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Sample records for atomic energy commission

  1. A History of the Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Alice L.

    1983-07-01

    This pamphlet traces the history of the US Atomic Energy Commission's twenty-eight year stewardship of the Nation's nuclear energy program, from the signing of the Atomic Energy Act on August 1, 1946 to the signing of the Energy Reorganization Act on October 11, 1974. The Commission's early concentration on the military atom produced sophisticated nuclear weapons for the Nation's defense and made possible the creation of a fleet of nuclear submarines and surface ships. Extensive research in the nuclear sciences resulted in the widespread application of nuclear technology for scientific, medical and industrial purposes, while the passage of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954 made possible the development of a nuclear industry, and enabled the United States to share the new technology with other nations.

  2. Delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC)

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loiez

    2002-01-01

    L. to r.: Dr Hafeez Hoorani (NCP) and Dr Michel Della Negra, Spokesman, CMS experiment with a delegation from the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission: Mr Saeed Ahmed, Director SES, PAEC, Mr Muhammad Naeem, Director PWI and Mr Javed Iqleem, Deputy Chairman PAEC visiting the CMS magnet assembly hall at Point 5.

  3. Mr Parvez Butt, Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC), Pakistan

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr. Parvez Butt, Chairman Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (standing 4th from left) with his delegation and ATLAS team standing in front of the Barrel Supports manufactured in HMC3 - Pakistan.

  4. Mr. Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Mr. Malik Adalat Khan, Director Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    Photo 01: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (centre), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva and Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson. Photo 02: Mr Ansar Shamsi, Member Finance, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (2nd form left), visiting the ATLAS Tile Calorimeter in building 191 with, from left to right, Mr Syed Shaukat Hussain, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Dr Peter Jenni, ATLAS Spokesperson; Dr David Jacobs and Dr Philip Bryant, Joint Pakistan-CERN Committee.

  5. Geothermal research and development program of the US Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, L. B.

    1974-01-01

    Within the overall federal geothermal program, the Atomic Energy Commission has chosen to concentrate on development of resource utilization and advanced research and technology as the areas most suitable to the expertise of its staff and that of the National Laboratories. The Commission's work in geothermal energy is coordinated with that of other agencies by the National Science Foundation, which has been assigned lead agency by the Office of Management and Budget. The objective of the Commission's program, consistent with the goals of the total federal program is to facilitate, through technological advancement and pilot plant operations, achievement of substantial commercial production of electrical power and utilization of geothermal heat by the year 1985. This will hopefully be accomplished by providing, in conjunction with industry, credible information on the economic operation and technological reliability of geothermal power and use of geothermal heat.

  6. Atomic energy

    CERN Multimedia

    1996-01-01

    Interviews following the 1991 co-operation Agreement between the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) concerning the participation in the Large Hadron Collider Project (LHC) . With Chidambaram, R, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission and Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India and Professor Llewellyn-Smith, Christopher H, Director-General, CERN.

  7. U.S. Radioecology Research Programs of the Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, D.E.

    2004-01-12

    This report contains two companion papers about radiological and environmental research that developed out of efforts of the Atomic Energy Commission in the late 1940s and the 1950s. Both papers were written for the Joint U.S.-Russian International Symposium entitled ''History of Atomic Energy Projects in the 1950s--Sociopolitical, Environmental, and Engineering Lessons Learned,'' which was hosted by the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis in Laxemberg, Austria, in October 1999. Because the proceedings of this symposium were not published, these valuable historic reviews and their references are being documented as a single ORNL report. The first paper, ''U.S. Radioecology Research Programs Initiated in the 1950s,'' written by David Reichle and Stanley Auerbach, deals with the formation of the early radioecological research programs at the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's nuclear production facilities at the Clinton Engineering Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee; at the Hanford Plant in Richland, Washington; and at the Savannah River Plant in Georgia. These early radioecology programs were outgrowths of the environmental monitoring programs at each site and eventually developed into the world renowned National Laboratory environmental program sponsored by the Office of Biological and Environmental Research of the U.S. Department of Energy. The original version of the first paper was presented by David Reichle at the symposium. The second paper, ''U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s,'' summarizes all the environmental research programs supported by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission in the 1950s and discusses their present-day legacies. This paper is a modified, expanded version of a paper that was published in September 1997 in a volume commemorating the 50th anniversary symposium of the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of

  8. Quality assurance and quality control programme in the Personal Dosimetry Department of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamenopoulou, V; Drikos, G; Carinou, E; Papadomarkaki, E; Askounis, P; Kyrgiakou, H; Kefalonitis, N

    2002-01-01

    A quality assurance (QA) and quality control (QC) programme was applied to the personal monitoring department (TLD based) of the Greek Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC). This programme was designed according to the recommendations of international bodies such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the European Commission (CEC). This paper deals with the presentation of the QA/QC programme which includes administrative data and information, technical checking of the equipment, acceptance tests of new equipment and dosemeters, issuing and processing of the dosemeters, dose evaluation, record keeping and reporting, traceability and reproducibility, handling of complaints, internal reviews and external audits.

  9. Background report for the formerly utilized Manhattan Engineer District/Atomic Energy Commission sites program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    The Department of Energy is conducting a program to determine radiological conditions at sites formerly used by the Army Corps of Engineers' Manhattan Engineer District and the Atomic Energy Commission in the early years of nuclear energy development. Also included in the program are sites used in the Los Alamos plutonium development program and the Trinity atomic bomb test site. Materials, equipment, buildings, and land became contaminated, primarily with naturally occurring radioactive nuclides. They were later decontaminated in accordance with the standards and survey methods in use at that time. Since then, however, radiological criteria, and proposed guidelines for release of such sites for unrestricted use have become more stringent as research on the effects of low-level radiation has progressed. In addition, records documenting some of these decontamination efforts cannot be found, and the final radiological conditions of the sites could not be adequately determined from the records. As a result, the Formerly Utilized Sites Program was initiated in 1974 to identify these formerly used sites and to reevaluate their radiological status. This report covers efforts through June 1980 to determine the radiological status of sites for which the existing conditions could not be clearly defined. Principal contractor facilities and associated properties have already been identified and activities are continuing to identify additional sites. Any new sites located will probably be subcontractor facilities and areas used for disposal of contractor waste or equipment; however, only limited information regarding this equipment and material has been collected to date. As additional information becomes available, supplemental reports will be published.

  10. Nuclear energy in the service of biomedicine: the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's radioisotope program, 1946-1950.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creager, Angela N H

    2006-01-01

    The widespread adoption of radioisotopes as tools in biomedical research and therapy became one of the major consequences of the "physicists' war" for postwar life science. Scientists in the Manhattan Project, as part of their efforts to advocate for civilian uses of atomic energy after the war, proposed using infrastructure from the wartime bomb project to develop a government-run radioisotope distribution program. After the Atomic Energy Bill was passed and before the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) was formally established, the Manhattan Project began shipping isotopes from Oak Ridge. Scientists and physicians put these reactor-produced isotopes to many of the same uses that had been pioneered with cyclotron-generated radioisotopes in the 1930s and early 1940s. The majority of early AEC shipments were radioiodine and radiophosphorus, employed to evaluate thyroid function, diagnose medical disorders, and irradiate tumors. Both researchers and politicians lauded radioisotopes publicly for their potential in curing diseases, particularly cancer. However, isotopes proved less successful than anticipated in treating cancer and more successful in medical diagnostics. On the research side, reactor-generated radioisotopes equipped biologists with new tools to trace molecular transformations from metabolic pathways to ecosystems. The U.S. government's production and promotion of isotopes stimulated their consumption by scientists and physicians (both domestic and abroad), such that in the postwar period isotopes became routine elements of laboratory and clinical use. In the early postwar years, radioisotopes signified the government's commitment to harness the atom for peace, particularly through contributions to biology, medicine, and agriculture.

  11. Implementation of dose management system at radiation protection board of Ghana Atomic Energy Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasford, F; Amoako, J K; Darko, E O; Emi-Reynolds, G; Sosu, E K; Otoo, F; Asiedu, G O

    2012-01-01

    The dose management system (DMS) is a computer software developed by the International Atomic Energy Agency for managing data on occupational exposure to radiation sources and intake of radionuclides. It is an integrated system for the user-friendly storage, processing and control of all existing internal and external dosimetry data. The Radiation Protection Board (RPB) of the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission has installed, customised, tested and using the DMS as a comprehensive DMS to improve personnel and area monitoring in the country. Personnel dose records from the RPBs database from 2000 to 2009 are grouped into medical, industrial and education/research sectors. The medical sector dominated the list of monitored institutions in the country over the 10-y period representing ∼87 %, while the industrial and education/research sectors represent ∼9 and ∼4 %, respectively. The number of monitored personnel in the same period follows a similar trend with medical, industrial and education/research sectors representing ∼74, ∼17 and ∼9 %, respectively. Analysis of dose data for 2009 showed that there was no instance of a dose above the annual dose limit of 20 mSv, however, 2.7 % of the exposed workers received individual annual doses >1 mSv. The highest recorded individual annual dose and total collective dose in all sectors were 4.73 mSv and 159.84 man Sv, respectively. Workers in the medical sector received higher individual doses than in the other two sectors, and average dose per exposed worker in all sectors is 0.25 mSv.

  12. Sampling and analysis plan for the former Atomic Energy Commission bus lot property

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielson, R.R.

    1998-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan (SAP) presents the rationale and strategy for the sampling and analysis activities proposed in support of an initial investigation of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) bus lot property currently owned by Battelle Memorial Institute. The purpose of the proposed sampling and analysis activity is to investigate the potential for contamination above established action levels. The SAP will provide defensible data of sufficient quality and quantity to support recommendations of whether any further action within the study area is warranted. To assist in preparing sampling plans and reports, the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) has published Guidance on Sampling and Data Analysis Methods. To specifically address sampling plans for petroleum-contaminated sites, Ecology has also published Guidance for Remediation of Petroleum Contaminated Sites. Both documents were used as guidance in preparing this plan. In 1992, a soil sample was taken within the current study area as part of a project to remove two underground storage tanks (USTs) at Battelle`s Sixth Street Warehouse Petroleum Dispensing Station (Section 1.3). The results showed that the sample contained elevated levels of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in the heavy distillate range. This current study was initiated in part as a result of that discovery. The following topics are considered: the historical background of the site, current site conditions, previous investigations performed at the site, an evaluation based on the available data, and the contaminants of potential concern (COPC).

  13. Towards Establishing Capacity for Biological Dosimetry at Ghana Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achel, Daniel Gyingiri; Achoribo, Elom; Agbenyegah, Sandra; Adaboro, Rudolph M.; Donkor, Shadrack; Adu-Bobi, Nana A. K.; Agyekum, Akwasi A.; Akuamoa, Felicia; Tagoe, Samuel N.; Kyei, Kofi A.; Yarney, Joel; Serafin, Antonio; Akudugu, John M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was not only to obtain basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry at the Ghana Atomic Energy Commission (GAEC) but also to stimulate interest in biological dosimetry research in Ghana and Sub-Saharan Africa. Peripheral blood from four healthy donors was exposed to different doses (0–6 Gy) of gamma rays from a radiotherapy machine and lymphocytes were subsequently stimulated, cultured, and processed according to standard protocols for 48–50 h. Processed cells were analyzed for the frequencies of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes. Radiation dose delivered to the experimental model was verified using GafChromic® EBT films in parallel experiments. Basic technical prerequisites for the establishment of capacity of biological dosimetry in the GAEC have been realized and expertise in the dicentric chromosome assay consolidated. We successfully obtained preliminary cytogenetic data for a dose-response relationship of the irradiated blood lymphocytes. The data strongly indicate the existence of significant linear (α) and quadratic (β) components and are consistent with those published for the production of chromosome aberrations in comparable absorbed dose ranges. PMID:28217279

  14. Aerial Measuring System (AMS)/Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC) Joint Comparison Study Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasiolek, P. [National Security Technologies, LLC. (NSTec), Mercury, NV (United States); Halevy, I. [Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC), Yavne (Israel)

    2013-12-23

    Under the 13th Bilateral Meeting to Combat Nuclear Terrorism conducted on January 8–9, 2013, the committee approved the development of a cost-effective proposal to conduct a Comparison Study of the Aerial Measuring System (AMS) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) and Israel Atomic Energy Commission (IAEC). The study was to be held at the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL), Nellis Air Force Base, Las Vegas, Nevada, with measurements at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The goal of the AMS and the IAEC joint survey was to compare the responses of the two agencies’ aerial radiation detection systems to varied radioactive surface contamination levels and isotopic composition experienced at the NNSS, and the differing data processing techniques utilized by the respective teams. Considering that for the comparison both teams were using custom designed and built systems, the main focus of the short campaign was to investigate the impact of the detector size and data analysis techniques used by both teams. The AMS system, SPectral Advanced Radiological Computer System, Model A (SPARCS-A), designed and built by RSL, incorporates four different size sodium iodide (NaI) crystals: 1" × 1", 2" × 4" × 4", 2" × 4" ×16", and an “up-looking” 2" × 4" × 4". The Israel AMS System, Air RAM 2000, was designed by the IAEC Nuclear Research Center – Negev (NRCN) and built commercially by ROTEM Industries (Israel) and incorporates two 2" diameter × 2" long NaI crystals. The operational comparison was conducted at RSL-Nellis in Las Vegas, Nevada, during week of June 24–27, 2013. The Israeli system, Air RAM 2000, was shipped to RSL-Nellis and mounted together with the DOE SPARCS on a DOE Bell-412 helicopter for a series of aerial comparison measurements at local test ranges, including the Desert Rock Airport and Area 3 at the NNSS. A 4-person Israeli team from the IAEC NRCN supported the activity together with 11

  15. Memorandum of understanding between the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the United States Atomic Energy Commission [Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document is a memorandum of an agreement between the U.S. Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife and the US Atomic Energy Commission. It states that the BSFW...

  16. U.S. Atomic Energy Commission's Environmental Research Programs Established in the 1950s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichle, D.E.

    1999-09-22

    In 1946 the United States (U.S.) Congress passed the Atomic Energy Act and with it created the Atomic Energy Commission. For the ensuing half-century the AEC and its successors have pursued biological and environmental research with an unwavering mandate to exploit the use of fissionable and radioactive material for medical purposes and, at the same time, to ensure the health of it's workers, the public, and the environment during energy technology development and use (AEC. 1961; DOE 1983; DOE, 1997). The following pages are testimony to the success of this undeviating vision (Figure 1). From the early days of the AEC, cooperation has also linked researchers from the national laboratories, the academic community, and the private sector. The AEC-sponsored research both at national laboratories and universities, and also supported graduate students to develop a cadre of health physicists, radiation biologists, and nuclear engineers. Coordinating these diverse performers has been crucial to the unique teaming that has made many of the successes possible. The success of the biological and environmental research program has often been shared with other federal agencies. The future will demand even stronger and more substantive intraagency, interagency, and international collaborations.

  17. Training of manpower resources at the National Atomic Energy Commission of Argentina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosis de Libanati, N. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Dept. de Capacitacion y Evaluacion de Personal)

    The main factors that influenced the development of the manpower resources required by CNEA over its thirty years of life are discussed: a careful specialized training; basic and applied research groups as a basic support for the other activities; teams responsible for the applications and for the concrete realizations of increasing complexity carried out by CNEA, culminating with the nuclear power plants; CNEA's relations with the national educational system regarding nuclear specialization; CNEA's international interaction, either by the participation of foreigners in its internal courses, by the commissioning of Argentinians abroad, and by the cooperation with international agencies in organizing courses, seminars and conferences; the influence of the radiological protection and nuclear safety requirements on the training programs, on nuclear industry, and on the users of radioisotopes and radiations; the importance of feeding the results of each activity back into the system so as to obtain a dynamic programming adapted to the requirements at all times.

  18. A STUDY ON THE UNCERTAINTY FOR THE ROUTINE DOSIMETRY SERVICE AT THE LEBANESE ATOMIC ENERGY COMMISSION USING HARSHAW 8814 DOSEMETERS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizk, C; Vanhavere, F

    2016-09-01

    The personal dosimetry service at the Lebanese Atomic Energy Commission uses Harshaw 8814 cards with LiF:Mg,Ti detectors. The dosemeters are read in a Harshaw 6600 TLD reader. In the process of accreditation for the ISO 17025 standard((1)), different influence factors are investigated and the uncertainty has been determined. The Individual Monitoring Service Laboratory-LAEC reads the dosemeters once it receives them from the customer, and new cards are immediately given for the next wearing period. The wearing period is 2 months. The dosemeter results are reported to the customers without background subtraction. Both Hp(10) and Hp(0.07) are reported. For this paper, only the uncertainty on Hp(10) will be focussed. The following factors are taken into account for the uncertainty: calibration factor, dosemeter homogeneity and repeatability, energy and angular dependence, non-linearity, temperature dependence, etc. Also the detection limit was determined. One of the important factors is the correction for fading. This fading correction depends on the procedure used such as storage temperatures, the time-temperature profile of the read-out, pre-heat and annealing conditions. Pre- and post-irradiation fading curves were measured for a storage period up to 182 d at room temperature (15-25°C). The resulting final combined standard uncertainty on the reported doses is of the order of 24 % for doses of ∼1 mSv.

  19. Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2000-01-01

    Visit of Mr. Susumu Yoda, Japanese Atomic Energy Commission, Mr. Nobuo Natsume, Vice-President, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Japan (CRIEPI), Mr. Nobuya Yoshiki, CRIEPI, Mrs. Seiko Ichikawa, Interpreter, with Mr. Taylor of CERN, visiting SM18

  20. 25 September 2012 - Signature of an Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, represented by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman A. Parvez and CERN, represented by its Director-General R. Heuer.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2012-01-01

    25 September 2012 - Signature of an Agreement between the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, represented by the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission Chairman A. Parvez and CERN, represented by its Director-General R. Heuer.

  1. Operational accidents and radiation exposure experience within the United States Atomic Energy Commission, 1943--1975. [AEC health and safety during first 32 years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    The occupational injury and fatality experience during 32 years of the development of the atomic energy industry under the direction of the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) and its predecessor, the Manhattan Engineering District, is reviewed. Data are included on the cause of all accidents, including fires and transportation accidents, and the cost of AEC property damage. Fatalities of AEC and contractor personnel from all causes during the 32-year period totaled 321, of which 184 occurred in construction; 121 in AEC operations such as production, research, and services; and 16 in Government functions. There were 19,225 lost-time injuries attributable to all accidental causes, or a 32-year frequency rate of 2.75 based on the number of injuries per million man-hours. There were six deaths attributable to nuclear causes, thee of which were due to blast and flying missiles and three caused by whole-body radiation exposure. Forty-one workers were involved in lost-time radiation accidents, of whom 26 showed clinical manifestations attributable to radiation, resulting in permanent partial-disability of three workers and the loss of a digit by four workers, while the others did not develop evidence of radiation injury. (CH)

  2. Pegram Nuclear Physics Laboratories Progress Report for January 1969 through December 1969 to the United States Atomic Energy Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    1969-12-01

    4 m N4 P 0Ca 40 V’ - ) 0 ein M Y Cd 116 Sternheimer (I) corrections are an example, considerably decrease the confidence and precision with which...interaction with this distribution can be accurately calculated. This suggests that muonic atoms may provide a means of testing Sternheimer as well as...and the first excited states. A satisfactory fit to the experimental data has IR. M. Sternheimer , Phys. Rev. 105, 158 (1957 and earlier papers. 2H. L

  3. Atomic Data: Division B / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    CERN Document Server

    Nave, Gillian; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text. Comprehensive lists of references for atomic spectra can be found in the NIST Atomic Spectra Bibliographic Databases http://physics.nist.gov/asbib.

  4. Atomic Data: Division B / Commission 14 / Working Group Atomic Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nave, Gillian; Nahar, Sultana; Zhao, Gang

    2015-01-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text. Comprehensive...

  5. Solid cancer mortality associated with chronic external radiation exposure at the French atomic energy commission and nuclear fuel company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metz-Flamant, C; Samson, E; Caër-Lorho, S; Acker, A; Laurier, D

    2011-07-01

    Studies of nuclear workers make it possible to directly quantify the risks associated with ionizing radiation exposure at low doses and low dose rates. Studies of the CEA (Commissariat à l'Energie Atomique) and AREVA Nuclear Cycle (AREVA NC) cohort, currently the most informative such group in France, describe the long-term risk to nuclear workers associated with external exposure. Our aim is to assess the risk of mortality from solid cancers among CEA and AREVA NC nuclear workers and its association with external radiation exposure. Standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) were calculated and internal Poisson regressions were conducted, controlling for the main confounding factors [sex, attained age, calendar period, company and socioeconomic status (SES)]. During the period 1968-2004, there were 2,035 solid cancers among the 36,769 CEA-AREVA NC workers. Cumulative external radiation exposure was assessed for the period 1950-2004, and the mean cumulative dose was 12.1 mSv. Mortality rates for all causes and all solid cancers were both significantly lower in this cohort than in the general population. A significant excess of deaths from pleural cancer, not associated with cumulative external dose, was observed, probably due to past asbestos exposure. We observed a significant excess of melanoma, also unassociated with dose. Although cumulative external dose was not associated with mortality from all solid cancers, the central estimated excess relative risk (ERR) per Sv of 0.46 for solid cancer mortality was higher than the 0.26 calculated for male Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors 50 years or older and exposed at the age of 30 years or older. The modification of our results after stratification for SES demonstrates the importance of this characteristic in occupational studies, because it makes it possible to take class-based lifestyle differences into account, at least partly. These results show the great potential of a further joint international study of

  6. The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission in retrospect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Frank W.

    1998-01-01

    For 50 years, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), have conducted epidemiological and genetic studies of the survivors of the atomic bombs and of their children. This research program has provided the primary basis for radiation health standards. Both ABCC (1947–1975) and RERF (1975 to date) have been a joint enterprise of the United States (through the National Academy of Sciences) and of Japan. ABCC began in devastated, occupied Japan. Its mission had to be defined and refined. Early research revealed the urgent need for long term study. In 1946, a Directive of President Truman enjoined the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences to develop the program. By 1950, ABCC staff exceeded 1,000, and clinical and genetic studies were underway. Budgetary difficulties and other problems almost forced closure in 1953. In 1955, the Francis Report led to a unified epidemiological study. Much progress was made in the next decade, but changing times required founding of a binational nonprofit organization (RERF) with equal participation by Japan and the United States. New programs have been developed and existing ones have been extended in what is the longest continuing health survey ever undertaken. PMID:9576898

  7. Coordination of the U.S. DOE-Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) science and technology implementing arrangement. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebadian, M.A.

    1998-01-01

    In 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Management (EM) and delegated to the office the responsibility of cleaning up the US nuclear weapons complex. EM`s mission has three primary activities: (1) to assess, remediate, and monitor contaminated sites and facilities; (2) to store, treat, and dispose of wastes from past and current operations; and (3) to develop and implement innovative technologies for environmental remediation. To this end, EM has established domestic and international cooperative technology development programs, including one with the Republic of Argentina. Cooperating with Argentine scientific institutes and industry meets US cleanup objectives by: (1) identifying and accessing Argentine EM-related technologies, thereby leveraging investments and providing cost-savings; (2) improving access to technical information, scientific expertise, and technologies applicable to EM needs; and (3) fostering the development of innovative environmental technologies by increasing US private sector opportunities in Argentina in EM-related areas. Florida International University`s Hemispheric Center for Environmental Technology (FIU-HCET) serves as DOE-OST`s primary technology transfer agent. FIU-HCET acts as the coordinating and managing body for the Department of Energy (DOE)-Argentina National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) Arrangement. Activities include implementing standard operating procedures, tracking various technical projects, hosting visiting scientists, advising DOE of potential joint projects based on previous studies, and demonstrating/transferring desired technology. HCET hosts and directs the annual Joint Coordinating Committee for Radioactive and Mixed Waste Management meeting between the DOE and CNEA representatives. Additionally, HCET is evaluating the possibility of establishing similar arrangements with other Latin American countries.

  8. Review of the International Atomic Energy Agency International database on reactor pressure vessel materials and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission/Oak Ridge National Laboratory embrittlement data base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, J.A.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1998-02-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has supported neutron radiation effects information exchange through meetings and conferences since the mid-1960s. Through an International Working Group on Reliability of Reactor Pressure Components, information exchange and research activities were fostered through the Coordinated Research Program (CRP) sponsored by the IAEA. The final CRP meeting was held in November 1993, where it was recommended that the IAEA coordinate the development of an International Database on Reactor Pressure Vessel Material (IDRPVM) as the first step in generating an International Database on Aging Management. The purpose of this study was to provide special technical assistance to the NRC in monitoring and evaluating the IAEA activities in developing the IAEA IDRPVM, and to compare the IDRPVM with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Power Reactor Embrittlement Data Base (PR-EDB) and provide recommendations for improving the PR-EDB. A first test version of the IDRPVM was distributed at the First Meeting of Liaison Officers to the IAEA IDRPVM, in November 1996. No power reactor surveillance data were included in this version; the testing data were mainly from CRP Phase III data. Therefore, because of insufficient data and a lack of power reactor surveillance data received from the IAEA IDRPVM, the comparison is made based only on the structure of the IDRPVM. In general, the IDRPVM and the EDB have very similar data structure and data format. One anticipates that because the IDRPVM data will be collected from so many different sources, quality assurance of the data will be a difficult task. The consistency of experimental test results will be an important issue. A very wide spectrum of material characteristics of RPV steels and irradiation environments exists among the various countries. Hence the development of embrittlement prediction models will be a formidable task. 4 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Alphanumerical classification for the subject files of the department of documentation of the Atomic Energy Commission; Classification alpha-numerique pour le fichier matieres du service de documentation du Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braffort, P.; Iung, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1956-07-01

    The research activities of the Atomic Energy Commission cover a large variety of different subjects from theoretical physics and nuclear physics to biology, medicine or geology. Thus, about 350 scientific reviews are received and presented in the library. All those documents need to be classified to make the research of information easier for researchers. It describes the classification and codification of such a large quantity of documents. The classification uses a bidimensional system with 5 columns with inter-scale phenomena, corpuscular scale, nuclear scale, atomic and molecular scale and macroscopic scale as subject and 5 lines with theoretical problems, production, measurement, description and utilisation as topic. Some of the rules are given and examples are presented. (M.P.)

  10. Atomic and Molecular Data: Division B / Commission 14

    CERN Document Server

    Mashonkina, Lyudmila; Wahlgren, Glenn M; Allard, France; Barklem, Paul; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Fraser, Helen; Nave, Gillian; Nilsson, Hampus

    2015-01-01

    Commission 14 has been operating for almost a century. It was one of the 32 Standing IAU Commissions and established in 1919. The main purpose of Commission 14 is to foster interactions between the astronomical community and those conducting research on atoms, molecules, and solid state particles to provide data vital to reducing and analysing astronomical observations and performing theoretical investigations. Although Commission 14 terminated at the Honolulu General Assembly, the field Atomic and Molecular Data remains with the IAU. By call of the IAU, the Commission 14 OC initiated a proposal for a new Commission on Laboratory Astrophysics that was approved. Commission on Laboratory Astrophysics will be a natural evolution of Commission 14.

  11. 75 FR 11166 - Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission; Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and...

  12. Energy from the Atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Patricia L.

    This curriculum guide was written to supplement fifth and sixth grade science units on matter and energy. It was designed to provide more in-depth material on the atom. The first part, "Teacher Guide," contains background information, biographical sketches of persons in the history of nuclear energy, vocabulary, answer sheets, management sheets…

  13. Curriculum for Commissioning Energy Efficient Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Lia

    2012-09-30

    In July 2010, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded funding to PECI to develop training curriculum in commercial energy auditing and building commissioning. This program was created in response to the high demand for auditing and commissioning services in the U.S. commercial buildings market and to bridge gaps and barriers in existing training programs. Obstacles addressed included: lack of focus on entry level candidates; prohibitive cost and time required for training; lack of hands-on training; trainings that focus on certifications & process overviews; and lack of comprehensive training. PECI organized several other industry players to create a co-funded project sponsored by DOE, PECI, New York State Energy and Research Development Authority (NYSERDA), California Energy Commission (CEC), Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA) and California Commissioning Collaborative (CCC). After awarded, PECI teamed with another DOE awardee, New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT), to work collaboratively to create one comprehensive program featuring two training tracks. NJIT’s Center for Building Knowledge is a research and training institute affiliated with the College of Architecture and Design, and provided e-learning and video enhancements. This project designed and developed two training programs with a comprehensive, energy-focused curriculum to prepare new entrants to become energy auditors or commissioning authorities (CxAs). The following are the key elements of the developed trainings, which is depicted graphically in Figure 1: • Online classes are self-paced, and can be completed anywhere, any time • Commissioning Authority track includes 3 online modules made up of 24 courses delivered in 104 individual lessons, followed by a 40 hour hands-on lab. Total time required is between 75 and 100 hours, depending on the pace of the independent learner. • Energy Auditor track includes 3 online modules made up of 18 courses delivered in 72 individual

  14. Division B Commission 14 Working Group: Atomic Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nave, Gillian; Nahar, Sultana; Zhao, Gang

    2016-04-01

    This report summarizes laboratory measurements of atomic wavelengths, energy levels, hyperfine and isotope structure, energy level lifetimes, and oscillator strengths. Theoretical calculations of lifetimes and oscillator strengths are also included. The bibliography is limited to species of astrophysical interest. Compilations of atomic data and internet databases are also included. Papers are listed in the bibliography in alphabetical order, with a reference number in the text.

  15. Scientific evaluation at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA). 2005-2006 annual report; L'evaluation scientifique au CEA. Rapport annuel 2005-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    This report aims at presenting the scientific evaluation activities carried out at the CEA during the years 2005-2006. The evaluation system is described in detail. It comprises two aspects: the evaluation of the scientific policy implemented by the scientific Council and by the visiting committee of the CEA, and the evaluation of the laboratories, performed by a pool of 36 scientific councils. The evaluation by external and independent parties is the key point of this system. This document makes a status of the evaluations performed in 2005 and 2006. It presents a synthesis of the conclusions of the evaluation authorities. The actions implemented by the CEA to take into consideration the recommendations are also reported with the improvements noticed. The two topics examined by the scientific Committee and by the visiting committee were dealing with the energy domain, which is a strategic issue for the CEA. The examination of the researches on future nuclear reactors and on new energy technologies have shown the major role played by the CEA in the recent advances in these domains. About 95% of the laboratories activity was examined during the 2002-2005 period. The richness of the remarks and recommendations made by the scientific councils should allow the CEA to improve the quality and relevance of its research works. The start-up of the 2006-2009 evaluation cycle has been the occasion to modify the evaluation of some research domains in order to take into account the evolution of programs. The evaluation system of the CEA is highly consistent with the AERES principles. Its implementation, adapted to each type of activity (fundamental research, applied research, technological developments) allows the CEA to follow up a permanent improvement approach. (J.S.)

  16. 21 September 2010 - Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission A. Parvez, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Staff Association President G. Deroma, Ambassador to the UN Z. Akram (showing a symbol of the funds raised by CERN Staff for Pakistan)and Adviser for Non-Member States R. Voss.

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2010-01-01

    21 September 2010 - Chairman of the Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission A. Parvez, CERN Director-General R. Heuer, Staff Association President G. Deroma, Ambassador to the UN Z. Akram (showing a symbol of the funds raised by CERN Staff for Pakistan)and Adviser for Non-Member States R. Voss.

  17. Professor Tariq Solaija, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2002-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator, discussing a section of CMS with Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan, in charge of Pakistan's contribution to the Muon detector (Resistive Plate Chambers). Photo 02: Dr Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) presents neutron absorber panels for the CMS detector to (right-to-left) Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan and Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN. Photo 03: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan; Dr Diether Blechschmidt, Non-Member States Relations, CERN and Austin Ball, CMS Deputy Technical Coordinator (right) looking up to the CMS detector. Photo 04: Mr Syed Shaukat Hasan, Minister Technical, Pakistan Mission in Geneva; Mr Tariq Solaija, National Centre of Physics, Pakistan listen to a presentation of the CMS d...

  18. Audit of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Office of Chief Accountant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-04-07

    The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (Commission) mission is to oversee America`s natural gas and oil pipeline transportation, electric utility, and hydroelectric power industries to ensure that consumers receive adequate energy supplies at just and reasonable rates. To carry out this mission, the Commission issues regulations covering the accounting, reporting, and rate-making requirements of the regulated utility companies. The Commission`s Office of Chief Accountant performs financial related audits at companies to ensure compliance with these regulations. The purpose of this audit was to evaluate the office of Chief Accountant`s audit performance. Specifically, the objectives were to determine if the most appropriate audit approach was used and if a quality assurance process was in place to ensure reports were accurate and supported by the working papers.

  19. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission fiscal year 1997 annual financial statements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-02-24

    This report presents the results of the independent certified public accountants` audit of the Federal Energy Regulatory commission`s statements of financial position, and the related statements of operations and changes in net position. The auditors` work was conducted in accordance with generally accepted government auditing standards. An independent public accounting firm conducted the audit. The auditors` reports on the Commission`s internal control structure and compliance with laws and regulations disclosed no reportable conditions or instances of noncompliance.

  20. Instrumented home energy rating and commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-05-01

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify deficiencies or to correct them. Solving this problem requires field performance evaluations using appropriate and agreed upon procedures in the form of a new process called residential commissioning. The purpose of this project is to develop and document these procedures and to demonstrate the value that applying them could provide in both new and existing California houses. This project has four specific objectives: to develop metrics and diagnostics for assessing house performance, to provide information on the potential benefits of commissioning using a whole-house approach, to develop programmatic guidelines for commissioning, and to conduct outreach efforts to transfer project results to industry stakeholders. The primary outcomes from this project are the development of residential commissioning guidelines and the analytical confirmation that there are significant potential benefits associated with commissioning California houses, particularly existing ones. In addition, we have made substantial advances in understanding the accuracy and usability of diagnostics for commissioning houses. In some cases, we have been able to work with equipment manufacturers to improve these aspects of their diagnostic tools. These outcomes provide a solid foundation on which to build a residential commissioning program in California. We expect that a concerted effort will be necessary to integrate such a program with existing building industry efforts and to demonstrate its use in the field.

  1. High-energy atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Drukarev, Evgeny G

    2016-01-01

    This self-contained text introduces readers to the field of high-energy atomic physics - a new regime of photon-atom interactions in which the photon energies significantly exceed the atomic or molecular binding energies, and which opened up with the recent advent of new synchrotron sources. From a theoretical point of view, a small-parameter characteristic of the bound system emerged, making it possible to perform analytic perturbative calculations that can in turn serve as benchmarks for more powerful numerical computations. The first part of the book introduces readers to the foundations of this new regime and its theoretical treatment. In particular, the validity of the small-parameter perturbation expansion and of the lowest-order approximation is critically reviewed. The following chapters then apply these insights to various atomic processes, such as photoionization as a many-body problem, dominant mechanisms for the production of ions at higher energies, Compton scattering and ionization accompanied b...

  2. THE ATOMIC WEIGHTS COMMISSION AND ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCE RATIO DETERMINATIONS.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOLDEN, N.E.

    2005-08-07

    Following Thomson's discovery of stable isotopes in non-radioactive chemical elements, the derivation of atomic weight values from mass spectrometric measurements of isotopic abundance ratios moved very slowly. Forty years later, only 3 1/2 % of the recommended values were based on mass spectrometric measurements and only 38% in the first half century. It might be noted that two chemical elements (tellurium and mercury) are still based on chemical measurements, where the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement either agrees with the value from the chemical measurement or the atomic weight value calculated from the relative isotopic abundance measurement falls within the uncertainty of the chemical measurement of the atomic weight. Of the 19 chemical elements, whose atomic weight is based on non-corrected relative isotopic abundance measurements, five of these are two isotope systems (indium, iridium, lanthanum, lutetium and tantalum) and one is a three-isotope system (oxygen).

  3. Atomic Batteries: Energy from Radioactivity

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar, Suhas

    2015-01-01

    With alternate, sustainable, natural sources of energy being sought after, there is new interest in energy from radioactivity, including natural and waste radioactive materials. A study of various atomic batteries is presented with perspectives of development and comparisons of performance parameters and cost. We discuss radioisotope thermal generators, indirect conversion batteries, direct conversion batteries, and direct charge batteries. We qualitatively describe their principles of operat...

  4. Report realized on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de Loi, adopte par le Senat, autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-02-01

    This document presents the analyse of the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the added protocol ratification to the agreement between France, the Atomic Energy European Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France. It deals with the nuclear proliferation fight in France and the the program of enhancement of guaranties in the framework of the IAEA. (A.L.B.)

  5. Emittance reconstruction technique for the Linac4 high energy commissioning

    CERN Document Server

    Lallement, JB; Posocco, PA

    2012-01-01

    Linac4 is a new 160 MeV linear accelerator for negative Hydrogen ions (H-) presently under construction which will replace the 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector for the CERN proton accelerator complex. Linac4 is 80 meters long and comprises a Low Energy Beam Transport line, a 3 MeV RFQ, a MEBT, a 50 MeV DTL, a 100 MeV CCDTL and a PIMS up to 160 MeV. The commissioning of the Linac is scheduled to start in 2013. It will be divided into several steps corresponding to the commissioning of the different accelerating structures. A temporary measurement bench will be dedicated to the high energy commissioning from 30 to 100 MeV (DTL tanks 2 and 3, and CCDTL). The commissioning of the PIMS will be done using the permanent equipment installed in between the end of the Linac and the main dump. This note describes the technique we will use for reconstructing the transverse emittances and the expected results.

  6. A Quantum Model of Atoms (the Energy Levels of Atoms).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafie, Francois

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the model for all atoms which was developed on the same basis as Bohr's model for the hydrogen atom. Calculates the radii and the energies of the orbits. Demonstrates how the model obeys the de Broglie's hypothesis that the moving electron exhibits both wave and particle properties. (Author/ASK)

  7. Navajo-Hopi Land Commission Renewable Energy Development Project (NREP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Benally, Deputy Director,

    2012-05-15

    The Navajo Hopi Land Commission Office (NHLCO), a Navajo Nation executive branch agency has conducted activities to determine capacity-building, institution-building, outreach and management activities to initiate the development of large-scale renewable energy - 100 megawatt (MW) or larger - generating projects on land in Northwestern New Mexico in the first year of a multi-year program. The Navajo Hopi Land Commission Renewable Energy Development Project (NREP) is a one year program that will develop and market a strategic business plan; form multi-agency and public-private project partnerships; compile site-specific solar, wind and infrastructure data; and develop and use project communication and marketing tools to support outreach efforts targeting the public, vendors, investors and government audiences.

  8. Renewable energy sources. European Commission papers; Energies renouvelables. Documents de la Commission Europeenne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    The ''Directive on the Promotion of Electricity from Renewable Sources of Energy in the Internal Electricity Market'' was adopted in September 2001. Its purpose is to promote an increase in the contribution of renewable energy sources to electricity production in the internal market for electricity and to create a basis for a future Community framework. Energie-Cites provides in this document a summary of its opinion on the Green Paper and on Alterner II and gives a proposal for an Action Plan concerning the White Paper. (A.L.B.)

  9. Atomic energy levels and Grotrian diagrams

    CERN Document Server

    Bashkin, Stanley

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Energy Levels and Grotrian Diagrams, Volume I: Hydrogen I - Phosphorus XV presents diagrams of various elements that show their energy level and electronic transitions. The book covers the first 15 elements according to their atomic number. The text will be of great use to researchers and practitioners of fields such as astrophysics that requires pictorial representation of the energy levels and electronic transitions of elements.

  10. Decision no. 2011-DC-0224 of the French nuclear safety authority from May 5, 2011, ordering the French atomic energy and alternative energies commission (CEA) to proceed to a complementary safety evaluation of some of its basic nuclear facilities in the eyes of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accident; Decision no. 2011-DC-0224 de l'Autorite de surete nucleaire du 5 mai 2011 prescrivant au Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique et aux energies alternatives (CEA) de proceder a une evaluation complementaire de la surete de certaines de ses installations nucleaires de base au regard de l'accident survenu a la centrale nucleaire de Fukushima Daiichi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    As a consequence of the accident of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant (Japan), the French Prime Minister entrusted the French nuclear safety authority (ASN) with the mission to carry out a safety analysis re-evaluation of the French nuclear facilities, and in particular the nuclear power plants. A decision has been addressed by the ASN to each nuclear operator with the specifications of this safety re-evaluation analysis and the list of facilities in concern. This document is the decision addressed to the French atomic energy commission (CEA). (J.S.)

  11. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2007 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Towards a single European energy market: Birth of a single European energy market (Origins of Europe of Energy, Emergence of a European energy policy); Main European Community guiding lines (European governance as regards energy, Guiding principles for the internal energy market); European Community activities (European Commission reports, Electricity and gas Regional Initiatives); Organisation and coordination of European regulators (Joint organisation of European regulators, CRE's relations with European Community institutions); CRE's European activities (Regional integration of gas markets, Regional integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, CRE's other European activities); B - CRE action at national level: Grids/networks and infrastructures (General information, Electricity grids, Regulation of gas networks and infrastructures); Markets (Changes in the regulatory and legislative contexts of electricity and natural gas markets, Electricity markets

  12. Why? The nuclear and atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kwangwoong

    2009-01-15

    This book is a science comic book for students in elementary school, which contains energy and life such as our body and energy, animal and energy, plant and energy, kinetic energy, potential energy and the principle of the conservation of energy in the first part. The second part explains fossil fuel like coal, petroleum and natural gas. Next it deals with electric power, nuclear energy such as atom and molecule, nuclear fusion and energy for future like solar cell and black hole power plant.

  13. Energy Wave Model of Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    伍细如

    2015-01-01

    proton emits energy wave, electron could sits any position away from nucleus, but be the most stable just when it sits at the trough of energy wave, and this position accords with Bohr radius and Schr?dinger equation.

  14. The Future of Atomic Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fermi, E.

    1946-05-27

    There is definitely a technical possibility that atomic power may gradually develop into one of the principal sources of useful power. If this expectation will prove correct, great advantages can be expected to come from the fact that the weight of the fuel is almost negligible. This feature may be particularly valuable for making power available to regions of difficult access and far from deposits of coal. It also may prove a great asset in mobile power units for example in a power plant for ship propulsion. On the negative side there are some technical limitations to be applicability of atomic power of which perhaps the most serious is the impossibility of constructing light power units; also there will be some peculiar difficulties in operating atomic plants, as for example the necessity of handling highly radioactive substances which will necessitate, at least for some considerable period, the use of specially skilled personnel for the operation. But the chief obstacle in the way of developing atomic power will be the difficulty of organizing a large scale industrial development in an internationally safe way. This presents actually problems much more difficult to solve than any of the technical developments that are necessary, It will require an unusual amount of statesmanship to balance properly the necessity of allaying the international suspicion that arises from withholding technical secrets against the obvious danger of dumping the details of the procedures for an extremely dangerous new method of warfare on a world that may not yet be prepared to renounce war. Furthermore, the proper balance should be found in the relatively short time that will elapse before the 'secrets' will naturally become open knowledge by rediscovery on part of the scientists and engineers of other countries.

  15. Low Energy Atomic Photodesorption from Organic Coatings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Lucchesini

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Organic coatings have been widely used in atomic physics during the last 50 years because of their mechanical properties, allowing preservation of atomic spins after collisions. Nevertheless, this did not produce detailed insight into the characteristics of the coatings and their dynamical interaction with atomic vapors. This has changed since the 1990s, when their adsorption and desorption properties triggered a renewed interest in organic coatings. In particular, a novel class of phenomena produced by non-destructive light-induced desorption of atoms embedded in the coating surface was observed and later applied in different fields. Nowadays, low energy non-resonant atomic photodesorption from organic coatings can be considered an almost standard technique whenever large densities of atomic vapors or fast modulation of their concentration are required. In this paper, we review the steps that led to this widespread diffusion, from the preliminary observations to some of the most recent applications in fundamental and applied physics.

  16. The mean excitation energy of atomic ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sauer, Stephan P. A.; Oddershede, Jens; Sabin, John R.

    2015-01-01

    A method for calculation of the mean excitation energies of atomic ions is presented, making the calculation of the energy deposition of fast ions to plasmas, warm, dense matter, and complex biological systems possible. Results are reported to all ions of helium, lithium, carbon, neon, aluminum...

  17. The Harnessed Atom: Nuclear Energy & Electricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Nuclear Energy Office.

    This document is part of a nuclear energy curriculum designed for grades six through eight. The complete kit includes a written text, review exercises, activities for the students, and a teachers guide. The 19 lessons in the curriculum are divided into four units including: (1) "Energy and Electricity"; (2) "Understanding Atoms and Radiation"; (3)…

  18. ATOMIZATION CAUSED BY BOTTOM FLOW ENERGY DISSIPATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Bottom flow energy dissipation is one of the common energydissipation methods for flood-releasing structures with high water head. Measures of this energy dissipation depend mainly on the turbulent action of hydraulic jump.In this paper, the physical process and the calculating methods of the atomization caused by bottom flow energy dissipation were studied, the computation models of atomization quantity for the self-aerated flow in overflow and hydraulic jump regions are presented, and the main results are of theoretical and practical significance for the hydraulic and electric engineering.

  19. Dr. R. Chidambaram, Chairman, Atomic Energy Commission, India

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    1999-01-01

    Chairman R. Chidambaram (second from right) accompagnied by (left to right) Atul Gurtu and Vemuri Narasimham of Bombay's Tata Institute for Fundamental Research, and CMS co-spokesman Jim Virdee (right).

  20. Atomic orbital self-energy and electronegativity

    CERN Document Server

    Ribeiro, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    In this work, atomic calculations were performed within the local-density and generalized-gradient approximations of exchange and correlation density functionals within density-functional theory to provide accurate periodic trends of first ionization energies and electron affinities of the atomic series from hydrogen to xenon. Electronegativities were determined directly from Mulliken's formula and were shown to be equivalently calculated rather by using Slater-Janak's transition state or by calculating the electrostatic self-energies of the orbitals involved in the transition to ions. Finally, comparisons were made with other theoretical and experimental results, including Mulliken-Jaff\\'e's electronegativity scale.

  1. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2004 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the gas and electricity markets for professional customers on 1 July 2004; B - Regulation of the gas market: Gas markets and players (The European environment, The French gas market); Regulation of the gas market (Implementing regulation, Works planned for the coming year; C - Regulation of the electricity market: The electricity markets and players (The European electricity markets, The French electricity market, Monitoring the electricity market); Regulation of the French electricity market (Access to public grid, Cross-border exchanges, Un-bundled accounting principles); The public electricity service in the regulated market (Content of the public service, Public service charges, Electricity production public service financing, Electricity sales tariffs) D - The working of CRE: How CRE exercises its jurisdiction, Tools; E - Appendices: Glossary, Units and conversions, Council of European Energy Regulators, Index of tables and figures.

  2. 77 FR 34379 - Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Joint Meeting of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and the Nuclear...

  3. 77 FR 27113 - Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... / Wednesday, May 9, 2012 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 110 RIN 3150-AJ04 Export and Import of Nuclear Equipment and Material; Export of International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Samples AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The...

  4. Probing Dark Energy with Atom Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Burrage, Clare; Hinds, E A

    2015-01-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  5. Regional and International Networking to Support the Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavansiri, Direk; Bull, Trevor

    2010-09-15

    The Energy Regulatory Commission of Thailand is a new regulatory agency. The structure of the energy sector; the tradition of administration; and, the lack of access to experienced personnel in Thailand all pose particular challenges. The Commission is meeting these challenges through regional and international networking to assist in developing policies and procedures that allow it to meet international benchmarks.

  6. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2006 activity report of CRE. Content: A - Opening of the electricity and natural gas markets to household consumers on 1 July 2007: CRE at the service of eligible customers (Information for eligible customers, Improved knowledge of non-household customers); Monitoring of the non-discrimination, transparency and independence of system operators (Drafting and distribution of codes of good conduct for system operators, The necessary improvement of system operator independence); Preparing the practical methods of opening: GTE 2007 and GTG 2007 (The necessary simplification of relations between operators and customers, Achieving a greater level of consumer information and protection, The clearly defined stages of the 'customer pathway', Profiling and settlement mechanisms: turning experience feedback from 2004 to good account); Persisting uncertainties and hurdles (The need for a suitable regulatory and legislative platform, Hurdles to the opening of the household market); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Increasing weight of

  7. Atomic Interferometry Test of Dark Energy

    CERN Document Server

    Brax, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Atomic interferometry can be used to probe dark energy models coupled to matter. We consider the constraints coming from recent experimental results on models generalising the inverse power law chameleons such as $f(R)$ gravity in the large curvature regime, the environmentally dependent dilaton and symmetrons. Using the tomographic description of these models, we find that only symmetrons with masses smaller than the dark energy scale can be efficiently tested. In this regime, the resulting constraints complement the bounds from the E\\"otwash experiment and exclude small values of the symmetron self-coupling.

  8. Atomic displacement energy in amorphous compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanditov, D. S.; Mashanov, A. A.

    2016-12-01

    Atomic displacement energy Δɛe in multicomponent sheet and lead-silicate glasses is calculated from the free activation energy of a viscous flow. The value of Δɛe is shown to remain constant in a rather wide range of temperatures in the glass transition region. Satisfactory agreement with calculations of Δɛe using the current formula incorporating the glass transition temperature and the fluctuation volume fraction frozen at this temperature is obtained. The validity of the above formula not only at the glass transition temperature but also in the temperature region adjacent to it is confirmed.

  9. On the energy of electric field in hydrogen atom

    OpenAIRE

    Kornyushin, Yuri

    2009-01-01

    It is shown that hydrogen atom is a unique object in physics having negative energy of electric field, which is present in the atom. This refers also to some hydrogen-type atoms: hydrogen anti-atom, atom composed of proton and antiproton, and positronium.

  10. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for F-35 (Fluorine)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume A `Nuclei with Z = 1 - 54' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms'. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope F-35 (Fluorine, atomic number Z = 9, mass number A = 35).

  11. 78 FR 56944 - Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Strata Energy, Inc. (Ross In Situ Recovery Uranium Project); Notice of Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Reconstitution Pursuant to 10 CFR 2.313(c) and 2.321(b), the Atomic Safety and Licensing...

  12. Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    SRD 111 Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms (Web, free access)   Data for ground state electron configurations and ionization energies for the neutral atoms (Z = 1-104) including references.

