane perpendicular to the atom’s propagation velocity and to the wavevector of the standing wave. Joint action of the quantized field and two classical waves induces effective two-photon and Raman resonance interaction on the working transition. The effective Hamiltonian of the interaction is derived using the unitary transformation method developed for a moving atom. A strong effect is detected, which makes it possible to distinguish the correlated initial state of the atom and the field in the scattering of atom from the state of independent systems. For all three waves, scattering is not observed when systems with quantum correlation are prepared using a high-intensity parametric source. Conversely, when the atom interacts only with the nonuniform field of the standing wave, scattering is not observed in the case of the initial factorized state.

  2. Generation of matter-wave solitons of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamadou, Alidou [Condensed Matter Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Douala, P.O. Box 24157, Douala (Cameroon); Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics, P.O. Box 538, Strada Costiera 11, I-34014 Trieste (Italy); Wamba, Etienne; Kofane, Timoleon C. [Laboratory of Mechanics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Yaounde I, P.O. Box 812, Yaounde (Cameroon); Doka, Serge Y. [Higher Teacher Training College, University of Maroua, P.O. Box 55, Maroua (Cameroon); Ekogo, Thierry B. [Departement de Physique, Universite des Sciences et Techniques de Masuku, B.P. 943, Franceville (Gabonese Republic)

    2011-08-15

    We examine the generation of bright matter-wave solitons in the Gross-Pitaevskii equation describing Bose-Einstein condensates with a time-dependent complex potential, which is composed of a repulsive parabolic background potential and a gravitational field. By performing a modified lens-type transformation, an explicit expression for the growth rate of a purely growing modulational instability is presented and analyzed. We point out the effects of the gravitational field, as well as of the parameter related to the feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate, on the instability growth rate. It is evident from numerical simulations that the feeding with atoms and the magnetic trap have opposite effects on the dynamics of the system. It is shown that the feeding or loss parameter can be well used to control the instability domain. Our study shows that the gravitational field changes the condensate trail of the soliton trains during the propagation. We also perform a numerical analysis to solve the Gross-Pitaevskii equation with a time-dependent complicated potential. The numerical results on the effect of both the gravitational field and the parameter of feeding or loss of atoms in the condensate agree well with predictions of the linear stability analysis. Another result of the present work is the modification of the background wave function in the Thomas-Fermi approximation during the numerical simulations.

  3. Observation of nuclear spin waves in spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johson, B.R.; Denker, J.S.; Bigelow, N.; Levy, L.P.; Freed, J.H.; Lee, D.M.

    1984-04-23

    We have observed narrow, distinct resonances in the NMR spectrum of dilute spin-polarized atomic hydrogen gas (nroughly-equal10/sup 16/ atoms/cm/sup 3/). The dependence of the observed spectra on temperature, density, polarization, and magnetic field gradient is consistent with theoretical predictions for spin-wave excitations damped by diffusion. We have measured the parameter ..mu.., which is a measure of the importance of exchange effects in spin transport processes, and the diffusion coefficient D/sub 0/, both of which are in reasonable agreement with theory.

  4. Extended s-wave superfluid of repulsively interacting three-component fermionic atoms in optical lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Sei-Ichiro; Inaba, Kensuke

    2014-03-01

    We investigate pairing symmetry of the superfluid state in repulsively interacting three-component (colors) fermionic atoms in optical lattices. This superfluid state appears, when two of the color-dependent three repulsions are much stronger than the other close to half filling. We evaluate the effective pairing interaction by collecting random-phase-approximation-type diagrams and ladder diagrams, and solve the Eliashberg equation within weak-coupling theory in square optical lattices. We find that pairing symmetry is an extended s-wave, although in the phase diagram the superfluid state is adjacent to the color-density wave or paired Mott insulator at half filling. The k-dependence of the superfluid order parameter is caused by quantum fluctuations of the staggered color-density wave. When the difference in the three repulsions is decreased, paring symmetry changes from an extended s-wave to a d-wave. We expect 6Li, 171Yb, 173Yb atoms and their mixtures in optical lattices to be possible candidates for observing this superfluid state. This work was supported by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (C) (No. 23540467) and (B) (No. 25287104) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  5. Distorted wave theories for dressed-ion-atom collisions with GSZ projectile potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monti, J M; Rivarola, R D [Instituto de Fisica Rosario (CONICET-UNR) and Facultad de Ciencias Exactas, IngenierIa y Agrimensura, Universidad Nacional de Rosario, Avenida Pellegrini 250, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Fainstein, P D, E-mail: monti@ifir-conicet.gov.ar [Comision Nacional de EnergIa Atomica, Centro Atomico Bariloche, 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2011-10-14

    The continuum distorted wave and the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state approximations for electron emission in ion-atom collisions are generalized to the case of dressed projectiles. The interaction between the dressed projectile and the active electron is represented by the analytic Green-Sellin-Zachor (GSZ) potential. Doubly differential cross sections as a function of the emitted electron energy and angle are computed. The region of the binary encounter peak is analysed in detail. Interference structures appear in agreement with the experimental data and are interpreted as arising from the coherent interference between short- and long-range scattering amplitudes.

  6. Measurements of amplitude and frequencies of subwavelength oscillations of atoms using resonance fluorescence of three levels atom in two standing waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enaki, Nicolae; Bazgan, Sergiu; Mihailescu, Ion

    2015-02-01

    The resonance fluorescence of an atomic (or ion) system implanted in the materials driving two standing waves of the optical cavity is studied taking into consideration the delocalization of the atom. It is demonstrated that the resonance fluorescence depends on the position of atoms (or ions) relative the nodes or antinodes of standing waves. This situation gives us the possibility to measure the amplitude of mechanical oscillations of these radiators implanted in organic or inorganic materials. It is proposed to measure the amplitude of the mechanical oscillations relative to the equilibrium position using the time changes in the positions of the five peaks of the resonance fluorescence spectrum. In this case, the small oscillation amplitude relative to the standing wave length can drastically change the spectrum of resonance fluorescence of such atoms. The proposed method can be used in the measurements of the nanostructure temperature (or bio-molecule temperature deformation).

  7. Comparing Laser Interferometry and Atom Interferometry Approaches to Space-Based Gravitational-Wave Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, John; Thorpe, Ira

    2012-01-01

    Thoroughly studied classic space-based gravitational-wave missions concepts such as the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) are based on laser-interferometry techniques. Ongoing developments in atom-interferometry techniques have spurred recently proposed alternative mission concepts. These different approaches can be understood on a common footing. We present an comparative analysis of how each type of instrument responds to some of the noise sources which may limiting gravitational-wave mission concepts. Sensitivity to laser frequency instability is essentially the same for either approach. Spacecraft acceleration reference stability sensitivities are different, allowing smaller spacecraft separations in the atom interferometry approach, but acceleration noise requirements are nonetheless similar. Each approach has distinct additional measurement noise issues.

  8. Quantum properties of a parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman type atomic system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharypov A.V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a study of the quantum properties of two light fields used to parametric four-wave mixing in a Raman type atomic system. The system realizes an effective Hamiltonian of beamsplitter type coupling between the light fields, which allows to control squeezing and amplitude distribution of the light fields, as well as realizing their entanglement. The scheme can be feasibly applied to engineer the quantum properties of two single-mode light fields in properly chosen input states.

  9. Exact dynamics of a two-level atom beyond the rotating wave approximation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semin Vitalii

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Interaction Hamiltonians of some models beyond the rotating wave approximation are just a product of two commuting operators. The evolution operator of such models can be transformed into product of two independent chronological exponents with the help of Hubbard-Stratonovich transformation. We use such a representation of the evolution operator to exactly describe a two-level atom in a photonic thermostat.

  10. Time-resolved X-ray scattering by electronic wave packets: analytic solutions to the hydrogen atom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmermacher, Mats; Henriksen, Niels Engholm; Møller, Klaus Braagaard

    2017-01-01

    description of time-resolved X-ray scattering by non-stationary electronic wave packets in atomic systems. A consistent application of the Waller-Hartree approximation is discussed and different contributions to the total differential scattering signal are identified and interpreted. Moreover......, it is demonstrated how the scattering signal of wave packets in the hydrogen atom can be expressed analytically. This permits simulations without numerical integration and establishes a benchmark for both efficiency and accuracy. Based on that, scattering patterns of an exemplary wave packet in the hydrogen atom...

  11. Free-space microwave-to-optical conversion via six-wave mixing in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jingshan; Vogt, Thibault; Gross, Christian; Jaksch, Dieter; Kiffner, Martin; Li, Wenhui

    2017-04-01

    The interconversion of millimeter waves and optical fields is an important and highly topical subject for classical and quantum technologies. In this talk, we report an experimental demonstration of coherent and efficient microwave-to-optical conversion in free space via six-wave mixing in Rydberg atoms. Our scheme utilizes the strong coupling of millimeter waves to Rydberg atoms as well as the frequency mixing based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that greatly enhances the nonlinearity for the conversion process. We achieve a free-space conversion efficiency of 0.25% with a bandwidth of about 4 MHz in our experiment. Optimized geometry and energy level configurations should enable the broadband interconversion of microwave and optical fields with near-unity efficiency. These results indicate the tremendous potential of Rydberg atoms for the efficient conversion between microwave and optical fields, and thus paves the way to many applications. This work is supported by Singapore Ministry of Education Academic Research Fund Tier 2 (Grant No. MOE2015-T2-1-085).

  12. Plane wave packet formulation of atom-plus-diatom quantum reactive scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Althorpe, Stuart C

    2004-07-15

    We recently interpreted several reactive scattering experiments using a plane wave packet (PWP) formulation of quantum scattering theory [see, e.g., S. C. Althorpe, F. Fernandez-Alonso, B. D. Bean, J. D. Ayers, A. E. Pomerantz, R. N. Zare, and E. Wrede, Nature (London) 416, 67 (2002)]. This paper presents the first derivation of this formulation for atom-plus-diatom reactive scattering, and explains its relation to conventional time-independent reactive scattering. We generalize recent results for spherical-particle scattering [S. C. Althorpe, Phys. Rev. A 69, 042702 (2004)] to atom-rigid-rotor scattering in the space-fixed frame, atom-rigid-rotor scattering in the body-fixed frame, and finally A+BC rearrangement scattering. The reactive scattering is initiated by a plane wave packet, describing the A+BC reagents in center-of-mass scattering coordinates, and is detected by projecting onto a series of AC+B (or AB+C) plane wave "probe" packets. The plane wave packets are localized at the closest distance from the scattering center at which the interaction potential can be neglected. The time evolution of the initial plane wave packet provides a clear visualization of the scattering into space of the reaction products. The projection onto the probe packets yields the time-independent, state-to-state scattering amplitude, and hence the differential cross section. We explain how best to implement the PWP approach in a numerical computation, and illustrate this with a detailed application to the H+D2 reaction. (c) 2004 American Institute of Physics

  13. P-wave holographic superconductor/insulator phase transitions affected by dark matter sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogatko, Marek; Wysokinski, Karol I. [Institute of Physics, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University,20-031 Lublin, pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 1 (Poland)

    2016-03-31

    The holographic approach to building the p-wave superconductors results in three different models: the Maxwell-vector, the SU(2) Yang-Mills and the helical. In the probe limit approximation, we analytically examine the properties of the first two models in the theory with dark matter sector. It turns out that the effect of dark matter on the Maxwell-vector p-wave model is the same as on the s-wave superconductor studied earlier. For the non-Abelian model we study the phase transitions between p-wave holographic insulator/superconductor and metal/superconductor. Studies of marginally stable modes in the theory under consideration allow us to determine features of p-wave holographic droplet in a constant magnetic field. The dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on the coupling constant α to the dark matter sector is affected by the dark matter density ρ{sub D}. For ρ{sub D}>ρ the transition temperature is a decreasing function of α. The critical chemical potential μ{sub c} for the quantum phase transition between insulator and metal depends on the chemical potential of dark matter μ{sub D} and for μ{sub D}=0 is a decreasing function of α.

  14. Introduction to the physics of matter basic atomic, molecular, and solid-state physics

    CERN Document Server

    Manini, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an up-to-date, compact presentation of basic topics in the physics of matter, from atoms to molecules to solids, including elements of statistical mechanics. The adiabatic separation of the motion of electrons and nuclei in matter and its spectroscopic implications are outlined for molecules and recalled regularly in the study of the dynamics of gases and solids. Numerous experiments are described and more than 160 figures give a clear visual impression of the main concepts. Sufficient detail of mathematical derivations is provided to enable students to follow easily. The focus is on present-day understanding and especially on phenomena fitting various independent-particle models. The historical development of this understanding, and phenomena such as magnetism and superconductivity, where interparticle interactions and nonadiabatic effects play a crucial role, are mostly omitted. A final outlook section stimulates the curiosity of the reader to pursue the study of such advanced topics in gra...

  15. Matter-antimatter asymmetry and chiral behavior in perturbed atom H.

    CERN Document Server

    Van Hooydonk, G

    2002-01-01

    Recently, we showed that band, as well as line spectra reveal a left-right symmetry in 4- and 2-fermion systems. We now show how a mass-conjugation explains the difference between atom- and antiatom states of a stable 2-unit charge Coulomb system. For the electron-proton system in natural H, this difference (an anomaly) between states belonging to the hydrogen (matter) world and the antihydrogen (antimatter) anti-world is governed by number 2me/mH= 0.0011. This is verified with the H line spectrum. Classical physics can describe the parity effects for matter-antimatter asymmetry. An internal mass-conjugation (internal algebra) extends and generalizes Dirac's fermion-anti-fermion symmetry and defies Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR).

  16. Room temperature strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulillo, B., E-mail: bruno.paulillo@u-psud.fr; Manceau, J.-M., E-mail: jean-michel.manceau@u-psud.fr; Colombelli, R., E-mail: raffaele.colombelli@u-psud.fr [Institut d' Electronique Fondamentale, Univ. Paris Sud, UMR8622 CNRS, 91405 Orsay (France); Li, L. H.; Davies, A. G.; Linfield, E. H. [School of Electronic and Electrical Engineering, University of Leeds, Woodhouse Lane, Leeds LS2 9JT (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-07

    We demonstrate strong light-matter coupling in three dimensional terahertz meta-atoms at room temperature. The intersubband transition of semiconductor quantum wells with a parabolic energy potential is strongly coupled to the confined circuital mode of three-dimensional split-ring metal-semiconductor-metal resonators that have an extreme sub-wavelength volume (λ/10). The frequency of these lumped-element resonators is controlled by the size and shape of the external antenna, while the interaction volume remains constant. This allows the resonance frequency to be swept across the intersubband transition and the anti-crossing characteristic of the strong light-matter coupling regime to be observed. The Rabi splitting, which is twice the Rabi frequency (2Ω{sub Rabi}), amounts to 20% of the bare transition at room temperature, and it increases to 28% at low-temperature.

  17. Strong light-matter coupling from atoms to solid-state systems

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    The physics of strong light-matter coupling has been addressed in different scientific communities over the last three decades. Since the early eighties, atoms coupled to optical and microwave cavities have led to pioneering demonstrations of cavity quantum electrodynamics, Gedanken experiments, and building blocks for quantum information processing, for which the Nobel Prize in Physics was awarded in 2012. In the framework of semiconducting devices, strong coupling has allowed investigations into the physics of Bose gases in solid-state environments, and the latter holds promise for exploiting light-matter interaction at the single-photon level in scalable architectures. More recently, impressive developments in the so-called superconducting circuit QED have opened another fundamental playground to revisit cavity quantum electrodynamics for practical and fundamental purposes. This book aims at developing the necessary interface between these communities, by providing future researchers with a robust conceptu...

  18. The stability of matter from atoms to stars : selecta of Elliott H. Lieb

    CERN Document Server

    Lieb, Elliott H

    2005-01-01

    This collection of papers -- starting with a brilliant article by one of the masters of the field -- gives an excellent current review of our knowledge of matter. Partially basing his own work on a variational formulation of quantum mechanics, E.H. Lieb links the difficult question of the stability of matter with important problems in functional analysis. Here the reader will find general results together with deep insights into quantum systems combined with papers on the structure of atoms and molecules, the thermodynamic limit, and stellar structures. The book is suitable as an accompanying text or recommended reading for a graduate course in quantum mechanics. In the third edition, two new sections were added: one contains papers on quantum electrodynamics, and the other on Boson systems. In this fourth edition, these topics have been further developed, extending the book by approximately 120 pages.

  19. Size Effects on Surface Elastic Waves in a Semi-Infinite Medium with Atomic Defect Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mirzade

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper investigates small-scale effects on the Rayleigh-type surface wave propagation in an isotopic elastic half-space upon laser irradiation. Based on Eringen’s theory of nonlocal continuum mechanics, the basic equations of wave motion and laser-induced atomic defect dynamics are derived. Dispersion equation that governs the Rayleigh surface waves in the considered medium is derived and analyzed. Explicit expressions for phase velocity and attenuation (amplification coefficients which characterize surface waves are obtained. It is shown that if the generation rate is above the critical value, due to concentration-elastic instability, nanometer sized ordered concentration-strain structures on the surface or volume of solids arise. The spatial scale of these structures is proportional to the characteristic length of defect-atom interaction and increases with the increase of the temperature of the medium. The critical value of the pump parameter is directly proportional to recombination rate and inversely proportional to deformational potentials of defects.

  20. Entanglement of light-shift compensated atomic spin waves with telecom light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudin, Y O; Radnaev, A G; Zhao, R; Blumoff, J Z; Kennedy, T A B; Kuzmich, A

    2010-12-31

    Entanglement of a 795 nm light polarization qubit and an atomic Rb spin-wave qubit for a storage time of 0.1 s is observed by measuring the violation of Bell's inequality (S=2.65±0.12). Long qubit storage times are achieved by pinning the spin wave in a 1064 nm wavelength optical lattice, with a magic-valued magnetic field superposed to eliminate lattice-induced dephasing. Four-wave mixing in a cold Rb gas is employed to perform light qubit conversion between near infrared (795 nm) and telecom (1367 nm) wavelengths, and after propagation in a telecom fiber, to invert the conversion process. Observed Bell inequality violation (S=2.66±0.09), at 10 ms storage, confirms preservation of memory-light entanglement through the two stages of light qubit frequency conversion.

  1. Correlation in photon pairs generated using four-wave mixing in a cold atomic ensemble

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinand, Andrew Richard; Manjavacas, Alejandro; Becerra, Francisco Elohim

    2017-04-01

    Spontaneous four-wave mixing (FWM) in atomic ensembles can be used to generate narrowband entangled photon pairs at or near atomic resonances. While extensive research has been done to investigate the quantum correlations in the time and polarization of such photon pairs, the study and control of high dimensional quantum correlations contained in their spatial degrees of freedom has not been fully explored. In our work we experimentally investigate the generation of correlated light from FWM in a cold ensemble of cesium atoms as a function of the frequencies of the pump fields in the FWM process. In addition, we theoretically study the spatial correlations of the photon pairs generated in the FWM process, specifically the joint distribution of their orbital angular momentum (OAM). We investigate the width of the distribution of the OAM modes, known as the spiral bandwidth, and the purity of OAM correlations as a function of the properties of the pump fields, collected photons, and the atomic ensemble. These studies will guide experiments involving high dimensional entanglement of photons generated from this FWM process and OAM-based quantum communication with atomic ensembles. This work is supported by AFORS Grant FA9550-14-1-0300.

  2. AN ANTHOLOGY OF THE DISTINGUISHED ACHIEVEMENTS IN SCIENCE AND TECHNIQUE. PART 34: DISCOVERY AND STUDY OF QUANTUM-WAVE NATURE OF MICROSCOPIC WORLD OF MATTER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Implementation of brief analytical review of the basic distinguished scientific achievements of the world scientists-physicists in area of discovery and study of quantum-wave nature of physical processes and phenomena flowing in the microscopic world of circumferential people matter. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of scientific and technical information in area of theoretical and experimental physics, devoted the results of researches| of quantum and physical processes flowing in nature on atomic and subatomic levels. Results. The brief scientific and technical review of the basic scientific discovery and achievements of scientists-physicists is resulted in area of structure of atom of matter, generation, radiation, distribution and absorption of physical bodies of short-wave hertzian waves, indicative on a dominating role in the microscopic financial world of positions and conformities to the law of wave (by quantum mechanics, carrying especially probabilistic character a microstructure. Originality. Systematization is executed with exposition in the short concentrated form| of the known materials| on the quantum theory (electromagnetic of caloradiance, quantum theory of atom, electronic waves, quantum theory of actinoelectricity, quantum statistics of microparticless, quantum theory of the phenomenon superfluidity of liquid helium, quantum electronics and quantum-wave nature of drift of lone electrons in the metal of explorers with an electric current. Practical value. Popularization and deepening of fundamental physical and technical knowledges for students and engineer and technical specialists in area of classic and quantum physics, extending their scientific range of interests, and also support a further scientific study by them surrounding nature and to development of scientific and technical progress in society.

  3. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  4. Atomic layer lithography of wafer-scale nanogap arrays for extreme confinement of electromagnetic waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoshu; Park, Hyeong-Ryeol; Pelton, Matthew; Piao, Xianji; Lindquist, Nathan C; Im, Hyungsoon; Kim, Yun Jung; Ahn, Jae Sung; Ahn, Kwang Jun; Park, Namkyoo; Kim, Dai-Sik; Oh, Sang-Hyun

    2013-01-01

    Squeezing light through nanometre-wide gaps in metals can lead to extreme field enhancements, nonlocal electromagnetic effects and light-induced electron tunnelling. This intriguing regime, however, has not been readily accessible to experimentalists because of the lack of reliable technology to fabricate uniform nanogaps with atomic-scale resolution and high throughput. Here we introduce a new patterning technology based on atomic layer deposition and simple adhesive-tape-based planarization. Using this method, we create vertically oriented gaps in opaque metal films along the entire contour of a millimetre-sized pattern, with gap widths as narrow as 9.9 Å, and pack 150,000 such devices on a 4-inch wafer. Electromagnetic waves pass exclusively through the nanogaps, enabling background-free transmission measurements. We observe resonant transmission of near-infrared waves through 1.1-nm-wide gaps (λ/1,295) and measure an effective refractive index of 17.8. We also observe resonant transmission of millimetre waves through 1.1-nm-wide gaps (λ/4,000,000) and infer an unprecedented field enhancement factor of 25,000.

  5. Probing Primordial Black Hole Dark Matter with Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovetz, Ely D

    2017-09-29

    Primordial black holes (PBHs) have long been suggested as a candidate for making up some or all of the dark matter in the Universe. Most of the theoretically possible mass range for PBH dark matter has been ruled out with various null observations of expected signatures of their interaction with standard astrophysical objects. However, current constraints are significantly less robust in the 20  M_{⊙}≲M_{PBH}≲100  M_{⊙} mass window, which has received much attention recently, following the detection of merging black holes with estimated masses of ∼30  M_{⊙} by LIGO and the suggestion that these could be black holes formed in the early Universe. We consider the potential of advanced LIGO (aLIGO) operating at design sensitivity to probe this mass range by looking for peaks in the mass spectrum of detected events. To quantify the background, which is due to black holes that are formed from dying stars, we model the shape of the stellar-black-hole mass function and calibrate its amplitude to match the O1 results. Adopting very conservative assumptions about the PBH and stellar-black-hole merger rates, we show that ∼5  yr of aLIGO data can be used to detect a contribution of >20  M_{⊙} PBHs to dark matter down to f_{PBH}99.9% confidence level. Combined with other probes that already suggest tension with f_{PBH}=1, the obtainable independent limits from aLIGO will thus enable a firm test of the scenario that PBHs make up all of dark matter.

  6. Improved Apparatus to Study Matter-Wave Quantum Optics in a Sodium Spinor Bose-Einstein Condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shan; Bhagat, Anita; Zhang, Qimin; Schwettmann, Arne

    2017-04-01

    We present and characterize our recently improved experimental apparatus for studying matter-wave quantum optics in spin space in ultracold sodium gases. Improvements include our recent addition of a 3D-printed Helmholtz coil frame for field stabilization and a crossed optical dipole trap. Spin-exchange collisions in the F = 1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate can be precisely controlled by microwave dressing, and generate pairs of entangled atoms with magnetic quantum numbers mF = + 1 and mF = - 1 from pairs of mF = 0 atoms. Spin squeezing generated by the collisions can reduce the noise of population measurements below the shot noise limit. Versatile microwave pulse sequences will be used to implement an interferometer, a phase-sensitive amplifier and other devices with sub-shot noise performance. With an added ion detector to detect Rydberg atoms via pulse-field ionization, we later plan to study the effect of Rydberg excitations on the spin evolution of the ultracold gas.

  7. Local atomic structure and discommensurations in the charge density wave of CeTe3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H J; Malliakas, C D; Tomić, A T; Tessmer, S H; Kanatzidis, M G; Billinge, S J L

    2006-06-09

    The local structure of in the incommensurate charge density wave (IC-CDW) state has been obtained using atomic pair distribution function analysis of x-ray diffraction data. Local atomic distortions in the Te nets due to the CDW are larger than observed crystallographically, resulting in distinct short and long Te-Te bonds. Observation of different distortion amplitudes in the local and average structures is explained by the discommensurated nature of the CDW, since the pair distribution function is sensitive to the local displacements within the commensurate regions, whereas the crystallographic result averages over many discommensurated domains. The result is supported by STM data. This is the first quantitative local structural study within the commensurate domains in an IC-CDW system.

  8. Aspects of the theory of atoms and coherent matter and their interaction with electromagnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, Halvor Moell

    2002-07-01

    In the present work I have outlined and contributed to the time-dependent theory of the interaction between atoms and electromagnetic fields and the theory of Bose-Einstein condensates. New numerical methods and algorithms have been developed and applied in practice. Calculations have exhibited certain new dynamical features. All these calculations are in a regime where the applied field is of the same magnitude as the atomic field. In the case of BEC we have investigated the use of time-dependent methods to calculate the excitation frequencies. We also investigated the possibility of nonlinear coupling for a scissors mode and found no such contributions to damping which is consistent with other studies . Special emphasis has also been paid to the gyroscopic motion of rotating BEC where several models were investigated. Briefly, the main conclusions are: (1) Rydberg wave packets appear for direct excitations of Rydberg atoms for long pulses. (2) The survival of just a few states is decided by symmetry of the Hamiltonian. (3) For few cycle intense pulses classical and quantum mechanics show remarkable similarity. (4) Time-dependent methods for finding excitation frequencies have been shown to be very efficient. (5) New dynamical features is shown in gyroscopic motion of BEC. (6) It was shown that no nonlinear mixing of scissors modes occur in the standard Gross-Pitaevskii regime. As mentioned in the introduction, this work is a part of very active research fields and new progress is constantly reported. Thus, the present work cannot be concluded as a closed loop. The fast development of grid based numerical solutions for atoms in intense fields will surely make great contribution to solve many of today's problems. It is a very important area of research to understand both nonperturbative atomic response and highly nonlinear optics. In the field of Bose-Einstein condensation the new experimental achievements constantly drive the field forward. The new

  9. Matter effects on LIGO/Virgo searches for gravitational waves from merging neutron stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Torrey; Harry, Ian; Read, Jocelyn; Flynn, Eric

    2017-12-01

    Gravitational waves from merging neutron stars are expected to be observed in the next five years. We explore the potential impact of matter effects on gravitational waves from merging double neutron-star binaries. If neutron star binaries exist with chirp masses less than roughly one solar mass and typical neutron-star radii are larger than roughly 14 km, or if neutron-star radii are larger than 15-16 km for the chirp masses of galactic neutron-star binaries, then matter will have a significant impact on the effectiveness of a point-particle-based search at Advanced LIGO design sensitivity (roughly 5% additional loss of signals). In a configuration typical of LIGO’s first observing run, extreme matter effects lead to up to 10% potential loss in the most extreme cases.

  10. Multiphoton absorption in optical gratings for matter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Kai; Nimmrichter, Stefan; Hornberger, Klaus

    2016-10-01

    We present a theory for the diffraction of large molecules or nanoparticles at a standing light wave. Such particles can act as a genuine photon absorbers due to their numerous internal degrees of freedom effecting fast internal energy conversion. Our theory incorporates the interplay of three light-induced properties: the coherent phase modulation due to the dipole interaction, a nonunitary absorption-induced amplitude modulation described as a generalized measurement, and a coherent recoil splitting that resembles a quantum random walk in steps of the photon momentum. We discuss how these effects show up in near-field and far-field interference schemes, and we confirm our effective description by a dynamic evaluation of the grating interaction, which accounts for the internal states.

  11. Matter-wave dark solitons in box-like traps

    CERN Document Server

    Sciacca, M; Parker, N G

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the experimental development of quasi-homogeneous Bose-Einstein condensates confined in box-like traps, we study numerically the dynamics of dark solitons in such traps at zero temperature. We consider the cases where the side walls of the box potential rise either as a power-law or a Gaussian. While the soliton propagates through the homogeneous interior of the box without dissipation, it typically dissipates energy during a reflection from a wall through the emission of sound waves, causing a slight increase in the soliton's speed. We characterise this energy loss as a function of the wall parameters. Moreover, over multiple oscillations and reflections in the box-like trap, the energy loss and speed increase of the soliton can be significant, although the decay eventually becomes stabilized when the soliton equilibrates with the ambient sound field.

  12. Matter-wave interference of particles selected from a molecular library with masses exceeding 10,000 amu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eibenberger, Sandra; Gerlich, Stefan; Arndt, Markus; Mayor, Marcel; Tüxen, Jens

    2013-09-21

    The quantum superposition principle, a key distinction between quantum physics and classical mechanics, is often perceived as a philosophical challenge to our concepts of reality, locality or space-time since it contrasts with our intuitive expectations with experimental observations on isolated quantum systems. While we are used to associating the notion of localization with massive bodies, quantum physics teaches us that every individual object is associated with a wave function that may eventually delocalize by far more than the body's own extension. Numerous experiments have verified this concept at the microscopic scale but intuition wavers when it comes to delocalization experiments with complex objects. While quantum science is the uncontested ideal of a physical theory, one may ask if the superposition principle can persist on all complexity scales. This motivates matter-wave diffraction and interference studies with large compounds in a three-grating interferometer configuration which also necessitates the preparation of high-mass nanoparticle beams at low velocities. Here we demonstrate how synthetic chemistry allows us to prepare libraries of fluorous porphyrins which can be tailored to exhibit high mass, good thermal stability and relatively low polarizability, which allows us to form slow thermal beams of these high-mass compounds, which can be detected using electron ionization mass spectrometry. We present successful superposition experiments with selected species from these molecular libraries in a quantum interferometer, which utilizes the diffraction of matter-waves at an optical phase grating. We observe high-contrast quantum fringe patterns of molecules exceeding a mass of 10,000 amu and having 810 atoms in a single particle.

  13. Cavity QED with hybrid nanocircuits: from atomic-like physics to condensed matter phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Audrey; Dartiailh, Matthieu C; Desjardins, Matthieu M; Cubaynes, Tino; Contamin, Lauriane C; Delbecq, Matthieu; Viennot, Jérémie J; Bruhat, Laure E; Douçot, Benoit; Kontos, Takis

    2017-11-01

    Circuit QED techniques have been instrumental in manipulating and probing with exquisite sensitivity the quantum state of superconducting quantum bits coupled to microwave cavities. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate new devices in which the superconducting quantum bits are replaced by hybrid mesoscopic circuits combining nanoconductors and metallic reservoirs. This mesoscopic QED provides a new experimental playground to study the light-matter interaction in electronic circuits. Here, we present the experimental state of the art of mesoscopic QED and its theoretical description. A first class of experiments focuses on the artificial atom limit, where some quasiparticles are trapped in nanocircuit bound states. In this limit, the circuit QED techniques can be used to manipulate and probe electronic degrees of freedom such as confined charges, spins, or Andreev pairs. A second class of experiments uses cavity photons to reveal the dynamics of electron tunneling between a nanoconductor and fermionic reservoirs. For instance, the Kondo effect, the charge relaxation caused by grounded metallic contacts, and the photo-emission caused by voltage-biased reservoirs have been studied. The tunnel coupling between nanoconductors and fermionic reservoirs also enable one to obtain split Cooper pairs, or Majorana bound states. Cavity photons represent a qualitatively new tool to study these exotic condensed matter states.

  14. Cavity QED with hybrid nanocircuits: from atomic-like physics to condensed matter phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottet, Audrey; Dartiailh, Matthieu C.; Desjardins, Matthieu M.; Cubaynes, Tino; Contamin, Lauriane C.; Delbecq, Matthieu; Viennot, Jérémie J.; Bruhat, Laure E.; Douçot, Benoit; Kontos, Takis

    2017-11-01

    Circuit QED techniques have been instrumental in manipulating and probing with exquisite sensitivity the quantum state of superconducting quantum bits coupled to microwave cavities. Recently, it has become possible to fabricate new devices in which the superconducting quantum bits are replaced by hybrid mesoscopic circuits combining nanoconductors and metallic reservoirs. This mesoscopic QED provides a new experimental playground to study the light–matter interaction in electronic circuits. Here, we present the experimental state of the art of mesoscopic QED and its theoretical description. A first class of experiments focuses on the artificial atom limit, where some quasiparticles are trapped in nanocircuit bound states. In this limit, the circuit QED techniques can be used to manipulate and probe electronic degrees of freedom such as confined charges, spins, or Andreev pairs. A second class of experiments uses cavity photons to reveal the dynamics of electron tunneling between a nanoconductor and fermionic reservoirs. For instance, the Kondo effect, the charge relaxation caused by grounded metallic contacts, and the photo-emission caused by voltage-biased reservoirs have been studied. The tunnel coupling between nanoconductors and fermionic reservoirs also enable one to obtain split Cooper pairs, or Majorana bound states. Cavity photons represent a qualitatively new tool to study these exotic condensed matter states.

  15. Transport of Photonic Bloch Wave in Arrayed Two-Level Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chih-Chun; Lin, Lee; Chen, Guang-Yin

    2018-01-24

    In a quantum system of arrayed two-level atoms interacting with light, the interacted (dressed) photon is propagating in a periodic medium and its eigenstate ought to be of Bloch type with lattice symmetry. As the energy of photon is around the spacing between the two atomic energy levels, the photon will be absorbed and is not in the propagating mode but the attenuated mode. Therefore an energy gap exists in the dispersion relation of the photonic Bloch wave of dressed photon in addition to the nonlinear behaviors due to atom-light interactions. There follows several interesting results which are distinct from those obtained through a linear dispersion relation of free photon. For example, slow light can exist, the density of state of dressed photon is non-Lorentzian and is very large around the energy gap; the Rabi oscillations become monotonically decreasing in some cases; and besides the superradiance occurs at long wavelengths, the spontaneous emission is also very strong near the energy gap because of the high density of state.

  16. Atomization off thin water films generated by high-frequency substrate wave vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, David J.; Manor, Ofer; Winkler, Andreas; Schmidt, Hagen; Friend, James R.; Yeo, Leslie Y.

    2012-11-01

    Generating aerosol droplets via the atomization of thin aqueous films with high frequency surface acoustic waves (SAWs) offers several advantages over existing nebulization methods, particularly for pulmonary drug delivery, offering droplet sizes in the 1-5-μm range ideal for effective pulmonary therapy. Nevertheless, the physics underlying SAW atomization is not well understood, especially in the context of thin liquid film formation and spreading and how this affects the aerosol production. Here, we demonstrate that the film geometry, governed primarily by the applied power and frequency of the SAW, indeed plays a crucial role in the atomization process and, in particular, the size of the atomized droplets. In contrast to the continuous spreading of low surface energy liquids atop similar platforms, high surface energy liquids such as water, in the present case, are found to undergo transient spreading due to the SAW to form a quasisteady film whose height is determined by self-selection of the energy minimum state associated with the acoustic resonance in the film and whose length arises from a competition between acoustic streaming and capillary effects. This is elucidated from a fundamental model for the thin film spreading behavior under SAW excitation, from which we show good agreement between the experimentally measured and theoretically predicted droplet dimension, both of which consistently indicate a linear relationship between the droplet diameter and the mechanical power coupled into the liquid by the SAW (the latter captured by an acoustic Weber number to the two thirds power, and the reciprocal of the SAW frequency).

  17. Which One Is Better? Jigsaw II versus Jigsaw IV on the Subject of the Building Blocks of Matter and Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkmen, Hakan; Buyukaltay, Didem

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the effect of using Jigsaw II and Jigsaw IV techniques on the subject of "Atoms-The Basic Unit of Matter" in science course of 6th grade on academic achievement was examined. Pre-test post-test control group research was used in the study. Study population is all secondary schools in Turgutlu district of Manisa province…

  18. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  19. Gravitational waves from the asymmetric-dark-matter generating phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baldes, Iason

    2017-02-15

    The baryon asymmetry, together with a dark matter asymmetry, may be produced during a first order phase transition in a generative sector. We study the possibility of a gravitational wave signal in a model realising such a scenario. We identify areas of parameter space with strong phase transitions which can be probed by future, space based, gravitational wave detectors. Other signals of this scenario include collider signatures of a Z{sup '}, DM self interactions, a contribution to ΔN{sub eff} and nuclear recoils at direct detection experiments.

