WorldWideScience

Sample records for atomic emission spectrometer

  1. Upgradation of an Apple IIe based DC arc atomic emission spectrometer to a PC based system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sampathkumar, R.; Ravindranath, S.V.G.; Patil, P.B.; Deshpande, S.S.; Saha, T.K.; Handu, V.K.

    2004-01-01

    The analysis of Uranium metal and its compounds used as reactor fuel for the presence of impurities especially Cd and B which have a high neutron capture cross section is routinely performed in Spectroscopy Division. The DC Arc Atomic Emission Spectrometer in the Division was employing an Apple IIe computer for performing the control and data acquisition jobs. The system was upgraded to a PC based data acquisition system and the necessary software to perform the spectro chemical analysis has been developed. This becomes necessary in a scenario where the commercially available Atomic Emission Spectrometers are no longer equipped with DC arc source. Also the Apple IIe computer which was performing the control and data acquisition has gone obsolete and its spares are no longer available. Therefore, to derive the benefits of using DC arc as excitation source the system was upgraded to a PC based system. This paper describes the upgraded system and the various software features relating to the mode of data acquisition, method of analysis, data processing etc. implemented as required by the analysts. (author)

  2. Double differential distributions of electron emission in ion-atom and electron-atom collisions using an electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Misra, Deepankar; Thulasiram, K.V.; Fernandes, W.; Kelkar, Aditya H.; Kadhane, U.; Kumar, Ajay; Singh, Yeshpal; Gulyas, L.; Tribedi, Lokesh C.

    2009-01-01

    We study electron emission from atoms and molecules in collisions with fast electrons and heavy ions (C 6+ ). The soft collision electrons (SE), two center electron emission (TCEE), the binary encounter (BE) events and the KLL Auger lines along with the elastically scattered peaks (in electron collisions) are studied using a hemispherical electrostatic electron analyzer. The details of the measurements along with description of the spectrometer and data acquisition system are given. The angular distributions of the low energy (few eV) electrons in soft collisions and the binary encounter electrons at keV energies are compared with quantum mechanical models based on the first Born (B1) and the continuum distorted wave-Eikonal initial state approximation (CDW-EIS).

  3. Leaching of heavy metals from contaminated soils using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) and atomic absorption spectrometer (AAS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, Z.; Islam, M.

    2010-01-01

    The clean-up of soils contaminated with heavy metals is one of the most difficult tasks for environmental engineering. Heavy metals are highly persistent in soil and a number of techniques have been developed that aim to remove heavy metals from contaminated soil. A method has been adopted to evaluate dynamic leaching of metal contaminants from industrial soil samples obtained from textile industrial sites in Lahore, Pakistan. In the extraction procedures employed five different leaching liquors were used: 0.01 M CaCl/sub 2/, 1 M HNO/sub 3/, a 1:1 mixture of 0.1M HCl and 0.1M NaCl, 0.01 M EDTA and pH controlled 0.5 M acetic acid. The qualitative and quantitative analyses were carried out by Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometer (ICP-OES). The results indicate that Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe and As were extracted in the soil samples in varying concentration when using the different leach liquors. The predominant metals which were leached were As 78.7 ng/ml in 0.01 M EDTA; Zn 1.81 mu g/ml and Fe 898.96 macro g/ml in HNO/sub 3/. (author)

  4. Mobile environment for an emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radziak, Kamil; Litwin, Dariusz; Galas, Jacek; Tyburska-Staniewska, Anna; Ramsza, Andrzej

    2017-08-01

    The paper describes a mobile application to be used in a chemical analytical laboratory. The program running under the control of Android operating system allows for preview of measurements recorded by the emission spectrometer. Another part of the application monitors operational and configuration parameters of the device in real time. The first part of this paper includes an overview of the atomic spectrometry. The second part contains a description of the application and its further potential development direction.

  5. Atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrew, K. H.

    1975-01-01

    The relationship between the Slater-Condon theory and the conditions within the atom as revealed by experimental data was investigated. The first spectrum of Si, Rb, Cl, Br, I, Ne, Ar, and Xe-136 and the second spectrum of As, Cu, and P were determined. Methods for assessing the phase stability of fringe counting interferometers and the design of an autoranging scanning system for digitizing the output of an infrared spectrometer and recording it on magnetic tape are described.