  13. PIP-II Injector Test’s Low Energy Beam Transport: Commissioning and Selected Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shemyakin, A. [Fermilab; Alvarez, M. [Fermilab; Andrews, R. [Fermilab; Carneiro, J.-P. [Fermilab; Chen, A. [Fermilab; Hanna, B. [Fermilab; Prost, L. [Fermilab; Scarpine, V. [Fermilab; D' Arcy, R. [University Coll. London; Wiesner, C. [Goethe U., Frankfurt (main)

    2016-09-16

    The PIP2IT test accelerator is under construction at Fermilab. Its ion source and Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT) in its initial (straight) configuration have been commissioned to full specification parameters. This paper introduces the LEBT design and summarizes the outcome of the commissioning activities.

  14. 10 CFR 1040.124 - Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... be placed in title 18 CFR. Judicial Review ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibility of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission. 1040.124 Section 1040.124 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) NONDISCRIMINATION...

  15. 32 CFR 2400.4 - Atomic Energy Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Atomic Energy Material. 2400.4 Section 2400.4... General Provisions § 2400.4 Atomic Energy Material. Nothing in this Regulation supersedes any requirement made by or under the Atomic Energy act of 1954, as amended. “Restricted Data” and...

  16. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy

    CERN Document Server

    Hamilton, Paul; Haslinger, Philipp; Simmons, Quinn; Müller, Holger; Khoury, Justin

    2015-01-01

    If dark energy---which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe---consists of a new light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. There has, however, been much theoretical progress in developing theories with screening mechanisms, which can evade detection by suppressing forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. One prominent example is the chameleon field. We reduce the effect of this screening mechanism by probing the chameleon with individual atoms rather than bulk matter. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultra-high vacuum chamber, we constrain a wide class of dynamical dark energy theories. Our experiment excludes a range of chameleon theories that reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration.

  17. European Union energy policy integration: A case of European Commission policy entrepreneurship and increasing supranationalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maltby, Tomas

    2013-04-01

    Focusing on gas, this article explores the role of the European Commission in the process of European Union energy security policy development, and the extent to which the policy area is becoming increasingly supranational. Situating the article within the literature on agenda-setting and framing, it is argued that a policy window was opened as a result of: enlargement to include more energy import dependent states, a trend of increasing energy imports and prices, and gas supply disruptions. From the mid-2000s, the Commission contributed to a shift in political norms, successfully framing import dependency as a problem requiring an EU-level solution, based on the institution's pre-existing preferences for a diversified energy supply and internal energy market. Whilst Member States retain significant sovereignty, the Commission has achieved since 2006 creeping competencies in the internal, and to a lesser extent external, dimensions of EU energy policy.

  18. 10 CFR 8.2 - Interpretation of Price-Anderson Act, section 170 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... upon the legislative history, stated that the problem of a reactor accident in the United States... Atomic Energy Act of 1954. 8.2 Section 8.2 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION INTERPRETATIONS § 8.2... caused outside the United States by a nuclear incident occurring within the United States. (b)...

  19. Atom-Interferometry Constraints on Dark Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Holger

    2016-03-01

    If dark energy is a light scalar field, it might interact with normal matter. The interactions, however, are suppressed in some leading models, which are thus compatible with current cosmological observations as well as solar-system and laboratory studies. Such suppression typically relies on the scalar's interaction with macroscopic amounts of ordinary matter, but can be bypassed by studying the interaction with individual particles. Using an atom interferometer, we have placed tight constraints on so-called chameleon models, ruling out interaction parameters βM > 4 ×104 . This limit is improved by 2.5 orders of magnitude relative to previous experiments. We have already increased the sensitivity of our interferometer hundredfold and are expecting a new constraint soon. Purpose-built experiments in the lab or on the international space station will completely close the gap and rule out out chameleons and other theories, such as axions, dark photons, symmetrons or f (R) gravity.

  20. Current and anticipated uses of thermal hydraulic codes at the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimoto, Hajime; Kukita; Ohnuki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-07-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI) is conducting several research programs related to thermal-hydraulic and neutronic behavior of light water reactors (LWRs). These include LWR safety research projects, which are conducted in accordance with the Nuclear Safety Commission`s research plan, and reactor engineering projects for the development of innovative reactor designs or core/fuel designs. Thermal-hydraulic and neutronic codes are used for various purposes including experimental analysis, nuclear power plant (NPP) safety analysis, and design assessment.

  1. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission financial statements, September 30, 1995 and 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-12

    The attached report presents the results of the independent certified public accountant`s audit of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s (FERC) financial statements as of September 30, 1995 and 1994. The auditors have expressed an unqualified opinion on the 1995 statements. Their reports on FERC`s internal control structure and on compliance with laws and regulations, and management letter are also provided.

  2. Photon energy scale determination and commissioning with radiative Z decays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bondu Olivier

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The CMS electromagnetic calorimeter (ECAL is composed of 75848 lead-tungstate scintillating crystals. It has been designed to be fast, compact, and radiation hard, with fine granularity and excellent energy resolution. Obtaining the design resolution is a crucial challenge for the SM Higgs search in the two photon channel at the LHC, and more generally good photon calibration and knowledge of the photon energy scale is required for analyses with photons in the final state. The behavior of photons and electrons in the calorimeter is not identical, making the use of a dedicated standard candle for photons, complementary to the canonical highyield Z decay to electrons, highly desirable. The use of Z decays to a pair of muons, where one of the muons emits a Bremsstrahlung photon, can be such a standard candle. These events, which can be cleanly selected, are a source of high-purity, relatively high-pt photons. Their kinematics are well-constrained by the Z boson mass and the precision on the muon momenta, and can be used for numerous calibration and measurement purposes. This proceeding presents the event selection method and the results of the photon energy scale measurement via Z0 → μμγ events as well as their use in evaluating the efficiency of photon identification requirements, based on data recorded by the CMS experiment in 2010.

  3. Atomic Mass and Nuclear Binding Energy for Ra-226 (Radium)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukhoruchkin, S. I.; Soroko, Z. N.

    This document is part of the Supplement containing the complete sets of data of Subvolume B `Nuclei with Z = 55 - 100' of Volume 22 `Nuclear Binding Energies and Atomic Masses' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group I `Elementary Particles, Nuclei and Atoms', and additionally including data for nuclei with Z = 101 - 130. It provides atomic mass, mass excess, nuclear binding energy, nucleon separation energies, Q-values, and nucleon residual interaction parameters for atomic nuclei of the isotope Ra-226 (Radium, atomic number Z = 88, mass number A = 226).

  4. A liquid drop model for embedded atom method cluster energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, C. W.; Abel, P. B.; Ferrante, J.

    1996-01-01

    Minimum energy configurations for homonuclear clusters containing from two to twenty-two atoms of six metals, Ag, Au, Cu, Ni, Pd, and Pt have been calculated using the Embedded Atom Method (EAM). The average energy per atom as a function of cluster size has been fit to a liquid drop model, giving estimates of the surface and curvature energies. The liquid drop model gives a good representation of the relationship between average energy and cluster size. As a test the resulting surface energies are compared to EAM surface energy calculations for various low-index crystal faces with reasonable agreement.

  5. Determination of Atomic Data Pertinent to the Fusion Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reader, J.

    2013-06-11

    We summarize progress that has been made on the determination of atomic data pertinent to the fusion energy program. Work is reported on the identification of spectral lines of impurity ions, spectroscopic data assessment and compilations, expansion and upgrade of the NIST atomic databases, collision and spectroscopy experiments with highly charged ions on EBIT, and atomic structure calculations and modeling of plasma spectra.

  6. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report june 2008; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2008 activity report of CRE. Content: A - How CRE works: CRE regulatory authority and organisation: Powers, Organisation; Budget resources; Personnel; B - The Standing Committee for Dispute Settlement and Sanctions (CoRDiS) activity: Admissibility, Authority; C - Building a single European energy market: Overview; Organisation and coordination of the main European regulators (Work carried out collectively by European regulators, Regulator organisation and development, CRE's relations with European Community institutions, Development of CEER activities outside the European Union); CRE's European activities (The contribution of European regulators to the Third Energy Package, Integration of gas markets, Integration of electricity markets, Operation of the European interconnected electricity grid and security of supply, Opening up markets to benefit consumers); European Community activities (The European Commission's proposals for the internal energy market: the Third Energy Package, The European Commission's proposals for fighting climate change: the Climate

  7. Report realized on behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission, of Defense and Armed Forces on the law project allowing the additional protocol ratification to the agreement between France, European Community of the atomic energy and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the guaranties application in France; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres, de la defense et des forces armees sur le projet de loi autorisant la ratification du protocole additionnel a l'accord entre la France, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties en France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    In a first part the author presents the International Atomic Energy Agency and its missions in the nuclear non proliferation policy especially in the agreements with the states of the TNP (Treaty of Nuclear non Proliferation). the today position of France is then analyzed towards the IAEA and the novations added by the additional protocol. (A.L.B.)

  8. Interim Report of the Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohon, Jared L. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Glauthier, T. J. [TJG Energy Associates, LLC., Bloomberg, VA (United States); Augustine, Norman R. [U.S. Dept. of Homeland Security, Washington, DC (United States); Austin, Wanda M. [Aerospace Corporation, El Segundo, CA (United States); Elachi, Charles [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Fleury, Paul A. [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Hockfield, Susan J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Meserve, Richard A. [Covington and Burling LLP, Washington, DC (United States); Murray, Cherry A. [Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2015-02-27

    The Commission to Review the Effectiveness of the National Energy Laboratories was charged by Congress in January 2014 to evaluate the mission, capabilities, size, performance, governance, and agency oversight of the 17 Department of Energy (DOE) laboratories. Given the incredibly broad scope and aggressive timeline (the original deadline was February 2015), the Secretary of Energy and Congress agreed to split the task into two phases. This interim report contains the preliminary observations and recommendations gleaned from Phase 1 of the study, which consisted of a literature review; visits to five of the National Laboratories; semi-structured interviews with staff from across the National Laboratories, DOE, other Federal agencies, companies, other non-governmental organizations, and additional interested parties; and presentations at monthly public Commission meetings. The Commission notes that the purpose of the National Laboratories is to provide critical capabilities and facilities in service of DOE’s mission and the needs of the broader national and international science and technology (S&T) community, including other Federal agencies, academia, and private industry. The National Laboratories are successfully fulfilling that mission today. While the Commission believes significant improvements can be made to many aspects of DOE management and governance of the laboratories, those issues do not detract from the National Laboratories’ remarkable contributions to the American public. In Phase 2 the Commission will focus on ways to make the process of carrying out their missions more efficient and effective.

  9. Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance; Commissioning of building HVAC systems for improvement of energy performance. Teilnahme IEA-ECBCS Annex 40 (Betreiberkompetenz)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuard, J.-M.

    2005-06-15

    This paper takes a look at the tasks performed in Task 40 of the 'Energy Conservation in Buildings and Community Systems ECBCS' programme of the International Energy Agency IEA that is taking a look at the commissioning of building HVAC systems with the aim of improving the energy performance of such systems. Emphasis is put on the Swiss contribution to the task. This well-illustrated paper presents information on the structure of the task, time-lines and a diagram for its implementation structures. Also, the countries participating in Task 40 and their representatives are listed, and various work already published by the annex is noted. The paper places a focus on operator competence and lists points to be taken into account when carrying out work on optimising energy consumption. The various processes involved are noted and discussed. Management guidelines are presented and economical and market aspects are discussed. Finally, projects that will continue the work are noted.

  10. Solar and Geothermal Energy: New Competition for the Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Luther J.

    1974-01-01

    Describes new emphasis on research into solar and geothermal energy resources by governmental action and recent legislation and the decreased emphasis on atomic power in supplementing current energy shortages. (BR)

  11. Monte Carlo Commissioning of Low Energy Electron Radiotherapy Beams using NXEGS Software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This work is a report on the commissioning of low energy electron beams of a medical linear accelerator for Monte Carlo dose calculation using NXEGS software (NXEGS version 1.0.10.0, NX Medical Software, LLC. A unique feature of NXEGS is automated commissioning, a process whereby a combination of analytic and Monte Carlo methods generates beam models from dosimetric data collected in a water phantom. This study uses NXEGS to commission 6, 9, and 12 MeV electron beams of a Varian Clinac 2100C using three applicators with standard inserts. Central axis depth-dose, primary axis and diagonal beam profiles, and output factors are the measurements necessary for commissioning of the code. We present a comparison of measured dose distributions with the distributions generated by NXEGS, using confidence limits on seven measures of error. We find that confidence limits are typically less than 3% or 3 mm, but increase with increasing source to surface distance (SSD and depth at or beyond R50. We also investigate the dependence of NXEGS' performance on the size and composition of data used to commission the program, finding a weak dependence on number of dose profiles in the data set, but finding also that commissioning data need be measured at only two SSDs.

  12. Books on Atomic Energy for Adults and Children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1969-01-01

    This booklet contains two lists of atomic energy books, one for students and one for adults. The student list has grade annotations. The lists are not all-inclusive but comprise selected basic books on atomic energy and closely related subjects.

  13. 76 FR 1335 - Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-10

    ... Commission 5 CFR Part 3401 Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for Employees of the Federal Energy... the Office of Government Ethics (OGE), is amending the Supplemental Standards of Ethical Conduct for..., and Cheryl A. LaFleur. I. Background 1. The Office of Government Ethics (OGE) has issued rules...

  14. Commission of energy regulation. 2004 activity report; Commission de regulation de l'energie. Rapport d'activite 2004

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    The commission of energy regulation (CRE) is an independent administrative authority in charge of the control of the operation of gas and electricity markets. This document is the fifth activity report of CRE and covers the July 1, 2003 - June 30, 2004 period, which corresponds to the era of opening of energy markets as a consequence of the enforcement of the June 26, 2003 European directive. In the framework of the stakes made by energy markets liberalization, this document presents the situation of the gas and electricity markets during this period (European framework, regulation of both markets, public utility mission..) and describes CRE's means for the monitoring of these markets. (J.S.)

  15. Positronium-alkali atom scattering at medium energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Ajoy [Laban Hrad Vidyapith, AD-369, Salt Lake City, Kolkata 700 064 (India); Basu, Arindam [Department of Physics, Maheshtala College, Chandannagar, South 24 Parganas, Kolkata 700 140 (India); Sarkar, Nirmal K [Sodepur Chandrachur Vidyapith, 1, Desh Bandhu Nagar, Sodepur, 743 174 (India); Sinha, Prabal K [Department of Physics, Bangabasi College, 19, Raj Kumar Chakravorty Sarani, Kolkata 700 009 (India)

    2004-04-28

    We investigate the scattering of orthopositronium (o-Ps) atom off different atomic alkali targets (Na to Cs) at low and medium energies (up to 120 eV). Projectile-elastic and target-elastic close-coupling models have been employed to investigate the systems in addition to the static-exchange model. Elastic, excitation and total cross sections have been reported for all four systems. The magnitude of the alkali excitation cross section increases with increasing atomic number of the target atom while the position of the peak value shifts towards lower incident energies. The magnitudes of the Ps excitation and ionization cross sections increase steadily with atomic number with no change in the peak position. The reported results show regular behaviour with increasing atomic number of the target atom. Scattering parameters for the Ps-Rb and Ps-Cs systems are being reported for the first time.

  16. Atomic level spatial variations of energy states along graphene edges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Jamie H; Lin, Yung-Chang; He, Kuang; Koshino, Masanori; Suenaga, Kazu

    2014-11-12

    The local atomic bonding of carbon atoms around the edge of graphene is examined by aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) combined with electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). High-resolution 2D maps of the EELS combined with atomic resolution annular dark field STEM images enables correlations between the carbon K-edge EELS and the atomic structure. We show that energy states of graphene edges vary across individual atoms along the edge according to their specific C-C bonding, as well as perpendicular to the edge. Unique spectroscopic peaks from the EELS are assigned to specific C atoms, which enables unambiguous spectroscopic fingerprint identification for the atomic structure of graphene edges with unprecedented detail.

  17. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which

  18. Energy spectrum of fermionized bosonic atoms in optical lattices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiurong Han; Haichao Zhang; Yuzhu Wang

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the energy spectrum of fermionized bosonic atoms, which behave very much like spinless noninteracting fermions, in optical lattices by means of the perturbation expansion and the retarded Green's function method. The results show that the energy spectrum splits into two energy bands with single-occupation; the fermionized bosonic atom occupies nonvanishing energy state and left hole has a vanishing energy at any given momentum, and the system is in Mott-insulating state with a energy gap.Using the characteristic of energy spectra we obtained a criterion with which one can judge whether the Tonks-Girardeau (TG) gas is achieved or not.

  19. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which

  20. Status and Early Commissioning Results for the PEP-IIB-Factory High Energy Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wienands, H.-Ulrich

    1997-05-01

    The PEP-II B-Factory High Energy Ring (HER) is a 2.2 km 9 GeV electron ring for 1 A beam current, construction of which is currently being completed at SLAC. The HER beam will collide with positrons from the 3.1 GeV, 2 A Low Energy Ring which is on a one-year later schedule. The SLAC linac will serve as high-intensity, low-emittance injector for the facility. By March 1997 the HER magnet and power system will have been installed and checked out. The vacuum system---capable of absorbing 10 MW of synchrotron radiation---will be closed and evacuated. Two initial rf stations with four cavities each, sufficient to support beams up to several hundred mA, will have been installed. The beam-position monitor (BPM) system consists of about 300 button-type BPM and is capable of single-turn data acquisition. A sophisticated beam-loss monitor system using Cherenkov detectors is capable of localizing losses over a 10-6 intensity range. A phased commissioning plan has been adopted with initial beam commissioning activities scheduled to commence in spring 1997, focusing on lattice optics diagnosis and tuning. We will present our experience checking out the various accelerator systems and our beam commissioning plans. First results of beam commissioning will be presented as they are available.

  1. Streaming current of a rotary atomizer for energy harvesting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nguyen, Trieu; Boer, de H.; Tran, T.; Berg, van den A.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Zengerle, R.

    2013-01-01

    We present the experimental results of an energy conversion system based on a rotary atomizer and the streaming current phenomenon. The advantage of using a rotary atomizer instead of a channel or membrane micropore as in conventional pressure-driven approached is that the centrifugal force exerted

  2. Energy scaling of cold atom-atom-ion three-body recombination

    CERN Document Server

    Krükow, Artjom; Härter, Arne; Denschlag, Johannes Hecker; Pérez-Ríos, Jesús; Greene, Chris H

    2015-01-01

    We study three-body recombination of Ba$^+$ + Rb + Rb in the mK regime where a single $^{138}$Ba$^{+}$ ion in a Paul trap is immersed into a cloud of ultracold $^{87}$Rb atoms. We measure the energy dependence of the three-body rate coefficient $k_3$ and compare the results to the theoretical prediction, $k_3 \\propto E_{\\textrm{col}}^{-3/4}$ where $E_{\\textrm{col}}$ is the collision energy. We find agreement if we assume that the non-thermal ion energy distribution is determined by at least two different micro-motion induced energy scales. Furthermore, using classical trajectory calculations we predict how the median binding energy of the formed molecules scales with the collision energy. Our studies give new insights into the kinetics of an ion immersed into an ultracold atom cloud and yield important prospects for atom-ion experiments targeting the s-wave regime.

  3. Training and Certification Program for Certified Energy Auditors (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professionals (CBCP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kent, Bill

    2012-08-24

    The Association of Energy Engineers (AEE) has offered energy efficiency training and certification programs for over 30 years. During that time AEE has certified more than 22,000 professionals. All of our certification programs are the result of extensive industry research and program development and oversight by certification boards. For this project award, AEE proposed to work with the Department of Energy to utilize and extend existing industry recognized Certified Energy Auditor (CEA) and Certified Building Commissioning Professional (CBCP) programs under this Training Program Development Announcement. These expanded training programs will have significant impact in training professionals for building commissioning and energy auditing to achieve the goal of bringing existing buildings up to their optimal energy performance potential and ensuring that new buildings maintain their expected optimal level of performance. The goals and objectives of the training development project were achieved with the development of new training programs that are now being offered as self-sustaining commercial training and certification programs. These new programs are training and certifying professionals who are accomplishing the goal of increasing building energy performance in both existing and new buildings.

  4. Determination of Surface Exciton Energies by Velocity Resolved Atomic Desorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hess, Wayne P.; Joly, Alan G.; Beck, Kenneth M.; Sushko, Petr V.; Shluger, Alexander L.

    2004-08-20

    We have developed a new method for determining surface exciton band energies in alkali halides based on velocity-resolved atomic desorption (VRAD). Using this new method, we predict the surface exciton energies for K1, KBr, KC1, and NaC1 within +0.15 eV. Our data, combined with the available EELS data for alkali fluorides, demonstrate a universal linear correlation with the inverse inter-atomic distance in these materials. The results suggest that surface excitons exist in all alkali halides and their excitation energies can be predicted from the known bulk exciton energies and the obtained correlation plot.

  5. An informational approach about energy and temperature in atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flores-Gallegos, N.

    2016-08-01

    In this letter, we introduce new definitions of energy and temperature based on the information theory model, and we show that our definition of informational energy is related to the kinetic energy of the Thomas-Fermi model, meanwhile the definition of informational temperature proposed, permit identify 'hot' and 'cold' zones of an atom, such zones are related to the changes in the local electron energy wherein the chemical and physical changes can occur; informational temperature also can reproduce the shell structure of an atom.

  6. CPT Magnetometer with Atomic Energy Level Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Guo-Bin; DU Run-Chang; LIU Chao-Yang; GU Si-Hong

    2008-01-01

    We propose and experimentally investigate a coherent population trapping state based magnetometer prototype with87 Rb atoms.Through modulating Zeeman sublevels with an ac magnetic field,not only a phase sensitive detection scheme suitable for miniature magnetometer is realized,but also the detection resolution of magnetic field intensity could be improved by a factor of two.Our study result indicates that it is a promising low power consumption miniature sensitive low magnetic field sensor offering spatially resolved measurement at the sub-millimetre level.

  7. Two atoms scattering at low and cold energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Hasi Ray

    2014-12-01

    A modified static-exchange model is developed to study the collision of an atom with another atom. It includes the effect of long-range dipole–dipole van der Waals interaction between two atoms in addition to the exact effect of short-range force due to Coulomb exchange between two system electrons. Both these interactions dominate at colder energies. The system is treated as a four-centre problem in the centre-of-mass frame. The present ab-initio model is useful to study the two-atomic collisions at low energies, as well as cold energies. The new code is applied to study the scattering of positronium (Ps) by hydrogen (H), both in their ground states.

  8. Chameleon dark energy and atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, Benjamin; Khoury, Justin; Haslinger, Philipp; Jaffe, Matt; Müller, Holger; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-08-01

    Atom interferometry experiments are searching for evidence of chameleon scalar fields with ever-increasing precision. As experiments become more precise, so too must theoretical predictions. Previous work has made numerous approximations to simplify the calculation, which in general requires solving a three-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation. This paper calculates the chameleonic force using a numerical relaxation scheme on a uniform grid. This technique is more general than previous work, which assumed spherical symmetry to reduce the partial differential equation to a one-dimensional ordinary differential equation. We examine the effects of approximations made in previous efforts on this subject and calculate the chameleonic force in a setup that closely mimics the recent experiment of Hamilton et al. Specifically, we simulate the vacuum chamber as a cylinder with dimensions matching those of the experiment, taking into account the backreaction of the source mass, its offset from the center, and the effects of the chamber walls. Remarkably, the acceleration on a test atomic particle is found to differ by only 20% from the approximate analytical treatment. These results allow us to place rigorous constraints on the parameter space of chameleon field theories, although ultimately the constraint we find is the same as the one we reported in Hamilton et al. because we had slightly underestimated the size of the vacuum chamber. This computational technique will continue to be useful as experiments become even more precise and will also be a valuable tool in optimizing future searches for chameleon fields and related theories.

  9. Chameleon Dark Energy and Atom Interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Elder, Benjamin; Haslinger, Philipp; Jaffe, Matt; Müller, Holger; Hamilton, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Atom interferometry experiments are searching for evidence of chameleon scalar fields with ever-increasing precision. As experiments become more precise, so too must theoretical predictions. Previous work has made numerous approximations to simplify the calculation, which in general requires solving a 3-dimensional nonlinear partial differential equation (PDE). In this paper, we introduce a new technique for calculating the chameleonic force, using a numerical relaxation scheme on a uniform grid. This technique is more general than previous work, which assumed spherical symmetry to reduce the PDE to a 1-dimensional ordinary differential equation (ODE). We examine the effects of approximations made in previous efforts on this subject, and calculate the chameleonic force in a set-up that closely mimics the recent experiment of Hamilton et al. Specifically, we simulate the vacuum chamber as a cylinder with dimensions matching those of the experiment, taking into account the backreaction of the source mass, its o...

  10. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the April 1996 reporting period from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, the Administrative Law Judges, the Directors` Decisions, and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking. Included are issuances pertaining to: (1) Yankee Nuclear Power Station, (2) Georgia Tech Research Reactor, (3) River Bend Station, (4) Millstone Unit 1, (5) Thermo-Lag fire barrier material, and (6) Louisiana Energy Services.

  11. Positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen at low energies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Chakrabarti

    2001-04-01

    Low energy positron impact ionization of atomic hydrogen is studies theoretically using the hyperspherical partial wave method of Das [1] in constant 12, equal energy sharing geometry. The TDCS reveal considerable differences in physics compared to electron impact ionization under the same geometry.

  12. Building thermography as a tool in energy audits and building commissioning procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Timo

    2007-04-01

    A Building Commissioning-project (ToVa) was launched in Finland in the year 2003. A comprehensive commissioning procedure, including the building process and operation stage was developed in the project. This procedure will confirm the precise documentation of client's goals, definition of planning goals and the performance of the building. It is rather usual, that within 1-2 years after introduction the users complain about the defects or performance malfunctions of the building. Thermography is one important manual tool in verifying the thermal performance of the building envelope. In this paper the results of one pilot building (a school) will be presented. In surveying the condition and energy efficiency of buildings, various auxiliary means are needed. We can compare the consumption data of the target building with other, same type of buildings by benchmarking. Energy audit helps to localize and determine the energy saving potential. The most general and also most effective auxiliary means in monitoring the thermal performance of building envelopes is an infrared camera. In this presentation some examples of the use of thermography in energy audits are presented.

  13. An atomic clockwork using phase dependent energy shifts

    CERN Document Server

    De Munshi, D; Mukherjee, M

    2011-01-01

    A frequency stabilized laser referenced to an unperturbed atomic two level system acts as the most accurate clock with femtosecond clock ticks. For any meaningful use, a Femtosecond Laser Frequency Comb (FLFC) is used to transfer the atomic clock accuracy to electronically countable nanosecond clock ticks. Here we propose an alternative clockwork based on the phenomenon that when an atomic system is slowly evolved in a cyclic path, the atomic energy levels gather some phase called the geometric phase. This geometric phase dependent energy shift has been used here to couple the two frequency regimes in a phase coherent manner. It has also been shown that such a technique can be implemented experimentally, bypassing the highly involved setup of a FLFC.

  14. Implement and commissioning of the beam energy feedback system in BEPCII linac

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Shaozhe; Liu, Rong; Huang, Xuefang; Qian, Lei

    2016-01-01

    In order to ensure the beam quality and meet the requirements introduced by the BEPCII storage ring, the beam energy feedback system has been developed at the exit of the linac. This paper describes the implementation and commissioning of this system in detail. The energy feedback system consists of an energy measurement unit, an application software and an execution unit. In order to ensure the real-time monitoring and adjustment of beam energy, we need to introduce a non-interceptive type of online beam energy measurement method which is on the first try in China and the effective mechanism of energy adjustment to achieve this goal. The adjustment of energy is achieved by adjusting the output microwave phase of the RF power source station. The system was put into operation in March 16th, 2016 and achieved the desired results. It can effectively eliminate the low point of the injection rate caused by the fluctuation of the beam center energy and has played an important role in maintaining a high constant inj...

  15. Transitioning the California Energy Commission Eligible Equipment List to a National Platform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truitt, Sarah; Nobler, Erin; Krasko, Vitaliy; Blair, Nate; Kurtz, Sarah; Hillman, Daniel; Studer, Daniel

    2017-03-01

    The Energy Commission called on the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL)'s Solar Technical Assistance Team to explore various pathways for supporting continued evolution of the list. NREL staff utilized the Database of State Incentives for Renewables and Efficiency (DSIRE), California Solar Initiative (CSI) data, and information from in-depth interviews to better understand the impact of a lack of an updated list and suggest potential solutions. A total of 18 people from state energy offices, rebate program administrators, utilities, national testing laboratories, private companies, nonprofit organizations, and the federal government were interviewed between July and September 2013. CSI data were analyzed to illustrate the monetary benefits of the algorithm behind calculating performance of PV modules included on the list. The primary objectives of this study are to: 1) Determine the impact of not maintaining the list, and 2) Explore alternatives to the State of California's maintenance of the list.

  16. Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission - Annual report 2008; Eidgenoessische Energieforschungskommission CORE. Jahresbericht 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maus, K.

    2009-07-01

    This annual report presents a review of the activities carried out by the Swiss Federal Energy Research Commission CORE in the year 2008. Main points of interest were the definition of a new CORE vision, a review of all research programmes, co-operation and co-ordination with public and private institutes, active consultancy, recommendations for further education and training, improved international information exchange and good communication with business, politics and the general public. The definition of a concept for Swiss energy research for the period 2012 to 2016 is mentioned. The annual report also reports on an internal visit made to various laboratories of the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Lausanne and the Energy Center in Zurich. The focussing of CORE activities on particular themes is discussed

  17. Beam dynamics and commissioning of low and medium energy H- beam at Linac4

    CERN Document Server

    Satri, Masoomeh Yarmohammadi; Lamehi-Rachti , Mohammad

    The First step of the CERN Large Hadron Collider injectors upgrade (LIU) project is Linac4. It accelerates H- ions to 160 MeV in an 80 m long accelerator housed in a tunnel 12 m underground, presently under construction. It will replace the present 50 MeV proton Linac2 as injector of the proton accelerator complex to increase the LHC luminosity. It consists of a 45 keV RF volume source, a twosolenoid Low Energy Beam Transport (LEBT), a 352.2 MHz Radio Frequency Quadrupole (RFQ) accelerating the beam to 3 MeV, a Medium Energy Beam Transport (MEBT) line. The MEBT houses a fast chopper to selectively remove unwanted micro-bunches in the 352 MHz sequence and avoid losses at capture in the CERN PSB (1 MHz). After chopping, the beam acceleration continues by a 50 MeV Drift Tube Linac (DTL), a 100 MeV Cell-Coupled Drift Tube Linac and a Pi-Mode Structure bringing the beam to the final energy of 160 MeV. Linac4 has been commissioned with a temporary source up to 12 MeV. The beam commissioning stages of Linac4 in LEBT...

  18. Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future: Report to the Secretary of Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    Preamble The Blue Ribbon Commission on America’s Nuclear Future (BRC) was formed by the Secretary of Energy at the request of the President to conduct a comprehensive review of policies for managing the back end of the nuclear fuel cycle and recommend a new strategy. It was co-chaired by Rep. Lee H. Hamilton and Gen. Brent Scowcroft. Other Commissioners are Mr. Mark H. Ayers, the Hon. Vicky A. Bailey, Dr. Albert Carnesale, Sen. Pete Domenici, Ms. Susan Eisenhower, Sen. Chuck Hagel, Mr. Jonathan Lash, Dr. Allison M. Macfarlane, Dr. Richard A. Meserve, Dr. Ernest J. Moniz, Dr. Per Peterson, Mr. John Rowe, and Rep. Phil Sharp. The Commission and its subcommittees met more than two dozen times between March 2010 and January 2012 to hear testimony from experts and stakeholders, to visit nuclear waste management facilities in the United States and abroad, and to discuss the issues identified in its Charter. Additionally, in September and October 2011, the Commission held five public meetings, in different regions of the country, to hear feedback on its draft report. A wide variety of organizations, interest groups, and individuals provided input to the Commission at these meetings and through the submission of written materials. Copies of all of these submissions, along with records and transcripts of past meetings, are available at the BRC website (www.brc.gov). This report highlights the Commission’s findings and conclusions and presents recommendations for consideration by the Administration and Congress, as well as interested state, tribal and local governments, other stakeholders, and the public.

  19. General engineering ethics and multiple stress of atomic energy engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kunihiko [Shibaura Inst. of Tech., Tokyo (Japan)

    1999-08-01

    The factors, by which the modern engineering ethics has been profoundly affected, were classified to three categories, namely mental blow, the destruction of human function and environment damage. The role of atomic energy engineering in the ethic field has been shown in the first place. It is pointed out that it has brought about the mental blow by the elucidation of universal truth and discipline and the functional disorder by the power supply. However, the direct effect of radiation to the human kinds is only a part of the stresses comparing to the accumulation of the social stress which should be taken into account of by the possibility of disaster and the suspicion of the atomic energy politics. An increase in the multiple stresses as well as the restriction of criticism will place obstacles on the promotion of atomic energy. (author)

  20. Wildlife risks associated with passage of contaminated, anadromous fish at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Licensed Dams in Michigan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The purpose of this paper is to assess the issue of anadromous fish passage at Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) licensed hydropower dams in Michigan and...

  1. Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Seymour I.

    This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land…

  2. Automatic generation of reaction energy databases from highly accurate atomization energy benchmark sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margraf, Johannes T; Ranasinghe, Duminda S; Bartlett, Rodney J

    2017-03-31

    In this contribution, we discuss how reaction energy benchmark sets can automatically be created from arbitrary atomization energy databases. As an example, over 11 000 reaction energies derived from the W4-11 database, as well as some relevant subsets are reported. Importantly, there is only very modest computational overhead involved in computing >11 000 reaction energies compared to 140 atomization energies, since the rate-determining step for either benchmark is performing the same 140 quantum chemical calculations. The performance of commonly used electronic structure methods for the new database is analyzed. This allows investigating the relationship between the performances for atomization and reaction energy benchmarks based on an identical set of molecules. The atomization energy is found to be a weak predictor for the overall usefulness of a method. The performance of density functional approximations in light of the number of empirically optimized parameters used in their design is also discussed.

  3. Commission for Energy regulation (CRE) - Activity report June 2005; Commission de regulation de l'energie (CRE) - Rapport d'activite juin 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    CRE is the French commission for energy regulation. CRE's remit is to assist in ensuring the proper operation of the electricity and natural gas markets for the benefit of the end-user. In particular, CRE ensures that the conditions of access to electricity and natural gas transmission and distribution systems do not hinder the development of competition. It monitors, for the electricity and natural gas sectors, all transactions made between suppliers, traders and producers, all transactions made on the organised markets and cross-border trading. It ensures that suppliers, traders and producers propose offers that are consistent with their financial and technical constraints. It monitors the implementation of and compliance with regulations giving consumers the right to choose their supplier in a competitive market, and allowing new suppliers to enter the market. This document is the 2005 activity report of CRE. Content: A - The opening of the markets in France and in Europe: The opening of the markets one year after 1 July 2004 (An especially important step, Electricity and gas: a common framework with structural differences, The coexistence of market prices and regulated tariffs); The European texts of 26 June 2003 (Texts to give new impetus, Texts to harmonize the role and powers of national regulators, Texts to guarantee the independence of system operators, Texts to ensure transparent and non-discriminatory access to networks, Texts providing for strengthening of interconnections); The outlook for 2007, a fully open market (1 July 2007: a date set by the directives, Priority given to informing and protecting consumers); B - Regulation of the natural gas market: The gas market in the European context (Europe's dependency on imports is increasing, Gas prices increased considerably across the whole of Europe in 2004, The European gas scene continues to be dominated by a small number of players, Gas infrastructures need to be developed in Europe, The new

  4. Understanding Atomic Structure: Is There a More Direct and Compelling Connection between Atomic Line Spectra and the Quantization of an Atom's Energy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rittenhouse, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    The "atoms first" philosophy, adopted by a growing number of General Chemistry textbook authors, places greater emphasis on atomic structure as a key to a deeper understanding of the field of chemistry. A pivotal concept needed to understand the behavior of atoms is the restriction of an atom's energy to specific allowed values. However,…

  5. Correlated energy transfer between two ultracold atomic species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krönke, Sven; Knörzer, Johannes; Schmelcher, Peter

    2015-05-01

    We study a single atom as an open quantum system, which is initially prepared in a coherent state of low energy and oscillates in a one-dimensional harmonic trap through an interacting ensemble of NA bosons, held in a displaced trap [arXiv:1410.8676]. The non-equilibrium quantum dynamics of the total system is simulated by means of an ab-initio method, giving us access to all properties of the open system and its finite environment. In this talk, we focus on unraveling the interplay of energy exchange and correlations between the subsystems, which are coupled in such a spatio-temporally localized manner. We show that an inter-species interaction-induced level splitting accelerates the energy transfer between the atomic species for larger NA, which becomes less complete at the same time. System-environment correlations prove to be significant except for times when the excess energy distribution among the subsystems is highly imbalanced. These correlations result in incoherent energy transfer processes, which accelerate the early energy donation of the single atom. By analyzing correlations between intra-subsystem excitations, certain energy transfer channels are shown to be (dis-)favored depending on the instantaneous direction of transfer.

  6. Non—conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DongChuan-Hua

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coulpled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes-Cummings model for coupled atoms, the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of field and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  7. Non-conservation of energy arising from atomic dipole interactions and its effects on light field and coupled atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董传华

    2003-01-01

    The interactions between coupled atoms and a single mode of a quantized electromagnetic field, which involve the terms originating from the dipole interactions, are discussed. In the usual Jaynes Cummings model for coupled atoms,the terms of non-conservation of energy originating from dipole interactions are neglected, however, we take them into consideration in this paper. The effects of these terms on the evolutions of quantum statistic properties and squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole moments and atomic population inversion are investigated. It has been shown that the coupling between atoms modulates these evolutions of fields and atoms. The terms of non-conservation of energy affect these evolutions of fields and atoms slightly. They also have effects on the squeezing of the field, the squeezing of atomic dipole and atomic population inversions. The initial states of atoms also affect these properties.

  8. Correlation Between Energy Transfer Rate and Atomization Energy of Some Trinitro Aromatic Explosive Molecules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su-hong Ge; Xin-lu Cheng; Zheng-lai Liu; Xiang-dong Yang; Fang-fang Dong

    2008-01-01

    An assumptive theoretical relationship is suggested to describe the property of molecular atomization energy and energy transfer rate in the initiation of explosions. To investigate the relationship between atomization energy and energy transfer rate, the number of doorway modes of explosives is estimated by the theory of Dlott and Fayer in which the rate is proportional to the number of normal mode vibrations. It was evaluated frequencies of normal mode vibrations of eight molecules by means of density functional theory (DFT) at the b3p86/6-31G(d,p) level. It is found that the number of doorway modes shows a linear correlation to the atomization energies of the molecules, which were also calculated by means of the same method. A mechanism of this correlation is discussed. It is also noted that in those explosives with similar molecular structure and molecular weight, the correlation between the atomization energy and the number of doorway modes is higher.

  9. Corrections to the Nonrelativistic Ground Energy of a Helium Atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段一士; 刘玉孝; 张丽杰

    2004-01-01

    Considering the nuclear motion, we present the nonrelativistic ground energy of a helium atom by using a simple effective variational wavefunction with a flexible parameter k. Based on the result, the relativistic and radiative corrections to the nonrelativistic Hamiltonian are discussed. The high precision value of the helium ground energy is evaluated to be -2.90338 a.u. With the relative error 0.00034%.

  10. Estimation of correlation energy for excited-states of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hemanadhan, M

    2014-01-01

    The correlation energies of various atoms in their excited-states are estimated by modelling the Coulomb hole following the previous work by Chakravorty and Clementi. The parameter in the model is fixed by making the corresponding Coulomb hole to satisfy the exact constraint of charge neutrality.

  11. A Bibliography of Basic Books on Atomic Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1974-01-01

    This booklet lists selected commercially published books for the general public on atomic energy and closely related subjects. Books for young readers have school grade annotations.This booklet contains an author index, a title index, and a list of publishers’ addresses.

  12. Scientists credit `Atoms for Peace' for progress on energy, security

    CERN Multimedia

    Jones, D

    2003-01-01

    "Fifty years after President Eisenhower unveiled his plan for developing peaceful uses for nuclear fission, the scientific advances spawned by his Atoms for Peace program have made possible major advances in energy and national security, a panel of physicists said last week" (1 page).

  13. Multipolar electrostatics for proteins: atom-atom electrostatic energies in crambin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yongna; Mills, Matthew J L; Popelier, Paul L A

    2014-02-15

    Accurate electrostatics necessitates the use of multipole moments centered on nuclei or extra point charges centered away from the nuclei. Here, we follow the former alternative and investigate the convergence behavior of atom-atom electrostatic interactions in the pilot protein crambin. Amino acids are cut out from a Protein Data Bank structure of crambin, as single amino acids, di, or tripeptides, and are then capped with a peptide bond at each side. The atoms in the amino acids are defined through Quantum Chemical Topology (QCT) as finite volume electron density fragments. Atom-atom electrostatic energies are computed by means of a multipole expansion with regular spherical harmonics, up to a total interaction rank of L = ℓA+ ℓB + 1 = 10. The minimum internuclear distance in the convergent region of all the 15 possible types of atom-atom interactions in crambin that were calculated based on single amino acids are close to the values calculated from di and tripeptides. Values obtained at B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVTZ levels are only slightly larger than those calculated at HF/6-31G(d,p) level. This convergence behavior is transferable to the well-known amyloid beta polypeptide Aβ1-42. Moreover, for a selected central atom, the influence of its neighbors on its multipole moments is investigated, and how far away this influence can be ignored is also determined. Finally, the convergence behavior of AMBER becomes closer to that of QCT with increasing internuclear distance.

  14. Atomic energy law after the opt-out. Alive and fascinating. Report about the 14{sup th} German atomic energy law symposium 2012; Atomrecht nach dem Ausstieg. Lebendig und spannend. Tagungsbericht 14. Deutsches Atomrechtssymposium 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leidinger, Tobias [Gleiss Lutz Rechtsanwaelte, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2013-01-15

    transparency, material safety standards, and the separation of regulatory and supervisory authorities. In this way, the Commission opens up a broad field of topics which will ensure, also beyond the 14{sup th} German Atomic Energy Law Symposium, that atomic energy law will remain a living, fascinating subject matter. (orig.)

  15. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  16. Atomic Energy Levels with QED and Contribution of the Screened Self-Energy

    OpenAIRE

    Bigot, Eric-Olivier Le; Indelicato, Paul

    2000-01-01

    We present an introduction to the principles behind atomic energy level calculations with Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) and the two-time Green's function method; this method allows one to calculate an effective Hamiltonian that contains all QED effects and that can be used to predict QED Lamb shifts of degenerate, quasidegenerate and isolated atomic levels.

  17. Dense plasmas research in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission: past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soto, Leopoldo; Silva, Patricio; Moreno, Jose; Zambra, Marcelo; Sylvester, Gustavo; Esaulov, Andrey; Altamirano, Luis [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear (CCHEN), Santiago (Chile)]. E-mail: lsoto@cchen.cl

    2002-03-01

    A review of the dense transient plasmas researches, developed in the Chilean Nuclear Energy Commission, is presented. A brief summary of the researches done in collaboration with the Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, between 1993 to 1997, is shown. In addition, the program 'Plasma Physics in Small Devices', developed at the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear since 1999 is delineated. The diagnostics development and results obtained during three experiments using small pinch devices are shown: a capillary discharge; a Z pinch driven by a small generator; and a low energy plasma focus. The experiments were complemented by magnetohydrodynamics numerical calculations, in order to assist the design and physical interpretation of the experimental data. The diagnostics techniques used in these experiments include current and voltage monitors, multi pinhole camera, plasma image using a ICCD camera gated from 3 to 20 ns, holographic interferometry, and vacuum ultraviolet spectroscopy. Recently, the pulse power generator SPEED 2, a medium energy and large current device (187 kJ, 4 MA, 300 kV, 400 ns, dI/dt{approx}10{sup 13} A/s), has been transferred from the Duesseldorf University to the Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear. Future experiments, and the perspectives of using this device, are also discussed. (author)

  18. Quickening nature's pulse: atomic agriculture at the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Jacob Darwin

    2015-01-01

    Mutation breeders in the 1960s seemed poised to use atomic energy to speed up mutation rates in plants in order to develop new crop varieties, for the benefit of all people. Although skepticism had slowed this work in the United States, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) nurtured the scientific field, its community of experts, and an imagined version of the future that put humans in control of their destiny. The IAEA acted as a center of dissemination and support for experts and ideas even when they had fallen from favor elsewhere. Through the lens of the IAEA, plant breeding bore the appearance of a socially progressive, ultra-modern science destined to alleviate population pressures. Administrators at the IAEA also were desperate for success stories, hoping to highlight mutation plant breeding as a potential solution to the world's ills. The community of mutation plant breeders gained a lifeline from the consistent clarion call from the Vienna-based agency to use atomic energy to understand the natural world and quicken its pulse with radioisotopes.

  19. Plasma screening effects on the energies of hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soylu, A. [Department of Physics, Nigde University, 51240 Nigde (Turkey)

    2012-07-15

    A more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential is used for the first time to investigate the screening effects on the hydrogen atom in plasmas. This potential is examined for four different cases that correspond to four different type potentials when the different parameters are used in the potential within the framework of the well-known asymptotic iteration method. By solving the corresponding the radial Schroedinger equation with the screened and exponential cosine screened Coulomb potentials and comparing the obtained energy eigenvalues with the results of other studies, the applicability of the method to this kind of plasma physics problem is shown. The energy values of more general exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential are presented for various parameters in the potential. One of the advantages of the present potential is that it exhibits stronger screening effect than that of the exponential cosine screened Coulomb potential and it is also reduced to screened Coulomb and exponential cosine screened Coulomb as well as Coulomb potentials for special values of parameters. The parameters in the potential would be useful to model screening effects which cause an increase or decrease in the energy values of hydrogen atom in both Debye and quantum plasmas and in this manner this potential would be useful for the investigations of the atomic structure and collisions in plasmas.

  20. South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project : Adopted Portions of a 1987 Federal Energy Regulatory Commission`s Final Environmental Impact Statement.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-07-01

    The South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project that world produce 6.55 average megawatts of firm energy per year and would be sited in the Snohomish River Basin, Washington, was evaluated by the Federal Energy Regulatory commission (FERC) along with six other proposed projects for environmental effects and economic feasibility Based on its economic analysis and environmental evaluation of the project, the FERC staff found that the South Fork Tolt River Project would be economically feasible and would result in insignificant Impacts if sedimentation issues could be resolved. Upon review, the BPA is adopting portions of the 1987 FERC FEIS that concern the South Fork Tolt River Hydroelectric Project and updating specific sections in an Attachment.

  1. Scattering of low-energy neutrinos on atomic shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babič, Andrej [Dept. of Dosimetry and Application of Ionizing Radiation, Czech Technical University, 115 19 Prague, Czech Rep. (Czech Republic); Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, 128 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Šimkovic, Fedor [Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Czech Technical University, 128 00 Prague (Czech Republic); Bogoliubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna (Russian Federation); Department of Nuclear Physics and Biophysics, Comenius University, 842 48 Bratislava (Slovakia)

    2015-10-28

    We present a derivation of the total cross section for inelastic scattering of low-energy solar neutrinos and reactor antineutrinos on bound electrons, resulting in a transition of the electron to an excited state. The atomic-shell structure of various chemical elements is treated in terms of a nonrelativistic approximation. We estimate the interaction rates for modern neutrino detectors, in particular the Borexino and GEMMA experiments. We establish that in these experiments the effect can be safely neglected, but it could be accessible to future large-volume neutrino detectors with low energy threshold.

  2. Importance of Atomic Contacts in Vibrational Energy Flow in Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondoh, Masato; Mizuno, Misao; Mizutani, Yasuhisa

    2016-06-02

    Vibrational energy flow in proteins was studied by monitoring the time-resolved anti-Stokes ultraviolet resonance Raman scattering of three myoglobin mutants in which a Trp residue substitutes a different amino acid residue near heme. The anti-Stokes Raman intensities of the Trp residue in the three mutants increased with similar rates after depositing excess vibrational energy at heme, despite the difference in distance between heme and each substituted Trp residue along the main chain of the protein. This indicates that vibrational energy is not transferred through the main chain of the protein but rather through atomic contacts between heme and the Trp residue. Distinct differences were observed in the amplitude of the band intensity change between the Trp residues at different positions, and the amplitude of the band intensity change exhibits a correlation with the extent of exposure of the Trp residue to solvent water. This correlation indicates that atomic contacts between an amino acid residue and solvent water play an important role in vibrational energy flow in a protein.

  3. Disposal of radioactive wastes arising in the United Kingdom from the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Bryant, P M

    1971-01-01

    This paper describes United Kingdom policy in relation to radioactive waste and summarises the relevant legislation ad methods of control. Data are given on the amounts of radioactivity discharged as waste from establishments of the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, the nuclear power stations operated by the Electricity Generating Boards and other users of radioactive materials. Studies of the behaviour of radioactivity in the environment are reported with particular reference to food chains and other potential sources of irradiation of the public. The results of environmental monitoring are presented and estimates are made of radiation doses received by individual members of the public and larger population groups as a result of waste disposal. It is concluded that the doses received are all within the appropriate limits recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection, and in most cases are trivial.

  4. Report made on behalf of the commission of foreign affairs about the law project, adopted by the Senate, authorizing the ratification of the agreement between the French Republic, the European Atomic Energy Community and the International Atomic Energy Agency relative to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of nuclear weapons prohibition in South America and the Caribbeans area (two protocols together); Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires etrangeres sur le projet de loi, adopte par le senat, autorisant la ratification de l'accord entre la Republique francaise, la Communaute europeenne de l'energie atomique et l'Agence internationale de l'energie atomique relatif a l'application de garanties dans le cadre du traite visant l'interdiction des armes nucleaires en Amerique latine et dans les Caraibes (ensemble deux protocoles)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This report comments the reasons of the signature of the agreement between France, EURATOM and the IAEA for the reinforcement of IAEA's non-proliferation controls in the South America and Caribbean areas (law project no. 1329). The ratification of this agreement will have only few concrete consequences but will contribute to the promotion of non-proliferation and to the enforcement of warranties in the framework of the treaty of interdiction of nuclear weapons in South America and in the Caribbean area (signed in Vienna, Austria, on March 21, 2000). The commission of foreign affairs adopted this law project on March 3, 2004. (J.S.)