  20. Gravitational wave generation by interaction of high power lasers with matter. Part II: Ablation and Piston models

    CERN Document Server

    Kadlecová, Hedvika; Weber, Stefan; Korn, Georg

    2016-01-01

    We analyze theoretical models of gravitational waves generation in the interaction of high intensity laser with matter, namely ablation and piston models. We analyse the generated gravitational waves in linear approximation of gravitational theory. We derive the analytical formulas and estimates for the metric perturbations and the radiated power of generated gravitational waves. Furthermore we investigate the characteristics of polarization and the behaviour of test particles in the presence of gravitational wave which will be important for the detection.

  1. Colored and dissipative continuous spontaneous localization model and bounds from matter-wave interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toroš, Marko; Gasbarri, Giulio; Bassi, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Matter-wave interferometry is a direct test of the quantum superposition principle for massive systems, and of collapse models. Here we show that the bounds placed by matter-wave interferometry depend weakly on the details of the collapse mechanism. Specifically, we compute the bounds on the CSL model and its variants, provided by the KDTL interferometry experiment of Arndt's group (Eibenberger et al. (2013) [3]), which currently holds the record of largest mass in interferometry. We also show that the CSL family of models emerges naturally by considering a minimal set of assumptions. In particular, we construct the dynamical map for the colored and dissipative Continuous Spontaneous Localization (cdCSL) model, which reduces to the CSL model and variants in the appropriate limits. In addition, we discuss the measure of macroscopicity based on the cdCSL model.

  2. Statistical wave scattering: from the atomic nucleus to mesoscopic systems to microwave cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mello, P.A. [IFUNAM, 01000 Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2007-12-15

    Universal statistical aspects of wave scattering by a variety of physical systems ranging from atomic nuclei to mesoscopic systems and microwave cavities are described. A statistical model for the scattering matrix is employed to address the problem of quantum chaotic scattering. The model, introduced in the past in the context of nuclear physics, discusses the problem in terms of a prompt and an equilibrated component: it incorporates the average value of the scattering matrix to account for the prompt processes and satisfies the requirements of flux conservation, causality and ergodicity. The main application of the model is the analysis of electronic transport through ballistic mesoscopic cavities whose classical dynamics is chaotic, although it can be applied to the propagation of microwaves through cavities of a similar shape. The model describes well the results from the numerical solutions of the Schrodinger equation for two-dimensional cavities. (Author)

  3. Magnetism in atomically thin quasi two-dimensional materials: Renormalized spin wave theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenglu; Cao, Ting; Louie, Steven G.

    In this work, we apply renormalized spin wave theory to the magnetic behavior of atomically thin two-dimensional crystals. We find that magnon-magnon interaction plays an important role in renormalizing the magnetic transition temperature, and the magnetic behavior is largely dependent on the magnetic anisotropy and the thickness of the crystal in the two-dimensional limit. Our method is applicable to general magnetic crystals with input spin interaction parameters mapped out from either ab initio calculations or extracted from experiments. This work was supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Basic Energy Sciences, Materials Sciences and Engineering Division, and by the National Science Foundation. Computational resources have been provided by NERSC and XSEDE.

  4. ORAL ISSUE OF THE JOURNAL "USPEKHI FIZICHESKIKH NAUK": Intense shock waves and extreme states of matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortov, Vladimir E.

    2007-04-01

    The physical properties of hot dense matter over a broad domain of the phase diagram are of immediate interest in astrophysics, planetary physics, power engineering, controlled thermonuclear fusion, impulse technologies, enginery, and several special applications. The use of intense shock waves in dynamic physics and high-pressure chemistry has made the exotic high-energy-density states of matter a subject of laboratory experiments and enabled advancing by many orders of magnitude along the pressure scale to range into the megabars and even gigabars. The present report reviews the latest experimental research involving shock waves in nonideal plasmas under conditions of strong collective interparticle interaction. The results of investigations into the thermodynamic, transport, and optical properties of strongly compressed hot matter, as well as into its composition and conductivity, are discussed. Experimental techniques for high energy density cumulation, the drivers of intense shock waves, and methods for the fast diagnostics of high-energy plasma are considered. Also discussed are compression-stimulated physical effects: pressure-induced ionization, plasma phase transitions, the deformation of bound states, plasma blooming ('transparentization' of plasma), etc. Suggestions for future research are put forward.

  5. Self-sustained hysteretic motional oscillations of a single atom pumped by a laser standing wave

    CERN Document Server

    Kaplan, A E

    1999-01-01

    Summary form only given. Self-sustained oscillations/oscillators (SSO), man-made or naturally occurring, are some of the most universal phenomena. The common feature of all SSO is the so called positive feedback, which overcomes the damping by properly controlling the energy supply (pumping) from the outside source during the cycle of oscillations. Usually, the zero steady-state point of the system is unstable, and the oscillations grow up till they reach a stable limit cycle. The common quality of the resulting SSO is their well defined amplitude (the so called classical squeezing) at the expense of undetermined phase of oscillations. All the "mechanical motion" SSO known so far, were based on macro- systems, while it would be of great importance to develop a microscopic SS-oscillator based on a single particle (atom or ion), which would enable us to control the SSO mode from classical to quantum limits. The effect proposed is based on the interaction of a standing laser wave with an atom moving in along the...

  6. Gravitational wave signals of electroweak phase transition triggered by dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Wei; Guo, Huai-Ke; Shu, Jing

    2017-09-01

    We study in this work a scenario that the universe undergoes a two step phase transition with the first step happened to the dark matter sector and the second step being the transition between the dark matter and the electroweak vacuums, where the barrier between the two vacuums, that is necessary for a strongly first order electroweak phase transition (EWPT) as required by the electroweak baryogenesis mechanism, arises at the tree-level. We illustrate this idea by working with the standard model (SM) augmented by a scalar singlet dark matter and an extra scalar singlet which mixes with the SM Higgs boson. We study the conditions for such pattern of phase transition to occur and especially for the strongly first order EWPT to take place, as well as its compatibility with the basic requirements of a successful dark matter, such as observed relic density and constraints of direct detections. We further explore the discovery possibility of this pattern EWPT by searching for the gravitational waves generated during this process in spaced based interferometer, by showing a representative benchmark point of the parameter space that the generated gravitational waves fall within the sensitivity of eLISA, DECIGO and BBO.

  7. Detecting the gravitational wave background from primordial black hole dark matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clesse, Sébastien; García-Bellido, Juan

    2017-12-01

    The black hole merging rates inferred after the gravitational-wave detections by Advanced LIGO/VIRGO and the relatively high mass of the progenitors are consistent with models of dark matter made of massive primordial black holes (PBH). PBH binaries emit gravitational waves in a broad range of frequencies that will be probed by future space interferometers (LISA) and pulsar timing arrays (PTA). The amplitude of the stochastic gravitational-wave background expected for PBH dark matter is calculated taking into account various effects such as initial eccentricity of binaries, PBH velocities, mass distribution and clustering. It allows a detection by the LISA space interferometer, and possibly by the PTA of the SKA radio-telescope. Interestingly, one can distinguish this background from the one of non-primordial massive binaries through a specific frequency dependence, resulting from the maximal impact parameter of binaries formed by PBH capture, depending on the PBH velocity distribution and their clustering properties. Moreover, we find that the gravitational wave spectrum is boosted by the width of PBH mass distribution, compared with that of the monochromatic spectrum. The current PTA constraints already rule out broad-mass PBH models covering more than six decades of masses, but evading the microlensing and CMB constraints because black holes appear spatially distributed in clusters.

  8. Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Shock Waves in Condensed Matter

    1986-01-01

    The Fourth American Physical Society Topical Conference on Shock Waves in Condensed Matter was held in Spokane, Washington, July 22-25, 1985. Two hundred and fifty scientists and engineers representing thirteen countries registered at the conference. The countries represented included the United States of America, Australia, Canada, The People's Repub­ lic of China, France, India, Israel, Japan, Republic of China (Taiwan), United Kingdom, U. S. S. R, Switzerland and West Germany. One hundred and sixty-two technical papers, cov­ ering recent developments in shock wave and high pressure physics, were presented. All of the abstracts have been published in the September 1985 issue of the Bulletin of the American Physical Society. The topical conferences, held every two years since 1979, have become the principal forum for shock wave studies in condensed materials. Both formal and informal technical discussions regarding recent developments conveyed a sense of excitement. Consistent with the past conferences, th...

  9. Quantum delayed-choice experiment with a single neutral atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gang; Zhang, Pengfei; Zhang, Tiancai

    2017-10-01

    We present a proposal to implement a quantum delayed-choice (QDC) experiment with a single neutral atom, such as a rubidium or cesium atom. In our proposal, a Ramsey interferometer is adopted to observe the wave-like or particle-like behaviors of a single atom depending on the existence or absence of the second π/2-rotation. A quantum-controlled π/2-rotation on target atom is realized through a Rydberg-Rydberg interaction by another ancilla atom. It shows that a heavy neutral atom can also have a morphing behavior between the particle and the wave. The realization of the QDC experiment with such heavy neutral atoms not only is significant to understand the Bohr's complementarity principle in matter-wave and matter-particle domains but also has great potential on the quantum information process with neutral atoms.

  10. Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets

    CERN Document Server

    Miceli, Giacomo; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-01-01

    We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions.

  11. Manipulation of p-wave scattering of cold atoms in low dimensions using the magnetic field vector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Shi-Guo; Tan, Shina; Jiang, Kaijun

    2014-06-27

    It is well known that the magnetic Feshbach resonances of cold atoms are sensitive to the magnitude of the external magnetic field. Much less attention has been paid to the direction of such a field. In this work we calculate the scattering properties of spin polarized fermionic atoms in reduced dimensions, near a p-wave Feshbach resonance. Because of the spatial anisotropy of the p-wave interaction, the scattering has a nontrivial dependence on both the magnitude and the direction of the magnetic field. In addition, we identify an inelastic scattering process which is impossible in the isotropic-interaction model; the rate of this process depends considerably on the direction of the magnetic field. Significantly, an Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entangled pair of identical fermions may be produced during this inelastic collision. This work opens a new method to manipulate resonant cold atomic interactions.

  12. Liquid Water through Density-Functional Molecular Dynamics: Plane-Wave vs Atomic-Orbital Basis Sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, Giacomo; Hutter, Jürg; Pasquarello, Alfredo

    2016-08-09

    We determine and compare structural, dynamical, and electronic properties of liquid water at near ambient conditions through density-functional molecular dynamics simulations, when using either plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets. In both frameworks, the electronic structure and the atomic forces are self-consistently determined within the same theoretical scheme based on a nonlocal density functional accounting for van der Waals interactions. The overall properties of liquid water achieved within the two frameworks are in excellent agreement with each other. Thus, our study supports that implementations with plane-wave or atomic-orbital basis sets yield equivalent results and can be used indiscriminately in study of liquid water or aqueous solutions.

  13. Probing the properties of quantum matter; an experimental study in three parts using ultracold atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The three experiments described in this thesis investigate fundamental properties of ultracold atoms. Using laser cooling and evaporative cooling, a dilute gas of sodium atoms is cooled to ~100 nK. Under these circumstances a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) forms, where millions of atoms collapse

  14. Probing Extreme-density Matter with Gravitational-wave Observations of Binary Neutron Star Merger Remnants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radice, David [Institute for Advanced Study, 1 Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Bernuzzi, Sebastiano [Department of Mathematical, Physical and Computer Sciences, University of Parma, I-43124 Parma (Italy); Pozzo, Walter Del [Dipartimento di Fisica “Enrico Fermi,” Università di Pisa, Pisa I-56127 (Italy); Roberts, Luke F. [NSCL/FRIB and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, 640 S Shaw Lane, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Ott, Christian D. [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    We present a proof-of-concept study, based on numerical-relativity simulations, of how gravitational waves (GWs) from neutron star merger remnants can probe the nature of matter at extreme densities. Phase transitions and extra degrees of freedom can emerge at densities beyond those reached during the inspiral, and typically result in a softening of the equation of state (EOS). We show that such physical effects change the qualitative dynamics of the remnant evolution, but they are not identifiable as a signature in the GW frequency, with the exception of possible black hole formation effects. The EOS softening is, instead, encoded in the GW luminosity and phase and is in principle detectable up to distances of the order of several megaparsecs with advanced detectors and up to hundreds of megaparsecs with third-generation detectors. Probing extreme-density matter will require going beyond the current paradigm and developing a more holistic strategy for modeling and analyzing postmerger GW signals.

  15. Wave-function Visualization of Core-induced Interaction of Non-hydrogenic Rydberg Atom in Electric Field

    CERN Document Server

    Gao, W; Cheng, H; Zhang, S S; Liu, H P

    2015-01-01

    We have investigated the wave-function feature of Rydberg sodium in a uniform electric field and found that the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field can be directly visualized in the wave-function. As is well known, the hydrogen atom in electric field can be separated in parabolic coordinates (\\eta, \\xi), whose eigen-function can show a clear pattern towards negative and positive directions corresponding to the so-called red and blue states without ambiguity, respectively. It can be served as a complete orthogonal basis set to study the core-induced interaction of non-hydrogenic atom in electric field. Owing to complete different patterns of the probability distribution for red and blue states, the interaction can be visualized in the wave-function directly via superposition. Moreover, the constructive and destructive interferences between red and blue states are also observed in the wave-function, explicitly explaining the experimental measurement for the spectral oscillator stre...

  16. Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose–Einstein condensate Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.S. Bhupal Dev

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM models which could give rise to a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.

  17. Gravitational waves as a new probe of Bose-Einstein condensate Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dev, P. S. Bhupal; Lindner, Manfred; Ohmer, Sebastian

    2017-10-01

    There exists a class of ultralight Dark Matter (DM) models which could give rise to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in the early universe and behave as a single coherent wave instead of individual particles in galaxies. We show that a generic BEC-DM halo intervening along the line of sight of a gravitational wave (GW) signal could induce an observable change in the speed of GWs, with the effective refractive index depending only on the mass and self-interaction of the constituent DM particles and the GW frequency. Hence, we propose to use the deviation in the speed of GWs as a new probe of the BEC-DM parameter space. With a multi-messenger approach to GW astronomy and/or with extended sensitivity to lower GW frequencies, the entire BEC-DM parameter space can be effectively probed by our new method in the near future.

  18. Halo abundance and assembly history with extreme-axion wave dark matter at z ≥ 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Chiueh, Tzihong

    2018-01-01

    Wave dark matter (ψDM) composed of extremely light bosons (mψ ∼ 10 - 22 eV), with quantum pressure suppressing structures below a kpc-scale de Broglie wavelength, has become a viable dark matter candidate. Compared to the conventional free-particle ψDM (FPψDM), the extreme-axion ψDM model (EAψDM) proposed by Zhang & Chiueh features a larger cut-off wavenumber and a broad spectral bump in the matter transfer function. Here, we conduct cosmological simulations to compare the halo abundances and assembly histories at z = 4-11 between three different scenarios: FPψDM, EAψDM and cold dark matter (CDM). We show that EAψDM produces significantly more abundant low-mass haloes than FPψDM with the same mψ, and therefore could alleviate the tension in mψ required by the Lyα forest data and by the kpc-scale dwarf galaxy cores. We also find that, compared to the CDM counterparts, massive EAψDM haloes are, on average, 3-4 times more massive at z = 10-11 due to their earlier formation, undergo a slower mass accretion at 7 ≲ z ≲ 11, and then show a rapidly rising major merger rate exceeding CDM by ∼ 50 per cent at 4 ≲ z ≲ 7. This fact suggests that EAψDM haloes may exhibit more prominent starbursts at z ≲ 7.

  19. Light-Matter Interaction Atoms and Molecules in External Fields and Nonlinear Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Wendell T

    2006-01-01

    This book draws together the principal ideas that form the basis of atomic, molecular, and optical science and engineering. It covers the basics of atoms, diatomic molecules, atoms and molecules in static and electromagnetic fields and nonlinear optics. Exercises and bibliographies supplement each chapter, while several appendices present such important background information as physics and math definitions, atomic and molecular data, and tensor algebra. Accessible to advanced undergraduates, graduate students, or researchers who have been trained in one of the conventional curricula of physic

  20. Modulational instability and its role in the formation of matter-wave soliton trains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, De; Nguyen, Jason H. V.; Hulet, Randall G.

    2017-04-01

    Modulational instability (MI) is a process by which perturbations at a critical wavelength in a waveform grow exponentially due to the interplay between a focusing nonlinearity and dispersion. The break-up of the waveform can lead to the formation of soliton trains. It was observed that matter-wave soliton trains form from a Bose-Einstein condensate, after an interaction quench from a repulsive to an attractive nonlinearity. An alternating phase structure was inferred from the dynamics of the soliton train, in which adjacent solitons repel one another. The mechanism by which the phase structure develops remains unclear. In this work, we examine the role of MI in the formation of the matter-wave soliton trains. We confirm that MI correctly predicts the number of solitons and the time-scale of the formation process. With real-time imaging, we provide evidence that the soliton train is born with an alternating phase structure, rather than evolving into one. Work supported by the NSF, ONR, an ARO MURI Grant, and the Welch Foundation.

  1. Circular dichroism of twisted photons in non-chiral atomic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanasev, Andrei; Carlson, Carl E.; Solyanik, Maria

    2017-10-01

    We calculate the circular dichroism (CD) for the absorption of the twisted photons, or optical vortices, by atoms, caused by atomic excitation into discrete energy levels. The effects of photon spin on the rates and cross sections of atomic photo-excitation are considered. It is demonstrated that, although for electric dipole transitions the atomic excitation rates depend on the relative orientation of photon spin and orbital angular momentum (OAM), the resulting CD is zero. However, CD is nonzero for atomic transitions of higher multipolarity, and it is predicted to peak near the phase singularity in the optical vortex center. The effects remain large in a paraxial limit, where analytic expressions are provided. The predicted spin asymmetries are equivalent to OAM dichroism for the fixed photon spin.

  2. Quantum physics of light and matter a modern introduction to photons, atoms and many-body systems

    CERN Document Server

    Salasnich, Luca

    2014-01-01

    The book gives an introduction to the field quantization (second quantization) of light and matter with applications to atomic physics. The first chapter briefly reviews the origins of special relativity and quantum mechanics and the basic notions of quantum information theory and quantum statistical mechanics. The second chapter is devoted to the second quantization of the electromagnetic field, while the third chapter shows the consequences of the light field quantization in the description of electromagnetic transitions.In the fourth chapter it is analyzed the spin of the electron, and in particular its derivation from the Dirac equation, while the fifth chapter investigates the effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the atomic spectra (Stark and Zeeman effects). The sixth chapter describes the properties of systems composed by many interacting identical particles by introducing the Hartree-Fock variational method, the density functional theory, and the Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Finally,...

  3. Matter, energy, and heat transfer in a classical ballistic atom pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy A; Das, Kunal K; Mitchell, Kevin A; Aubin, Seth; Delos, John B

    2014-11-01

    A ballistic atom pump is a system containing two reservoirs of neutral atoms or molecules and a junction connecting them containing a localized time-varying potential. Atoms move through the pump as independent particles. Under certain conditions, these pumps can create net transport of atoms from one reservoir to the other. While such systems are sometimes called "quantum pumps," they are also models of classical chaotic transport, and their quantum behavior cannot be understood without study of the corresponding classical behavior. Here we examine classically such a pump's effect on energy and temperature in the reservoirs, in addition to net particle transport. We show that the changes in particle number, of energy in each reservoir, and of temperature in each reservoir vary in unexpected ways as the incident particle energy is varied.

  4. Gravitational waves from first order phase transitions as a probe of an early matter domination era and its inverse problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barenboim, Gabriela, E-mail: Gabriela.Barenboim@uv.es; Park, Wan-Il, E-mail: Wanil.Park@uv.es

    2016-08-10

    We investigate the gravitational wave background from a first order phase transition in a matter-dominated universe, and show that it has a unique feature from which important information about the properties of the phase transition and thermal history of the universe can be easily extracted. Also, we discuss the inverse problem of such a gravitational wave background in view of the degeneracy among macroscopic parameters governing the signal.

  5. Optimal Design of Grid-Based Binary Holograms for Matter-Wave Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesse, Torstein; Banon, Jean-Philippe; Holst, Bodil; Simonsen, Ingve

    2017-08-01

    Grid-based binary holography (GBH) is an attractive method for patterning with light or matter waves. It is an approximate technique in which different holographic masks can be used to produce similar patterns. Here we present an optimal design method for GBH masks that allows for freely selecting the fraction of open holes in the mask from below 10% to above 90%. Open fraction is an important design parameter when making masks for use in lithography systems. The method also includes a rescaling feature that potentially enables a better contrast of the generated patterns. Through simulations, we investigate the contrast and robustness of the patterns formed by masks generated by the proposed optimal design method. It is demonstrated that high contrast patterns are achievable for a wide range of open fractions. We conclude that reaching a desired open fraction is a trade-off with the contrast of the pattern generated by the mask.

  6. Mass the quest to understand matter from Greek atoms to quantum fields

    CERN Document Server

    Baggott, Jim

    2017-01-01

    Everything around us is made of 'stuff', from planets, to books, to our own bodies. Whatever it is, we call it matter or material substance. It is solid; it has mass. But what is matter, exactly? We are taught in school that matter is not continuous, but discrete. As a few of the philosophers of ancient Greece once speculated, nearly two and a half thousand years ago, matter comes in 'lumps', and science has relentlessly peeled away successive layers of matter to reveal its ultimate constituents. Surely, we can't keep doing this indefinitely. We imagine that we should eventually run up against some kind of ultimately fundamental, indivisible type of stuff, the building blocks from which everything in the Universe is made. The English physicist Paul Dirac called this 'the dream of philosophers'. But science has discovered that the foundations of our Universe are not as solid or as certain and dependable as we might have once imagined. They are instead built from ghosts and phantoms, of a peculiar quantum kind....

  7. Chameleon Induced Atomic Afterglow

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    The chameleon is a scalar field whose mass depends on the density of its environment. Chameleons are necessarily coupled to matter particles and will excite transitions between atomic energy levels in an analogous manner to photons. When created inside an optical cavity by passing a laser beam through a constant magnetic field, chameleons are trapped between the cavity walls and form a standing wave. This effect will lead to an afterglow phenomenon even when the laser beam and the magnetic field have been turned off, and could be used to probe the interactions of the chameleon field with matter.

  8. Coupling nonlinear optical waves to photoreactive and phase-separating soft matter: Current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Saeid; Morim, Derek R; An Tsao, Fu; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi; Hosein, Ian D

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinear optics and polymer systems are distinct fields that have been studied for decades. These two fields intersect with the observation of nonlinear wave propagation in photoreactive polymer systems. This has led to studies on the nonlinear dynamics of transmitted light in polymer media, particularly for optical self-trapping and optical modulation instability. The irreversibility of polymerization leads to permanent capture of nonlinear optical patterns in the polymer structure, which is a new synthetic route to complex structured soft materials. Over time more intricate polymer systems are employed, whereby nonlinear optical dynamics can couple to nonlinear chemical dynamics, opening opportunities for self-organization. This paper discusses the work to date on nonlinear optical pattern formation processes in polymers. A brief overview of nonlinear optical phenomenon is provided to set the stage for understanding their effects. We review the accomplishments of the field on studying nonlinear waveform propagation in photopolymerizable systems, then discuss our most recent progress in coupling nonlinear optical pattern formation to polymer blends and phase separation. To this end, perspectives on future directions and areas of sustained inquiry are provided. This review highlights the significant opportunity in exploiting nonlinear optical pattern formation in soft matter for the discovery of new light-directed and light-stimulated materials phenomenon, and in turn, soft matter provides a platform by which new nonlinear optical phenomenon may be discovered.

  9. Coupling nonlinear optical waves to photoreactive and phase-separating soft matter: Current status and perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biria, Saeid; Morim, Derek R.; An Tsao, Fu; Saravanamuttu, Kalaichelvi; Hosein, Ian D.

    2017-10-01

    Nonlinear optics and polymer systems are distinct fields that have been studied for decades. These two fields intersect with the observation of nonlinear wave propagation in photoreactive polymer systems. This has led to studies on the nonlinear dynamics of transmitted light in polymer media, particularly for optical self-trapping and optical modulation instability. The irreversibility of polymerization leads to permanent capture of nonlinear optical patterns in the polymer structure, which is a new synthetic route to complex structured soft materials. Over time more intricate polymer systems are employed, whereby nonlinear optical dynamics can couple to nonlinear chemical dynamics, opening opportunities for self-organization. This paper discusses the work to date on nonlinear optical pattern formation processes in polymers. A brief overview of nonlinear optical phenomenon is provided to set the stage for understanding their effects. We review the accomplishments of the field on studying nonlinear waveform propagation in photopolymerizable systems, then discuss our most recent progress in coupling nonlinear optical pattern formation to polymer blends and phase separation. To this end, perspectives on future directions and areas of sustained inquiry are provided. This review highlights the significant opportunity in exploiting nonlinear optical pattern formation in soft matter for the discovery of new light-directed and light-stimulated materials phenomenon, and in turn, soft matter provides a platform by which new nonlinear optical phenomenon may be discovered.

  10. De Broglie's matter-waves are based on a logical bug

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giese, Albrecht

    2016-07-01

    The postulation of matter waves by Louis de Broglie in 1923 was one of the basic starting points in the development of quantum mechanics. However, his deduction contains a serious logical error. De Broglie deduced his central formula from considerations about the relativistic behaviour of a particle. He saw a conflict in the fact that a particle set into motion increases its internal frequency, f, according to E=h.f, whereas on the other hand its frequency has to decrease due to dilation. To solve this, he assigned a new ''de Broglie wave'' to a particle, which is related to the momentum of the particle. Scattering experiments seemed to confirm this approach. However, if such a scattering process is observed from a moving system, it turns out that the relationship between the wavelength and the momentum yields nonsensical results. - De Broglie's deduction is based on an incorrect understanding of relativity with respect to dilation. We show which results are achieved if a correct understanding is applied. And we show why, in a normal scattering experiment, de Broglie's incorrect formula nevertheless yields the expected results. We will further explain some of the impacts of this error on the equations of Schroedinger and Dirac, who used de Broglie's formula as a starting point. Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is also affected.

  11. Matter rogue waves for the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations in the spinor Bose-Einstein condensates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F =1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F =1 spinor BEC are discussed. For the three-component GP equations, if there is modulation instability, it is of baseband type only, confirming our analytic conditions. The energy transfers between the waves are discussed.

  12. Matter rogue waves for the three-component Gross–Pitaevskii equations in the spinor Bose–Einstein condensates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Lei

    2018-01-01

    To show the existence and properties of matter rogue waves in an F=1 spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), we work on the three-component Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equations. Via the Darboux-dressing transformation, we obtain a family of rational solutions describing the extreme events, i.e. rogue waves. This family of solutions includes bright-dark-bright and bright-bright-bright rogue waves. The algebraic construction depends on Lax matrices and their Jordan form. The conditions for the existence of rogue wave solutions in an F=1 spinor BEC are discussed. For the three-component GP equations, if there is modulation instability, it is of baseband type only, confirming our analytic conditions. The energy transfers between the waves are discussed.

  13. Atomic Data Revisions for Transitions Relevant to Observations of Interstellar, Circumgalactic, and Intergalactic Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cashman, Frances H.; Kulkarni, Varsha P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of South Carolina, Columbia, SC 29208 (United States); Kisielius, Romas; Bogdanovich, Pavel [Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astronomy, Vilnius University, Saulėtekio al. 3, LT-10222 Vilnius (Lithuania); Ferland, Gary J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Measurements of element abundances in galaxies from astrophysical spectroscopy depend sensitively on the atomic data used. With the goal of making the latest atomic data accessible to the community, we present a compilation of selected atomic data for resonant absorption lines at wavelengths longward of 911.753 Å (the H i Lyman limit), for key heavy elements (heavier than atomic number 5) of astrophysical interest. In particular, we focus on the transitions of those ions that have been observed in the Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM), the circumgalactic medium (CGM) of the Milky Way and/or other galaxies, and the intergalactic medium (IGM). We provide wavelengths, oscillator strengths, associated accuracy grades, and references to the oscillator strength determinations. We also attempt to compare and assess the recent oscillator strength determinations. For about 22% of the lines that have updated oscillator strength values, the differences between the former values and the updated ones are ≳0.1 dex. Our compilation will be a useful resource for absorption line studies of the ISM, as well as studies of the CGM and IGM traced by sight lines to quasars and gamma-ray bursts. Studies (including those enabled by future generations of extremely large telescopes) of absorption by galaxies against the light of background galaxies will also benefit from our compilation.

  14. Density-matrix-functional calculations for matter in strong magnetic fields: Ground states of heavy atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johnsen, Kristinn; Yngvason, Jakob

    1996-01-01

    We report on a numerical study of the density matrix functional introduced by Lieb, Solovej, and Yngvason for the investigation of heavy atoms in high magnetic fields. This functional describes exactly the quantum mechanical ground state of atoms and ions in the limit when the nuclear charge Z...... and the electron number N tend to infinity with N/Z fixed, and the magnetic field B tends to infinity in such a way that B/Z4/3→∞. We have calculated electronic density profiles and ground-state energies for values of the parameters that prevail on neutron star surfaces and compared them with results obtained...... by other methods. For iron at B=1012 G the ground-state energy differs by less than 2% from the Hartree-Fock value. We have also studied the maximal negative ionization of heavy atoms in this model at various field strengths. In contrast to Thomas-Fermi type theories atoms can bind excess negative charge...

  15. Atomic Lithography: Forcing Epitaxial Growth Using X-Ray Standing Waves

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Falco, Charles

    1999-01-01

    In a remarkably short time we have made tremendous progress in both the design and construction of a unique "atomic lithography" deposition facility, and in observing effects of an intense x-ray beam...

  16. Wave packet studies of the vibrational predissociation of three and four-atom van der Waals complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gray, S.K.

    1994-03-01

    Vibrational predissociation of XI{sub 2} and X{sub 2}I{sub 2} van der Waals complexes, with X = He and Ne, is studied with wave packets. Three-dimensional calculations are carried out on the three-atom systems. Suitable X{center_dot}{center_dot}I potential interactions are determined, and product distributions are predicted. Reduced dimension models of X{sub 2}I{sub 2}(v{prime}) {yields} 2X + I{sub 2}(v < v{prime}) are investigated. Comparison is made with available experimental results. Mechanistic issues, including the role of intramolecular vibrational relaxation resonances, are addressed.

  17. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon

    2006-08-15

    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  18. Massive Primordial Black Holes as Dark Matter and their detection with Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Bellido, Juan

    2017-05-01

    Massive Primordial Black Holes (MPBH) can be formed after inflation due to broad peaks in the primordial curvature power spectrum that collapse gravitationally during the radiation era, to form clusters of black holes that merge and increase in mass after recombination, generating today a broad mass-spectrum of black holes with masses ranging from 0.01 to 105 M⊙ . These MPBH could act as seeds for galaxies and quick-start structure formation, initiating reionization, forming galaxies at redshift z > 10 and clusters at z > 1. They may also be the seeds on which SMBH and IMBH form, by accreting gas onto them and forming the centers of galaxies and quasars at high redshift. They form at rest with zero spin and have negligible cross-section with ordinary matter. If there are enough of these MPBH, they could constitute the bulk of the Dark Matter today. Such PBH could be responsible for the observed fluctuations in the CIB and X-ray backgrounds. MPBH could be directly detected by the gravitational waves emitted when they merge to form more massive black holes, as recently reported by LIGO. Their continuous merging since recombination could have generated a stochastic background of gravitational waves that could eventually be detected by LISA and PTA. MPBH may actually be responsible for the unidentified point sources seen by Fermi, Magic and Chandra. Furthermore, the ejection of stars from shallow potential wells like those of Dwarf Spheroidals (DSph), via the gravitational slingshot effect, could be due to MPBH, thus alleviating the substructure and too-big-to-fail problems of standard collisionless CDM. Their mass distribution peaks at a few tens of M⊙ today, and could therefore be detected also with long-duration microlensing events, as well as by the anomalous motion of stars in the field of GAIA. Their presence as CDM in the Universe could be seen in the time-dilation of strong-lensing images of quasars. The hierarchical large scale structure behaviour of MPBH

  19. Development of atomic force microscope with wide-band magnetic excitation for study of soft matter dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageshima, Masami; Chikamoto, Takuma; Ogawa, Tatsuya; Hirata, Yoshiki; Inoue, Takahito; Naitoh, Yoshitaka; Li, Yan Jun; Sugawara, Yasuhiro

    2009-02-01

    In order to probe dynamical properties of mesoscopic soft matter systems such as polymers, structured liquid, etc., a new atomic force microscopy apparatus with a wide-band magnetic cantilever excitation system was developed. Constant-current driving of an electromagnet up to 1 MHz was implemented with a closed-loop driver circuit. Transfer function of a commercial cantilever attached with a magnetic particle was measured in a frequency range of 1-1000 kHz in distilled water. Effects of the laser spot position, distribution of the force exerted on the cantilever, and difference in the detection scheme on the obtained transfer function are discussed in comparison with theoretical predictions by other research groups. A preliminary result of viscoelasticity spectrum measurement of a single dextran chain is shown and is compared with a recent theoretical calculation.

  20. Analytical study of dynamics of matter-wave solitons in lossless nonlinear discrete bi-inductance transmission lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kengne, E; Lakhssassi, A

    2015-03-01

    We consider a lossless one-dimensional nonlinear discrete bi-inductance electrical transmission line made of N identical unit cells. When lattice effects are considered, we use the reductive perturbation method in the semidiscrete limit to show that the dynamics of modulated waves can be modeled by the classical nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS) equation, which describes the modulational instability and the propagation of bright and dark solitons on a continuous-wave background. Our theoretical analysis based on the CNLS equation predicts either two or four frequency regions with different behavior concerning the modulational instability of a plane wave. With the help of the analytical solutions of the CNLS equation, we investigate analytically the effects of the linear capacitance CS on the dynamics of matter-wave solitons in the network. Our results reveal that the linear parameter CS can be used to manipulate the motion of bright, dark, and kink soliton in the network.

  1. Manipulating Atoms with Light Achievements and Perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    During the last few decades spectacular progress has been achieved in the control of atomic systems by light. It will be shown how it is possible to use the basic conservation laws in atom-photon interactions for polarizing atoms, for trapping them, for cooling them to extremely low temperatures, in the microkelvin, and even in the nanokelvin range. A review will be given of recent advances in this field and of new applications, including atomic clocks with very high relative stability and accuracy, atomic interferometers allowing precise measurement of rotation speeds and gravitational fields, the realization of new states of matter such as Bose-Einstein condensates, matter waves and atom lasers, ultracold molecules. New perspectives opened by these results will be also briefly discussed.

  2. Identification of toxic and other matters in wines by the method of Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr.Sc. Vlora Gashi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quality wines are produced in our country. The main objective of this paper was identification of toxic matter, heavy metals and minerals in wines as final produce, with a view of improving nutritional quality of our wines, produced in 2008-2009. Another important fact for this research was the determination of the presence of remnants from protective solutions containing toxic elements (Cu and Pb[1]. [1] Evgjini Papazisi Tonin Rjolli Dr. Abdul Sinani "Food Technology and Environ-mental Protection (Teknologji ushqimore dhe mbrojtje mjedisi1".

  3. Estimation of stability constants for metal-ligand complexes containing neutral nitrogen donor atoms with applications to natural organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atalay, Yasemin B.; Di Toro, Dominic M.; Carbonaro, Richard F.

    2013-12-01

    Linear free energy relationships (LFERs) were developed for estimating 1:1 metal-ligand stability constants (log KML) for small organic molecules containing neutral nitrogen donor atoms. A data set of 44 monodentate and 112 bidentate ligands for six metal ions: Mn2+, Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ was employed to parameterize the LFER equations. Monodentate and bidentate log KML values were adequately described using Irving-Rossotti LFERs previously developed for ligands containing negatively-charged oxygen functional groups. Modifications to the LFER equations were necessary to account for steric hindrances to metal complexation by primary, secondary, and tertiary amines. The resulting LFER equations can be used to estimate log KML values for monodentate and bidentate ligands with neutral nitrogen donor groups where such values do not currently exist in the literature. Comparison of these results to our previous work with negatively-charged oxygen donor atoms reveals that neutral nitrogen functional groups are weaker than their oxygen counterparts for metal ions classified as “hard” on the basis of Hard-Soft Acid-Base (HSAB) theory. For “soft” metals, the opposite is true. These LFERs can be used to incorporate nitrogen functional groups in models for metal ion binding to natural organic matter (NOM).

  4. A Novel Particulate Matter 2.5 Sensor Based on Surface Acoustic Wave Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiuling Liu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Design, fabrication and experiments of a miniature particulate matter (PM 2.5 sensor based on the surface acoustic wave (SAW technology were proposed. The sensor contains a virtual impactor (VI for particle separation, a thermophoretic precipitator (TP for PM2.5 capture and a SAW sensor chip for PM2.5 mass detection. The separation performance of the VI was evaluated by using the finite element method (FEM model and the PM2.5 deposition characteristic in the TP was obtained by analyzing the thermophoretic theory. Employing the coupling-of-modes (COM model, a low loss and high-quality SAW resonator was designed. By virtue of the micro electro mechanical system (MEMS technology and semiconductor technology, the SAW based PM2.5 sensor detecting probe was fabricated. Then, combining a dual-port SAW oscillator and an air sampler, the experimental platform was set up. Exposing the PM2.5 sensor to the polystyrene latex (PSL particles in a chamber, the sensor performance was evaluated. The results show that by detecting the PSL particles with a certain diameter of 2 μm, the response of the SAW based PM2.5 sensor is linear, and in accordance with the response of the light scattering based PM2.5 monitor. The developed SAW based PM2.5 sensor has great potential for the application of airborne particle detection.