  6. Calcium Atom Trap for Atom Trap Mass Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kwang Hoon; Park, Hyun Min; Han, Jae Min; Kim, Taek Soo; Cha, Yong Ho; Lim, Gwon; Jeong, Do Young [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    Trace isotope analysis has been an important role in science, archaeological dating, geology, biology and nuclear industry. Artificially produced fission products such as Sr-90, Cs-135 and Kr-85 can be released to the environment when nuclear accident occurs and the reprocessing factory operates. Thus, the analysis of them has been of interest in nuclear industry. But it is difficult to detect them due to low natural abundance less then 10-10. The ultra-trace radio isotopes have been analyzed by the radio-chemical method, accelerator mass spectrometer, and laser based method. The radiochemical method has been used in the nuclear industry. But this method has disadvantages of long measurement time for long lived radioisotopes and toxic chemical process for the purification. The accelerator mass spectrometer has high isotope selectivity, but the system is huge and it has the isobar effects. The laser based method, such as RIMS (Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometry) is a basically isobar-effect free method. Recently, ATTA (Atom Trap Trace Analysis), one of the laser based method, has been successfully demonstrated sufficient isotope selectivity with small system size. It has been applied for the detection of Kr-81 and Kr-85. However, it is not suitable for real sample detection, because it requires steady atomic beam generation during detection and is not allowed simultaneous detection of other isotopes. Therefore, we proposed the coupled method of Atom Trap and Mass Spectrometer. It consists of three parts, neutral atom trap, ionization and mass spectrometer. In this paper, we present the demonstration of the magneto-optical trap of neutral calcium. We discuss the isotope selective characteristics of the MOT (Magneto Optical Trap) of calcium by the fluorescence measurement. In addition, the frequency stabilization of the trap beam will be presented

  7. Field electron emission spectrometer combined with field ion/electron microscope as a field emission laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shkuratov, S.I.; Ivanov, S.N.; Shilimanov, S.N.

    1996-01-01

    The facility, combining the field ion microscope, field electron emission microscope and field electron emission spectrometer, is described. Combination of three methodologies makes it possible to carry out the complete cycle of emission studies. Atom-plane and clean surface of the studied samples is prepared by means of field evaporation of the material atom layers without any thermal and radiation impact. This enables the study of atom and electron structure of clean surface of the wide range materials, the study whereof through the field emission methods was previously rather difficult. The temperature of the samples under study changes from 75 up to 2500 K. The energy resolution of the electron analyzer equals 30 MeV. 19 refs., 10 figs

  8. Spontaneous emission by moving atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meystre, P.; Wilkens, M.

    1994-01-01

    It is well known that spontaneous emission is not an intrinsic atomic property, but rather results from the coupling of the atom to the vacuum modes of the electromagnetic field. As such, it can be modified by tailoring the electromagnetic environment into which the atom can radiate. This was already realized by Purcell, who noted that the spontaneous emission rate can be enhanced if the atom placed inside a cavity is resonant with one of the cavity is resonant with one of the cavity modes, and by Kleppner, who discussed the opposite case of inhibited spontaneous emission. It has also been recognized that spontaneous emission need not be an irreversible process. Indeed, a system consisting of a single atom coupled to a single mode of the electromagnetic field undergoes a periodic exchange of excitation between the atom and the field. This periodic exchange remains dominant as long as the strength of the coupling between the atom and a cavity mode is itself dominant. 23 refs., 6 figs

  9. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio

    2010-04-15

    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Atom-probe field-ion-microscope mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Osamu

    1983-01-01

    The titled analyzer, called simply atom-probe, has been developed by combining a field ion microscope (FIM) and a mass spectrometer, and is divided into the time-of-flight type, magnetic sector type, and quadrupole type depending on the types of mass spectrometers. In this paper, the author first describes on the principle and construction of a high resolution, time-of-flight atom-probe developed and fabricated in his laboratory. The feature of the atom-probe lies in the analysis of atoms and molecules in hyper-fine structure region one by one utilizing the high resolution of FIM. It also has the advantages of directly determining the composition by a ratio of the numbers of respective ions because of a constant detection sensitivity regardless of mass numbers, of the resolution as high as single atom layer in depth direction, and of detecting the positional relationship among detected ions by the order of detection in a sample. To determine the composition in a hyperfine structure region, the limited small number of atoms and molecules in the region must be identified distinctly one by one. In the analyzed result of Ni-silicide formed by heating Si evaporated on a Ni tip at 1000 K for 5 minutes, each isotope was not only clearly separated, but also their abundance ratio was very close to the natural abundance ratio. The second half of the paper reports on the analysis of TiC promising for a cold cathode material, adsorption of CO and alcohol, and the composition and structure of silicides, as a few application examples. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Flame emission, atomic absorption and fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horlick, G.