  5. Features of Low Energy Classical Bremsstrahlung From Neutral Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florescu, A.; Obolensky, O. I.; Pratt, R. H.

    2002-05-01

    We study classical bremsstrahlung from neutral atoms and investigate the features characteristic for the low incident energy region. These features include oscillations in the energy dependence of the bremsstrahlung cross section and structures in the asymmetry parameter of radiation. We use soft-photon limit results to elucidate the physical origins of the features. We show that there is a correspondence between classical and quantum results [1]. In both cases the features result from the suppression of contributions to the radiation from certain angular momenta at certain energies. In quantum mechanics this corresponds to zeroes in certain radiation matrix elements. In the classical case the lack of contribution from some interval of angular momentum is caused by behaviors of elastic electron scattering in screened potentials. [1] A. Florescu, O. I. Obolensky, C. D. Shaffer, and R. H. Pratt 2001 AIP Conference Proceedings 576, 60-64.

  6. Scenarios for a robust policy mix: the final report of the German study commission on sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennicke, P. E-mail: peter.hennicke@wupperinst.org

    2004-10-01

    In February 2000, the German Bundestag established a Study Commission on 'Sustainable Energy Supplies in View of Globalisation and Liberalisation' (cf. Final Report, 2002). The Commission's Final Report is a contribution made by Germany toward implementing the sustainable development objectives defined in 1992 at the World Summit in Rio de Janeiro (Agenda 21). Despite minority votes of several members of the Study Commission, the main outcomes of the Final Report are worthwhile discussing in other industrial countries. The Commission had been given the mandate to identify 'robust, sustainable development paths' for the energy sector for the period up to 2050, which represent a scientific basis for the German parliament's further decision-making in the field of long-term energy policy. The applied backcasting approach showed that an ambitious climate-protection goal--reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% by 2050 - is technically and economically feasible. The main strategies and instruments for protecting the climate while ensuring a sustainable energy supply are summarised.

  7. Scenarios for a robust policy mix: the final report of the German study commission on sustainable energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Hennicke [Environment and Energy GmbH, Wuppertal (Germany). Wuppertal Institute for Climate

    2004-10-01

    In February 2000, the German Bundestag established a Study Commission on 'Sustainable Energy Supplies in View of Globalisation and Liberalisation'. The Commission's Final Report is a contribution made by Germany toward implementing the sustainable development objectives defined in 1992 at the World Summit in Rio de Janeiro (Agenda 21). Despite minority votes of several members of the Study Commission, the main outcomes of the Final Report are worthwhile discussing in other industrial countries. The Commission had been given the mandate to identify 'robust, sustainable development paths' for the energy sector for the period up to 2050, which represent a scientific basis for the German parliament's further decision-making in the field of long-term energy policy. The applied backcasting approach showed that an ambitious climate-protection goal reducing CO{sub 2} emissions by 80% by 2050is technically and economically feasible. The main strategies and instruments for protecting the climate while ensuring a sustainable energy supply are summarised. 1 fig.

  8. Positron-Lithium Atom and Electron-Lithium Atom Scattering Systems at Intermediate and High Energies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    K. Ratnavelu; S. Y. Ng

    2006-01-01

    @@ The coupled-channel optical method is used to study positron scattering by atomic lithium at energies ranging from the ionization threshold to 60 eV. The present method simultaneously treats the target channels and the positronium (Ps) channels in the coupled-channel method together with the continuum effects via an ab-initio optical potential. Ionization, elastic and inelastic cross sections in target channels, and the total cross section are also reported and compared with other theoretical and experimental data. A comparative study with the corresponding electron-lithium data is also reported.

  9. Embedded atom calculations of unstable stacking fault energies and surface energies in intermetallics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, D. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States); Zhou, S.J. [Theoretical Division and Center for Nonlinear Studies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Vailhe, C.; Mutasa, B.; Panova, J. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, Virginia 24061 (United States)

    1997-01-01

    We performed embedded atom method calculations on surface energies and unstable stacking fault energies for a series of intermetallics for which interatomic potentials of the embedded atom type have recently been developed. These results were analyzed and applied to the prediction of relative ductility of these materials using the various current theories. Series of alloys with the B2 ordered structure were studied, and the results were compared to those in pure body-centered cubic (bcc) Fe. Ordered compounds with L1{sub 2} and L1{sub 0} structures based on the face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice were also studied. It was found that there is a correlation between the values of the antiphase boundary (APB) energies in B2 alloys and their unstackable stacking fault energies. Materials with higher APB energies tend to have higher unstable stacking fault energies, leading to an increased tendency to brittle fracture. {copyright} {ital 1997 Materials Research Society.}

  10. Many-body approximations for atomic binding energies

    CERN Document Server

    Schuster, Micah D; Staker, Joshua T

    2011-01-01

    We benchmark three approximations for the many-body problem -- the Hartree-Fock, projected Hartree-Fock, and random phase approximations -- against full numerical configuration-interaction calculations of the electronic structure of atoms, from Li through to Ne. Each method uses exactly the same input, i.e., the same single-particle basis and Coulomb matrix elements, so any differences are strictly due to the approximation itself. Although it consistently overestimates the ground state binding energy, the random phase approximation has the smallest overall errors; furthermore, we suggest it may be useful as a method for efficient optimization of single-particle basis functions.

  11. ASTROPHYSICS. Atom-interferometry constraints on dark energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, P; Jaffe, M; Haslinger, P; Simmons, Q; Müller, H; Khoury, J

    2015-08-21

    If dark energy, which drives the accelerated expansion of the universe, consists of a light scalar field, it might be detectable as a "fifth force" between normal-matter objects, in potential conflict with precision tests of gravity. Chameleon fields and other theories with screening mechanisms, however, can evade these tests by suppressing the forces in regions of high density, such as the laboratory. Using a cesium matter-wave interferometer near a spherical mass in an ultrahigh-vacuum chamber, we reduced the screening mechanism by probing the field with individual atoms rather than with bulk matter. We thereby constrained a wide class of dark energy theories, including a range of chameleon and other theories that reproduce the observed cosmic acceleration.

  12. The role of correlation in the ground state energy of confined helium atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aquino, N. [Departamento de Física, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, 09340 México Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2014-01-14

    We analyze the ground state energy of helium atom confined by spherical impenetrable walls, and the role of the correlation energy in the total energy. The confinement of an atom in a cavity is one way in which we can model the effect of the external pressure on an atom. The calculations of energy of the system are carried out by the variational method. We find that the correlation energy remains almost constant for a range values of size of the boxes analyzed.

  13. Isotope Effects in Low Energy Ion-Atom Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Havener, Charles C [ORNL; Seely, D. G. [Albion College; Thomas, J. D. [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH; Kvale, Thomas Jay [University of Toledo, Toledo, OH

    2009-01-01

    Isotope effects for charge transfer processes have recently received increased attention. The ion-atom merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge National Laboratory is used to measure charge transfer for low energy collisions of multi-charged ions with H and D and is therefore well suited to investigate isotope effects. The apparatus has been relocated and upgraded to accept high velocity beams from the 250 kV High Voltage Platform at the Multi-Charged Ion Research Facility. The intense higher velocity multi-charged ion beams allow, for the first time, measurements with both H and D from keV/u down to meV/u collision energies in the center-of-mass frame. When charge transfer occurs at relatively large inter-nuclear distances (via radial couplings) the ion-induced dipole attraction can lead to trajectory effects, causing differences in the charge transfer cross sections for H and D. A strong isotope effect (nearly a factor of two) has been observed in the cross section for Si4+ + H(D) below 0.1 eV/u. However, little or no difference is observed for N2+ + H(D). Recently, strong effects have been predicted for the fundamental system He2+ + H(D,T) at collision energies below 200 eV/u where charge transfer occurs primarily through united-atom rotational coupling. We are currently exploring systems where rotational coupling is important and isotopic differences in the cross section can be observed.

  14. Energy from the Atom. A Basic Teaching Unit on Energy. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDermott, Hugh, Ed.; Scharmann, Larry, Ed.

    Recommended for grades 9-12 social studies and/or physical science classes, this 4-8 day unit focuses on four topics: (1) the background and history of atomic development; (2) two common types of nuclear reactors (boiling water and pressurized water reactors); (3) disposal of radioactive waste; and (4) the future of nuclear energy. Each topic…

  15. Seeking to Improve Low Energy Neutral Atom Detection in Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Herrero, F.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2007-01-01

    The detection of energetic neutral atoms allows for the remote examination of the interactions between plasmas and neutral populations in space. Before these neutral atoms can be measured, they must first be converted to ions. For the low energy end of this spectrum, interaction with a conversion surface is often the most efficient method to convert neutrals into ions. It is generally thought that the most efficient surfaces are low work functions materials. However, by their very nature, these surfaces are highly reactive and unstable, and therefore are not suitable for space missions where conditions cannot be controlled as they are in a laboratory. We therefore are looking to optimize a stable surface for conversion efficiency. Conversion efficiency can be increased either by changing the incident angle of the neutral particles to be grazing incidence and using stable surfaces with high conversion efficiencies. We have examined how to increase the angle of incidence from -80 degrees to -89 degrees, while maintaining or improving the total active conversion surface area without increasing the overall volume of the instrument. We are developing a method to micro-machine silicon, which will reduce the volume to surface area ratio by a factor of 60. We have also examined the material properties that affect the conversion efficiency of the surface for stable surfaces. Some of the parameters we have examined are work function, smoothness, and bond structure. We find that for stable surfaces, the most important property is the smoothness of the surface.

  16. An atomic empire a technical history of the rise and fall of the British atomic energy programme

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, C N

    2013-01-01

    Britain was the first country to exploit atomic energy on a large scale, and at its peak in the mid-1960s, it had generated more electricity from nuclear power than the rest of the world combined.The civil atomic energy programme grew out of the military programme which produced plutonium for atomic weapons. In 1956, Calder Hall power station was opened by the Queen. The very next year, one of the early Windscale reactors caught fire and the world's first major nuclear accident occurred.The civil programme ran into further difficulty in the mid-1960s and as a consequence of procrastination in

  17. Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Director, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Chairman-Designate of the Atomic Energy Commission Secretary, Department of Atomic Energy, India

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2000-01-01

    Photo 01: Dr. A. Kakodkar signing the Guest Book with Dr. L. Evans, LHC Project Leader and Prof. R. Cashmore, Director for Collider Programmes Photo 02: Dr. A. Kakodkar with Dr. L. Evans Photo 03: Dr. A. Kakodkar

  18. Chaotic Energy Hopping in Bidirectionally Kicked Rydberg Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Korana; Mitchell, Kevin; Ye, Shuzhen; Dunning, F. Barry

    2012-06-01

    A highly excited (n 306) quasi one-dimensional Rydberg atom exposed to periodic alternating external electric field pulses exhibits chaotic behavior. Time evolution of this system is governed by a geometric structure of phase space called a homoclinic tangle and its turnstile. The turnstile is responsible for organizing chaotic ionization. We present and explain the results from an experiment designed to probe the structure of the phase space turnstile. We create time-independent Rydberg wave packets, subject them to alternating electric field kicks, and measure the ionization fraction. We present the behavior of the ionization fraction as a function of the applied kick strength and show that this behavior is directly connected to the size and shape of the underlying turnstile. For short kicking periods the ionization fraction as a function of the applied kick strength exhibits step-function-like behavior that changes into s-shape behavior for large kicking periods. Next we use the geometric structure of phase space to design a short pulse sequence that quickly and efficiently transfers electronic wave packet from a high energy state to a much lower energy state. Finally, we show how the phase space geometry influences the efficiency of the transport between energy states.

  19. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 2000-2001

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2001-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2001 and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 2000-2001. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with progress being reported in the construction of two CANDU 6 reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, the anticipated completion of Cernavoda unit 2, the completion of spent fuel storage at Cernavoda unit 1 in Romania, as well as the service business with New Brunswick Power, Ontario Power Generation, Bruce Power and Hydro Quebec in the refurbishment of operating, CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs discussions continue on funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for Materials Research (CNF) and progress on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  20. Atomic Energy of Canada Limited annual report 1999-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    This is the annual report of the Atomic Energy of Canada Limited for the year ending March 31, 2000, and summarizes the activities of AECL during the period 1999-2000. The activities covered in this report include the CANDU reactor business, with the completion of the Wolsong unit 4 in the Republic of Korea, progress in the construction of two CANDU reactors for the Qinshan CANDU project in China, as well as the service business with Ontario Power Generation in the rehabilitation and life extension of operating CANDU reactors. In the R and D programs there is on-going effort towards the next generation of reactor technologies for CANDU nuclear power plants, discussions continue on the funding for the Canadian Neutron Facility for materials research (CNF) and progress being made on the Maple medical isotope reactor.

  1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  3. California Energy Commission Public Interest EnergyResearch/Energy System Integration -- Transmission-Planning Research&Development Scoping Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, Joseph H.; Lesieutre, Bernard; Widergren, Steven

    2004-07-01

    The objective of this Public Interest Energy Research (PIER)scoping project is to identify options for public-interest research and development (R&D) to improve transmission-planning tools, techniques, and methods. The information presented was gathered through a review of current California utility, California Independent System Operator (ISO), and related western states electricity transmission-planning activities and emerging needs. This report presents the project teams findings organized under six topic areas and identifies 17 distinct R&D activities to improve transmission-planning in California and the West. The findings in this report are intended for use, along with other materials, by PIER staff, to facilitate discussions with stakeholders that will ultimately lead to development of a portfolio of transmission-planning R&D activities for the PIER program.

  4. Atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洪毓

    2007-01-01

    Atoms(原子)are all around us.They are something like the bricks (砖块)of which everything is made. The size of an atom is very,very small.In just one grain of salt are held millions of atoms. Atoms are very important.The way one object acts depends on what

  5. The impact of atomic precision measurements in high energy physics

    OpenAIRE

    Casalbuoni, Roberto

    2000-01-01

    In this talk I discuss the relevance of atomic physics in understanding some important questions about elementary particle physics. A particular attention is devoted to atomic parity violation measurements which seem to suggest new physics beyond the Standard Model. Atomic physics might also be relevant in discovering possible violations of the CPT symmetry.

  6. A study on the improvement of the legal system concerning Korean Atomic Energy Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Il Un; Jung, Jong Hak; Kim, Jae Ho; Moon, Jong Wook; Kim, In Sub [Chungnam National Univ., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-15

    Cause-effect analysis, adjustment, and generalization of the current atomic energy act are contents of this research. These are to be based on the legal theory. Analysis of the current atomic energy act from the viewpoint of constitutional law and administrative law. Review of the other domestic legal systems which have similar problems as the atomic energy act has. Inquiry about the operation of nuclear legal systems of foreign nations.

  7. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  8. Green energy - the road to a Danish energy system without fossil fuels. Summary of the work, results and recommendations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2010-09-15

    This summary report describes the main outcomes of the deliberations of the Danish Commission on Climate Change Policy. It includes a proposal for how Denmark can become independent of fossil fuels and, at the same time, meet the target of reducing greenhouse gases by 80%-95% compared with 1990. In addition, 40 specific recommendations for initiatives which will contribute to the realisation of the vision are presented. The documentation section of the overall report, which is only available in Danish, presents the Climate Commission's work in more detail, as well as a description of the comprehensive analyses on which the Climate Commission has based its recommendations. Finally, the background documents, which have been prepared at the request of the Climate Commission are available (in Danish) at the Commission's website, www.klimakommissionen.dk. We can both reduce Danish emissions of greenhouse gasses significantly, and make Denmark independent of fossil fuels. This will require a total conversion of the Danish energy system; conversion away from oil, coal and gas, which today account for more than 80% of our energy consumption, and to green energy with wind turbines and bioenergy as the most important elements. The cost of conversion may seem surprisingly low. The low cost means that not only can we maintain our present living standards, we can also have considerable economic growth, so that energy expenditures will constitute less of our budgets in the future than today. The reason the cost is not higher is primarily because we will not have to pay for overpriced fossil fuels and CO{sub 2} reductions, and we will be able to limit our energy consumption through efficiency improvements in all areas in the future. It is difficult to make predictions about the exact design of the green energy system of the future. However, in overall terms it could look like this: 1) Energy will be used far more efficiently, so that we can, for example, heat our houses

  9. AtomDB and PyAtomDB: Atomic Data and Modelling Tools for High Energy and Non-Maxwellian Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Adam; Smith, Randall K.; Brickhouse, Nancy S.; Cui, Xiaohong

    2016-04-01

    The release of AtomDB 3 included a large wealth of inner shell ionization and excitation data allowing accurate modeling of non-equilibrium plasmas. We describe the newly calculated data and compare it to published literature data. We apply the new models to existing supernova remnant data such as W49B and N132D. We further outline progress towards AtomDB 3.1, including a new energy-dependent charge exchange cross sections.We present newly developed models for the spectra of electron-electron bremsstrahlung and those due to non-Maxwellian electron distributions.Finally, we present our new atomic database access tools, released as PyAtomDB, allowing powerful use of the underlying fundamental atomic data as well as the spectral emissivities.

  10. Atomic Layer Deposition of Bismuth Vanadates for Solar Energy Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefik, Morgan

    2016-07-07

    The fabrication of porous nanocomposites is key to the advancement of energy conversion and storage devices that interface with electrolytes. Bismuth vanadate, BiVO4 , is a promising oxide for solar water splitting where the controlled fabrication of BiVO4 layers within porous, conducting scaffolds has remained a challenge. Here, the atomic layer deposition of bismuth vanadates is reported from BiPh3 , vanadium(V) oxytriisopropoxide, and water. The resulting films have tunable stoichiometry and may be crystallized to form the photoactive scheelite structure of BiVO4 . A selective etching process was used with vanadium-rich depositions to enable the synthesis of phase-pure BiVO4 after spinodal decomposition. BiVO4 thin films were measured for photoelectrochemical performance under AM 1.5 illumination. The average photocurrents were 1.17 mA cm(-2) at 1.23 V versus the reversible hydrogen electrode using a hole-scavenging sulfite electrolyte. The capability to deposit conformal bismuth vanadates will enable a new generation of nanocomposite architectures for solar water splitting.

  11. Tritium handling experience at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suppiah, S.; McCrimmon, K.; Lalonde, S.; Ryland, D.; Boniface, H.; Muirhead, C.; Castillo, I. [Atomic Energy of Canad Limited - AECL, Chalk River Laboratories, Chalk River, ON (Canada)

    2015-03-15

    Canada has been a leader in tritium handling technologies as a result of the successful CANDU reactor technology used for power production. Over the last 50 to 60 years, capabilities have been established in tritium handling and tritium management in CANDU stations, tritium removal processes for heavy and light water, tritium measurement and monitoring, and understanding the effects of tritium on the environment. This paper outlines details of tritium-related work currently being carried out at Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL). It concerns the CECE (Combined Electrolysis and Catalytic Exchange) process for detritiation, tritium-compatible electrolysers, tritium permeation studies, and tritium powered batteries. It is worth noting that AECL offers a Tritium Safe-Handling Course to national and international participants, the course is a mixture of classroom sessions and hands-on practical exercises. The expertise and facilities available at AECL is ready to address technological needs of nuclear fusion and next-generation nuclear fission reactors related to tritium handling and related issues.

  12. Commissioning and early experience with a new-generation low-energy linear accelerator with advanced delivery and imaging functionalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fogliata Antonella

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A new-generation low-energy linear accelerator (UNIQUE was introduced in the clinical arena during 2009 by Varian Medical Systems. The world's first UNIQUE was installed at Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland and put into clinical operation in June 2010. The aim of the present contribution was to report experience about its commissioning and first year results from clinical operation. Methods Commissioning data, beam characteristics and the modeling into the treatment planning system were summarized. Imaging system of UNIQUE included a 2D-2D matching capability and tests were performed to identify system repositioning capability. Finally, since the system is capable of delivering volumetric modulated arc therapy with RapidArc, a summary of the tests performed for such modality to assess its performance in preclinical settings and during clinical usage was included. Results Isocenter virtual diameter was measured as less than 0.2 mm. Observed accuracy of isocenter determination and repositioning for 2D-2D matching procedures in image guidance was Conclusions The results of the commissioning tests and of the first period of clinical operation, resulted meeting specifications and having good margins respect to tolerances. UNIQUE was put into operation for all delivery techniques; in particular, as shown by the pre-treatment quality assurance results, it enabled accurate and safe delivery of RapidArc plans.

  13. Fast and Accurate Modeling of Molecular Atomization Energies with Machine Learning

    CERN Document Server

    Rupp, Matthias; Müller, Klaus-Robert; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2011-01-01

    We introduce a machine learning model to predict atomization energies of a diverse set of organic molecules, based on nuclear charges and atomic positions only. The problem of solving the molecular Schr\\"odinger equation is mapped onto a non-linear statistical regression problem of reduced complexity. Regression models are trained on and compared to atomization energies computed with hybrid density-functional theory. Cross-validation over more than seven thousand small organic molecules yields a mean absolute error of ~10 kcal/mol. Applicability is demonstrated for the prediction of molecular atomization potential energy curves.

  14. Level-energy-dependent mean velocities of excited tungsten atoms sputtered by krypton-ion bombardment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogami, Keisuke; Sakai, Yasuhiro; Mineta, Shota [Department of Physics, Toho University, Miyama, Funabashi, Chiba 274-8510 (Japan); Kato, Daiji; Murakami, Izumi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292, Japan and Department of Fusion Science, School of Physical Sciences, SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advanced Studies), Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Sakaue, Hiroyuki A. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Kenmotsu, Takahiro [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Life and Medical Sciences, Doshisha University, Tatara-Miyakodani, Kyotanabe, Kyoto 610-0394 (Japan); Furuya, Kenji [Faculty of Arts and Science, Kyushu University, 744 Motooka, Nishi-ku, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan); Motohashi, Kenji, E-mail: motohashi@toyo.jp [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Faculty of Science and Engineering, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585, Japan and Bio-Nano Electronics Research Centre, Toyo University, 2100 Kujirai, Kawagoe, Saitama 350-8585 (Japan)

    2015-11-15

    Visible emission spectra were acquired from neutral atoms sputtered by 35–60 keV Kr{sup +} ions from a polycrystalline tungsten surface. Mean velocities of excited tungsten atoms in seven different 6p states were also obtained via the dependence of photon intensities on the distance from the surface. The average velocities parallel to the surface normal varied by factors of 2–4 for atoms in the different 6p energy levels. However, they were almost independent of the incident ion kinetic energy. The 6p-level energy dependence indicated that the velocities of the excited atoms were determined by inelastic processes that involve resonant charge exchange.

  15. SIMULATION OF THE ATOMIZED FLOW BY SLIT TYPE BUCKET ENERGY DISSIPATOR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Shi-he; DUAN Hong-dong

    2005-01-01

    Slit type bucket is one kind of flip bucket for energy dissipation generally used in the hydraulic project.In this paper the atomized flow produced behind this energy dissipator is analyzed, a numerical model for the aerated jet considering air entrainment and air resistance force is suggested, and simulation of the rain resulted by the atomized flow is also discussed.Furthermore, the prototype observation data for the atomized flow of Dongjiang Hydropower Station is used to verify the model suggested.

  16. Energy shift of H-atom electrons due to Gibbons-Hawking thermal bath

    CERN Document Server

    Pardy, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    The electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons is determined by calculating an electron coupling to the Gibbons-Hawking electromagnetic field thermal bath. Energy shift of electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of the non-relativistic quantum mechanics.

  17. Atomic mean excitation energies for stopping powers from local plasma oscillator strengths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. W.; Xu, Y. J.; Chang, C. K.; Kamaratos, E.

    1984-01-01

    The stopping of a charged particle by isolated atoms is investigated theoretically using an 'atomic plasma' model in which atomic oscillator strengths are replaced by the plasma frequency spectrum. The plasma-frequency correction factor for individual electron motion proposed by Pines (1953) is incorporated, and atomic mean excitation energies are calculated for atoms through Sr. The results are compared in a graph with those obtained theoretically by Inokuti et al. (1978, 1981) and Dehmer et al. (1975) and with the experimental values compiled by Seltzer and Berger (1982): good agreement is shown.

  18. Observation of a power-law energy distribution in atom-ion hybrid system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Ziv; Akerman, Nitzan; Sikorsky, Tomas; Ben-Shlomi, Ruti; Dallal, Yehonatan; Ozeri, Roee

    2016-05-01

    Understanding atom-ion collision dynamics is at the heart of the growing field of ultra-cold atom-ion physics. The naive picture of a hot ion sympathetically-cooled by a cold atomic bath doesn't hold due to the time dependent potentials generated by the ion Paul trap. The energy scale of the atom-ion system is determined by a combination of the atomic bath temperature, the ion's excess micromotion (EMM) and the back action of the atom-ion attraction on the ion's position in the trap. However, it is the position dependent ion's inherent micromotion which acts as an amplifier for the ion's energy during random consecutive collisions. Due to this reason, the ion's energy distribution deviates from Maxwell-Boltzmann (MB) characterized by an exponential tail to one with power-law tail described by Tsallis q-exponential function. Here we report on the observation of a strong deviation from MB to Tsallis energy distribution of a trapped ion. In our experiment, a ground-state cooled 88 Sr+ ion is immersed in an ultra-cold cloud of 87 Rb atoms. The energy scale is determined by either EMM or solely due to the back action on the ion position during a collision with an atom in the trap. Energy distributions are obtained using narrow optical clock spectroscopy.

  19. Energy Spectra of the Confined Atoms Obtained by Using B-Splines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Ting-Yun; BAO Cheng-Guang; LI Bai-Wen

    2001-01-01

    We have calculated the energy spectra of one- and two-electron atoms (ions) centered in an impenetrable spherical box by variational method with B-splines as basis functions. Accurate results are obtained for both large and small radii of confinement. The critical box radius of confined hydrogen atom is also calculated to show the usefulness of our method. A partial energy degeneracy in confined hydrogen atom is found when the radius of spherical box is equal to the distance at which a node of single-node wavefunctions of free hydrogen atom is located.

  20. Theoretical study of atoms by the electronic kinetic energy density and stress tensor density

    CERN Document Server

    Nozaki, Hiroo; Tachibana, Akitomo

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the electronic structure of atoms in the first, second and third periods using the electronic kinetic energy density and stress tensor density, which are local quantities motivated by quantum field theoretic consideration, specifically the rigged quantum electrodynamics. We compute the zero surfaces of the electronic kinetic energy density, which we call the electronic interfaces, of the atoms. We find that their sizes exhibit clear periodicity and are comparable to the conventional atomic and ionic radii. We also compute the electronic stress tensor density and its divergence, tension density, of the atoms, and discuss how their electronic structures are characterized by them.

  1. Excitation and charge transfer in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral atoms: Theory, comparisons, and application to Ca

    CERN Document Server

    Barklem, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    A theoretical method for the estimation of cross sections and rates for excitation and charge transfer processes in low-energy hydrogen atom collisions with neutral atoms, based on an asymptotic two-electron model of ionic-covalent interactions in the neutral atom-hydrogen atom system, is presented. The calculation of potentials and non-adiabatic radial couplings using the method is demonstrated. The potentials are used together with the multi-channel Landau-Zener model to calculate cross sections and rate coefficients. The main feature of the method is that it employs asymptotically exact atomic wavefunctions, which can be determined from known atomic parameters. The method is applied to Li+H, Na+H, and Mg+H collisions, and the results compare well with existing detailed full-quantum calculations. The method is applied to the astrophysically important problem of Ca+H collisions, and rate coefficients are calculated for temperatures in the range 1000-20000 K.

  2. Alternate Funding Sources for the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toomey, Christopher; Wyse, Evan T.; Kurzrok, Andrew J.; Swarthout, Jordan M.

    2012-09-04

    Since 1957, the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has worked to ensure the safe and responsible promotion of nuclear technology throughout the world. The IAEA operates at the intersection of the Nuclear Nonproliferation Treaty’s (NPT) fourth and third articles, which guarantee Parties to the Treaty the right to peaceful uses of nuclear technology, provided those activities are placed under safeguards verified by the IAEA. However, while the IAEA has enjoyed substantial success and prestige in the international community, there is a concern that its resources are being stretched to a point where it may no longer be possible to execute its multifaceted mission in its entirety. As noted by the Director General (DG) in 2008, demographics suggest that every aspect of the IAEA’s operations will be in higher demand due to increasing reliance on non-carbon-based energy and the concomitant nonproliferation, safety, and security risks that growth entails. In addition to these nuclear energy concerns, the demand for technical developmental assistance in the fields of food security, resource conservation, and human health is also predicted to increase as the rest of the world develops. Even with a 100% value-for-money rating by the U.S. Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and being described as an “extraordinary bargain” by the United Nations Secretary-General’s High-level Panel on Threats, Challenges and Change, real budget growth at the Agency has been limited to zero-real growth for a better part of the last two decades. Although the 2012 regular budget (RB) received a small increase for most programs, the 2013 RB has been set at zero-real growth. As a result, the IAEA has had to defer infrastructure investments, which has hindered its ability to provide the public goods its Members seek, decreased global security and development opportunities, and functionally transformed the IAEA into a charity, dependent on extrabudgetary (EB) contributions to sustain

  3. Determining the band gap and mean kinetic energy of atoms from reflection electron energy loss spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vos, M. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Marmitt, G. G. [Atomic and Molecular Physics Laboratories, Research School of Physics and Engineering, Australian National University, Canberra ACT (Australia); Instituto de Fisica da Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Avenida Bento Goncalves 9500, 91501-970 Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil); Finkelstein, Y. [Nuclear Research Center — Negev, Beer-Sheva 84190 (Israel); Moreh, R. [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel)

    2015-09-14

    Reflection electron energy loss spectra from some insulating materials (CaCO{sub 3}, Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, and SiO{sub 2}) taken at relatively high incoming electron energies (5–40 keV) are analyzed. Here, one is bulk sensitive and a well-defined onset of inelastic excitations is observed from which one can infer the value of the band gap. An estimate of the band gap was obtained by fitting the spectra with a procedure that includes the recoil shift and recoil broadening affecting these measurements. The width of the elastic peak is directly connected to the mean kinetic energy of the atom in the material (Doppler broadening). The experimentally obtained mean kinetic energies of the O, C, Li, Ca, and Si atoms are compared with the calculated ones, and good agreement is found, especially if the effect of multiple scattering is taken into account. It is demonstrated experimentally that the onset of the inelastic excitation is also affected by Doppler broadening. Aided by this understanding, we can obtain a good fit of the elastic peak and the onset of inelastic excitations. For SiO{sub 2}, good agreement is obtained with the well-established value of the band gap (8.9 eV) only if it is assumed that the intensity near the edge scales as (E − E{sub gap}){sup 1.5}. For CaCO{sub 3}, the band gap obtained here (7 eV) is about 1 eV larger than the previous experimental value, whereas the value for Li{sub 2}CO{sub 3} (7.5 eV) is the first experimental estimate.

  4. Resonance interaction energy between two accelerated identical atoms in a coaccelerated frame and the Unruh effect

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Wenting; Rizzuto, Lucia

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the resonance interaction energy between two uniformly accelerated identical atoms, interacting with the scalar field or the electromagnetic field in the vacuum state, in the reference frame coaccelerating with the atoms. We assume that one atom is excited and the other in the ground state, and that they are prepared in their correlated symmetric or antisymmetric state. Using perturbation theory, we separate, at the second order in the atom-field coupling, the contributions of vacuum fluctuations and radiation reaction field to the energy shift of the interacting system. We show that only the radiation reaction term contributes to the resonance interaction between the two atoms, while Unruh thermal fluctuations, related to the vacuum fluctuations contribution, do not affect the resonance interatomic interaction. We also show that the resonance interaction between two uniformly accelerated atoms, recently investigated in the comoving (locally inertial) frame, can be recovered in the coaccelerate...

  5. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances. Opinions and decisions of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission with selected orders: July 1, 1992--December 31, 1992, Volume 36, Pages 1--396

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This is the thirty-sixth volume of issuances (1-396) of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and its Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, Administrative Law Judges, and Office Directors. It covers the period from July 1, 1992-December 31, 1992. Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards are authorized by Section 191 of the Atomic Energy Act of 1954. These Boards, comprised of three members conduct adjudicatory hearings on applications to construct and operate nuclear power plants and related facilities and issue initial decisions which, subject to internal review and appellate procedures, become the final Commission action with respect to those applications. Boards are drawn from the Atomic Safety and Licensing Board Panel, comprised of lawyers, nuclear physicists and engineers, environmentalists, chemists, and economists. The Atomic Energy Commission first established Licensing Boards in 1962 and the Panel in 1967.

  6. Design, development and commissioning of ultra micro hydro power plant for rural energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subba Rao, P.M.V. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2010-07-01

    In contrast to the historical tendency to dam rivers for large-scale electricity production, current trends suggest that small-scale hydro systems will be able to provide a sufficient amount of sustainable energy at greatly reduced costs. In many parts of India, rivers flow all throughout the year. Therefore, the objective is to harness the energy producing potential of these rivers. In the North Indian Gangetic Plains, the small-scale hydro potential is approximately 0.4 megawatts, which favors comparably with other countries. This presentation focused on the revival of the negligent water wheel with high efficiencies. Its micro-size is comparable to that of reaction turbines used for micro power generation, but with less manufacturing and installation costs. The presentation discussed the design of a new and efficient ultra micro-hydel turbine, developed at the Indian Institute of Technology at Delhi. When considering the various social, economical and engineering features of the Indian subcontinent, the application of small-scale hydro is a viable alternative energy source.

  7. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite surfaces. 2: energy distributions of reflected helium atoms. [7000 m/s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, S.M.; Knuth, E.L.

    1976-04-01

    Energy transfer in collisions of satellite-speed (7,000 m/s) helium atoms with a cleaned 6061-T6 satellite-type aluminum surface was investigated by use of the molecular-beam technique. The amount of energy transferred was determined from the measured energy of the molecular-beam and the measured spatial and energy distributions of the reflected atoms. Spatial distributions of helium atoms scattered from a 6061-T6 aluminum surface were measured. The scattering pattern exhibits a prominent backscattering, probably due to the gross surface roughness and/or the relative lattice softness of the aluminum surface. Energy distributions of reflected helium atoms from the same surface were measured for six different incidence angles. For each incidence angle, distributions were measured at approximately sixty scattering positions. At a given scattering position, the energy spectra of the reflected helium atoms and the background gas were obtained by use of the retarding-field energy analyzer. (auth)

  8. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M. [Institute of Solid State Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Ernst, W.E. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria); Holst, B. [Institute of Experimental Physics, Graz University of Technology, Petersgasse 16, 8010 Graz (Austria)], E-mail: bodil@cantab.net

    2008-05-15

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  9. Field ionization of free helium atoms: Correlation between the kinetic energy of ionized atoms and probability of their field ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piskur, J.; Borg, L.; Stupnik, A.; Leisch, M.; Ernst, W. E.; Holst, B.

    2008-05-01

    In this paper the correlation between the kinetic energy of helium atoms and the probability of field ionization is investigated by exploiting the narrow velocity distribution of supersonic molecular beams. Field ionization measurements were carried out on supersonic helium beams at 298 K and 95 K corresponding to energies of about 65 meV and 20 meV, respectively, for the individual atoms. The field ionization was performed with a tungsten tip, radius of curvature 12 nm, kept at room temperature. The ionization probability was found to increase by about a factor 10 when the beam was cooled from 298 K to 95 K. The results presented in this paper are of importance for improving the understanding of field ionization and for the development of a new detector for helium and other molecular beams.

  10. ENER European network for Energy Economics Research. Final report. Thematic Network (ENERGIE Programme), European Commission, DG Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichhammer, W.

    2004-11-15

    Objectives of the Forum of the European Network for Energy Economics Research ENER: to bring to debate latest research results based on both qualitative and quantitative analysis (modelling analysis results) in fields concerning the relationship of energy, climate change and economy to relevant stakeholders in policy, industry, academia and NGOs in foru forums; to strengthen the links between national centres in energy/environment, policy and economics research, in particular with Eastern European countries, in view of their accession to the European Union, and with Switzerland. The Network thus expands links which have been previously growing among EU centres of competence in energy economics research to the EU accession countries and close neighbours; to use the network as a sprinboard for collaborative research on a European scale which will as the final objective of the Network overpass the limited activities proposed in the current frame. (orig.)

  11. The Scales of Time, Length, Mass, Energy, and Other Fundamental Physical Quantities in the Atomic World and the Use of Atomic Units in Quantum Mechanical Calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teo, Boon K.; Li, Wai-Kee

    2011-01-01

    This article is divided into two parts. In the first part, the atomic unit (au) system is introduced and the scales of time, space (length), and speed, as well as those of mass and energy, in the atomic world are discussed. In the second part, the utility of atomic units in quantum mechanical and spectroscopic calculations is illustrated with…

  12. Experimental evidence of the decrease of kinetic energy of hadrons in passing through atomic nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strugalski, Z.

    1985-01-01

    Hadrons with kinetic energies higher than the pion production threshold lose their kinetic energies monotonically in traversing atomic nuclei, due to the strong interactions in nuclear matter. This phenomenon is a crude analogy to the energy loss of charged particles in their passage through materials. Experimental evidence is presented.

  13. Advice presented on behalf of the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of 2003 financial law (no. 230), tome 6, economy, finances and industry, industry-energy; Avis presente au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi de finances pour 2003 (no. 230), tome 6, economie, finances et industrie, industrie-energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masdeu-Arus, J.

    2002-10-01

    This report presents in a detailed way the evolution of the French industry and energy financial supplies for 2003: 1 - general evolution of supplies; 2 - measures devoted to the improvement of the environment of industrial companies: quality policy, technical centers, financing of engineers schools; 3 - research and innovation supplies: main industrial research programs, small- and medium-size companies, innovation and technologies diffusion; 4 - budgetary sustain of the energy sector: budgetary sustain of nuclear energy and the French atomic energy commission (CEA) supplies, the commission of electric power regulation (CRE), the research network on oil and gas technologies, the agency of environment and energy mastery (Ademe), and the French institute of petroleum (IFP); 5 - the follow up of industrial mutations: mechanical decay of the supplies to the sectors in crisis: Charbonnages de France situation, naval construction, reconversion of coal mining and steelmaking industries (funds and conversion companies); 6 - economic and financial situation of Electricite de France (EdF): continuous deterioration of results, low profitability of daughter companies, consequences for the future. (J.S.)

  14. The industrial development of atomic energy; Le developpement industriel de l'energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kowarski, L. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Paris (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1955-07-01

    Countries with large stock of fissile material and producing large quantity of nuclear pure {sup 235}U and {sup 239}Pu are able to allocate part of the stock to non military research. For countries with low stock of fissile material, all the stock is allocated to military research. An economical and technical solution has to be find to dedicate a part of fissile material to non military research and develop the atomic energy industry. It stated the industrial and economical problems and in particular the choice between the use of enriched fuel with high refining cost or depleted fuel with low production cost. It discusses of four possible utilizations of the natural resources: reactors functioning with pure fissile material ({sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) or concentrated material ({sup 235}U mixed with small quantities of {sup 238}U after an incomplete isotopic separation), breeder reactors functioning with enriched material mixed with {sup 238}U or Thorium placed in an appropriate spatial distribution to allow neutrons beam to activate {sup 238}U or Thorium with the regeneration of fissile material in {sup 239}Pu, reactors using natural uranium or low enriched uranium can also produce Plutonium with less efficiency than breeder reactors and the last solution being the use of natural uranium with the only scope of energy production and no production of secondary fissile material. The first class using pure fissile material has a low energy efficiency and is used only by large fissile material stock countries to accumulate energy in small size fuel for nuclear engines researches for submarines and warships. The advantage of the second class of reactors, breeder reactors, is that they produce energy and plutonium. Two type of breeder reactor are considered: breeder reactor using pure fissile material and {sup 238}U or breeder reactor using the promising mixture of pure fissile material and Thorium. Different projects are in phase of development in United States, England

  15. Virial theorem in the Kohn-Sham density-functional theory formalism: accurate calculation of the atomic quantum theory of atoms in molecules energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Juan I; Ayers, Paul W; Götz, Andreas W; Castillo-Alvarado, F L

    2009-07-14

    A new approach for computing the atom-in-molecule [quantum theory of atoms in molecule (QTAIM)] energies in Kohn-Sham density-functional theory is presented and tested by computing QTAIM energies for a set of representative molecules. In the new approach, the contribution for the correlation-kinetic energy (T(c)) is computed using the density-functional theory virial relation. Based on our calculations, it is shown that the conventional approach where atomic energies are computed using only the noninteracting part of the kinetic energy might be in error by hundreds of kJ/mol.

  16. "Pseudo-invariant Eigen-operator" Method for Deriving Energy-Gap of an Atom-Cavity Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian with Atomic Centre-of-Mass Motion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; TANG Xu-Bing

    2006-01-01

    Using the "Pseudo-invariant eigen-operator" method we find the energy-gap of the Jaynes-Cummings Hamiltonian model of an atom-cavity system. This model takes the atomic centre-of-mass motion into account. The supersymmetric structure is involved in the Hamiltonian of an atom-cavity system. By selecting suitable supersymmetric generators and using supersymmetric transformation the Hamiltonian is diagonalized and energy eigenvectors are obtained.

  17. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of a |M|=1 Rydberg barium atom in an electric field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Lei; Quan Wei; Shen Li; Yang Hai-Feng; Shi Ting-Yun; Liu Xiao-Jun; Liu Hong-Ping; Zhan Ming-Sheng

    2009-01-01

    We observe strong energy-dependent quantum defects in the scaled-energy Stark spectra for |M|=1 Rydberg states of barium atoms at three scaled energies: ε= -2.000, ε= -2.500 and ε=-3.000. In an attempt to explain the observations, theoretical calculations of closed orbit theory based on a model potential including core effect are performed for non-hydrogenic atoms. While such a potential has been uniformly successful for alkali atoms with a single valence electron, it fails to match experimental results for barium atoms in the 6snp Rydberg states with two valence electrons. Our study points out that this discrepancy is due to the strong perturbation from the 5d8p state, which voids the simple approximation for constant quantum defects of principle quantum number n.

  18. Matter, energy, and heat transfer in a classical ballistic atom pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Tommy A; Das, Kunal K; Mitchell, Kevin A; Aubin, Seth; Delos, John B

    2014-11-01

    A ballistic atom pump is a system containing two reservoirs of neutral atoms or molecules and a junction connecting them containing a localized time-varying potential. Atoms move through the pump as independent particles. Under certain conditions, these pumps can create net transport of atoms from one reservoir to the other. While such systems are sometimes called "quantum pumps," they are also models of classical chaotic transport, and their quantum behavior cannot be understood without study of the corresponding classical behavior. Here we examine classically such a pump's effect on energy and temperature in the reservoirs, in addition to net particle transport. We show that the changes in particle number, of energy in each reservoir, and of temperature in each reservoir vary in unexpected ways as the incident particle energy is varied.

  19. A Combination of the Work Formalism for Exchange with an Optimized Correlation Energy Functional for Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, N. A.; Sen, K. D.; Alonso, J. A.; Balbás, L. C.

    1995-09-01

    The Harbola-Sahni formalism for the exchange potential of many-electron systems gives extremely accurate total energies for atoms (the energies are practically indistinguishable from the Hartree-Fock energies). We combine here this formalism with the usual density functional prescription for the correlation potential, using a recently developed optimized local correlation functional (Gritsenko O.V. et al., Phys. Rev. A 47 (1993) 1811). Numerical tests carried out for several closed shell atoms and ions indicate that the results preserve the accuracy of the exchange-only calculations. We expect the same behavior to hold true for large molecules and atomic clusters. However, similar tests for the He, Be and Ne isoelectronic series indicate that the optimized local correlation functional is not valid for highly ionized atoms.

  20. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben

    2012-10-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations are based on the Müller-Schottky equation, which is modified to include different atomic neighborhoods and their characteristic bonds. The local environment is considered up to the fifth next nearest neighbors. To compare the experimental with simulated APT data, the AtomVicinity algorithm, which provides statistical information about the positions of the neighboring atoms, is applied. The quality of this information is influenced by the field evaporation behavior of the different species, which is connected to the bonding energies. © Microscopy Society of America 2012.

  1. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  2. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-11-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  3. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM). The summaries and headnotes preceding the opinions reported herein are not to be deemed a part of those opinions or have any independent legal significance.

  4. Understanding the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy crisis. A report to the California Energy Commission - Sylvia Bender, Project Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutzenhiser, Loren; Janda, Kathryn; Kunkle, Rick; Payne, Christopher

    2002-07-24

    Beginning in the summer of 2000, California experienced serious energy supply problems, sharp increases in wholesale (and retail) electricity and natural gas prices, and isolated blackouts. In response to the rapidly worsening electricity situation in California in late 2000, the state set, as an initial goal, the reduction of the state's peak demand for the summer of 2001 by 5,000 megawatts. To meet this goal, the governor and legislature took a variety of steps to enhance supply, encourage rapid voluntary reductions in demand, and provide incentives for actions that would result in load reductions. Three bills-Assembly Bill 970, Senate Bill X1 5 and Assembly Bill X1 29-allocated roughly $950 million for consumption and demand reduction programs. The governor also enacted a variety of additional measures, including the ''Flex Your Power'' (media awareness and direct business involvement) campaign, requirements for retail sector outdoor lighting reductions, and toughening of energy efficiency building codes. There were, in fact, significant reductions in electricity demand in California during the summer of 2001 and the large number of expected supply disruptions was avoided. To understand the nature of these demand reductions and the motivations for consumer response, Washington State University (WSU) undertook a study for the California Energy Commission (CEC) focusing on conservation behavior in the residential, commercial, and agricultural sectors. The research presented in this report represents an exploration of the response of commercial and institutional organizations to the California energy situation and the unique set of influences that existed during this time. These influences included informational messages and media attention, program interventions, price changes, and external triggering events (e.g., blackouts). To better understand the effects of these influences on organizational response to the energy situation, we

  5. Developing the World's Digital Collection on Peaceful Uses of Atomic Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Emil

    1997-01-01

    Discusses the developers/development, maintainers, and users of the digital collection on peaceful uses of nuclear energy, produced by the International Nuclear Information System (INIS) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). Sensitive to users in both developing and highly developed countries, this system provides closer linkage…

  6. 76 FR 56242 - Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-12

    ... Energy Carolinas, LLC; Southern Nuclear Operating Company; Establishment of Atomic Safety and Licensing...: Duke Energy Carolinas, LLC, (William States Lee III Nuclear Station, Units 1 and 2), Docket Nos. 52-018... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR...

  7. Using Density Functional Theory (DFT) for the Calculation of Atomization Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Partridge, Harry; Langhoff, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    The calculation of atomization energies using density functional theory (DFT), using the B3LYP hybrid functional, is reported. The sensitivity of the atomization energy to basis set is studied and compared with the coupled cluster singles and doubles approach with a perturbational estimate of the triples (CCSD(T)). Merging the B3LYP results with the G2(MP2) approach is also considered. It is found that replacing the geometry optimization and calculation of the zero-point energy by the analogous quantities computed using the B3LYP approach reduces the maximum error in the G2(MP2) approach. In addition to the 55 G2 atomization energies, some results for transition metal containing systems will also be presented.

  8. Nuclear Energy: It is Time to Revitalize the Peaceful Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-16

    levels of poisonous hydrogen sulfide . Base load electricity is required twenty four hours a day. Wind power is intermittent. The sun does not shine at...dependence on foreign oil by producing hydrogen for use in fuel cells and synthetic liquid fuels.57 Nuclear energy is bad for the environment. Nuclear

  9. LOW ENERGY BEAM-GAS SPECTROSCOPY OF HIGHLY IONISED ATOMS

    OpenAIRE

    Desesquelles, J.; DENIS A.; Druetta, M.; Martin, S.

    1989-01-01

    Features of low energy beam-gas spectroscopic source are reviewed and compared to those of other light sources. Measurement techniques are surveyed. They include the study of wavelength of heavy multiply charged ions in visible and u.v. ranges from normal excited states, doubly excited states, high n levels and doubly excited Rydberg levels.

  10. Laser spectroscopy of the antiprotonic helium atom – its energy levels and state lifetimes

    CERN Document Server

    Hidetoshi, Yamaguchi

    2003-01-01

    The antiprotonic atom is a three-body exotic system consisting of an antiproton, an electron and a helium nucleus. Its surprising longevity was found and has been studied for more than 10 years. In this work, transition energies and lifetimes of this exotic atom were systematically studied by using the antiproton beam of AD(Antiproton Decelerator) facility at CERN, with an RFQ antiproton decelerator, a narrow-bandwidth laser, Cerenkov counters with fast-response photomultiplier tubes, and cryogenic helium target systems. Thirteen transition energies were determined with precisions of better than 200 ppb by a laser spectroscopy method, together with the elimination of the shift effect caused by collisions with surrounding atoms. Fifteen lifetimes (decay rates) of short-lived states were determined from the time distributions of the antiproton-annihilation signals and the resonance widths of the atomic spectral lines. The relation between the magnitude of the decay rates and the transition multipolarity was inv...

  11. The energy profiles of atomic conformational transition intermediates of adenylate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaping; Yang, Lei; Kloczkowski, Andrzej; Jernigan, Robert L

    2009-11-15

    The elastic network interpolation (ENI) (Kim et al., Biophys J 2002;83:1620-1630) is a computationally efficient and physically realistic method to generate conformational transition intermediates between two forms of a given protein. However it can be asked whether these calculated conformations provide good representatives for these intermediates. In this study, we use ENI to generate conformational transition intermediates between the open form and the closed form of adenylate kinase (AK). Based on C(alpha)-only intermediates, we construct atomic intermediates by grafting all the atoms of known AK structures onto the C(alpha) atoms and then perform CHARMM energy minimization to remove steric conflicts and optimize these intermediate structures. We compare the energy profiles for all intermediates from both the CHARMM force-field and from knowledge-based energy functions. We find that the CHARMM energies can successfully capture the two energy minima representing the open AK and closed AK forms, while the energies computed from the knowledge-based energy functions can detect the local energy minimum representing the closed AK form and show some general features of the transition pathway with a somewhat similar energy profile as the CHARMM energies. The combinatorial extension structural alignment (Shindyalov et al., 1998;11:739-747) and the k-means clustering algorithm are then used to show that known PDB structures closely resemble computed intermediates along the transition pathway.