  5. Gravitational waves as a probe of dark matter mini-spikes

    CERN Document Server

    Eda, Kazunari; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies show that an intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) may develop a dark matter (DM) mini-halo according to some BH formation scenarios. We consider a binary system composed of an IMBH surrounded by a DM mini-spike and a stellar mass object orbiting around the IMBH. The binary evolves due to gravitational pull and dynamical friction from the DM mini-spike and back-reaction from its gravitational wave (GW) radiation which can be detected by future space-borne GW experiments such as eLISA/NGO. We consider a single power-law model for the DM mini-spike which is assumed to consist of non-annihilating DM particles and demonstrate that an eLISA/NGO detection of GW from such a binary enables us to measure the DM mini-spike parameters very accurately. For instance, in our reference case originally advocated by Zhao and Silk (2005) and Bertone et al. (2005), we could determine the power-law index $\\alpha$ of the DM mini-spike radial profile with a 1 $\\sigma$ relative error of $\\pm 5\\times 10^{-6}$ for a GW s...

  6. Two-dimensional matter-wave solitons and vortices in competing cubic-quintic nonlinear lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuzhen; Zeng, Jianhua

    2018-02-01

    The nonlinear lattice — a new and nonlinear class of periodic potentials — was recently introduced to generate various nonlinear localized modes. Several attempts failed to stabilize two-dimensional (2D) solitons against their intrinsic critical collapse in Kerr media. Here, we provide a possibility for supporting 2D matter-wave solitons and vortices in an extended setting — the cubic and quintic model — by introducing another nonlinear lattice whose period is controllable and can be different from its cubic counterpart, to its quintic nonlinearity, therefore making a fully "nonlinear quasi-crystal". A variational approximation based on Gaussian ansatz is developed for the fundamental solitons and in particular, their stability exactly follows the inverted Vakhitov-Kolokolov stability criterion, whereas the vortex solitons are only studied by means of numerical methods. Stability regions for two types of localized mode — the fundamental and vortex solitons — are provided. A noteworthy feature of the localized solutions is that the vortex solitons are stable only when the period of the quintic nonlinear lattice is the same as the cubic one or when the quintic nonlinearity is constant, while the stable fundamental solitons can be created under looser conditions. Our physical setting (cubic-quintic model) is in the framework of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation or nonlinear Schrödinger equation, the predicted localized modes thus may be implemented in Bose-Einstein condensates and nonlinear optical media with tunable cubic and quintic nonlinearities.

  7. Wave-matter interactions in epsilon-and-mu-near-zero structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Ahmed M; Engheta, Nader

    2014-12-05

    In recent years, the concept of metamaterials has offered platforms for unconventional tailoring and manipulation of the light-matter interaction. Here we explore the notion of 'static optics', in which the electricity and magnetism are decoupled, while the fields are temporally dynamic. This occurs when both the relative effective permittivity and permeability attain near-zero values at a given operating frequency. We theoretically investigate some of the resulting wave features in bounded scenarios, such as unusual radiation characteristics of an emitter embedded in such epsilon-and-mu-near-zero media in bounded environments. Using such media, one might in principle 'open up' and 'stretch' the space, and have regions behaving electromagnetically as 'single points' despite being electrically large. We suggest a possible design for implementation of such structures using a single dielectric rod inserted in a waveguide operating near its cutoff frequency, providing the possibility of having electrically large 'empty' volumes to behave as epsilon-and-mu-near-zero media.

  8. Train of high-power femtosecond pulses: Probe wave in a gas of prepared atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradyan, Gevorg; Muradyan, Atom Zh.

    2009-09-01

    We present a method for generating a regular train of ultrashort optical pulses in a prepared two-level medium. The train develops from incident monochromatic probe radiation traveling in a medium of atoms, which are in a quantum mechanical superposition of dressed internal states. In the frame of linear theory for the probe radiation, the energy of individual pulses is an exponentially growing function of atom density and of interaction cross section. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the pump field’s generalized Rabi frequency and can be around 1 THz and greater. We also show that the terms, extra to the dipole approximation, endow the gas by a new property: nonsaturating dependence of refractive index on dressing monochromatic field intensity. Contribution of these nonsaturating terms can be compatible with the main dipole approximation term contribution in the wavelength region of about ten micrometers (the range of CO2 laser) or larger.

  9. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  10. Atomic scale images of acceptors in III-V semiconductors. Band bending, tunneling paths and wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loth, S.

    2007-10-26

    This thesis reports measurements of single dopant atoms in III-V semiconductors with low temperature Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and Scanning Tunneling Spectroscopy (STS). It investigates the anisotropic spatial distribution of acceptor induced tunneling processes at the {l_brace}110{r_brace} cleavage planes. Two different tunneling processes are identified: conventional imaging of the squared acceptor wave function and resonant tunneling at the charged acceptor. A thorough analysis of the tip induced space charge layers identifies characteristic bias windows for each tunnel process. The symmetry of the host crystal's band structure determines the spatial distribution of the tunneling paths for both processes. Symmetry reducing effects at the surface are responsible for a pronounced asymmetry of the acceptor contrasts along the principal [001] axis. Uniaxial strain fields due to surface relaxation and spin orbit interaction of the tip induced electric field are discussed on the basis of band structure calculations. High-resolution STS studies of acceptor atoms in an operating p-i-n diode confirm that an electric field indeed changes the acceptor contrasts. In conclusion, the anisotropic contrasts of acceptors are created by the host crystal's band structure and concomitant symmetry reduction effects at the surface. (orig.)

  11. A CALCULATION OF SEMI-EMPIRICAL ONE-ELECTRON WAVE FUNCTIONS FOR MULTI-ELECTRON ATOMS USED FOR ELEMENTARY PROCESS SIMULATION IN NONLOCAL PLASMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Tchernycheva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with development outcomes for creation method of one-electron wave functions of complex atoms, relatively simple, symmetrical for all atom electrons and free from hard computations. The accuracy and resource intensity of the approach are focused on systematic calculations of cross sections and rate constants of elementary processes of inelastic collisions of atoms or molecules with electrons (ionization, excitation, excitation transfer, and others. Method. The method is based on a set of two iterative processes. At the first iteration step the Schrödinger equation was solved numerically for the radial parts of the electron wave functions in the potential of the atomic core self-consistent field. At the second iteration step the new approximationfor the atomic core field is created that uses found solutions for all one-electron wave functions. The solution optimization for described multiparameter problem is achieved by the use of genetic algorithm. The suitability of the developed method was verified by comparing the calculation results with numerous data on the energies of atoms in the ground and excited states. Main Results. We have created the run-time version of the program for creation of sets of one-electron wave functions and calculation of the cross sections and constants of collisional transition rates in the first Born approximation. The priori available information about binding energies of the electrons for any many-particle system for creation of semi-empirical refined solutions for the one-electron wave functions can be considered at any step of this procedure. Practical Relevance. The proposed solution enables a simple and rapid preparation of input data for the numerical simulation of nonlocal gas discharge plasma. The approach is focused on the calculation of discharges in complex gas mixtures requiring inclusion in the model of a large number of elementary collisional and radiation

  12. Adiabatic radio-frequency potentials for the coherent manipulation of matter waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lesanovsky, Igor; Schumm, Thorsten; Hofferberth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Adiabatic dressed state potentials are created when magnetic substates of trapped atoms are coupled by a radio-frequency field. We discuss their theoretical foundations and point out fundamental advantages over potentials purely based on static fields. The enhanced flexibility enables one...... to implement numerous configurations, including double wells, Mach-Zehnder, and Sagnac interferometers which even allows for internal state-dependent atom manipulation. These can be realized using simple and highly integrated wire geometries on atom chips....

  13. Effects of the diffusive acceleration of particles by shock waves in the primordial matter of the solar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ustinova, G. K.

    2011-04-01

    The effects of the shock wave diffusive acceleration of particles are considered in the case of formation of isotopic relations of the anomalous Xe- HL component of xenon in relic grains of nanodiamonds in chondrites. It is shown that this component could be formed and captured simultaneously with the nanodiamond synthesis in the conditions of the explosive shock wave propagation from supernova outbursts. The specificity of isotopic composition of Xe- HL is due to the high hardness of the spectrum of nuclear-active particles at the shock wave front and its enrichment with heavy isotopes. The spallogenic nature of both the anomalous and normal components of xenon is ascertained, and the role of the subsequent evolutionary processes in the change of their isotopic systems is shown. Experimental evidence of the formation of the power law spectrum of particles with the spectral index γ ˜ 1 by the supersonic turbulence during the carbon-detonation supernova SnIa explosion is obtained; this perhaps opens new perspectives in studying the problem of the origin of cosmic rays. It is shown that at the stage of free expansion of the explosive shock wave, the degree of compression of the matter at the wave front was σ = 31 (the corresponding Mach number M ˜ 97); this led to a 31-fold increase of the magnetic field as well as of the maximum energy of accelerated particles, so that even the energy of protons reached ˜ 3 × 1015 eV, i.e., the "knee" region.

  14. Collective transport for active matter run-and-tumble disk systems on a traveling-wave substrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sándor, Cs.; Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2017-01-01

    We examine numerically the transport of an assembly of active run-and-tumble disks interacting with a traveling-wave substrate. We show that as a function of substrate strength, wave speed, disk activity, and disk density, a variety of dynamical phases arise that are correlated with the structure and net flux of disks. We find that there is a sharp transition into a state in which the disks are only partially coupled to the substrate and form a phase-separated cluster state. This transition is associated with a drop in the net disk flux, and it can occur as a function of the substrate speed, maximum substrate force, disk run time, and disk density. Since variation of the disk activity parameters produces different disk drift rates for a fixed traveling-wave speed on the substrate, the system we consider could be used as an efficient method for active matter species separation. Within the cluster phase, we find that in some regimes the motion of the cluster center of mass is in the opposite direction to that of the traveling wave, while when the maximum substrate force is increased, the cluster drifts in the direction of the traveling wave. This suggests that swarming or clustering motion can serve as a method by which an active system can collectively move against an external drift.

  15. Wave-mixing-induced transparency with zero phase shift in atomic vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, F.; Zhu, C. J.; Li, Y.

    2017-12-01

    We present a wave-mixing induced transparency that can lead to a hyper-Raman gain-clamping effect. This new type of transparency is originated from a dynamic gain cancellation effect in a multiphoton process where a highly efficient light field of new frequency is generated and amplified. We further show that this novel dynamic gain cancellation effect not only makes the medium transparent to a probe light field at appropriate frequency but also eliminates the probe field propagation phase shift. This gain-cancellation-based induced transparency holds for many potential applications on optical communication and may lead to effective suppression of parasitic Raman/hyper-Raman noise field generated in high intensity optical fiber transmissions.

  16. New probe of dark-matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate-mass black hole embedded in a dark-matter minispike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eda, Kazunari; Itoh, Yousuke; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-05-31

    An intermediate-mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark-matter (DM) minihalo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the minihalo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave backreaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA and NGO. In this Letter, we show that the gravitational wave (GW) detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution, would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed black hole and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the γ-ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to noninteracting DM. Hence, the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful probe into DM properties.

  17. Atomic form factor for twisted vortex photons interacting with atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guthrey, Pierson; Kaplan, Lev; McGuire, J. H.

    2014-04-01

    The relatively new atomic form factor for twisted (vortex) beams, which carry orbital angular momentum (OAM), is considered and compared to the conventional atomic form factor for plane-wave beams that carry only spin angular momentum. Since the vortex symmetry of a twisted photon is more complex that that of a plane wave, evaluation of the atomic form factor is also more complex for twisted photons. On the other hand, the twisted photon has additional parameters, including the OAM quantum number, ℓ, the nodal radial number, p, and the Rayleigh range, zR, which determine the cone angle of the vortex. This Rayleigh range may be used as a variable parameter to control the interaction of twisted photons with matter. Here we address (i) normalization of the vortex atomic form factor, (ii) displacement of target atoms away from the center of the beam vortex, and (iii) formulation of transition probabilities for a variety of photon-atom processes. We attend to features related to experiments that can test the range of validity and accuracy of calculations of these variations of the atomic form factor. Using the absolute square of the form factor for vortex beams, we introduce a vortex factor that can be directly measured.

  18. Materials, matter and particles a brief history

    CERN Document Server

    Woolfson, Michael M

    2010-01-01

    This book traces the history of ideas about the nature of matter and also the way that mankind has used material resources that the world offers. Starting with the ideas of ancient civilizations that air, earth, fire and water were the basic ingredients of all matter, it traces the development of the science of chemistry beginning within the ranks of the alchemists. First, the idea of elements grew and then the atomic nature of matter was verified. Physicists had entered the scene, showing the nature of atoms in terms of fundamental particles and then introducing the concept of wave-particle d

  19. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max

    1969-01-01

    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  20. Unified field theory from the classical wave equation: Preliminary application to atomic and nuclear structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Múnera, Héctor A., E-mail: hmunera@hotmail.com [Centro Internacional de Física (CIF), Apartado Aéreo 4948, Bogotá, Colombia, South America (Colombia); Retired professor, Department of Physics, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Bogotá, Colombia, South America (Colombia)

    2016-07-07

    It is postulated that there exists a fundamental energy-like fluid, which occupies the flat three-dimensional Euclidean space that contains our universe, and obeys the two basic laws of classical physics: conservation of linear momentum, and conservation of total energy; the fluid is described by the classical wave equation (CWE), which was Schrödinger’s first candidate to develop his quantum theory. Novel solutions for the CWE discovered twenty years ago are nonharmonic, inherently quantized, and universal in the sense of scale invariance, thus leading to quantization at all scales of the universe, from galactic clusters to the sub-quark world, and yielding a unified Lorentz-invariant quantum theory ab initio. Quingal solutions are isomorphic under both neo-Galilean and Lorentz transformations, and exhibit nother remarkable property: intrinsic unstability for large values of ℓ (a quantum number), thus limiting the size of each system at a given scale. Unstability and scale-invariance together lead to nested structures observed in our solar system; unstability may explain the small number of rows in the chemical periodic table, and nuclear unstability of nuclides beyond lead and bismuth. Quingal functions lend mathematical basis for Boscovich’s unified force (which is compatible with many pieces of evidence collected over the past century), and also yield a simple geometrical solution for the classical three-body problem, which is a useful model for electronic orbits in simple diatomic molecules. A testable prediction for the helicoidal-type force is suggested.

  1. Massive gravity and the suppression of anisotropies and gravitational waves in a matter-dominated contracting universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chunshan; Quintin, Jerome; Brandenberger, Robert H.

    2018-01-01

    We consider a modified gravity model with a massive graviton, but which nevertheless only propagates two gravitational degrees of freedom and which is free of ghosts. We show that non-singular bouncing cosmological background solutions can be generated. In addition, the mass term for the graviton prevents anisotropies from blowing up in the contracting phase and also suppresses the spectrum of gravitational waves compared to that of the scalar cosmological perturbations. This addresses two of the main problems of the matter bounce scenario.

  2. Quantifying uncertainty in the measurement of arsenic in suspended particulate matter by Atomic Absorption Spectrometry with hydride generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahuja Tarushee

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Arsenic is the toxic element, which creates several problems in human being specially when inhaled through air. So the accurate and precise measurement of arsenic in suspended particulate matter (SPM is of prime importance as it gives information about the level of toxicity in the environment, and preventive measures could be taken in the effective areas. Quality assurance is equally important in the measurement of arsenic in SPM samples before making any decision. The quality and reliability of the data of such volatile elements depends upon the measurement of uncertainty of each step involved from sampling to analysis. The analytical results quantifying uncertainty gives a measure of the confidence level of the concerned laboratory. So the main objective of this study was to determine arsenic content in SPM samples with uncertainty budget and to find out various potential sources of uncertainty, which affects the results. Keeping these facts, we have selected seven diverse sites of Delhi (National Capital of India for quantification of arsenic content in SPM samples with uncertainty budget following sampling by HVS to analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Hydride Generator (AAS-HG. In the measurement of arsenic in SPM samples so many steps are involved from sampling to final result and we have considered various potential sources of uncertainties. The calculation of uncertainty is based on ISO/IEC17025: 2005 document and EURACHEM guideline. It has been found that the final results mostly depend on the uncertainty in measurement mainly due to repeatability, final volume prepared for analysis, weighing balance and sampling by HVS. After the analysis of data of seven diverse sites of Delhi, it has been concluded that during the period from 31st Jan. 2008 to 7th Feb. 2008 the arsenic concentration varies from 1.44 ± 0.25 to 5.58 ± 0.55 ng/m3 with 95% confidence level (k = 2.

  3. Manipulating and probing angular momentum and quantized circulation in optical fields and matter waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowney, Joseph Daniel

    Methods to generate, manipulate, and measure optical and atomic fields with global or local angular momentum have a wide range of applications in both fundamental physics research and technology development. In optics, the engineering of angular momentum states of light can aid studies of orbital angular momentum (OAM) exchange between light and matter. The engineering of optical angular momentum states can also be used to increase the bandwidth of optical communications or serve as a means to distribute quantum keys, for example. Similar capabilities in Bose-Einstein condensates are being investigated to improve our understanding of superfluid dynamics, superconductivity, and turbulence, the last of which is widely considered to be one of most ubiquitous yet poorly understood subjects in physics. The first part of this two-part dissertation presents an analysis of techniques for measuring and manipulating quantized vortices in BECs. The second part of this dissertation presents theoretical and numerical analyses of new methods to engineer the OAM spectra of optical beams. The superfluid dynamics of a BEC are often well described by a nonlinear Schrodinger equation. The nonlinearity arises from interatomic scattering and enables BECs to support quantized vortices, which have quantized circulation and are fundamental structural elements of quantum turbulence. With the experimental tools to dynamically manipulate and measure quantized vortices, BECs are proving to be a useful medium for testing the theoretical predictions of quantum turbulence. In this dissertation we analyze a method for making minimally destructive in situ observations of quantized vortices in a BEC. Secondly, we numerically study a mechanism to imprint vortex dipoles in a BEC. With these advancements, more robust experiments of vortex dynamics and quantum turbulence will be within reach. A more complete understanding of quantum turbulence will enable principles of microscopic fluid flow to be

  4. On the non-linear spectroscopy including saturated absorption and four-wave mixing in two and multi-level atoms: a computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, M.; De Jager, G.; Nkosi, Z.; Wyngaard, A.; Govender, K.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we report on the study of two and multi-level atoms interacting with multiple laser beams. The semi-classical approach is used to describe the system in which the atoms are treated quantum mechanically via the density matrix operator, while the laser beams are treated classically using Maxwells equations. We present results of a two level atom interacting with single and multiple laser beams and demonstrate Rabi oscillations between the levels. The effects of laser modulation on the dynamics of the atom (atomic populations and coherences) are examined by solving the optical Bloch equations. Plots of the density matrix elements as a function of time are presented for various parameters such as laser intensity, detuning, modulation etc. In addition, phase-space plots and Fourier analysis of the density matrix elements are provided. The atomic polarization, estimated from the coherence terms of the density matrix elements, is used in the numerical solution of Maxwells equations to determine the behaviour of the laser beams as they propagate through the atomic ensemble. The effects of saturation and hole-burning are demonstrated in the case of two counter propagating beams with one being a strong beam and the other being very weak. The above work is extended to include four-wave mixing in four level atoms in a diamond configuration. Two co-propagating beams of different wavelengths drive the atoms from a ground state |1〉 to an excited state |3〉 via an intermediate state |2〉. The atoms then move back to the ground state via another intermediate state |4〉, resulting in the generation of two additional correlated photon beams. The characteristics of these additional photons are studied.

  5. The second wave of earthworm invasion: soil organic matter dynamics from the stable isotope perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, C.; Szlavecz, K. A.; Bernard, M.; Pitz, S.

    2013-12-01

    Through transformation of plant litter into soil organic matter (SOM) and translocation of ingested organic material among different soil depths, soil organisms, especially earthworms, are one of the major factors affecting SOM dynamics. In North America temperate soil, historical human activity has lead to invasion of European earthworms into habitats that were previously earthworm-free or inhabited only by native species. By consuming leaf litter and SOM, burrowing, and casting, invasive earthworms have been known for reducing the understory vegetation and leaf litter layer while increasing the thickness of organic soil, causing changes in the soil habitat and the distribution of SOM. Recently, another group of invasive earthworm, namely Amynthas from Asia, has been reported invading habitats already dominated by European species, causing a 'second wave of invasion' where the soil ecosystem, already modified by European species, is going through another transition. The mechanisms through which these functionally (ecologically) different species affect C and N transformation could be better understood by tracing the carbon and nitrogen derived from 13C- and 15N-labeled leaf litter into earthworm tissues and SOM. The objective of this study is to understand how earthworm species that differ ecologically, including the Asian Amynthas, interact with each other and how these interactions affect SOM dynamics. We hypothesized that 1) species feeding on different food resources will have different isotopic signature and their tissue 13C and 15N values will change due to facilitation or interspecific competition on food resources, and 2) the short-term fate of litter-derived carbon differs depending on the presence or absence of different earthworm species. These hypotheses were tested by field sampling and lab mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched Tulip Poplar leaf litter (mean 13C = 124‰, mean 15N = 1667‰) produced from tree saplings growing in an

  6. SciDAC - Center for Simulation of Wave Interactions with MHD -- General Atomics Support of ORNL Collaboration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G

    2012-11-09

    The Center for Simulation of Wave Interactions with Magnetohydrodynamics (SWIM) project is dedicated to conduct research on integrated multi-physics simulations. The Integrated Plasma Simulator (IPS) is a framework that was created by the SWIM team. It provides an integration infrastructure for loosely coupled component-based simulations by facilitating services for code execution coordination, computational resource management, data management, and inter-component communication. The IPS framework features improving resource utilization, implementing application-level fault tolerance, and support of the concurrent multi-tasking execution model. The General Atomics (GA) team worked closely with other team members on this contract, and conducted research in the areas of computational code monitoring, meta-data management, interactive visualization, and user interfaces. The original website to monitor SWIM activity was developed in the beginning of the project. Due to the amended requirements, the software was redesigned and a revision of the website was deployed into production in April of 2010. Throughout the duration of this project, the SWIM Monitoring Portal (http://swim.gat.com:8080/) has been a critical production tool for supporting the project's physics goals.

  7. Zinc sulfide and terbium-doped zinc sulfide films grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, S J; Nam, K S

    1998-01-01

    Zinc sulfide (ZnS) and terbium-doped ZnS (ZnS:Tb) thin films were grown by traveling wave reactor atomic layer epitaxy (ALE). In the present work, ZnCl sub 2 , H sub 2 S, and tris (2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptandionato) terbium (Tb(tmhd) sub 3) were used as the precursors. The dependence of crystallinity and Cl content of ZnS films was investigated on the growth temperature. ZnS and ZnS:Tb films grown at temperatures ranging from 400 to 500 .deg. C showed a hexagonal-2H crystalline structure. The crystallinity of ZnS film was greatly enhanced as the temperature increased. At growth temperatures higher than 450.deg.C, the films showed preferred orientation with mainly (002) diffraction peak. The Cl content decreased from approximately 9 to 1 at.% with the increase in growth temperature from 400 to 500 .deg. C. The segregation of Cl near the surface region and the incorporation of O from Tb(tmhd) sub 3 during ALE process were also observed using Auger electron spectroscopy. The ALE-grown ZnS and ZnS:Tb films re...

  8. A quantum trampoline for ultra-cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert-de-Saint-Vincent, M.; Brantut, J.-P.; Bordé, Ch. J.; Aspect, A.; Bourdel, T.; Bouyer, P.

    2010-01-01

    We have observed the interferometric suspension of a free-falling Bose-Einstein condensate periodically submitted to multiple-order diffraction by a vertical 1D standing wave. This scheme permits simultaneously the compensation of gravity and coherent splitting/recombination of the matter waves. It results in high-contrast interference in the number of atoms detected at constant height. For long suspension times, multiple-wave interference is revealed through a sharpening of the fringes. We characterize our atom interferometer and use it to measure the acceleration of gravity.

  9. A new probe of dark matter properties: gravitational waves from an intermediate mass black hole embedded in a dark matter mini-spike

    CERN Document Server

    Eda, Kazunari; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko; Silk, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    An intermediate mass black hole (IMBH) may have a dark matter (DM) mini-halo around it and develop a spiky structure within less than a parsec from the IMBH. When a stellar mass object is captured by the mini-halo, it eventually infalls into such an IMBH due to gravitational wave back reaction which in turn could be observed directly by future space-borne gravitational wave experiments such as eLISA/NGO. In this paper, we show that the GW detectability strongly depends on the radial profile of the DM distribution. So if the GW is detected, the power index, that is, the DM density distribution would be determined very accurately. The DM density distribution obtained would make it clear how the IMBH has evolved from a seed BH and whether the IMBH has experienced major mergers in the past. Unlike the gamma ray observations of DM annihilation, GW is just sensitive to the radial profile of the DM distribution and even to non-interacting DM. Hence the effect we demonstrate here can be used as a new and powerful pro...

  10. Detection of applied and ambient forces with a matter-wave magnetic gradiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Billy I.; MacKellar, Andrew R.; Halket, James; Gribbon, Anna; Pritchard, Jonathan D.; Arnold, Aidan S.; Riis, Erling; Griffin, Paul F.

    2017-11-01

    An atom interferometer using a Bose-Einstein condensate of 87Rb atoms is utilized for the measurement of magnetic-field gradients. Composite optical pulses are used to construct a spatially symmetric Mach-Zehnder geometry. By using a biased interferometer we demonstrate the ability to measure small residual forces in our system and discriminate between magnetic and inertial effects. These are a residual ambient magnetic-field gradient of 15 ±2 mG/cm and an inertial acceleration of 0.08 ±0.02 m/s2. Our method has important applications in the calibration of precision measurement devices and the reduction of systematic errors.

  11. What is matter? The unchangeable, atoms and the nothing, electromagnetic fields, quantum mechanics; Was ist Materie? Das Unveraenderbare, Atome und das Nichts, Elektromagnetische Felder, Quantenmechanik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lesch, Harald [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Astronomie; Hochschule fuer Philosophie, Muenchen (Germany)

    2013-10-01

    In this CD an introduction is given to the philosophical description of matter starting from the philosophy of Demokrit and scholastics, going then via classical mechanics to the terms of fields, and concluding finally with quantum mechanics and the fundamental structure of particles together with a consideration of cosmology. (HSI)

  12. Zero-order filter for diffractive focusing of de Broglie matter waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, S. D.; Ravn, A. K.; Samelin, B.

    2017-01-01

    conditions the atom focusing at lower source stagnation pressures (broader velocity distributions) is better than what has previously been predicted. We present simulations with the software ray-tracing simulation package MCSTAS using a realistic helium source configuration, which gives very good agreement...

  13. Collective Transport for Active Matter Run and Tumble Disk Systems on a Traveling Wave Substrate

    OpenAIRE

    Sándor, Cs.; Libál, A.; Reichhardt, C.; Reichhardt, C. J. Olson

    2016-01-01

    We numerically examine the transport of an assembly of active run-and-tumble disks interacting with a traveling wave substrate. We show that as a function of substrate strength, wave speed, disk activity, and disk density, a variety of dynamical phases arise that are correlated with the structure and net flux of disks. We find that there is a sharp transition into a state where the disks are only partially coupled to the substrate and form a phase separated cluster state. This transition is a...

  14. Probing the atomic structure of amorphous Ta2O5 mirror coatings for advanced gravitational wave detectors using transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, R.; Borisenko, K. B.; Cockayne, D. J. H.; Hough, J.; MacLaren, I.; Rowan, S.

    2010-07-01

    Advanced generations of ground-based gravitational wave detectors will use ultra-low-loss amorphous dielectric multilayer mirror coatings in order to minimise thermal noise, a limiting factor in detector sensitivity. Transmission electron microscopy is a promising way to probe the atomic structure of these coatings in an effort to better understand the causes of the observed mechanical loss (internal friction) and hence thermal noise.

  15. Hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometric determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter using multivariate optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moscoso-Perez, Carmen [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Moreda-Pineiro, Jorge [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)]. E-mail: jmoreda@udc.es; Lopez-Mahia, Purificacion [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Muniategui-Lorenzo, Soledad [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Fernandez-Fernandez, Esther [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain); Prada-Rodriguez, Dario [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of A Coruna, Campus da Zapateira s/n, E-15071 A Coruna (Spain)

    2004-11-22

    A highly sensitive and simple method, based on hydride generation and atomic fluorescence detection, has been developed for the determination of As, Bi, Sb, Se(IV) and Te(IV) in aqua regia extracts from atmospheric particulate matter samples. Atmospheric particulates matter was collected on glass fiber filters using a medium volume sampler (PM1 particulate matter). Two-level factorial designs have been used to optimise the hydride generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HG-AFS) procedure. The effects of several parameters affecting the hydride generation efficiency (hydrochloric acid, sodium tetrahydroborate and potassium iodide concentrations and flow rates) have been evaluated using a Plackett-Burman experimental design. In addition, parameters affecting the hydride measurement (delay, analysis and memory times) have been also investigated. The significant parameters obtained (sodium tetrahydroborate concentration, sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate and analysis time for As; hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Se(IV); and sodium tetrahydroborate concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate for Te(IV)) have been optimized by using 2{sup n} + star central composite design. Hydrochloric acid concentration and sodium tetrahydroborate flow rate were the significant parameters obtained for Sb and Bi determination, respectively. Using a univariate approach these parameters were optimized. The accuracy of methods have been verified by using several certified reference materials: SRM 1648 (urban particulate matter) and SRM 1649a (urban dust). Detection limits in the range of 6 x 10{sup -3} to 0.2 ng m{sup -3} have been achieved. The developed methods were applied to several atmospheric particulate matter samples corresponding to A Coruna city (NW Spain)

  16. Non-triviality matters: examining the interplay between s-wave superconductivity and topological surface states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snelder, M.

    2015-01-01

    The main focus of this thesis is to understand the correlations present at the s-wave/three-dimensional topological insulator interface both theoretically and experimentally. In the future, devices containing these kind of interfaces can be used to create and manipulate a Majorana zero-energy mode

  17. Dynamically controlled two-color photonic band gaps via balanced four-wave mixing in one-dimensional cold atomic lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong; Yang, Liu; Wang, Xiao-Chang; Cui, Cui-Li; Zhang, Yan; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2013-12-01

    We study an ensemble of cold atoms driven to the four-level double-Λ configuration and trapped in the one-dimensional optical lattices for achieving dynamically controlled photonic band gaps (PBGs) via the balanced four-wave mixing interaction. Numerical results show that a pair of PBGs characterized by high platforms of probe reflectivities and reduced density of photonic states are established, simultaneously, on both probe transitions in one symmetric driving scheme. Such two-color PBGs can be easily manipulated in position and width by modulating, e.g., the balanced Rabi frequencies of two coupling fields and the Gaussian widths of atomic density distributions, to change the equal probe detunings fulfilling both Bragg conditions. Each two-color PBG as predicted in the coherent atomic lattices may be explored to attain robust light entanglement, even for single-probe photons, via an efficient frequency conversion during the nonlinearly correlated reflection.

  18. Calculation of state-to-state differential and integral cross sections for atom-diatom reactions with transition-state wave packets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2014-06-21

    A recently proposed transition-state wave packet method [R. Welsch, F. Huarte-Larrañaga, and U. Manthe, J. Chem. Phys. 136, 064117 (2012)] provides an efficient and intuitive framework to study reactive quantum scattering at the state-to-state level. It propagates a few transition-state wave packets, defined by the eigenfunctions of the low-rank thermal flux operator located near the transition state, into the asymptotic regions of the reactant and product arrangement channels separately using the corresponding Jacobi coordinates. The entire S-matrix can then be assembled from the corresponding flux-flux cross-correlation functions for all arrangement channels. Since the transition-state wave packets can be defined in a relatively small region, its transformation into either the reactant or product Jacobi coordinates is accurate and efficient. Furthermore, the grid/basis for the propagation, including the maximum helicity quantum number K, is much smaller than that required in conventional wave packet treatments of state-to-state reactive scattering. This approach is implemented for atom-diatom reactions using a time-dependent wave packet method and applied to the H + D2 reaction with all partial waves. Excellent agreement with benchmark integral and differential cross sections is achieved.

  19. A time-dependent wave packet approach to atom-diatom reactive collision probabilities - Theory and application to the H + H2(J = 0) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Baer, Michael; Judson, Richard S.; Kouri, Donald J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes a new approach to the study of atom-diatom reactive collisions in three dimensions employing wave packets and the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. The method uses a projection operator approach to couple the inelastic and reactive portions of the total wave function and optical potentials to circumvent the necessity of using product arrangement coordinates. Reactive transition probabilities are calculated from the state resolved flux of the wave packet as it leaves the interaction region in the direction of the reactive arrangement channel. The present approach is used to obtain such vibrationally resolved probabilities for the three-dimensional H + H2 (J = 0) hydrogen exchange reaction, using a body-fixed system of coordinates.

  20. Quantum-classical correspondence in chaotic dynamics of laser-driven atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prants, S. V.

    2017-04-01

    This paper is a review article on some aspects of quantum-classical correspondence in chaotic dynamics of cold atoms interacting with a standing-wave laser field forming an optical lattice. The problem is treated from both (semi)classical and quantum points of view. In both approaches, the interaction of an atomic electic dipole with the laser field is treated quantum mechanically. Translational motion is described, at first, classically (atoms are considered to be point-like objects) and then quantum mechanically as a propagation of matter waves. Semiclassical equations of motion are shown to be chaotic in the sense of classical dynamical chaos. Point-like atoms in an absolutely deterministic and rigid optical lattice can move in a random-like manner demonstrating a chaotic walking with typical features of classical chaos. This behavior is explained by random-like ‘jumps’ of one of the atomic internal variable when atoms cross nodes of the standing wave and occurs in a specific range of the atom-field detuning. When treating atoms as matter waves, we show that they can make nonadiabatic transitions when crossing the standing-wave nodes. The point is that atomic wave packets split at each node in the same range of the atom-field detuning where the classical chaos occurs. The key point is that the squared amplitude of those semiclassical ‘jumps’ equal to the quantum Landau-Zener parameter which defines the probability of nonadiabatic transitions at the nodes. Nonadiabatic atomic wave packets are much more complicated compared to adiabatic ones and may be called chaotic in this sense. A few possible experiments to observe some manifestations of classical and quantum chaos with cold atoms in horizontal and vertical optical lattices are proposed and discussed.

  1. Quantum dynamics through a wave packet method to study electron-hydrogen and atom-dihydrogen collisions; Dynamique quantique par une methode de paquets d'ondes. Etude des collisions electron-hydrogene et atome-dihydrogene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, L

    2002-11-01

    The thesis concerns the development and implementation of numerical methods for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We first considered the case of electron-hydrogen scattering. The originality of our method is the use of a non-uniform radial grid defined by a Schwarz interpolation based on a Coulomb reference function. This grid allows many hydrogen bound states and associated matrix elements of various operators to be reproduced to machine accuracy. The wave function is propagated in time using a Split-Operator method. The efficiency of our method allows the wave function to be propagated out to large distances for all partial waves. We obtain excitation and ionization cross sections in excellent agreement with the best experimental and theoretical data. We subsequently adapted the method and the program package to study reactive atom-dihydrogen scattering. The wave packet is described using product Jacobi coordinates on a regular grid of radial coordinates combined with a basis of Legendre polynomials for the angular part (partial wave S). The wave function is analysed using a time-to-energy Fourier transform, which provides results over the energy range covered by the initial wave packet in one calculation. The method was first tested on the quasi-direct (F,H2) reaction and then applied to the indirect (C(1D),H2)reaction. The state-to-state reaction probabilities are in good agreement with those obtained by a time-independent approach. In particular, the strongly resonant structure of the (C(1D),H2) reaction probabilities is well reproduced. (author)

  2. Atomic focusing by quantum fields: Entanglement properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paz, I.G. da [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Ministro Petrônio Portela, CEP 64049-550, Teresina, PI (Brazil); Frazão, H.M. [Universidade Federal do Piauí, Campus Profa. Cinobelina Elvas, CEP 64900-000, Bom Jesus, PI (Brazil); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Nemes, M.C. [Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Caixa Postal 702, Belo Horizonte, MG 30123-970 (Brazil); Peixoto de Faria, J.G. [Departamento de Física e Matemática, Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais, Av. Amazonas 7675, Belo Horizonte, MG 30510-000 (Brazil)

    2014-04-01

    The coherent manipulation of the atomic matter waves is of great interest both in science and technology. In order to study how an atom optic device alters the coherence of an atomic beam, we consider the quantum lens proposed by Averbukh et al. [1] to show the discrete nature of the electromagnetic field. We extend the analysis of this quantum lens to the study of another essentially quantum property present in the focusing process, i.e., the atom–field entanglement, and show how the initial atomic coherence and purity are affected by the entanglement. The dynamics of this process is obtained in closed form. We calculate the beam quality factor and the trace of the square of the reduced density matrix as a function of the average photon number in order to analyze the coherence and purity of the atomic beam during the focusing process.

  3. Understanding the core-halo relation of quantum wave dark matter from 3D simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schive, Hsi-Yu; Liao, Ming-Hsuan; Woo, Tak-Pong; Wong, Shing-Kwong; Chiueh, Tzihong; Broadhurst, Tom; Hwang, W-Y Pauchy

    2014-12-31

    We examine the nonlinear structure of gravitationally collapsed objects that form in our simulations of wavelike cold dark matter, described by the Schrödinger-Poisson (SP) equation with a particle mass ∼10(-22)  eV. A distinct gravitationally self-bound solitonic core is found at the center of every halo, with a profile quite different from cores modeled in the warm or self-interacting dark matter scenarios. Furthermore, we show that each solitonic core is surrounded by an extended halo composed of large fluctuating dark matter granules which modulate the halo density on a scale comparable to the diameter of the solitonic core. The scaling symmetry of the SP equation and the uncertainty principle tightly relate the core mass to the halo specific energy, which, in the context of cosmological structure formation, leads to a simple scaling between core mass (Mc) and halo mass (Mh), Mc∝a(-1/2)Mh(1/3), where a is the cosmic scale factor. We verify this scaling relation by (i) examining the internal structure of a statistical sample of virialized halos that form in our 3D cosmological simulations and by (ii) merging multiple solitons to create individual virialized objects. Sufficient simulation resolution is achieved by adaptive mesh refinement and graphic processing units acceleration. From this scaling relation, present dwarf satellite galaxies are predicted to have kiloparsec-sized cores and a minimum mass of ∼10(8)M⊙, capable of solving the small-scale controversies in the cold dark matter model. Moreover, galaxies of 2×10(12)M⊙ at z=8 should have massive solitonic cores of ∼2×10(9)M⊙ within ∼60  pc. Such cores can provide a favorable local environment for funneling the gas that leads to the prompt formation of early stellar spheroids and quasars.

  4. Gravitational waves in dynamical spacetimes with matter content in the fully constrained formulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Cerdá-Durán, Pablo; Ibáñez, José María

    2012-02-01

    The fully constrained formulation (FCF) of general relativity is a framework introduced as an alternative to the hyperbolic formulations traditionally used in numerical relativity. The FCF equations form a hybrid elliptic-hyperbolic system of equations including explicitly the constraints. We present an implicit-explicit numerical algorithm to solve the hyperbolic part, whereas the elliptic sector shares the form and properties with the well-known conformally flat condition approximation. We show the stability and convergence properties of the numerical scheme with numerical simulations of vacuum solutions. We have performed the first numerical evolutions of the coupled system of hydrodynamics and Einstein equations within FCF. As a proof of principle of the viability of the formalism, we present 2D axisymmetric simulations of an oscillating neutron star. In order to simplify the analysis we have neglected the backreaction of the gravitational waves into the dynamics, which is small (<2%) for the system considered in this work. We use spherical coordinates grids which are well adapted for simulations of stars and allow for extended grids that marginally reach the wave zone. We have extracted the gravitational wave signature and compared it to the Newtonian quadrupole and hexadecapole formulas. Both extraction methods show agreement within the numerical errors and the approximations used (˜30%).

  5. Quantum tiltmeter with atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Jie; Zhou, Min-Kang; Zhao, Miao-Miao; Zhang, Ke; Hu, Zhong-Kun

    2017-12-01

    Matter-wave sensors with cold atoms have progressed tremendously over recent decades. We report a sensitive tilt sensor based on quantum technology employing cold atoms. This quantum tiltmeter is constructed with the configuration of a Ramsey-Bordé atom interferometer, achieving an improvement of nearly three orders of magnitude for tilt measurements with a short-term sensitivity of 1.3 μ rad/Hz 1 /2 , with resolution down to 55 nrad at an integration time of 1000 s. The deformation of the Earth's surface has been monitored in a continuous run of 31 h, showing that a quantum tiltmeter can be applied to record tilt tides and can be an valuable sensor in geophysics and various scientific facilities.

  6. Average-atom model for two-temperature states and ionic transport properties of aluminum in the warm dense matter regime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yong; Fu, Yongsheng; Bredow, Richard; Kang, Dongdong; Redmer, Ronald; Yuan, Jianmin

    2017-03-01

    The average-atom model combined with the hyper-netted chain approximation is an efficient tool for electronic and ionic structure calculations for warm dense matter. Here we generalize this method in order to describe non-equilibrium states with different electron and ion temperature as produced in laser-matter interactions on ultra-short time scales. In particular, the electron-ion and ion-ion correlation effects are considered when calculating the electron structure. We derive an effective ion-ion pair-potential using the electron densities in the framework of temperature-depended density functional theory. Using this ion-ion potential we perform molecular dynamics simulations in order to determine the ionic transport properties such as the ionic diffusion coefficient and the shear viscosity through the ionic velocity autocorrelation functions.

  7. Corrugation in the Weakly Interacting Hexagonal-BN/Cu(111) System: Structure Determination by Combining Noncontact Atomic Force Microscopy and X-ray Standing Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Martin; Riss, Alexander; Garnica, Manuela; Ducke, Jacob; Deimel, Peter S; Duncan, David A; Thakur, Pardeep Kumar; Lee, Tien-Lin; Seitsonen, Ari Paavo; Barth, Johannes V; Allegretti, Francesco; Auwärter, Willi

    2017-09-26

    Atomically thin hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) layers on metallic supports represent a promising platform for the selective adsorption of atoms, clusters, and molecular nanostructures. Specifically, scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies revealed an electronic corrugation of h-BN/Cu(111), guiding the self-assembly of molecules and their energy level alignment. A detailed characterization of the h-BN/Cu(111) interface including the spacing between the h-BN sheet and its support-elusive to STM measurements-is crucial to rationalize the interfacial interactions within these systems. To this end, we employ complementary techniques including high-resolution noncontact atomic force microscopy, STM, low-energy electron diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, the X-ray standing wave method, and density functional theory. Our multimethod study yields a comprehensive, quantitative structure determination including the adsorption height and the corrugation of the sp(2) bonded h-BN layer on Cu(111). Based on the atomic contrast in atomic force microscopy measurements, we derive a measurable-hitherto unrecognized-geometric corrugation of the h-BN monolayer. This experimental approach allows us to spatially resolve minute height variations in low-dimensional nanostructures, thus providing a benchmark for theoretical modeling. Regarding potential applications, e.g., as a template or catalytically active support, the recognition of h-BN on Cu(111) as a weakly bonded and moderately corrugated overlayer is highly relevant.

  8. The influence of higher spatial harmonics of atomic polarization on the saturated absorption resonance upon excitation of open dipole transitions by a field of counterpropagating waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Novokreshchenov, A. S.

    2017-04-01

    The effect of a double structure of saturated absorption resonance in the field of counterpropagating light waves interacting with an atomic gas is studied. The experimental observation of this effect was first reported in 2011 in a work by our colleagues at the P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Laboratory of Frequency Standards). The essence of the effect lies in the fact that, on exciting an open dipole transition, another, narrower, resonance of an opposite sign can be observed at the center of the ordinary saturated absorption resonance. A theoretical analysis of this effect has also been performed in this work in terms of a simple spectroscopic model of an atom with two nondegenerate energy levels without taking into account higher spatial harmonics of atomic polarization and polarizations of light waves (scalar model). The present work is devoted to the development of a theory of the formation of a central narrow resonance for the example of a real F g = 1 → F e = 1 atomic transition and to the study of its main characteristics (amplitude, width, contrast, and amplitude-to-width ratio). In addition, the theoretical results obtained without taking into account the influence of higher spatial harmonics and with inclusion of the influence of first higher harmonics are compared. This comparison shows that their influence on the parameters of the new nonlinear resonance is strong even in moderately intense light fields ( R γ, where R is the Rabi frequency). The results of this study can be of interest for quantum metrology, as well as for many experiments in which the laser-radiation frequency is stabilized by the saturated absorption resonance on open dipole transitions in atoms and molecules.

  9. Wave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2008-01-01

    Estimates for the amount of potential wave energy in the world range from 1-10 TW. The World Energy Council estimates that a potential 2TW of energy is available from the world’s oceans, which is the equivalent of twice the world’s electricity production. Whilst the recoverable resource is many...... times smaller it remains very high. For example, whilst there is enough potential wave power off the UK to supply the electricity demands several times over, the economically recoverable resource for the UK is estimated at 25% of current demand; a lot less, but a very substantial amount nonetheless....

  10. Gravitational waves in dynamical spacetimes with matter content in the Fully Constrained Formulation

    CERN Document Server

    Cordero-Carrión, Isabel; Ibáñez, José María

    2011-01-01

    The Fully Constrained Formulation (FCF) of General Relativity is a novel framework introduced as an alternative to the hyperbolic formulations traditionally used in numerical relativity. The FCF equations form a hybrid elliptic-hyperbolic system of equations including explicitly the constraints. We present an implicit-explicit numerical algorithm to solve the hyperbolic part, whereas the elliptic sector shares the form and properties with the well known Conformally Flat Condition (CFC) approximation. We show the stability andconvergence properties of the numerical scheme with numerical simulations of vacuum solutions. We have performed the first numerical evolutions of the coupled system of hydrodynamics and Einstein equations within FCF. As a proof of principle of the viability of the formalism, we present 2D axisymmetric simulations of an oscillating neutron star. In order to simplify the analysis we have neglected the back-reaction of the gravitational waves into the dynamics, which is small (<2 %) for ...

  11. NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE ATOMIC SPECTRA OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM: A MIXED MECHANISM OF CLASSICAL LC CIRCUITS AND QUANTUM WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY NUEVA INTERPRETACIÓN DEL ESPECTRO ATÓMICO DEL ÁTOMO DE HIDRÓGENO: UN MECANISMO MIXTO DE CIRCUITOS LC Y LA DUALIDAD ONDA CUÁNTICA-PARTÍCULA

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we study the energy conversion laws of the macroscopic harmonic LC oscillator, the electromagnetic wave (photon) and the hydrogen atom. As our analysis indicates, the energies of these apparently different systems obey exactly the same energy conversion law. Based on our results and the wave-particle duality of electrons, we find that the hydrogen atom is, in fact, a natural chiral microscopic LC oscillator. In the framework of classical electromagnetic field theory we analytica...

  12. Determination of dopant atomic positions with kinematical X-ray standing waves; Untersuchung von Fremdatomen in kristallinen Materialien mit kinematischen stehenden Roentgenwellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walz, Bente

    2011-11-15

    Recent advances in the kinematic X-ray standing wave technique (KXSW) for the determination of the atomic coordinates and displacement parameters in nonperfect crystalline materials are described in this thesis. The methodology has been improved by considering three significant aspects: - the inclusion of weak multiple beam contributions - the excitation of secondary fluorescence in multiple-element samples - the influence of the crystal mosaicity on the fluorescence yield. The improvements allowed to successfully apply the method to investigate complex oxide materials of current interest for potential device applications. The thermally-induced interdiffusion of cobalt and manganese thin films on zinc oxide single crystals has been studied to determine which lattice sites are occupied preferentially. The data analysis revealed that after thermal diffusion the adsorbed atoms occupied zinc sites in the host lattice. The mean deviation of the cobalt atomic position from the zinc lattice site was comparable to the thermal displacement parameter of the zinc atoms. In the case of manganese a secondary phase was found on the surface. Measurements performed on LaSrMnO{sub 4} provided new insight concerning the rotation of the oxygen octahedron around the manganese atoms and the concomitant displacements of the strontium and lanthanum atoms. It was found that the oxygen octahedra are rotated around the [100]-direction by 4,5 . The measurements in transmission geometry performed on titanium dioxide (rutile) demonstrated that KXSW measurements in the Laue geometry is a viable technique. By performing KXSW under grazing-incidence conditions it is possible to achieve depth resolution. The results clearly show that the extended KXSW technique is a versatile method for characterizing complex material systems. (orig.)

  13. 77 FR 36300 - In the Matter of Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company; Haddam Neck Plant; Confirmatory Order...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-18

    ... ownership of any registered classes of Connecticut Yankee Atomic Power Company stock. V In accordance with... system does not support unlisted software, and the NRC Meta System Help Desk will not be able to offer... adjudicatory E- Filing system may seek assistance by contacting the NRC Meta System Help Desk through the...

  14. Atomic long-range order effects on Curie temperature and adiabatic spin-wave dynamics in strained Fe-Co alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schönecker, Stephan; Li, Xiaoqing; Johansson, Börje; Vitos, Levente

    2016-08-01

    The strained Fe-Co alloy in body-centered tetragonal (bct) structure has raised considerable interest due to its giant uniaxial magnetocrystalline anisotropy energy. On the basis of the classical Heisenberg Hamiltonian with ab initio interatomic exchange interactions, we perform a theoretical study of fundamental finite temperature magnetic properties of Fe1 -xCox alloy films as a function of three variables: chemical composition 0.3 ≤x ≤0.8 , bct geometry [a ,c (a )] arising from in-plane strain and associated out-of-plane relaxation, and atomic long-range order (ALRO). The Curie temperatures TC(x ,a ) obtained from Monte Carlo simulations display a competition between a pronounced dependence on tetragonality, strong ferromagnetism in the Co-rich alloy, and the beginning instability of ferromagnetic order in the Fe-rich alloy when c /a →√{2 } . Atomic ordering enhances TC and arises mainly due to different distributions of atoms in neighboring coordination shells rather than altering exchange interactions significantly. We investigate the ordering effect on the shape of the adiabatic spin-wave spectrum for selected pairs (x ,a ) . Our results indicate that long-wavelength acoustic spin-wave excitations show dependencies on x , a , and ALRO similar to those of TC. The directional anisotropy of the spin-wave stiffness d (x ,a ) peaks in narrow ranges of composition and tetragonality. ALRO exhibits a strong effect on d for near equiconcentration Fe-Co. We also discuss our findings in the context of employing Fe-Co as perpendicular magnetic recording medium.

  15. A precision measurement of the gravitational redshift by the interference of matter waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Holger; Peters, Achim; Chu, Steven

    2010-02-18

    One of the central predictions of metric theories of gravity, such as general relativity, is that a clock in a gravitational potential U will run more slowly by a factor of 1 + U/c(2), where c is the velocity of light, as compared to a similar clock outside the potential. This effect, known as gravitational redshift, is important to the operation of the global positioning system, timekeeping and future experiments with ultra-precise, space-based clocks (such as searches for variations in fundamental constants). The gravitational redshift has been measured using clocks on a tower, an aircraft and a rocket, currently reaching an accuracy of 7 x 10(-5). Here we show that laboratory experiments based on quantum interference of atoms enable a much more precise measurement, yielding an accuracy of 7 x 10(-9). Our result supports the view that gravity is a manifestation of space-time curvature, an underlying principle of general relativity that has come under scrutiny in connection with the search for a theory of quantum gravity. Improving the redshift measurement is particularly important because this test has been the least accurate among the experiments that are required to support curved space-time theories.

  16. 76 FR 77561 - Atomic Safety and Licensing Board; In the Matter of Progress Energy Florida, Inc.; (Levy County...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... of Progress Energy Florida, Inc. (PEF) to the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for a... that any interested person could file a challenge to PEF's application to construct and operate two... matter and to preside over any contested adjudicatory proceeding relating to the PEF application.\\2\\ On...

  17. Age-related cerebral white matter changes and pulse-wave encephalopathy: observations with three-dimensional MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry Feugeas, Marie Cécile; De Marco, Giovanni; Peretti, Ilana Idy; Godon-Hardy, Sylvie; Fredy, Daniel; Claeys, Elisabeth Schouman

    2005-11-01

    Our purpose was to investigate leukoaraïosis (LA) using three-dimensional MR imaging combined with advanced image-processing technology to attempt to group signal abnormalities according to their etiology. Coronal T2-weighted fast fluid-attenuated inversion-recovery (FLAIR) sequences and three-dimensional T1-weighted fast spoiled gradient recalled echo sequences were used to examine cerebral white matter changes in 75 elderly people with memory complaint but no dementia. They were otherwise healthy, community-dwelling subjects. Three subtypes of LA were defined on the basis of their shape, geography and extent: the so-called subependymal/subpial LA, perivascular LA and "bands" along long white matter tracts. Subependymal changes were directly contiguous with ventricular spaces. They showed features of "water hammer" lesions with ventricular systematisation and a more frequent location around the frontal horns than around the bodies (P=.0008). The use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) contiguity criterion allowed a classification of splenial changes in the subpial group. Conversely, posterior periventricular lesions in the centrum ovale as well as irregular and extensive periventricular lesions were not directly contiguous with CSF spaces. The so-called perivascular changes showed features of small-vessel-associated disease; they surrounded linear CSF-like signals that followed the direction of perforating vessels. Distribution of these perivascular changes appeared heterogeneous (P ranging from .04 to 5.10(-16)). These findings suggest that subependymal/subpial LA and subcortical LA may be separate manifestations of a single underlying pulse-wave encephalopathy.

  18. Proposal for quantum many-body simulation and torsional matter-wave interferometry with a levitated nanodiamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yue; Hoang, Thai M.; Gong, Ming; Li, Tongcang; Yin, Zhang-qi

    2017-08-01

    Hybrid spin-mechanical systems have great potential in sensing, macroscopic quantum mechanics, and quantum information science. In order to induce strong coupling between an electron spin and the center-of-mass motion of a mechanical oscillator, a large magnetic gradient usually is required, which is difficult to achieve. Here we show that strong coupling between the electron spin of a nitrogen-vacancy (NV) center and the torsional vibration of an optically levitated nanodiamond can be achieved in a uniform magnetic field. Thanks to the uniform magnetic field, multiple spins can strongly couple to the torsional vibration at the same time. We propose utilizing this coupling mechanism to realize the Lipkin-Meshkov-Glick (LMG) model by an ensemble of NV centers in a levitated nanodiamond. The quantum phase transition in the LMG model and finite number effects can be observed with this system. We also propose generating torsional superposition states and realizing torsional matter-wave interferometry with spin-torsional coupling.

  19. Determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter collected on glass fiber filters using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry and direct solid sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araujo, Rennan G.O., E-mail: rgoa01@terra.com.br [Laboratorio de Quimica Analitica Ambiental, Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, Campus Sao Cristovao, 49.100-000, Sao Cristovao, SE (Brazil); Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Vignola, Fabiola; Castilho, Ivan N.B. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Borges, Daniel L.G.; Welz, Bernhard [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Vale, Maria Goreti R. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Smichowski, Patricia [Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica (CNEA) and Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Ferreira, Sergio L.C. [Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia do CNPq, INCT de Energia e Ambiente, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-115 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal da Bahia, 40170-290, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Becker-Ross, Helmut [Leibniz-Institut fuer Analytische Wissenschaften-ISAS-e.V., Department Berlin, 12489 Berlin (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A study has been undertaken to assess the capability of high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for the determination of mercury in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected on glass fiber filters using direct solid sampling. The main Hg absorption line at 253.652 nm was used for all determinations. The certified reference material NIST SRM 1648 (Urban Particulate Matter) was used to check the accuracy of the method, and good agreement was obtained between published and determined values. The characteristic mass was 22 pg Hg. The limit of detection (3{sigma}), based on ten atomizations of an unexposed filter, was 40 ng g{sup -1}, corresponding to 0.12 ng m{sup -3} in the air for a typical air volume of 1440 m{sup 3} collected within 24 h. The limit of quantification was 150 ng g{sup -1}, equivalent to 0.41 ng m{sup -3} in the air. The repeatability of measurements was better than 17% RSD (n = 5). Mercury concentrations found in filter samples loaded with APM collected in Buenos Aires, Argentina, were between < 40 ng g{sup -1} and 381 {+-} 24 ng g{sup -1}. These values correspond to a mercury concentration in the air between < 0.12 ng m{sup -3} and 1.47 {+-} 0.09 ng m{sup -3}. The proposed procedure was found to be simple, fast and reliable, and suitable as a screening procedure for the determination of mercury in APM samples.

  20. Quantifying uncertainty in measurement of mercury in suspended particulate matter by cold vapor technique using atomic absorption spectrometry with hydride generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nahar; Ahuja, Tarushee; Ojha, Vijay Narain; Soni, Daya; Tripathy, S Swarupa; Leito, Ivo

    2013-01-01

    As a result of rapid industrialization several chemical forms of organic and inorganic mercury are constantly introduced to the environment and affect humans and animals directly. All forms of mercury have toxic effects; therefore accurate measurement of mercury is of prime importance especially in suspended particulate matter (SPM) collected through high volume sampler (HVS). In the quantification of mercury in SPM samples several steps are involved from sampling to final result. The quality, reliability and confidence level of the analyzed data depends upon the measurement uncertainty of the whole process. Evaluation of measurement uncertainty of results is one of the requirements of the standard ISO/IEC 17025:2005 (European Standard EN IS/ISO/IEC 17025:2005, issue1:1-28, 2006). In the presented study the uncertainty estimation in mercury determination in suspended particulate matter (SPM) has been carried out using cold vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometer-Hydride Generator (AAS-HG) technique followed by wet chemical digestion process. For the calculation of uncertainty, we have considered many general potential sources of uncertainty. After the analysis of data of seven diverse sites of Delhi, it has been concluded that the mercury concentration varies from 1.59 ± 0.37 to 14.5 ± 2.9 ng/m(3) with 95% confidence level (k = 2).

  1. Advances in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) for investigating soil wettability states and soil organic matter (SOM) properties at the nano-scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazze, Andrea; Hallin, Ingrid; Van Keulen, Geertje; Matthews, Peter; Dudely, Edward; Whalley, Richard; Quinn, Gerry; Sinclair, Kathryn; Ashton, Rhys; Doerr, Stefan; Francis, Lewis

    2017-04-01

    Many environmental processes that have a major impact at the field-scale are determined by events occurring at the micro- and nanometer scales. Due to technical challenges, soil has only relatively recently been the focus of nanoscale studies. Recent advances in Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) now allow the characterization of natural soil samples both topographically, mechanically and chemically at the micro- to nanometer scale. To date AFM has been used for analysing materials that occur in soil ex-situ, such as minerals and organic matter as individual components; however its application to complete natural soil material has been very limited. Here we report on applications of AFM for mechanically and topographically characterising soil aggregates. Mechanical properties of interest are Young's modulus, surface deformation, adhesion and chemical mapping, all of which allow for gaining information on soil nano-mechanical properties that have implications for particle wettability. This presentation includes (i) a brief summary of recent advances in AFM capabilities and applications relevant to studying soil materials, and (ii) our latest findings in soil profiling for wettable and repellent soils, and the role of soil organic matter in affecting soil topographical and mechanical properties.

  2. Wave and particle in molecular interference lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juffmann, Thomas; Truppe, Stefan; Geyer, Philipp; Major, András G; Deachapunya, Sarayut; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Arndt, Markus

    2009-12-31

    The wave-particle duality of massive objects is a cornerstone of quantum physics and a key property of many modern tools such as electron microscopy, neutron diffraction or atom interferometry. Here we report on the first experimental demonstration of quantum interference lithography with complex molecules. Molecular matter-wave interference patterns are deposited onto a reconstructed Si(111) 7x7 surface and imaged using scanning tunneling microscopy. Thereby both the particle and the quantum wave character of the molecules can be visualized in one and the same image. This new approach to nanolithography therefore also represents a sensitive new detection scheme for quantum interference experiments.

  3. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Toennies, J Peter; Friedrich, Bretislav; Lower, Julian C A

    2011-01-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  4. Trial wave functions for ring-trapped ions and neutral atoms: Microscopic description of the quantum space-time crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannouleas, Constantine; Landman, Uzi

    2017-10-01

    A constructive theoretical platform for the description of quantum space-time crystals uncovers for N interacting and ring-confined rotating particles the existence of low-lying states with proper space-time crystal behavior. The construction of the corresponding many-body trial wave functions proceeds first via symmetry breaking at the mean-field level followed by symmetry restoration using projection techniques. The ensuing correlated many-body wave functions are stationary states and preserve the rotational symmetries, and at the same time they reflect the point-group symmetries of the mean-field crystals. This behavior results in the emergence of sequences of select magic angular momenta Lm. For angular-momenta away from the magic values, the trial functions vanish. Symmetry breaking beyond the mean-field level can be induced by superpositions of such good-Lm many-body stationary states. We show that superposing a pair of adjacent magic angular momenta states leads to formation of special broken-symmetry states exhibiting quantum space-time-crystal behavior. In particular, the corresponding particle densities rotate around the ring, showing undamped and nondispersed periodic crystalline evolution in both space and time. The experimental synthesis of such quantum space-time-crystal wave packets is predicted to be favored in the vicinity of ground-state energy crossings of the Aharonov-Bohm-type spectra accessed via an externally applied, natural or synthetic, magnetic field. These results are illustrated here for Coulomb-repelling fermionic ions and for a lump of contact-interaction attracting bosons.

  5. Mapping measures of microscopic diffusion anisotropy in human brain white matter in vivo with double-wave-vector diffusion-weighted imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrenz, Marco; Finsterbusch, Jürgen

    2015-02-01

    To demonstrate that rotationally invariant measures of the diffusion anisotropy on a microscopic scale can be mapped in human brain white matter in vivo. Echo-planar imaging experiments (resolution 3.0 × 3.0 × 3.0 mm(3) ) involving two diffusion-weighting periods (δ = 22 ms, Δ = 25 ms) in the same acquisition, so-called double-wave-vector or double-pulsed-field-gradient diffusion-weighting experiments, were performed on a 3 T whole-body magnetic resonance system with a long mixing time ( τm=45 ms) between the two diffusion weightings. The disturbing influences of background gradient fields, eddy currents, and the finite mixing time can be minimized using 84 direction combinations based on nine directions and their antipodes. In healthy volunteers, measures of the microscopic diffusion anisotropy ( IMA and MA indexes) could be mapped in white matter across the human brain. The measures were independent (i) of the absolute orientation of the head and of the diffusion directions and (ii) of the predominant fiber orientation. Compared to the fractional anisotropy derived from the conventional diffusion tensor, the double-wave-vector indexes exhibit a narrower distribution, which could reflect their independence of the fiber orientation distribution. Mapping measures of the microscopic diffusion anisotropy in human brain white matter is feasible in vivo and could help to characterize tissue microstructure in the healthy and pathological brain. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Beyond quantum mechanics? Hunting the 'impossible' atoms (Pauli Exclusion Principle violation and spontaneous collapse of the wave function at test)

    CERN Document Server

    Piscicchia, K; Bartalucci, S; Bassi, A; Bertolucci, S; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Cargnelli, M; Clozza, A; De Paolis, L; Di Matteo, S; Donadi, S; d'Uffizi, A; Egger, J-P; Guaraldo, C; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Laubenstein, M; Marton, J; Milotti, E; Pietreanu, D; Ponta, T; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Shi, H; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Sperandio, L; Doce, O Vazquez; Zmeskal, J

    2015-01-01

    The development of mathematically complete and consistent models solving the so-called "measurement problem", strongly renewed the interest of the scientific community for the foundations of quantum mechanics, among these the Dynamical Reduction Models posses the unique characteristic to be experimentally testable. In the first part of the paper an upper limit on the reduction rate parameter of such models will be obtained, based on the analysis of the X-ray spectrum emitted by an isolated slab of germanium and measured by the IGEX experiment. The second part of the paper is devoted to present the results of the VIP (Violation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment and to describe its recent upgrade. The VIP experiment established a limit on the probability that the Pauli Exclusion Principle (PEP) is violated by electrons, using the very clean method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper.

  7. Spatial profiles of electron and metastable atom densities in positive polarity fast ionization waves sustained in helium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weatherford, Brandon R., E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Barnat, E. V., E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico 87185-1423 (United States); Xiong, Zhongmin, E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu; Kushner, Mark J., E-mail: brweathe@gmail.com, E-mail: zax@esi-group.com, E-mail: evbarna@sandia.gov, E-mail: mjkush@umich.edu [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109-2122, USA. (United States)

    2014-09-14

    Fast ionization waves (FIWs), often generated with high voltage pulses over nanosecond timescales, are able to produce large volumes of ions and excited states at moderate pressures. The mechanisms of FIW propagation were experimentally and computationally investigated to provide insights into the manner in which these large volumes are excited. The two-dimensional structure of electron and metastable densities produced by short-pulse FIWs sustained in helium were measured using laser-induced fluorescence and laser collision-induced fluorescence diagnostics for times of 100–120 ns after the pulse, as the pressure was varied from 1 to 20 Torr. A trend of center-peaked to volume-filling to wall-peaked electron density profiles was observed as the pressure was increased. Instantaneous FIW velocities, obtained from plasma-induced emission, ranged from 0.1 to 3×10⁹cm s⁻¹, depending on distance from the high voltage electrode and pressure. Predictions from two-dimensional modeling of the propagation of a single FIW correlated well with the experimental trends in electron density profiles and wave velocity. Results from the model show that the maximum ionization rate occurs in the wavefront, and the discharge continues to propagate forward after the removal of high voltage from the powered electrode due to the potential energy stored in the space charge. As the pressure is varied, the radial distribution of the ionization rate is shaped by changes in the electron mean free path, and subsequent localized electric field enhancement at the walls or on the centerline of the discharge.

  8. Three-component Gross-Pitaevskii equations in the spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate: Spin-rotation symmetry, matter-wave solutions, and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Zichao; Yan, Zhenya

    2017-03-01

    We report new matter-wave solutions of the one-dimensional spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system by combining global spin-rotation states and similarity transformation. Dynamical behaviors of non-stationary global spin-rotation states derived from the SU(2) spin-rotation symmetry are discussed, which exhibit temporal periodicity. We derive generalized bright-dark mixed solitons and new rogue wave solutions and reveal the relations between Euler angles in spin-rotation symmetry and parameters in ferromagnetic and polar solitons. In the modulated spin-1 Bose-Einstein condensate system, new solutions are derived and graphically illustrated for different types of modulations. Moreover, numerical simulations are performed to investigate the stability of some obtained solutions for chosen parameters.

  9. Light-matter interaction physics and engineering at the nanoscale

    CERN Document Server

    Weiner, John

    2013-01-01

    This book draws together the essential elements of classical electrodynamics, surface wave physics, plasmonic materials, and circuit theory of electrical engineering to provide insight into the essential physics of nanoscale light-matter interaction and to provide design methodology for practical nanoscale plasmonic devices. A chapter on classical and quantal radiation also highlights the similarities (and differences) between the classical fields of Maxwell's equations and the wave functions of Schrodinger's equation. The aim of this chapter is to provide a semiclassical picture of atomic absorption and emission of radiation, lending credence and physical plausibility to the "rules" of standard wave-mechanical calculations.

  10. Atomic interferometry; Interferometrie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baudon, J.; Robert, J. [Paris-13 Univ., 93 - Saint-Denis (France)

    2004-07-01

    Since the theoretical works of L. De Broglie (1924) and the famous experiment of Davisson and Germer (1927), we know that a wave is linked with any particle of mass m by the relation {lambda} = h/(mv), where {lambda} is the wavelength, v the particle velocity and h is the Planck constant. The basic principle of the interferometry of any material particle, atom, molecule or aggregate is simple: using a simple incident wave, several mutually consistent waves (with well-defined relative phases) are generated and controllable phase-shifts are introduced between them in order to generate a wave which is the sum of the previous waves. An interference figure is obtained which consists in a succession of dark and bright fringes. The atomic interferometry is based on the same principle but involves different techniques, different wave equations, but also different beams, sources and correlations which are described in this book. Because of the small possible wavelengths and the wide range of possible atomic interactions, atomic interferometers can be used in many domains from the sub-micron lithography to the construction of sensors like: inertial sensors, gravity-meters, accelerometers, gyro-meters etc. The first chapter is a preliminary study of the space and time diffraction of atoms. The next chapters is devoted to the description of slit, light separation and polarization interferometers, and the last chapter treats of the properties of Bose-Einstein condensates which are interesting in atomic interferometry. (J.S.)

  11. The Atomic Bose Gas in Flatland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadzibabic, Z.; Krüger, P.; Cheneau, M.; Battelier, B.; Dalibard, J.

    2006-11-01

    We describe a recent experiment performed with rubidium atoms (87Rb), aiming at studying the coherence properties of a two-dimensional gas of bosonic particles at low temperature. We have observed in particular a Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless (BKT) type crossover in the system, using a matter wave heterodyning technique. At low temperatures, the gas is quasi-coherent on the length scale set by the system size. As the temperature is increased, the loss of long-range coherence coincides with the onset of the proliferation of free vortices, in agreement with the microscopic BKT theory.

  12. Continuous atom laser with Bose-Einstein condensates involving three-body interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpentier, A V; Michinel, H; Novoa, D [Area de Optica, Facultade de Ciencias de Ourense, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain); Olivieri, D N, E-mail: avcarpentier@uvigo.e [Area de Linguaxes e sistemas informaticos, Escola Superior de EnxenerIa Informatica, Universidade de Vigo, As Lagoas s/n, Ourense, ES-32004 (Spain)

    2010-05-28

    We demonstrate, through numerical simulations, the emission of a coherent continuous matter wave of constant amplitude from a Bose-Einstein condensate in a shallow optical dipole trap. The process is achieved by spatial control of the variations of the scattering length along the trapping axis, including elastic three-body interactions due to dipole interactions. In our approach, the outcoupling mechanism is atomic interactions, and thus, the trap remains unaltered. We calculate analytically the parameters for the experimental implementation of this continuous wave atom laser.

  13. Maxwell Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Eisenberg, Bob

    2016-01-01

    Charges are everywhere because most atoms are charged. Chemical bonds are formed by electrons with their charge. Charges move and interact according to Maxwell's equations in space and in atoms where the equations of electrodynamics are embedded in Schroedinger's equation as the potential. Maxwell's equations are universal, valid inside atoms and between stars from times much shorter than those of atomic motion (0.1 femtoseconds) to years (32 mega-seconds). Maxwell's equations enforce the conservation of current. Analysis shows that the electric field can take on whatever value is needed to ensure conservation of current. The properties of matter rearrange themselves to satisfy Maxwell's equations and conservation of current. Conservation of current is as universal as Maxwell's equations themselves. Yet equations of electrodynamics find little place in the literature of material physics, chemistry, or biochemistry. Kinetic models of chemistry and Markov treatments of atomic motion are ordinary differential eq...

  14. A double well interferometer on an atom chip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schumm, Thorsten; Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.

    2006-01-01

    Radio-Frequency coupling between magnetically trapped atomic states allows to create versatile adiabatic dressed state potentials for neutral atom manipulation. Most notably, a single magnetic trap can be split into a double well by controlling amplitude and frequency of an oscillating magnetic...... split BECs in time of flight expansion, we realize a matter wave interferometer. The observed interference pattern exhibits a stable relative phase of the two condensates, clearly indicating a coherent splitting process. Furthermore, we measure and control the deterministic phase evolution throughout...... the splitting process. RF induced potentials are especially suited for integrated micro manipulation of neutral atoms on atom chips: designing appropriate wire patterns enables control over the created potentials to the (nanometer) precision of the fabrication process. Additionally, hight local RF amplitudes...

  15. Evolved Models for Elementary Particles and Atoms Require Alternating Neutrino/Antineutrino Pairs Along Interlocked or Looped Strings. Traveling Waves, TW, and Standing Waves, SW, Alternate at Nodal Notches

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, Roger David; McLeod, David Matthew

    2009-05-01

    Our hydrogen atom interacts with a neutron star. Its stringy TW/SW electron is cut by a neutrino scissor that instantly becomes its end anti-node. The string has one extra neutrino in 100,000. Antimatter remains concealed. Our Dumbo Proton of a TW state is similarly cut. Inside the star, electron string/spring compresses 100,000 and 1836 times more, to proton's linear mass density. Electrostatics encourages that caboose, stringy electron, to couple with a cut proton. Linear charge densities neutralize while composite length contracts 20%. The writhing string evicts an antineutrino at closure on Pauli's authority, becoming Mickey Neutron, with looped quarks. Unstable Mickey Neutron has his ear notch forced into an ear notch of stable Dumbo Proton, achieving immortality in this deuteron marriage. Tritium is in a m'enage a trois. Alpha Nucleus has a # grid. Meta state Ne-20 predicts alpha eviction to O-16. Schr"odinger finally prevails, so string theory and Wave Mechanics can prosper.

  16. CORRIGENDUM: Atoms riding Rayleigh waves Atoms riding Rayleigh waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedek, G.; Echenique, P. M.; Toennies, J. P.; Traeger, F.

    2010-09-01

    In the original paper the affiliation list is incorrect. The correct address list is as follows: G Benedek1, 5, P M Echenique1, 2, J P Toennies3 and F Traeger4 1 Donostia International Physics Center (DIPC), Paseo Manuel de Lardizábal 4, 20018 Donostia—San Sebastián, Spain 2 Departamento de Física de Materiales and CFM (CSIC-UPV/EHU), Universidad del País Vasco/Euskal Herriko Unibertsitatea, E-20018 San Sebastián/Donostia, Spain 3 Max Planck-Institut für Dynamik und Selbstorganisation, Bunsenstraße 10 D-37073 Göttingen, Germany 4 Fakultät für Chemie und Biochemie, Ruhr-Universität Bochum Universitätsstraße 150, 44801 Bochum, Germany 5 Permanent address: Dipartimento di Scienza dei Materiali, Universitá di Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano, Italy

  17. Thin films of soft matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kalliadasis, Serafim

    2007-01-01

    A detailed overview and comprehensive analysis of the main theoretical and experimental advances on free surface thin film and jet flows of soft matter is given. At the theoretical front the book outlines the basic equations and boundary conditions and the derivation of low-dimensional models for the evolution of the free surface. Such models include long-wave expansions and equations of the boundary layer type and are analyzed via linear stability analysis, weakly nonlinear theories and strongly nonlinear analysis including construction of stationary periodic and solitary wave and similarity solutions. At the experimental front a variety of very recent experimental developments is outlined and the link between theory and experiments is illustrated. Such experiments include spreading drops and bubbles, imbibitions, singularity formation at interfaces and experimental characterization of thin films using atomic force microscopy, ellipsometry and contact angle measurements and analysis of patterns using Minkows...