  12. van der Waals energy under strong atom-field coupling in doped carbon nanotubes

    OpenAIRE

    Bondarev, Igor; Lambin, Philippe

    2004-01-01

    Using a unified macroscopic QED formalism, we derive an integral equation for the van der Waals energy of a two-level atomic system near a carbon nanotube. The equation is valid for both strong and weak atom-vacuum-field coupling. By solving it numerically, we demonstrate the inapplicability of weak-coupling-based van der Waals interaction models in a close vicinity of the nanotube surface.

  13. van der Waals energy under strong atom field coupling in doped carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarev, I. V.; Lambin, Ph.

    2004-10-01

    Using a unified macroscopic QED formalism, we derive an integral equation for the van der Waals energy of a two-level atomic system near a carbon nanotube. The equation is valid for both strong and weak atom-vacuum-field coupling. By solving it numerically, we demonstrate the inapplicability of weak-coupling-based van der Waals interaction models in a close vicinity of the nanotube surface.

  14. Direct measurement of desorption and diffusion energies of O and N atoms physisorbed on amorphous surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Minissale, Marco; Dulieu, François

    2016-01-01

    Physisorbed atoms on the surface of interstellar dust grains play a central role in solid state astrochemistry. Their surface reactivity is one source of the observed molecular complexity in space. In experimental astrophysics, the high reactivity of atoms also constitutes an obstacle to measuring two of the fundamental properties in surface physics, namely desorption and diffusion energies, and so far direct measurements are non-existent for O and N atoms. We investigated the diffusion and desorption processes of O and N atoms on cold surfaces in order to give boundary conditions to astrochemical models. Here we propose a new technique for directly measuring the N- and O-atom mass signals. Including the experimental results in a simple model allows us to almost directly derive the desorption and diffusion barriers of N atoms on amorphous solid water ice (ASW) and O atoms on ASW and oxidized graphite. We find a strong constraint on the values of desorption and thermal diffusion energy barriers. The measured b...

  15. German atomic energy law in the international framework. Proceedings. Deutsches Atomenergierecht im internationalen Rahmen. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, N. (Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Voelkerrecht) (ed.)

    1992-01-01

    The regional conference was devoted to the legal problems that ensue from German reunification against the background of the integration of German atomic energy law within international law. The elements of national atomic energy legislation required by international law and recent developments in international nuclear liability law were discussed from different perspectives. The particular problems of the application of the German Atomic Energy Act in the 5 new Laender (the territories of the former GDR) were presented and discussed, namely: The continued validity of old licences issued by the GDR; practical legal problems connected with the construction of nuclear power plants in the 5 new Laender; the legal issues connected with the final repository for radioactive wastes at Morsleben; and the new developments in radiation protection law following from the Unification Treaty and the new ICRP recommendations. All 14 lectures have been abstracted and indexed individually. (orig.).

  16. Adjustment of the Brazilian radioprotection standards to the safety principles of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Adequacao das normas brasileiras de radioprotecao aos principios fundamentais de seguranca da International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, Wagner de S.; Py Junior, Delcy de A., E-mail: pereiraws@gmail.com [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Unidade de Tratamento de Minerio. Grupo Multidisciplinar de Radioprotecao; Kelecom, Alphonse, E-mail: akelecom@id.uff.br [Universidade Federal Fluminense (LARARA-PLS/GETA/UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Grupo de Estudos em Temas Ambientais. Lab. de Radiobiologia e Radiometria Pedro Lopes dos Santos; Pereira, Juliana R. de S., E-mail: pereirarsj@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Alfenas, Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has a recommendation with 10 basic safety principles (Fundamental Safety Principles Safety Fundamentals series, number SF-1), which are: 1) Responsibility for safety; 2) Role for government; 3) Leadership and management for safety; 4) Justification of facilities and activities; 5) Optimization of protection; 6) Limitation of risk to individuals; 7) Protection of present and futures generations; 8) Prevention of accidents; 9) Emergency preparedness and response and 10) Protection actions to reduce existing or unregulated radiations risk. The aim of this study is to verify that the Brazilian standards of radiation protection meet the principles described above and how well suited to them. The analysis of the national radiation protection regulatory system, developed and deployed by the National Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN), showed that out of the ten items, two are covered partially, the number 2 and 10. The others are fully met. The item 2 the fact that the regulatory body (CNEN) be stock controller of a large company in the sector put in check its independence as a regulatory body. In item 10 the Brazilian standard of radiation protection does not provide explicit resolution of environmental liabilities.

  17. Calculation of the surface energy of fcc metals with modified embedded-atom method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Jian-Min; Ma Fei; Xu Ke-Wei

    2004-01-01

    The surface energies for 38 surfaces of fcc metals Cu, Ag, Au, Ni, Pd, Pt, Al, Pb, Rh and Ir have been calculated by using the modified embedded-atom method. The results show that, for Cu, Ag, Ni, Al, Pb and Ir, the average values of the surface energies are very close to the polycrystalline experimental data. For all fcc metals, as predicted, the close-packed (111) surface has the lowest surface energy. The surface energies for the other surfaces increase linearly with increasing angle between the surfaces (hkl) and (111). This can be used to estimate the relative values of the surface energy.

  18. Inquiries about awareness and knowledge of children and pupils on the concept related with atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atobe, Kozo; Kobayashi, T.; Matukawa, Tokuo; Honda, Makoto; Awata, Takaaki; Fukuoka, Noboru [Naruto University of Education, Naruto, Tokushima (Japan); Okada, Moritami [Kyoto Univ., Kumatori, Osaka (Japan). Research Reactor Inst; Nakagawa, Masuo [Faculty of Education, Kagawa University, Takamatsu, Kagawa (Japan)

    2001-01-01

    There is almost no chance to learn about the words (atomic energy), (radioactivity) and (radiation) in the middle and/or high school educations in Japan, because physics is one of the options in the high school curriculum, and 80-90% of students do not like to choose physics. This inquires aim to know the level of their knowledge on energy resources, atomic energy, radioactivity, radiation, and information sources on their related knowledge. Inquiries are made for the middle and high school students in Tokushima and Tsuruga. There are coal power plants in Tokushima, while atomic power plants in Tsuruga. Fossils energy gets the highest points in Tokushima, while Atomic energy gets the highest points in Tsuruga for a present-day energy source. Solar energy sources get the highest point as a promising 21st century energy source in both prefectures, especially for female students. Radioactivity reminds them of words atomic bomb, disease, injury, and harmful, those give very negative images. Radiation reminds them of words roentgen, radiation therapy, x-ray, and hospital use, those designate a sort of plus-image. More than 50 to 60% of them obtained their knowledge from mass media, particularly, television. In addition, less than a few % of them can give any scientific description about these words. As a whole, authors can say that the students have got a certain concept for these words from information of mass media. Meanwhile the school education has approximately no effect on the formation of their concept. Authors are giving some advises and recommendations for the school education and mass media in Japan. (Y. Tanaka)

  19. Self-energy and interaction energy of stacking fault in fcc metals calculated by embedded-atom method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何刚; 戎咏华; 徐祖耀

    2000-01-01

    The stacking fault energies of five fcc metals (Cu, Ag, Au, Ni and Al) with various quan-tivalences have been calculated by embedded-atom method (EAM). It indicated that the stacking fault energy is mainly determined by the metallic bond-energy and the lattice constant. Thus, monovalent fcc metals should have different stacking fault energies, contrary to Attree’s conclusion. The interaction energy between stacking faults one I 111 I layer apart in a fcc metal is found to be 1/40-1/250 of its self-energy, while it becomes zero when the two stacking faults are two layers apart. The twin energy is just half of the energy of intrinsic stacking fault energy without the consideration of lattice relaxation and the energy of a single intrinsic stacking fault is almost the same as that of extrinsic stacking fault, which are consistent with the results from the calculation of Lennard-Jones force between atoms, but differ from Attree’s result.

  20. [Constant scaled-energy spectroscopy of Rydberg atoms in a static electric field].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jun-wen; Liu, Xiao-jun; Zhao, Zhi; Zhan, Ming-sheng

    2002-02-01

    In the past years, scaled energy spectroscopy is under active investigation because this method can simplify the analysis of atomic spectra in the external field based on classic mechanics. A fully computer-controlled experimental system to study the constant scaled-energy spectroscopy was established and described in this paper. The excitation energy E and the strength of the external electric field F were controlled synchronously to keep the scaled-energy epsilon = E/square root of F constant. With this system, constant scaled-energy spectra of Strontium Rydberg atoms at epsilon = -3.0 in a static electric field were successfully recorded for the first time, and the recurrence spectra were obtained by a Fourier transform.

  1. Wavefunction and energy of the 1s22sns configuration in a beryllium atom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huang Shi-Zhong; Ma Kun; Yu Jia-Ming; Liu Fen

    2008-01-01

    A new set of trial functions for 1s22sns configurations in a beryllium atom is suggested.A Mathematica program baaed on the variational method is developed to calculate the wavefunctions and energies of 1s22sns (n=3-6)configurations in a beryllium atom.Non-relativistic energy,polarization correction and relativistic correction which include mass correction,one- and two-body Darwin corrections,spin-spin contact interaction and orbit-orbit interaction,are calculated respectively.The results are in good agreement with experimental data.

  2. Progression of Technology Education for Atomic Energy Engineering in Tsuyama National College of Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Manabu; Kobayashi, Toshiro; Okada, Tadashi; Sato, Makoto; Sasai, Yuji; Konishi, Daijiro; Harada, Kanji; Taniguchi, Hironari; Toya, Hideaki; Inada, Tomomi; Sori, Hitoshi; Yagi, Hideyuki

    This paper describes the achievements of a program in which technology education is provided to cultivate practical core engineers for low-level radiation. It was made possible by means of (1) an introductory education program starting at an early age and a continuous agenda throughout college days and (2) regional collaboration. First, with regard to the early-age introductory education program and the continuous education agenda, the subjects of study related to atomic energy or nuclear engineering were reorganized as “Subjects related to Atomic Power Education” for all grades in all departments. These subjects were included in the syllabus and the student guide book, emphasizing a continuous and consistent policy throughout seven-year college study, including the five-year system and additional two-year advanced course. Second, to promote practical education, the contents of lectures, experiments, and internships were enriched and realigned in collaboration with the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Okayama University and The Cyugoku Electric Power Co., Inc. In addition to the expansion and rearrangement of atomic power education, research on atomic power conducted for graduation thesis projects were undertaken to enhance the educational and research activities. In consequence, it has been estimated that there is now a total of fourteen subject areas in atomic energy technology, more than eight-hundred registered students in the department, and thirteen members of the teaching staff related to atomic energy technology. Furthermore, the “Tsuyama model” is still being developed. This program was funded by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology.

  3. A Guide to Building Commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.

    2011-09-01

    Commissioning is the process of verifying that a building's heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) and lighting systems perform correctly and efficiently. Without commissioning, system and equipment problems can result in higher than necessary utility bills and unexpected and costly equipment repairs. This report reviews the benefits of commissioning, why it is a requirement for Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) certification, and why building codes are gradually adopting commissioning activities into code.

  4. Atoms at the Science Fair

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LeCompte, Robert G. [AEC Division of Technical Information; Wood, Burrell L. [AEC Division of Special Projects

    1968-01-01

    The United States Atomic Energy Commission has prepared this booklet to help young science fair exhibitors, their science teachers, project counselors, and parents. The booklet suggests some of the numerous nuclear topics on which students can base meaningful science projects. It offers all exhibitors advice on how to plan, design, and construct successful exhibits.

  5. International Atomic Energy Agency intercomparison of ion beam analysis software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barradas, N. P.; Arstila, K.; Battistig, G.; Bianconi, M.; Dytlewski, N.; Jeynes, C.; Kótai, E.; Lulli, G.; Mayer, M.; Rauhala, E.; Szilágyi, E.; Thompson, M.

    2007-09-01

    Ion beam analysis (IBA) includes a group of techniques for the determination of elemental concentration depth profiles of thin film materials. Often the final results rely on simulations, fits and calculations, made by dedicated codes written for specific techniques. Here we evaluate numerical codes dedicated to the analysis of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry, non-Rutherford elastic backscattering spectrometry, elastic recoil detection analysis and non-resonant nuclear reaction analysis data. Several software packages have been presented and made available to the community. New codes regularly appear, and old codes continue to be used and occasionally updated and expanded. However, those codes have to date not been validated, or even compared to each other. Consequently, IBA practitioners use codes whose validity, correctness and accuracy have never been validated beyond the authors' efforts. In this work, we present the results of an IBA software intercomparison exercise, where seven different packages participated. These were DEPTH, GISA, DataFurnace (NDF), RBX, RUMP, SIMNRA (all analytical codes) and MCERD (a Monte Carlo code). In a first step, a series of simulations were defined, testing different capabilities of the codes, for fixed conditions. In a second step, a set of real experimental data were analysed. The main conclusion is that the codes perform well within the limits of their design, and that the largest differences in the results obtained are due to differences in the fundamental databases used (stopping power and scattering cross section). In particular, spectra can be calculated including Rutherford cross sections with screening, energy resolution convolutions including energy straggling, and pileup effects, with agreement between the codes available at the 0.1% level. This same agreement is also available for the non-RBS techniques. This agreement is not limited to calculation of spectra from particular structures with predetermined

  6. Residual risks of the 13{sup th} amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act; Restrisiken der 13. Atomgesetzaenderung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Horst

    2011-08-15

    The 13th amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act, which was adopted by the German federal parliament on June 30 and entered into force on August 6, 2011, must be judged in the light of its genesis. Federal Chancellor Merkel, in her government declaration of June 9, 2011, had mentioned topics such as residual risk, safety standards, and risk assumptions, on which the federal government, in the week after the event of March 11, 2011, had commissioned the Advisory Committee on Reactor Safeguards (RSK) to conduct a comprehensive safety review of all German nuclear power plants, and appointed an Ethics Committee to write an opinion on safe energy supply. On the basis of quickly drafted reports, the federal cabinet, without any international harmonization (EU, IEA), adopted a draft opt out law on June 6, 2011. How should the declarations by the Federal Chancellor on June 9, 2011 be classified in terms of atomic energy law? In her words, it all revolved around the residual risk. The debate, which has been shifted to the realm of constitutional law, is open to considerations and steps to attack the new opt out law on grounds of material unconstitutionality (violation of the property guarantee under Sec. 14 or the principle of equality under Art.3 of the Basic Law). As far as final storage is concerned, the amendment to the German Atomic Energy Act announced still for this year, also for transposition of the EURATOM Directive of July 19, 2011 about nuclear waste management, the ''re-assessment of the residual risk'' is not likely to play a role. All these events are reminiscent of a sentence by former Federal Chancellor Schmidt: ''The history of the NATO dual-track decision remains a textbook case showing that even in a democracy emotions using ethical arguments, mixed with demagogy, can become strong enough to cast aside balanced reason.'' There is also a distinction by Max Weber between ''ethics of ideology

  7. Free energy for a damped cold atom in SU(2) non-Abelian gauge potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guingarey, Issoufou; Avossevou, Gabriel Y. H.

    2017-03-01

    Our main aim in this work is to find out the exact formula of the equilibrium free energy for a cold atom subjected to a harmonic potential in the background of an artificial non-Abelian uniform magnetic field and linearly coupled to a heat bath. The heat bath consists of a collection of independent quantum harmonic oscillators, while its interaction with the cold atom is modeled in terms of bilinear coupling between the coordinate variables of the cold atom and the oscillators. The main thermodynamic properties of such a system are modified in comparison with the Abelian case. For a non-Abelian magnetic field generated from the laser methods employing degenerate dark states, we evaluate the effect of the non-Abelian dynamics on the magnetic moment of the cold atom.

  8. Computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy: energy dissipation of cantilever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senda, Yasuhiro; Blomqvist, Janne; Nieminen, Risto M

    2016-09-21

    We propose a computational model for noncontact atomic force microscopy (AFM) in which the atomic force between the cantilever tip and the surface is calculated using a molecular dynamics method, and the macroscopic motion of the cantilever is modeled by an oscillating spring. The movement of atoms in the tip and surface is connected with the oscillating spring using a recently developed coupling method. In this computational model, the oscillation energy is dissipated, as observed in AFM experiments. We attribute this dissipation to the hysteresis and nonconservative properties of the interatomic force that acts between the atoms in the tip and sample surface. The dissipation rate strongly depends on the parameters used in the computational model.

  9. A simple nonbinary scattering model applicable to atomic collisions is crystals at 1ow energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Henrik; Sigmund, Peter

    1966-01-01

    Presents the solution of a special scattering problem which may be important in the theory of slowing-down of atomic particles in crystals. A projectile moves along the centre axis of a regular ring of n equal atoms which are free and do not interact with each other. The interaction between...... the projectile and each ring atom is described by a Born-Mayer potential, and the scattering is assumed to be elastic and governed by the classical equations of motion. Because of symmetry, the problem can be reduced to plane motion of a particle in a potential of elliptic symmetry. The elliptic force field...... the asymptotic velocities of the ring atoms as well as the energy loss of the projectile. Furthermore, it can be decided whether the projectile is reflected by the ring. Both the feasibility of assumptions specifying the problem and the validity of different approximations made in the transformation from...

  10. Probing the energy flow in Bessel light beams using atomic photoionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surzhykov, A.; Seipt, D.; Fritzsche, S.

    2016-09-01

    The growing interest in twisted light beams also requires a better understanding of their complex internal structure. Particular attention is currently being given to the energy circulation in these beams as usually described by the Poynting vector field. In the present study we propose to use the photoionization of alkali-metal atoms as a probe process to measure (and visualize) the energy flow in twisted light fields. Such measurements are possible since the angular distribution of photoelectrons, emitted from a small atomic target, appears sensitive to and is determined by the local direction of the Poynting vector. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed method, detailed calculations were performed for the ionization of sodium atoms by nondiffractive Bessel beams.

  11. Hydrogen atom wave function and eigen energy in the Rindler space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, De-Chang

    2016-10-01

    We study the hydrogen atom eigenstate energy and wave function in the Rindler space. The probability distribution is tilted because the electric field of the nucleus is no longer spherically symmetric. The hydrogen atom therefore cannot be treated exactly in the same way as what it is in an inertial frame. We also find that if the external force accelerates only the nucleus and then the nucleus accelerates its surrounding electrons through electromagnetic force, the electrons can tunnel through the local energy gap and split the hydrogen atom into an ion. This is similar to what one expects from the Stark effect. However, the critical acceleration is about 3 ×1022 m /s2. It is well beyond the gravitational acceleration on a regular star surface.

  12. Hydrogen atom wave function and eigen energy in the Rindler space

    CERN Document Server

    Dai, De-Chang

    2016-01-01

    We study the hydrogen atom eigenstate energy and wave function in the Rindler space. The probability distribution is tilted because the electric field of the nucleus is no longer spherically symmetric. The hydrogen atom therefore cannot be treated exactly in the same way as what it is in an inertial frame. We also find that if the external force accelerates only the nucleus and then the nucleus accelerates its surrounding electrons through electromagnetic force, the electrons can tunnel through the local energy gap and split the hydrogen atom into an ion. This is similar to what one expects from the Stark effect. However, the critical acceleration is about $3\\times 10^{22} m/s^2$. It is well beyond the gravitational acceleration on a regular star surface.

  13. Kinetic-energy matrix elements for atomic Hylleraas-CI wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Frank E

    2016-05-28

    Hylleraas-CI is a superposition-of-configurations method in which each configuration is constructed from a Slater-type orbital (STO) product to which is appended (linearly) at most one interelectron distance rij. Computations of the kinetic energy for atoms by this method have been difficult due to the lack of formulas expressing these matrix elements for general angular momentum in terms of overlap and potential-energy integrals. It is shown here that a strategic application of angular-momentum theory, including the use of vector spherical harmonics, enables the reduction of all atomic kinetic-energy integrals to overlap and potential-energy matrix elements. The new formulas are validated by showing that they yield correct results for a large number of integrals published by other investigators.

  14. Using Uncertainty Principle to Find the Ground-State Energy of the Helium and a Helium-like Hookean Atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbola, Varun

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we accurately estimate the ground-state energy and the atomic radius of the helium atom and a helium-like Hookean atom by employing the uncertainty principle in conjunction with the variational approach. We show that with the use of the uncertainty principle, electrons are found to be spread over a radial region, giving an electron…

  15. Local group modes and the dynamics of intramolecular energy transfer across a heavy atom

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Vicente; Fairen, Victor; Lederman, Steven M.; Marcus, R.A

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of energy transfer is discussed for a model system in which two ligands are separated by a heavy atom. Numerical and analytical results are given for the case that each ligand is a CC. In the quasiperiodic regime, the dynamics are interpreted using perturbation theory. Local group modes involved in an intramolecular energy localization which can occur in this regime are identified. An approximate separation of the primarily ligand–ligand motions from the primarily ligand–metal–li...

  16. An extension of the Eisberg-Resnick treatment for electron energies in many-electron atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, M. A. B.; Bennett, I.

    1989-03-01

    Eisberg and Resnick present a simple argument for the energy of an electron in a multielectron atom using the concept of shielding from electrons in inner shells. The results of such a treatment are unfortunately confined so as to be out of range of experimental values. Here, the effect of electrons in outer shells is included, and, in the nonrelativistic region, energies are obtained for electrons in the first and second shells in reasonable agreement with experiment.

  17. The regularities of the Rydberg energy levels of many-valence electron atom Al

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑能武; 孙育杰

    2000-01-01

    Within the scheme of the weakest bound electron potential model theory, the concept of spectral-level-like series is presented by reasonably classifying the Rydberg energy level of atom Al. Based on this concept, the regularities of the Rydberg energy levels are systematically studied. The deviations of the calculated values from the experimental values are generally about several percent of 1 cm, which is of high accuracy.

  18. Energy Levels in Helium and Neon Atoms by an Electron-Impact Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, N.; And Others

    1981-01-01

    Electronic energy levels in noble gas atoms may be determined with a simple teaching apparatus incorporating a resonance potentials tube in which the electron beam intensity is held constant. The resulting spectra are little inferior to those obtained by more elaborate electron-impact methods and complement optical emission spectra. (Author/SK)

  19. Electromagnetic separation of stable isotopes at the Institute of Atomic Energy, Academia Sinica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ming-da, Hua; Gong-pan, Li; Shi-jun, Su; Nai-feng, Mao; Hung-yung, Lu

    1981-07-01

    For almost 20 years the Institute of Atomic Energy, Academia Sinica has been separating stable isotopes of the elements by electromagnetic separators and supplying these materials to research work in many fields of our country. In this article we shall attempt to outline the growth of the effort and describe the present situation.

  20. Saturation of Energy Levels in Analytical Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry. II. Experimental.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-01-30

    RESEARCH Contract N14-76-C-0838 Task Ao. NR 051-622 TECHNICAL REPORT NO. 34 SATURATION OF ENERGY LEVELS IN ANALYTICAL ATOMIC FLUORESCENCE SPECTROMETRY II...an assumption which is valid only if the daral o’l of 111, cxcilIatio n pulse is mucl ) longer than the fluorescence life- time of the tjaii!,ition

  1. Molecular markers predicting radiotherapy response: report and recommendations from an International Atomic Energy Agency technical meeting.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    West, C.M.; McKay, M.J.; Holscher, T.; Baumann, M.; Stratford, I.J.; Bristow, R.G.; Iwakawa, M.; Imai, T.; Zingde, S.M.; Anscher, M.S.; Bourhis, J.; Begg, A.C.; Haustermans, K.; Bentzen, S.M.; Hendry, J.H.

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: There is increasing interest in radiogenomics and the characterization of molecular profiles that predict normal tissue and tumor radioresponse. A meeting in Amsterdam was organized by the International Atomic Energy Agency to discuss this topic on an international basis. METHODS AND MATERI

  2. A New Method for the Atomic Ground-State Energy in the Screened Coulomb Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Peng-Peng; GUO Hua

    2001-01-01

    The new method proposed recently by Friedberg,Lee and Zhao is applied to the derivation of the atomic ground-state energy with the inclusion of the screening effect.The present results are compared with those obtained in the pure Coulomb potential and by the variational approach.The overall good results are obtained with this new method.``

  3. Discrete Energies of a Weakly Outcoupled Atom Laser Beam Outside the Bose–Einstein Condensate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teguh Budi Prayitno

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We consider the possibility of a discrete set of energies of a weakly outcoupled atom laser beam to the homogeneous Schrödinger equation with anisotropic harmonic trap in Cartesian coordinates outside the Bose–Einstein condensate region. This treatment is used because working in the cylindrical coordinates is not really possible, even though we implement the cigar-shaped trap case. The Schrödinger equation appears to replace a set of two-coupled Gross– Pitaevskii equations by enabling the weak-coupling assumption. This atom laser can be produced in a simple way that only involves extracting the atoms in a condensate from by using the radio frequency field. We initially present the relation between condensates as sources and atom laser as an output by exploring the previous work of Riou et al. in the case of theoretical work for the propagation of atom laser beams. We also show that even though the discrete energies are obtained by means of an approaching harmonic oscillator, degeneracy is only available in two states because of the anisotropic external potential

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF ATOM-ECONOMICAL CATALYTIC PATHWAYS FOR CONVERSIONS OF SYNGAS TO ENERGY LIQUIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MAHAJAN,D.; WEGRZYN,J.E.; LEE,T.; GUREVICH,M.

    1999-03-01

    The subject of catalytic syngas conversions to fuels and chemicals is well studied (1--3). But globally, the recent focus is on development of technologies that offer an economical route to desired products (4). Economical transport of natural gas from remote locations and within clathrate hydrates is of continuing interest at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL). Under this project, a Liquid Phase Low Temperature (LPLT) concept is being applied to attain highly efficient transformations of natural-gas derived syngas to specific products. Furthermore, a more precise term ``Atom Economy'' has been recently introduced by Trost to describe development of highly efficient homogeneously catalyzed synthesis of organic molecules (5). Taken from reference 5, the term ``Atom Economy'' is defined as maximizing the number of atoms of all raw materials that end up in the product with any other reactant required on in catalytic amount. For application to methane transformations that may involve one or more steps, atom economy of each of these steps is critical. The authors, therefore, consider atom-economy synonymous with overall energy efficiency of a process. This paper describes potential liquid products from catalytic syngas conversions, i.e. gas to liquids (GTL) technologies and process considerations that are necessary for economical transport of natural gas. As such, the present study defines an atom-economical standard to directly compare competing GTL technologies.

  5. Effect of external energy on atomic, crystalline and powder characteristics of antimony and bismuth powders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vikram V Dabhade; Rama Mohan R Tallapragada; Mahendra Kumar Trivedi

    2009-10-01

    Next to atoms and molecules the powders are the smallest state of matter available in high purities and large quantities. The effect of any external energy on the shape, morphology and structure can thus be studied with relative ease. The present investigation deals with the effect of a non-contact external energy on the powders of antimony and bismuth. The characteristics of powders treated by external energy are compared with the as received powders (control). The average particle sizes, 50 and 99, the sizes below which 99% of the particles are present showed significant increase and decrease indicating that the energy had caused deformation and fracture as if the powders have been subjected to high energy milling. To be able to understand the reasons for these changes the powders are characterized by techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area determination (BET), thermal analytical techniques such as DTA–DTG, DSC–TGA and SDTA and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The treated powder samples exhibited remarkable changes in the powder characteristics at all structural levels starting from polycrystalline particles, through single crystal to atoms. The external energy had changed the lattice parameters of the unit cell which in turn changed the crystallite size and density. The lattice parameters are then used to compute the weight and effective nuclear charge of the atom which showed significant variation. It is speculated that the external energy is acting on the nucleus through some reversible weak interaction of larger cross section causing changes in the proton to neutron ratios. Thus the effect is felt by all the atoms, and hence the unit cell, single crystal grain and grain boundaries. The stresses generated in turn may have caused deformation or fracture of the weak interfaces such as the crystallite and grain boundaries.

  6. N.6 report realized for the economical Affairs Commission on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.6 rapport fait au nom de la commission des Affaires economiques sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poniatowski, L

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the organization of the french energy sector and the definition of the public utilities. After a presentation of the juridical environment of the european energy sector, the author shows, in the framework of the world energy situation, that the evolution of the juridical aspects of Gaz de France answers a real necessity. He then presents the initial law project dispositions, the modifications of the National Assembly and the amendment of the commission. (A.L.B.)

  7. What needs to be done to reach beam energy above 3.5 TeV? Commissioning of essential magnet powering and machine protection systems

    CERN Document Server

    Catalan Lasheras, N

    2011-01-01

    After the initial plans in 2007 to run the LHC at 7 TeV, a number of unexpected events, and the extended knowledge of the machine that came after them, have convinced us to gradually reduce the beam energy to the current 3.5 TeV. As a consequence of this, some circuits have been commissioned to different energy levels. Some systems, as the quench protection system, are working at a reduced level of accuracy based on less demanding conditions. Nonconformities that were unacceptable for higher energy have no consequences at the current energy and are thus accepted. In this talk, we will review the current status of commissioning of all the circuits and estimate the time and effort necessary to make all circuits operational at higher energies. All existing nonconformities that need to be solved before increasing the energy will be reviewed and their impact in terms of machine safety and schedule will be assessed. The talk will try to outline a stepped energy increase compatible with the already planned maintenan...

  8. Physics and Its Multiple Roles in the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Charles D.

    2017-01-01

    The IAEA is the world's centre for cooperation in the nuclear field. It was set up as the world's ``Atoms for Peace'' organization in 1957 within the United Nations family. The Agency works with its Member States and multiple partners worldwide to promote the safe, secure and peaceful use of nuclear technologies. Three main areas of work underpin the IAEA's mission: Safety and Security, Science and Technology, and Safeguards and Verification. To carry out its mission, the Agency is authorized to encourage and assist research on, and development and practical application of, atomic energy for peaceful uses throughout the world; foster the exchange of scientific and technical information on peaceful uses of atomic energy; and encourage the exchange of training of scientists and experts in the field of peaceful uses of atomic energy. Nowadays, nuclear physics and nuclear technology are applied in a great variety of social areas, such as power production, medical diagnosis and therapies, environmental protection, security control, material tests, food processing, waste treatments, agriculture and artifacts analysis. This presentation will cover the role and practical application of physics at the IAEA, and, in particular, focus on the role physics has, and will play, in nuclear security.

  9. The role of thermal energy accommodation and atomic recombination probabilities in low pressure oxygen plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Andrew Robert; Foucher, Mickaël; Marinov, Daniil; Chabert, Pascal; Gans, Timo; Kushner, Mark J.; Booth, Jean-Paul

    2017-02-01

    Surface interaction probabilities are critical parameters that determine the behaviour of low pressure plasmas and so are crucial input parameters for plasma simulations that play a key role in determining their accuracy. However, these parameters are difficult to estimate without in situ measurements. In this work, the role of two prominent surface interaction probabilities, the atomic oxygen recombination coefficient γ O and the thermal energy accommodation coefficient α E in determining the plasma properties of low pressure inductively coupled oxygen plasmas are investigated using two-dimensional fluid-kinetic simulations. These plasmas are the type used for semiconductor processing. It was found that α E plays a crucial role in determining the neutral gas temperature and neutral gas density. Through this dependency, the value of α E also determines a range of other plasma properties such as the atomic oxygen density, the plasma potential, the electron temperature, and ion bombardment energy and neutral-to-ion flux ratio at the wafer holder. The main role of γ O is in determining the atomic oxygen density and flux to the wafer holder along with the neutral-to-ion flux ratio. It was found that the plasma properties are most sensitive to each coefficient when the value of the coefficient is small causing the losses of atomic oxygen and thermal energy to be surface interaction limited rather than transport limited.

  10. Circular dichroism in free-free transitions of high energy electron-atom scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Cionga, Aurelia; Zloh, Gabriela; 10.1103/PhysRevA.62.063406

    2013-01-01

    We consider high energy electron scattering by hydrogen atoms in the presence of a laser field of moderate power and higher frequencies. If the field is a superposition of a linearly and a circularly polarized laser beam in a particular configuration, then we can show that circular dichroism in two photon transitions can be observed not only for the differential but also for the integrated cross sections, provided the laser-dressing of the atomic target is treated in second order perturbation theory and the coupling between hydrogenic bound and continuum states is involved.

  11. Construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms. Part VI: Core polarization effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elantkowska, Magdalena; Ruczkowski, Jarosław; Dembczyński, Jerzy

    2016-12-01

    The continuation of series of papers concerning the construction of the energy matrix for complex atoms is presented. The second-order perturbation theory contributions originating from core polarization effects in the hyperfine structure are considered. Fifteen new formulae for angular coefficients of core polarization parameters are given. The complete set of corrections up to the second-order perturbation theory was taken into account and the accuracy of the wave functions in the intermediate coupling scheme, on the example of the lanthanum atom, was checked.

  12. Effective atomic numbers, electron densities and kinetic energy released in matter of vitamins for photon interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shantappa, A.; Hanagodimath, S. M.

    2014-01-01

    Effective atomic numbers, electron densities of some vitamins (Retinol, Riboflavin, Niacin, Biotin, Folic acid, Cobalamin, Phylloquinone and Flavonoids) composed of C, H, O, N, Co, P and S have been calculated for total and partial photon interactions by the direct method for energy range 1 keV-100 GeV by using WinXCOM and kinetic energy released in matter (Kerma) relative to air is calculated in energy range of 1 keV-20 MeV. Change in effective atomic number and electron density with energy is calculated for all photon interactions. Variation of photon mass attenuation coefficients with energy are shown graphically only for total photon interaction. It is observed that change in mass attenuation coefficient with composition of different chemicals is very large below 100 keV and moderate between 100 keV and 10 MeV and negligible above 10 MeV. Behaviour of vitamins is almost indistinguishable except biotin and cobalamin because of large range of atomic numbers from 1(H) to 16 (S) and 1(H) to 27(Co) respectively. K a value shows a peak due to the photoelectric effect around K-absorption edge of high- Z constituent of compound for biotin and cobalamin.

  13. Quasiclassical approach to high-energy QED processes in strong laser and atomic fields

    CERN Document Server

    Di Piazza, A

    2012-01-01

    An approach, based on the use of the quasiclassical Green's function, is developed for investigating high-energy quantum electrodynamical processes in combined strong laser and atomic fields. Employing an operator technique, we derive the Green's function of the Dirac equation in an arbitrary plane wave and a localized potential. Then, we calculate the total cross section of high-energy electron-positron photoproduction in an atomic field of arbitrary charge number (Bethe-Heitler process) in the presence of a strong laser field. It is shown that the laser field substantially modifies the cross section at already available incoming photon energies and laser parameters. This makes it feasible to observe the analogous effect in a laser field of the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect for the Bethe-Heitler process.

  14. Report on behalf of the ''Commission mixte Paritaire'' commissioned to propose a text on the arrangements remaining in discussion and concerning the law project relative to the gas and electric power market and to the energy public utilities; Rapport au nom de la Commission mixte paritaire chargee de proposer un texte sur les dispositions restant en discussion du projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques et au service public de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-12-01

    In the framework of the energy market opening, this document presents by a comparative table, the recommendations of the Senate and the National Assembly. After examination of this table, the ''Commission Paritaire'' elaborates a common text, presented in the second part of the document. (A.L.B.)

  15. Atoms in Agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, Thomas S. [University of Tennessee

    1965-01-01

    Agriculture benefits from the applications of research. Radioactive techniques have been used to study soils, plants, microbes, insects, farm animals, and new ways to use and preserve foodstuffs. Radioactive atoms are not used directly by farmers but are used in research directed by the U. S. Department of Agriculture and Atomic Energy Commission, by the agricultural experiment stations of the various states, and by numerous public and private research institutions. From such research come improved materials and methods which are used on the farm.

  16. Investigation of energy thresholds of atomic and cluster sputtering of some elements under ion bombardment

    CERN Document Server

    Atabaev, B G; Lifanova, L F

    2002-01-01

    Threshold energies of sputtering of negative cluster ions from the Si(111) surface were measured at bombardment by Cs sup + , Rb sup + , and Na sup + ions with energy of 0.1-3.0 keV. These results are compared with the calculations of the similar thresholds by Bohdansky etc. formulas (3) for clusters Si sub n sup - and Cu sub n sup - with n=(1-5) and also for B, C, Al, Si, Fe, Cu atoms. Threshold energies of sputtering for the above elements were also estimated using the data from (5). Satisfactory agreement between the experimental and theoretical results was obtained. (author)

  17. Japan Returns to Atom. Current Status and Prospects of the Japanese Nuclear Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łukasz Tolak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In a year and a half after the events of March 2011, Japan excluded all their nuclear reactors, returning to fossil fuels as a basis in the energy field. The shock associated with nuclear disaster seemed to indicate an ultimate end of Japanese adventure with the atom. The situation has, however, significantly changed during the last several months, and the first nuclear reactor connected again to the electric network, is a proof of the change of the energy policy. The article aims to identify the current state of knowledge on the future of nuclear energy in the Japanese energy sector and adjustments proposed in the future energy mix. At the same time, it is an attempt to analyze the reasons that led the current Government of Prime Minister Abe to take very unpopular decisions to return to nuclear energy.

  18. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT APPROACHES: CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-05-29

    a need to assess the behavior of cementitious materials for applications in environmental remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) applications. The ability to assess the use and benefits of cementitious materials for these applications can significantly affect decisions related to cleanup activities. For example the need for costly remedial actions may not be necessary if existing or new cementitious barriers were adequately represented. The sections dealing with regulatory considerations include summaries of the different regulations that are relevant for various applications involving cementitious materials. A summary of regulatory guidance and/or policies pertaining to performance assessment of cementitious materials and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses is also provided in the following chapters. Numerous examples of specific applications are provided in each report. The examples are organized into traditional waste disposal applications (performance assessments), applications related to environmental remediation and D&D, and reactor and spent fuel related assessments. Sections that discuss specific facilities or sites contain: (1) descriptions of the role of the cementitious barriers or sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, (2) parameter assumptions and conceptual models, and (3) a relative discussion of the significance in the context of the assessment. Examples from both the U.S. Department of Energy Sites and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission are provided to illustrate the variety of applications and approaches that have been used. In many cases, minimal credit was taken for cementitious barriers. However, in some of those cases, benefits of being able to take credit for barriers were identified. The examples included: (1) disposal facilities (vaults, trenches, tank closures, cementitious waste forms and containers, etc.), (2) environmental remediation (old disposal facilities), (3) reactor and large structure decommissioning, and (4

  19. Optical meta-atom for localization of light with quantized energy

    CERN Document Server

    Lannebère, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    The capacity to confine light into a small region of space is of paramount importance in many areas of modern science. Here, we suggest a mechanism to store a quantized "bit" of light - with a very precise amount of energy - in an open core-shell plasmonic structure ("meta-atom") with a nonlinear optical response. Notwithstanding the trapped light state is embedded in the radiation continuum, its lifetime is not limited by the radiation loss. Interestingly, it is shown that the interplay between the nonlinear response and volume plasmons enables breaking fundamental reciprocity restrictions, and coupling very efficiently an external light source to the meta-atom. The collision of an incident optical pulse with the meta-atom may be used to release the trapped radiation "bit".

  20. Dynamics of Finite Energy Airy Beams Carrying Orbital Angular Momentum in Multilevel Atomic Vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhenkun; Wang, Shun; Hu, Weifei; Gu, Yuzong

    2016-10-01

    We numerically investigate the dynamics of inward circular finite-energy Airy beams carrying different orbital angular momentum (OAM) numbers in a close-Λ three-level atomic vapor with the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window. We report that due to the EIT induced by the microwave field, the transverse intensity distribution properties of Airy beam can be feasibly manipulated and modulated through adjusting OAM numbers l and the frequency detuning, as well as the propagation distance, in the multi-level atomic systems. What's more, the rotation of the beam also can be observed with different positions in atomic ensembles. The investigation may provide a useful tool for studying particle manipulation, signal processing and propagation in graded-index (GRIN) fibers.

  1. Visualizing the large-$Z$ scaling of the kinetic energy density of atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Cancio, Antonio C

    2016-01-01

    The scaling of neutral atoms to large $Z$, combining periodicity with a gradual trend to homogeneity, is a fundamental probe of density functional theory, one that has driven recent advances in understanding both the kinetic and exchange-correlation energies. Although research focus is normally upon the scaling of energies, insights can also be gained from energy densities. We visualize the scaling of the positive-definite kinetic energy density (KED) in closed-shell atoms, in comparison to invariant quantities based upon the gradient and Laplacian of the density. We notice a striking fit of the KED within the core of any atom to a gradient expansion using both the gradient and the Laplacian, appearing as an asymptotic limit around which the KED oscillates. The gradient expansion is qualitatively different from that derived from first principles for a slowly-varying electron gas and is correlated with a nonzero Pauli contribution to the KED near the nucleus. We propose and explore orbital-free meta-GGA models...

  2. Spatial assignment of symmetry adapted perturbation theory interaction energy components: The atomic SAPT partition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrish, Robert M; Sherrill, C David

    2014-07-28

    We develop a physically-motivated assignment of symmetry adapted perturbation theory for intermolecular interactions (SAPT) into atom-pairwise contributions (the A-SAPT partition). The basic precept of A-SAPT is that the many-body interaction energy components are computed normally under the formalism of SAPT, following which a spatially-localized two-body quasiparticle interaction is extracted from the many-body interaction terms. For electrostatics and induction source terms, the relevant quasiparticles are atoms, which are obtained in this work through the iterative stockholder analysis (ISA) procedure. For the exchange, induction response, and dispersion terms, the relevant quasiparticles are local occupied orbitals, which are obtained in this work through the Pipek-Mezey procedure. The local orbital atomic charges obtained from ISA additionally allow the terms involving local orbitals to be assigned in an atom-pairwise manner. Further summation over the atoms of one or the other monomer allows for a chemically intuitive visualization of the contribution of each atom and interaction component to the overall noncovalent interaction strength. Herein, we present the intuitive development and mathematical form for A-SAPT applied in the SAPT0 approximation (the A-SAPT0 partition). We also provide an efficient series of algorithms for the computation of the A-SAPT0 partition with essentially the same computational cost as the corresponding SAPT0 decomposition. We probe the sensitivity of the A-SAPT0 partition to the ISA grid and convergence parameter, orbital localization metric, and induction coupling treatment, and recommend a set of practical choices which closes the definition of the A-SAPT0 partition. We demonstrate the utility and computational tractability of the A-SAPT0 partition in the context of side-on cation-π interactions and the intercalation of DNA by proflavine. A-SAPT0 clearly shows the key processes in these complicated noncovalent interactions, in

  3. Calculations of Self-diffusion Activation Energies for Alkaline Metals With Embedded Atom Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    欧阳义芳; 张邦维; 廖树帜

    1994-01-01

    Calculations were performed for the self-diffusion activation energies of monovacancy and both formation and binding energies of divacancies for alkaline metals Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs using the embedded atom method (EAM) model for bcc transition metals developed by the authors recently. The aim of the paper is to extend the application of the new model, to compare the calculated values for self-diffusion with the experimental data and those of previous calculations, and to discuss the intrinsic characteristic of self-diffusion in alkaline metals. The calculated monovacancy migration energies and activation energies are in excellent agreement with experimental data, and the calculated divacancy migration and activation energies are in good agreement with the experimental values available.

  4. Electronic torsional sound in linear atomic chains: chemical energy transport at 1000 km/s

    CERN Document Server

    Kurnosov, Arkady A; Maksymov, Andrii A; Burin, Alexander L

    2016-01-01

    We investigate entirely electronic torsional vibrational modes in linear cumulene chains. The carbon nuclei of a cumulene are positioned along the primary axis so they can participate only in transverse and longitudinal motions. However, the interatomic electronic clouds behave as a torsion spring with remarkable torsional stiffness. The collective dynamics of these clouds can be described in terms of electronic vibrational quanta, which we name torsitons. It is shown that the group velocity of the wavepacket of torsitons is much higher than the typical speed of sound, because of the small mass of participating electrons compared to the atomic mass. For the same reason the maximum energy of the torsitons in cumulenes is as high as a few electronvolts, while the minimum possible energy is evaluated as a few hundred wavenumbers and this minimum is associated with asymmetry of zero point atomic vibrations. Molecular systems for experimental evaluation of the predictions are proposed.

  5. Atomic Energy Act (AtG) and subordinate legislation. Collections. 33. ed.; Atomgesetz mit Verordnungen. Textsammlung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziegler, Eberhard (ed.)

    2014-07-01

    The 33rd edition of the present statute book contains the Site Selection Law (StandAG) of 25 July 2013, which specifies the procedure for selecting sites for final disposal of high-level radioactive wastes, and the Law on the Establishment of a Federal Office for Disposal of Radioactive Wastes, promulgated as Art. 3 of the Site Selection Law. Some regulations of the StandAG already took effect on 27 July 2013, while others are to be enacted on 1 January 2014 along with amendments to the Atomic Energy Law, the Schedule of Costs to the Atomic Energy Law and the Law on Environmental Impact Assessments that result from the StandAG. The new edition also includes legislative amendments that were passed after the publication of the previous edition, namely those to the Food Irradiation Ordinance, the Law on the Establishment of the Federal Radiation Protection Office and to relevant regulations of the Criminal Code.

  6. Formation of nanostructures on HOPG surface in presence of surfactant atom during low energy ion irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranjan, M., E-mail: ranjanm@ipr.res.in; Joshi, P.; Mukherjee, S.

    2016-07-15

    Low energy ions beam often develop periodic patterns on surfaces under normal or off-normal incidence. Formation of such periodic patterns depends on the substrate material, the ion beam parameters, and the processing conditions. Processing conditions introduce unwanted contaminant atoms, which also play strong role in pattern formation by changing the effective sputtering yield of the material. In this work we have analysed the effect of Cu, Fe and Al impurities introduced during low energy Ar{sup +} ion irradiation on HOPG substrate. It is observed that by changing the species of foreign atoms the surface topography changes drastically. The observed surface topography is co-related with the modified sputtering yield of HOPG. Presence of Cu and Fe amplify the effective sputtering yield of HOPG, so that the required threshold for the pattern formation is achieved with the given fluence, whereas Al does not lead to any significant change in the effective yield and hence no pattern formation occurs.

  7. Scaled-Down Moderator Circulation Test Facility at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a the national research and development programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the moderator circulation test (MCT) facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tools, and development of optical measurement system using the particle image velocimetry (PIV). In the present paper we introduce the sc...

  8. Protein structure prediction by all-atom free-energy refinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenzel Wolfgang

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The reliable prediction of protein tertiary structure from the amino acid sequence remains challenging even for small proteins. We have developed an all-atom free-energy protein forcefield (PFF01 that we could use to fold several small proteins from completely extended conformations. Because the computational cost of de-novo folding studies rises steeply with system size, this approach is unsuitable for structure prediction purposes. We therefore investigate here a low-cost free-energy relaxation protocol for protein structure prediction that combines heuristic methods for model generation with all-atom free-energy relaxation in PFF01. Results We use PFF01 to rank and cluster the conformations for 32 proteins generated by ROSETTA. For 22/10 high-quality/low quality decoy sets we select near-native conformations with an average Cα root mean square deviation of 3.03 Å/6.04 Å. The protocol incorporates an inherent reliability indicator that succeeds for 78% of the decoy sets. In over 90% of these cases near-native conformations are selected from the decoy set. This success rate is rationalized by the quality of the decoys and the selectivity of the PFF01 forcefield, which ranks near-native conformations an average 3.06 standard deviations below that of the relaxed decoys (Z-score. Conclusion All-atom free-energy relaxation with PFF01 emerges as a powerful low-cost approach toward generic de-novo protein structure prediction. The approach can be applied to large all-atom decoy sets of any origin and requires no preexisting structural information to identify the native conformation. The study provides evidence that a large class of proteins may be foldable by PFF01.

  9. Precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms as a probe of low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction

    CERN Document Server

    Shi, H; Beer, G; Bellotti, G; Berucci, C; Bragadireanu, A M; Bosnar, D; Cargnelli, M; Curceanu, C; Butt, A D; d'Uffizi, A; Fiorini, C; Ghio, F; Guaraldo, C; Hayano, R S; Iliescu, M; Ishiwatari, T; Iwasaki, M; Sandri, P Levi; Marton, J; Okada, S; Pietreanu, D; Piscicchia, K; Vidal, A Romero; Sbardella, E; Scordo, A; Sirghi, D L; Sirghi, F; Tatsuno, H; Doce, O Vazquez; Widmann, E; Zmeskal, J

    2016-01-01

    In the exotic atoms where one atomic $1s$ electron is replaced by a $K^{-}$, the strong interaction between the $K^{-}$ and the nucleus introduces an energy shift and broadening of the low-lying kaonic atomic levels which are determined by only the electromagnetic interaction. By performing X-ray spectroscopy for Z=1,2 kaonic atoms, the SIDDHARTA experiment determined with high precision the shift and width for the $1s$ state of $K^{-}p$ and the $2p$ state of kaonic helium-3 and kaonic helium-4. These results provided unique information of the kaon-nucleus interaction in the low energy limit.

  10. Atomically thick bismuth selenide freestanding single layers achieving enhanced thermoelectric energy harvesting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yongfu; Cheng, Hao; Gao, Shan; Liu, Qinghua; Sun, Zhihu; Xiao, Chong; Wu, Changzheng; Wei, Shiqiang; Xie, Yi

    2012-12-19

    Thermoelectric materials can realize significant energy savings by generating electricity from untapped waste heat. However, the coupling of the thermoelectric parameters unfortunately limits their efficiency and practical applications. Here, a single-layer-based (SLB) composite fabricated from atomically thick single layers was proposed to optimize the thermoelectric parameters fully. Freestanding five-atom-thick Bi(2)Se(3) single layers were first synthesized via a scalable interaction/exfoliation strategy. As revealed by X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy and first-principles calculations, surface distortion gives them excellent structural stability and a much increased density of states, resulting in a 2-fold higher electrical conductivity relative to the bulk material. Also, the surface disorder and numerous interfaces in the Bi(2)Se(3) SLB composite allow for effective phonon scattering and decreased thermal conductivity, while the 2D electron gas and energy filtering effect increase the Seebeck coefficient, resulting in an 8-fold higher figure of merit (ZT) relative to the bulk material. This work develops a facile strategy for synthesizing atomically thick single layers and demonstrates their superior ability to optimize the thermoelectric energy harvesting.