  18. Enumeration of non-labile oxygen atoms in dissolved organic matter by use of ¹⁶O/ ¹⁸O exchange and Fourier transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Kononikhin, Alexey; Zherebker, Alexander; Popov, Igor; Perminova, Irina; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2014-10-01

    We report a simple approach for enumeration of non-labile oxygen atoms in individual molecules of dissolved organic matter (DOM), using acid-catalyzed (16)O/(18)O exchange and ultrahigh-resolution Fourier-transform ion-cyclotron-resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS). We found that by dissolving DOM in H2 (18)O at 95 °C for 20 days it is possible to replace all oxygen atoms of DOM molecules (excluding oxygen from ether groups) with (18)O. The number of exchanges in each molecule can be determined using high-resolution FTICR. Using the proposed method we identified the number of non-labile oxygen atoms in 231 molecules composing DOM. Also, using a previously developed hydrogen-deuterium (H/D)-exchange approach we identified the number of labile hydrogen atoms in 450 individual molecular formulas. In addition, we observed that several backbone hydrogen atoms can be exchanged for deuterium under acidic conditions. The method can be used for structural and chemical characterization of individual DOM molecules, comparing different DOM samples, and investigation of biological pathways of DOM in the environment.

  19. Lasers, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the booklets in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school science teachers and their students. Basic information for understanding the laser is provided including discussion of the electromagnetic spectrum, radio waves, light and the atom, coherent light, controlled…

  20. Reviews Book: Big Ben Book: Mini Weapons of Mass Destruction Equipment: Waves and Radiation Sample Pack Book: The Exploratorium Science Snackbook Book: Super Structures Book: The Universe and the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-01

    WE RECOMMEND Mini Weapons of Mass Destruction A pictorial guide to making safe mini weapons Waves and Radiation Sample Pack Pack shines light on the electromagnetic spectrum The Exploratorium Science Snackbook Book is full of ideas for fascinating physics demonstrations Super Structures The science of bridges, buildings, dams and engineering WORTH A LOOK Big Ben The physics of the world-famous clock The Universe and the Atom A comprehensive guide to physics

  1. A proposed atom interferometry determination of G at 10‑5 using a cold atomic fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosi, G.

    2018-02-01

    In precision metrology, the determination of the Newtonian gravity constant G represents a real problem, since its history is plagued by huge unknown discrepancies between a large number of independent experiments. In this paper, we propose a novel experimental setup for measuring G with a relative accuracy of 10-5 , using a standard cold atomic fountain and matter wave interferometry. We discuss in detail the major sources of systematic errors, and provide the expected statistical uncertainty. The feasibility of determining G at the 10-6 level is also discussed.

  2. Laser Control of Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Letkhov, V S

    2007-01-01

    This text treats laser light as a universal tool to control matter at the atomic and molecular level, one of the most exciting applications of lasers. Lasers can heat matter, cool atoms to ultra-low temperatures where they show quantum collective behaviour, and can act selectively on specific atoms and molecules for their detection and separation.

  3. Concluding Remarks: Connecting Relativistic Heavy Ion Collisions and Neutron Star Mergers by the Equation of State of Dense Hadron- and Quark Matter as signalled by Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanauske, Matthias; Steinheimer, Jan; Bovard, Luke; Mukherjee, Ayon; Schramm, Stefan; Takami, Kentaro; Papenfort, Jens; Wechselberger, Natascha; Rezzolla, Luciano; Stöcker, Horst

    2017-07-01

    The underlying open questions in the fields of general relativistic astrophysics and elementary particle and nuclear physics are strongly connected and their results are interdependent. Although the physical systems are quite different, the 4D-simulation of a merger of a binary system of two neutron stars and the properties of the hot and dense matter created in high energy heavy ion collisions, strongly depend on the equation of state of fundamental elementary matter. Neutron star mergers represent optimal astrophysical laboratories to investigate the QCD phase structure using a spectrogram of the post-merger phase of the emitted gravitational waves. These studies can be supplemented by observations from heavy ion collisions to possibly reach a conclusive picture on the QCD phase structure at high density and temperature. As gravitational waves (GWs) emitted from merging neutron star binaries are on the verge of their first detection, it is important to understand the main characteristics of the underlying merging system in order to predict the expected GW signal. Based on numerical-relativity simulations of merging neutron star binaries, the emitted GW and the interior structure of the generated hypermassive neutron stars (HMNS) have been analyzed in detail. This article will focus on the internal and rotational HMNS properties and their connection with the emitted GW signal. Especially, the appearance of the hadon-quark phase transition in the interior region of the HMNS and its conjunction with the spectral properties of the emitted GW will be addressed and confronted with the simulation results of high energy heavy ion collisions.

  4. Observation of correlated atom pairs in spontaneous four wave mixing of two colliding Bose-Einstein condensates; Observation de paires d'atomes correles au travers de la collision de deux condensats de Bose-Einstein

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, A

    2007-11-15

    In this thesis, we report on the observation of pairs of correlated atoms produced in the collision of two Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium. Three laser beams perform a Raman transfer which extracts the condensate from the magnetic trap and separates it into two parts with opposite mean momenta. While the condensates propagate, elastic scattering of pairs of atoms occurs, whose momenta satisfy energy and momentum conservation laws. Metastable helium atoms large internal energy allows the use of a position-sensitive, single-atom detector which permits a three-dimensional reconstruction of the scattered atoms'momenta. The statistics of these momenta show correlations for atoms with opposite momenta. The measured correlation volume can be understood from the uncertainty-limited momentum spread of the colliding condensates. This interpretation is confirmed by the observation of the momentum correlation function for two atoms scattered in the same direction. This latter effect is a manifestation of the Hanbury Brown-Twiss effect for indistinguishable bosons. Such a correlated-atom-pair source is a first step towards experiments in which one would like to confirm the pairs'entanglement. (author)

  5. A reactant-coordinate-based wave packet method for full-dimensional state-to-state quantum dynamics of tetra-atomic reactions: Application to both the abstraction and exchange channels in the H + H2O reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2016-02-14

    An efficient and accurate wave packet method is proposed for the calculation of the state-to-state S-matrix elements in bimolecular reactions involving four atoms. This approach propagates an initial state specific wave packet in reactant Jacobi coordinates. The projection in product channels is carried out on projection planes, which have one less degree of freedom, by transforming both the time-dependent wave packet and final product states into a set of intermediate coordinates. This reactant-coordinate-based method is more efficient than product-coordinate-based methods because it typically requires a smaller number of basis functions or grid points and allows the determination of S-matrix elements for multiple product channels from a single propagation. This method is demonstrated in calculating the (Jtot = 0) state-to-state S-matrix elements for both the abstraction and exchange channels of the H + H2O reaction.

  6. Universal diffraction of atoms and molecules from a quantum reflection grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bum Suk; Zhang, Weiqing; Schöllkopf, Wieland

    2016-03-01

    Since de Broglie's work on the wave nature of particles, various optical phenomena have been observed with matter waves of atoms and molecules. However, the analogy between classical and atom/molecule optics is not exact because of different dispersion relations. In addition, according to de Broglie's formula, different combinations of particle mass and velocity can give the same de Broglie wavelength. As a result, even for identical wavelengths, different molecular properties such as electric polarizabilities, Casimir-Polder forces, and dissociation energies modify (and potentially suppress) the resulting matter-wave optical phenomena such as diffraction intensities or interference effects. We report on the universal behavior observed in matter-wave diffraction of He atoms and He2 and D2 molecules from a ruled grating. Clear evidence for emerging beam resonances is observed in the diffraction patterns, which are quantitatively the same for all three particles and only depend on the de Broglie wavelength. A model, combining secondary scattering and quantum reflection, permits us to trace the observed universal behavior back to the peculiar principles of quantum reflection.

  7. Underground atom gradiometer array for mass distribution monitoring and advanced geodesy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canuel, B.

    2015-12-01

    After more than 20 years of fundamental research, atom interferometers have reached sensitivity and accuracy levels competing with or beating inertial sensors based on different technologies. Atom interferometers offer interesting applications in geophysics (gravimetry, gradiometry, Earth rotation rate measurements), inertial sensing (submarine or aircraft autonomous positioning), metrology (new definition of the kilogram) and fundamental physics (tests of the standard model, tests of general relativity). Atom interferometers already contributed significantly to fundamental physics by, for example, providing stringent constraints on quantum-electrodynamics through measurements of the hyperfine structure constant, testing the Equivalence Principle with cold atoms, or providing new measurements for the Newtonian gravitational constant. Cold atom sensors have moreover been established as key instruments in metrology for the new definition of the kilogram or through international comparisons of gravimeters. The field of atom interferometry (AI) is now entering a new phase where very high sensitivity levels must be demonstrated, in order to enlarge the potential applications outside atomic physics laboratories. These applications range from gravitational wave (GW) detection in the [0.1-10 Hz] frequency band to next generation ground and space-based Earth gravity field studies to precision gyroscopes and accelerometers. The Matter-wave laser Interferometric Gravitation Antenna (MIGA) presented here is a large-scale matter-wave sensor which will open new applications in geoscience and fundamental physics. The MIGA consortium gathers 18 expert French laboratories and companies in atomic physics, metrology, optics, geosciences and gravitational physics, with the aim to build a large-scale underground atom-interferometer instrument by 2018 and operate it till at least 2023. In this paper, we present the main objectives of the project, the status of the construction of the

  8. Wave Solutions

    CERN Document Server

    Christov, Ivan C

    2012-01-01

    In classical continuum physics, a wave is a mechanical disturbance. Whether the disturbance is stationary or traveling and whether it is caused by the motion of atoms and molecules or the vibration of a lattice structure, a wave can be understood as a specific type of solution of an appropriate mathematical equation modeling the underlying physics. Typical models consist of partial differential equations that exhibit certain general properties, e.g., hyperbolicity. This, in turn, leads to the possibility of wave solutions. Various analytical techniques (integral transforms, complex variables, reduction to ordinary differential equations, etc.) are available to find wave solutions of linear partial differential equations. Furthermore, linear hyperbolic equations with higher-order derivatives provide the mathematical underpinning of the phenomenon of dispersion, i.e., the dependence of a wave's phase speed on its wavenumber. For systems of nonlinear first-order hyperbolic equations, there also exists a general ...

  9. Relic gravity waves and 7 keV dark matter from a GeV scale inflaton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.L. Bezrukov

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We study the mechanism of generation of 7 keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM in the model with light inflaton χ, which serves as a messenger of scale invariance breaking. In this model the inflaton, in addition to providing reheating to the Standard Model (SM particles, decays directly into sterile neutrinos. The latter are responsible for the active neutrino oscillations via seesaw type I mechanism. While the two sterile neutrinos may also produce the lepton asymmetry in the primordial plasma and hence explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the third one being the lightest may be of 7 keV and serve as DM. For this mechanism to work, the mass of the inflaton is bound to be light (0.1–1 GeV and uniquely determines its properties, which allows to test the model. For particle physics experiments these are: inflaton lifetime (10−5–10−12 s, branching ratio of B-meson to kaon and inflaton (10−6–10−4 and inflaton branching ratios into light SM particles like it would be for the SM Higgs boson of the same mass. For cosmological experiments these are: spectral index of scalar perturbations (ns≃0.957–0.967, and amount of tensor perturbations produced at inflation (tensor-to-scalar ratio r≃0.15–0.005.

  10. Relic Gravity Waves and 7 keV Dark Matter from a GeV scale inflaton

    CERN Document Server

    Bezrukov, F.

    2014-09-07

    We study the mechanism of generation of 7 keV sterile neutrino Dark Matter (DM) in the model with light inflaton $\\chi$, which serves as a messenger of scale invariance breaking. In this model the inflaton, in addition to providing reheating to the Standard Model (SM) particles, decays directly into sterile neutrinos. The latter are responsible for the active neutrino oscillations via seesaw type I like formula. While the two sterile neutrinos may also produce the lepton asymmetry in the primordial plasma and hence explain the baryon asymmetry of the Universe, the third one being the lightest may be of 7 keV and serve as DM. For this mechanism to work, the mass of the inflaton is bound to be light (0.1-1 GeV) and uniquely determines its properties, which allows to test the model. For particle physics experiments these are: inflaton lifetime ($10^{-5}-10^{-12}$ s), partial decay width of B-meson to kaon and inflaton ($10^{-6}-10^{-4}$) and inflaton branching ratios into light SM particles like it would be for ...

  11. Antireflection coating of barriers to enhance electron tunnelling: exploring the matter wave analogy of superluminal optical phase velocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Zijun C; McKenzie, David R

    2017-10-06

    The tunnelling of electrons through barriers is important in field emission sources and in interconnects within electronic devices. Here we use the analogy between the electromagnetic wave equation and the Schrodinger equation to find potential barriers that, when added before an existing barrier, increase the transmission probability. A single pre-barrier of negative potential behaves as a dielectric "antireflection coating", as previously reported. However, we obtain an unexpected and much greater enhancement of transmission when the pre-barrier has a positive potential of height smaller than the energy of the incident electron, an unfamiliar optical case, corresponding to media with superluminal phase velocities as in dilute free electron media and anomalous dispersion at X-ray frequencies. We use a finite difference time domain algorithm to evaluate the transmission through a triangular field emission barrier with a pre-barrier that meets the new condition. We show that the transmission is enhanced for an incident wavepacket, producing a larger field emission current than for an uncoated barrier. Examples are given of available materials to enhance transmission in practical applications. The results are significant for showing how to increase electron transmission in field emission and at interconnects between dissimilar materials in all types of electronic devices.

  12. ASTROPHYSICS. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P; Jaffe, M; Haslinger, P; Simmons, Q; Müller, H; Khoury, J

    2015-08-21

    If dark energy, which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe, consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, we reduced the screening mechanism by probing the field with individual atoms rather than with bulk matter. We thereby constrained a wide class of dark energy theories, including a range of chameleon and other theories that reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  13. Determination of barium, chromium, cadmium, manganese, lead and zinc in atmospheric particulate matter by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boevski, I. V.; Daskalova, N.; Havezov, I.

    2000-11-01

    The present paper has shown that the Q concept, as proposed by P.W.J.M. Boumans, J.J.A.M. Vrakking, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 43 (1988) 69, can be used as a basic methodology in the determination of Ba, Cr, Cd, Mn, Pb and Zn in pairs of atmospheric particles by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The data base of Q values for line interference [ QIj(λ a)] and Q values for wing background interference [ QWJ(Δλ a)] were obtained in our former work [N. Daskalova, Iv. Boevski, Spectral interferences in the determination of trace elements in environmental materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry, Spectrochim. Acta Part B 54 (1999) 1099-1122]. The samples of atmospheric particles were collected by the Bergerhoff method. The ICP-AES determination was performed after sample digestion with aqua regia. Q values were used for the calculation of both the total interfering signal under the analysis lines and the true detection limits, depending on the matrix constituents in the different samples. Comparative data for the concentration of analytes were obtained by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and direct current arc atomic emission spectrographic method (dc arc-AES).

  14. Calculation of the state-to-state S-matrix for tetra-atomic reactions with transition-state wave packets: H₂/D₂ + OH → H/D + H₂O/HOD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bin; Sun, Zhigang; Guo, Hua

    2014-10-21

    This work is concerned with the calculation of state-to-state S-matrix elements for four-atom reactions using a recently proposed method based on the quantum transition-state theory. In this approach, the S-matrix elements are computed from the thermal flux cross-correlation functions obtained in both the reactant and product arrangement channels. Since transition-state wave packets are propagated with only single arrangement channels, the bases/grids required are significantly smaller than those needed in state-to-state approaches based on a single set of scattering coordinates. Furthermore, the propagation of multiple transition-state wave packets can be carried out in parallel. This method is demonstrated for the H2/D2 + OH → H/D + H2O/HOD reactions (J = 0) and the reaction probabilities are in excellent agreement with benchmark results.

  15. Entanglement and four-wave mixing effects in the dissipation-free nonlinear interaction of two photons at a single atom

    OpenAIRE

    Hofmann, Holger Friedrich; Kojima, Kunihiro; Takeuchi, Shigeki; Sasaki, Keiji

    2003-01-01

    We investigate the nonlinear interaction between two photons in a single-input pulse at an atomic two-level nonlinearity. A one-dimensional model for the propagation of light to and from the atom is used to describe the precise spatiotemporal coherence of the two-photon state. It is shown that the interaction generates spatiotemporal entanglement in the output state similar to the entanglement observed in parametric down-conversion. A method of generating photon pairs from coherent pump light...

  16. Tunable topological phases with fermionic atoms in a one-dimensional flux lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Y.; Lü, R.; You, L.

    2017-10-01

    We present a simple scheme for implementing a one-dimensional (1D) magnetic-flux lattice of ultracold fermionic spin-1/2 atoms. The resulting tight-binding model supports gapped and gapless topological phases and chiral currents for Meissner and vortex phases. Its single-particle spectra exhibit topological flat bands at small flux, and the flatness sensitively depends on hopping strength. An effective p -wave interaction arises in a s -wave paired superfluid. Treating atomic internal states as forming a synthetic dimension and balancing the interplay of magnetic flux and Zeeman field, our model describes a tunable topological Fermi superfluid, which paves the way towards experimental explorations of non-Abelian topological matter in 1D atomic quantum gases.

  17. Ultracold bosonic atoms in two-colour superlattices

    CERN Document Server

    Roth, R

    2003-01-01

    The influence of disorder on ultracold atomic Bose gases in optical lattices is discussed in the framework of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. It is shown that simple periodic modulations of the well depths generate a rich phase diagram consisting of superfluid, Mott insulator, Bose glass (BG) and spatially localized phases. The detailed evolution of mean occupation numbers and number fluctuations as function of modulation amplitude and interaction strength is discussed. Finally, the signatures of the different phases, especially of the BG phase, in matter-wave interference experiments are investigated.

  18. Atomic homodyne detection of continuous-variable entangled twin-atom states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C; Strobel, H; Nicklas, E; Zibold, T; Bar-Gill, N; Kurizki, G; Oberthaler, M K

    2011-11-30

    Historically, the completeness of quantum theory has been questioned using the concept of bipartite continuous-variable entanglement. The non-classical correlations (entanglement) between the two subsystems imply that the observables of one subsystem are determined by the measurement choice on the other, regardless of the distance between the subsystems. Nowadays, continuous-variable entanglement is regarded as an essential resource, allowing for quantum enhanced measurement resolution, the realization of quantum teleportation and quantum memories, or the demonstration of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox. These applications rely on techniques to manipulate and detect coherences of quantum fields, the quadratures. Whereas in optics coherent homodyne detection of quadratures is a standard technique, for massive particles a corresponding method was missing. Here we report the realization of an atomic analogue to homodyne detection for the measurement of matter-wave quadratures. The application of this technique to a quantum state produced by spin-changing collisions in a Bose-Einstein condensate reveals continuous-variable entanglement, as well as the twin-atom character of the state. Our results provide a rare example of continuous-variable entanglement of massive particles. The direct detection of atomic quadratures has applications not only in experimental quantum atom optics, but also for the measurement of fields in many-body systems of massive particles.

  19. Time-dependent wave packet theory for state-to-state differential cross sections of four-atom reactions in full dimensions: application to the HD + OH → H2O + D reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Xu, Xin; Zhang, Dong H

    2012-04-14

    Time-dependent wave packet method has been developed to calculate differential cross section for four-atom reactions in full dimension, utilizing an improved version of reactant-product-decoupling scheme. Differential cross sections for the title reaction were calculated for collision energy up to 0.4 eV. It is found that the differential cross sections for the reaction are all peaked in the backward direction. The majority of H(2)O is produced in the first stretch excited state, with a large fraction of available energy for the reaction going into H(2)O internal motion. As compared in a previous report by Xiao et al. [Science 333, 440 (2011)], the differential cross section at E(c) = 0.3 eV and the differential cross section at the backward direction as a function of collision energy agree with experiment very well, indicating it is possible now to calculate complete dynamical information for some simple four-atom reactions, as have been done for three-atom reactions in the past decades.

  20. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1998-01-01

    This volume continues the series'' cutting-edge reviews on developments in this field. Since its invention in the 1920s, electrostatic precipitation has been extensively used in industrial hygiene to remove dust and particulate matter from gases before entering the atmosphere. This combination of electrostatic precipitation is reported upon in the first chapter. Following this, chapter two reviews recent advances in the area of chemical modification in electrothermal atomization. Chapter three consists of a review which deal with advances and uses of electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry. Flow injection atomic spectroscopy has developed rapidly in recent years and after a general introduction, various aspects of this technique are looked at in chapter four. Finally, in chapter five the use of various spectrometric techniques for the determination of mercury are described.

  1. Laser Cooling of Neutral Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-12-01

    wave monochromatic field interactint, with the atomic beam, the above assumption is justified. If the external field is a standing wave, and the atomo ...Substitute for the time derivatives using Schrodingers wave equation and perform some algebra to obtain, Integrate over the second term by parts twice...exponents into sin’s and cos’s. Calculating the indicated magnitude is tedious but straightforward. The real and imaginary parts of the equation are squared

  2. Solitons in nuclear matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurilkin, N.N.; Mishustin, I.N.; Khodel' , V.A.

    1979-10-05

    The propagation of finite-amplitude waves in cold nuclear matter is investigated. It is shown that by taking into account the nonlinear terms in the equations for the Fermi-liquid theory, we obtain elongated wave-soliton-type solutions.

  3. Structure formation in atom lithography using geometric collimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, T.; Beardmore, J.P.; Fabrie, C.G.C.H.M.; van Lieshout, J.P.; Notermans, R.P.M.J.W.; Sang, R.T.; Vredenbregt, E.J.D.; Van Leeuwen, K.A.H.

    2011-01-01

    Atom lithography uses standing wave light fields as arrays of lenses to focus neutral atom beams into line patterns on a substrate. Laser cooled atom beams are commonly used, but an atom beam source with a small opening placed at a large distance from a substrate creates atom beams which are locally

  4. Bose-Einstein-condensed scalar field dark matter and the gravitational wave background from inflation: New cosmological constraints and its detectability by LIGO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bohua; Shapiro, Paul R.; Rindler-Daller, Tanja

    2017-09-01

    We consider an alternative to weakly interacting massive particle (WIMP) cold dark matter (CDM)—ultralight bosonic dark matter (m ≳10-22 eV /c2) described by a complex scalar field (SFDM) with a global U (1 ) symmetry—for which the comoving particle number density or charge density is conserved after particle production during standard reheating. We allow for a repulsive self-interaction. In a Λ SFDM universe, SFDM starts out relativistic, evolving from stiff (w =1 ) to radiation-like (w =1 /3 ), before becoming nonrelativistic at late times (w =0 ). Thus, before the familiar radiation-dominated era, there is an earlier era of stiff-SFDM domination. During both the stiff-SFDM-dominated and radiation-dominated eras, the expansion rate is higher than in Λ CDM . The SFDM particle mass m and quartic self-interaction coupling strength λ are therefore constrained by cosmological observables, particularly Neff, the effective number of neutrino species during big bang nucleosynthesis, and zeq, the redshift of matter-radiation equality. Furthermore, since the stochastic gravitational-wave background (SGWB) from inflation is amplified during the stiff-SFDM-dominated era, it can contribute a radiation-like component large enough to affect these observables by further boosting the expansion rate after the stiff era ends. Remarkably, this same amplification makes detection of the SGWB possible at high frequencies by current laser interferometer experiments, e.g., aLIGO/Virgo and LISA. For SFDM particle parameters that satisfy these cosmological constraints, the amplified SGWB is detectable by LIGO for a broad range of reheat temperatures Treheat, for values of the tensor-to-scalar ratio r currently allowed by cosmic microwave background polarization measurements. For a given r and λ /(m c2)2, the marginally allowed Λ SFDM model for each Treheat has the smallest m that satisfies the cosmological constraints, and maximizes the present SGWB energy density for that

  5. All-Atom Molecular-Level Computational Analyses of Polyurea/Fused-Silica Interfacial Decohesion Caused by Impinging Tensile Stress-Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Interfacial decohesion, Reactive forcefields Paper type Research paper International Journal of Structural Integrity Vol. 5 No. 4, 2014 pp. 339-367 © Emerald ...interaction was conducted to provide additional insight into the outcome of the stress-wave/interface interactions. 4. Results and discussion The main emphasis

  6. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  7. Resonant control of cold-atom transport through two optical lattices with a constant relative speed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, M. T.; Balanov, A. G.; Fromhold, T. M.

    2013-01-01

    We show theoretically that the dynamics of cold atoms in the lowest-energy band of a stationary optical lattice can be transformed and controlled by a second, weaker, periodic potential moving at a constant speed along the axis of the stationary lattice. The atom trajectories exhibit complex behavior, which depends sensitively on the amplitude and speed of the propagating lattice. When the speed and amplitude of the moving potential are low, the atoms are dragged through the static lattice and perform drifting orbits with frequencies an order of magnitude higher than that corresponding to the moving potential. Increasing either the speed or amplitude of the moving lattice induces Bloch-like oscillations within the energy band of the static lattice, which exhibit complex resonances at critical values of the system parameters. In some cases, a very small change in these parameters can reverse the atom's direction of motion. In order to understand these dynamics we present an analytical model, which describes the key features of the atom transport and also accurately predicts the positions of the resonant features in the atom's phase space. The abrupt controllable transitions between dynamical regimes, as well as the associated set of resonances, provide a mechanism for transporting atoms between precise locations in a lattice, as required for using cold atoms to simulate condensed matter or as a stepping stone to quantum information processing. The system also provides a direct quantum simulator of acoustic waves propagating through semiconductor nanostructures in sound analogs of the optical laser (saser).

  8. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.

    2005-01-01

    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  9. Inelastic scattering of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluids

    CERN Document Server

    Pshenichnyuk, I A

    2016-01-01

    We study inelastic interactions of particles with quantized vortices in superfluids by using a semi-classical matter wave theory that is analogous to the Landau two-fluid equations, but allows for the vortex dynamics. The research is motivated by recent experiments on xenon doped helium nanodroplets that show clustering of the impurities along the vortex cores. We numerically simulate the dynamics of trapping and interactions of xenon atoms by quantized vortices in superfluid helium and the obtained results can be extended to scattering of other impurities by quantized vortices. Different energies and impact parameters of incident particles are considered. We show that inelastic scattering is closely linked to the generation of Kelvin waves along a quantized vortex during the interaction even if there is no capture. The capture criterion of an impurity is formulated in terms of the binding energy.

  10. Physics of waves

    CERN Document Server

    Elmore, William C

    1985-01-01

    Because of the increasing demands and complexity of undergraduate physics courses (atomic, quantum, solid state, nuclear, etc.), it is often impossible to devote separate courses to the classic wave phenomena of optics, acoustics, and electromagnetic radiation. This brief comprehensive text helps alleviate the problem with a unique overview of classical wave theory in one volume.By examining a sequence of concrete and specific examples (emphasizing the physics of wave motion), the authors unify the study of waves, developing abstract and general features common to all wave motion. The fundam

  11. Optical angular momentum and atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franke-Arnold, Sonja

    2017-02-28

    Any coherent interaction of light and atoms needs to conserve energy, linear momentum and angular momentum. What happens to an atom's angular momentum if it encounters light that carries orbital angular momentum (OAM)? This is a particularly intriguing question as the angular momentum of atoms is quantized, incorporating the intrinsic spin angular momentum of the individual electrons as well as the OAM associated with their spatial distribution. In addition, a mechanical angular momentum can arise from the rotation of the entire atom, which for very cold atoms is also quantized. Atoms therefore allow us to probe and access the quantum properties of light's OAM, aiding our fundamental understanding of light-matter interactions, and moreover, allowing us to construct OAM-based applications, including quantum memories, frequency converters for shaped light and OAM-based sensors.This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'. © 2017 The Author(s).

  12. Ludwig Boltzmann: Atomic genius

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cercignani, C. [Department of Mathematics, Politecnico di Milano (Italy)]. E-mail: carcer@mate.polimi.it

    2006-09-15

    On the centenary of the death of Ludwig Boltzmann, Carlo Cercignani examines the immense contributions of the man who pioneered our understanding of the atomic nature of matter. The man who first gave a convincing explanation of the irreversibility of the macroscopic world and the symmetry of the laws of physics was the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann, who tragically committed suicide 100 years ago this month. One of the key figures in the development of the atomic theory of matter, Boltzmann's fame will be forever linked to two fundamental contributions to science. The first was his interpretation of 'entropy' as a mathematically well-defined measure of the disorder of atoms. The second was his derivation of what is now known as the Boltzmann equation, which describes the statistical properties of a gas as made up of molecules. The equation, which described for the first time how a probability can evolve with time, allowed Boltzmann to explain why macroscopic phenomena are irreversible. The key point is that while microscopic objects like atoms can behave reversibly, we never see broken coffee cups reforming because it would involve a long series of highly improbable interactions - and not because it is forbidden by the laws of physics. (U.K.)

  13. Pulsars and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K. J.; Xu, R. X.; Qiao, G. J.

    2010-04-01

    The relationship between pulsar-like compact stars and gravitational waves is briefly reviewed. Due to regular spins, pulsars could be useful tools for us to detect ~nano-Hz low-frequency gravitational waves by pulsar-timing array technique; besides, they would also be ~kilo-Hz high-frequency gravitational wave radiators because of their compactness. The wave strain of an isolated pulsar depends on the equation state of cold matter at supra-nuclear densities. Therefore, a real detection of gravitational wave should be very meaningful in gravity physics, micro-theory of elementary strong interaction, and astronomy.

  14. Early Atomism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/015/10/0905-0925. Keywords. Atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; atomic weights; periodic table; valence; molecular weights; molecular formula; isomerism. Author Affiliations. S Ramasesha1. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  15. Atom localization in 2D for five-level atomic schemes in X-configuration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raheli, Ali; Hamedi, H. R.; Sahrai, M.

    2015-09-01

    A five-level X-type atomic scheme is proposed to elucidate the two-dimensional (2D) atom localization in sub-wavelength domain by using different coupling situations of the atom with standing wave fields. The scheme is a mixture of two upper V- and lower Λ -type usual three level systems which both are connected at a common intermediate level. The combination of the upper and lower systems can lead to different atom localization patterns as lattice-, chain-, crater-, wave-, and spike-like structures. We discuss how these structures may depend on different coupling conditions of the atom with the standing wave fields. Finally, an experimental implementation for such an atomic model is presented using the 87Rb atoms.

  16. Sixteenth International Conference on the physics of electronic and atomic collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalgarno, A.; Freund, R.S.; Lubell, M.S.; Lucatorto, T.B. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report contains abstracts of papers on the following topics: photons, electron-atom collisions; electron-molecule collisions; electron-ion collisions; collisions involving exotic species; ion- atom collisions, ion-molecule or atom-molecule collisions; atom-atom collisions; ion-ion collisions; collisions involving rydberg atoms; field assisted collisions; collisions involving clusters and collisions involving condensed matter.

  17. Imaging Shock Waves in Diamond with Both High Temporal and Spatial Resolution at an XFEL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schropp, Andreas; Hoppe, Robert; Meier, Vivienne; Patommel, Jens; Seiboth, Frank; Ping, Yuan; Hicks, Damien G; Beckwith, Martha A; Collins, Gilbert W; Higginbotham, Andrew; Wark, Justin S; Lee, Hae Ja; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric C; Arnold, Brice; Zastrau, Ulf; Hastings, Jerome B; Schroer, Christian G

    2015-06-18

    The advent of hard x-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) has opened up a variety of scientific opportunities in areas as diverse as atomic physics, plasma physics, nonlinear optics in the x-ray range, and protein crystallography. In this article, we access a new field of science by measuring quantitatively the local bulk properties and dynamics of matter under extreme conditions, in this case by using the short XFEL pulse to image an elastic compression wave in diamond. The elastic wave was initiated by an intense optical laser pulse and was imaged at different delay times after the optical pump pulse using magnified x-ray phase-contrast imaging. The temporal evolution of the shock wave can be monitored, yielding detailed information on shock dynamics, such as the shock velocity, the shock front width, and the local compression of the material. The method provides a quantitative perspective on the state of matter in extreme conditions.

  18. Using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) to probe the local structural aspects of charge-density-wave (CDW) state in complex materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjeong; Bozin, Emil; Malliakas, Christos; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Billinge, Simon; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Gutmann, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    The atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis [1], based on total scattering approach, is used to study the CDW state, one of the fundamental broken-symmetry ground-states of metals, commonly found in complex materials. Incommensurate CDW (IC-CDW) found in 2-D tellurium square-net in CeTe3 is a simple single-q CDW driven by Fermi-surface nesting. Our recent PDF study on local distortions in CeTe3 suggests that the IC-CDW in CeTe3 at 300K consists of commensurate CDW domains separated by discommensurations, rather than being a uniform incommensurate CDW as seen crystallographically [2]. Recent PDF results of a study of the local Peierls distortions in isostructural compounds SmTe3 and HoTe3 will be presented. The PDF analysis has also been extended to probe the CDW state in K doped BaBiO3, and a report on the current state of this study will be provided. [1] T. Egami & S. J. L. Billinge, Underneath the Bragg Peaks: Structural Analysis of Complex Materials, Pergamon Press Elsevier, Oxford, England, 2003 [2] H. J. Kim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226401 (2006)

  19. Uniform Fe3O4 coating on flower-like ZnO nanostructures by atomic layer deposition for electromagnetic wave absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Gengping; Wang, Guizhen; Huang, Xianqin; Zhao, Haonan; Li, Xinyue; Wang, Kan; Yu, Lei; Peng, Xiange; Qin, Yong

    2015-11-21

    An elegant atomic layer deposition (ALD) method has been employed for controllable preparation of a uniform Fe3O4-coated ZnO (ZnO@Fe3O4) core-shell flower-like nanostructure. The Fe3O4 coating thickness of the ZnO@Fe3O4 nanostructure can be tuned by varying the cycle number of ALD Fe2O3. When serving as additives for microwave absorption, the ZnO@Fe3O4-paraffin composites exhibit a higher absorption capacity than the ZnO-paraffin composites. For ZnO@500-Fe3O4, the effective absorption bandwidth below -10 dB can reach 5.2 GHz and the RL values below -20 dB also cover a wide frequency range of 11.6-14.2 GHz when the coating thickness is 2.3 mm, suggesting its potential application in the treatment of the electromagnetic pollution problem. On the basis of experimental observations, a mechanism has been proposed to understand the enhanced microwave absorption properties of the ZnO@Fe3O4 composites.

  20. A compact and robust diode laser system for atom interferometry on a sounding rocket

    CERN Document Server

    Schkolnik, V; Wenzlawski, A; Grosse, J; Kohfeldt, A; Döringshoff, K; Wicht, A; Windpassinger, P; Sengstock, K; Braxmaier, C; Krutzik, M; Peters, A

    2016-01-01

    We present a diode laser system optimized for laser cooling and atom interferometry with ultra-cold rubidium atoms aboard sounding rockets as an important milestone towards space-borne quantum sensors. Design, assembly and qualification of the system, combing micro-integrated distributed feedback (DFB) diode laser modules and free space optical bench technology is presented in the context of the MAIUS (Matter-wave Interferometry in Microgravity) mission. This laser system, with a volume of 21 liters and total mass of 27 kg, passed all qualification tests for operation on sounding rockets and is currently used in the integrated MAIUS flight system producing Bose-Einstein condensates and performing atom interferometry based on Bragg diffraction. The MAIUS payload is being prepared for launch in fall 2016. We further report on a reference laser system, comprising a rubidium stabilized DFB laser, which was operated successfully on the TEXUS 51 mission in April 2015. The system demonstrated a high level of technol...