  11. Energy corrugation in atomic-scale friction on graphite revisited by molecular dynamics simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiao-Yu; Qi, Yi-Zhou; Ouyang, Wengen; Feng, Xi-Qiao; Li, Qunyang

    2016-08-01

    Although atomic stick-slip friction has been extensively studied since its first demonstration on graphite, the physical understanding of this dissipation-dominated phenomenon is still very limited. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite surface. In contrast to the common wisdom, our MD results suggest that the energy barrier associated lateral sliding (known as energy corrugation) comes not only from interaction between the tip and the top layer of graphite but also from interactions among the deformed atomic layers of graphite. Due to the competition of these two subentries, friction on graphite can be tuned by controlling the relative adhesion of different interfaces. For relatively low tip-graphite adhesion, friction behaves normally and increases with increasing normal load. However, for relatively high tip-graphite adhesion, friction increases unusually with decreasing normal load leading to an effectively negative coefficient of friction, which is consistent with the recent experimental observations on chemically modified graphite. Our results provide a new insight into the physical origins of energy corrugation in atomic scale friction.

  12. Energy corrugation in atomic-scale friction on graphite revisited by molecular dynamics simulations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yu Sun; Yi-Zhou Qi; Wengen Ouyang; Xi-Qiao Feng; Qunyang Li

    2016-01-01

    Although atomic stick–slip friction has been extensively studied since its first demonstration on graphite, the physical understanding of this dissipation-dominated phenomenon is still very limited. In this work, we perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to study the frictional behavior of a diamond tip sliding over a graphite surface. In contrast to the common wisdom, our MD results suggest that the energy barrier associated lateral sliding (known as energy corrugation) comes not only from interaction between the tip and the top layer of graphite but also from interactions among the deformed atomic layers of graphite. Due to the competi-tion of these two subentries, friction on graphite can be tuned by controlling the relative adhesion of different interfaces. For relatively low tip-graphite adhesion, friction behaves nor-mally and increases with increasing normal load. However, for relatively high tip-graphite adhesion, friction increases unusually with decreasing normal load leading to an effec-tively negative coefficient of friction, which is consistent with the recent experimental observations on chemically modified graphite. Our results provide a new insight into the physical origins of energy corrugation in atomic scale friction.

  13. The International Atomic Energy Agency's activities in radiation medicine and cancer: promoting global health through diplomacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deatsch-Kratochvil, Amanda N; Pascual, Thomas Neil; Kesner, Adam; Rosenblatt, Eduardo; Chhem, Rethy K

    2013-02-01

    Global health has been an issue of seemingly low political importance in comparison with issues that have direct bearing on countries' national security. Recently, health has experienced a "political revolution" or a rise in political importance. Today, we face substantial global health challenges, from the spread of infectious disease, gaps in basic maternal and child health care, to the globalization of cancer. A recent estimate states that the "overall lifetime risk of developing cancer (both sexes) is expected to rise from more than one in three to one in two by 2015." These issues pose significant threats to international health security. To successfully combat these grave challenges, the international community must embrace and engage in global health diplomacy, defined by scholars Thomas Novotny and Vicanne Adams as a political activity aimed at improving global health, while at the same time maintaining and strengthening international relations. The IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency) is an international organization with a unique mandate to "accelerate and enlarge the contribution of atomic energy to peace, health, and prosperity throughout the world." This article discusses global health diplomacy, reviews the IAEA's program activities in human health by focusing on radiation medicine and cancer, and the peaceful applications of atomic energy within the context of global health diplomacy.

  14. Information report from the Economic Affairs commission on photovoltaic energy; Rapport d'information depose en application de l'article 145 du reglement par la commission des affaires economiques sur l'energie photovoltaique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2009-07-01

    Today and for several years to come, photovoltaic energy represents only a minimal part of the world's electric power production. Photovoltaic energy is only at its beginnings, however several countries have already taken opportunities in the business. This report gives a comprehensive information about photovoltaic energy (basic principles, conversion systems, photovoltaic power plants, incentive programs in other developed countries, regulations ...) and arguments for the development of a structured photovoltaic energy policy in France.

  15. OVERVIEW OF THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AND NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT APPROACHES: CEMENTITIOUS BARRIERS PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.; Burns, H.

    2009-05-29

    a need to assess the behavior of cementitious materials for applications in environmental remediation and decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) applications. The ability to assess the use and benefits of cementitious materials for these applications can significantly affect decisions related to cleanup activities. For example the need for costly remedial actions may not be necessary if existing or new cementitious barriers were adequately represented. The sections dealing with regulatory considerations include summaries of the different regulations that are relevant for various applications involving cementitious materials. A summary of regulatory guidance and/or policies pertaining to performance assessment of cementitious materials and sensitivity and uncertainty analyses is also provided in the following chapters. Numerous examples of specific applications are provided in each report. The examples are organized into traditional waste disposal applications (performance assessments), applications related to environmental remediation and D&D, and reactor and spent fuel related assessments. Sections that discuss specific facilities or sites contain: (1) descriptions of the role of the cementitious barriers or sensitivity/uncertainty analysis, (2) parameter assumptions and conceptual models, and (3) a relative discussion of the significance in the context of the assessment. Examples from both the U.S. Department of Energy Sites and the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission are provided to illustrate the variety of applications and approaches that have been used. In many cases, minimal credit was taken for cementitious barriers. However, in some of those cases, benefits of being able to take credit for barriers were identified. The examples included: (1) disposal facilities (vaults, trenches, tank closures, cementitious waste forms and containers, etc.), (2) environmental remediation (old disposal facilities), (3) reactor and large structure decommissioning, and (4

  16. Report made on behalf of the commission of economical affairs, of environment and territory about the project of energy trend law (no. 1586); Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur le projet de loi (no. 1586), d'orientation sur l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poignant, S.

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this report is to present to the French deputies the comments made by the commission of economic affairs, environment and territory about the project of energy trend law. This law aims at defining in its first article the goals and trends of the French energy policy, and then at completing the existing energy dispositions in order to more efficiently implement these trends. The goals of the French energy plan are: the guarantee of supplies security, the environment protection, the warranty of energy prices competitiveness, and the energy access to the whole French people. These goals imply to keep up the nuclear option with the construction of the European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) and to develop the renewable energies. The first title of the law is devoted to the mastery of energy demand and foresee the implementation of a system of energy saving certificates, the reinforcement of the thermal building codes law, and a better information of consumers. The second title aims at promoting the development of renewable energy sources. Finally, the third title aims at better warranting the equilibrium of power networks and the quality of power supplies. The first part of the document reports on the general discussions about the law project while the second part makes a detailed analysis of each article with the proposals of modifications made by the commission. (J.S.)

  17. X-ray energies of circular transitions and electrons screening in kaonic atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Santos, J P; Desclaux, J P; Indelicato, P J; Parente, F; Indelicato, Paul; ccsd-00002661, ccsd

    2004-01-01

    The QED contribution to the energies of the circular (n,l=n-1), 2 ≤ n ≤ 19 transitions have been calculated for several kaonic atoms throughout the periodic table, using the current world average kaon mass. Calculations were done in the framework of the Klein-Gordon equation, with finite nuclear size and all-order Uelhing vacuum polarization corrections, as well as Kallen and Sabry and Wichmann and Kroll corrections. These energy level values are compared with other computed values. The circular transition energies are compared with available measured and theoretical transition energy. Electron screening is evaluated using a Dirac-Fock model for the electronic part of the wave function. The effect of electronic wavefunction correlation is evaluated for the first time.

  18. Stacking fault energy in FCC plutonium with multiple reference states in the modified embedded atom method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valone, S. M.; Baskes, M. I.; Rudin, S. P.

    2012-03-01

    Basic concepts from the multi-reference state formalism for determining the functions for the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) are adopted to modeling elemental plutonium (Pu). In the case of elemental Pu, the focus is on the background electron density. Here we utilize a portion of the formalism that determines the structure of the background density necessary to capture correct phase ordering between fcc and ideal hcp crystal structures. The critical information comes from cold curves, that is the energy/volume relationships, for these phases. Practically speaking, the energy difference between these two phases determines the stacking fault energy of the material. At the same time, the simple monoclinic phase of elemental Pu also becomes higher in energy at the equilibrium volume of the fcc phase. The new model is based on first-principles electronic structure calculations and captures the basic phase ordering of those calculations.

  19. ELENA MCP detector: absolute efficiency measurement for low energy neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-04-01

    MicroChannel plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission to Mercury to be launched in 2014. ELENA is a TOF sensor, based on a novel concept ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section)which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop section. It is aimed to detect neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 70° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the environment and the planet, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles release from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (100 eV) as well as Hydrogen back-scattered at hundreds eV. MCP absolute detection efficiency for very low energy neutral atoms (EMEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different type of MCPs coating have been performed providing the behaviors of MCP detection efficiency in the range 10eV-1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are here discussed.

  20. The use of a diode matrix in commissioning activities for electron energies {>=}9 MeV: A feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casanova Borca, Valeria; Pasquino, Massimo; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi [S. C. Fisica Sanitaria, Azienda Sanitaria ASL TO 4, Via Di Vittorio 1, 10015 Ivrea, Torino (Italy)

    2009-04-15

    The contribution of a commercially available diode matrix (MapCHECK trade mark sign , provided by Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) for the commissioning procedures of the voxel based Monte Carlo (VMC++) algorithm for electron beams of MasterPlan treatment planning system was investigated. The attention is mainly focused on the calculation in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. With this aim, following a data set similar to that proposed by Electron Collaborative Working Group (ECWG), the dose profiles and two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured by the diode matrix were compared with the calculated ones using the gamma analysis method with acceptance criteria for the dose difference and the distance to agreement equal to 4% and 4 mm, respectively. The average and standard deviation of the percentage of points satisfying the constraint {gamma}{<=}1 are 98.3{+-}4.1% and 99.3{+-}1.7% for the 9 and 12 MeV electron beam, respectively, showing that the accuracy of MasterPlan electron beam algorithm is good for simple two-dimensional geometries as well as for more complicated three-dimensional ones. The results are in agreement with those reported in literature by Cygler et al. [''Evaluation of the first commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for electron beam treatment planning,'' Med. Phys. 31, 142-153 (2004)]. In addition, the authors have also analyzed the response of the 2D array in terms of dose profiles at different depths, comparing the results with those obtained in water phantom using an electron diode. The results show that in the low gradient regions there were no deviations larger than the criteria of acceptability set by Van Dyk et al. [''Commissioning and quality assurance of treatment planning computers,'' Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26, 261-273 (1993)]; in the high gradient region, the maximum deviations are less than 2 mm with most of the values less than 1 mm. The present article shows that

  1. The use of a diode matrix in commissioning activities for electron energies > or = 9 MeV: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borca, Valeria Casanova; Pasquino, Massimo; Ozzello, Franca; Tofani, Santi

    2009-04-01

    The contribution of a commercially available diode matrix (MapCHECK, provided by Sun Nuclear, Melbourne, FL) for the commissioning procedures of the voxel based Monte Carlo (VMC++) algorithm for electron beams of MasterPlan treatment planning system was investigated. The attention is mainly focused on the calculation in homogeneous and heterogeneous phantoms. With this aim, following a data set similar to that proposed by Electron Collaborative Working Group (ECWG), the dose profiles and two-dimensional (2D) dose distributions measured by the diode matrix were compared with the calculated ones using the gamma analysis method with acceptance criteria for the dose difference and the distance to agreement equal to 4% and 4 mm, respectively. The average and standard deviation of the percentage of points satisfying the constraint gamma < or = 1 are 98.3 +/- 4.1% and 99.3 +/- 1.7% for the 9 and 12 MeV electron beam, respectively, showing that the accuracy of MasterPlan electron beam algorithm is good for simple two-dimensional geometries as well as for more complicated three-dimensional ones. The results are in agreement with those reported in literature by Cygler et al. ["Evaluation of the first commercial Monte Carlo dose calculation engine for electron beam treatment planning," Med. Phys. 31, 142-153 (2004)]. In addition, the authors have also analyzed the response of the 2D array in terms of dose profiles at different depths, comparing the results with those obtained in water phantom using an electron diode. The results show that in the low gradient regions there were no deviations larger than the criteria of acceptability set by Van Dyk et al. ["Commissioning and quality assurance of treatment planning computers," Int. J. Radiat. Oncol. Biol. Phys. 26, 261-273 (1993)]; in the high gradient region, the maximum deviations are less than 2 mm with most of the values less than 1 mm. The present article shows that MapCHECK can play a useful role in the commissioning of

  2. Electrode surface engineering by atomic layer deposition: A promising pathway toward better energy storage

    KAUST Repository

    Ahmed, Bilal

    2016-04-29

    Research on electrochemical energy storage devices including Li ion batteries (LIBs), Na ion batteries (NIBs) and supercapacitors (SCs) has accelerated in recent years, in part because developments in nanomaterials are making it possible to achieve high capacities and energy and power densities. These developments can extend battery life in portable devices, and open new markets such as electric vehicles and large-scale grid energy storage. It is well known that surface reactions largely determine the performance and stability of electrochemical energy storage devices. Despite showing impressive capacities and high energy and power densities, many of the new nanostructured electrode materials suffer from limited lifetime due to severe electrode interaction with electrolytes or due to large volume changes. Hence control of the surface of the electrode material is essential for both increasing capacity and improving cyclic stability of the energy storage devices.Atomic layer deposition (ALD) which has become a pervasive synthesis method in the microelectronics industry, has recently emerged as a promising process for electrochemical energy storage. ALD boasts excellent conformality, atomic scale thickness control, and uniformity over large areas. Since ALD is based on self-limiting surface reactions, complex shapes and nanostructures can be coated with excellent uniformity, and most processes can be done below 200. °C. In this article, we review recent studies on the use of ALD coatings to improve the performance of electrochemical energy storage devices, with particular emphasis on the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the role of ALD in improving device performance. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Communication from the commission to the council and the European parliament. Final report on the green paper: towards a European strategy for the security of energy supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-06-15

    The Green Paper on the security of energy supply, adopted by the Commission more than a year ago, opened up a debate on energy policy unprecedented in 30 years. In most of the Member States this debate revived discussion on national options in the energy field. Looking ahead to the next twenty to thirty years, the Green Paper drew attention to the structural weaknesses and geopolitical, social and environmental shortcomings of the EU energy supply, notably as regards European commitments in the Kyoto Protocol. The European economy, steadily demanding more and more energy, is essentially based on fossil fuels. The Green Paper offers a clear strategy based on demand management. It has the merit of pointing out that the EU has little room for manoeuvre with regard to energy supply notably due to its low, or in certain cases less competitive (e.g. coal), energy resources. Therefore it is appropriate for the Union to concentrate on guiding and steering demand, unlike the United States which, in the energy plan it announced in May 2001, seeks to meet demand by constantly boosting supply. The Green Paper put 13 questions as a framework for the general debate. The conclusion is that there is virtually unanimous agreement on the strategic axis of demand management: energy consumption must be guided and steered. The conclusions of the Barcelona European Council, stressing in particular the need for better energy efficiency by 2010 and rapid adoption of energy taxation proposals, clearly give political backing to this priority. Without waiting for the debate to end, the Commission made some very well received proposals along these lines, involving actual legislation and not just encouraging words or exchange of good practice, some of which have already been adopted by the Council and the European Parliament. One of these proposals in particular was the Directive on electricity production from renewable sources, adopted in 2001. Another was the proposal for a Directive on

  4. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances. Volume 45, No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received in March 1997. Issuances are from the Commission, the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards, and the Directors` Decisions. 10 issuances were received: Louisiana Energy Services (2 issuances); Illinois Power Company and Soyland Power Cooperative; Ralph. L. Tetrick; University of Cincinnati; Consumers Power Company; Entergy Operations, Inc.; Georgia Power Company; Westinghouse Electric Corporation; and Wisconsin Electric Power Company. No issuances were received from the the Administrative Law Judges or the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking.

  5. Low energy neutral atom imaging on the Moon with the SARA instrument aboard Chandrayaan-1 mission

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Bhardwaj; Stas Barabash; Yoshifumi Futaana; Yoichi Kazama; Kazushi Asamura; David McCann; R Sridharan; Mats Holmstrom; Peter Wurz; Rickard Lundin

    2005-12-01

    This paper reports on the Sub-keV Atom Reflecting Analyzer (SARA)experiment that will be flown on the first Indian lunar mission Chandrayaan-1.The SARA is a low energy neutral atom (LENA)imaging mass spectrometer,which will perform remote sensing of the lunar surface via detection of neutral atoms in the energy range from 10 eV to 3 keV from a 100 km polar orbit.In this report we present the basic design of the SARA experiment and discuss various scientific issues that will be addressed.The SARA instrument consists of three major subsystems:a LENA sensor (CENA),a solar wind monitor (SWIM),and a digital processing unit (DPU).SARA will be used to image the solar wind –surface interaction to study primarily the surface composition and surface magnetic anomalies and associated mini-magnetospheres.Studies of lunar exosphere sources and space weathering on the Moon will also be attempted.SARA is the first LENA imaging mass spectrometer of its kind to be flown on a space mission.A replica of SARA is planned to fly to Mercury onboard the BepiColombo mission.

  6. Recent Development of Advanced Electrode Materials by Atomic Layer Deposition for Electrochemical Energy Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Cao; Wang, John

    2016-10-01

    Electrode materials play a decisive role in almost all electrochemical energy storage devices, determining their overall performance. Proper selection, design and fabrication of electrode materials have thus been regarded as one of the most critical steps in achieving high electrochemical energy storage performance. As an advanced nanotechnology for thin films and surfaces with conformal interfacial features and well controllable deposition thickness, atomic layer deposition (ALD) has been successfully developed for deposition and surface modification of electrode materials, where there are considerable issues of interfacial and surface chemistry at atomic and nanometer scale. In addition, ALD has shown great potential in construction of novel nanostructured active materials that otherwise can be hardly obtained by other processing techniques, such as those solution-based processing and chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques. This review focuses on the recent development of ALD for the design and delivery of advanced electrode materials in electrochemical energy storage devices, where typical examples will be highlighted and analyzed, and the merits and challenges of ALD for applications in energy storage will also be discussed.

  7. Correlation energies beyond the random-phase approximation: ISTLS applied to spherical atoms and ions

    CERN Document Server

    Gould, Tim

    2012-01-01

    The inhomogeneous Singwi, Tosi, Land and Sjolander (ISTLS) correlation energy functional of Dobson, Wang and Gould [PRB {\\bf 66} 081108(R) (2008)] has proved to be excellent at predicting correlation energies in semi-homogeneous systems, showing promise as a robust `next step' fifth-rung functional by using dynamic correlation to go beyond the limitations of the direct random-phase approximation (dRPA), but with similar numerical scaling with system size. In this work we test the functional on fourteen spherically symmetric, neutral and charged atomic systems and find it gives excellent results (within 2mHa/$e^-$ except Be) for the absolute correlation energies of the neutral atoms tested, and good results for the ions (within 4mHa/$e^-$). In all cases it performs better than the dRPA. When combined with the previous successes, these new results point to the ISTLS functional being a prime contender for high-accuracy, benchmark DFT correlation energy calculations.

  8. Commission to review the financing for the phase-out of nuclear energy. Results, evaluation, implementation; Kommission zur Ueberpruefung der Finanzierung des Kernenergieausstiegs (KFK). Ergebnisse, Bewertung, Umsetzung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brandmair, Lothar [Wirtschaftskanzlei Graf von Westphalen, Muenchen (Germany)

    2016-07-15

    The German Commission to Review the Financing for the Phase-out of Nuclear Energy (Kommission zur Ueberpruefung der Finanzierung des Kernenergieausstiegs, KFK) has unanimously adopted its report on 27 April 2016. Now the Federal Government is working on the implementation of the recommendations, which are directed to profound changes in the present system of financing and action responsibilities of government and operators. The proposals by KFK on their meaning and scope are described and analyzed. An overview of the tasks to implement the recommendations at the legislative and contractual level is given. The work of KFK is also classified in its social context and assessed as a viable compromise.

  9. 10 CFR 140.91 - Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Appendix A-Form of nuclear energy liability policy for facilities. 140.91 Section 140.91 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) FINANCIAL PROTECTION... other matter not within the Commission's statutory jurisdiction under the Atomic Energy Act....

  10. An Apparatus for the Measurement of Various Scattering Processes in Intermediate Energy, Ion - Atom Collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvale, T. J.; Seely, D. G.

    1998-07-01

    This paper summarizes the main features of an apparatus constructed at the University of Toledo for the study of various scattering processes in intermediate energy, ion - atom collisions. The main purpose of this facility is to provide experimental data which serve as benchmarks to test current scattering theories for those processes. Recent measurements of single electron detachment (SED) and double electron detachment (DED) total cross sections for 5-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on noble gases and for 10-50 keV H{sup -} ions incident on CH{sub 4} molecules were conducted in this laboratory. As a result of an analysis of the scattered beam growth curves, information about other charge-changing cross sections in the hydrogen-atom (molecule) collision systems were obtain, as well.

  11. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Photo 01: Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing. Looking on are Christoph Eck (far left), resource manager of the LCG Project and Les Robertson, LCG Project Leader. Photo 02: (left to right) Christoph Eck, resource manager of the LCG Project; G. Govindrajan, Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation G...

  12. Software development agreement between CERN and the Indian Department of Atomic Energy

    CERN Multimedia

    Patrice Loïez

    2003-01-01

    The development and prototyping work for the LHC computing facility is being organised as a project that includes many scientific institutes and industrial partners, coordinated by CERN. The project is nicknamed LCG (after LHC Computing Grid). Addendum No. 1 to the Protocol dated 24/09/02 to the 1991 co-operation agreement between CERN and the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) of the Government of India defines the collaboration between CERN and DAE on software development for the LCG Prototype Project. Signing the addendum are G. Govindrajan (left), Director of the Electronics and Instrumentation Group at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai, India and Dr. Hans Hoffmann, CERN Director for Technology Transfer and for Scientific Computing.

  13. Demystifying Introductory Chemistry. Part 4: An Approach to Reaction Thermodynamics through Enthalpies, Entropies, and Free Energies of Atomization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, James N.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Presents an alternative approach to teaching reaction thermodynamics in introductory chemistry courses using calculations of enthalpies, entropies, and free energies of atomization. Uses a consistent concept, that of decomposition of a compound to its gaseous atoms, to discuss not only thermodynamic parameters but also equilibrium and…

  14. 76 FR 1608 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-11

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy... and nuclear waste. The Commission is scheduled to submit a draft report to the Secretary of Energy by... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  15. 75 FR 25850 - Blue Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-10

    ... Ribbon Commission on America's Nuclear Future AGENCY: Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Energy...- 0544; e-mail CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov . Additional information may also be available at http... to CommissionDFO@nuclear.energy.gov , or post comments on the Commission Web site at...

  16. On the combination of a low energy hydrogen atom beam with a cold multipole ion trap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borodi, Gheorghe

    2008-12-09

    The first part of the activities of this thesis was to develop a sophisticated ion storage apparatus dedicated to study chemical processes with atomic hydrogen. The integration of a differentially pumped radical beam source into an existing temperature variable 22- pole trapping machine has required major modifications. Since astrophysical questions have been in the center of our interest, the introduction first gives a short overview of astrophysics and -chemistry. The basics of ion trapping in temperature variable rf traps is well-documented in the literature; therefore, the description of the basic instrument (Chapter 2) is kept rather short. Much effort has been put into the development of an intense and stable source for hydrogen atoms the kinetic energy of which can be changed. Chapter 3 describes this module in detail with emphasis on the integration of magnetic hexapoles for guiding the atoms and special treatments of the surfaces for reducing H-H recombination. Due to the unique sensitivity of the rf ion trapping technique, this instrument allows one to study a variety of reactions of astrochemical and fundamental interest. The results of this work are summarized in Chapter 4. Reactions of CO{sub 2}{sup +} with hydrogen atoms and molecules have been established as calibration standard for in situ determination of H and H{sub 2} densities over the full temperature range of the apparatus (10 K-300 K). For the first time, reactions of H- and D-atoms with the ionic hydrocarbons CH{sup +}, CH{sub 2}{sup +}, and CH{sub 4}{sup +} have been studied at temperatures of interstellar space. A very interesting, not yet fully understood collision system is the interaction of protonated methane with H. The outlook presents some ideas, how to improve the new instrument and a few reaction systems are mentioned which may be studied next. (orig.)

  17. 10 CFR 9.105 - Commission procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Commission procedures. 9.105 Section 9.105 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations § 9.105 Commission procedures. (a) Action under § 9.104 shall be taken only when a majority of the entire membership of...

  18. Report realized in the name of the economic, environment and territory commission, on the resolution proposition (n. 1261) of Messrs Bernard Deflesselles and Jerome Lambert, reporters of the commission in charge of the european affairs, on the program energy-climate; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques, de l'environnement et du territoire sur la proposition de resolution (n. 1261) de MM. Bernard Deflesselles et Jerome Lambert, rapporteurs de la commission chargee des affaires europeennes, sur le paquet energie-climat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This report aims to evaluate a resolution proposition on five texts presented by the European Commission the 23 January 2008: the enhancement of the quotas emission system, the greenhouse gases effect reduction, the renewable energies development, the juridical aspects of the carbon sequestration and storage and the financial assistance of the governments for the environment. 12 propositions are provided. (A.L.B.)

  19. A model for energy transfer in collisions of atoms with highly excited molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Paul L; Conte, Riccardo; Bowman, Joel M

    2015-05-21

    A model for energy transfer in the collision between an atom and a highly excited target molecule has been developed on the basis of classical mechanics and turning point analysis. The predictions of the model have been tested against the results of trajectory calculations for collisions of five different target molecules with argon or helium under a variety of temperatures, collision energies, and initial rotational levels. The model predicts selected moments of the joint probability distribution, P(Jf,ΔE) with an R(2) ≈ 0.90. The calculation is efficient, in most cases taking less than one CPU-hour. The model provides several insights into the energy transfer process. The joint probability distribution is strongly dependent on rotational energy transfer and conservation laws and less dependent on vibrational energy transfer. There are two mechanisms for rotational excitation, one due to motion normal to the intermolecular potential and one due to motion tangential to it and perpendicular to the line of centers. Energy transfer is found to depend strongly on the intermolecular potential and only weakly on the intramolecular potential. Highly efficient collisions are a natural consequence of the energy transfer and arise due to collisions at "sweet spots" in the space of impact parameter and molecular orientation.

  20. Evaluation of atomic electron binding energies for Monte Carlo particle transport

    CERN Document Server

    Pia, Maria Grazia; Batic, Matej; Begalli, Marcia; Kim, Chan Hyeong; Quintieri, Lina; Saracco, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    A survey of atomic binding energies used by general purpose Monte Carlo systems is reported. Various compilations of these parameters have been evaluated; their accuracy is estimated with respect to experimental data. Their effects on physics quantities relevant to Monte Carlo particle transport are highlighted: X-ray fluorescence emission, electron and proton ionization cross sections, and Doppler broadening in Compton scattering. The effects due to different binding energies are quantified with respect to experimental data. The results of the analysis provide quantitative ground for the selection of binding energies to optimize the accuracy of Monte Carlo simulation in experimental use cases. Recommendations on software design dealing with these parameters and on the improvement of data libraries for Monte Carlo simulation are discussed.

  1. Double-electron capture by highly-ionized atoms isolated at very low energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogwell Hoogerheide, Shannon; Dreiling, Joan M.; Sahiner, Arda; Tan, Joseph N.

    2016-05-01

    Charge exchange with background gases, also known as electron capture processes, is important in the study of comets, controlled fusion energy, anti-matter atoms, and proposed one-electron ions in Rydberg states. However, there are few experiments in the very low energy regime that could be useful for further theoretical development. At NIST, highly-charged ions extracted from an electron-beam ion trap can be isolated with energy state. Analysis using a system of rate equations yields information about the ion cloud expansion and single-electron capture rates. A substantial amount of double-electron capture is also observed. We present the relative rates and discuss the error budget. SFH and JMD were funded by National Research Council Research Associateship Awards during some of this work.

  2. Proposal of a resolution aiming at creating an inquiry commission about the conditions of formation and the evolution mechanisms of energy prices; Proposition de resolution tendant a la creation d'une commission d'enquete sur les conditions de formation et les mecanismes d'evolution des prix de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    The aim of this proposal is to create a commission with the following missions: 1 - defining the different elements which compose the prices of petroleum, gas, electricity and alternative energies; 2 - describing the mechanisms of their evolution; 3 - studying the impact for consumers of the European deregulation of energy markets; 4 - identifying the short- and medium-term manoeuvre margin of the public authority in the control of prices change effects on households budget; 5 - determining, by analysing other European country policies, the medium- and long-term means necessary to implement a policy of energy efficiency. (J.S.)

  3. APPLICATION OF CORRELATION—POLARIZA TION POTENTIAL TO THE LOW—ENERGY ELECTRON SCATTERING WITH ATOMS AND MOLECULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhijie; JianminYuan

    1990-01-01

    Applicability of the correlation potential,which is currently used in the local density functional theory,to the low-energy electron-atom and molecule scattering is investigated with some examples of scattering processes.

  4. N.7 notice presented for the Finances Commission, of the budget control and the economical accounts of the Nation on the law project, adopted by the National Assembly after urgency declaration, relative to the energy sector; N.7 avis presente au nom de la commission des Finances, du controle budgetaire et des comptes economiques de la Nation sur le projet de loi, adopte par l'Assemblee Nationale apres declaration d'urgence, relatif au secteur de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marini, Ph

    2006-10-15

    This law project concerns the privatization of Gaz de France and the new control of the State on this society. It underlines the necessity of a financial independence of the Commission of the Energy regulation (CRE). (A.L.B.)

  5. Index to the Understanding the Atom Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-01-01

    The U. S. Atomic Energy Commission publishes the Understanding the Atom Series of educational booklets for high school science students and their teachers. This series explains many aspects of nuclear science including its history and applications. Because these 51 booklets cover such a variety of scientific fields, this index was prepared to help the reader find quickly those booklets that contain the information he needs.

  6. New atomic energy law - international and national developments. Proceedings; Neues Atomenergierecht - internationale und nationale Entwicklungen. Tagungsbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pelzer, N. [ed.] [Goettingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Voelkerrecht

    1995-12-31

    Two of the working sessions of the meeting were devoted to aspects of international atomic energy law; the international character of the meeting was also reflected by the home countries of the members of the panel discussion concluding the working sessions. There was substantial reason to put emphasis on the international dimension of the topics discussed. In June 1994, the Nuclear Safety Convention had been signed in Vienna by diplomatic representatives of the signatory countries, and this Convention marks a signpost in the history of international atomic energy law. At the time the meeting was held, negotiations for improving the international nuclear lability law, which had been dragging on since 1989, had come to a stalemate. The meeting offered a suitable forum for taking a scientific approach to tackle the complex problems involved in reshaping the law on nuclear safety and nuclear liability. The third working session of the meeting has been discussing topics relating to the implementation of the German Atomgesetz (Atomic Energy Act). (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Zwei der Arbeitssitzungen waren Fragen des internationalen Atomenergierechts gewidmet; auch die Zusammensetzung der Teilnehmer des abschliessenden Rundtischgespraechs wiesen die internationalen Aspekte als den Schwerpunkt der Veranstaltung aus. Fuer diese Gewichtung bestand begruendeter Anlass. Im Juni 1994 hatte eine diplomatische Konferenz in Wien die sogenannte Nukleare Sicherheitskonvention verabschiedet, die einen Meilenstein in der Entwicklung des internationalen Atomrechts darstellt. Die bereits seit 1989 andauernden Verhandlungen zur Verbesserung des internationalen Atomhaftungsrechts fanden sich zur Zeit der Tagung in einer krisenhaften Situation. Dies bot Anlass zur wissenschaftlichen Aufarbeitung der Komplexe nukleare Sicherheit und Atomhaftungsrecht. In einer dritten Arbeitssitzung wurden aktuelle Themen aus dem Bereich des Vollzugs des Atomgesetzes eroertert. (orig./HP)

  7. Atomic-powered democracy: Policy against politics in the quest for American nuclear energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, R.W.

    1993-01-01

    This dissertation focuses on the relationship of American nuclear energy to democracy. It examines whether the nuclear policy processes have furthered the legitimacy-government accountability and citizen participation-which the democratic institutes are based. Nuclear policy and its institutions have placed severe limitations on democratic practices. Contravened democracy is seen most clearly in the decoupling of policy from politics. Decoupling refers to the weakening of institutional linkages between citizens and government, and to the erosion of the norms that ground liberal democracy. Decoupling is manifested in policy centralization, procedural biases, technical rationality, and the spatial displacement of conflict. Decoupling has normative implications: While federal accountability was limited and citizen participation was shackled, other major groups enjoyed privileged access to policy making. The decoupling of nuclear policy from politics arose within the context of US liberal-democratic capitalism. The federal government pursued its own goals of defense and world leadership. Yet, it was not structurally autonomous from the hegemony of the political-economic context. Economically, the Atomic Energy Act did not permit federal agencies to directly invest in power plant construction, and did not authorize them to commercially generate electricity. Private industry was structurally placed to domesticate the atom. Politically, the liberal-democratic system hampered an unquestioning pursuit of atomic energy. Federal institutions have been forced to heed some of the anti-nuclear concerns. The pervasive influence of the US political economy on nuclear policy has come to transgress democracy. Nuclear power's growth faltered during the 1970s. The political and economic constraints on federal actions have limited the means available to revive a becalmed nuclear industry; this has exerted strong pressure on federal institutions to decouple policy from

  8. ELENA MCP detector: absolute detection efficiency for low-energy neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rispoli, R.; De Angelis, E.; Colasanti, L.; Vertolli, N.; Orsini, S.; Scheer, J. A.; Mura, A.; Milillo, A.; Wurz, P.; Selci, S.; Di Lellis, A. M.; Leoni, R.; D'Alessandro, M.; Mattioli, F.; Cibella, S.

    2012-09-01

    Microchannel Plates (MCP) detectors are frequently used in space instrumentation for detecting a wide range of radiation and particles. In particular, the capability to detect non-thermal low energy neutral species is crucial for the sensor ELENA (Emitted Low-Energy Neutral Atoms), part of the package SERENA (Search for Exospheric Refilling and Emitted Natural Abundances) on board the BepiColombo mission of ESA to Mercury to be launched in 2015. ELENA is a Time of Flight (TOF) sensor, based on a novel concept using an ultra-sonic oscillating shutter (Start section), which is operated at frequencies up to 50 kHz; a MCP detector is used as a Stop detector. The scientific objective of ELENA is to detect energetic neutral atoms in the range 10 eV - 5 keV, within 76° FOV, perpendicular to the S/C orbital plane. ELENA will monitor the emission of neutral atoms from the whole surface of Mercury thanks to the spacecraft motion. The major scientific objectives are the interaction between the plasma environment and the planet’s surface, the global particle loss-rate and the remote sensing of the surface properties. In particular, surface release processes are investigated by identifying particles released from the surface, via solar wind-induced ion sputtering (MEFISTO facility of the Physical Institute of the University of Bern (CH), measurements on three different types of MCP (with and without coating) have been performed providing the detection efficiencies in the energy range 10eV - 1keV. Outcomes from such measurements are discussed here.

  9. Application of an excited state LDA exchange energy functional for the calculation of transition energy of atoms within time-independent density functional theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamim, Md; Harbola, Manoj K, E-mail: sami@iitk.ac.i, E-mail: mkh@iitk.ac.i [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016 (India)

    2010-11-14

    Transition energies of a new class of excited states (two-gap systems) of various atoms are calculated in time-independent density functional formalism by using a recently proposed local density approximation exchange energy functional for excited states. It is shown that the excitation energies calculated with this functional compare well with those calculated with exact exchange theories.

  10. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. The University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project quarterly report, April 1, 1950--June 30, 1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, H.A.

    1950-12-31

    This quarterly progress report gives an overview of the University of Rochester Atomic Energy Project for April 1, 1950 thru June 30, 1950. Sections included are entitled (1) Biological Effects of External Radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), (2) Biological Effects of External Radiation (Infra-red and ultraviolet), (3) Biological effects of radioactive materials (polonium, radon, thoron, and miscellaneous project materials), (4) Uranium, (5) Beryllium, (7) thorium, (8) fluoride, (9) zirconium, (10) special materials, (11) Isotopes, (12) Outside services, (12) Project health, (13) Health physics, (14) Special Clinical Service, and (15) Instrumentation (Spectroscopy, electron microscopy, x-ray and nuclear radiation detectors, x-ray diffraction, and electronics).

  12. Atomic layer epitaxy of hematite on indium tin oxide for application in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinson, Alex B.; Riha, Shannon; Guo, Peijun; Emery, Jonathan D.

    2016-07-12

    A method to provide an article of manufacture of iron oxide on indium tin oxide for solar energy conversion. An atomic layer epitaxy method is used to deposit an uncommon bixbytite-phase iron (III) oxide (.beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3) which is deposited at low temperatures to provide 99% phase pure .beta.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 thin films on indium tin oxide. Subsequent annealing produces pure .alpha.-Fe.sub.2O.sub.3 with well-defined epitaxy via a topotactic transition. These highly crystalline films in the ultra thin film limit enable high efficiency photoelectrochemical chemical water splitting.

  13. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of helium \\|M\\|=1 Rydberg atoms in a static electric field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kips, Annemieke; Vassen, Wim; Hogervorst, Wim; Dando, Paul A.

    1998-10-01

    We present scaled-energy spectra on helium Rydberg atoms in a static electric field. \\|M\\|=1 states were studied in excitation from the 2 1S0 metastable state. Spectra were recorded for ɛ=-2.940(4), ɛ=-2.350(4), both below the saddle point, and ɛ=-1.760(4), above the saddle point. Closed-orbit theory was applied to interpret the spectra. A recent extension to closed-orbit theory, incorporating core effects, was used. This significantly improved agreement between experiment and theory.

  14. X-alpha calculation of transition energies in multiply ionized atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringers, D. A.; Chen, M. H.

    1974-01-01

    It is shown that the accuracy of calculations can be improved if appropriate (different) values of alpha are used for each configuration. Alternatively, the Slater Transition state can be used, wherein a total energy difference is related to a difference in single electron eigenvalues. By a series expansion, the value of alpha for an excited configuration can be related to its value for the ground state configuration. The terms Delta alpha (delta Epsilon/delta alpha) exhibit a similar dependence on atomic number as the ground state values of alpha. Results of sample calculations are reported and compared with experiment.

  15. Energy landscape investigation by wavelet transform analysis of atomic force spectroscopy data in a biorecognition experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizzarri, Anna Rita

    2016-01-01

    Force fluctuations recorded in an atomic force spectroscopy experiment, during the approach of a tip functionalized with biotin towards a substrate charged with avidin, have been analyzed by a wavelet transform. The observation of strong transient changes only when a specific biorecognition process between the partners takes place suggests a drastic modulation of the force fluctuations when biomolecules recognize each other. Such an analysis allows to investigate the peculiar features of a biorecognition process. These results are discussed in connection with the possible role of energy minima explored by biomolecules during the biorecognition process.

  16. Real-time study of the adiabatic energy loss in an atomic collision with a metal cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Roi; Siam, Nidal

    2004-10-01

    Gas-phase hydrogen atoms are accelerated towards metallic surfaces in their vicinity. As it approaches the surface, the velocity of an atom increases and this motion excites the metallic electrons, causing energy loss to the atom. This dissipative dynamics is frequently described as atomic motion under friction, where the friction coefficient is obtained from ab initio calculations assuming a weak interaction and slow atom. This paper tests the aforementioned approach by comparing to a real-time Ehrenfest molecular dynamics simulation of such a process. The electrons are treated realistically using standard approximations to time-dependent density functional theory. We find indeed that the electronic excitations produce a friction-like force on the atom. However, the friction coefficient strongly depends on the direction of the motion of the atom: it is large when the atom is moving towards the cluster and much smaller when the atom is moving away. It is concluded that a revision of the model for energy dissipation at metallic surfaces, at least for clusters, may be necessary.

  17. Enhanced creation of dispersive monolayer phonons in Xe/Pt(111) by inelastic helium atom scattering at low energies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; Bruch, Ludwig Walter

    2007-01-01

    Conditions likely to lead to enhanced inelastic atomic scattering that creates shear horizontal (SH) and longitudinal acoustic (LA) monolayer phonons are identified, specifically examining the inelastic scattering of He-4 atoms by a monolayer solid of Xe/Pt(111) at incident energies of 2-25 me...... an absorbing potential at large distance. The times now extend to beyond 100 ps and enable a clarification of processes involving transient trapping of the He atoms. The wave packet is made more monochromatic by significantly increasing the spatial width of the initial Gaussian shape. The narrower energy...

  18. Low-energy electron elastic scattering from Os atom: New electron affinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felfli, Z.; Kiros, F.; Msezane, A. Z.

    2013-05-01

    Bilodeau and Haugan measured the binding energies (BEs) of the ground state and the excited state of the Os- ion to be 1.07780(12) eV and 0.553(3) eV, respectively. These values are consistent with those calculated in. Here our investigation, using the recent complex angular momentum methodology wherein is embedded the crucial electron-electron correlations and the vital core polarization interaction, has found that the near threshold electron-Os elastic scattering total cross section (TCS) is characterized by three stable bound states of the Os- ion formed as resonances during the slow electron collision, with BEs of 1.910 eV, 1.230 eV and 0.224 eV. The new extracted electron affinity (EA) value from the TCS of 1.910 eV for the Os atom is significantly different from that measured in. Our calculated elastic differential cross sections (DCSs) also yield the relevant BEs for the ground and the two excited states of the Os- ion. The complex characteristic resonance structure in the TCS for the Os atom is ideal for catalysis, but makes it difficult to execute the Wigner threshold law in describing the threshold detachment behavior of complex atoms and extracting the reliable attendant EAs. Supported by U.S. DOE, AFOSR and CAU CFNM, NSF-CREST Program.

  19. A Terrestrial Search for Dark Contents of the Vacuum, Such as Dark Energy, Using Atom Interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adler, Ronald J.; /Stanford U., HEPL /San Francisco State U.; Muller, Holger; /UC, Berkeley; Perl, Martin L.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-11

    We describe the theory and first experimental work on our concept for searching on earth for the presence of dark contents of the vacuum (DCV) using atom interferometry. Specifically, we have in mind any DCV that has not yet been detected on a laboratory scale, but which might manifest itself as dark energy on the cosmological scale. The experimental method uses two atom interferometers to cancel the effect of earth's gravity and diverse noise sources. It depends upon two assumptions: first, that the DCV possesses some space inhomogeneity in density, and second that it exerts a sufficiently strong nongravitational force on matter. The motion of the apparatus through the DCV should then lead to an irregular variation in the detected matter-wave phase shift. We discuss the nature of this signal and note the problem of distinguishing it from instrumental noise. We also discuss the relation of our experiment to what might be learned by studying the noise in gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO. The paper concludes with a projection that a future search of this nature might be carried out using an atom interferometer in an orbiting satellite. The laboratory apparatus is now being constructed.

  20. Magnetizabilities of relativistic hydrogenlike atoms in some arbitrary discrete energy eigenstates

    CERN Document Server

    Stefańska, Patrycja

    2016-01-01

    We present the results of numerical calculations of magnetizability ($\\chi$) of the relativistic one-electron atoms with a pointlike, spinless and motionless nuclei of charge $Ze$. Exploiting the analytical formula for $\\chi$ recently derived by us [P. Stefa{\\'n}ska, 2015], valid for an arbitrary discrete energy eigenstate, we have found the values of the magnetizability for the ground state and for the first and the second set of excited states (i.e.: $2s_{1/2}$, $2p_{1/2}$, $2p_{3/2}$, $3s_{1/2}$, $3p_{1/2}$, $3p_{3/2}$, $3d_{3/2}$, and $3d_{5/2}$) of the Dirac one-electron atom. The results for ions with the atomic number $1 \\leqslant Z \\leqslant 137$ are given in 14 tables. The comparison of the numerical values of magnetizabilities for the ground state and for each states belonging to the first set of excited states of selected hydrogenlike ions, obtained with the use of two different values of the fine-structure constant, i.e.: $\\alpha^{-1}=137.035 999 139$ (CODATA 2014) and $\\alpha^{-1}=137.035 999 074...

  1. Commissioning Progress of JCNS-CIAE Thermal Neutron Triple-axis Spectrometer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO; Li-jie; MA; Xiao-bai; LIU; Xin-zhi; LI; Yu-qing; MENG; Si-qin; GAO; Jian-bo; WU; Li-qi; LIU; Yun-tao; CHEN; Dong-feng

    2015-01-01

    The JCNS-CIAE triple-axis spectrometer(TAS)was designed and constructed by Juelich Neutron Center(JCNS).It was relocated to China Institute of Atomic Energy(CIAE)in2009.As the first inelastic neutron scattering spectrometer cooperating between CIAE and foreign institute,the re-installation and commission had drew much attention of the German

  2. Concept of effective atomic number and effective mass density in dual-energy X-ray computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonnin, Anne, E-mail: annebonnin@free.fr [ESRF, 6 Jules Horowitz, F-38073 Grenoble Cedex (France); LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Duvauchelle, Philippe, E-mail: philippe.duvauchelle@insa-lyon.fr [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Kaftandjian, Valérie [LVA, Vibrations and Acoustic Laboratory, INSA-Lyon, Université de Lyon, F-69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Ponard, Pascal [Thales Electron Devices SAS, 2 Rue Marcel Dassault, BP23 78141 Vélizy, Villacoublay Cedex (France)

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on dual-energy X-ray computed tomography and especially the decomposition of the measured attenuation coefficient in a mass density and atomic number basis. In particular, the concept of effective atomic number is discussed. Although the atomic number is well defined for chemical elements, the definition of an effective atomic number for any compound is not an easy task. After reviewing different definitions available in literature, a definition related to the method of measurement and X-ray energy, is suggested. A new concept of effective mass density is then introduced in order to characterize material from dual-energy computed tomography. Finally, this new concept and definition are applied on a simulated case, focusing on explosives identification in luggage.

  3. Self-Energy Correction to the Two-Photon Decay Width in Hydrogenlike Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Jentschura, U D

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the gauge invariance of the leading logarithmic radiative correction to the two-photon decay width in hydrogenlike atoms. It is shown that an effective treatment of the correction using a Lamb-shift "potential" leads to equivalent results in both the length as well as the velocity gauges provided all relevant correction terms are taken into account. Specifically, the relevant radiative corrections are related to the energies that enter into the propagator denominators, to the Hamiltonian, to the wave functions, and to the energy conservation condition that holds between the two photons; the form of all of these effects is different in the two gauges, but the final result is shown to be gauge invariant, as it should be. Although the actual calculation only involves integrations over nonrelativistic hydrogenic Green functions, the derivation of the leading logarithmic correction can be regarded as slightly more complex than that of other typical logarithmic terms. The dominant radiative correctio...

  4. Atomic structure of "multilayer silicene" grown on Ag(111): Dynamical low energy electron diffraction analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Kazuaki; Shirasawa, Tetsuroh; Lin, Chun-Liang; Nagao, Ryo; Tsukahara, Noriyuki; Takahashi, Toshio; Arafune, Ryuichi; Kawai, Maki; Takagi, Noriaki

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated the atomic structure of the "multilayer silicene" grown on the Ag(111) single crystal surface by using low energy electron diffraction (LEED) and scanning tunneling microscopy (STM). We measured the intensity of the LEED spot as a function of the incident electron energy (I-V curve) and analyzed the I-V curve using a dynamical LEED theory. We have found that the Si(111)(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})-Ag model well reproduces the I-V curve whereas the models consisting of the honeycomb structure of Si do not. The bias dependence of the STM image of multilayer silicene agrees with that of the Si(111)(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})-Ag reconstructed surface. Consequently, we have concluded that the multilayer silicene grown on Ag(111) is identical to the Si(111)(√{ 3} ×√{ 3})-Ag reconstructed structure.

  5. Solution of the Energy Level of Hydrogen-Like Atom for the Debye Shidlding Potential

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUXian-Quan; HUWen-Jiang; 等

    2002-01-01

    The first-order revision and the approximation analytical formula of the energy levels for hydrogen-like atoms under the condition of Debye shielding potential are achieved by means of the Rayleigh-Schroedinger perturbation theory.meanwhile,the corresponding recurrence relations are obtained from the use of the solution of power series,Based on the above solutions and with the use of energy consistent method the equivalent value of second-order reversion under the condition of Debye shielding potential is produced as well and the esult is compared with the data obtained by the numerical method.Besides,the critical bond-state and corresponding cut-off conditions are discussed.

  6. Charge-state-dependent energy loss of slow ions. II. Statistical atom model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Richard A.; Möller, Wolfhard

    2016-05-01

    A model for charge-dependent energy loss of slow ions is developed based on the Thomas-Fermi statistical model of atoms. Using a modified electrostatic potential which takes the ionic charge into account, nuclear and electronic energy transfers are calculated, the latter by an extension of the Firsov model. To evaluate the importance of multiple collisions even in nanometer-thick target materials we use the charge-state-dependent potentials in a Monte Carlo simulation in the binary collision approximation and compare the results to experiment. The Monte Carlo results reproduce the incident charge-state dependence of measured data well [see R. A. Wilhelm et al., Phys. Rev. A 93, 052708 (2016), 10.1103/PhysRevA.93.052708], even though the experimentally observed charge exchange dependence is not included in the model.

  7. Localized description of surface energy gap effects in the resonant charge exchange between atoms and surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iglesias-Garcia, A; Garcia, Evelina A; Goldberg, E C, E-mail: aiglesiasg@santafe-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Desarrollo Tecnologico para la Industria Quimica (INTEC-CONICET-UNL), Gueemes 3450, CC91, (S3000GLN) Santa Fe (Argentina)

    2011-02-02

    The resonant charge exchange between atoms and surfaces is described by considering a localized atomistic view of the solid within the Anderson model. The presence of a surface energy gap is treated within a simplified tight-binding model of the solid, and a proper calculation of the Hamiltonian terms based on a LCAO expansion of the solid eigenstates is performed. It is found that interference terms jointly with a surface projected gap maximum at the {Gamma} point and the Fermi level inside it, lead to hybridization widths negligible around the Fermi level. This result can explain experimental observations related to long-lived adsorbate states and anomalous neutral fractions of low energy ions in alkali/Cu(111) systems.

  8. Imaging the heliosphere using neutral atoms from solar wind energy down to 15 eV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galli, A.; Wurz, P. [Physics Institute, University of Bern, Bern 3012 (Switzerland); Fuselier, S. A.; McComas, D. J. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); Bzowski, M.; Sokół, J. M.; Kubiak, M. A. [Space Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw 00-716 (Poland); Möbius, E. [University of New Hampshire, Durham, NH 03824 (United States)

    2014-11-20

    We study the spatial and temporal distribution of hydrogen energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) from the heliosheath observed with the IBEX-Lo sensor of the Interstellar Boundary EXplorer (IBEX) from solar wind energies down to the lowest available energy (15 eV). All available IBEX-Lo data from 2009 January until 2013 June were included. The sky regions imaged when the spacecraft was outside of Earth's magnetosphere and when the Earth was moving toward the direction of observation offer a sufficient signal-to-noise ratio even at very low energies. We find that the ENA ribbon—a 20° wide region of high ENA intensities—is most prominent at solar wind energies whereas it fades at lower energies. The maximum emission in the ribbon is located near the poles for 2 keV and closer to the ecliptic plane for energies below 1 keV. This shift is an evidence that the ENA ribbon originates from the solar wind. Below 0.1 keV, the ribbon can no longer be identified against the globally distributed ENA signal. The ENA measurements in the downwind direction are affected by magnetospheric contamination below 0.5 keV, but a region of very low ENA intensities can be identified from 0.1 keV to 2 keV. The energy spectra of heliospheric ENAs follow a uniform power law down to 0.1 keV. Below this energy, they seem to become flatter, which is consistent with predictions. Due to the subtraction of local background, the ENA intensities measured with IBEX agree with the upper limit derived from Lyα observations.

  9. Interactions and low energy collisions between an alkali ion and an alkali atom of different nucleus

    CERN Document Server

    Rakshit, Arpita; Berriche, Hamid; Deb, Bimalendu

    2015-01-01

    We study theoretically interaction potentials and low energy collisions between different alkali atoms and alkali ions. Specifically, we consider systems like X + Y$^{+}$, where X(Y$^{+})$ is either Li(Cs$^+$) or Cs((Li$^+$), Na(Cs$^+$) or Cs(Na$^+$) and Li(Rb$^+$) or Rb(Li$^+$). We calculate the molecular potentials of the ground and first two excited states of these three systems using pseudopotential method and compare our results with those obtained by others. We calculate ground-state scattering wave functions and cross sections of these systems for a wide range of energies. We find that, in order to get convergent results for the total scattering cross sections for energies of the order $1$ K, one needs to take into account at least 60 partial waves. In the low energy limit ($< 1 \\mu$K), elastic scattering cross sections exhibit Wigner law threshold behavior while in the high energy limit the cross sections go as $E^{-1/3}$. We discuss qualitatively the possibilities of forming cold molecular ion by ...

  10. THINK half-way and beyond. Think Tank advising the European Commission on mid- and long-term energy policy. Mid-term Booklet June 2010 - January 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-02-15

    The THINK project provides knowledge support to policy making by the European Commission in the context of the Strategic Energy Technology Plan. The project is organized around a multidisciplinary group of 23 experts from 14 countries covering five dimensions of energy policy: science and technology, market and network economics, regulation, law, and policy implementation. Each semester, the permanent research team based in Florence works on two reports, going through the quality process of the THINK Tank. This includes an Expert Hearing to test the robustness of the work, a discussion meeting with the Scientific Council of the THINK Tank, and a Public Consultation to test the public acceptance of different policy options by involving the broader community. After one and a half years, THINK has produced a collection of six reports addressing a number of key questions about today's EU energy policy. Most of the questions are forward-looking, trying in one way or another to analyse how Europe can achieve its ambitious energy and climate policy targets. In this respect, financial and regulatory questions are predominant in most of the reports. However, as is commonly the case in EU policy, the reports usually also address - at least implicitly - the institutional question of who should act: the EU, Member States, regulators, companies or, in the case of Smart Cities, local authorities. Altogether, the six reports constitute an interesting and up-to-date reader of some of the most pressing issues of EU energy policy.

  11. Incorporating the nuclear vibrational energies into the -atom in molecules- analysis: An analytical study

    CERN Document Server

    Gharabaghi, Masumeh

    2016-01-01

    The orthodox quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) is based on the clamped nucleus paradigm and working solely with the electronic wavefunctions, so unable to include nuclear vibrations in the AIM analysis. On the other hand, the recently extended version of the QTAIM, called the multi-component QTAIM (MC-QTAIM), incorporates both electrons and quantum nuclei, i.e. those nuclei treated as quantum waves instead of clamped point charges, into the AIM analysis using non-adiabatic wavefunctions. Thus, the MC-QTAIM is the natural framework to incorporate the role of nuclear vibrations into the AIM analysis. In this study, within the context of the MC-QTAIM, the formalism of including nuclear vibrational energy in the atomic basin energy is developed in detail and its contribution is derived analytically using the recently proposed non-adiabatic Hartree product nuclear wavefunction. It is demonstrated that within the context of this wavefunction the quantum nuclei may be conceived pseudo-adiabatically as qua...

  12. Pairwise energies for polypeptide coarse-grained models derived from atomic force fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Marcos R.; Omovie, Sheyore J.

    2009-05-01

    The energy parametrization of geometrically simplified versions of polypeptides, better known as polypeptide or protein coarse-grained models, is obtained from molecular dynamics and statistical methods. Residue pairwise interactions are derived by performing atomic-level simulations in explicit water for all 210 pairs of amino acids, where the amino acids are modified to closer match their structure and charges in polypeptides. Radial density functions are computed from equilibrium simulations for each pair of residues, from which statistical energies are extracted using the Boltzmann inversion method. The resulting models are compared to similar potentials obtained by knowledge based methods and to hydrophobic scales, resulting in significant similarities in spite of the model simplicity. However, it was found that glutamine, asparagine, lysine, and arginine are more attractive to other residues than anticipated, in part, due to their amphiphilic nature. In addition, equally charged residues appear more repulsive than expected. Difficulties in the calculation of knowledge based potentials and hydrophobicity scale for these cases, as well as sensitivity of the force field to polarization effects are suspected to cause this discrepancy. It is also shown that the coarse-grained model can identify native structures in decoy databases nearly as well as more elaborate knowledge based methods, in spite of its resolution limitations. In a test conducted with several proteins and corresponding decoys, the coarse-grained potential was able to identify the native state structure but not the original atomic force field.

  13. Intrinsic Resolution of Molecular Electronic Wave Functions and Energies in Terms of Quasi-atoms and Their Interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Aaron C; Schmidt, Michael W; Gordon, Mark S; Ruedenberg, Klaus

    2017-02-09

    A general intrinsic energy resolution has been formulated for strongly correlated wave functions in the full molecular valence space and its subspaces. The information regarding the quasi-atomic organization of the molecular electronic structure is extracted from the molecular wave function without introducing any additional postulated model state wave functions. To this end, the molecular wave function is expressed in terms of quasi-atomic molecular orbitals, which maximize the overlap between subspaces of the molecular orbital space and the free-atom orbital spaces. As a result, the molecular wave function becomes the superposition of a wave function representing the juxtaposed nonbonded quasi-atoms and a wave function describing the interatomic electron migrations that create bonds through electron sharing. The juxtaposed nonbonded quasi-atoms are shown to consist of entangled quasi-atomic states from different atoms. The binding energy is resolved as a sum of contributions that are due to quasi-atom formation, quasiclassical electrostatic interactions, and interatomic interferences caused by electron sharing. The contributions are further resolved according to orbital interactions. The various transformations that generate the analysis are determined by criteria that are independent of the working orbital basis used for calculating the molecular wave function. The theoretical formulation of the resolution is quantitatively validated by an application to the C2 molecule.

  14. NUCLEAR ENERGY COMMISSION, HIGHER COUNCIL OF RESEARCH, AND THE CENTER OF RESEARCH IN PHYSICS IN MADRID, SPAIN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives an account of a liasion visit to three institutions in Madrid: the Junta de la Energia Nuclear (JEN), Spain’s Nuclear Energy...and controls essentially all aspects of scientific research in Spain, and the Centro de Investigaciones Fisicas (CIF) ’Leonardo Torres Quevedo,’ a

  15. Observing Planets and Small Bodies in Sputtered High Energy Atom (SHEA) Fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milillo, A.; Orsini, S.; Hsieh, K. C.; Baragiola, R.; Fama, M.; Johnson, R.; Mura, A.; Plainaki, Ch.; Sarantos, M.; Cassidy, T. A.; DeAngelis, E; Desai, M.; Goldstein, R.; Lp, W.-H.; Killen, R.; Livi, S.

    2012-01-01

    The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper speculates on the possibility of performing remote sensing of exposed bodies using SHEA The evolution of the surfaces of bodies unprotected by either strong magnetic fields or thick atmospheres in the Solar System is caused by various processes, induced by photons, energetic ions and micrometeoroids. Among these processes, the continuous bombardment of the solar wind or energetic magnetospheric ions onto the bodies may significantly affect their surfaces, with implications for their evolution. Ion precipitation produces neutral atom releases into the exosphere through ion sputtering, with velocity distribution extending well above the particle escape limits. We refer to this component of the surface ejecta as sputtered high-energy atoms (SHEA). The use of ion sputtering emission for studying the interaction of exposed bodies (EB) with ion environments is described here. Remote sensing in SHEA in the vicinity of EB can provide mapping of the bodies exposed to ion sputtering action with temporal and mass resolution. This paper

  16. Dependence of the atomic energy levels on a superstrong magnetic field with account of a finite nucleus radius and mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godunov, S. I.; Vysotsky, M. I.

    2013-06-01

    The influence of the finiteness of the proton radius and mass on the energies of a hydrogen atom and hydrogenlike ions in a superstrong magnetic field is studied. The finiteness of the nucleus size pushes the ground energy level up leading to a nontrivial dependence of the value of the critical nucleus charge on the external magnetic field.

  17. A new exact quantum mechanical rovibrational kinetic energy operator for penta-atomic systems in internal coordinates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈光巨; 李玉学

    1999-01-01

    The concrete molecule-fixed (MF) kinetic energy operator for penta-atomic molecules is expressed in terms of the parameterδ, the matrix element G?, and angular momentum operator (?). The applications of the operator are also discussed. Finally, a general compact form of kinetic energy operator suitable for calculating the rovibrational spectra of polyatomie molecules is presented.

  18. Influence on electron energy loss spectroscopy of the niobium-substituted uranium atom: A density functional theory study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We present the electronic structure and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) for uranium, niobium and U3Nb in which uranium is substituted by niobium. Comparing the electronic structures and optical properties for uranium, niobium and U3Nb, we found that when niobium atom replaces uranium atom in the center lattice, density of state (DOS) of U3Nb shifts downward to low energy. Niobium affects DOS forfand d electrons more than that for p and s electrons. U3Nb is similar to uranium for the electronic energy loss spectra.

  19. Precise atomic-scale investigations of material sputtering process by light gas ions in pre-threshold energy region

    CERN Document Server

    Suvorov, A L

    2002-01-01

    Foundation and prospects of the new original technique of the sputtering yield determination of electro-conducting materials and sub-atomic layers on their surface by light gas ions the pre-threshold energy region (from 10 to 500 eV) are considered. The technique allows to identify individual surface vacancies, i.e., to count individual sputtered atoms directly. A short review of the original results obtained by using the developed techniques is given. Data are presented and analyzed concerning energy thresholds of the sputtering onset and energy dependences of sputtering yield in the threshold energy region for beryllium, tungsten, tungsten oxide, alternating tungsten-carbon layers, three carbon materials as well as for sub-atomic carbon layers on surface of certain metals at their bombardment by hydrogen, deuterium and/or helium ions

  20. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  1. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  2. Collisions of low-energy antiprotons and protons with atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luehr, Armin

    2010-02-18

    Antiproton (anti p) collisions have evolved to a powerful tool for the testing of dynamic electron correlations in atoms and molecules. While advances in the understanding of anti p collisions with the simplest one- and two-electron atoms, H and He, have been achieved experiment and theory did not agree for low-energy anti p+He collisions (<40 keV), stimulating a vivid theoretical activity. On the other hand, only very few theoretical anti p studies can be found considering molecular as well as other atomic targets, in contrast to proton (p) collisions. This is in particular true for anti p impacts on H{sub 2} despite its fundamental role in representing the simplest two-electron molecule. The obtained results may be useful for the anti p experiments at CERN (e.g., antihydrogen production) and in particular for the facility design of low-energy anti p storage rings (e.g., at FLAIR) where a precise knowledge of the anti p interaction with the dominant residual-gas molecule H{sub 2} is needed. In this work a nonperturbative, time-dependent numerical approach is developed which describes ionization and excitation of atoms or molecules by either anti p or p impact based on the impact-parameter method. A spectral close-coupling method is employed for solving the time-dependent Schroedinger equation in which the scattering wave function is expanded in (effective) one- or two-electron eigenstates of the target. This includes for the first time a full two-electron, two-center description of the H{sub 2} molecule in anti p collisions. The radial part of the one-electron eigenstates is expanded in B splines while the two-electron basis is obtained with a configurationinteraction approach. Calculations are performed for anti p collisions with H, H{sub 2}{sup +}, and H{sub 2} as well as with He and alkali-metal atoms Li, Na, K, and Rb. Additionally, data are obtained for p collisions with H{sub 2}, Li, Na, and K. The developed method is tested and validated by detailed

  3. Energy Landscape of Alginate-Epimerase Interactions Assessed by Optical Tweezers and Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armend Gazmeno Håti

    Full Text Available Mannuronan C-5 epimerases are a family of enzymes that catalyze epimerization of alginates at the polymer level. This group of enzymes thus enables the tailor-making of various alginate residue sequences to attain various functional properties, e.g. viscosity, gelation and ion binding. Here, the interactions between epimerases AlgE4 and AlgE6 and alginate substrates as well as epimerization products were determined. The interactions of the various epimerase-polysaccharide pairs were determined over an extended range of force loading rates by the combined use of optical tweezers and atomic force microscopy. When studying systems that in nature are not subjected to external forces the access to observations obtained at low loading rates, as provided by optical tweezers, is a great advantage since the low loading rate region for these systems reflect the properties of the rate limiting energy barrier. The AlgE epimerases have a modular structure comprising both A and R modules, and the role of each of these modules in the epimerization process were examined through studies of the A- module of AlgE6, AlgE6A. Dynamic strength spectra obtained through combination of atomic force microscopy and the optical tweezers revealed the existence of two energy barriers in the alginate-epimerase complexes, of which one was not revealed in previous AFM based studies of these complexes. Furthermore, based on these spectra estimates of the locations of energy transition states (xβ, lifetimes in the absence of external perturbation (τ0 and free energies (ΔG# were determined for the different epimerase-alginate complexes. This is the first determination of ΔG# for these complexes. The values determined were up to 8 kBT for the outer barrier, and smaller values for the inner barriers. The size of the free energies determined are consistent with the interpretation that the enzyme and substrate are thus not tightly locked at all times but are able to relocate

  4. Status of contamination monitoring in radiation activities of National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suhariyono, Gatot [National Atomic Energy Agency, Jakarta (Indonesia)

    1997-06-01

    National Atomic Energy Agency (NAEA) or Badan Tenaga Atom Nasional (BATAN) is a non departmental governmental agency, headed by a Director General who is directly responsible to the President. Center for Standardization and Radiation Safety Research (CSRSR) is one of the research centers within the deputy for the assessment of nuclear science and technology of the NAEA. The main task of the CSRSR is to implement research and development program, development and services in the field of radiation safety, standardization, dosimetry, radiation health as well as the application of nuclear techniques in medicine, according to the policy confirmed by the director general of BATAN. Task of radiation protection division is to set up programs and to develop radiation protection, personal monitoring system and radiation level of the working areas and their surroundings as well as dose limitation system, to carry out technical up grading of radiation protection officials skill and to help coping with radiation accident. The key factor on contamination monitoring is to reduce human error and mechanical failures. These problems can be achieved to the highest degree by developing knowledge and skill of staffs via trainings or courses on contamination and decontamination, so that they are hoped to become trained and qualified staffs. (G.K.)

  5. A terrestrial search for dark contents of the vacuum, such as dark energy, using atom interferometry

    CERN Document Server

    Adler, Ronald J; Perl, Martin L

    2011-01-01

    We describe the theory and first experimental work on our concept for searching on earth for the presence of dark content of the vacuum (DCV) using atom interferometry. Specifically, we have in mind any DCV that has not yet been detected on a laboratory scale, but might manifest itself as dark energy on the cosmological scale. The experimental method uses two atom interferometers to cancel the effect of earth's gravity and diverse noise sources. It depends upon two assumptions: first, that the DCV possesses some space inhomogeneity in density, and second that it exerts a sufficiently strong non-gravitational force on matter. The motion of the apparatus through the DCV should then lead to an irregular variation in the detected matter-wave phase shift. We discuss the nature of this signal and note the problem of distinguishing it from instrumental noise. We also discuss the relation of our experiment to what might be learned by studying the noise in gravitational wave detectors such as LIGO.The paper concludes ...

  6. Greatly enhanced intensity-difference squeezing via energy-level modulations in hot atomic media

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Da; Zhang, Zhaoyang; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2016-01-01

    Narrow-band intensity-difference squeezing (IDS) beams have important applications in quantum metrology and quantum information. The best way to generate narrow-band IDS is to employ parametrically-amplified (PA) four-wave mixing (FWM) process in high-gain atomic media. Such IDS can be further enhanced by cascading multiple PA-FWM processes in separate atomic media. The complicated experimental setup, added losses and mechanical stability can limit the wide uses of such scheme in practical applications. Here, we show that by modulating/dressing the internal energy level(s) with additional laser(s), the degree of original IDS can be substantially increased. With an initial IDS of $-4.0\\pm0.1$ dB using PA-non-degenerate-FWM process in a three-level $\\Lambda$-type configuration, the degree of IDS can be enhanced to $-7.0\\pm0.1$ dB/$-8.1\\pm0.1$ dB when we use one/two laser beam(s) to modulate the involved ground/excited state(s). Our results show a low-loss, robust and efficient way to produce high degree of IDS ...

  7. Lyman- photodissociation of CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b): Quantum yield and translational energy of hydrogen atoms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Almuth Laeuter; Hans-Robert Volpp; Jai P Mittal; Rajesh K Vatsa

    2007-07-01

    The collision-free, room temperature gas-phase photodissociation dynamics of CH3CFCl2 (HCFC-141b) was studied using Lyman- laser radiation (121.6 nm) by the laser photolysis/laserinduced fluorescence `pump/probe’ technique. Lyman- radiation was used both to photodissociate the parent molecule and to detect the nascent H atom products via (22P → 12S) laser-induced fluorescence. Absolute H atom quantum yield, H = (0.39 ± 0.09) was determined by calibration method in which CH4 photolysis at 121.6 nm was used as a reference source of well-defined H atom concentrations. The line shapes of the measured H atom Doppler profiles indicate a Gaussian velocity distribution suggesting the presence of indirect H atom formation pathways in the Lyman- photodissociation of CH3CFCl2. The average kinetic energy of H atoms calculated from Doppler profiles was found to be T(lab) = (50 ± 3) kJ/mol. The nearly statistical translational energy together with the observed Maxwell-Boltzmann velocity distribution indicates that for CH3CFCl2 the H atom forming dissociation process comes closer to the statistical limit.

  8. 76 FR 7839 - Notice of Commission and Commission Staff Attendance at ISO/RTO Council and Regional State...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Notice of Commission and Commission Staff Attendance at ISO/RTO Council and... of the Commission and Commission staff may attend the following ISO/RTO Council and Regional State..., RTO/ISO Performance Metrics. For more information, contact Sandra Waldstein, Office of...

  9. Molecular Dynamics Study on Interfacial Energy and Atomic Structure of Ag/Ni and Cu/Ni Heterophase System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haijiang LIU; Shaoqing WANG; An DU; Caibei ZHANG

    2004-01-01

    The results of molecular dynamics calculations on the interfacial energies and atomic structures of Ag/Ni and Cu/Ni interaces are presented. Calculation on Ag/Ni interfaces with low-index planes shows that those containing the (111) plane have the lowest energies, which is in agreement with the experiments. Comparing surface energy with interracial energy, it is found the order of the interfacial energies of Ag/Ni and Cu/Ni containing the planes fall in the same order as solid-vapor surface energies of Ag, Cu and Ni. In this MD simulation, the relaxed atomic structure and dislocation network of (110)Ag||(110)Ni interface are coincident to HREM observations.

  10. Hanford Atomic Products Operation Five-Year Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Priode, C.A.; Benoliel, R.W.; Gilbert, W.D.; McGrath, R.E.; Tomlinson, R.E.; Zuhr, H.F. [comps.

    1958-05-19

    The General Electric Company has prepared in past years numerous documents for the Atomic Energy Commission outlining in some detail its current and proposed programs at Hanford. Last year, at the request of the commission, program types of information were consolidated into one document, the HAPO Five Year Program. That document was well received and useful to an extent that the General Electric Company was requested by the Commission to prepare another covering the fiscal years 1959 through 1963. In outlining the five year program for the Hanford Atomic Products Operation, the General Electric Company has made assumptions regarding the US Atomic Energy Commission`s current and future programs and Hanford`s relationship to these programs. Two major objectives of the Commission were considered basic for future planning: first, to provide adequate atomic weapons for national defense; and second, to encourage and assist in the development of atomic energy for peaceful uses. The Hanford contributions to these objectives are conceived to include the acquisition and potential application of new technology in support of: (1) Increased production of plutonium, as nitrate solution, buttons, and as current and future shapes. (2) A program that will provide the technological capability to implement broad changes in the Commission`s programs such as conversion of Hanford reactors to tritium production, the separation and packaging of mixed and specific fission products, the recovery of transuranic elements, the processing of power reactor fuels, and the provision of weapons assembly capability. (3) Optimum costs, operating and capital. (4) New production reactor designs and concepts. (5) Use of plutonium as power reactor fuel. (6) Operation of nuclear reactors and associated plants with assured radiological protection of both workers and people and other forms of life in the environs.

  11. Latitude, Energy, and Time Variations of Energetic Neutral Atom Spectral indices Measured by IBEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Mihir; Heerikhuisen, Jacob; McComas, David; Funsten, Herbert; Pogorelov, Nikolai; Zank, Gary; Schwadron, Nathan; Fuselier, Stephen; Allegrini, Frederic; Dayeh, Maher A.

    2016-07-01

    We investigate the latitude, energy, and time variations of the globally distributed 0.5-6 keV energetic neutral atom (ENA) spectra measured by the Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) during the first 5 years of the mission. Our previous results based on the first 3 years of IBEX observations showed that the ENA spectral indices at the two lowest energies (0.89 and 1.47 keV) exhibit no clear trend with ecliptic latitude θ, while those at ˜2.29 and ˜3.41 keV exhibit a clear latitudinal pattern; flatter spectra occur above 60° latitude and steeper spectra occur within ±30° of the equator. While these results confirmed the previously reported latitudinal organization of the ENA spectra and their remarkable similarity to that of the solar wind (SW) speed observed by Ulysses in the inner heliosphere, we also showed that, unlike previous reports, the ˜0.5-6 keV globally distributed ENA spectral indices could not be represented as single power laws over much of the sky, and that they depend on energy and latitude. In this paper we extend the above results to include years 4 and 5 of IBEX observations and investigate if the spectral indices vary as a function of time. Finally, we discuss implications of our results on models and simulations that seek to map the IBEX ENA observations back to the latitudinal profile of the SW speed structure observed in the inner heliosphere.

  12. Testing the validity of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safety culture model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Castro, Borja; Gracia, Francisco J; Peiró, José M; Pietrantoni, Luca; Hernández, Ana

    2013-11-01

    This paper takes the first steps to empirically validate the widely used model of safety culture of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), composed of five dimensions, further specified by 37 attributes. To do so, three independent and complementary studies are presented. First, 290 students serve to collect evidence about the face validity of the model. Second, 48 experts in organizational behavior judge its content validity. And third, 468 workers in a Spanish nuclear power plant help to reveal how closely the theoretical five-dimensional model can be replicated. Our findings suggest that several attributes of the model may not be related to their corresponding dimensions. According to our results, a one-dimensional structure fits the data better than the five dimensions proposed by the IAEA. Moreover, the IAEA model, as it stands, seems to have rather moderate content validity and low face validity. Practical implications for researchers and practitioners are included.

  13. Solid Hydrogen Experiments for Atomic Propellants: Particle Formation Energy and Imaging Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaszewski, Bryan

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents particle formation energy balances and detailed analyses of the images from experiments that were conducted on the formation of solid hydrogen particles in liquid helium during the Phase II testing in 2001. Solid particles of hydrogen were frozen in liquid helium and observed with a video camera. The solid hydrogen particle sizes and the total mass of hydrogen particles were estimated. The particle formation efficiency is also estimated. Particle sizes from the Phase I testing in 1999 and the Phase II testing in 2001 were similar. Though the 2001 testing created similar particles sizes, many new particle formation phenomena were observed. These experiment image analyses are one of the first steps toward visually characterizing these particles and it allows designers to understand what issues must be addressed in atomic propellant feed system designs for future aerospace vehicles.

  14. Scaled-Down Moderator Circulation Test Facility at Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Tae Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI started the experimental research on moderator circulation as one of a the national research and development programs from 2012. This research program includes the construction of the moderator circulation test (MCT facility, production of the validation data for self-reliant computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools, and development of optical measurement system using the particle image velocimetry (PIV. In the present paper we introduce the scaling analysis performed to extend the scaling criteria suitable for reproducing thermal-hydraulic phenomena in a scaled-down CANDU- (CANada Deuterium Uranium- 6 moderator tank, a manufacturing status of the 1/4 scale moderator tank. Also, preliminary CFD analysis results for the full-size and scaled-down moderator tanks are carried out to check whether the moderator flow and temperature patterns of both the full-size reactor and scaled-down facility are identical.

  15. Cell Evolutionary Algorithm: a New Optimization Method on Ground-State Energy of the Atomic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new general approach to solve ground-state energies of the double-electron systems in a uniform magnetic field, in which the basic element of evolution is the set in the solution space, rather than the point. The paper defines the Cell Evolutionary Algorithm, which imple-ments such a view of the evolution mechanism. First, the optimal set in which the optimal solution may be ob-tained. Then this approach applies the embedded search method to get the optimal solution. We tested this approach on the atomic structure, and the results show that it can improve not only the efficiency but also the accuracy of the calculations as it relates to this specific problem.

  16. Negotiating supranational rules - The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, Astrid

    1998-12-31

    The object of this thesis is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid 1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The evolution is traced not through the practical implementation of the safeguards system, but through the various multilateral negotiations through which it was created. The focus is on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective is to single out the factors determining the result. The discussion is organised into the following chapters: (1) The statute of the IAEA, (2) The IAEA 1961 safeguard document (INFCIRC/26), (3) The IAEA 1965 safeguards document (INFCIRC/66), (4) The non-proliferation treaty, (5) NPT safeguards. 92 refs.

  17. Lifetime Measurements of $ \\pi ^+ \\pi ^- $ and $\\pi^{+-} K^{-+}$ Atoms to Test Low-Energy QCD Predictions

    CERN Multimedia

    Ponta, T C; Dumitriu, D E; Afanasyev, L; Zhabitskiy, M; Rykalin, V; Hons, Z; Schacher, J; Yazkov, V; Gerndt, J; Detraz, C C; Guaraldo, C; Dreossi, D; Smolik, J; Gorchakov, O; Nikitin, M; Dudarev, A; Kluson, J; Hansroul, M; Okada, K; Constantinescu, S; Kruglov, V; Komarov, V; Takeutchi, F; Tarta, P D; Kuptsov, A; Nemenov, L; Karpukhin, V; Shliapnikov, P; Brekhovskikh, V; Saborido silva, J J; Drijard, D; Rappazzo, G F; Pentia, M C; Gugiu, M M; Kruglova, L; Pustylnik, Z; Trojek, T; Vrba, T; Iliescu, M A; Duma, M; Ciocarlan, C; Kulikov, A; Ol'shevskiy, V; Ryazantsev, A; Chiba, M; Anania, A; Tarasov, A; Gritsay, K; Lapchine, V; Cechak, T; Lopez aguera, A

    2002-01-01

    %PS212 \\\\ \\\\ The proposed experiment aims to measure the lifetime of $ \\pi ^+ \\pi ^- $ atoms in the ground state with 10\\% precision, using the 24~GeV/c proton beam of the CERN Proton Synchrotron. As the value of the above lifetime of order 10$ ^- ^{1} ^{5} $s is dictated by a strong interaction at low energy, the precise measurement of this quantity enables to determine a combination of S-wave pion scattering lengths to 5\\%. Pion scattering lengths have been calculated in the framework of chiral perturbation theory and values predicted at the same level of accuracy have, up to now, never been confronted with accurate experimental data. Such a measurement would submit the understanding of chiral symmetry breaking of QCD to a crucial test.

  18. Determining Nuclear Fingerprints: Glove Boxes, Radiation Protection, and the International Atomic Energy Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentetzi, Maria

    2017-03-15

    In a nuclear laboratory, a glove box is a windowed, sealed container equipped with two flexible gloves that allow the user to manipulate nuclear materials from the outside in an ostensibly safe environment. As a routine laboratory device, it invites neglect from historians and storytellers of science. Yet, since especially the Gulf War, glove boxes have put the interdependence of science, diplomacy, and politics into clear relief. Standing at the intersection of history of science and international history, technological materials and devices such as the glove box can provide penetrating insight into the role of international diplomatic organizations to the global circulation and control of scientific knowledge. The focus here is on the International Atomic Energy Agency.

  19. Energy of the Isolated Metastable Iron-Nickel FCC Nanocluster with a Carbon Atom in the Tetragonal Interstice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondarenko, Natalya V; Nedolya, Anatoliy V

    2017-12-01

    The energy of the isolated iron-nickel nanocluster was calculated by molecular mechanics method using Lennard-Jones potential. The cluster included a carbon atom that drifted from an inside octahedral interstice to a tetrahedral interstice in [Formula: see text] direction and after that in direction to the surface. In addition, one of 14 iron atoms was replaced by a nickel atom, the position of which was changing during simulation.The energy of the nanocluster was estimated at the different interatomic distances. As a result of simulation, the optimal interatomic distances of Fe-Ni-C nanocluster was chosen for the simulation, in which height of the potential barrier was maximal and face-centered cubic (FCC) nanocluster was the most stable.It is shown that there were three main positions of a nickel atom that significantly affected nanocluster's energy.The calculation results indicated that position of the carbon atom in the octahedral interstice was more energetically favorable than tetrahedral interstice in the case of FCC nanocluster. On the other side, the potential barrier was smaller in the direction [Formula: see text] than in the direction .This indicates that there are two ways for carbon atom to drift to the surface of the nanocluster.

  20. Ultrasound control modelization at the Atomic Energy Commission; La modelisation du controle par ultrasons au commissariat a l`energie atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calmon, P.; Lecoeur-Taibi, I.; Lhemery, A. [CEA Centre d`Etudes de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. des Procedes et Systemes Avances

    1995-10-01

    The Champ-Sons code (for the ultrasonic field modelization) and of the Mephisto code (prediction of the ultrasonic echography from the a priori knowledge of the controlled piece and of the encountered defects) are presented with three applications: pipes with inner or outer cracks, rocket tank fuel with a welded joint and PWR pressure vessel with an irregular coating. (A.B.). 7 refs., 4 figs.

  1. Elemental mapping in achromatic atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forbes, B.D. [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia); Houben, L. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Mayer, J. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, RWTH Aachen University, D-52074 Aachen (Germany); Dunin-Borkowski, R.E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons and Peter Gruenberg Institute, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Allen, L.J., E-mail: lja@unimelb.edu.au [School of Physics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010 (Australia)

    2014-12-15

    We present atomic-resolution energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) images obtained with the chromatic-aberration-corrected FEI Titan PICO at the Ernst-Ruska Centre, Jülich, Germany. We find qualitative agreement between experiment and simulation for the background-subtracted EFTEM images of the Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edges for a specimen of SrTiO{sub 3} oriented down the [110] zone axis. The simulations utilize the transition potential formulation for inelastic scattering, which permits a detailed investigation of contributions to the EFTEM image. We find that energy-filtered images of the Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edges are lattice images and that the background-subtracted core-loss maps may not be directly interpretable as elemental maps. Simulations show that this is a result of preservation of elastic contrast, whereby the qualitative details of the image are determined primarily by elastic, coherent scattering. We show that this effect places a constraint on the range of specimen thicknesses which could theoretically yield directly useful elemental maps. In general, interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations. - Highlights: • Achromatic atomic-resolution EFTEM images were obtained for STO 〈110〉. • Simulations were in qualitative agreement with Ti–L{sub 2,3} and O–K edge maps. • The experimental EFTEM maps are not directly interpretable as elemental maps. • Image intensities are strongly determined by preservation of elastic contrast. • Interpretation of EFTEM images is ideally accompanied by detailed simulations.

  2. Charge-transfer energy in closed-shell ion-atom interactions. [for H and Li ions in He

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez-Rizzatti, M.; Mason, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    The importance of charge-transfer energy in the interactions between closed-shell ions and atoms is investigated. Ab initio calculations on H(plus)-He and Li(plus)-He are used as a guide for the construction of approximate methods for the estimation of the charge-transfer energy for more complicated systems. For many alkali ion-rate gas systems the charge-transfer energy is comparable to the induction energy in the region of the potential minimum, although for doubly charged alkaline-earth ions in rare gases the induction energy always dominates. Surprisingly, an empirical combination of repulsion energy plus asymptotic induction energy plus asymptotic dispersion energy seems to give a fair representation of the total interaction, especially if the repulsion energy is parameterized, despite the omission of any explicit charge-transfer contribution. More refined interaction models should consider the charge-transfer energy contribution.

  3. Ultrafast triggered transient energy storage by atomic layer deposition into porous silicon for integrated transient electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Anna; Muralidharan, Nitin; Carter, Rachel; Share, Keith; Pint, Cary L.

    2016-03-01

    Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics.Here we demonstrate the first on-chip silicon-integrated rechargeable transient power source based on atomic layer deposition (ALD) coating of vanadium oxide (VOx) into porous silicon. A stable specific capacitance above 20 F g-1 is achieved until the device is triggered with alkaline solutions. Due to the rational design of the active VOx coating enabled by ALD, transience occurs through a rapid disabling step that occurs within seconds, followed by full dissolution of all active materials within 30 minutes of the initial trigger. This work demonstrates how engineered materials for energy storage can provide a basis for next-generation transient systems and highlights porous silicon as a versatile scaffold to integrate transient energy storage into transient electronics. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: (i) Experimental details for ALD and material fabrication, ellipsometry film thickness, preparation of gel electrolyte and separator, details for electrochemical measurements, HRTEM image of VOx coated porous silicon, Raman spectroscopy for VOx as-deposited as well as annealed in air for 1 hour at 450 °C, SEM and transient behavior dissolution tests of uniformly coated VOx on

  4. Tariff proposal of the Commission of energy regulation from February 28, 2008 for the use of public natural gas distribution networks; Proposition tarifaire de la Commission de regulation de l'energie du 28 fevrier 2008 pour l'utilisation des reseaux publics de distribution de gaz naturel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    With the complete opening of natural gas markets to competition and the legal separation of distribution networks, Gaz de France Reseau Distribution requested the implementation of a new tariff of use of gas distribution networks to the Commission of energy regulation (CRE). A new tariff of networks utilisation has thus been proposed by CRE after a public consultation and the audition of gas suppliers. This tariff foresees a 5.6% increase of the present day tariff by July 1, 2008. The impact on the end-users' gas retail price will be a 1.5% rise of the regulated tariff. (J.S.)

  5. Fully differential cross sections for low to intermediate energy perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G., E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.in; Singh, P.; Patidar, V.

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • We present triply differential cross section (TDCS) results for the perpendicular plane ionization of xenon atoms. • The TDCS has been calculated in the modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism. • The effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. • The polarization potential, higher order effects and PCI has been found to be useful in the description of TDCS. - Abstract: Triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the perpendicular plane ionization of Xe (5p) at incident electron energies 5 eV, 10 eV, 20 eV, and 40 eV above ionization potential. The modified distorted wave Born approximation formalism with first as well as the second order Born terms has been used to calculate the TDCS. Effects of target polarization and post collision interaction have also been included. We compare the (e, 2e) TDCS results of our calculation with the recent available experimental data and theoretical results and discuss the process contributing to structure seen in the differential cross section. It has been observed from the present study that the second order effect and target polarization make significant contribution in description of collision dynamics of xenon at the low and intermediate energy for the perpendicular emission of electrons.

  6. Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit

    CERN Document Server

    Bzowski, M

    2008-01-01

    Contect: With the forthcoming launch of a NASA SMEX mission IBEX devoted to imaging of heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) an important issue becomes recognizing of transport of these atoms from the termination shock of the solar wind to Earth orbit. Aims: Investigate modifications of energy and of survival probability of the H ENA detectable by IBEX (0.01 -- 6 keV) between the termination shock and Earth orbit taking into account the influence of the variable and anisotropic solar wind and solar EUV radiation. Methods: Energy change of the atoms is calculated by numerical simulations of orbits of the H ENA atoms from ~100 AU from the Sun down to Earth orbit, taking into account solar gravity and Lyman-$\\alpha$ radiation pressure, which is variable in time and depends on radial velocity of the atom. To calculate survival probabilities of the atoms against onization, a detailed 3D and time-dependent model of H ENA ionization based on observations of the solar wind and E...

  7. Coherent energy and environmental system analysis. A strategic research project financed by The Danish Council for Strategic Research Programme Commission on Sustainable Energy and Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, H. (ed.); Hvelplund, F.; Vad Mathiesen, B. (and others)

    2011-11-15

    The main focus of this project has been A) to further develop and integrate existing tools and methodologies of environmental life cycle assessment and energy system and market analysis into coherent energy and environmental analysis tools. B) to apply such integrated tools and methodologies to the analysis of future sustainable energy systems with an emphasis on: 1) how to integrate the transport sector including considerations of limitations in biomass resources; 2) how to develop future power systems suitable for the integration of distributed renewable energy sources; and 3) how to develop efficient public regulation in an international market environment. It is found that the transition from the present energy system dominated by fossil fuels to a system dominated by renewable energy sources requires significant changes in existing policies on both supply and demand sides. In order to succeed, such change requires the system based on renewables to be supported by strong and efficient energy conservation. In Denmark, wind power and biomass are expected to be the two dominant resources in the short and medium term perspectives. In order to ease the pressure on wind and biomass resources, energy conservation becomes essential and so does the inclusion of contributions from additional sources such as solar and geothermal energy. The change requires infrastructure where intermittent renewable energy sources can be managed in such a way that energy is available at the right time and in the right amount for the consumers. A main challenge for the transition planning is to obtain an efficient coordination between investments in the electricity, transportation, and heat sectors. The policy instruments include new systems of taxes, subsidies, tariffs, and other economic conditions in order to obtain an optimal effect. One main problem is to assure an energy-efficient use of low-temperature sources from CHP, waste incineration, industrial surplus heat and geothermal

  8. An Overview of the Cooperative Effort between the United States Department of Energy and the China Atomic Energy Authority to Enhance MPC&A Inspections for Civil Nuclear Facilities in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahern, Keith [U.S. Enrichment Corporation Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant; Daming, Liu [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE); Hanley, Tim [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; Livingston, Linwood [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); McAninch, Connie [U.S. Department of Energy, NNSA; McGinnis, Brent R [ORNL; Ning, Shen [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE); Qun, Yang [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE); Roback, Jason William [ORNL; Tuttle, Glenn [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission; Xuemei, Gao [China Institute of Atomic Energy (CIAE); Galer, Regina [U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration; Peterson, Nancy [U.S. National Nuclear Security Administration; Jia, Jinlie [China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA)

    2011-01-01

    The United States Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration (DOE/NNSA) and the China Atomic Energy Authority (CAEA) are cooperating to enhance the domestic regulatory inspections capacity for special nuclear material protection, control and accounting (MPC&A) requirements for civil nuclear facilities in China. This cooperation is conducted under the auspices of the Agreement between the Department of Energy of the United States of America and the State Development and Planning Commission of the People s Republic of China on Cooperation Concerning Peaceful Uses of Nuclear Technology. This initial successful effort was conducted in three phases. Phase I focused on introducing CAEA personnel to DOE and U. S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission inspection methods for U. S. facilities. This phase was completed in January 2008 during meetings in Beijing. Phase II focused on developing physical protection and material control and accounting inspection exercises that enforced U. S. inspection methods identified during Phase 1. Hands on inspection activities were conducted in the United States over a two week period in July 2009. Simulated deficiencies were integrated into the inspection exercises. The U. S. and Chinese participants actively identified and discussed deficiencies noted during the two week training course. The material control and accounting inspection exercises were conducted at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) in Paducah, KY. The physical protection inspection exercises were conducted at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in Oak Ridge, TN. Phase III leveraged information provided under Phase I and experience gained under Phase II to develop a formal inspection guide that incorporates a systematic approach to training for Chinese MPC&A field inspectors. Additional hands on exercises that are applicable to Chinese regulations were incorporated into the Phase III training material. Phase III was completed in May 2010 at the China

  9. DNA Free Energy Landscapes and RNA Nano-Self-Assembly Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Eric William

    There is an important conceptual lesson which has long been appreciated by those who work in biophysics and related interdisciplinary fields. While the extraordinary behavior of biological matter is governed by its detailed atomic structure and random fluctuations, and is therefore difficult to predict, it can nevertheless be understood within simplified frameworks. Such frameworks model the system as consisting of only one or a few components, and model the behavior of the system as the occupation of a single state out of a small number of states available. The emerging widespread application of nanotechnology, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), has expanded this understanding in eye-opening new levels of detail by enabling nano-scale control, measurement, and visualization of biological molecules. This thesis describes two independent projects, both of which illuminate this understanding using AFM, but which do so from very different perspectives. The organization of this thesis is as follows. Chapter 1 begins with an experimental background and introduction to AFM, and then describes our setup in both single-molecule manipulation and imaging modes. In Chapter 2, we describe the first project, the motivation for which is to extend methods for the experimental determination of the free energy landscape of a molecule. This chapter relies on the analysis of single-molecule manipulation data. Chapter 3 describes the second project, the motivation for which is to create RNA-based nano-structures suitable for future applications in living mammalian cells. This chapter relies mainly on imaging. Chapters 2 and 3 can thus be read and understood separately.

  10. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission`s main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission`s function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  11. Determination of deposited flux and energy of sputtered tungsten atoms on every stages of transport in HiPIMS discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desecures, M.; de Poucques, L.; Bougdira, J.

    2017-02-01

    A time-resolved tunable diode-laser (DL) induced fluorescence (TR-TDLIF) technique has been used to identify different populations of atoms (on different stages of transport) to determine their corresponding deposited energy and flux. The temporal dimension permits the splitting of the processes of sputtering during the discharge and particles transport in the post-discharge where atoms and flux velocity distribution functions (AVDF, FVDF) of each population were measured varying the discharge parameters (power, voltage, pressure, and distance from target). Tungsten (W) was chosen, being an interesting case in terms of sputtered atom transport, considering its weight which implies weak changes of directivity or energy transfer after collisions with the buffer gas. The high temporal and spectral resolutions of TR-TDLIF are the keys for the distinction of the atoms populations and the stage corresponding to the transition from the ballistic to diffusive regime of transport was observed for the first time and named quasi-diffusive regime. Thus, the ability to dissociate populations of atoms and to determine their deposited flux and energy may be of great interest to adjust film properties as desired for applications.

  12. Analysis of H atoms in a negative ion source plasma with the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koga, S; Shibata, T; Terasaki, R; Kameyama, N; Hatayama, A; Bacal, M; Tsumori, K

    2012-02-01

    In negative ion sources for the neutral beam injection, it is important to calculate H atom flux onto the plasma grid (PG) surface for the evaluation of H(-) production on the PG surface. We have developed a neutral (H(2) molecules and H atoms) transport code. In the present study, the neutral transport code is applied to the analysis of the H(2) and H transport in a NIFS-R&D ion source in order to calculate the flux onto the PG surface. Taking into account non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), i.e., the fast electron component, we have done the neutral transport simulation. The results suggest that the precise evaluation of the EEDF, especially in the energy range 15 eV < E < 30 eV is important for the dissociation rate of H(2) molecules by the electron impact collision and the resultant H atom flux on the PG.

  13. Calculation of Energies of the Ground and Low Excited States of a Confined Helium Atom in a Spherical Parabolic Well

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-Fang

    2006-01-01

    @@ Making use of the adiabatic hyperspherical approach, we report a calculation for the energy spectrum of the ground and low-excited states of the confined helium atom in a spherical parabolic well. We find that the energies of a spherical parabolic well are in good agreement with those of an impenetrable spherical box for the larger confined potential radius. However, the energy values of a spherical parabolic well are much lower than those of an impenetrable spherical box for small values of re. We also find that the confinement may cause accidental degeneracies between levels with different low-excited states and the inversion of the energy values.

  14. Using Concept Maps as Instructional Materials to Foster the Understanding of the Atomic Model and Matter-Energy Interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguiar, Joana G.; Correia, Paulo R. M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use of concept maps (Cmaps) as instructional materials prepared by teachers, to foster the understanding of chemistry. We choose fireworks as a macroscopic event to teach basic chemical principles related to the Bohr atomic model and matter-energy interaction. During teachers' Cmap navigation, students can experience…

  15. Scaled-energy spectroscopy of helium vertical bar M vertical bar=1 Rydberg atoms in a static electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kips, A.; Vassen, W.; Hogervorst, W.; Dando, P.A.

    1998-01-01

    We present scaled-energy spectra on helium Rydberg atoms in a static electric field. /M/ = 1 states were studied in excitation from the 2 S-1(0) metastable state. Spectra were recorded for epsilon = -2.940(4), epsilon = -2.350(4), both below the saddle point, and epsilon = -1.760(4), above the saddl

  16. Absolute measurement of the effective atomic number and the electron density by using dual-energy CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dae-Hong; Lee, Won-Hyung; Jeon, Sung-Soo; Kim, Hee-Joung

    2012-12-01

    Material decomposition using dual-energy and material-selective techniques was performed using computed-tomography (CT)-generated reconstructed images. Previous work using the dual-energy method focused on extracting the effective atomic number and the electron density of materials to confirm the dosimetric accuracy in radiation therapy. Dual-energy methods mostly depend on the device generating the X-rays, such as a synchrotron, and on dose verification for radiation treatment planning. Information obtained from CT imaging is important both in diagnosis and in planning radiation therapy. In a clinical setting, CT images are usually displayed as Houndsfield units (HU), which are extracted from the attenuation coefficient of a material. The attenuation coefficient is calculated using the effective atomic number and the electron density of a material; thus, information expressed in HU can be converted into the effective atomic number and the electron density by using the dual-energy equation. This study was performed using realistic Xray spectra to differentiate between the contrast media and plaque in vascular images. Our results suggest that the effective atomic number and electron density are useful in distinguishing between two adjacent materials with similar HUs.

  17. 77 FR 70996 - Commission Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... financial information (including balance sheet, assets, liabilities, billing and charges for associated and... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities; Comment Request;...

  18. Watching the dynamics of electrons and atoms at work in solar energy conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Canton, S. E.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Zhang, J.; Pápai, M.; Corani, A.; Smeigh, A. L.; Smolentsev, G.; Attenkofer, K.; Jennings, G.; Kurtz, C. A.; Li, F.; Harlang, T.; Vithanage, D.; Chabera, P.; Bordage, A.; Sun, L.; Ott, S.; Wärnmark, K.; Sundström, V.

    2015-07-06

    The photochemical reactions performed by transition metal complexes have been proposed as viable routes towards solar energy conversion and storage into other forms that can be conveniently used in our everyday applications. In order to develop efficient materials, it is necessary to identify, characterize and optimize the elementary steps of the entire process on the atomic scale. To this end, we have studied the photoinduced electronic and structural dynamics in two heterobimetallic ruthenium–cobalt dyads, which belong to the large family of donor–bridge–acceptor systems. Using a combination of ultrafast optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, we can clock the light-driven electron transfer processes with element and spin sensitivity. In addition, the changes in local structure around the two metal centers are monitored. These experiments show that the nature of the connecting bridge is decisive for controlling the forward and the backward electron transfer rates, a result supported by quantum chemistry calculations. More generally, this work illustrates how ultrafast optical and X-ray techniques can disentangle the influence of spin, electronic and nuclear factors on the intramolecular electron transfer process. Finally, some implications for further improving the design of bridged sensitizer-catalysts utilizing the presented methodology are outlined.

  19. Cooperation between the US and the USSR in the peaceful uses of atomic energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaborg, G.T.

    1989-10-01

    The decade of the 1960's saw a marked expansion of cooperation between the United States and the Soviet Union for the peaceful uses of atomic energy. In my opinion, this development constituted one of the most encouraging elements in the international scene. Until 1955 contacts between American and Soviet nuclear scientists were virtually nonexistent, as indeed (after World War II) were US-USSR contacts in other fields except as required in formal intergovernmental relations. Then, in July 1955, the discussions of the Heads of Government meeting in Geneva led to the declaration of a policy with the following aims: to lower the barriers which now impede the interchange of information and ideas between our peoples; to lower the barriers which now impede the opportunities of people to travel anywhere in the world for peaceful, friendly purposes, so that all will have a chance to know each other face to face; and to create conditions which will encourage nations to increase the exchange of peaceful goods throughout the world. 8 figs.

  20. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Craig M.

    2000-07-24

    The Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation (Minatom) is one of Russia's largest and most influential federal bodies. Throughout 1999 its head, Yevgeny Adamov, has worked to increase the Ministry's commercial competitiveness by consolidating redundant facilities and tightening control over subsidiary organizations. Economic difficulties and budget constraints, however, have hindered Minatom's ability to achieve many of its programs and goals. As a result, the Ministry has continued, renewed or initiated contracts with several countries possessing questionable commitments to nonproliferation and has sought to expand its role in international nuclear waste management and spent fuel reprocessing in order to raise new sources of revenue. While many of these programs are not likely to come to fruition, others raise significant nonproliferation and environmental concerns. This paper reviews select programs driving Minatom's efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the United States over the next three to five years.