  1. Precision measurements with atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Christian; Abend, Sven; Schlippert, Dennis; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2017-04-01

    Interferometry with matter waves enables precise measurements of rotations, accelerations, and differential accelerations [1-5]. This is exploited for determining fundamental constants [2], in fundamental science as e.g. testing the universality of free fall [3], and is applied for gravimetry [4], and gravity gradiometry [2,5]. At the Institut für Quantenoptik in Hannover, different approaches are pursued. A large scale device is designed and currently being set up to investigate the gain in precision for gravimetry, gradiometry, and fundamental tests on large baselines [6]. For field applications, a compact and transportable device is being developed. Its key feature is an atom chip source providing a collimated high flux of atoms which is expected to mitigate systematic uncertainties [7,8]. The atom chip technology and miniaturization benefits from microgravity experiments in the drop tower in Bremen and sounding rocket experiments [8,9] which act as pathfinders for space borne operation [10]. This contribution will report about our recent results. The presented work is supported by the CRC 1227 DQ-mat, the CRC 1128 geo-Q, the RTG 1729, the QUEST-LFS, and by the German Space Agency (DLR) with funds provided by the Federal Ministry of Economic Affairs and Energy (BMWi) due to an enactment of the German Bundestag under Grant No. DLR 50WM1552-1557. [1] P. Berg et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 114, 063002, 2015; I. Dutta et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 116, 183003, 2016. [2] J. B. Fixler et al., Science 315, 74 (2007); G. Rosi et al., Nature 510, 518, 2014. [3] D. Schlippert et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 112, 203002, 2014. [4] A. Peters et al., Nature 400, 849, 1999; A. Louchet-Chauvet et al., New J. Phys. 13, 065026, 2011; C. Freier et al., J. of Phys.: Conf. Series 723, 012050, 2016. [5] J. M. McGuirk et al., Phys. Rev. A 65, 033608, 2002; P. Asenbaum et al., arXiv:1610.03832. [6] J. Hartwig et al., New J. Phys. 17, 035011, 2015. [7] H. Ahlers et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 116, 173601

  2. Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Nagourney, Warren

    2010-01-01

    Quantum Electronics for Atomic Physics provides a course in quantum electronics for researchers in atomic physics. The book covers the usual topics, such as Gaussian beams, cavities, lasers, nonlinear optics and modulation techniques, but also includes a number of areas not usually found in a textbook on quantum electronics. It includes such practical matters as the enhancement of nonlinear processes in a build-up cavity, impedance matching into a cavity, laser frequencystabilization (including servomechanism theory), astigmatism in ring cavities, and atomic/molecular spectroscopic techniques

  3. Atomic spectroscopy and radiative processes

    CERN Document Server

    Landi Degl'Innocenti, Egidio

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the basic physical principles of atomic spectroscopy and the absorption and emission of radiation in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas. It summarizes the basics of electromagnetism and thermodynamics and then describes in detail the theory of atomic spectra for complex atoms, with emphasis on astrophysical applications. Both equilibrium and non-equilibrium phenomena in plasmas are considered. The interaction between radiation and matter is described, together with various types of radiation (e.g., cyclotron, synchrotron, bremsstrahlung, Compton). The basic theory of polarization is explained, as is the theory of radiative transfer for astrophysical applications. Atomic Spectroscopy and Radiative Processes bridges the gap between basic books on atomic spectroscopy and the very specialized publications for the advanced researcher: it will provide under- and postgraduates with a clear in-depth description of theoretical aspects, supported by practical examples of applications.

  4. Engineering Matter Interactions Using Squeezed Vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Zeytinoğlu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtually all interactions that are relevant for atomic and condensed matter physics are mediated by quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field vacuum. Consequently, controlling the vacuum fluctuations can be used to engineer the strength and the range of interactions. Recent experiments have used this premise to demonstrate novel quantum phases or entangling gates by embedding electric dipoles in photonic cavities or wave guides, which modify the electromagnetic fluctuations. Here, we show theoretically that the enhanced fluctuations in the antisqueezed quadrature of a squeezed vacuum state allow for engineering interactions between electric dipoles without the need for a photonic structure. Thus, the strength and range of the interactions can be engineered in a time-dependent way by changing the spatial profile of the squeezed vacuum in a traveling-wave geometry, which also allows the implementation of chiral dissipative interactions. Using experimentally realized squeezing parameters and including realistic losses, we predict single-atom cooperativities C of up to 10 for the squeezed-vacuum-enhanced interactions.

  5. Matter: the fundamental particles

    CERN Multimedia

    Landua, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    "The largest particle physics centre in the world is located in Europe. It straddles the Franco-Swiss border, near Geneva. At CERN - the European Organisation for Nuclear Research , which is focused on the science of nuclear matter rather than on the exploitation of atomic energy - there are over 6 500 scientists." (1 page)

  6. Atomism from Newton to Dalton.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Robert E.

    1981-01-01

    Indicates that although Newton's achievements were rooted in an atomistic theory of matter resembling aspects of modern nuclear physics, Dalton developed his chemical atomism on the basis of the character of the gross behavior of substances rather than their particulate nature. (Author/SK)

  7. A Terrestrial Search for Dark Contents of the Vacuum, Such as Dark Energy, Using Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Ronald J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /San Francisco State U.; Muller, Holger; /UC, Berkeley; Perl, Martin L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    We describe the theory and first experimental work on our concept for searching on earth for the presence of dark contents of the vacuum (DCV) using atom interferometry. Specifically, we have in mind any DCV that has not yet been detected on a laboratory scale, but which might manifest itself as dark energy on the cosmological scale. The experimental method uses two atom interferometers to cancel the effect of earth's gravity and diverse noise sources. It depends upon two assumptions: first, that the DCV possesses some space inhomogeneity in density, and second that it exerts a sufficiently strong nongravitational force on matter. The motion of the apparatus through the DCV should then lead to an irregular variation in the detected matter-wave phase shift. We discuss the nature of this signal and note the problem of distinguishing it from instrumental noise. We also discuss the relation of our experiment to what might be learned by studying the noise in gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO. The paper concludes with a projection that a future search of this nature might be carried out using an atom interferometer in an orbiting satellite. The laboratory apparatus is now being constructed.

  8. Spectroscopy, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellman, Hal

    This booklet is one of the "Understanding the Atom" Series. The science of spectroscopy is presented by a number of topics dealing with (1) the uses of spectroscopy, (2) its origin and background, (3) the basic optical systems of spectroscopes, spectrometers, and spectrophotometers, (4) the characteristics of wave motion, (5) the…

  9. Quantum Crystals of Matter and Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donner, Tobias

    2017-04-01

    The coupling of a quantum gas to the field of an optical high-finesse cavity can be employed to induce global-range atom-atom interactions. If these are sufficiently strong, such a many-body system undergoes a structural phase transition. Introducing a 3D optical lattice to this system, the collisional short-range interactions can be brought to competition with these global-range interactions and ``at the same time'' with the zero-point motion of the particles. We explore a rich phase diagram hosting four distinct phases ``a superfluid, a lattice supersolid, a Mott insulator and a charge density wave. In a different experiment, we couple a superfluid cloud of atoms simultaneously to two intersecting optical cavities. This arrangement leads to symmetry enhancement and the resulting system exhibits a continuous spatial U(1)-symmetry. The combination of two continuous symmetries'' ``the gauge symmetry of the superfluid and the spatial symmetry'' is a prerequisite for a supersolid state of matter, which we explore in our experiments.

  10. Of Mind and (sub-atomic) Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Katarina Anthony

    2012-01-01

    There are medics in the Main Building: neuroscientists, neurosurgeons and psychiatrists to name but a few. In short, more doctors than most of us have ever seen outside of a university or a hospital. Not a typical scene for a laboratory focusing on physics rather than physiology, but one that became common during the two-day European Brain Council Meeting held at CERN this June.   “CERN’s collaborative, multicultural research environment is an extraordinary source of inspiration for the scientific community,” says Mary Baker, President of the European Brain Council (EBC). “It was the reason why we chose to hold our first Management meeting for ‘Age of the Brain’.  It was a wonderful opportunity for us and a great privilege to be invited.” Established in 2002, the European Brain Council seeks to improve the management of brain diseases by promoting research in Europe, and also to improve the quality of lif...

  11. Engineering matter interactions using squeezed vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytinoglu, Sina; Imamoglu, Atac; Huber, Sebastian

    Virtually all interactions that are relevant for atomic and condensed matter physics are mediated by the quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field vacuum. Consequently, controlling the latter can be used to engineer the strength and the range of inter-particle interactions. Recent experiments have used this premise to demonstrate novel quantum phases or entangling gates by embedding electric dipoles in photonic cavities or waveguides which modify the electromagnetic fluctuations. In this talk, we demonstrate theoretically that the enhanced fluctuations in the anti-squeezed quadrature of a squeezed vacuum state allows for engineering interactions between electric dipoles without the need for a photonic cavity or waveguide. Thus, the strength and range of the resulting dipole-dipole coupling can be engineered by dynamically changing the spatial profile of the squeezed vacuum in a travelling-wave geometry. ETH Zurich.

  12. Antihydrogen atoms may have been drifters

    CERN Multimedia

    Reich, Eugenie Samuel

    2003-01-01

    "It is a mystery of cosmic proportions: why is the universe filled with matter and not antimatter? Physicists hoping to find the answer have been left scratching their heads this week by an analysis which claims that some antihydrogen atoms created last year may not be normal antiatoms after all. Instead, they may sit on the blurry line between atoms and plasma" (1 page)

  13. Graphene a new paradigm in condensed matter and device physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wolf, E L

    2014-01-01

    The book is an introduction to the science and possible applications of Graphene, the first one-atom-thick crystalline form of matter. Discovered in 2004 by now Nobelists Geim and Novoselov, the single layer of graphite, a hexagonal network of carbon atoms, has astonishing electrical and mechanical properties. It supports the highest electrical current density of any material, far exceeding metals copper and silver. Its absolute minimum thickness, 0.34 nanometers, provides an inherent advantage in possible forms of digital electronics past the era of Moore's Law. The book describes the unusual physics of the material, that it offers linear rather than parabolic energy bands. The Dirac-like electron energy bands lead to high constant carrier speed, similar to light photons. The lattice symmetry further implies a two-component wave-function, which has a practical effect of cancelling direct backscattering of carriers. The resulting high carrier mobility allows observation of the Quantum Hall Effect at room temp...

  14. Robust Deterministic Controlled Phase-Flip Gate and Controlled-Not Gate Based on Atomic Ensembles Embedded in Double-Sided Optical Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, A.-Peng; Cheng, Liu-Yong; Guo, Qi; Zhang, Shou

    2018-02-01

    We first propose a scheme for controlled phase-flip gate between a flying photon qubit and the collective spin wave (magnon) of an atomic ensemble assisted by double-sided cavity quantum systems. Then we propose a deterministic controlled-not gate on magnon qubits with parity-check building blocks. Both the gates can be accomplished with 100% success probability in principle. Atomic ensemble is employed so that light-matter coupling is remarkably improved by collective enhancement. We assess the performance of the gates and the results show that they can be faithfully constituted with current experimental techniques.

  15. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH

    2014-01-01

    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  16. Spatial Multiplexing of Atom-Photon Entanglement Sources using Feedforward Control and Switching Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Long; Xu, Zhongxiao; Chen, Lirong; Ge, Wei; Yuan, Haoxiang; Wen, Yafei; Wang, Shengzhi; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai

    2017-09-01

    The light-matter quantum interface that can create quantum correlations or entanglement between a photon and one atomic collective excitation is a fundamental building block for a quantum repeater. The intrinsic limit is that the probability of preparing such nonclassical atom-photon correlations has to be kept low in order to suppress multiexcitation. To enhance this probability without introducing multiexcitation errors, a promising scheme is to apply multimode memories to the interface. Significant progress has been made in temporal, spectral, and spatial multiplexing memories, but the enhanced probability for generating the entangled atom-photon pair has not been experimentally realized. Here, by using six spin-wave-photon entanglement sources, a switching network, and feedforward control, we build a multiplexed light-matter interface and then demonstrate a ˜sixfold (˜fourfold ) probability increase in generating entangled atom-photon (photon-photon) pairs. The measured compositive Bell parameter for the multiplexed interface is 2.49 ±0.03 combined with a memory lifetime of up to ˜51 μ s .

  17. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic Power. By Denis Taylor: Dr. Taylor was formerly Chief UNESCO Advisor at the University. College, Nairobi, Kenya and is now Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Uni- versity of ... method of producing radioactive isotopes, which are materials .... the sealing and the pressure balancing, all can be carried out ...

  18. Sturmian approach to the study of photoionization of atoms and molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados Castro, Carlos Mario; Ancarani, Lorenzo Ugo; Gasaneo, Gustavo; Mitnik, Dario M.

    2013-09-01

    In this presentation we study the photoionization of atoms and molecules using ultrashort laser pulses, solving the time-independent Schrödinger equation (TISE) in a first order perturbation theory. The interaction laser-matter is described with the dipolar operator in the velocity gauge. Generalized Sturmian functions are used to solve the driven equation for a scattering wave function which includes all the information about the ionization problem. For the atomic case, we study the photoionization of He atom using the Hermann-Skillman potential together with the one-active electron approximation. For molecular systems (CH4 in this work), we use first a spherically symmetric potential Ui(r), and then a more realistic potential that includes all the nuclei and other electrons interaction, as in. For each molecular orbital we use Moccia's wave functions, solve the TISE with an initial molecular orbital i of the ground state and extract the corresponding photoionization cross sections. For both atomic and molecular systems we compare our results with previous calculations and available experimental data.

  19. NEW INTERPRETATION OF THE ATOMIC SPECTRA OF THE HYDROGEN ATOM: A MIXED MECHANISM OF CLASSICAL LC CIRCUITS AND QUANTUM WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY NUEVA INTERPRETACIÓN DEL ESPECTRO ATÓMICO DEL ÁTOMO DE HIDRÓGENO: UN MECANISMO MIXTO DE CIRCUITOS LC Y LA DUALIDAD ONDA CUÁNTICA-PARTÍCULA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we study the energy conversion laws of the macroscopic harmonic LC oscillator, the electromagnetic wave (photon and the hydrogen atom. As our analysis indicates, the energies of these apparently different systems obey exactly the same energy conversion law. Based on our results and the wave-particle duality of electrons, we find that the hydrogen atom is, in fact, a natural chiral microscopic LC oscillator. In the framework of classical electromagnetic field theory we analytically obtain, for the hydrogen atom, the quantized electron orbit radius , and quantized energy , (n = 1, 2, 3, · · ·, where is the Bohr radius and is the Rydberg constant. Without the adaptation of any other fundamental principles of quantum mechanics, we present a reasonable explanation of the polarization of photon, selection rules and Pauli exclusion principle. Our results also reveal an essential connection between electron spin and the intrinsic helical movement of electrons and indicate that the spin itself is the effect of quantum confinement.En este trabajo se presenta un estudio de las leyes macroscópicas de conversión de energía del oscilador armónico LC, la onda electromagnética (fotones y el átomo de hidrógeno. Como nuestro análisis indica, las energías de estos aparentemente diferentes sistemas obedecen exactamente la misma ley de conversión de la energía. Sobre la base de nuestros resultados y de la dualidad onda-partícula del electrón, nos encontramos con que el átomo de Hidrógeno, de hecho, es un oscilador LC microscópico naturalmente quiral. En el marco de la teoría clásica de campos electromagnéticos se obtiene analíticamente, para el átomo de hidrógeno, el radio cuantizado de la órbita electrónica , y la energía cuantizada , (n=1, 2, 3.., donde es el radio de Bohr, y es la constante de Rydberg. Sin la adaptación de otros principios fundamentales de la mecánica cuántica, se presenta una explicación razonable de

  20. Theory of Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Tiec, Alexandre Le

    2016-01-01

    The existence of gravitational radiation is a natural prediction of any relativistic description of the gravitational interaction. In this chapter, we focus on gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general theory of relativity. First, we introduce those mathematical concepts that are necessary to properly formulate the physical theory, such as the notions of manifold, vector, tensor, metric, connection and curvature. Second, we motivate, formulate and then discuss Einstein's equation, which relates the geometry of spacetime to its matter content. Gravitational waves are later introduced as solutions of the linearized Einstein equation around flat spacetime. These waves are shown to propagate at the speed of light and to possess two polarization states. Gravitational waves can interact with matter, allowing for their direct detection by means of laser interferometers. Finally, Einstein's quadrupole formulas are derived and used to show that nonspherical compact objects moving at relativistic speeds a...

  1. Early Atomism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    see, there is an enormous amount of information about the world, if just a little imagination and thinking are applied. { R P Feynman. 1. Divisibility of Matter. One of the earliest ... thinking until quantitative experiments were conducted, most notably by .... factors was Avo- gadro's geographical isolation from the chemistry com-.

  2. Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee Jae-Weon

    2018-01-01

    dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than galaxies the dark matter acts like cold dark matter, while below the scale quantum pressure from the uncertainty principle suppresses the smaller structure formation so that it can resolve the small scale crisis of the conventional cold dark matter model.

  3. Theoretical femtosecond physics atoms and molecules in strong laser fields

    CERN Document Server

    Grossmann, Frank

    2013-01-01

    Theoretical investigations of atoms and molecules interacting with pulsed or continuous wave lasers up to atomic field strengths on the order of 10^16 W/cm² are leading to an understanding of many challenging experimental discoveries. This book deals with the basics of femtosecond physics and goes up to the latest applications of new phenomena. The book presents an introduction to laser physics with mode-locking and pulsed laser operation. The solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation is discussed both analytically and numerically. The basis for the non-perturbative treatment of laser-matter interaction in the book is the numerical solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation. The light field is treated classically, and different possible gauges are discussed. Physical phenonema, ranging from Rabi-oscillations in two-level systems to the ionization of atoms, the generation of high harmonics, the ionization and dissociation of molecules as well as the control of chemical reactions are pre...

  4. Quantum Rabi model in the Brillouin zone with ultracold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felicetti, Simone; Rico, Enrique; Sabin, Carlos; Ockenfels, Till; Koch, Johannes; Leder, Martin; Grossert, Christopher; Weitz, Martin; Solano, Enrique

    2017-01-01

    The quantum Rabi model describes the interaction between a two-level quantum system and a single bosonic mode. We propose a method to perform a quantum simulation of the quantum Rabi model, introducing an implementation of the two-level system provided by the occupation of Bloch bands in the first Brillouin zone by ultracold atoms in tailored optical lattices. The effective qubit interacts with a quantum harmonic oscillator implemented in an optical dipole trap. Our realistic proposal allows one to experimentally investigate the quantum Rabi model for extreme parameter regimes, which are not achievable with natural light-matter interactions. When the simulated wave function exceeds the validity region of the simulation, we identify a generalized version of the quantum Rabi model in a periodic phase space.

  5. Bose-Einstein Condensation of Atoms in a Uniform Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaunt, Alexander L.; Schmidutz, Tobias F.; Gotlibovych, Igor; Smith, Robert P.; Hadzibabic, Zoran

    2013-05-01

    We have observed the Bose-Einstein condensation of an atomic gas in the (quasi)uniform three-dimensional potential of an optical box trap. Condensation is seen in the bimodal momentum distribution and the anisotropic time-of-flight expansion of the condensate. The critical temperature agrees with the theoretical prediction for a uniform Bose gas. The momentum distribution of a noncondensed quantum-degenerate gas is also clearly distinct from the conventional case of a harmonically trapped sample and close to the expected distribution in a uniform system. We confirm the coherence of our condensate in a matter-wave interference experiment. Our experiments open many new possibilities for fundamental studies of many-body physics.

  6. Atomic arias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.

    2009-01-01

    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  7. Atomic rivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  8. Relativistic atomic beam spectroscopy II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-12-31

    The negative ion of H is one of the simplest 3-body atomic systems. The techniques we have developed for experimental study of atoms moving near speed of light have been productive. This proposal request continuing support for experimental studies of the H{sup -} system, principally at the 800 MeV linear accelerator (LAMPF) at Los Alamos. Four experiments are currently planned: photodetachment of H{sup -} near threshold in electric field, interaction of relativistic H{sup -} ions with matter, high excitations and double charge escape in H{sup -}, and multiphoton detachment of electrons from H{sup -}.

  9. Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection

    CERN Document Server

    Turner, James E

    2007-01-01

    Atoms, Radiation, and Radiation Protection offers professionals and advanced students a comprehensive coverage of the major concepts that underlie the origins and transport of ionizing radiation in matter. Understanding atomic structure and the physical mechanisms of radiation interactions is the foundation on which much of the current practice of radiological health protection is based. The work covers the detection and measurement of radiation and the statistical interpretation of the data. The procedures that are used to protect man and the environment from the potential harmful effects of

  10. Spin waves theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stancil, Daniel D

    2009-01-01

    Magnetic materials can support propagating waves of magnetization; since these are oscillations in the magneto static properties of the material, they are called magneto static waves (sometimes 'magnons' or 'magnetic polarons'). This book discusses magnetic properties of materials, and magnetic moments of atoms and ions

  11. X- rays and matter- the basic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens

    2008-01-01

    In this introductory article we attempt to provide the theoretical basis for developing the interaction between X-rays and matter, so that one can unravel properties of matter by interpretation of X-ray experiments on samples. We emphasize that we are dealing with the basics, which means that we...... shall limit ourselves to a discussion of the interaction of an X-ray photon with an isolated atom, or rather with a single electron in a Hartree-Fock atom. Subsequent articles in this issue deal with more complicated - and interesting - forms of matter encompassing many atoms or molecules. To cite...

  12. Chaos-assisted formation of immiscible matter-wave solitons and self-stabilization in the binary discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, D. V.; Uleysky, M. Yu.

    2017-02-01

    Binary discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation is used to describe dynamics of two-species Bose-Einstein condensate loaded into an optical lattice. Linear inter-species coupling leads to Rabi transitions between the species. In the regime of strong nonlinearity, a wavepacket corresponding to condensate separates into localized and ballistic fractions. Localized fraction is predominantly formed by immiscible solitons consisted of only one species. Immiscible solitons are formed from initially non-separated states after transient chaotic regime. We calculate the finite-time Lyapunov exponent as a rate of wavepacket divergence in the Hilbert space. Appearance of immiscible solitons to spontaneous self-stabilization of the wavepacket. It is found that onset of chaos is accompanied by fast variations of interaction energy and energy of inter-site tunneling. Crossover to self-stabilization is accompanied by reduction of condensate density due to emittance of ballistically propagating waves.

  13. A Many-Atom Cavity QED System with Homogeneous Atom-Cavity Coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Jongmin; Teper, Igor; Hosten, Onur; Kasevich, Mark A

    2013-01-01

    We demonstrate a many-atom-cavity system with a high-finesse dual-wavelength standing wave cavity in which all participating rubidium atoms are nearly identically coupled to a 780-nm cavity mode. This homogeneous coupling is enforced by a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by the field of a 1560-nm cavity mode.

  14. Establishing and storing of deterministic quantum entanglement among three distant atomic ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Zhihui; Wu, Liang; Jia, Xiaojun; Liu, Yanhong; Deng, Ruijie; Li, Shujing; Wang, Hai; Xie, Changde; Peng, Kunchi

    2017-09-28

    It is crucial for the physical realization of quantum information networks to first establish entanglement among multiple space-separated quantum memories and then, at a user-controlled moment, to transfer the stored entanglement to quantum channels for distribution and conveyance of information. Here we present an experimental demonstration on generation, storage, and transfer of deterministic quantum entanglement among three spatially separated atomic ensembles. The off-line prepared multipartite entanglement of optical modes is mapped into three distant atomic ensembles to establish entanglement of atomic spin waves via electromagnetically induced transparency light-matter interaction. Then the stored atomic entanglement is transferred into a tripartite quadrature entangled state of light, which is space-separated and can be dynamically allocated to three quantum channels for conveying quantum information. The existence of entanglement among three released optical modes verifies that the system has the capacity to preserve multipartite entanglement. The presented protocol can be directly extended to larger quantum networks with more nodes.Continuous-variable encoding is a promising approach for quantum information and communication networks. Here, the authors show how to map entanglement from three spatial optical modes to three separated atomic samples via electromagnetically induced transparency, releasing it later on demand.

  15. When Matter Matters

    CERN Document Server

    Easson, Damien A.; Vikman, Alexander

    2013-07-10

    We study a recently proposed scenario for the early universe: Subluminal Galilean Genesis. We prove that without any other matter present in the spatially flat Friedmann universe, the perturbations of the Galileon scalar field propagate with a speed at most equal to the speed of light. This proof applies to all cosmological solutions -- to the whole phase space. However, in a more realistic situation, when one includes any matter which is not directly coupled to the Galileon, there always exists a region of phase space where these perturbations propagate superluminally, indeed with arbitrarily high speed. We illustrate our analytic proof with numerical computations. We discuss the implications of this result for the possible UV completion of the model.

  16. Phase diagram of a generalized off-diagonal Aubry–André model with p-wave pairing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong; Wang, Pei; Chen, Shu; Xianlong, Gao

    2018-01-01

    Off-diagonal Aubry–André (AA) model has recently attracted a great deal of attention as they provide condensed matter realization of topological phases. We numerically study a generalized off-diagonal AA model with p-wave superfluid pairing in the presence of both commensurate and incommensurate hopping modulations. The phase diagram as functions of the modulation strength of incommensurate hopping and the strength of the p-wave pairing is obtained by using the multifractal analysis. We show that with the appearance of the p-wave pairing, the system exhibits mobility-edge phases and critical phases with various number of topologically-protected zero-energy modes. Predicted topological nature of these exotic phases can be realized in a cold atomic system of incommensurate bichromatic optical lattice with induced p-wave superfluid pairing by using a Raman laser in proximity to a molecular Bose–Einstein condensation.

  17. Dark matter repulsion could thwart direct detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davoudiasl, Hooman

    2017-11-01

    We consider a feeble repulsive interaction between ordinary matter and dark matter, with a range similar to or larger than the size of the Earth. Dark matter can thus be repelled from the Earth, leading to null results in direct detection experiments, regardless of the strength of the short-distance interactions of dark matter with atoms. Generically, such a repulsive force would not allow trapping of dark matter inside astronomical bodies. In this scenario, accelerator-based experiments may furnish the only robust signals of asymmetric dark matter models, which typically lack indirect signals from self-annihilation. Some of the variants of our hypothesis are also briefly discussed.

  18. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.

    2005-01-01

    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  19. Atoms in Valence Bond – AiVB : synopsis and test results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, M.L.; van Lenthe, J.H.

    2010-01-01

    The Atoms in Valence Bond (AiVB) method, a new approach in the Valence Bond, is introduced. This approach combines the ideas behind the early Atoms in Molecules (AIM) developments, e.g. by Moffit [21], to understand a molecular wave function in terms of proper atomic wave functions, with the

  20. Perfect Precision Detecting Probability Of An Atom Via Sgc Mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedi, H. R.

    2015-06-01

    This letter investigates a scheme of high efficient two-dimensional (2D) atom localization via scanning probe absorption in a Y-type four-level atomic scheme with two orthogonal standing waves. It is shown that because of the position dependent atom-field interaction, the spatial probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined via monitoring the probe absorption and gain spectra. The impact of different controlling parameters of the system on 2D localization is studied. We find that owning the effect of spontaneously generated coherence (SGC), the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of detecting the atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the two orthogonal standing waves reaches to hundred percent. Phase controlling of position dependent probe absorption is then discussed. The presented scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or atom nanolithography via high precision and high resolution atom localization.

  1. Cooling Atomic Gases With Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Thereza; Khatami, Ehsan; Yang, Shuxiang; Rousseau, Valéry; Jarrell, Mark; Moreno, Juana; Hulet, Randall G.; Scalettar, Richard T.

    2015-12-01

    Cold atomic gases have proven capable of emulating a number of fundamental condensed matter phenomena including Bose-Einstein condensation, the Mott transition, Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov pairing, and the quantum Hall effect. Cooling to a low enough temperature to explore magnetism and exotic superconductivity in lattices of fermionic atoms remains a challenge. We propose a method to produce a low temperature gas by preparing it in a disordered potential and following a constant entropy trajectory to deliver the gas into a nondisordered state which exhibits these incompletely understood phases. We show, using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, that we can approach the Néel temperature of the three-dimensional Hubbard model for experimentally achievable parameters. Recent experimental estimates suggest the randomness required lies in a regime where atom transport and equilibration are still robust.

  2. Cold Quark Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Kurkela, Aleksi; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2010-01-01

    We perform an O(alpha_s^2) perturbative calculation of the equation of state of cold but dense QCD matter with two massless and one massive quark flavor, finding that perturbation theory converges reasonably well for quark chemical potentials above 1 GeV. Using a running coupling constant and strange quark mass, and allowing for further non-perturbative effects, our results point to a narrow range where absolutely stable strange quark matter may exist. Absent stable strange quark matter, our findings suggest that quark matter in compact star cores becomes confined to hadrons only slightly above the density of atomic nuclei. Finally, we show that equations of state including quark matter lead to hybrid star masses up to M~2M_solar, in agreement with current observations. For strange stars, we find maximal masses of M~2.75M_solar and conclude that confirmed observations of compact stars with M>2M_solar would strongly favor the existence of stable strange quark matter.

  3. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  4. Atom-specific surface magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirotti, Fausto; Panaccione, Giancarlo; Rossi, Giorgio

    1995-12-01

    A powerful atom-specific surface magnetometry can be based on efficient measurements of magnetic dichroism in l>~0 core level photoemission. The temperature dependence M(T) of the Fe(100) surface magnetization was obtained from the photoemission magnetic asymmetry of 3p core levels, providing the measure of the surface exchange coupling via the spin-wave stiffness and of the surface critical exponent. Beyond the magnetic order the photoemission dichroism allows us to derive the energy splitting of the magnetic sublevels of the photoexcited core hole. Fe 3p photoemission dichroism probes directly the magnetic moment changes of iron atoms at Fe(100) surfaces as a function of structural disorder or sulfur segregation. The appearance of dichroism in the 2p photoemission of segregated sulfur atoms in the c(2×2)S/Fe(100) superstructure measures the magnetic-moment transfer and shows the possibility of investigating surface magnetochemistry in a very direct way.

  5. Anti-matter factory

    CERN Document Server

    Michaut, C

    2003-01-01

    In 1928 Paul Dirac predicted the existence of anti-matter as a consequence of his theory. The first experimental fact that supported this idea was the discovery of the positron in 1932. Anti-protons were produced in 1955 at the Bevatron facility in Berkeley and anti-neutrons the following year. Since 1964 scientists know that matter and anti-matter differ not only from their electrical charge but also from their behaviour concerning weak interaction. In 2002 the CERN announced the production of more than 50.000 atoms of anti-hydrogen which was a breakthrough because the last attempt in 1995 ended with the creation of only 9 atoms of anti-hydrogen whose speed neared the velocity of light while the speed of the last ones created is 100.000 times smaller. The next step is to carry out experiments in order to measure the spectra of anti-hydrogen in a very accurate manner and to test the effect of gravity on anti-matter. (A.C.)

  6. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-14

    Final Performance Report on ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0608 High atom number in microsized atom traps for the period 15 May 2012 through 14 September...TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/15/2012-09/14/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High atom number in microsized atom traps...forces for implementing a small-footprint, large-number atom -chip instrument. Bichromatic forces rely on absorption and stimulated emission to produce

  7. High-order-harmonic generation in atomic and molecular systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Noslen; Chacón, Alexis; Pérez-Hernández, Jose A.; Biegert, Jens; Lewenstein, Maciej; Ciappina, Marcelo F.

    2017-03-01

    High-order-harmonic generation (HHG) results from the interaction of ultrashort laser pulses with matter. It configures an invaluable tool to produce attosecond pulses, moreover, to extract electron structural and dynamical information of the target, i.e., atoms, molecules, and solids. In this contribution, we introduce an analytical description of atomic and molecular HHG, that extends the well-established theoretical strong-field approximation (SFA). Our approach involves two innovative aspects: (i) First, the bound-continuum and rescattering matrix elements can be analytically computed for both atomic and multicenter molecular systems, using a nonlocal short range model, but separable, potential. When compared with the standard models, these analytical derivations make possible to directly examine how the HHG spectra depend on the driven media and laser-pulse features. Furthermore, we can turn on and off contributions having distinct physical origins or corresponding to different mechanisms. This allows us to quantify their importance in the various regions of the HHG spectra. (ii) Second, as reported recently [N. Suárez et al., Phys. Rev. A 94, 043423 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.94.043423], the multicenter matrix elements in our theory are free from nonphysical gauge- and coordinate-system-dependent terms; this is accomplished by adapting the coordinate system to the center from which the corresponding time-dependent wave function originates. Our SFA results are contrasted, when possible, with the direct numerical integration of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation in reduced and full dimensionality. Very good agreement is found for single and multielectronic atomic systems, modeled under the single active electron approximation, and for simple diatomic molecular systems. Interference features, ubiquitously present in every strong-field phenomenon involving a multicenter target, are also captured by our model.

  8. Hanbury Brown and Twiss and other atom-atom correlations: advances in quantum atom optics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2008-01-01

    Fifty years ago, two astronomers, R. Hanbury Brown and R. Q. Twiss, invented a new method to measure the angular diameter of stars, in spite of the atmospheric fluctuations. Their proposal prompted a hot debate among physicists : how might two particles (photons), emitted independently (at opposite extremities of a star) , behave in a correlated way when detected ? It was only after the development of R Glauber's full quantum analysis that the effect was understood as a two particle quantum interference effect. From a modern perspective, it can be viewed as an early example of the amazing properties of pairs of entangled particles. The effect has now been observed with bosonic and fermionic atoms, stressing its fully quantum character. After putting these experiments in a historical perspective, I will present recent results, and comment on their significance. I will also show how our single atom detection scheme has allowed us to demonstrate the creation of atom pairs by non linear mixing of matter wa...

  9. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  10. Polarization Bremsstrahlung on Atoms, Plasmas, Nanostructures and Solids

    CERN Document Server

    Astapenko, Valeriy

    2013-01-01

    The book is devoted to the modern theory and experimental manifestation of Polarization Bremsstrahlung (PB) which arises due to scattering of charged particles from various targets: atoms, nanostructures (including atomic clusters, nanoparticle in dielectric matrix, fullerens, graphene-like two-dimensional atomic structure) and in condensed matter (monocrystals, polycrystals, partially ordered crystals and amorphous matter) The present book addresses mainly researchers interested in the radiative processes during the interaction between fast particles and matter. It also will be useful for post-graduate students specializing in radiation physics and related fields.

  11. Delay in atomic photoionization

    CERN Document Server

    Kheifets, A S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the time delay between emission of photoelectrons from the outer valence $ns$ and $np$ sub-shells in noble gas atoms following absorption of an attosecond XUV pulse. By solving the time dependent Schr\\"odinger equation and carefully examining the time evolution of the photoelectron wave packet, we establish the apparent "time zero" when the photoelectron leaves the atom. Various processes such as elastic scattering of the photoelectron on the parent ion and many-electron correlation affect the quantum phase of the dipole transition matrix element, the energy dependence of which defines the emission timing. This qualitatively explains the time delay between photoemission from the $2s$ and $2p$ sub-shells of Ne as determined experimentally by attosecond streaking [{\\em Science} {\\bf 328}, 1658 (2010)]. However, with our extensive numerical modeling, we were only able to account for less than a half of the measured time delay of $21\\pm5$~as. We argue that the XUV pulse alone cannot produce such a larg...

  12. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    matter and that it must be of some exotic type. Before we discuss the evidences for dark matter in clusters of galaxies, let us point out that it is not just spiral galaxies which are thought to contain dark matter, although the evidences from them are the strongest. Other types of galaxies, like elliptical galaxies, are often seen to ...

  13. Kinetic theory of weakly ionized dilute gas of hydrogen-like atoms of the first principles of quantum statistics and dispersion laws of eigenwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyusarenko, Yurii V.; Sliusarenko, Oleksii Yu.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a microscopic approach to the construction of the kinetic theory of dilute weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms. The approach is based on the statements of the second quantization method in the presence of bound states of particles. The basis of the derivation of kinetic equations is the method of reduced description of relaxation processes. Within the framework of the proposed approach, a system of common kinetic equations for the Wigner distribution functions of free oppositely charged fermions of two kinds (electrons and cores) and their bound states—hydrogen-like atoms— is obtained. Kinetic equations are used to study the spectra of elementary excitations in the system when all its components are non-degenerate. It is shown that in such a system, in addition to the typical plasma waves, there are longitudinal waves of matter polarization and the transverse ones with a behavior characteristic of plasmon polaritons. The expressions for the dependence of the frequencies and Landau damping coefficients on the wave vector for all branches of the oscillations discovered are obtained. Numerical evaluation of the elementary perturbation parameters in the system on an example of a weakly ionized dilute gas of the 23Na atoms using the D2-line characteristics of the natrium atom is given. We note the possibility of using the results of the developed theory to describe the properties of a Bose condensate of photons in the diluted weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms.

  14. Atom-by-Atom Construction of a Quantum Device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petta, Jason R

    2017-03-28

    Scanning tunneling microscopes (STMs) are conventionally used to probe surfaces with atomic resolution. Recent advances in STM include tunneling from spin-polarized and superconducting tips, time-domain spectroscopy, and the fabrication of atomically precise Si nanoelectronics. In this issue of ACS Nano, Tettamanzi et al. probe a single-atom transistor in silicon, fabricated using the precision of a STM, at microwave frequencies. While previous studies have probed such devices in the MHz regime, Tettamanzi et al. probe a STM-fabricated device at GHz frequencies, which enables excited-state spectroscopy and measurements of the excited-state lifetime. The success of this experiment will enable future work on quantum control, where the wave function must be controlled on a time scale that is much shorter than the decoherence time. We review two major approaches that are being pursued to develop spin-based quantum computers and highlight some recent progress in the atom-by-atom fabrication of donor-based devices in silicon. Recent advances in STM lithography may enable practical bottom-up construction of large-scale quantum devices.

  15. 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Sadot, Oren; Igra, Ozer

    2017-01-01

    These proceedings collect the papers presented at the 30th International Symposium on Shock Waves (ISSW30), which was held in Tel-Aviv Israel from July 19 to July 24, 2015. The Symposium was organized by Ortra Ltd. The ISSW30 focused on the state of knowledge of the following areas: Nozzle Flow, Supersonic and Hypersonic Flows with Shocks, Supersonic Jets, Chemical Kinetics, Chemical Reacting Flows, Detonation, Combustion, Ignition, Shock Wave Reflection and Interaction, Shock Wave Interaction with Obstacles, Shock Wave Interaction with Porous Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Granular Media, Shock Wave Interaction with Dusty Media, Plasma, Magnetohyrdrodynamics, Re-entry to Earth Atmosphere, Shock Waves in Rarefied Gases, Shock Waves in Condensed Matter (Solids and Liquids), Shock Waves in Dense Gases, Shock Wave Focusing, Richtmyer-Meshkov Instability, Shock Boundary Layer Interaction, Multiphase Flow, Blast Waves, Facilities, Flow Visualization, and Numerical Methods. The two volumes serve as a reference ...