  1. Cross sections for medium energy He ions scattered from Hf and Au atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Tomoaki, E-mail: t-nishi@hosei.ac.jp [Research Center of Ion Beam Technology and College of Engineering, Hosei University, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8584 (Japan); Mitsuhara, Kei; Visikovskiy, Anton; Kido, Yoshiaki [Department of Physics, Ritsumeikan University, Kusatsu, Shiga-ken 525-8577 (Japan)

    2012-06-01

    The elastic scattering cross sections for medium energy He ions incident on Ni, Hf and Au atoms were measured precisely using a toroidal electrostatic analyzer. We prepared the targets of Ni({approx}1 nm)/HfO{sub 2}(1.5 nm)/Si(0 0 1) and Ni({approx}1 nm)/Au({approx}0.5 nm)/Si(1 1 1) and performed in situ ion scattering measurement under ultrahigh vacuum condition. The absolute amounts of Ni, Hf and Au were determined by Rutherford backscattering using 1.5 MeV He ions at a scattering angle of 150 Degree-Sign . The scattering cross sections for Hf and Au were normalized by those for Ni to avoid the ambiguities of the number of incident particles, solid angle subtended by a detector, detection efficiency and the He{sup +} fractions for the emerging He ions from the surfaces. The results obtained are compared with the simple Lee-Hart formula and the calculated values using the Moliere and ZBL potentials and the potentials derived from the Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions.

  2. Negotiating supranational rules. The genesis of the International Atomic Energy Agency safeguards system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forland, A.

    1997-12-31

    The object of this study is the evolution from 1954-56 up until the mid-1970s of the nuclear safeguards system administered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna. The main aim of the study is not to describe the IAEA safeguards system as such. The focus will be on analysing the arguments advanced in the various negotiations, and the main objective will be to single out the factors determining the result. In the course of the time span under study two international treaties were negotiated which were decisive for the development of international nuclear safeguards. These were the IAEA Stature (1956) and the Non-Proliferation Treaty (1968). The Statue as well as the NPT contain articles on international nuclear safeguards. These articles limit themselves to spelling out the safeguards principles. It was thus left to the IAEA Board of Governors to develop the safeguards procedures in detail. Two IAEA safeguards documents were negotiated between 1959 and 1965 in order to implement the safeguards article of the Statue. The safeguards requirements of the NPT were spelled out in a new model agreement in 1972. 58 refs.

  3. Fermi and Coulomb correlation effects upon the interacting quantum atoms energy partition

    CERN Document Server

    Ruiz, Isela; Holguín-Gallego, Fernando José; Francisco, Evelio; Pendás, Ángel Martín; Rocha-Rinza, Tomás

    2016-01-01

    The Interacting Quantum Atoms (IQA) electronic energy partition is an important method in the field of quantum chemical topology which has given important insights of different systems and processes in physical chemistry. There have been several attempts to include Electron Correlation (EC) in the IQA approach, for example, through DFT and Hartree-Fock/Coupled-Cluster (HF/CC) transition densities. This work addresses the separation of EC in Fermi and Coulomb correlation and its effect upon the IQA analysis by taking into account spin-dependent one- and two-electron matrices $D^{\\mathrm{HF/CC}}_{p\\sigma q \\sigma}$ and $d^{\\mathrm{HF/CC}}_{p\\sigma q\\sigma r\\tau s\\tau}$ wherein $\\sigma$ and $\\tau$ represent either of the $\\alpha$ and $\\beta$ spin projections. We illustrate this approach by considering BeH$_2$,BH, CN$^-$, HF, LiF, NO$^+$, LiH, H$_2$O$\\cdots$H$_2$O and C$_2$H$_2$, which comprise non-polar covalent, polar covalent, ionic and hydrogen bonded systems. The same and different spin contributions to ($i$...

  4. Watching the dynamics of electrons and atoms at work in solar energy conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canton, S E; Zhang, X; Liu, Y; Zhang, J; Pápai, M; Corani, A; Smeigh, A L; Smolentsev, G; Attenkofer, K; Jennings, G; Kurtz, C A; Li, F; Harlang, T; Vithanage, D; Chabera, P; Bordage, A; Sun, L; Ott, S; Wärnmark, K; Sundström, V

    2015-01-01

    The photochemical reactions performed by transition metal complexes have been proposed as viable routes towards solar energy conversion and storage into other forms that can be conveniently used in our everyday applications. In order to develop efficient materials, it is necessary to identify, characterize and optimize the elementary steps of the entire process on the atomic scale. To this end, we have studied the photoinduced electronic and structural dynamics in two heterobimetallic ruthenium-cobalt dyads, which belong to the large family of donor-bridge-acceptor systems. Using a combination of ultrafast optical and X-ray absorption spectroscopies, we can clock the light-driven electron transfer processes with element and spin sensitivity. In addition, the changes in local structure around the two metal centers are monitored. These experiments show that the nature of the connecting bridge is decisive for controlling the forward and the backward electron transfer rates, a result supported by quantum chemistry calculations. More generally, this work illustrates how ultrafast optical and X-ray techniques can disentangle the influence of spin, electronic and nuclear factors on the intramolecular electron transfer process. Finally, some implications for further improving the design of bridged sensitizer-catalysts utilizing the presented methodology are outlined.

  5. Commissioning and performance of the ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker with first high energy pp and Pb-Pb collisions at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Schaepe, S; The ATLAS collaboration

    2011-01-01

    The ATLAS Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is the outermost of the three sub-systems of the ATLAS Inner Detector at the Large Hadron Collider at CERN. It consists of close to 300000 thin-wall drift tubes (straws) providing on average 30 two-dimensional space points with 0.12-0.15 mm resolution for charged particle tracks with |η| 0.5 GeV. Along with continuous tracking, it provides particle identification capability through the detection of transition radiation X-ray photons generated by high velocity particles in the many polymer fibers or films that fill the spaces between the straws. Custom-built analog and digital electronics is optimized to operate as luminosity increases to the LHC design. In this talk, a review of the commissioning and first operational experience of the TRT detector will be presented. Emphasis will be given to performance studies based on the reconstruction and analysis of LHC collisions. A comparison of the TRT response to two very different center of mass energy collisions (900 ...

  6. Two-atom energy spectrum in a harmonic trap near a Feshbach resonance at higher partial waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Akira; Liang, Yi; Bhaduri, Rajat K.

    2009-09-01

    Two atoms in an optical lattice may be made to interact strongly at higher partial waves near a Feshbach resonance. These atoms, under appropriate constraints, could be bosonic or fermionic. The universal l=2 energy spectrum for such a system, with a caveat, is presented in this paper and checked with the spectrum obtained by direct numerical integration of the Schrödinger equation. The results reported here extend those of Yip for p -wave resonance [S.-K. Yip, Phys. Rev. A 78, 013612 (2008)], while exploring the limitations of a universal expression for the spectrum for the higher partial waves.

  7. Survival probability and energy modification of hydrogen Energetic Neutral Atoms on their way from the termination shock to Earth orbit

    OpenAIRE

    Bzowski, M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: With the forthcoming launch of a NASA SMEX mission IBEX devoted to imaging of heliospheric interface by in-situ detection of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) an important issue becomes recognizing of transport of these atoms from the termination shock of the solar wind to Earth orbit. Aims: Investigate modifications of energy and of survival probability of the H ENA detectable by IBEX (0.01 -- 6 keV) between the termination shock and Earth orbit taking into account the influence of the ...

  8. The bungling giant : Atomic Energy Canada Limited and next-generation nuclear technology, 1980-1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Slater, I.J

    2003-07-01

    From 1980-1994 Atomic Energy Canada Limited (AECL), the Crown Corporation responsible for the development of nuclear technology in Canada, ventured into the market for small-scale, decentralized power systems with the Slowpoke Energy System (SES), a 10MW nuclear reactor for space heating in urban and remote areas. The SES was designed to be 'passively' or 'inherently' safe, such that even the most catastrophic failure of the system would not result in a serious accident (e.g. a meltdown or an explosion). This Canadian initiative, a beneficiary of the National Energy Program, was the first and by far the most successful attempt at a passively safe, decentralized nuclear power system anywhere in the world. Part one uses archival documentation and interviews with project leaders to reconstruct the history of the SES. The standard explanations for the failure of the project, cheap oil, public resistance to the technology, and lack of commercial expertise, are rejected. Part two presents an alternative explanation for the failure of AECL to commercialize the SES. In short, technological momentum towards large-scale nuclear designs led to structural restrictions for the SES project. These restrictions manifested themselves internally to the company (e.g., marginalization of the SES) and externally to the company (e.g., licensing). In part three, the historical lessons of the SES are used to refine one of the central tenets of Popper's political philosophy, 'piecemeal social engineering.' Popper's presentation of the idea is lacking in detail; the analysis of the SES provides some empirical grounding for the concept. I argue that the institutions surrounding traditional nuclear power represent a form utopian social engineering, leading to consequences such as the suspension of civil liberties to guarantee security of the technology. The SES project was an example of a move from the utopian social engineering of large

  9. 氢原子能级与碱金属原子能级的比较研究%Comparative Studying of Hydrogen Atomic Energy Level and Alkali Metal Atomic Energy Level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王建伟; 蒲小芹

    2014-01-01

    The article by Bohr theory and The analysis of forces method, considered the interaction of different sit-uation, hydrogen atoms with alkali metal atomic energy level structure have been analyzed, and the numerical cal-culation, energy level diagram have been drawn out., Hydrogen energy and alkali metal atomic energy level were compared, by using the method of comparative study on the similarities and differences are found out.%运用玻尔理论及受力分析的方法,考虑相互作用的不同情况,分析了氢原子与碱金属原子能级结构,并进行了数值计算,画出了能级结构图。再运用比较研究的方法对氢原子能级与碱金属原子能级进行比较,找出其相同点及不同点。

  10. Atomic Spectral Methods for Ab Initio Molecular Electronic Energy Surfaces: Transitioning From Small-Molecule to Biomolecular-Suitable Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Jeffrey D; Ben-Nun, Michal; Rollin, Kyle; Bromley, Michael W J; Li, Jiabo; Hinde, Robert J; Winstead, Carl L; Sheehy, Jeffrey A; Boatz, Jerry A; Langhoff, Peter W

    2016-08-25

    Continuing attention has addressed incorportation of the electronically dynamical attributes of biomolecules in the largely static first-generation molecular-mechanical force fields commonly employed in molecular-dynamics simulations. We describe here a universal quantum-mechanical approach to calculations of the electronic energy surfaces of both small molecules and large aggregates on a common basis which can include such electronic attributes, and which also seems well-suited to adaptation in ab initio molecular-dynamics applications. In contrast to the more familiar orbital-product-based methodologies employed in traditional small-molecule computational quantum chemistry, the present approach is based on an "ex-post-facto" method in which Hamiltonian matrices are evaluated prior to wave function antisymmetrization, implemented here in the support of a Hilbert space of orthonormal products of many-electron atomic spectral eigenstates familiar from the van der Waals theory of long-range interactions. The general theory in its various forms incorporates the early semiempirical atoms- and diatomics-in-molecules approaches of Moffitt, Ellison, Tully, Kuntz, and others in a comprehensive mathematical setting, and generalizes the developments of Eisenschitz, London, Claverie, and others addressing electron permutation symmetry adaptation issues, completing these early attempts to treat van der Waals and chemical forces on a common basis. Exact expressions are obtained for molecular Hamiltonian matrices and for associated energy eigenvalues as sums of separate atomic and interaction-energy terms, similar in this respect to the forms of classical force fields. The latter representation is seen to also provide a long-missing general definition of the energies of individual atoms and of their interactions within molecules and matter free from subjective additional constraints. A computer code suite is described for calculations of the many-electron atomic eigenspectra and

  11. Report on the behalf of the Foreign Affairs Commission on the bill project n 3080 authorizing the ratification of the statutes of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA); Rapport fait au nom de la Commission des Affaires Etrangeres sur le projet de loi n. 3080, autorisant la ratification des statuts de l'Agence Internationale pour les Energies Renouvelables (IRENA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2011-07-01

    This document first recalls that the creation of the International Renewable Energy Agency (IRENA) is due to a German initiative. It recalls the rather quick negotiations (2007-2009) which led to the creation of the Agency, outlines that its statutes were inspired by those of other organizations coming under the United Nations. It comments the content of the article which defines the agency's missions. Then it discusses some questions which have been shelved: the absence of China and Russia, the risk of non ratification by the United States, the language issue. In a second part, the document reports the discussions during the bill examination by the Commission. An appendix indicates the countries which have signed or ratified the IRENA statutes

  12. Impact of Atomic Structure on Absolute Energy Levels of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joshua

    2015-03-01

    There has been a staggeringly rapid increase in the photovoltaic performance of methylammonium lead iodide (MAPbI3) perovskite - greater than 19 percent solar cell power conversion efficiency has been reported in less than five years since the first report in 2009. Despite the progress in device performance, structure-property relationships in MAPbI3 are still poorly understood. I will present our recent findings on the impact of changing the Pb-I bond length and Pb-I-Pb bond angle on the electronic structure of MAPbI3. By using the combination of temperature dependent X-ray scattering, ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, absorbance and PL spectroscopy, we show that the energy levels of highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) shift in the same direction as MAPbI3 goes through tetragonal-to-cubic structural phase transition wherein the rotational angle of PbI6 octahedra is the order parameter of the transition. Our experimental results are corroborated by density functional theory calculations which show that the lattice expansion and bond angle distortion cause different degree of orbital overlap between the Pb and I atoms and the anti-bonding orbital nature of both HOMO and LUMO results in the same direction of their shift. Moreover, through pair distribution function analysis of X-ray scattering, we discovered that the majority of MAPbI3 in thin film solar cell layer has highly disordered structure with a coherence range of only 1.4 nm. The nanostructuring correlates with a blueshift of the absorption onset and increases the photoluminescence. Our results underscore the importance of understanding the structure-property relationships in order to improve the device performance of metal-organic perovskites.

  13. Advances in the production of isotopes and radiopharmaceuticals at the Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louw, P.A.; De Villiers, W.Y.Z.; Jarvis, N.V. [Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd, Pretoria (South Africa)

    1997-10-01

    The Atomic Energy Corporation of South Africa Ltd (AEC) owns and operates the 20 MW research reactor, SAFARI-1. Utilisation of the reactor has in recent years changed from research and materials testing to the production of isotopes. The most important breakthrough achieved in recent years is the production of high quality fission 99Mo. This has been produced routinely since April 1993 and supplied to clients across the world. A capability for the reliable production of 1000 Ci of 99Mo per week (calibrated for six days after production) has been proven. The AEC has also established facilities to produce its own 99mTc generators together with a most of radiopharmaceutical kits for diagnostic nuclear medicine purposes. The production of {sup 153}Sm and {sup 131}I (tellurium oxide route) has been operational for many years. Applications include therapeutic radiopharmaceuticals such as {sup 153}Sm-EDTMP for bone cancer pain palliation, {sup 13`}I-Lipiodol for liver cancer and {sup 131}I capsules for thyroid treatment. Facilities for the production of other isotopes such as {sup 131}I (from fission), {sup 32}P and {sup 35}S are in various stages of completion. Extensive analytical methods and equipment have been developed and are routinely used to certify the quality of exported isotopes. Irradiation and encapsulation of {sup 192}Ir is also performed routinely at the AEC. Modern facilities allow for the production of isotopes such as {sup 131}Ba and {sup 140}La on an ad hoc basis. Quality assurance procedures based on ISO9000 were developed for all aspects of the production of the various isotopes. Documentation, such as Drug Master Files, required by authorities in various countries has also been submitted and accepted 15 refs., 1 tab., 2 figs.

  14. Nuclear nonproliferation and safety: Challenges facing the International Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-09-01

    The Chairman of the Senate Committee on Govermental Affairs asked the United States General Accounting Office (GAO) to review the safeguards and nuclear power plant safety programs of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). This report examines (1) the effectiveness of IAEA`s safeguards program and the adequacy of program funding, (2) the management of U.S. technical assistance to the IAEA`s safeguards program, and (3) the effectiveness of IAEA`s program for advising United Nations (UN) member states about nuclear power plant safety and the adequacy of program funding. Under its statute and the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons, IAEA is mandated to administer safeguards to detect diversions of significant quantities of nuclear material from peaceful uses. Because of limits on budget growth and unpaid contributions, IAEA has had difficulty funding the safeguards program. IAEA also conducts inspections of facilities or locations containing declared nuclear material, and manages a program for reviewing the operational safety of designated nuclear power plants. The U.S. technical assistance program for IAEA safeguards, overseen by an interagency coordinating committee, has enhanced the agency`s inspection capabilities, however, some weaknesses still exist. Despite financial limitations, IAEA is meeting its basic safety advisory responsibilities for advising UN member states on nuclear safety and providing requested safety services. However, IAEA`s program for reviewing the operational safety of nuclear power plants has not been fully effective because the program is voluntary and UN member states have not requested IAEA`s review of all nuclear reactors with serious problems. GAO believes that IAEA should have more discretion in selecting reactors for review.

  15. An evaluation of exchange-correlation functionals for the calculations of the ionization energies for atoms and molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Segala, Maximiliano [Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, Rua Oscar Matzembacher 475, 96760-000, Tapes, RS (Brazil); Chong, Delano P. [Department of Chemistry, 2036 Main Mall, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., V6T 1Z1 (Canada)], E-mail: chong@chem.ubc.ca

    2009-04-15

    In this paper, ionization energies of gas-phase atoms and molecules are calculated by energy-difference method and by approximate transition-state models with density functional theory (DFT). To determine the best functionals for ionization energies, we first study the H to Ar atoms. An approximation is used in which the electron density is first obtained from Kohn-Sham computations with an exchange-correlation potential V{sub xc} known as statistical average of orbital potentials (SAOP), after which the energy is computed from that density with 59 different exchange-correlation energy functionals E{sub xc}. For the 18 atoms, the best E{sub xc} functional providing an average absolute deviation (AAD) of only 0.110 eV is one known as the Krieger-Chen-Iafrate-Savin functional modified by Krieger, Chen, Iafrate, and Kurth, if one uses the spin-polarized spherical atom description. On the other hand, if one imposes the condition of integer-electrons, the best functional is the Becke 1997 functional modified by Wilson, Bradley, and Tozer, with an AAD of 0.107 eV, while several other functionals perform almost as well. For molecules, we can achieve an accuracy of AAD = 0.21 eV for valence VIPs of nonperhalo molecules with {delta}E(V{sub xc} = SAOP;PBE0) using integer-electron description. For perhalo molecules our best approach is {delta}E(V{sub xc} from either E{sub xc} or SAOP;mPW1PW) with full symmetry to obtain an AAD = 0.24 eV.

  16. Refined Dummy Atom Model of Mg(2+) by Simple Parameter Screening Strategy with Revised Experimental Solvation Free Energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yang; Zhang, Haiyang; Feng, Wei; Tan, Tianwei

    2015-12-28

    Metal ions play an important role in the catalysis of metalloenzymes. To investigate metalloenzymes via molecular modeling, a set of accurate force field parameters for metal ions is highly imperative. To extend its application range and improve the performance, the dummy atom model of metal ions was refined through a simple parameter screening strategy using the Mg(2+) ion as an example. Using the AMBER ff03 force field with the TIP3P model, the refined model accurately reproduced the experimental geometric and thermodynamic properties of Mg(2+). Compared with point charge models and previous dummy atom models, the refined dummy atom model yields an enhanced performance for producing reliable ATP/GTP-Mg(2+)-protein conformations in three metalloenzyme systems with single or double metal centers. Similar to other unbounded models, the refined model failed to reproduce the Mg-Mg distance and favored a monodentate binding of carboxylate groups, and these drawbacks needed to be considered with care. The outperformance of the refined model is mainly attributed to the use of a revised (more accurate) experimental solvation free energy and a suitable free energy correction protocol. This work provides a parameter screening strategy that can be readily applied to refine the dummy atom models for metal ions.

  17. Hubbard model for ultracold bosonic atoms interacting via zero-point-energy-induced three-body interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Saurabh; Johnson, P. R.; Tiesinga, Eite

    2016-04-01

    We show that, for ultracold neutral bosonic atoms held in a three-dimensional periodic potential or optical lattice, a Hubbard model with dominant, attractive three-body interactions can be generated. In fact, we derive that the effect of pairwise interactions can be made small or zero starting from the realization that collisions occur at the zero-point energy of an optical lattice site and the strength of the interactions is energy dependent from effective-range contributions. We determine the strength of the two- and three-body interactions for scattering from van der Waals potentials and near Fano-Feshbach resonances. For van der Waals potentials, which for example describe scattering of alkaline-earth atoms, we find that the pairwise interaction can only be turned off for species with a small negative scattering length, leaving the 88Sr isotope a possible candidate. Interestingly, for collisional magnetic Feshbach resonances this restriction does not apply and there often exist magnetic fields where the two-body interaction is small. We illustrate this result for several known narrow resonances between alkali-metal atoms as well as chromium atoms. Finally, we compare the size of the three-body interaction with hopping rates and describe limits due to three-body recombination.

  18. A new method to measure electron density and effective atomic number using dual-energy CT images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos Garcia, Luis Isaac; Pérez Azorin, José Fernando; Almansa, Julio F.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a new method to extract the electron density ({ρ\\text{e}} ) and the effective atomic number (Z eff) from dual-energy CT images, based on a Karhunen-Loeve expansion (KLE) of the atomic cross section per electron. This method was used to calibrate a Siemens Definition CT using the CIRS phantom. The predicted electron density and effective atomic number using 80 kVp and 140 kVp were compared with a calibration phantom and an independent set of samples. The mean absolute deviations between the theoretical and calculated values for all the samples were 1.7 %  ±  0.1 % for {ρ\\text{e}} and 4.1 %  ±  0.3 % for Z eff. Finally, these results were compared with other stoichiometric method. The application of the KLE to represent the atomic cross section per electron is a promising method for calculating {ρ\\text{e}} and Z eff using dual-energy CT images.

  19. Report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs and Plan about the project of energy orientation law, adopted in second lecture with modifications by the house of commons; Rapport fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques et du plan (1), sur le projet de loi d'orientation sur l'energie, adopte avec modifications par l'assemblee nationale en deuxieme lecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This document is the report made by Mr. H. Revol, Deputy, about the project of energy orientation law adopted by the house of commons in second lecture, after its examination by the commission of economic affairs and by the Plan. This project of law aims at fixing the main principles of the French energy policy for the next decades. It foresees: the re-launching of the French nuclear program (building of an experimental European pressurized reactor (EPR)), the reinforcement of the mastery of energy demand (3% per year, creation of energy saving certificates and reinforcement of buildings energy efficiency rules), and the sustain of renewable energies development. This document summarizes the modifications proposed by the commission for each article of the project of law before its adoption by the Senate. In the second part of the document, four columns present in parallel: the text adopted in first lecture by the House of Commons, the text adopted in first lecture by the Senate, the text adopted by the House of Commons in second lecture and the proposals of the commission. (J.S.)

  20. First-Principles Molecular Dynamics Investigation of the Atomic-Scale Energy Transport: From Heat Conduction to Thermal Radiation

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Pengfei

    2016-01-01

    First-principles molecular dynamics simulation based on a plane wave/pseudopotential implementation of density functional theory is adopted to investigate atomic scale energy transport for semiconductors (silicon and germanium). By imposing thermostats to keep constant temperatures of the nanoscale thin layers, initial thermal non-equilibrium between the neighboring layers is established under the vacuum condition. Models with variable gap distances with an interval of lattice constant increment of the simulated materials are set up and statistical comparisons of temperature evolution curves are made. Moreover, the equilibration time from non-equilibrium state to thermal equilibrium state of different silicon or/and germanium layers combinations are calculated. The results show significant distinctions of heat transfer under different materials and temperatures combinations. Further discussions on the equilibrium time are made to explain the simulation results. As the first work of the atomic scale energy tra...

  1. Estimation of length scale of RS II-$p$ braneworld model through perturbations in Helium's atom ground state energy

    CERN Document Server

    Garrido, Nephtali

    2012-01-01

    We put to the test an effective three-dimensional electrostatic potential, obtained effectively by considering an electrostatic source inside a (5+$p$)-dimensional braneworld scenario with $p$ compact and one infinite spacial extra dimensions in the RS II-$p$ model, for $p=1$ and $p=2$. This potential is regular at the source and matches the standard Coulomb potential outside a neighborhood. We use variational and perturbative approximation methods to calculate corrections to the ground energy of the Helium atom modified by this potential, by making use of a 6 and 39-parameter trial wave function of Hylleraas type for the ground state. These corrections to the ground-state energy are compared with experimental data for Helium atom in order to set bounds for the extra dimensions length scale. We find that these bounds are less restrictive than the ones obtained by Morales et. al. through a calculation using the Lamb shift in Hydrogen.

  2. Stereodynamical Origin of Anti-Arrhenius Kinetics: Negative Activation Energy and Roaming for a Four-Atom Reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutinho, Nayara D; Silva, Valter H C; de Oliveira, Heibbe C B; Camargo, Ademir J; Mundim, Kleber C; Aquilanti, Vincenzo

    2015-05-07

    The OH + HBr → H2O + Br reaction, prototypical of halogen-atom liberating processes relevant to mechanisms for atmospheric ozone destruction, attracted frequent attention of experimental chemical kinetics: the nature of the unusual reactivity drop from low to high temperatures eluded a variety of theoretical efforts, ranking this one among the most studied four-atom reactions. Here, inspired by oriented molecular-beams experiments, we develop a first-principles stereodynamical approach. Thermalized sets of trajectories, evolving on a multidimensional potential energy surface quantum mechanically generated on-the-fly, provide a map of most visited regions at each temperature. Visualizations of rearrangements of bonds along trajectories and of the role of specific angles of reactants' mutual approach elucidate the mechanistic change from the low kinetic energy regime (where incident reactants reorient to find the propitious alignment leading to reaction) to high temperature (where speed hinders adjustment of directionality and roaming delays reactivity).

  3. Current mapping of low-energy (120 eV) helium and hydrogen irradiated tungsten by conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hongyu; Endo, Takashi; Bi, Zhenghua; Yan, Weibin; Ohnuki, Somei; Yang, Qi; Ni, Weiyuan; Liu, Dongping

    2017-04-01

    Both conductive atomic force microscopy (CAFM) and transmission electron microscopy have been used to characterize the defects or He bubbles in low-energy (120 eV) H and He irradiated tungsten (W). By a comparative study, we find that the current mapping from CAFM is very sensitive in the detection of nanometer-sized defects in low-energy H and He irradiated W. Our calculation confirms that the resistance change in H and He irradiated W is strongly affected by the distance between atomic force microscopy tip and defects/He bubbles. CAFM can accurately detect defects/He bubbles in the W surface layer, however, it is infeasible to measure them in the deep layer (>20 nm), especially due to the existence of defects in the surface layer.

  4. Tumor radiosensitizers - current status of development of various approaches: Report of an International Atomic Energy Agency meeting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert; Bohm, Lothar; Margison, Geoffrey P.

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those well-established in clinical practice, that operated through a variety of mechanisms to sensitize tumors to radiation and (2) to compare...... and contrast their tumor efficacy, normal tissue toxicity, and status of development regarding clinical application. The aim was to advise the IAEA as to which developing agent or class of agents would be worth promoting further, by supporting additional laboratory research or clinical trials...... and for clinical trials that would be suitable for industrialized countries, as well as trials that were considered more appropriate for developing countries.PURPOSE: The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) held a Technical Meeting of Consultants to (1) discuss a selection of relatively new agents, not those...

  5. Back-Influence of Molecular Motion on Energy Transfer in the Landau-Teller Model of Atom Molecule Scattering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollak, Eli

    2016-07-21

    This year we celebrate the 80th anniversary of the Landau-Teller model for energy exchange in a collinear collision of an atom with a harmonic diatomic molecule. Even after 80 years though, the analytic theory to date has not included in it the back-influence of the oscillator's motion on the energy transfer between the approaching particle and the molecule. This is the topic of the present paper. The back-influence can be obtained by employing classical second-order perturbation theory. The second-order theory is used in both a classical and semiclassical context. Classically, analytic expressions are derived for the final phase and action of the diatom, after the collision. The energy loss of the atom is shown to decrease linearly with the increasing energy of the oscillator. The magnitude of this decrease is a direct consequence of the back-reaction of the oscillator on the translational motion. The qualitative result is universal, in the sense that it is not dependent on the details of the interaction of the atom with the oscillator. A numerical application to a model collision of an Ar atom with a Br2 diatom demonstrates the importance and accuracy of the second-order perturbation theory. The same results are then used to derive a second-order perturbation theory semiclassical expression for the quantum transition probability from initial vibrational state ni to final vibrational state nf of the oscillator. A comparison of the theory with exact quantum data is presented for a model collision of Br2 with a hydrogen molecule, where the hydrogen molecule is considered as a single approaching particle.

  6. Collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms I. Package outline and high energy code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benda, Jakub; Houfek, Karel

    2014-11-01

    Being motivated by the applied researchers’ persisting need for accurate scattering data for the collisions of electrons with hydrogen atoms, we developed a computer package-Hex-that is designed to provide trustworthy results for all basic discrete and continuous processes within non-relativistic framework. The package consists of several computational modules that implement different methods, valid for specific energy regimes. Results of the modules are kept in a common database in the unified form of low-level scattering data (partial-wave T-matrices) and accessed by an interface program which is able to produce various derived quantities like e.g. differential and integral cross sections. This article is the first one of a series of articles that are concerned with the implementation and testing of the modules. Here we give an overview of their structure and present (a) the command-line interface program hex-db that can be also easily compiled into a derived code or used as a backend for a web-page form and (b) simple illustrative module specialized for high energies, hex-dwba, that implements distorted and plane wave Born approximation. Catalogue identifier: AETH_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AETH_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program library, Queen’s University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data etc.: 30367 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data etc.: 232032 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++11 Operating system: Any system with a C++11 compiler (e.g. GCC 4.8.1; tested on OpenSUSE 13.1 and Windows 8). RAM: Test run 3 MiB. CPC Library Classification: 2.4 Electron scattering External libraries:GSL [49], FFTW3[52], SQLite3 [46]. All of the libraries are open-source and maintained. Nature of problem: Extraction of derived (observable) quantities from partial

  7. Scattering of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with rare gas atoms at low collision energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loreau, J., E-mail: jloreau@ulb.ac.be [Service de Chimie Quantique et Photophysique, Université Libre de Bruxelles (ULB) CP 160/09, 50 av. F.D. Roosevelt, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Avoird, A. van der, E-mail: A.vanderAvoird@theochem.ru.nl [Theoretical Chemistry, Institute for Molecules and Materials, Radboud University, Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2015-11-14

    We present a theoretical study of elastic and rotationally inelastic collisions of NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} with rare gas atoms (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe) at low energy. Quantum close-coupling calculations have been performed for energies between 0.001 and 300 cm{sup −1}. We focus on collisions in which NH{sub 3} is initially in the upper state of the inversion doublet with j = 1, k = 1, which is the most relevant in an experimental context as it can be trapped electrostatically and Stark-decelerated. We discuss the presence of resonances in the elastic and inelastic cross sections, as well as the trends in the inelastic cross sections along the rare gas series and the differences between NH{sub 3} and ND{sub 3} as a colliding partner. We also demonstrate the importance of explicitly taking into account the umbrella (inversion) motion of NH{sub 3} in order to obtain accurate scattering cross sections at low collision energy. Finally, we investigate the possibility of sympathetic cooling of ammonia using cold or ultracold rare gas atoms. We show that some systems exhibit a large ratio of elastic to inelastic cross sections in the cold regime, which is promising for sympathetic cooling experiments. The close-coupling calculations are based on previously reported ab initio potential energy surfaces for NH{sub 3}–He and NH{sub 3}–Ar, as well as on new, four-dimensional, potential energy surfaces for the interaction of ammonia with Ne, Kr, and Xe, which were computed using the coupled-cluster method and large basis sets. We compare the properties of the potential energy surfaces corresponding to the interaction of ammonia with the various rare gas atoms.

  8. Hydration free energies using semiempirical quantum mechanical Hamiltonians and a continuum solvent model with multiple atomic-type parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anisimov, Victor M; Cavasotto, Claudio N

    2011-06-23

    To build the foundation for accurate quantum mechanical (QM) simulation of biomacromolecules in an aqueous environment, we undertook the optimization of the COnductor-like Screening MOdel (COSMO) atomic radii and atomic surface tension coefficients for different semiempirical Hamiltonians adhering to the same computational conditions recently followed in the simulation of biomolecular systems. This optimization was achieved by reproducing experimental hydration free energies of a set consisting of 507 neutral and 99 ionic molecules. The calculated hydration free energies were significantly improved by introducing a multiple atomic-type scheme that reflects different chemical environments. The nonpolar contribution was treated according to the scaled particle Claverie-Pierotti formalism. Separate radii and surface tension coefficient sets have been developed for AM1, PM3, PM5, and RM1 semiempirical Hamiltonians, with an average unsigned error for neutral molecules of 0.64, 0.66, 0.73, and 0.71 kcal/mol, respectively. Free energy calculation of each molecule took on average 0.5 s on a single processor. The new sets of parameters will enhance the quality of semiempirical QM calculations using COSMO in biomolecular systems. Overall, these results further extend the utility of QM methods to chemical and biological systems in the condensed phase.

  9. Third-party protection and residual risk in Atomic Energy Act. On legally dogmatic classification of paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act in the jurisprudence of the Federal Constitutional Law and Federal Administrative Court; Drittschutz und Restrisiko im Atomrecht. Zur rechtsdogmatischen Einordnung des paragraph 7d AtG in die Rechtsprechung des Bundesverfassungs- und des Bundesverwaltungsgerichts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arndt, Hans-Wolfgang

    2012-03-15

    On 25th June 2009, the Council of the European Union has passed the directive 2009/71/EURATOM on a common framework for nuclear safety of nuclear installations. At first, the 12th Law amending the Atomic Energy Act supplements the Atomic Energy Act by regulations which implement the directive 2009/71/EURATIM into national law. In addition, paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act introduces a new substantive obligation of the operators of nuclear power plants. The author of the contribution reports on whether paragraph 7 Atomic Energy Act provides additional nuclear protection or reduces the potential protection by law and jurisprudence.

  10. Energy spectrum of the hydrogen atom in a space with one compactified extra dimension, R3 ×S1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bureš, Martin

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the consequences of one extra compactified dimension for the energy spectrum of the non-relativistic hydrogen atom with a potential defined by Gauss' law, i.e. proportional to 1 /| x | 2 in non-compactified 4d space. The calculations were performed numerically by diagonalizing the Hamiltonian in two different sets of basis vectors. The energy levels and electron probability density are plotted as a function of the compactification radius. The occurrence of several physical effects is discussed and interpreted.

  11. Potential energy curves for the interaction of Ag(5s) and Ag(5p) with noble gas atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Loreau, J; Dalgarno, A

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the interaction of ground and excited states of a silver atom with noble gases (NG), including helium. Born-Oppenheimer potential energy curves are calculated with quantum chemistry methods and spin-orbit effects in the excited states are included by assuming a spin-orbit splitting independent of the internuclear distance. We compare our results with experimentally available spectroscopic data, as well as with previous calculations. Because of strong spin-orbit interactions, excited Ag-NG potential energy curves cannot be fitted to Morse-like potentials. We find that the labeling of the observed vibrational levels has to be shifted by one unit.

  12. The Russian Federation's Ministry of Atomic Energy: Programs and Developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CM Johnson

    2000-07-24

    This paper reviews select programs driving the Ministry of Atomic Energy of the Russian Federation's (Minatom) efforts to raise funds, comments on their potential viability, and highlights areas likely to be of particular concern for the US over the next three to five years. The paper's findings are: (1) Despite numerous cabinet displacements throughout the Yeltsin administration, Yevgeny Adamov was reappointed Minister on four occasions. With Boris Yeltsin's January 1, 2000 resignation, Adamov's long-term position as the head of the Ministry is more tenuous, but he will likely retain his position until at least the March 2000 elections. Acting President Vladimir Putin is unlikely to reorganize his cabinet prior to that date and there are no signs that Putin is dissatisfied with Adamov's leadership of Minatom. (2) Adamov's chief priorities are downsizing Minatom's defense sector, increasing the oversight of subsidiary bodies by the central bureaucracy and consolidating commercial elements of the Ministry within an umbrella organization called Atomprom. (3) Viktor Mikhaylov, Adamov's predecessor and critic of his reform efforts, has been relieved of his duties as First Deputy Minister. While he retains his positions as Chief of the Science Councils and Chief Scientist at Arzamas-16, his influence on Minatom's direction is greatly diminished. Adamov will likely continue his efforts to further marginalize Mikhaylov in the coming year. (4) Securing extra-budgetary sources of income continues to be the major factor guiding Minatom's international business dealings. The Ministry will continue to aggressively promote the sale of nuclear technology abroad, often to countries with questionable nonproliferation commitments. (5) Given the financial difficulties in Russia and Minatom's client states, however, few nuclear development programs will come to fruition for a number of years, if ever. Nevertheless, certain

  13. Triple differential cross section for the near threshold single ionization of helium atoms for equal energy sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Purohit, G., E-mail: ghanshyam.purohit@spsu.ac.in [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India); Singh, P. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India); Dorn, A.; Ren, X. [Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, 69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Patidar, V. [Department of Physics, School of Engineering, Sir Padampat Singhania University, Bhatewar, Udaipur 313 601 (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Present paper describes electron impact single ionization of helium atoms near threshold. • This energy range provided challenges to theoretical models due to presence of several physical effects at low energies such as second order processes, PCI, polarization, etc. • Inclusion of second Born term and target polarization is helpful to analyze the measurements. • Present paper also describes usefulness of post collisional interaction in the collision dynamics at low energies. - Abstract: Low energy electron impact single ionization triple differential cross section (TDCS) results are reported for the helium atoms in the threshold regime at 1 eV, 3 eV and 5 eV excess energy. TDCSs are calculated in the doubly symmetric kinematics for the coplanar to perpendicular emission of electrons. Present attempt to calculate TDCS in the second Born approximation and treating target polarization and post collision interaction is helpful to analyze the available measurements. The second order processes, target polarization and post collision interaction (PCI) have been found to be significant in describing the trends of TDCS and helpful to produce reasonably good agreement with measurements.

  14. Third-order Douglas-Kroll self-consistent field energies for the neutral atoms H to Uuo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shiro L

    2009-02-21

    Third-order Douglas-Kroll self-consistent field (DK3-SCF) calculations with a finite-nucleus model were carried out for the neutral atoms H to Uuo, and DK3-SCF energies were obtained for them. The basis set used was the B-spline set. The parameters of the B-spline set were determined so as to reproduce the SQR-SCF limit energies given by Gaussian-type functions (GTFs). The SQR-SCF is a self-consistent field calculation with a simplified first-order Douglas-Kroll Hamiltonian (the "SQR" Hamiltonian) and can be carried out exactly with GTFs. The DK3-SCF energies given by this B-spline set should be highly accurate. A comparison is made with the DK3-SCF energies of Nakajima and Hirao [J. Chem. Phys. 116, 8270 (2002).

  15. Tomography of atomic number and density of materials using dual-energy imaging and the Alvarez and Macovski attenuation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paziresh, M.; Kingston, A. M.; Latham, S. J.; Fullagar, W. K.; Myers, G. M.

    2016-06-01

    Dual-energy computed tomography and the Alvarez and Macovski [Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976)] transmitted intensity (AMTI) model were used in this study to estimate the maps of density (ρ) and atomic number (Z) of mineralogical samples. In this method, the attenuation coefficients are represented [Alvarez and Macovski, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976)] in the form of the two most important interactions of X-rays with atoms that is, photoelectric absorption (PE) and Compton scattering (CS). This enables material discrimination as PE and CS are, respectively, dependent on the atomic number (Z) and density (ρ) of materials [Alvarez and Macovski, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976)]. Dual-energy imaging is able to identify sample materials even if the materials have similar attenuation coefficients at single-energy spectrum. We use the full model rather than applying one of several applied simplified forms [Alvarez and Macovski, Phys. Med. Biol. 21, 733 (1976); Siddiqui et al., SPE Annual Technical Conference and Exhibition (Society of Petroleum Engineers, 2004); Derzhi, U.S. patent application 13/527,660 (2012); Heismann et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2073-2079 (2003); Park and Kim, J. Korean Phys. Soc. 59, 2709 (2011); Abudurexiti et al., Radiol. Phys. Technol. 3, 127-135 (2010); and Kaewkhao et al., J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer 109, 1260-1265 (2008)]. This paper describes the tomographic reconstruction of ρ and Z maps of mineralogical samples using the AMTI model. The full model requires precise knowledge of the X-ray energy spectra and calibration of PE and CS constants and exponents of atomic number and energy that were estimated based on fits to simulations and calibration measurements. The estimated ρ and Z images of the samples used in this paper yield average relative errors of 2.62% and 1.19% and maximum relative errors of 2.64% and 7.85%, respectively. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the method accounts for the beam hardening effect in density (ρ) and

  16. Report of the US Department of Energy's team analyses of the Chernobyl-4 Atomic Energy Station accident sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-11-01

    In an effort to better understand the Chernobyl-4 accident of April 26, 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) formed a team of experts from the National Laboratories including Argonne National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and Pacific Northwest Laboratory. The DOE Team provided the analytical support to the US delegation for the August meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and to subsequent international meetings. The DOE Team has analyzed the accident in detail, assessed the plausibility and completeness of the information provided by the Soviets, and performed studies relevant to understanding the accident. The results of these studies are presented in this report.

  17. Nuclear energy and non proliferation. The role of the International Atomic Energy Agency; Energia nuclear y no proliferacion. El papel de la Organizacion Internacional de la Energia Atomica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooley, J.; Rauf, T.

    2008-07-01

    This article discusses the role of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in the prevention of the spread of nuclear weapons. The IAEA verifies States compliance with their non-proliferation commitments through the application of safeguards on their civilian nuclear programmes to ensure that they are being used solely for peaceful purposes. The IAEA safeguards have evolved in the course of five decades and have become an integral part of the international non-proliferation regime and the global security system. To continue to serve the international community, they need to continue to move with the times, especially in light of the renewed interest in nuclear energy. (Author)

  18. 78 FR 78352 - Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing Take notice that on December 18, 2013, Orlando Utilities Commission submitted its tariff filing per 35.28(e): Order No....

  19. 76 FR 49469 - Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing Take notice that on July 29, 2011, Orlando Utilities Commission (OUC), pursuant to section 205 of the Federal Power Act (FPA)...

  20. 76 FR 25685 - Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing Take notice that on April 15, 2011, Orlando Utilities Commission submitted its tariff filing per 35.25(e): Order 890 compliance to...

  1. 75 FR 37789 - Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing June 23, 2010. Take notice that on June 11, 2010, the Orlando Utilities Commission filed, pro forma revised tariff sheets...

  2. 76 FR 35209 - Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Orlando Utilities Commission; Notice of Filing Take notice that on May 26, 2011, Orlando Utilities Commission submitted its tariff filing per 35.17(b): Amendment to...

  3. 10 CFR 9.107 - Public announcement of Commission meetings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Public announcement of Commission meetings. 9.107 Section 9.107 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION PUBLIC RECORDS Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations... if: (1) A majority of the entire membership of the Commission determines by a recorded vote...

  4. Calculations of Energy Losses due to Atomic Processes in Tokamaks with Applications to the ITER Divertor

    CERN Document Server

    Post, D; Clark, R E H; Putvinskaya, N

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of the peak heat loads on the plasma facing components is essential for the success of the next generation of high fusion power tokamaks such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) 1 . Many present concepts for accomplishing this involve the use of atomic processes to transfer the heat from the plasma to the main chamber and divertor chamber walls and much of the experimental and theoretical physics research in the fusion program is directed toward this issue. The results of these experiments and calculations are the result of a complex interplay of many processes. In order to identify the key features of these experiments and calculations and the relative role of the primary atomic processes, simple quasi-analytic models and the latest atomic physics rate coefficients and cross sections have been used to assess the relative roles of central radiation losses through bremsstrahlung, impurity radiation losses from the plasma edge, charge exchange and hydrogen radiation losses f...

  5. Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission annual report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-05-01

    The Alberta Petroleum Marketing Commission has the responsibility of selling the Crown`s royalty share of Alberta`s crude and synthetic oil production; similar services are provided for natural gas. The Commission also markets crude oil on behalf of producers to North American and offshore consumers. The Commission`s position as the largest crude oil marketer in Canada enables it to provide analyses of industry pricing and marketing trends to the Alberta government. 1993 marked the last full year of the Commission operating as Alberta`s representative in the energy regulatory arena in Canada and the USA; due to restructuring, these functions will be transferred to the Ministry of Energy in early 1994. A brief overview is presented of crude oil markets in Canada and the USA. The Commission`s receipts of light and medium royalty oil totalled 40.2 million bbl, down 11% from 1992, and receipts of heavy crude were 3.7 million bbl, down 42% from 1992. Revenue from crude oil sales was $800 million, down 25% from 1992. The Commission`s natural gas activities in 1993 included price determination and information collection. 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. On the Coulomb corrections to the total cross section of the interaction of the $\\pi^{+}\\pi^{-}$ atom with ordinary atoms at high energy

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, D Yu

    1999-01-01

    The size of $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atom in the low lying states is considerably smaller than the radius of atomic screening. Due to that we can neglect this screening calculating the contribution of multi-photon exchanges. We obtain the analytic formula for Coulomb corrections which works with a very good accuracy for the ground state of $\\pi^+\\pi^-$ atom.

  7. Estimating the activation energy of the displacement of Mg atoms in the channels of B25C4Mg1.42 crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalikhin, S. V.; Ponomarev, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    The activation energy of displacement of Mg atoms through channels of B25C4Mg1.42 crystals is estimated using quantum chemical calculations (DFT (B3LYP potential), RHF, and UHF methods, 3-21G basis set) of the element of the structure modeling the channel and location of Mg atoms in it. The changes in the activation energy at the replacement of Mg atoms by Na and Li atoms were estimated. The greatest decreasing in the activation energy was detected for Li atoms. The obtained results can be regarded as a theoretical background for development of conducting systems based on B25C4Mg1.42 crystals.

  8. Analysis of H atoms in a negative ion source plasma with the non-equilibrium electron energy distribution function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, S.; Shibata, T.; Terasaki, R.; Kameyama, N.; Hatayama, A. [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Keio University, 3-14-1 Hiyoshi, Kohoku-ku, Yokohama 223-8522 (Japan); Bacal, M. [LPP, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, UPMC, Universite PARIS-SUD 11, UMR CNRS 7648 (France); Tsumori, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi-cho, Toki 509-5292 (Japan)

    2012-02-15

    In negative ion sources for the neutral beam injection, it is important to calculate H atom flux onto the plasma grid (PG) surface for the evaluation of H{sup -} production on the PG surface. We have developed a neutral (H{sub 2} molecules and H atoms) transport code. In the present study, the neutral transport code is applied to the analysis of the H{sub 2} and H transport in a NIFS-R and D ion source in order to calculate the flux onto the PG surface. Taking into account non-equilibrium feature of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF), i.e., the fast electron component, we have done the neutral transport simulation. The results suggest that the precise evaluation of the EEDF, especially in the energy range 15 eV < E < 30 eV is important for the dissociation rate of H{sub 2} molecules by the electron impact collision and the resultant H atom flux on the PG.

  9. Signatures of distinct impurity configurations in atomic-resolution valence electron-energy-loss spectroscopy: Application to graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapetanakis, Myron D.; Oxley, Mark P.; Zhou, Wu; Pennycook, Stephen J.; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates T.

    2016-10-01

    The detection and identification of impurities and other point defects in materials is a challenging task. Signatures for point defects are typically obtained using spectroscopies without spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate the power of valence electron-energy-loss spectroscopy (VEELS) in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission-electron microscope (STEM) to provide energy-resolved and atomically resolved maps of electronic excitations of individual impurities which, combined with theoretical simulations, yield unique signatures of distinct bonding configurations of impurities. We report VEELS maps for isolated Si impurities in graphene, which are known to exist in two distinct configurations. We also report simulations of the maps, based on density functional theory and dynamical scattering theory, which agree with and provide direct interpretation of observed features. We show that theoretical VEELS maps exhibit distinct and unambiguous signatures for the threefold- and fourfold-coordinated configurations of Si impurities in different energy-loss windows, corresponding to impurity-induced bound states, resonances, and antiresonances. With the advent of new monochromators and detectors with high energy resolution and low signal-to-noise ratio, the present work ushers an atomically resolved STEM-based spectroscopy of individual impurities as an alternative to conventional spectroscopies for probing impurities and defects.

  10. Laboratory Measurements of Charge Transfer on Atomic Hydrogen at Thermal Energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havener, C. C.; Vane, C. R.; Krause, H. F.; Stancil, P. C.; Mroczkowski, T.; Savin, D. W.

    2002-01-01

    We describe our ongoing program to measure velocity dependent charge transfer (CT) cross sections for selected ions on atomic hydrogen using the ion-aloin merged-beams apparatus at Oak Ridge Natioiial Laboralory. Our focus is on those ions for which CT plays an important role in determining the ionization structure, line emis sion, and thermal structure of observed cosmic photoionized plasmas.

  11. Continuum effects on positron scattering of atomic hydrogen at intermediate energies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratnavelu, Kuru [Quantum Scattering Theory Group, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). E-mail: j2kurun at umcsd.um.edu.my; Rajagopal, Kalai Kumar [Quantum Scattering Theory Group, Institute of Mathematical Sciences, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    1999-07-28

    An optical potential method to study the positron-hydrogen atom scattering system within the close-coupling framework that includes both the positron-hydrogen and positronium-proton channels has been implemented. Ionization, positronium formation and total cross sections are reported and are compared to other available theoretical and experimental data. (author00.

  12. Interactions of satellite-speed helium atoms with satellite surfaces. III. Drag coefficients from spatial and energy distributions of reflected helium atoms. [1235-O and 6061 T-6 aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Knuth, E.L.

    1977-12-01

    Spatial and energy distributions of helium atoms scattered from an anodized 1235-0 aluminum surface as well as the tangential and normal momentum accommodation coefficients calculated from these distributions are reported. A procedure for calculating drag coefficients from measured values of spatial and energy distributions is given. The drag coefficient calculated for a 6061 T-6 aluminum sphere is included.

  13. Report on behalf of the Economic Affairs and Plan Commission on the law project relative to the energy markets; Rapport au nom de la commission des affaires economiques et du plan sur le projet de loi relatif aux marches energetiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In the framework of the directive no. 98/30 concerning the common rules for the natural gas internal market, the Senate debates on the law project relative to the energy markets no. 406, adopted by the Minister Council the 25 september 2002. This project transposes the directive content in french law. This document presents the amendments allowing the directive transposition. (A.L.B.)