  16. Acoustics waves and oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Sen, S.N.

    2013-01-01

    Parameters of acoustics presented in a logical and lucid style Physical principles discussed with mathematical formulations Importance of ultrasonic waves highlighted Dispersion of ultrasonic waves in viscous liquids explained This book presents the theory of waves and oscillations and various applications of acoustics in a logical and simple form. The physical principles have been explained with necessary mathematical formulation and supported by experimental layout wherever possible. Incorporating the classical view point all aspects of acoustic waves and oscillations have been discussed together with detailed elaboration of modern technological applications of sound. A separate chapter on ultrasonics emphasizes the importance of this branch of science in fundamental and applied research. In this edition a new chapter ''Hypersonic Velocity in Viscous Liquids as revealed from Brillouin Spectra'' has been added. The book is expected to present to its readers a comprehensive presentation of the subject matter...

  17. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis...

  18. Gravitational-wave mediated preheating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephon Alexander

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new preheating mechanism through the coupling of the gravitational field to both the inflaton and matter fields, without direct inflaton–matter couplings. The inflaton transfers power to the matter fields through interactions with gravitational waves, which are exponentially enhanced due to an inflation–graviton coupling. One such coupling is the product of the inflaton to the Pontryagin density, as in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity. The energy scales involved are constrained by requiring that preheating happens fast during matter domination.

  19. Experimental soft-matter science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagel, Sidney R.

    2017-04-01

    Soft materials consist of basic units that are significantly larger than an atom but much smaller than the overall dimensions of the sample. The label "soft condensed matter" emphasizes that the large basic building blocks of these materials produce low elastic moduli that govern a material's ability to withstand deformations. Aside from softness, there are many other properties that are also caused by the large size of the constituent building blocks. Soft matter is dissipative, disordered, far from equilibrium, nonlinear, thermal and entropic, slow, observable, gravity affected, patterned, nonlocal, interfacially elastic, memory forming, and active. This is only a partial list of how matter created from large component particles is distinct from "hard matter" composed of constituents at an atomic scale. Issues inherent in soft matter raise problems that are broadly important in diverse areas of science and require multiple modes of attack. For example, far-from-equilibrium behavior is confronted in biology, chemistry, geophysics, astrophysics, and nuclear physics. Similarly, issues dealing with disorder appear broadly throughout many branches of inquiry wherever rugged landscapes are invoked. This article reviews the discussions that occurred during a workshop held on 30-31 January 2016 in which opportunities in soft-matter experiment were surveyed. Soft matter has had an exciting history of discovery and continues to be a fertile ground for future research.

  20. Dual Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Kallosh, Renata

    1994-01-01

    We study the gravitational waves in the 10-dimensional target space of the superstring theory. Some of these waves have unbroken supersymmetries. They consist of Brinkmann metric and of a 2-form field. Sigma-model duality is applied to such waves. The corresponding solutions we call dual partners of gravitational waves, or dual waves. Some of these dual waves upon Kaluza-Klein dimensional reduction to 4 dimensions become equivalent to the conformo-stationary solutions of axion-dilaton gravity...

  1. "Bohr's Atomic Model."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willden, Jeff

    2001-01-01

    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  2. The Britannica guide to the atom

    CERN Document Server

    Gregersen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    Common to all matter and its smallest and most fundamental unit, the atom determines the properties of a substance and how it responds to other materials and stimuli. Dividing the atom further reveals several smaller particles whose activity forms the heart of nuclear physics. Readers will discover the structure of the atom as well as the ways in which its electrons, protons, and neutrons facilitate both radioactivity and nuclear reactions, both of which have been crucial to technological advancements since the 20th century.

  3. Relativistic effects in atom and neutron interferometry and the differences between them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberger, Daniel M.; Schleich, Wolfgang P.; Rasel, Ernst M.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years there has been enormous progress in matter wave interferometry. The Colella-Overhauser-Werner (COW) type of neutron interferometer and the Kasevich-Chu (K-C) atom interferometer are the prototypes of such devices and the issue of whether they are sensitive to relativistic effects has recently aroused much controversy. We examine the question as to what extent the gravitational redshift and the related twin paradox effect can be seen in both of these atom and neutron interferometers. We point out an asymmetry between the two types of devices. Because of this, the nonvanishing, nonrelativistic residue of both effects can be seen in the neutron interferometer, while in the K-C interferometer the effects cancel out, leaving no residue, although they could be present in other types of atom interferometers. Also, the necessary shifting of the laser frequency (chirping) in the atom interferometer effectively changes the laboratory into a free-fall system, which could be exploited for other experiments.

  4. Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae-Weon

    2018-01-01

    This is a review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22)eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than ga...

  5. Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee Jae-Weon

    2018-01-01

    This is a review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass $m = O(10^{-22})eV$ condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than ...

  6. Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae-Weon

    2017-01-01

    This is an ongoing review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass $m = O(10^{-22})eV$ condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale lar...

  7. Sub-Angstrom Atomic-Resolution Imaging of Heavy Atoms to Light Atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Keefe, Michael A.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2003-05-23

    Three decades ago John Cowley and his group at ASU achieved high-resolution electron microscope images showing the crystal unit cell contents at better than 4Angstrom resolution. Over the years, this achievement has inspired improvements in resolution that have enabled researchers to pinpoint the positions of heavy atom columns within the cell. More recently, this ability has been extended to light atoms as resolution has improved. Sub-Angstrom resolution has enabled researchers to image the columns of light atoms (carbon, oxygen and nitrogen) that are present in many complex structures. By using sub-Angstrom focal-series reconstruction of the specimen exit surface wave to image columns of cobalt, oxygen, and lithium atoms in a transition metal oxide structure commonly used as positive electrodes in lithium rechargeable batteries, we show that the range of detectable light atoms extends to lithium. HRTEM at sub-Angstrom resolution will provide the essential role of experimental verification for the emergent nanotech revolution. Our results foreshadow those to be expected from next-generation TEMs with Cs-corrected lenses and monochromated electron beams.

  8. BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF HIGH-FREQUENCY ELECTROMAGNETIC WAVES

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this report the author discusses the influence of high-frequency electromagnetic waves on living matter, especially in the field of microwaves. He...of electromagnetic waves . Symptoms of damage are listed and methods of protection discussed.

  9. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy

    OpenAIRE

    Hamilton, Paul; Jaffe, Matt; Haslinger, Philipp; Simmons, Quinn; Müller, Holger; Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    If dark energy --- which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe --- consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultra-high vacu...

  10. Spectroscopy of a plasma formed in the vicinity of implosion of the shock wave generated by underwater electrical explosion of spherical wire array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonov, O.; Efimov, S.; Gurovich, V. Tz.; Bernshtam, V.; Krasik, Ya. E.

    2015-05-01

    The results of visible spectroscopy of the plasma formed inside a copper capillary placed at the equatorial plane of an underwater electrically exploded spherical wire array (30 mm in diameter; 40 wires, each of 100 μm in diameter) are reported. In the experiments, a pulsed power generator with current amplitude of ˜300 kA and rise time of ˜1.1 μs was used to produce wire array explosion accompanied by the formation of a converging strong shock wave. The data obtained support the assumption of uniformity of the shock wave along the main path of its convergence. The spectroscopic measurements show that this rather simple method of formation of a converging strong shock wave can be used successfully for studying the shock wave's interaction with matter and the evaporation processes of atoms from a target.

  11. A continuous cold atomic beam interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xue, Hongbo [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Joint Institute for Measurement Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Space Science and Applied Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); Feng, Yanying, E-mail: yyfeng@tsinghua.edu.cn; Yan, Xueshu; Jiang, Zhikun [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Joint Institute for Measurement Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Chen, Shu [Joint Institute for Measurement Science, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Key Laboratory of Instrumentation Science, North University of China, Taiyuan 030051 (China); Wang, Xiaojia [College of Mechanical Engineering, Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan 030024 (China); Zhou, Zhaoying [State Key Laboratory of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-03-07

    We demonstrate an atom interferometer that uses a laser-cooled continuous beam of {sup 87}Rb atoms having velocities of 10–20 m/s. With spatially separated Raman beams to coherently manipulate the atomic wave packets, Mach–Zehnder interference fringes are observed at an interference distance of 2L = 19 mm. The apparatus operates within a small enclosed area of 0.07 mm{sup 2} at a bandwidth of 190 Hz with a deduced sensitivity of 7.8×10{sup −5} rad/s/√(Hz) for rotations. Using a low-velocity continuous atomic source in an atom interferometer enables high sampling rates and bandwidths without sacrificing sensitivity and compactness, which are important for applications in real dynamic environments.

  12. Playing pinball with atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saedi, Amirmehdi; van Houselt, Arie; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Harold J W

    2009-05-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of controlling an atomic scale mechanical device by an external electrical signal. On a germanium substrate, a switching motion of pairs of atoms is induced by electrons that are directly injected into the atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. By precisely controlling the tip current and distance we make two atom pairs behave like the flippers of an atomic-sized pinball machine. This atomic scale mechanical device exhibits six different configurations.

  13. A Nanofiber-Based Optical Conveyor Belt for Cold Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Schneeweiss, Philipp; Mitsch, Rudolf; Reitz, Daniel; Vetsch, Eugen; Rauschenbeutel, Arno

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate optical transport of cold cesium atoms over millimeter-scale distances along an optical nanofiber. The atoms are trapped in a one-dimensional optical lattice formed by a two-color evanescent field surrounding the nanofiber, far red- and blue-detuned with respect to the atomic transition. The blue-detuned field is a propagating nanofiber-guided mode while the red-detuned field is a standing-wave mode which leads to the periodic axial confinement of the atoms. Here, this standing wave is used for transporting the atoms along the nanofiber by mutually detuning the two counter-propagating fields which form the standing wave. The performance and limitations of the nanofiber-based transport are evaluated and possible applications are discussed.

  14. Reconstruction of Undersampled Atomic Force Microscopy Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Tobias Lindstrøm; Arildsen, Thomas; Østergaard, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is one of the most advanced tools for high-resolution imaging and manipulation of nanoscale matter. Unfortunately, standard AFM imaging requires a timescale on the order of seconds to minutes to acquire an image which makes it complicated to observe dynamic processes...

  15. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum, ...

  16. Foundations of high-energy-density physics physical processes of matter at extreme conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Larsen, Jon

    2017-01-01

    High-energy-density physics explores the dynamics of matter at extreme conditions. This encompasses temperatures and densities far greater than we experience on Earth. It applies to normal stars, exploding stars, active galaxies, and planetary interiors. High-energy-density matter is found on Earth in the explosion of nuclear weapons and in laboratories with high-powered lasers or pulsed-power machines. The physics explored in this book is the basis for large-scale simulation codes needed to interpret experimental results whether from astrophysical observations or laboratory-scale experiments. The key elements of high-energy-density physics covered are gas dynamics, ionization, thermal energy transport, and radiation transfer, intense electromagnetic waves, and their dynamical coupling. Implicit in this is a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamics, plasma physics, atomic physics, quantum mechanics, and electromagnetic theory. Beginning with a summary of the topics and exploring the major ones in depth, thi...

  17. X-ray holography with an atomic scatterer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mityureva, A.A.; Smirnov, V.V., E-mail: valery_smirnov@mail.ru

    2016-08-15

    X-ray holography scheme with reference scatterer consisting of heavy atom as reference center and its link to an object consisting of several light atoms and using controlled variation of the alignment is represented. The scheme can reproduce an object in three dimensions with atomic resolution. The distorting factors of reconstruction are considered. - Highlights: • X-ray holography scheme with a reference wave formed by atomic scatterer. • 3D object reconstruction with atomic resolution from the set of holograms. • Simple formula for the distorting factor in reconstruction.

  18. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this second part we will see that even clusters of galaxies must harbour dark matter. As if this was not enough, it turns out that if our knowledge of the ...

  19. Describing Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Krista; Feagin, Shannon

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a lesson that was designed to explore the scientific descriptions of matter through both the intensive and extensive properties that students successfully added to their vocabulary. Students' examples demonstrated that there were places where their reasoning about matter faltered as related to how the material is the same…

  20. A New Form of Matter-Antimatter Transformation

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2014-01-01

    A new form of matter-antimatter transformation is described in this work. The transformation of matter into cold neutral antimatter (low-energy antimatter atoms) is achieved simply by means of the application of an ultra strong magnetic field upon the matter.

  1. Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pittel, S. [Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, 19716 Delaware (United States); Dussel, G. G. [Departamento de Fisica J.J. Giambiagi, Universidad de Buenos Aires, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Dukelsky, J.; Sarriguren, P. [Instituto de Estructura de la Materia, CSIC, Serrano 123, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2008-12-15

    We describe recent efforts to study Cooper pairs in atomic nuclei. We consider a self-consistent Hartree Fock mean field for the even Sm isotopes and compare results based on three treatments of pairing correlations: a BCS treatment, a number-projected BCS treatment and an exact treatment using the Richardson Ansatz. Significant differences are seen in the pairing correlation energies. Furthermore, because it does not average over the properties of the fermion pairs, the Richardson solution permits a more meaningful definition of the Cooper wave function and of the fraction of pairs that are collective. Our results confirm that only a few pairs near the Fermi surface in realistic atomic nuclei are collective. (Author)

  2. Cryogenics, the Uncommon Cold, Understanding the Atom Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laquer, Henry L.

    This booklet is one in the "Understanding the Atom Series" published by the U. S. Atomic Energy Commission for high school students and their teachers. Reviewed are low temperature research and its application as these subjects are presented: how cold is cold, temperature, thermometers, states of matter, creation of low temperatures, properties…

  3. Condensed Matter Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marder, Michael P.

    2000-01-01

    A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant.

  4. Atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis by annular dark-field electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Chisholm, Matthew F; Nicolosi, Valeria; Pennycook, Timothy J; Corbin, George J; Dellby, Niklas; Murfitt, Matthew F; Own, Christopher S; Szilagyi, Zoltan S; Oxley, Mark P; Pantelides, Sokrates T; Pennycook, Stephen J

    2010-03-25

    Direct imaging and chemical identification of all the atoms in a material with unknown three-dimensional structure would constitute a very powerful general analysis tool. Transmission electron microscopy should in principle be able to fulfil this role, as many scientists including Feynman realized early on. It images matter with electrons that scatter strongly from individual atoms and whose wavelengths are about 50 times smaller than an atom. Recently the technique has advanced greatly owing to the introduction of aberration-corrected optics. However, neither electron microscopy nor any other experimental technique has yet been able to resolve and identify all the atoms in a non-periodic material consisting of several atomic species. Here we show that annular dark-field imaging in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope optimized for low voltage operation can resolve and identify the chemical type of every atom in monolayer hexagonal boron nitride that contains substitutional defects. Three types of atomic substitutions were found and identified: carbon substituting for boron, carbon substituting for nitrogen, and oxygen substituting for nitrogen. The substitutions caused in-plane distortions in the boron nitride monolayer of about 0.1 A magnitude, which were directly resolved, and verified by density functional theory calculations. The results demonstrate that atom-by-atom structural and chemical analysis of all radiation-damage-resistant atoms present in, and on top of, ultra-thin sheets has now become possible.

  5. Control the fear atomic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Gwan [I and Book, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-04-15

    This book has a lot of explanation of nuclear energy with articles. Their titles are the bad man likes atomic, the secret of atom, nuclear explosion, NPT?, the secret of uranium fuel rod, nuclear power plant vs nuclear bomb, I hate atomic, keep plutonium in control, atomic in peace and find out alternative energy.

  6. Dynamics of atomic clusters in intense optical fields of ultrashort ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Atomic clusters; Coulomb explosion; few-cycle laser pulses; strong fields; cluster dynamics. 1. Introduction. A number of scientific and technological developments are responsible for the resurgence of interest in studi- es of light-matter interactions, particularly of how very intense light interacts with matter. The interest stems.

  7. Simulation studies of atomic resolution X-ray holography

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    rage atomic arrangement of the atoms. It may be noted that in X-ray holography methods, the concept of unit cell is not required. We know from the optical reciprocity principle that if we exchange the detector with the source, then we obtain the same experiment. We now have a source in the far field producing a plane wave ...

  8. Detection of gas atoms with carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arash, B.; Wang, Q.

    2013-01-01

    Owning to their unparalleled sensitivity resolution, nanomechanical resonators have excellent capabilities in design of nano-sensors for gas detection. The current challenge is to develop new designs of the resonators for differentiating distinct gas atoms with a recognizably high sensitivity. In this work, the characteristics of impulse wave propagation in carbon nanotube-based sensors are investigated using molecular dynamics simulations to provide a new method for detection of noble gases. A sensitivity index based on wave velocity shifts in a single-walled carbon nanotube, induced by surrounding gas atoms, is defined to explore the efficiency of the nano-sensor. The simulation results indicate that the nano-sensor is able to differentiate distinct noble gases at the same environmental temperature and pressure. The inertia and the strengthening effects by the gases on wave characteristics of carbon nanotubes are particularly discussed, and a continuum mechanics shell model is developed to interpret the effects.

  9. Atom interferometry with lithium atoms: theoretical analysis and design of an interferometer, applications; Interferometrie atomique avec l'atome de lithium: analyse theorique et construction d'un interferometre, applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Champenois, C

    1999-12-01

    This thesis is devoted to studies which prepared the construction of an atom Mach-Zehnder interferometer. In such an interferometer, the propagating waves are spatially separated, and the internal state of the atom is not modified. The beam-splitters are diffraction gratings, consisting of standing optical waves near-resonant with an atomic transition. We use the Bloch functions to define the atom wave inside the standing wave grating and thus explain the diffraction process in different cases. We developed a nearly all-analytical model for the propagation of an atom wave inside a Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The contrast of the signal is studied for many cases: phase or amplitude gratings, effects of extra paths, effects of the main mismatches, monochromatic or lightly polychromatic sources. Finally, we discuss three interferometric measurements we think very interesting. The first, the index of refraction of gas for atomic waves, is studied in detail, with numerical simulations. The other measures we propose deal with the electrical properties of lithium. We discuss the ultimate limit for the measure of the static electric polarizability of lithium by atomic interferometry. Then, we discuss how one could measure the possible charge of the lithium atom. We conclude that an optically cooled and collimated atom beam would improve precision. (author)

  10. Optical atomic phase reference and timing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollberg, L.; Cornell, E. H.; Abdelrahmann, A.

    2017-06-01

    Atomic clocks based on laser-cooled atoms have made tremendous advances in both accuracy and stability. However, advanced clocks have not found their way into widespread use because there has been little need for such high performance in real-world/commercial applications. The drive in the commercial world favours smaller, lower-power, more robust compact atomic clocks that function well in real-world non-laboratory environments. Although the high-performance atomic frequency references are useful to test Einstein's special relativity more precisely, there are not compelling scientific arguments to expect a breakdown in special relativity. On the other hand, the dynamics of gravity, evidenced by the recent spectacular results in experimental detection of gravity waves by the LIGO Scientific Collaboration, shows dramatically that there is new physics to be seen and understood in space-time science. Those systems require strain measurements at less than or equal to 10-20. As we discuss here, cold atom optical frequency references are still many orders of magnitude away from the frequency stability that should be achievable with narrow-linewidth quantum transitions and large numbers of very cold atoms, and they may be able to achieve levels of phase stability, ΔΦ/Φtotal ≤ 10-20, that could make an important impact in gravity wave science. This article is part of the themed issue 'Quantum technology for the 21st century'.

  11. Plasma waves

    CERN Document Server

    Swanson, DG

    1989-01-01

    Plasma Waves discusses the basic development and equations for the many aspects of plasma waves. The book is organized into two major parts, examining both linear and nonlinear plasma waves in the eight chapters it encompasses. After briefly discussing the properties and applications of plasma wave, the book goes on examining the wave types in a cold, magnetized plasma and the general forms of the dispersion relation that characterize the waves and label the various types of solutions. Chapters 3 and 4 analyze the acoustic phenomena through the fluid model of plasma and the kinetic effects. Th

  12. Brief History of Ultra-light Scalar Dark Matter Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae-Weon

    2018-01-01

    This is a review on the brief history of the scalar field dark matter model also known as fuzzy dark matter, BEC dark matter, wave dark matter, or ultra-light axion. In this model ultra-light scalar dark matter particles with mass m = O(10-22)eV condense in a single Bose-Einstein condensate state and behave collectively like a classical wave. Galactic dark matter halos can be described as a self-gravitating coherent scalar field configuration called boson stars. At the scale larger than galaxies the dark matter acts like cold dark matter, while below the scale quantum pressure from the uncertainty principle suppresses the smaller structure formation so that it can resolve the small scale crisis of the conventional cold dark matter model.

  13. Proposal for efficient two-dimensional atom localization using probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Duo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.

  14. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  15. Manipulating collective quantum states of ultracold atoms by probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, Andrew Christopher James

    2015-01-01

    nature of the measurement interaction and backaction is yet to be realised. This dissertation is concerned with ultracold atoms and their control via fully quantum mechanical probes. Nonclassical, squeezed and entangled states of matter and single photon sources are important for fundamental studies...... and quantum technologies. By probing, the production of squeezed and entangled states of collective variables in a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. Thereafter, an atomic probe using the strong interactions between highly excited atomic states, manipulates the light-matter dynamics of an ultracold gas...

  16. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star.......Denne rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af forskellige flydergeometrier for bølgeenergianlæget Wave Star....

  17. Heat Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heat Waves Dangers we face during periods of very high temperatures include: Heat cramps: These are muscular pains and ... having trouble with the heat. If a heat wave is predicted or happening… - Slow down. Avoid strenuous ...

  18. Electrically tunable terahertz wave modulator based on complementary metamaterial and graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Xun-jun, E-mail: hexunjun@hrbust.edu.cn; Li, Teng-yue; Wang, Lei; Wang, Jian-min; Jiang, Jiu-xing [Department of Electronic Science and technology, School of Applied Sciences, Harbin University of Science and Technology, Harbin 150080 (China); Yang, Guo-hui; Meng, Fan-yi; Wu, Qun [Department of Electronic and Communications Engineering, School of Electronic Information Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2014-05-07

    In this paper, we design and numerically demonstrate an electrically controllable light-matter interaction in a hybrid material/metamaterial system consisting of an artificially constructed cross cut-wire complementary metamaterial and an atomically thin graphene layer to realize terahertz (THz) wave modulator. By applying a bias voltage between the metamaterial and the graphene layer, this modulator can dynamically control the amplitude and phase of the transmitted wave near 1.43 THz. Moreover, the distributions of current density show that this large modulation depth can be attributed to the resonant electric field parallel to the graphene sheet. Therefore, the modulator performance indicates the enormous potential of graphene for developing sophisticated THz communication systems.

  19. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofoed, Jens Peter; Frigaard, Peter; Sørensen, H. C.

    1998-01-01

    This paper concerns with the development of the wave energy converter (WEC) Wave Dragon. This WEC is based on the overtopping principle. An overview of the performed research done concerning the Wave Dragon over the past years is given, and the results of one of the more comprehensive studies......, concerning a hydraulic evaluation and optimisation of the geometry of the Wave Dragon, is presented. Furthermore, the plans for the future development projects are sketched....

  20. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  1. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2017-09-01

    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  2. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J

    2011-01-01

    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  3. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  4. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  5. Antimatter Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN

    2016-01-01

    This video is a teaser-introduction to the Antimatter Matters exhibtion at the Royal Society's Summer Science exhibition July 4-10 2016. The exhibition is jointly organised and hosted by UK members of the ALPHA and LHCb collaborations.

  6. Electromagnetic Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Blok, H.; van den Berg, P.M.

    2011-01-01

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc.

  7. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Knapp, W.

    2006-01-01

    Wave Dragon is a floating wave energy converter working by extracting energy principally by means of overtopping of waves into a reservoir. A 1:4.5 scale prototype has been sea tested for 20 months. This paper presents results from testing, experiences gained and developments made during...

  8. Wave phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Towne, Dudley H

    1988-01-01

    This excellent undergraduate-level text emphasizes optics and acoustics, covering inductive derivation of the equation for transverse waves on a string, acoustic plane waves, boundary-value problems, polarization, three-dimensional waves and more. With numerous problems (solutions for about half). ""The material is superbly chosen and brilliantly written"" - Physics Today. Problems. Appendices.

  9. Switching terahertz waves with gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung Hoon; Choi, Muhan; Kim, Teun-Teun; Lee, Seungwoo; Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Choi, Hong Kyw; Lee, Seung S; Choi, Choon-Gi; Choi, Sung-Yool; Zhang, Xiang; Min, Bumki

    2012-11-01

    The extraordinary electronic properties of graphene provided the main thrusts for the rapid advance of graphene electronics. In photonics, the gate-controllable electronic properties of graphene provide a route to efficiently manipulate the interaction of photons with graphene, which has recently sparked keen interest in graphene plasmonics. However, the electro-optic tuning capability of unpatterned graphene alone is still not strong enough for practical optoelectronic applications owing to its non-resonant Drude-like behaviour. Here, we demonstrate that substantial gate-induced persistent switching and linear modulation of terahertz waves can be achieved in a two-dimensional metamaterial, into which an atomically thin, gated two-dimensional graphene layer is integrated. The gate-controllable light-matter interaction in the graphene layer can be greatly enhanced by the strong resonances of the metamaterial. Although the thickness of the embedded single-layer graphene is more than six orders of magnitude smaller than the wavelength (metamaterial, can modulate both the amplitude of the transmitted wave by up to 47% and its phase by 32.2° at room temperature. More interestingly, the gate-controlled active graphene metamaterials show hysteretic behaviour in the transmission of terahertz waves, which is indicative of persistent photonic memory effects.

  10. REVIEW ARTICLE: Fast light in atomic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akulshin, Alexander M.; McLean, Russell J.

    2010-10-01

    Atomic media have played a major role in studies of fast light. One of their attractive features is the ability to manipulate experimental parameters to control the dispersive properties that determine the group velocity of a propagating light pulse. We give an overview of the experimental methods, based on both linear and nonlinear atom-light interaction, that have produced superluminal propagation in atomic media, and discuss some of the significant theoretical contributions to the issues of pulse preservation and reconciling faster-than-light propagation and the principle of causality. The comparison of storage of light, enhanced Kerr nonlinearity and efficient wave mixing processes in slow and fast light atomic media illustrates their common and distinct features.

  11. Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Cheeke, J David N

    2012-01-01

    Designed specifically for newcomers to the field, this fully updated second edition begins with fundamentals and quickly advances beyond general wave concepts into an in-depth treatment of ultrasonic waves in isotropic media. Focusing on the physics of acoustic waves, their propagation, technology, and applications, this accessible overview of ultrasonics includes accounts of viscoelasticity and multiple scattering. It examines new technologies, including atomic force acoustic microscopy, lasers, micro-acoustics, and nanotechnology. In addition, it highlights both direct and indirect applicati

  12. Interaction of radiation with matter

    CERN Document Server

    Nikjoo, Hooshang; Emfietzoglou, Dimitris

    2012-01-01

    Written for students approaching the subject for the first time, this text provides a solid grounding in the physics of the interactions of photons and particles with matter, which is the basis of radiological physics and radiation dosimetry. The authors first present the relevant atomic physics and then describe the interactions, emphasizing practical applications in health/medical physics and radiation biology. They cover such important topics as microdosimetry, interaction of photons with matter, electron energy loss, and dielectric response. Each chapter includes exercises and a summary.

  13. Dark Atoms: Asymmetry and Direct Detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaplan, David E. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Krnjaic, Gordan Z. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Rehermann, Keith R. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Wells, Christopher M. [Houghton College, NY (United States)

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple UV completion of Atomic Dark Matter (aDM) in which heavy right-handed neutrinos decay to induce both dark and lepton number densities. This model addresses several outstanding cosmological problems: the matter/anti-matter asymmetry, the dark matter abundance, the number of light degrees of freedom in the early universe, and the smoothing of small-scale structure. Additionally, this realization of aDM may reconcile the CoGeNT excess with recently published null results and predicts a signal in the CRESST Oxygen band. We also find that, due to unscreened long-range interactions, the residual un recombined dark ions settle into a diffuse isothermal halo.

  14. Resonance fluorescence microscopy via three-dimensional atom localization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchadhyayee, Pradipta; Dutta, Bibhas Kumar; Das, Nityananda; Mahapatra, Prasanta Kumar

    2018-02-01

    A scheme is proposed to realize three-dimensional (3D) atom localization in a driven two-level atomic system via resonance fluorescence. The field arrangement for the atom localization involves the application of three mutually orthogonal standing-wave fields and an additional traveling-wave coupling field. We have shown the efficacy of such field arrangement in tuning the spatially modulated resonance in all directions. Under different parametric conditions, the 3D localization patterns originate with various shapes such as sphere, sheets, disk, bowling pin, snake flute, flower vase. High-precision localization is achieved when the radiation field detuning equals twice the combined Rabi frequencies of the standing-wave fields. Application of a traveling-wave field of suitable amplitude at optimum radiation field detuning under symmetric standing-wave configuration leads to 100% detection probability even in sub-wavelength domain. Asymmetric field configuration is also taken into consideration to exhibit atom localization with appreciable precision compared to that of the symmetric case. The momentum distribution of the localized atoms is found to follow the Heisenberg uncertainty principle under the validity of Raman-Nath approximation. The proposed field configuration is suitable for application in the study of atom localization in an optical lattice arrangement.

  15. Evanescent wave mirror for cold atoms—A quasi-resonant case

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiutowski, Jacek; Bartoszek-Bober, Dobroslawa; Dohnalik, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The measurements of the inelastic photon scattering in the optical dipole mirror created by a quasi-resonant evanescent wave are presented. The momentum transfer between an evanescent wave and cold atoms accompanying the atom reflection are discussed for a single and double evanescent wave...

  16. Computational Studies of Strongly Correlated Quantum Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Hao

    The study of strongly correlated quantum many-body systems is an outstanding challenge. Highly accurate results are needed for the understanding of practical and fundamental problems in condensed-matter physics, high energy physics, material science, quantum chemistry and so on. Our familiar mean-field or perturbative methods tend to be ineffective. Numerical simulations provide a promising approach for studying such systems. The fundamental difficulty of numerical simulation is that the dimension of the Hilbert space needed to describe interacting systems increases exponentially with the system size. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods are one of the best approaches to tackle the problem of enormous Hilbert space. They have been highly successful for boson systems and unfrustrated spin models. For systems with fermions, the exchange symmetry in general causes the infamous sign problem, making the statistical noise in the computed results grow exponentially with the system size. This hinders our understanding of interesting physics such as high-temperature superconductivity, metal-insulator phase transition. In this thesis, we present a variety of new developments in the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo (AFQMC) methods, including the incorporation of symmetry in both the trial wave function and the projector, developing the constraint release method, using the force-bias to drastically improve the efficiency in Metropolis framework, identifying and solving the infinite variance problem, and sampling Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov wave function. With these developments, some of the most challenging many-electron problems are now under control. We obtain an exact numerical solution of two-dimensional strongly interacting Fermi atomic gas, determine the ground state properties of the 2D Fermi gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, provide benchmark results for the ground state of the two-dimensional Hubbard model, and establish that the Hubbard model has a stripe order in the

  17. Implementation of highly parallel and large scale GW calculations within the OpenAtom software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab

    The need to describe electronic excitations with better accuracy than provided by band structures produced by Density Functional Theory (DFT) has been a long-term enterprise for the computational condensed matter and materials theory communities. In some cases, appropriate theoretical frameworks have existed for some time but have been difficult to apply widely due to computational cost. For example, the GW approximation incorporates a great deal of important non-local and dynamical electronic interaction effects but has been too computationally expensive for routine use in large materials simulations. OpenAtom is an open source massively parallel ab initiodensity functional software package based on plane waves and pseudopotentials (http://charm.cs.uiuc.edu/OpenAtom/) that takes advantage of the Charm + + parallel framework. At present, it is developed via a three-way collaboration, funded by an NSF SI2-SSI grant (ACI-1339804), between Yale (Ismail-Beigi), IBM T. J. Watson (Glenn Martyna) and the University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign (Laxmikant Kale). We will describe the project and our current approach towards implementing large scale GW calculations with OpenAtom. Potential applications of large scale parallel GW software for problems involving electronic excitations in semiconductor and/or metal oxide systems will be also be pointed out.

  18. Testing sub-gravitational forces on atoms from a miniature in-vacuum source mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Matt; Haslinger, Philipp; Xu, Victoria; Hamilton, Paul; Upadhye, Amol; Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Müller, Holger

    2017-10-01

    Traditional gravity measurements use bulk masses to both source and probe gravitational fields. Matter-wave interferometers enable the use of probe masses as small as neutrons, atoms and molecular clusters, but still require fields generated by masses ranging from hundreds of kilograms to the entire Earth. Shrinking the sources would enable versatile configurations, improve positioning accuracy, enable tests for beyond-standard-model (`fifth') forces, and allow observation of non-classical effects of gravity. Here we detect the gravitational force between freely falling caesium atoms and an in-vacuum, miniature (centimetre-sized, 0.19 kg) source mass using atom interferometry. Sensitivity down to gravitational strength forces accesses the natural scale for a wide class of cosmologically motivated scalar field models of modified gravity and dark energy. We improve the limits on two such models, chameleons and symmetrons, by over two orders of magnitude. We expect further tests of dark energy theories, and measurements of Newton's gravitational constant and the gravitational Aharonov-Bohm effect.

  19. Accelerating the Universe with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, I A; Ananda, K

    2009-01-01

    Inflation generically produces primordial gravitational waves with a red spectral tilt. In this paper we calculate the backreaction produced by these gravitational waves on the expansion of the universe. We find that in radiation domination the backreaction acts as a relativistic fluid, while in matter domination a small dark energy emerges with an equation of state w=-8/9.

  20. Atom trap loss, elastic collisions, and technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, James

    2012-10-01

    The study of collisions and scattering has been one of the most productive approaches for modern physics, illuminating the fundamental structure of crystals, surfaces, atoms, and sub-atomic particles. In the field of cold atoms, this is no less true: studies of cold atom collisions were essential to the production of quantum degenerate matter, the formation of cold molecules, and so on. Over the past few years it has been my delight to investigate elastic collisions between cold atoms trapped in either a magneto-optical trap (MOT) or a magnetic trap with hot, background gas in the vacuum environment through the measurement of the loss of atoms from the trap. Motivated by the goal of creating cold atom-based technology, we are deciphering what the trapped atoms are communicating about their environment through the observed loss rate. These measurements have the advantages of being straightforward to implement and they provide information about the underlying, fundamental inter-atomic processes. In this talk I will present some of our recent work, including the observation of the trap depth dependence on loss rate for argon-rubidium collisions. The data follow the computed loss rate curve based on the long-range Van der Waals interaction between the two species. The implications of these findings are exciting: trap depths can be determined from the trap loss measurement under controlled background density conditions; observation of trap loss rate in comparison to models for elastic, inelastic, and chemical processes can lead to improved understanding and characterization of these fundamental interactions; finally the marriage of cold atoms with collision modeling offers the promise of creating a novel pressure sensor and pressure standard for the high and ultra-high vacuum regime.

  1. Quantum Spin Lenses in Atomic Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Glaetzle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available We propose and discuss quantum spin lenses, where quantum states of delocalized spin excitations in an atomic medium are focused in space in a coherent quantum process down to (essentially single atoms. These can be employed to create controlled interactions in a quantum light-matter interface, where photonic qubits stored in an atomic ensemble are mapped to a quantum register represented by single atoms. We propose Hamiltonians for quantum spin lenses as inhomogeneous spin models on lattices, which can be realized with Rydberg atoms in 1D, 2D, and 3D, and with strings of trapped ions. We discuss both linear and nonlinear quantum spin lenses: in a nonlinear lens, repulsive spin-spin interactions lead to focusing dynamics conditional to the number of spin excitations. This allows the mapping of quantum superpositions of delocalized spin excitations to superpositions of spatial spin patterns, which can be addressed by light fields and manipulated. Finally, we propose multifocal quantum spin lenses as a way to generate and distribute entanglement between distant atoms in an atomic lattice array.

  2. Heating of matter by microwaves without convection

    OpenAIRE

    Drašković, Draško

    2012-01-01

    This thesis considers heating of matter by means of microwaves. The most common device that uses micro waves for the heating of matter is the microwave oven. Because of the microwave ovens ubiquity and accessibility there are many articles that address the way it works and in how it heats matter. However, it appears that articles contradict each other in their claims that the heating of the matter is either from the inside or from the outside. What actually means »heating the material in the...

  3. Explore atoms and molecules! with 25 great projects

    CERN Document Server

    Slingerland, Janet

    2017-01-01

    Atoms and molecules are the basic building blocks of matter. Matter is every physical thing around us in the universe, including our own bodies! In Explore Atoms and Molecules! With 25 Great Projects, readers ages 7 to 10 investigate the structure of atoms and learn how atoms fit together to form molecules and materials. If everything is made out of atoms and molecules, why do people look different from dogs and doorknobs? In Explore Atoms and Molecules, readers discover that the characteristics of a material are determined by the way the atoms and molecules connect, and study how chemical reactions change these connections to create everything we know. This book discusses the elements on the periodic table and why they are grouped into families, encouraging the exploration of meaningful classification systems. States of matter and mixtures and compounds round out the exploration of atoms and molecules! This book supports the maker movement with lots of hands-on activities that illuminate the concepts of chem...

  4. Atomic vapor density monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, N.; Harris, W.; Beeler, R.; Wooldridge, J.; Chen, H.L.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents information on the Atomic Vapor Density Monitor (AVDM) system that measures the density of a vapor by measuring the absorption of light from a swept-wavelength laser that passes through an atomic vapor stream.

  5. Dynamic electron correlation in interactions of light with matter formulated in b ⃗ space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Lev; McGuire, J. H.

    2015-09-01

    Scattering of beams of light and matter from multielectron atomic targets is formulated in the position representation of quantum mechanics. This yields expressions for the probability amplitude a (b ⃗) for a wide variety of processes. Here the spatial parameter b ⃗ is the distance of closest approach of incoming particles traveling on a straight line with the center of the atomic target. The correlated probability amplitude a (b ⃗) reduces to a relatively simple product of single-electron probability amplitudes in the widely used independent electron approximation limit, where the correlation effects of the Coulomb interactions between the atomic electrons disappear. As an example in which a (b ⃗) has an explicit dependence on b ⃗, we consider transversely finite vortex beams of twisted photons that lack the translational invariance of infinite plane-wave beams. Relatively simple calculations, illustrating the b ⃗ dependence in transition probabilities for photon beams interacting with a two-state degenerate single-electron atomic target, are included. Further application for many-electron systems is discussed. Possible practical uses are briefly considered.

  6. Atom-specific surface magnetometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirotti, F.; Panaccione, G. [Laboratoire pour l`Utilisation du Rayonnement Electromagnetique, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, Commissariat a l`Energie Atomique, MESR, F-91405 Orsay (France); Rossi, G. [Laboratorium fuer Festkoerperphysik, Eidgenossische Technische Hochschule-Zuerich, Zuerich CH-8093 (Switzerland)

    1995-12-15

    A powerful atom-specific surface magnetometry can be based on efficient measurements of magnetic dichroism in {ital l}{gt}0 core level photoemission. The temperature dependence M({ital T}) of the Fe(100) surface magnetization was obtained from the photoemission magnetic asymmetry of 3{ital p} core levels, providing the measure of the surface exchange coupling via the spin-wave stiffness and of the surface critical exponent. Beyond the magnetic order {l_angle}M{r_angle} the photoemission dichroism allows us to derive the energy splitting of the magnetic sublevels of the photoexcited core hole. Fe 3{ital p} photoemission dichroism probes directly the magnetic moment changes of iron atoms at Fe(100) surfaces as a function of structural disorder or sulfur segregation. The appearance of dichroism in the 2{ital p} photoemission of segregated sulfur atoms in the {ital c}(2{times}2)S/Fe(100) superstructure measures the magnetic-moment transfer and shows the possibility of investigating surface magnetochemistry in a very direct way.

  7. Did LIGO Detect Dark Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Simeon; Cholis, Ilias; Muñoz, Julian B; Ali-Haïmoud, Yacine; Kamionkowski, Marc; Kovetz, Ely D; Raccanelli, Alvise; Riess, Adam G

    2016-05-20

    We consider the possibility that the black-hole (BH) binary detected by LIGO may be a signature of dark matter. Interestingly enough, there remains a window for masses 20M_{⊙}≲M_{bh}≲100M_{⊙} where primordial black holes (PBHs) may constitute the dark matter. If two BHs in a galactic halo pass sufficiently close, they radiate enough energy in gravitational waves to become gravitationally bound. The bound BHs will rapidly spiral inward due to the emission of gravitational radiation and ultimately will merge. Uncertainties in the rate for such events arise from our imprecise knowledge of the phase-space structure of galactic halos on the smallest scales. Still, reasonable estimates span a range that overlaps the 2-53  Gpc^{-3} yr^{-1} rate estimated from GW150914, thus raising the possibility that LIGO has detected PBH dark matter. PBH mergers are likely to be distributed spatially more like dark matter than luminous matter and have neither optical nor neutrino counterparts. They may be distinguished from mergers of BHs from more traditional astrophysical sources through the observed mass spectrum, their high ellipticities, or their stochastic gravitational wave background. Next-generation experiments will be invaluable in performing these tests.

  8. Seebeck effect at the atomic scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eui-Sup; Cho, Sanghee; Lyeo, Ho-Ki; Kim, Yong-Hyun

    2014-04-04

    The atomic variations of electronic wave functions at the surface and electron scattering near a defect have been detected unprecedentedly by tracing thermoelectric voltages given a temperature bias [Cho et al., Nat. Mater. 12, 913 (2013)]. Because thermoelectricity, or the Seebeck effect, is associated with heat-induced electron diffusion, how the thermoelectric signal is related to the atomic-scale wave functions and what the role of the temperature is at such a length scale remain very unclear. Here we show that coherent electron and heat transport through a pointlike contact produces an atomic Seebeck effect, which is described by the mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient multiplied by an effective temperature drop at the interface. The mesoscopic Seebeck coefficient is approximately proportional to the logarithmic energy derivative of local density of states at the Fermi energy. We deduced that the effective temperature drop at the tip-sample junction could vary at a subangstrom scale depending on atom-to-atom interaction at the interface. A computer-based simulation method of thermoelectric images is proposed, and a point defect in graphene was identified by comparing experiment and the simulation of thermoelectric imaging.

  9. Atomic data for controlled fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, C.F.; Ray, J.A.; Ricci, E.; Wilker, M.I.; McDaniel, E.W.; Thomas, E.W.; Gilbody, H.B.

    1977-02-01

    Presented is an evaluated graphical and tabular compilation of atomic and molecular cross sections of interest to controlled thermonuclear research. The cross sections are tabulated and graphed as a function of energy for collision processes involving heavy particles, electrons, and photons with atoms and ions. Also included are sections on data for particle penetration through macroscopic matter, particle transport properties, particle interactions with surfaces, and pertinent charged particle nuclear cross sections and reaction rates. In most cases estimates have been made of the data accuracy.

  10. A first course in vibrations and waves

    CERN Document Server

    Samiullah, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    This book builds on introductory physics and emphasizes understanding of vibratory motion and waves based on first principles. The book is divided into three parts. Part I contains a preliminary chapter that serves as a review of relevant ideas of mechanics and complex numbers. Part II is devoted to a detailed discussion of vibrations of mechanical systems. This part covers a simple harmonic oscillator, coupled oscillators, normal coordinates, beaded string, continuous string, standing waves, and Fourier series. Part II ends with a presentation of stationary solutions of driven finite systems. Part III is concerned with waves. Here, the emphasis is on the discussion of common aspects of all types of waves. The applications to sound, electromagnetic, and matter waves are illustrated. The book also includes examples from water waves and electromagnetic waves on a transmission line. The emphasis of the book is to bring out the similarities among various types of waves. The book includes treatment of reflection a...

  11. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  12. Playing Pinball with Atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saedi, A.; van Houselt, Arie; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate the feasibility of controlling an atomic scale mechanical device by an external electrical signal. On a germanium substrate, a switching motion of pairs of atoms is induced by electrons that are directly injected into the atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. By precisely

  13. Atomic Physics 15: Proceedings of the Fifteenth International Conference on Atomic Physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Linden van den Heuvell, H. B.; Walraven, J. T. M.; Reynolds, M. W.

    1997-07-01

    The Table of Contents for the full book PDF is as follows: * Preface * Generation of a "Schrödinger cat" of radiation and observation of its decoherence * Synthesis of entangled states and quantum computing * Entangled states of atomic ions for quantum metrology and computation * Entanglement and indistinguishability: Coherence experiments with photon pairs and triplets * Atom optics as a testing ground for quantum chaos * Coherent ultra-bright XUV lasers and harmonics * Hollow atoms * Interdisciplinary experiments with polarized noble gases * The creation and study of Bose-Einstein condensation in a cold alkali vapor * oscopic quantum phenomena in trapped Bose-condensed gases * Doppler-free spectroscopy of trapped atomic hydrogen * QED and the ground state of helium * Towards coherent atomic samples using laser cooling * Bose-Einstein condensation of a weakly-interacting gas * Zeeman and his contemporaries: Dutch physics around 1900 * Zeeman's great discovery * The Zeeman effect: A tool for atom manipulation * The Zeeman effect a century later: New insights into classical physics * QED effects in few-electron high-Z systems * Lamb shift experiments on high-Z one- and two-electron systems * Fundamental constants of nature * Response of atoms in photonic lattices * Hydrogen-like systems and quantum electrodynamics * New experiments with atomic lattices bound by light * Bloch oscillations of atoms in an optical potential * Quantum decoherence and inertial sensing with atom interferometers * Quantum effects in He clusters * Atoms in super-intense radiation fields * Wave packet dynamics of excited atomic electrons in intense laser fields * Nonlinear laser-electron scattering * Comparing the antiproton and proton and progress toward cold antihydrogen * Author Index

  14. Premiere production d'atomes d'antimatiere au CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Press Office. Geneva

    1996-01-01

    In September 1995, Prof. Walter Oelert and an international team from J lich IKP-KFA, Erlangen-Nuernberg University, GSI Darmstadt and Genoa University succeeded for the first time in synthesising atoms of antimatter from their constituent antiparticles. Nine of these atoms were produced in collisions between antiprotons and xenon atoms over a period of three weeks. Each one remained in existence for about forty billionths of a second, travelled at nearly the speed of light over a path of ten metres and then annihilated with ordinary matter. The annihilation produced the signal which showed that the anti-atoms had been created.

  15. Fractional resonances in the atom-optical δ-kicked accelerator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saunders, Mark; Halkyard, P.L.; Gardiner, S.A.

    2009-01-01

    sensitive to the relative acceleration between the atomic gas and the pulsed optical standing wave. For particular values of the atomic acceleration, we observe fractional resonances. We investigate the effect of the initial atomic momentum width on the fractional resonances and quantify the sensitivity...

  16. Atom slowing via dispersive optical interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamamda, M.; Boustimi, M.; Correia, F.; Baudon, J.; Taillandier-Loize, T.; Dutier, G.; Perales, F.; Ducloy, M.

    2012-02-01

    A promising technique of atom slowing is proposed. It is based upon the dispersive interaction of atoms with optical potential pulses generated by a far-off-resonance standing wave modulated in time. Each pulse reduces the velocity by a small amount. By repeating the process thousands of times, the velocity can be lowered from several hundreds of meters per second down to almost zero, over a path as short as 20cm. In the absence of any random recoil process, the initial characteristics of the beam are preserved.

  17. A momentum filter for atomic gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoji; Yue, Xuguang; Zhai, Yueyang; Chen, Xuzong

    2013-06-01

    We propose and demonstrate a momentum filter for atomic gas-based on a designed Talbot-Lau interferometer. It consists of two identical optical standing-wave pulses separated by a delay equal to odd multiples of the half Talbot time. The one-dimensional momentum width along the long direction of a cigar-shaped condensate is rapidly and greatly purified to a minimum, which corresponds to the ground state energy of the confining trap in our experiment. We find good agreement between theoretical analysis and experimental results. The filter is also effective for non-condensed cold atoms and could be applied widely.

  18. Analytical evaluation of atomic form factors: Application to Rayleigh scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safari, L., E-mail: laleh.safari@ist.ac.at [IST Austria (Institute of Science and Technology Austria), Am Campus 1, 3400 Klosterneuburg (Austria); Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Santos, J. P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Amaro, P. [Laboratório de Instrumentação, Engenharia Biomédica e Física da Radiação (LIBPhys-UNL), Departamento de Física, Faculdade de Ciências e Tecnologia, FCT, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal); Physikalisches Institut, Universität Heidelberg, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Jänkälä, K. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Fratini, F. [Department of Physics, University of Oulu, Box 3000, FI-90014 Oulu (Finland); Institute of Atomic and Subatomic Physics, TU Wien, Stadionallee 2, 1020 Wien (Austria); Departamento de Física, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2015-05-15

    Atomic form factors are widely used for the characterization of targets and specimens, from crystallography to biology. By using recent mathematical results, here we derive an analytical expression for the atomic form factor within the independent particle model constructed from nonrelativistic screened hydrogenic wave functions. The range of validity of this analytical expression is checked by comparing the analytically obtained form factors with the ones obtained within the Hartee-Fock method. As an example, we apply our analytical expression for the atomic form factor to evaluate the differential cross section for Rayleigh scattering off neutral atoms.

  19. The exponential laws for emission and decaying of entangled atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sancho, Pedro

    2017-08-01

    The first photon emission and the disentanglement of a pair of identical bosonic atoms in excited entangled states follow an exponential law. We extend the theory to distinguishable and identical fermionic two-atom systems. As a byproduct of the analysis we determine the symmetries of the fermionic wave function. We also derive the emission distributions of excited atoms in product states, which must take into account the presence of simultaneous detections. Comparing both distributions reveals a direct manifestation of the modifications induced by entanglement on the atomic emission properties.

  20. Atoms, Light, and Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellac, Michel Le

    2014-11-01

    Up to now, the spatial properties of quantum particles played no more than a secondary role: we only needed the de Broglie relation (1.4) which gives the quantum particles wavelength, and our discussion of the quantum properties of photons was based mainly on their polarization, which is an internal degree of freedom of the photon. The probability amplitudes which we used did not involve the positions or velocities of the particles, which are spatial, or external degrees of freedom. In the present chapter, we shall introduce spatial dependence by defining probability amplitudes a(ěc r) that are functions of the position ěc r. In full generality, a(ěc r) is a complex number, but we shall avoid this complication and discuss only cases where the probability amplitudes may be taken real. For simplicity, we also limit ourselves to particles propagating along a straight line, which we take as the Ox axis: x will define the position of the particle and the corresponding probability amplitude will be a function of x, a(x). In our discussion, we shall need to introduce the so-called potential well, where a particle travels back and forth between two points on the straight line. One important particular case is the infinite well, where the particle is confined between two infinitely high walls over which it cannot pass. This example is not at all academic, and we shall meet it again in Chapter 6 when explaining the design of a laser diode! Furthermore, it will allow us to introduce the notion of energy level, to write down the Heisenberg inequalities, to understand the interaction of a light wave with an atom and finally to explain schematically the principles of the laser.

  1. Atomization characteristics of a prefilming airblast atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigeru; Koito, Atsushi; Hishiki, Manabu

    1992-01-01

    The size distribution of water test sprays generated by a prefilming airblast atomizer used for aeroengines was measured in swirling and non-swirling flows with the well established laser scattering particle sizing technique. Atomizing air velocity (or pressure difference) was varied in a range wider than the conditions of actual engines. The Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) decreased at approximately a 1.5 power of the atomizing air velocity, being a higher velocity index than the previously reported values of 1 to 1.2. It was unexpectedly found that the effect of the liquid/air flow ratio was small. Since swirling flow increased the SMD at lower air velocities yet decreased it at higher ones, it is suggested that the reverse flow near the nozzle pintle adversely affects atomization.

  2. Single atom electrochemical and atomic analytics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama

    In the past decade, advances in electron and scanning-probe based microscopies have led to a wealth of imaging and spectroscopic data with atomic resolution, yielding substantial insight into local physics and chemistry in a diverse range of systems such as oxide catalysts, multiferroics, manganites, and 2D materials. However, typical analysis of atomically resolved images is limited, despite the fact that image intensities and distortions of the atoms from their idealized positions contain unique information on the physical and chemical properties inherent to the system. Here, we present approaches to data mine atomically resolved images in oxides, specifically in the hole-doped manganite La5/8Ca3/8MnO3, on epitaxial films studied by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Through application of bias to the STM tip, atomic-scale electrochemistry is demonstrated on the manganite surface. STM images are then further analyzed through a suite of algorithms including 2D autocorrelations, sliding window Fourier transforms, and others, and can be combined with basic thermodynamic modelling to reveal relevant physical and chemical descriptors including segregation energies, existence and strength of atomic-scale diffusion barriers, surface energies and sub-surface chemical species identification. These approaches promise to provide tremendous insights from atomically resolved functional imaging, can provide relevant thermodynamic parameters, and auger well for use with first-principles calculations to yield quantitative atomic-level chemical identification and structure-property relations. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, BES, DOE. Research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which also provided support and is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  3. Multilevel Atomic Coherent States and Atomic Holomorphic Representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Haake, Fritz

    1996-01-01

    The notion of atomic coherent states is extended to the case of multilevel atom collective. Based on atomic coherent states, a holomorphic representation for atom collective states and operators is defined. An example is given to illustrate its application.

  4. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  5. Astronomical Constraints on Quantum Cold Dark Matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivey, Shane; Musielak, Z.; Fry, J.

    2012-01-01

    A model of quantum (`fuzzy') cold dark matter that accounts for both the halo core problem and the missing dwarf galaxies problem, which plague the usual cold dark matter paradigm, is developed. The model requires that a cold dark matter particle has a mass so small that its only allowed physical description is a quantum wave function. Each such particle in a galactic halo is bound to a gravitational potential that is created by luminous matter and by the halo itself, and the resulting wave function is described by a Schrödinger equation. To solve this equation on a galactic scale, we impose astronomical constraints that involve several density profiles used to fit data from simulations of dark matter galactic halos. The solutions to the Schrödinger equation are quantum waves which resemble the density profiles acquired from simulations, and they are used to determine the mass of the cold dark matter particle. The effects of adding certain types of baryonic matter to the halo, such as a dwarf elliptical galaxy or a supermassive black hole, are also discussed.

  6. Quantum principle of sensing gravitational waves: From the zero-point fluctuations to the cosmological stochastic background of spacetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Diego A.; Oniga, Teodora; Varcoe, Benjamin T. H.; Wang, Charles H.-T.

    2017-08-01

    We carry out a theoretical investigation on the collective dynamics of an ensemble of correlated atoms, subject to both vacuum fluctuations of spacetime and stochastic gravitational waves. A general approach is taken with the derivation of a quantum master equation capable of describing arbitrary confined nonrelativistic matter systems in an open quantum gravitational environment. It enables us to relate the spectral function for gravitational waves and the distribution function for quantum gravitational fluctuations and to indeed introduce a new spectral function for the zero-point fluctuations of spacetime. The formulation is applied to two-level identical bosonic atoms in an off-resonant high-Q cavity that effectively inhibits undesirable electromagnetic delays, leading to a gravitational transition mechanism through certain quadrupole moment operators. The overall relaxation rate before reaching equilibrium is found to generally scale collectively with the number N of atoms. However, we are also able to identify certain states of which the decay and excitation rates with stochastic gravitational waves and vacuum spacetime fluctuations amplify more significantly with a factor of N2. Using such favorable states as a means of measuring both conventional stochastic gravitational waves and novel zero-point spacetime fluctuations, we determine the theoretical lower bounds for the respective spectral functions. Finally, we discuss the implications of our findings on future observations of gravitational waves of a wider spectral window than currently accessible. Especially, the possible sensing of the zero-point fluctuations of spacetime could provide an opportunity to generate initial evidence and further guidance of quantum gravity.

  7. Janus Waves

    OpenAIRE

    Papazoglou, Dimitris G.; Fedorov, Vladimir Yu.; Tzortzakis, Stelios

    2016-01-01

    We show the existence of a family of waves that share a common interesting property affecting the way they propagate and focus. These waves are a superposition of twin waves, which are conjugate to each other under inversion of the propagation direction. In analogy to holography, these twin "real" and "virtual" waves are related respectively to the converging and the diverging part of the beam and can be clearly visualized in real space at two distinct foci under the action of a focusing lens...

  8. Manifestations of wave packet revivals in the moments of observables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudheesh, C.; Lakshmibala, S.; Balakrishnan, V.

    2004-08-01

    Using a generic Hamiltonian that models wave packet propagation in a Kerr-like medium, matter wave field dynamics in Bose-Einstein condensation, etc., we show that distinctive signatures of wave packet revivals and fractional revivals are displayed by the time evolution of the expectation values of appropriate observables, enabling selective identification of different fractional revivals.

  9. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The study of gas clouds orbiting in the outer regions of spiral galaxies has revealed that their gravitational at- traction is much larger than the stars alone can provide. Over the last twenty years, astronomers have been forced to postulate the presence of large quantities of 'dark matter' to explain their observations. They are ...

  10. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Fluorescence usually originates from the lowest excited electronic state (singlet) irrespective of the excitation and hence, the fluorescence spectrum of a molecule is characterized by a single band. However, what makes DMABN a very special molecule is that it exhibits dual fluorescence (i.e. emission of. Molecule Matters.

  11. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 14; Issue 4. Molecule Matters – van der Waals Molecules - History and Some Perspectives on Intermolecular Forces. E Arunan. Feature Article Volume 14 Issue 4 April 2009 pp 346-356 ...

  12. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 9. Molecule Matters - A Chromium Compound with a Quintuple Bond. K C Kumara Swamy. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 9 September 2006 pp 72-75. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  13. Science Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 2; Issue 2. Science Matters A Book for Curious Minds. Rohini Godbole. Book Review Volume 2 Issue 2 February 1997 pp 94-95. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: http://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/002/02/0094-0095 ...

  14. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 13; Issue 5. Molecule Matters - N-Heterocyclic Carbenes - The Stable Form of R2 C: Anil J Elias. Feature Article Volume 13 Issue 5 May 2008 pp 456-467. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Molecule Matters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 11; Issue 11. Molecule Matters - Carbon Dioxide: Molecular States and Beyond. T P Radhakrishnan. Feature Article Volume 11 Issue 11 November 2006 pp 88-92. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  16. Measurements of sub photon cavity fields by atom interferometry; Mesures de champs au niveau du photon par interferometrie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussenzveig, P

    1994-07-15

    Two neighbouring levels of a Rydberg atom coupled to a high quality-factor microwave cavity are an excellent tool for the study of matter-wave interactions at the most basic level. The system is so simple (a two-level atom coupled to a single mode of the field) that most phenomena can be described analytically. In this work we study dispersive effects of the non-resonant atom-cavity interaction. We have measured the linear dependence of the atomic energy level-shifts on the average photon number in the cavity. Light shifts induced by an average microwave field intensity weaker than a single photon have been observed. It has also been possible to measure the residual shift of one of the two levels of the atomic transition in the absence of an injected field: a Lamb shift due to a single mode of the field. A sensitive measurement of these energy shifts is performed by an interferometric method: the Ramsey separated oscillatory fields technique. Future experiments, in a situation of very weak field relaxation, are proposed. The quantum behavior of the field will then be dominant and it shall be possible to perform a Quantum Non-Demolition measurement of the photon number: since the interaction is non-resonant, the atoms can neither absorb nor emit photons in the cavity. The performed experiments demonstrate the sensitivity of the apparatus and set the stage for future non-demolition measurements and for the study of 'mesoscopic' Schroedinger cat states of the field, on the boundary between classical and quantum worlds. (author)

  17. Dark Matter in the Universe

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The question “What is the Universe made of?” is the longest outstanding problem in all of physics. Ordinary atoms only constitute 5% of the total, while the rest is of unknown composition. Already in 1933 Fritz Zwicky observed that the rapid motions of objects within clusters of galaxies were unexplained by the gravitation pull of luminous matter, and he postulated the existence of Dunkle Materie, or dark matter. A variety of dark matter candidates exist, including new fundamental particles already postulated in particle theories: axions and WIMPs (weakly interacting massive particles). Over the past 25 years, there has been a three pronged approach to WIMP detection: creating them at particle accelerators; searched for detection of astrophysical WIMPs scattering off of nuclei in underground detectors; and “indirect detection” of WIMP annihilation products (neutrinos, positrons, or photons). As yet the LHC has only placed bounds rather than finding discovery. For 13 years the DAMA experiment has proc...

  18. Shock-wave processing of C60 in hydrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biennier, L.; Jayaram, V.; Suas-David, N.; Georges, R.; Singh, M. Kiran; Arunan, E.; Kassi, S.; Dartois, E.; Reddy, K. P. J.

    2017-03-01

    Context. Interstellar carbonaceous particles and molecules are subject to intense shocks in astrophysical environments. Shocks induce a rapid raise in temperature and density which strongly affects the chemical and physical properties of both the gas and solid phases of the interstellar matter. Aims: The shock-induced thermal processing of C60 particles in hydrogen has been investigated in the laboratory under controlled conditions up to 3900 K with the help of a material shock-tube. Methods: The solid residues generated by the exposure of a C60/H2 mixture to a millisecond shock wave were collected and analyzed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, Raman micro-spectroscopy, and infrared micro-spectroscopy. The gaseous products were analyzed by Gas Chromatography and Cavity Ring Down Spectroscopy. Results: Volatile end-products appear above reflected shock gas temperatures of 2540 K and reveal the substantial presence of small molecules with one or two C atoms. These observations confirm the role played by the C2 radical as a major product of C60 fragmentation and less expectedly highlight the existence of a single C atom loss channel. Molecules with more than two carbon atoms are not observed in the post-shock gas. The analysis of the solid component shows that C60 particles are rapidly converted into amorphous carbon with a number of aliphatic bridges. Conclusions: The absence of aromatic CH stretches on the IR spectra indicates that H atoms do not link directly to aromatic cycles. The fast thermal processing of C60 in H2 over the 800-3400 K temperature range leads to amorphous carbon. The analysis hints at a collapse of the cage with the formation of a few aliphatic connections. A low amount of hydrogen is incorporated into the carbon material. This work extends the range of applications of shock tubes to studies of astrophysical interest.

  19. Advances in condensed matter optics

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Liangyao; Jiang, Xunya; Jin, Kuijuan; Liu, Hui; Zhao, Haibin

    2015-01-01

    This book describes some of the more recent progresses and developmentsin the study of condensed matter optics in both theoretic and experimental fields.It will help readers, especially graduate students and scientists who are studying and working in the nano-photonic field, to understand more deeply the characteristics of light waves propagated in nano-structure-based materials with potential applications in the future.

  20. Theory of Electronic, Atomic and Molecular Collisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    rare gas atoms (Section TV, Publications, No. 29). A strong forward peak and rapid angular variation, essentially a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern... triangular finite elements. Correct threshold behavior is built in by using momentum or wave number k as independent variables, and by starting the first...element at the continuum threshold. Since each triangular element has a finite and continuous HUbert transform, a smooth fit is obtained to both real

  1. A momentum filter for atomic gas

    OpenAIRE

    Xiong, Wei; Zhou, Xiaoji; Yue, Xuguang; Zhai, Yueyang; Chen, Xuzong

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a momentum filter for atomic gas based on a designed Talbot-Lau interferometer. It consists in two identical optical standing wave pulses separated by a delay equal to odd multiples of the half Talbot time. The one dimensional momentum width along the long direction of a cigar shape condensate is rapidly and greatly purified to a minimum, which corresponds to the ground state energy of the confining trap in our experiment. We find good agreement between theoretical ...

  2. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations

    OpenAIRE

    Cvitas, Marko T.; Soldan, Pavel; Hutson, Jeremy M.

    2005-01-01

    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  3. Rossby Waves

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    tut quiz Tutorial Quiz Interactive Media Element This interactive tutorial reviews the mechanisms of Rossby waves. Rossby waves in both the northern and southern hemispheres are considered. The interactions involve answering simple fill-in-the-blank questions. Diagrams are used to illustrate some of the concepts reviewed. MR4322 Dynamic Meteorology

  4. Wave Dragon

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tedd, James; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Friis-Madsen, Erik

    2008-01-01

    Since March 2003 a prototype of Wave Dragon has been tested in an inland sea in Denmark. This has been a great success with all subsystems tested and improved through working in an offshore environment. The project has proved the Wave Dragon device and has enabled the next stage, a production sized...

  5. Wave Star

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kramer, Morten; Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter

    Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star.......Nærværende rapport beskriver numeriske beregninger af den hydrodynamiske interaktion mellem 5 flydere i bølgeenergianlægget Wave Star....

  6. Coherent control of atoms and diatomic molecules with shaped ultrashort pulses; Manipulation coherente d'atomes et de molecules diatomiques avec des impulsions mises en forme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degert, J

    2002-12-15

    This thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental study of coherent control of atomic and molecular systems with shaped pulses. At first, we present several experiments of control of coherent transients in rubidium. These transients appear when a two-level system is excited by a perturbative chirped pulse, and are characterized by oscillations in the excited state population. For a strong chirp, we show that a phase step in the spectrum modifies the phase of the oscillations. Then, by direct analogy with Fresnel zone lens, we conceive a chirped pulse with a highly modulated amplitude, allowing to suppress destructive contributions to the population transfer. In a second set of experiments, we focus on quantum path interferences in two-photon transitions excited by linearly chirped pulses. Owing to the broad bandwidth of ultrashort pulses, sequential and direct excitation paths contribute to the excited state population. Oscillations resulting from interferences between these two paths are observed in atomic sodium. Moreover, we show that they are observable whatever the sign of chirp. Theoretically, we study the control of the predissociation of a benchmark diatomic molecule: NaI. Predissociation leads to matter wave interferences in the fragments distribution. First, we show that a suitably chosen probe pulse allows the observation of theses interferences. Next, using a sequence of control pulse inducing electronic transition, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate fragment energy distribution. (author)

  7. Structure and properties of atomic nanoclusters

    CERN Document Server

    Alonso, Julio A

    2005-01-01

    Atomic clusters are the bridge between molecules and the bulk matter. Following two key experiments - the observation of electronic shells in metallic clusters and the discovery of the C60 fullerence - the field of atomic clusters has experienced a rapid growth, and is now considered a mature field. The electrons of the cluster are confined to a small volume, hence, quantum effects are manifested on many properties of the clusters. Another interesting feature is that the properties often change in a non-smooth way as the number of atoms in the cluster increases. This book provides an updated overview of the field, and presents a detailed description of the structure and electronic properties of different types of clusters: Van der Waals clusters, metallic clusters, clusters of ionic materials and network clusters. The assembling of clusters is also considered, since specially stable clusters are expected to play a role in the future design and synthesis of new materials.

  8. A Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Fan; Taylor, Stephen F; Turner, Richard W; Lev, Benjamin L

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity, high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented DC-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides a 100x improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity over previous atomic scanning probe magnetometers. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnet...

  9. Ionization of atoms by slow heavy particles

    CERN Document Server

    Roberts, B M; Gribakin, G F

    2016-01-01

    Atoms and molecules can become ionized during the scattering of a slow, heavy particle off a bound electron. Such an interaction involving leptophilic weakly interacting massive particles (WIMPs) is a promising possible explanation for the anomalous 9 sigma annual modulation in the DAMA dark matter direct detection experiment [R. Bernabei et al., Eur. Phys. J. C 73, 2648 (2013)]. We demonstrate the applicability of the Born approximation for such an interaction by showing its equivalence to the semiclassical adiabatic treatment of atomic ionization by slow-moving WIMPs. Conventional wisdom has it that the ionization probability for such a process should be exponentially small. We show, however, that due to nonanalytic, cusp-like behaviour of Coulomb functions close to the nucleus this suppression is removed, leading to an effective atomic structure enhancement. We also show that electron relativistic effects actually give the dominant contribution to such a process, meaning that nonrelativistic calculations m...

  10. Modern atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant

    2015-01-01

    Much of our understanding of physics in the last 30-plus years has come from research on atoms, photons, and their interactions. Collecting information previously scattered throughout the literature, Modern Atomic Physics provides students with one unified guide to contemporary developments in the field. After reviewing metrology and preliminary material, the text explains core areas of atomic physics. Important topics discussed include the spontaneous emission of radiation, stimulated transitions and the properties of gas, the physics and applications of resonance fluorescence, coherence, cooling and trapping of charged and neutral particles, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments. Covering standards, a different way of looking at a photon, stimulated radiation, and frequency combs, the appendices avoid jargon and use historical notes and personal anecdotes to make the topics accessible to non-atomic physics students. Written by a leader in atomic and optical physics, this text gives a state-of-the...

  11. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  12. Controlling interactions between highly magnetic atoms with Feshbach resonances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotochigova, Svetlana

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews current experimental and theoretical progress in the study of dipolar quantum gases of ground and meta-stable atoms with a large magnetic moment. We emphasize the anisotropic nature of Feshbach resonances due to coupling to fast-rotating resonant molecular states in ultracold s-wave collisions between magnetic atoms in external magnetic fields. The dramatic differences in the distribution of resonances of magnetic (7)S3 chromium and magnetic lanthanide atoms with a submerged 4f shell and non-zero electron angular momentum is analyzed. We focus on dysprosium and erbium as important experimental advances have been recently made to cool and create quantum-degenerate gases for these atoms. Finally, we describe progress in locating resonances in collisions of meta-stable magnetic atoms in electronic P-states with ground-state atoms, where an interplay between collisional anisotropies and spin-orbit coupling exists.

  13. Solar Spectroscopy: Atomic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, H.; Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A Greek philosopher called DEMOCRITUS (c. 460-370 BC) first introduced the concept of atoms (which means indivisible). His atoms do not precisely correspond to our atoms of today, which are not indivisible, but made up of a nucleus (protons with positive charge and neutrons which have no charge) and orbiting electrons (with negative charge). Indeed, in the solar atmosphere, the temperature is suc...

  14. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    1997-01-01

    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  15. The cosmic cocktail three parts dark matter

    CERN Document Server

    Freese, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    The ordinary atoms that make up the known universe-from our bodies and the air we breathe to the planets and stars-constitute only 5 percent of all matter and energy in the cosmos. The rest is known as dark matter and dark energy, because their precise identities are unknown. The Cosmic Cocktail is the inside story of the epic quest to solve one of the most compelling enigmas of modern science - what is the universe made of? - told by one of today's foremost pioneers in the study of dark matter. Blending cutting-edge science with her own behind-the-scenes insights as a leading researcher in the

  16. Do atoms and anti-atoms obey the same laws of physics?

    CERN Multimedia

    Jeffrey Hangst

    2010-01-01

    ALPHA physicists have recently succeeded in trapping anti-atoms for the first time. Being able to hold on to the simplest atoms of antimatter is an important step towards the collaboration’s ultimate goal: precision spectroscopic comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen. The question they are seeking to answer: do atoms and anti-atoms obey the same laws of physics? The Standard Model says that they must.   The ALPHA Collaboration celebrates the successful results. The ALPHA collaboration has taken it up a gear and trapped 38 atoms of antihydrogen for the first time. Antihydrogen atoms have been mass-produced at the Antiproton Decelerator (AD) since 2002, when ATHENA (ALPHA’s predecessor) and ATRAP learned how to mix clouds of antiprotons and positrons at cryogenic temperatures. However, these anti-atoms were not confined, and flew off in a few microseconds to meet their fate: annihilation with matter in the walls of the experiment. ALPHA uses antiprotons produced at...

  17. Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Kollár, Alicia J.; Taylor, Stephen F.; Turner, Richard W.; Lev, Benjamin L.

    2017-03-01

    Microscopic imaging of local magnetic fields provides a window into the organizing principles of complex and technologically relevant condensed-matter materials. However, a wide variety of intriguing strongly correlated and topologically nontrivial materials exhibit poorly understood phenomena outside the detection capability of state-of-the-art high-sensitivity high-resolution scanning probe magnetometers. We introduce a quantum-noise-limited scanning probe magnetometer that can operate from room-to-cryogenic temperatures with unprecedented dc-field sensitivity and micron-scale resolution. The Scanning Quantum Cryogenic Atom Microscope (SQCRAMscope) employs a magnetically levitated atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), thereby providing immunity to conductive and blackbody radiative heating. The SQCRAMscope has a field sensitivity of 1.4 nT per resolution-limited point (approximately 2 μ m ) or 6 nT /√{Hz } per point at its duty cycle. Compared to point-by-point sensors, the long length of the BEC provides a naturally parallel measurement, allowing one to measure nearly 100 points with an effective field sensitivity of 600 pT /√{Hz } for each point during the same time as a point-by-point scanner measures these points sequentially. Moreover, it has a noise floor of 300 pT and provides nearly 2 orders of magnitude improvement in magnetic flux sensitivity (down to 10-6 Φ0/√{Hz } ) over previous atomic probe magnetometers capable of scanning near samples. These capabilities are carefully benchmarked by imaging magnetic fields arising from microfabricated wire patterns in a system where samples may be scanned, cryogenically cooled, and easily exchanged. We anticipate the SQCRAMscope will provide charge-transport images at temperatures from room temperature to 4 K in unconventional superconductors and topologically nontrivial materials.

  18. On the localization of Rydberg wave packets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Supriya; Saha, Aparna; Talukdar, Benoy

    2013-11-01

    The Husimi distribution function is used to study the phase-space localization of Rydberg wave packets produced in a quasi one-dimensional hydrogen atom by the impact of half-cycle pulses (HCPs). The wave packet in a single-kicked atom exhibits transient phase-space localization. A weak second time-delayed HCP is found to extend the time of localization provided it is applied when the wave packet is near the inner turning point of the classical electron trajectory and momentum-transfer vectors of the first and the second kicks have the same sign. Alternatively, application of a similar second HCP increases the atomic ionization probability if the momentum-transfer vectors of the two kicks have opposite directions.

  19. Atoms and bonds in molecules and chemical explanations

    OpenAIRE

    Causá, Mauro; Savin, Andreas; Silvi, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    International audience; The concepts of atoms and bonds in molecules which appeared in chemistry during the XIX th century are unavoidable to explain the structure and the reactivity of the matter at a chemical level of understanding. Although they can be criticized from a strict reduc-tionist point of view, because neither atoms nor bonds are observable in the sense of quantum mechanics, the topological and statistical interpretative approaches of quantum chemistry (QTAIM, ELF and MPD) provi...

  20. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip

    2007-01-01

    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.