  14. Composition measurement in substitutionally disordered materials by atomic resolution energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Z; Taplin, D J; Weyland, M; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2016-10-21

    The increasing use of energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in atomic resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy invites the question of whether its success in precision composition determination at lower magnifications can be replicated in the atomic resolution regime. In this paper, we explore, through simulation, the prospects for composition measurement via the model system of AlxGa1-xAs, discussing the approximations used in the modelling, the variability in the signal due to changes in configuration at constant composition, and the ability to distinguish between different compositions. Results are presented in such a way that the number of X-ray counts, and thus the expected variation due to counting statistics, can be gauged for a range of operating conditions.

  15. On the effective atomic number and electron density: A comprehensive set of formulas for all types of materials and energies above 1 keV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Thind, K.S.;

    2008-01-01

    A comprehensive and consistent set of formulas is given for calculating the effective atomic number and electron density for all types of materials and for all photon energies greater than 1 keV. The are derived from first principles using photon interaction cross sections of the constituent atoms...

  16. British Columbia Utilities Commission 1998 annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-06-01

    The BC Utilities Commission is an independent regulatory agency of the provincial government that operates under the Utilities Commission Act. The Commission's main responsibility is the regulation of the energy utilities under its jurisdiction to ensure that rates charged for energy are fair, just and reasonable, and that utility operations provide safe, adequate and secure service to their clients. It approves the construction of new facilities planned by utilities and their issuance of securities. The Commission's function is quasi-judical and its Decisions and Orders may be appealed to the Court of Appeal on questions of law or jurisdiction. It participates in the review of utility and energy projects under the Environmental Assessment Act. It also reviews, evaluates, and reports on energy related matters referred to it by Cabinet. This review usually involves public hearings followed by a decision or a report and recommendations to the Lieutenant Governor in Council.

  17. Analytic Elastic Cross Sections for Electron-Atom Scattering from Generalized Fano Profiles of Overlapping Low-Energy Shape Resonances

    CERN Document Server

    Nicoletopoulos, P

    2003-01-01

    The variation with energy of the total cross section for elastic electron scattering from atoms of several elements is caused primarily by shape resonances corresponding to the formation of temporary negative ions. It is shown that such cross sections are expressible analytically in terms of a constant background added to a "generalized Fano profile" [Durand Ph, et al (2001) J. Phys. B: At. Mol. Opt. Phys. 34, 1953, ibid (2002) 35, 469]. In three cases (sodium, magnesium and mercury), a detailed consideration proves that this representation is accurate in a fairly wide energy range. Moreover, the related momentum transfer cross sections are tailor-made for studying "elastic" electron transport in terms of the two-term solution of the Boltzmann equation: Not only are the resulting swarm transport coefficients adjustable to the experimental values, but above all they are calculable very easily because the unnormalized energy distribution is obtainable analytically. The ample saving in computational effort is ex...

  18. The Decline of the Atom and the Rise of the Sun as Future Energy Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bockris, J. O'M.

    1973-01-01

    Examines the various energy sources likely to be developed in the near future, and suggests that the only satisfactory solution lies in the development of solar energy and an associated non-polluting "hydrogen economy." Concludes that Australia has ideal conditions and the technical expertise to lead in solar energy research. (JR)

  19. The LIL facility quadruplet commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di-Nicola, J.M.; Fleurot, N.; Lonjaret, T.; Julien, X.; Bordenave, E.; Le Garrec, B.; Mangeant, M.; Behar, G.; Chies, T.; Feral, C.; Graillot, H.; Luttmann, M.; Jequier, F.; Journot, E.; Lutz, O.; Thiell, G. [CEA - Centre d' Etudes Scientifiques et Techniques d' Aquitaine, DLP, 33 - Le Barp (France)

    2006-06-15

    The laser integration line (LIL) facility is currently a 4-beam prototype for the laser Megajoule (LMJ). Following LIL single beamline commissioning in 2003, where performance in terms of power and energy required for LMJ was demonstrated, we spent year 2004 to qualify the quadruplet (or quad) performance at 1{omega}/3{omega}. Over that year, the first quad high power and high energy laser experiments took place on LIL facility. A careful set of test campaigns were conducted to safely ramp up laser performance. The main goal was to measure quad-specific features such as beam synchronization and focal spot (size, smoothing contrast ratio or irradiation nonuniformity {sigma}(rms) versus the LMJ requirements. LIL Quad beam waist was recorded for various pulse durations, smoothing techniques and for a wide range of laser intensities up to LMJ-nominal ones. Now, LIL quad has been commissioned to the center of the target chamber and the first plasma experiments are made. (authors)

  20. Extrapolation of the Bethe equation for electron stopping powers to intermediate and low electron energies by empirical simulation of target effective mean excitation energy and atomic number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maglevanny, I.I., E-mail: sianko@list.ru [Volgograd State Social Pedagogical University, 27 Lenin Avenue, Volgograd 400131 (Russian Federation); Smolar, V.A.; Nguyen, H.T.T. [Volgograd State Technical University, 28 Lenin Avenue, Volgograd 400131 (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-01

    A series of simple stopping power (SP) formulas, modified from the relativistic Bethe equation, is presented that is based on the concepts of target effective atomic number and mean excitation energy (MEE). The analytical model function is constructed to approximate experimental or calculated SPs at low electron energies and tend asymptotically to the relativistic Bethe function at high energies. The energy dependencies of our effective values, in contrast with theoretical approaches, are defined empirically by parametrization with tuning parameters. A least-squares fitting routine based on the Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm was developed. We utilize the material parameters and numerical calculations of SPs from optical data using the full Penn-algorithm. Our formula is thought to be applicable for energies above 60 eV. Our simulations of SPs for 41 elemental solids are found to be in good agreement with published numerical results. The flexibility of a general empirical formula is shown. Shortened formulas were developed that are applicable for particular energy ranges, and effective MEEs are proposed that differ from previously recommended values. The presented formulas may be used for analytical calculation of SPs over a broad projectile energy region.

  1. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mussard, Bastien, E-mail: bastien.mussard@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, Institut du Calcul et de la Simulation, F-75005 Paris (France); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Reinhardt, Peter; Toulouse, Julien, E-mail: julien.toulouse@upmc.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7616, Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, F-75005 Paris (France); Ángyán, János G. [CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, F-54506 Vandoeuvre-lés-Nancy (France); CRM2, Institut Jean Barriol, CNRS, F-54506 Vandoevre-lés-Nancy (France)

    2015-04-21

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Szabo and Ostlund [J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse et al., J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms range-separated RPAx-SO2 as a promising method for general chemical applications.

  2. A New Determination of the Binding Energy of Atomic Oxygen on Dust Grain Surfaces: Experimental Results and Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    He, Jiao; Hopkins, Tyler; Vidali, Gianfranco; Kaufman, Michael J

    2015-01-01

    The energy to desorb atomic oxygen from an interstellar dust grain surface, $E_{\\rm des}$, is an important controlling parameter in gas-grain models; its value impacts the temperature range over which oxygen resides on a dust grain. However, no prior measurement has been done of the desorption energy. We report the first direct measurement of $E_{\\rm des}$ for atomic oxygen from dust grain analogs. The values of $E_{\\rm des}$ are $1660\\pm 60$~K and $1850\\pm 90$~K for porous amorphous water ice and for a bare amorphous silicate film, respectively, or about twice the value previously adopted in simulations of the chemical evolution of a cloud. We use the new values to study oxygen chemistry as a function of depth in a molecular cloud. For $n=10^4$ cm$^{-3}$ and $G_0$=10$^2$ ($G_0$=1 is the average local interstellar radiation field), the main result of the adoption of the higher oxygen binding energy is that H$_2$O can form on grains at lower visual extinction $A_{\\rm V}$, closer to the cloud surface. A higher ...

  3. Spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation with range separation: Benchmark on atomization energies and reaction barrier heights

    CERN Document Server

    Mussard, Bastien; Angyan, Janos; Toulouse, Julien

    2015-01-01

    We consider several spin-unrestricted random-phase approximation (RPA) variants for calculating correlation energies, with and without range separation, and test them on datasets of atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. We show that range separation greatly improves the accuracy of all RPA variants for these properties. Moreover, we show that a RPA variant with exchange, hereafter referred to as RPAx-SO2, first proposed by Sz-abo and Ostlund [A. Szabo and N. S. Ostlund, J. Chem. Phys. 67, 4351 (1977)] in a spin-restricted closed-shell formalism, and extended here to a spin-unrestricted formalism, provides on average the most accurate range-separated RPA variant for atomization energies and reaction barrier heights. Since this range-separated RPAx-SO2 method had already been shown to be among the most accurate range-separated RPA variants for weak intermolecular interactions [J. Toulouse, W. Zhu, A. Savin, G. Jansen, and J. G. {\\'A}ngy{\\'a}n, J. Chem. Phys. 135, 084119 (2011)], this works confirms...

  4. Solar-energy conversion and light emission in an atomic monolayer p-n diode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pospischil, Andreas; Furchi, Marco M; Mueller, Thomas

    2014-04-01

    The limitations of the bulk semiconductors currently used in electronic devices-rigidity, heavy weight and high costs--have recently shifted the research efforts to two-dimensional atomic crystals such as graphene and atomically thin transition-metal dichalcogenides. These materials have the potential to be produced at low cost and in large areas, while maintaining high material quality. These properties, as well as their flexibility, make two-dimensional atomic crystals attractive for applications such as solar cells or display panels. The basic building blocks of optoelectronic devices are p-n junction diodes, but they have not yet been demonstrated in a two-dimensional material. Here, we report a p-n junction diode based on an electrostatically doped tungsten diselenide (WSe2) monolayer. We present applications as a photovoltaic solar cell, a photodiode and a light-emitting diode, and obtain light-power conversion and electroluminescence efficiencies of ∼ 0.5% and ∼ 0.1%, respectively. Given recent advances in the large-scale production of two-dimensional crystals, we expect them to profoundly impact future developments in solar, lighting and display technologies.

  5. Results of the 2016 UT modeling benchmark proposed by the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) obtained with models implemented in CIVA software

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toullelan, Gwénaël; Chatillon, Sylvain; Raillon, Raphaële; Mahaut, Steve; Lonné, Sébastien; Bannouf, Souad

    2017-02-01

    For several years, the World Federation of NDE Centers, WFNDEC, proposes benchmark studies in which simulated results (in either ultrasonic, X-rays or eddy current NDT configurations) obtained with various models are compared to experiments. This year the proposed UT benchmark proposed by CEA concerns inspection configurations with multi-skips echoes i.e. the incident beam undergoes several skips on the surface and bottom of the specimen before interacting with the defect. This technique is commonly used to inspect thin specimen and/or in case of limited access inspection. This technique relies on the use of T45° mode in order to avoid mode conversion and to facilitate the interpretation of the echoes. The inspections were carried out with two probes of different aperture working at 5MHz.

  6. The Use of Gamma Radiation for the Treatment of Cultural Heritage in the Argentine National Atomic Energy Commission: Past, Present, and Future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo, Ana Maria Del Carmen; Docters, Andrea; Miranda, María Virginia; Saparrat, Mario Carlos Nazareno

    2017-02-01

    The use of gamma radiation for treating biodeteriorated cultural heritage on paper has been studied at the Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica-CNEA (Argentina) since 2001. In order to preserve books, publications, and documents that have been attacked by insects or fungi, gamma radiation techniques have been used at CNEA. The activities include basic research as well as their applications in infected documents and papers currently used in libraries and archives. New papers were subjected to accelerated ageing in order to evaluate the effects of gamma radiation on their physical and mechanical properties. Current studies include resistance to radiation in two batches of highly cellulolytic fungi, associated with indoor environment. They are present in papers and adhesives used for conservation purposes at the Laboratory of Preventive Conservation and Restoration of Documents. A joint study has been started in CNEA with the National University of La Plata.

  7. Current status of the AMS facility at the Tono Geoscience Center of the Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito-Kokubu, Y., E-mail: kokubu.yoko@jaea.go.jp [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan); Nishizawa, A.; Suzuki, M.; Ohwaki, Y.; Nishio, T. [Pesco Corp., Ltd., Toki, Gifu 509-5123 (Japan); Matsubara, A.; Saito, T.; Ishimaru, T.; Umeda, K.; Hanaki, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Toki, Gifu 509-5102 (Japan)

    2013-01-15

    The JAEA-AMS-TONO system is routinely used for {sup 14}C measurements at Tono Geoscience Center, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) and applied to neotectonics and hydrogeology, in support of research on geosphere stability applicable to the long-term isolation of high-level radioactive waste. {sup 10}Be AMS has been developed for geochronological studies to estimate sedimentation rates and exposure age of basement rocks, incorporating a gas ionization detector with a large-volume gas absorber cell. Test measurements on {sup 14}C and {sup 10}Be reference materials show the system's performance and suitability for application in the geosciences.

  8. Effects of the interaction between the magnetic moments of the proton and electron on the energy states of hydrogen atom

    CERN Document Server

    Dolocan, Voicu

    2014-01-01

    We make a comparison between the energy levels of the hydrogen atom, calculated by using standard methods, and that by using a modified Coulomb potential due to the interaction between the magnetic moments of the proton and electron. In this later method we use to ways. One is that in which we solve the Schroedinger equation with the modified Coulomb potential and some constraint conditions. The other is that in which we expand the modified Coulomb potential in Taylor series. The obtained results show that the first way gives a better agreement with experimental data.

  9. Observation of core-level binding energy shifts between (100) surface and bulk atoms of epitaxial CuInSe{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, A.J. [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States); Berry, G.; Rockett, A. [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Core-level and valence band photoemission from semiconductors has been shown to exhibit binding energy differences between surface atoms and bulk atoms, thus allowing one to unambiguously distinguish between the two atomic positions. Quite clearly, surface atoms experience a potential different from the bulk due to the lower coordination number - a characteristic feature of any surface is the incomplete atomic coordination. Theoretical accounts of this phenomena are well documented in the literature for III-V and II-VI semiconductors. However, surface state energies corresponding to the equilibrium geometry of (100) and (111) surfaces of Cu-based ternary chalcopyrite semiconductors have not been calculated or experimental determined. These compounds are generating great interest for optoelectronic and photovoltaic applications, and are an isoelectronic analog of the II-VI binary compound semiconductors. Surface core-level binding energy shifts depend on the surface cohesive energies, and surface cohesive energies are related to surface structure. For ternary compound semiconductor surfaces, such as CuInSe{sub 2}, one has the possibility of variations in surface stoichiometry. Applying standard thermodynamical calculations which consider the number of individual surface atoms and their respective chemical potentials should allow one to qualitatively determine the magnitude of surface core-level shifts and, consequently, surface state energies.

  10. Commission on Legal Matters

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    What is a commission within the Staff Association (SA)? A commission is a working group of the CERN Staff Council, led by a staff representative. The commission is composed mainly of staff representatives, but interested members of the SA can apply to participate in the work of a commission. What is the commission on legal matters? The commission on legal matters works on texts governing the employment conditions of staff (Employed Members of Personnel and Associated Members of Personnel). This covers legal documents such as the Staff Rules and Regulations, administrative and operational circulars, as well as any other document relating to employment conditions. How is the work organised in this commission? The revision process of the text is generally done along following lines: The HR department, and its legal experts, proposes new texts or modifications to existing texts. A schedule for the study of these texts is established each year and this calendar by the commission to plan its work. The new or modi...

  11. J-PARC Commissioning Results

    CERN Document Server

    Hasegawa, Kazuo

    2005-01-01

    The J-PARC (Japan Proton Accelerator Research Complex)comprises a 400-MeV linac, a 3-GeV rapid-cycling synchrotron (RCS), a 50-GeV main ring synchrotron (MR) and experimental facilities. A peak current of 30 mA was accelerated up to 20 MeV of the DTL beam commissioning at the KEK site. The buildings and conventional facilities will be completed in succession in the Japanese Fiscal Year 2005, when the installation of the accelerator components will be actually started at Tokai site. The beam commissioning of the 181 MeV linac will be started in September, 2006, followed by the RCS and MR beam commissioning. To achieve the high beam power with low beam loss, the J-PARC accelerators are based on many newly developed technologies; pi-mode stabilizing loops in the RFQ, RF choppers in the medium energy beam transport, magnetic alloy loaded RF cavities in the synchrotrons, etc. The recent results of the developments of these new technologies, the present construction status and the commissioning schedule will be pre...

  12. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Volume 43, No. 1, January 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLl), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, February 1996: Volume 43, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  14. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, April 1994. Volume 39, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-04-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  15. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Volume 38, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors; Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  16. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Volume 42, No. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  17. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuances. Volume 39, No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Director`s Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  18. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances. Volume 42, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (AU), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  19. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, December 1993. Volume 38, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (ALJ), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  20. Nuclear Regulatory Commission issuances, May 1995. Volume 41, No. 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (AU), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Decisions on Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  1. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Issuance. Volume 39, No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-01-01

    This report includes the issuances received during the specified period from the Commission (CLI), the Atomic Safety and Licensing Boards (LBP), the Administrative Law Judges (AU), the Directors` Decisions (DD), and the Denials of Petitions for Rulemaking (DPRM).

  2. Report of the French Energy Regulator on electricity interconnection management and use in 2006; Rapport de la Commission de Regulation de l'Energie sur la gestion et l'utilisation des interconnexions electriques en 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    This report aims at, first, evaluating the congestion management methods in force at interconnected power systems managed by the French transmission system operator RTE as required by article 1.10 of the guidelines of 1228/2003 European regulation which foresees that: 'the national regulation authorities regularly evaluates the congestion management methods, in particular by controlling the respect of rules and principles established by the European regulation, and of trends, modalities and conditions fixed by the regulation authorities according to the above principles and rules'. It aims also at sharing the opinions of the commission of energy regulation (CRE) with other European regulating authorities and with all stakeholders involved in the domestic power market, about the management and use of European power interconnections in 2006. Content: 1 - 2005-2006, the turning point for congestion management; 2 - consequences of 2055-2006 changes in interconnections with Germany, Belgium, Spain and Italy; 3 - further improvements still required: allocation system, capacity bids, short-term trades, capacity management in compliance with European law; 4 - conclusion: an indispensable regional approach. (J.S.)

  3. Atomic-resolution chemical mapping of ordered precipitates in Al alloys using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenner, Sigurd; Jones, Lewys; Marioara, Calin D; Holmestad, Randi

    2017-05-01

    Scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) is a common technique for chemical mapping in thin samples. Obtaining high-resolution elemental maps in the STEM is jointly dependent on stepping the sharply focused electron probe in a precise raster, on collecting a significant number of characteristic X-rays over time, and on avoiding damage to the sample. In this work, 80kV aberration-corrected STEM-EDS mapping was performed on ordered precipitates in aluminium alloys. Probe and sample instability problems are handled by acquiring series of annular dark-field (ADF) images and simultaneous EDS volumes, which are aligned and non-rigidly registered after acquisition. The summed EDS volumes yield elemental maps of Al, Mg, Si, and Cu, with sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise ratio to determine the elemental species of each atomic column in a periodic structure, and in some cases the species of single atomic columns. Within the uncertainty of the technique, S and β" phases were found to have pure elemental atomic columns with compositions Al2CuMg and Al2Mg5Si4, respectively. The Q' phase showed some variation in chemistry across a single precipitate, although the majority of unit cells had a composition Al6Mg6Si7.2Cu2.

  4. Nuclear Polarization Correction of Atomic Energy Levels%核极化对K-原子能级的修正

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王炳章; 游阳明; 张学龙

    2011-01-01

    基于SIC-Xα的较为严格的计算方法,对K-Pb原子体系中的Rydberg电子态的交换参数采用自洽场模型,并考虑Rydberg电子与原子实间相互作用的影响.借助此方法计算核极化用以修正C.J.Batty光学模型势下的K-Pb能级跃迁,整个计算过程不依赖任何经验参数,结果比经典方法更为精确,为奇异原子的深入分析提供了理论参考.%Based on the more stringent calculating method of SIC- Xα , the self-consistent field model is used to exchange parameters of Rydberg electron of K- Pb atoms, and the influence of the interaction between Rydberg electron and atomic kernel is considered. The nuclear polarization is calculated by using the method to correct K-Pb energy level transition under C. J. Battery optical model potential. The whole calculations is independent of empirical parameters. Its results are much more accurate than those calculated by the classical method, which provides a theoretical basis for the depth analysis of the exotic atoms.

  5. Calculation of activation energies for hydrogen-atom abstractions by radicals containing carbon triple bonds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, R. L.; Laufer, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    Activation energies are calculated by the bond-energy-bond-order (BEBO) and the bond-strength-bond-length (BSBL) methods for the reactions of C2H radicals with H2, CH4, and C2H6 and for the reactions of CN radicals with H2 and CH4. The BSBL technique accurately predicts the activation energies for these reactions while the BEBO method yields energies averaging 9 kcal higher than those observed. A possible reason for the disagreement is considered.

  6. LEIR commissioning successfully completed

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    An important milestone has been passed in the preparation of the injector complex to supply ions to the LHC experiments. The LEIR lead-ion beam, seen on one of the control screens just before the PS injection region. The Low-Energy Ion Ring - LEIR for short - has passed its first tests with flying colours. On 12 May, the ring that will accumulate lead ions for the LHC was shut down after seven months of tests (see Bulletin 44/2005). 'The commissioning phase was a resounding success,' enthuses a satisfied Michel Chanel, head of the LEIR construction project. After several months of fine-tuning, the LEIR team has achieved its aim of producing the kind of beam required for first lead-ion collisions in the LHC in 2008. This involved creating bunches containing 230 million ions, in line with the specifications for those first beams. This success can be put down to the machine's outstanding design and components. 'It's a great achivement by all the teams involved in the machine's construction,' underlines Christian...

  7. Commissioning the SNO+ detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descamps, Freija; SNO+ Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    The SNO+ experiment is the successor to the Sudbury Neutrino Observatory (SNO), in which SNO's heavy water is replaced by approximately 780T of liquid scintillator (LAB). The combination of the 2km underground location, the use of ultra-clean materials and the high light-yield of the liquid scintillator means that a low background level and a low energy threshold can be achieved. This creates a new multipurpose neutrino detector with the potential to address a diverse set of physics goals, including the detection of reactor, solar, geo- and supernova neutrinos. A main physics goal of SNO+ is the search for neutrinoless double beta decay. By loading the liquid scintillator with 0.5% of natural Tellurium, resulting in about 1300kg of 130Te (isotopic abundance is slightly over 34%), a competitive sensitivity to the effective neutrino mass can be reached. This talk will present the status of the SNO+ detector, specifically the results and status of the detector commissioning with water.

  8. 78 FR 66350 - Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-574); Comment Request

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-05

    ... companies file applications with the Commission furnishing information in order to facilitate a..., including the use of automated collection techniques or other forms of information technology. Dated... Energy Regulatory Commission Commission Information Collection Activities (FERC-574); Comment...

  9. Ionization and charge transfer in high-energy ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlachter, A.S.; Berkner, K.H.; Stearns, J.W.; Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Kelbch, S.; Ullrich, J.; Hagmann, S.; Richard, P.; Stockli, M.P.; Graham, W.G.

    1986-11-01

    Electron capture and loss by fast highly charged ions in a gas target, and ionization of the target by passage of the fast projectile beam, are fundamental processes in atomic physics. These processes, along with excitation, can be experimentally studied separately (''singles'') or together (''coincidence''). This paper is a review of recent results on singles measurements for electron capture and loss and for target ionization, for velocities which are generally high relative to the active electron, including recent ionization measurements for a nearly relativistic projectile. 11 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Low energy (anti)atoms for precision tests of basic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Silveira, D M; Veloso, M; Cesar, C L

    2001-01-01

    Recent advances in techniques to manipulate and study, with high precision, atomic hydrogen, from one hand, and successful trapping schemes for positrons and antiprotons, from the other hand, have encouraged the pursuit of experiments to test CPT violation and the weak equivalence principle (WEP) through the comparison of hydrogen and antihydrogen. A description of the hydrogen trap and laser system being built in Rio, to trap and perform high resolution spectroscopy on cold hydrogen, is presented along with a discussion on the techniques and experimental system being implemented by the ATHENA collaboration at CERN to produce cold antihydrogen. A new technique to make a cold antihydrogen beam is proposed. (25 refs).

  11. Calibration of a new experimental chamber for PIXE analysis at the Accelerator Facilities Division of Atomic Energy Centre Dhaka (AECD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, Md. Taufique, E-mail: thassan@tulane.edu [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh); Shariff, Md. Asad [Tandem Accelerator Facilities division, INST, AERE, Savar (Bangladesh); Hossein, Amzad; Abedin, Md. Joynal [Accelerator Facilities division, AECD (Bangladesh); Fazlul Hoque, A.K.M. [Daffodil International University, Dhaka (Bangladesh); Chowdhuri, M.S. [Department of Physics, University of Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2015-05-01

    A new experimental chamber has been installed at the 3 MV Van de Graaff Accelerator Facilities Division in the Atomic Energy Centre, Dhaka, to perform different Ion Beam Analysis (IBA) techniques. The calibration of this new setup for Particle Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) technique has been done using a set of thin MicroMatter standards and GUPIX (PIXE spectrum analysis software), which is explicated in this paper. The effective thicknesses of the beryllium window of the X-ray detector and of the different absorbers used were determined. For standardization, the so called instrumental constant H (product of detector solid angle and the correction factor for the setup) as function of X-ray energy were determined and stored inside the GUPIX library for further PIXE analysis.

  12. Incipient manifestation of the shell structure of atoms within the WDA model for the exchange and kinetic energy density functionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glossman, M. D.; Balbás, L. C.; Alonso, J. A.

    1995-07-01

    The radial electron density obtained for all the atoms of the main groups of the Periodic Table through the solution of the Euler equation associated with the nonlocal weighted density approximation (WDA) for the exchange and kinetic energy density functionals shows an incipient shell structure which is absent in other calculations using kinetic energy functionals based on the electronic density. The WDA radial density reveals two local maxima and the position of the first maximum correlates with the position of the maximum for the 1s orbital in the Hartree-Fock approximation. The cusp condition at the nucleus is fulfilled accurately. Also we study the density-based electron localization function (DELF) as a complementary procedure for the visualization of shells.

  13. Spectral and Atomic Physics Analysis of Xenon L-Shell Emission From High Energy Laser Produced Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Daniel; Kemp, G. E.; Widmann, K.; Benjamin, R. D.; May, M. J.; Colvin, J. D.; Barrios, M. A.; Fournier, K. B.; Liedahl, D.; Moore, A. S.; Blue, B. E.

    2016-10-01

    The spectrum of the L-shell (n =2) radiation in mid to high-Z ions is useful for probing plasma conditions in the multi-keV temperature range. Xenon in particular with its L-shell radiation centered around 4.5 keV is copiously produced from plasmas with electron temperatures in the 5-10 keV range. We report on a series of time-resolved L-shell Xe spectra measured with the NIF X-ray Spectrometer (NXS) in high-energy long-pulse (>10 ns) laser produced plasmas at the National Ignition Facility. The resolving power of the NXS is sufficiently high (E/ ∂E >100) in the 4-5 keV spectral band that the emission from different charge states is observed. An analysis of the time resolved L-shell spectrum of Xe is presented along with spectral modeling by detailed radiation transport and atomic physics from the SCRAM code and comparison with predictions from HYDRA a radiation-hydrodynamics code with inline atomic-physics from CRETIN. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  14. Angular distribution of sputtered atoms induced by low-energy heavy ion bombardment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lai; ZHANG Zhu-Lin

    2004-01-01

    The sputtering yield angular distributions have been calculated based on the ion energy dependence of total sputtering yields for Ni and Motargets bombarded by low-energy Hg+ ion. The calculated curves show excellent agreement with the corresponding Wehner's experimental results of sputtering yield angular distribution. The fact clearly demonstrated the intrinsic relation between the ion energy dependence of total sputtering yields and the sputtering yield angular distribution. This intrinsic relation had been ignored in Yamamura's papers (1981,1982) due to some obvious mistakes.

  15. Prediction of Tetraoxygen Reaction Mechanism with Sulfur Atom on the Singlet Potential Energy Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Khademzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanism of S+O4 (D2h reaction has been investigated at the B3LYP/6-311+G(3df and CCSD levels on the singlet potential energy surface. One stable complex has been found for the S+O4 (D2h reaction, IN1, on the singlet potential energy surface. For the title reaction, we obtained four kinds of products at the B3LYP level, which have enough thermodynamic stability. The results reveal that the product P3 is spontaneous and exothermic with −188.042 and −179.147 kcal/mol in Gibbs free energy and enthalpy of reaction, respectively. Because P1 adduct is produced after passing two low energy level transition states, kinetically, it is the most favorable adduct in the 1S+1O4 (D2h atmospheric reactions.

  16. Long-range correlation energy calculated from coupled atomic response functions

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosetti, Alberto; DiStasio, Robert A; Tkatchenko, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    An accurate determination of the electron correlation energy is essential for describing the structure, stability, and function in a wide variety of systems, ranging from gas-phase molecular assemblies to condensed matter and organic/inorganic interfaces. Even small errors in the correlation energy can have a large impact on the description of chemical and physical properties in the systems of interest. In this context, the development of efficient approaches for the accurate calculation of the long-range correlation energy (and hence dispersion) is the main challenge. In the last years a number of methods have been developed to augment density functional approximations via dispersion energy corrections, but most of these approaches ignore the intrinsic many-body nature of correlation effects, leading to inconsistent and sometimes even qualitatively incorrect predictions. Here we build upon the recent many-body dispersion (MBD) framework, which is intimately linked to the random-phase approximation for the co...

  17. Energy Quantization and Probability Density of Electron in Intense-Field-Atom Interactions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    敖淑艳; 程太旺; 李晓峰; 吴令安; 付盘铭

    2003-01-01

    We find that, due to the quantum correlation between the electron and the field, the electronic energy becomes quantized also, manifesting the particle aspect of light in the electron-light interaction. The probability amplitude of finding electron with a given energy is given by a generalized Bessel function, which can be represented as a coherent superposition of contributions from a few electronic quantum trajectories. This concept is illustrated by comparing the spectral density of the electron with the laser assisted recombination spectrum.

  18. Opportunities for the compensation of the fluctuation feed-in from renewable energy sources. Study commissioned by the German Renewable Energy Federation; Moeglichkeiten zum Ausgleich Fluktuierender Einspeisungen aus Erneuerbaren Energien. Studie im Auftrag des Bundesverbandes Erneuerbare Energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krzikalla, Norbert; Achner, Siggi; Bruehl, Stefan [BET Buero fuer Energiewirtschaft und technische Planung GmbH, Aachen (Germany)

    2013-05-01

    The platform 'system transformation' of the German Renewable Energy Federation (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) accompanies the forthcoming restructuring of the energy supply towards 100 percent renewable energy. The previous discussions of this platform provided two results: the fluctuating renewable energies must be placed at the center of considerations in order to enable a sustainable system design and market design. Furthermore, the question of how the fluctuating feed-in from renewable energy sources can be compensated has to be answered. Under this aspect, the contribution under consideration reports on these compensation options. There are different flexibility options available in order to create a safe, environmentally sustainable and affordable energy system.

  19. A general discrete variable method to calculate vibrational energy levels of three- and four-atom molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramley, Matthew J.; Carrington, Tucker, Jr.

    1993-12-01

    We present a general variational method to calculate vibrational energy levels of polyatomic molecules without dynamical approximation. The method is based on a Lanczos algorithm, which does not require storage of the Hamiltonian matrix. The rate-determining step of each Lanczos iteration is the evaluation of the product of the matrix and a trial vector. We use simple product basis functions and write the Hamiltonian as a sum of factorizable terms. With n one-dimensional functions in each of f dimensions, the matrix-vector product requires no more than cnf+1 multiplications for a single term involving c coordinates. Choosing a (potential optimized) discrete variable representation (DVR) in each dimension, the potential energy matrix is diagonal. The rate-determining step is now the multiplication of a vector by the kinetic energy matrix and c is effectively (with rare exceptions) at most two. The nf+1 scaling holds for both diagonal and mixed second derivative operators. The method is directly applicable to any three-atom and any nonlinear four-atom molecule. We use a variety of coordinate systems (Jacobi, Radau, a hybrid of the two, and bond), for which the total number of factorizable terms in the exact kinetic energy operator is never large, to calculate very well-converged band origins of H2O up to 22 000 cm-1, of H+3 up to 18 000 cm-1, and of CH2O up to 5700 cm-1; and low-lying levels of H2O2. The results for CH2O are new, and those for H+3 clarify the causes of discrepancies in published work. The product basis results in very large matrices (up to 500 000×500 000 for four atoms), but the cost is within an order of magnitude of that of contracted-basis approaches using explicit diagonalization. While contracted basis approaches are molecule and Hamiltonian specific, it was possible to apply the DVR-Lanczos method to all the examples presented here with a single computer program. The principal advantage of our method is thus its generality, and in this

  20. The H + OCS hot atom reaction - CO state distributions and translational energy from time-resolved infrared absorption spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickolaisen, Scott L.; Cartland, Harry E.

    1993-01-01

    Time-resolved infrared diode laser spectroscopy has been used to probe CO internal and translational excitation from the reaction of hot H atoms with OCS. Product distributions should be strongly biased toward the maximum 1.4 eV collision energy obtained from 278 nm pulsed photolysis of HI. Rotations and vibrations are both colder than predicted by statistical density of states theory, as evidenced by large positive surprisal parameters. The bias against rotation is stronger than that against vibration, with measurable population as high as v = 4. The average CO internal excitation is 1920/cm, accounting for only 13 percent of the available energy. Of the energy balance, time-resolved sub-Doppler line shape measurements show that more than 38 percent appears as relative translation of the separating CO and SH fragments. Studies of the relaxation kinetics indicate that some rotational energy transfer occurs on the time scale of our measurements, but the distributions do not relax sufficiently to alter our conclusions. Vibrational distributions are nascent, though vibrational relaxation of excited CO is unusually fast in the OCS bath, with rates approaching 3 percent of gas kinetic for v = 1.

  1. Development of electrostatic supercapacitors by atomic layer deposition on nanoporous anodic aluminium oxides for energy harvesting applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia eIglesias

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanomaterials can provide innovative solutions for solving the usual energy harvesting and storage drawbacks that take place in conventional energy storage devices based on batteries or electrolytic capacitors, because they are not fully capable for attending the fast energy demands and high power densities required in many of present applications. Here, we report on the development and characterization of novel electrostatic supercapacitors made by conformal Atomic Layer Deposition on the high open surface of nanoporous anodic alumina membranes employed as templates. The structure of the designed electrostatic supercapacitor prototype consists of successive layers of Aluminium doped Zinc Oxide, as the bottom and top electrodes, together Al2O3 as the intermediate dielectric layer. The conformality of the deposited conductive and dielectric layers, together with their composition and crystalline structure have been checked by XRD and electron microscopy techniques. Impedance measurements performed for the optimized electrostatic supercapacitor device give a high capacitance value of 200 µF/cm2 at the frequency of 40 Hz, which confirms the theoretical estimations for such kind of prototypes, and the leakage current reaches values around of 1.8 mA/cm2 at 1 V. The high capacitance value achieved by the supercapacitor prototype together its small size turns these devices in outstanding candidates for using in energy harvesting and storage applications.

  2. Theoretical characterization of the potential energy surface for H + O2 yields HO2(asterisk) yields HO + O. II - The potential for H atom exchange in HO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    The results of CASSCF multireference contracted CI calculations with large ANO basis sets are presented for the exchange region of the HO2 potential-energy surface. The saddle point for H atom exchange is about 13 kcal/mol below the energy of H + O2; therefore, this region of the surface should be accessible during H + O2 recombination and methathesis reactions.

  3. The dependence of the atomic energy levels on a superstrong magnetic field with account of a finite nucleus radius and mass

    CERN Document Server

    Godunov, S I

    2013-01-01

    The influence of the finiteness of the proton radius and mass on the energies of a hydrogen atom and hydrogen-like ions in a superstrong magnetic field is studied. The finiteness of the nucleus size pushes the ground energy level up leading to a nontrivial dependence of the value of critical nucleus charge on the external magnetic field.

  4. A model for environmental scanning oriented for the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN); Um modelo de monitoramento ambiental (environmental scanning) orientado para o planejamento estrategico da CNEN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braga, Fabiane dos Reis

    1997-07-01

    Presently, all the organizations involved with nuclear activities must be one step ahead of what happens in the specific activity areas in order to avoid surprises, to guarantee their activity continuity and the objective extents, and taking into account the external environment influence exercised by the organization on their activities. So, it is necessary a continuous follow up of their transformations. This paper aims to structure a model of the environmental monitoring system oriented to the strategic planning of the Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission, as function of that new informational needs viewing the fulfilment of that observed gap. (author)

  5. Atomic phase diagram

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shichun

    2004-01-01

    Based on the Thomas-Fermi-Dirac-Cheng model, atomic phase diagram or electron density versus atomic radius diagram describing the interaction properties of atoms of different kinds in equilibrium state is developed. Atomic phase diagram is established based on the two-atoms model. Besides atomic radius, electron density and continuity condition for electron density on interfaces between atoms, the lever law of atomic phase diagram involving other physical parameters is taken into account, such as the binding energy, for the sake of simplicity.

  6. Physical and chemical nature of the scaling relations between adsorption energies of atoms on metal surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calle-Vallejo, F.; Martínez, J. I.; García Lastra, Juan Maria;

    2012-01-01

    phenomenon between any set of adsorbates bound similarly to the surface. On the example of the near-surface alloys of Pt, we show that scalability is a result of identical variations of adsorption energies with respect to the valence configuration of both the surface components and the adsorbates....

  7. Examining Pre-Service Teachers' Use of Atomic Models in Explaining Subsequent Ionisation Energy Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeldon, Ruth

    2012-01-01

    Chemistry students' explanations of ionisation energy phenomena often involve a number of non-scientific or inappropriate ideas being used to form causality arguments. Research has attributed this to many science teachers using these ideas themselves (Tan and Taber, in "J Chem Educ" 86(5):623-629, 2009). This research extends this work by…

  8. Division A Commission 31: Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosokawa, Mizuhiko; Arias, Elisa Felicitas; Manchester, Richard; Tuckey, Philip; Matsakis, Demetrios; Zhang, Shougang; Zharov, Vladimir

    2016-04-01

    Time is an essential element of fundamental astronomy. In recent years there have been many time-related issues, in scientific and technological aspects as well as in conventions and definitions. At the Commission 31 (Time) business meeting at the XXIX General Assembly, recent progress and many topics, including Pulsar Time Scales WG and Future UTC WG activities, were reviewed and discussed. In this report, we will review the progress of these topics in the past three years. There are many remarkable topics, such as Time scales, Atomic clock development, Time transfer, Future UTC and future redefinition of the second. Among them, scientific highlights are the progress of pulsar time scales and the optical frequency standards. On the other hand, as the social convention, change in the definition of UTC and the second is important.

  9. Study of energy consumption in agriculture. An project commissioned by the Board of Agriculture; Kartlaeggning av jordbrukets energianvaendning. Ett projekt utfoert paa uppdrag av Jordbruksverket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baky, Andras; Sundberg, Martin; Brown, Nils

    2010-07-01

    JTI has, on behalf of the Swedish Board of Agriculture, conducted a study on energy consumption in agriculture. The study also proposes measures to reduce the energy use and includes an outlook towards the future of the Swedish agricultural development. The study is limited to the use of fuel and electricity used for field-work and in farm work and energy for heating. Energy for heating of residential buildings and drying is not included in the mandate. The Swedish agricultural uses about 3.11 TWh of energy in the form of gas, electricity, oil and biofuels, not including drying and greenhouses. In addition, approx. 3.64 TWh of energy are consumed indirectly, 2.31 TWh of which from fertilizer use. The Swedish agriculture is moving towards fewer but larger farms. The number of enterprises has decreased from 26000 in year 2005 to 21700 in 2009. Increased energy production, both as a supplier of raw materials and recipients of products means that energy use is affected. In the future energy use will probably be affected by an increase in farm-based production of energy, primarily biogas for cogeneration. The variations in estimates of energy use are large, and agriculture's total energy use can vary between 1.64 TWh to 4.04 TWh, depending on the data sets used. Since the use of diesel dominate over the use of electricity, it is interesting to focus on reducing diesel consumption. Field work and harvest are the activities where the largest consumption of diesel is made. Measures can be taken are primarily farmers are running in a more energy efficient way. Other measures are: Reduced tillage; Replacing transport with tractor-trailer by truck; Transport of manure with other equipment than their own spreader; Livestock use of energy is primarily electricity for lighting, ventilation, distribution, cleaning, feeding, etc. The largest variations in energy use are associated with animal husbandry. It is difficult to generally comment on actions in order to reduce energy

  10. High Energy Positrons and Gamma Radiation from Decaying Constituents of a two-component Dark Atom Model

    CERN Document Server

    Belotsky, K; Kouvaris, C; Laletin, M

    2015-01-01

    We study a two component dark matter candidate inspired by the Minimal Walking Technicolor model. Dark matter consists of a dominant SIMP-like dark atom component made of bound states between primordial helium nuclei and a doubly charged technilepton, and a small WIMP-like component made of another dark atom bound state between a doubly charged technibaryon and a technilepton. This scenario is consistent with direct search experimental findings because the dominant SIMP component interacts too strongly to reach the depths of current detectors with sufficient energy to recoil and the WIMP-like component is too small to cause significant amount of events. In this context a metastable technibaryon that decays to $e^+e^+$, $\\mu^+ \\mu^+$ and $\\tau^+ \\tau^+$ can in principle explain the observed positron excess by AMS-02 and PAMELA, while being consistent with the photon flux observed by FERMI/LAT. We scan the parameters of the model and we find the best possible fit to the latest experimental data. We find that th...

  11. Electromagnetic energy as a bridge between atomic and cellular levels in the genetics approach to cancer treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tofani, Santi

    2015-01-01

    Literature on magnetic fields (MF) and gene expression, as well as on DNA damage, supports the hypothesis that electromagnetic energy may act at atomic level influencing genetic stability. According to quantum physics, MF act on the interconversion of singlet and triplet spin states, and therefore on genetic instability, activating oxidative processes connected to biological free radicals formation, particularly ROS. In the above frame, the results of in vitro and in vivo laboratory trials have been analyzed. The use of a static MF amplitude modulated by 50 Hz MF, with a time average total intensity of 5.5 mT, has been shown to influence tumor cell functions such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, p53 expression, inhibition of tumor growth and prolongation of survival in animals, evidence that MF can be more effective than chemotherapy (cyclophosphamide) in inhibiting metastatic spread and growth, having synergistic activity with chemotherapy (Cis-platin), and no observable side effects or toxicity in animals or in humans. The beneficial biological/clinical effects observed, without any adverse effects, have been confirmed by various authors and augur well for the potentiality of this new approach to treat genetically based diseases like cancer. Further studies are needed to develop a quantum physics approach to biology, allowing a stable bridge to be built between atomic and cellular levels, therefore developing quantum biology.

  12. Evaluation of Orbital-and Ground State Energies of Some Open-and Closed-Shell Atoms over Integer and Noninteger Slater Type Orbitals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAKAR,Yusuf

    2007-01-01

    Ab initio calculations of the orbital and the ground state energies of some open- and closed-shell atoms over Slater type orbitals with quantum numbers integer and Slater type orbitals with quantum numbers noninteger have been performed. In order to increase the efficiency of these calculations the atomic two-electron integrals were expressed in terms of incomplete beta function. Results were observed to be in good agreement with the literature.

  13. Calculated dipole moment and energy in collision of a hydrogen molecule and a hydrogen atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patch, R. W.

    1973-01-01

    Calculations were carried out using three Slater-type 1s orbitals in the orthogonalized valencebond theory of McWeeny. Each orbital exponent was optimized, the H2 internuclear distance was varied from 7.416 x 10 to the -11th power to 7.673 x 10 to the -11th power m (1.401 to 1.450 bohrs). The intermolecular distance was varied from 1 to 4 bohrs (0.5292 to 2.117 x 10 to the 10th power). Linear, scalene, and isosceles configurations were used. A weighted average of the interaction energies was taken for each intermolecular distance. Although energies are tabulated, the principal purpose was to calculate the electric dipole moment and its derivative with respect to H2 internuclear distance.

  14. Theoretical Investigation of Energy Storage in Atomic and Molecular Systems: Metastable Molecular Fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    et aL’ have reported There is considerable intrinsic interest in understanding experimental evidence by neutralization- reionization spec- novel...energy content are ever, from an independent neutralization- reionization ex- of potential practical significance for the development of Ijeriment... reionization mass spectra. A sdbse- part of the OH-H 2 potential has been considered by Ko- 2376 J. Chem Phys, 91 (4). 15 August 1 989 A-2 1 989 Aerfcan

  15. Information report made on behalf of the commission of economic affairs and of the plan, and of the energy study group, about the proceedings of the colloquium: 'energy: which French policy for the next legislative body?' organized by the Senate on June 26, 2002; Rapport d'information fait au nom de la commission des affaires economiques et du plan (1) et du groupe d'etude de l'energie (2) sur les actes du colloque energie: quelle politique francaise pour la prochaine legislature? organise par le senat le 26 juin 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    This report presents the proceedings of the colloquium organized by the commission of economic affairs of the French Senate and by the energy study group. It submits some questions in order to outline the options offered by the public authorities and the choices susceptible to be done by Electricite de France (EdF) and Gaz de France (GdF) in the framework of the European opening of energy markets in 2005. The future adaptation of the two public companies to this new organization is analyzed and the objectives and limits to assign to this European opening are discussed. (J.S.)

  16. Low-energy quantum dynamics of atoms at defects; interstitial oxygen in silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Rafael; Herrero, Carlos P.; Artacho, Emilio; Ynduráin, Félix

    1997-04-01

    The problem of the low-energy highly anharmonic quantum dynamics of isolated impurities in solids is addressed by using path-integral Monte Carlo simulations. Interstitial oxygen in silicon is studied as a prototypical example showing such a behaviour. The assignment of a `geometry' to the defect is discussed. Depending on the potential (or on the impurity mass), there is a `classical' regime, where the maximum probability density for the oxygen nucleus is at the potential minimum. There is another regime, associated with highly anharmonic potentials, where this is not the case. The two regimes are separated by a sharp transition. Also, the decoupling of the many-nuclei problem into a one-body Hamiltonian to describe the low-energy dynamics is studied. The adiabatic potential obtained from the relaxation of all of the other degrees of freedom at each value of the coordinate associated with the low-energy motion gives the best approximation to the full many-nuclei problem.

  17. A stepwise atomic, valence-molecular, and full-molecular optimisation of the Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansík, Branislav; Høst, Stinne; Johansson, Mikael P; Olsen, Jeppe; Jørgensen, Poul; Helgaker, Trygve

    2009-07-21

    A hierarchical optimisation strategy has been introduced for minimising the Hartree-Fock/Kohn-Sham energy, consisting of three levels (3L): an atom-in-a-molecule optimisation, a valence-basis molecular optimisation, and a full-basis molecular optimisation. The density matrix formed at one level is used as a starting density matrix at the next level with no loss of information. To ensure a fast and reliable convergence to a minimum, the augmented Roothaan-Hall (ARH) algorithm is used in both the valence-basis and full-basis molecular optimisations. The performance of the ARH-3L method is compared with standard optimisation algorithms. Both for efficiency and reliability, we recommend to use the ARH-3L algorithm.

  18. Iterative inversion of global magnetospheric information from energy neutral atom (ENA) images recorded by the TC-2/NUADU instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.; MCKENNA-LAWLOR; S.; BARABASH; J.; BALAZ

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for retrieving the magnetospheric ion distribution from En-ergetic Neutral Atom (ENA) measurements made by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft. Based on the already well-established method of constrained lin-ear inversion, an iterance technique suitable for the low count ENA measurements has been developed which is tolerant of the noise background. By the iterance technique, it is possible for the first time to simultaneously retrieve the magneto-spheric ion distribution and the exospheric neutral density, and further to recover global ENA emissions in three dimensions. The technique is applied to a repre-sentative ENA image recorded in energy channel 2 (protons: 50―81 keV) of the NUADU instrument during a major geomagnetic storm and it is, thereby, shown that the retrieval method developed provides a useful tool for extracting ion distribution information from ENA data.

  19. Iterative inversion of global magnetospheric information from energy neutral atom (ENA)images recorded by the TC-2/NUADU instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Li; S. MCKENNA-LAWLOR; S. BARABASH; J. BALAZ; LIU ZhenXing; SHEN Chao; CAO JinBin; ANG ChaoLing

    2008-01-01

    A method is presented for retrieving the magnetospheric ion distribution from En-ergetic Neutral Atom (ENA) measurements made by the NUADU instrument on the TC-2 spacecraft. Based on the already well-established method of constrained lin-ear inversion, an iterance technique suitable for the low count ENA measurements has been developed which is tolerant of the noise background. By the iterance technique, it is possible for the first time to simultaneously retrieve the magneto-spheric ion distribution and the exospheric neutral density, and further to recover global ENA emissions in three dimensions. The technique is applied to a repre-sentative ENA image recorded in energy channel 2 (protons: 50-81 keV) of the NUADU instrument during a major geomagnetic storm and it is, thereby, shown that the retrieval method developed provides a useful tool for extracting ion distribution information from ENA data.

  20. Development of the negative ion beams relevant to ITER and JT-60SA at Japan Atomic Energy Agency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanada, M., E-mail: hanada.masaya@jaea.go.jp; Kojima, A.; Tobari, H.; Nishikiori, R.; Hiratsuka, J.; Kashiwagi, M.; Umeda, N.; Yoshida, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Watanabe, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 801-1 Mukouyama, Naka-shi, Ibaraki-ken 319-0913 (Japan); Yamano, Y. [Saitama University, Saitama, Saitama-ken 338-8570 (Japan); Grisham, L. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    In order to realize negative ion sources and accelerators to be applicable to International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor and JT-60 Super Advanced, a large cesium (Cs)-seeded negative ion source and a multi-aperture and multi-stage electric acceleration have been developed at Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). Long pulse production and acceleration of the negative ion beams have been independently carried out. The long pulse production of the high current beams has achieved 100 s at the beam current of 15 A by modifying the JT-60 negative ion source. The pulse duration time is increased three times longer than that before the modification. As for the acceleration, a pulse duration time has been also extended two orders of magnitudes from 0.4 s to 60 s. The developments of the negative ion source and acceleration at JAEA are well in progress towards the realization of the negative ion sources and accelerators for fusion applications.