    1980-01-01

    Six hundred and thirty references are cited in this review. The information in the review is divided into 12 major areas: books, reviews, and bibliographies; fundamental studies in flames; developments in instrumentation; measurement techniques and procedure; flame emission spectrometry; flame atomic absorption spectrometry; flame molecular absorption spectrometry; electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectroscopy; hydride generation techniques; graphite furnace atomic emission spectrometry; atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and analytical comparisons

  12. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-12-31

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , {approximately} 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ``Sun-Earth Connections`` science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science.

  13. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.

    1997-01-01

    The Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) mission provides a new capability for stereoscopically imaging the magnetosphere. By imaging the charge exchange neutral atoms over a broad energy range (1 < E , ∼ 100 keV) using two identical instruments on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination spacecraft, TWINS will enable the 3-dimensional visualization and the resolution of large scale structures and dynamics within the magnetosphere for the first time. These observations will provide a leap ahead in the understanding of the global aspects of the terrestrial magnetosphere and directly address a number of critical issues in the ''Sun-Earth Connections'' science theme of the NASA Office of Space Science

  14. Two wide-angle imaging neutral-atom spectrometers (TWINS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McComas, D.J.; Blake, B.; Burch, J.

    1998-01-01

    Two Wide-angle Imaging Neutral-atom Spectrometers (TWINS) is a revolutionary new mission designed to stereoscopically image the magnetosphere in charge exchange neutral atoms for the first time. The authors propose to fly two identical TWINS instruments as a mission of opportunity on two widely-spaced high-altitude, high-inclination US Government spacecraft. Because the spacecraft are funded independently, TWINS can provide a vast quantity of high priority science observations (as identified in an ongoing new missions concept study and the Sun-Earth Connections Roadmap) at a small fraction of the cost of a dedicated mission. Because stereo observations of the near-Earth space environs will provide a particularly graphic means for visualizing the magnetosphere in action, and because of the dedication and commitment of the investigator team to the principles of carrying space science to the broader audience, TWINS will also be an outstanding tool for public education and outreach

  15. In situ calibration of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission and mass spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braymen, Steven D.

    1996-06-11

    A method and apparatus for in situ addition calibration of an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer or mass spectrometer using a precision gas metering valve to introduce a volatile calibration gas of an element of interest directly into an aerosol particle stream. The present situ calibration technique is suitable for various remote, on-site sampling systems such as laser ablation or nebulization.

  16. Methane from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Vivienne; Worden, John; Kulawik, Susan; Frankenberg, Christian; Bowman, Kevin; Wecht, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    TES V5 CH4 captures latitudinal gradients, regional variability and interannual variation in the free troposphere. V5 joint retrievals offer improved sensitivity to lower troposphere. Time series extends from 2004 to present. V5 reprocessing in progress. Upper tropospheric bias. Mitigated by N2O correction. Appears largely spatially uniform, so can be corrected. How to relate free-tropospheric values to surface emissions.

  17. Construção de espectrômetro de emissão atômica com atomização eletrotérmica em filamento de tungstênio (WCAES Construction of a tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometer (WCAES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário H. Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is here discussed the development of a low cost analytical instrument with capacity for metals determination using atomic emission measurements in an electrothermal atomization system with a tungsten coil atomizer. The main goal was to show a new frontier for using this atomizer and to demonstrate that the simple instrumental arrangement here proposed has potential for portability and for solving analytical tasks related to metals determination. Atomic emission of calcium was selected for the adjustment of instrumental parameters and to evaluate the main characteristics of the lab-built instrument. Cobalt was determined in medicines and one alloy to demonstrate its feasibility.

  18. Setting-up of a direct reading emission spectrometer and its adaptation for plutonium handling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Page, A.G.; Godbole, S.V.; Kulkarni, M.J.; Porwal, N.K.; Thulasidas, S.K.; Sastry, M.D.; Srinivasan, P.S.

    1986-01-01

    A Jarrell-Ash 750 AtomComp 1100 series direct reading emission spectrometer was set up and its performance features were checked with regard to analysis of uranium-based samples using d.c. arc/inductively coupled argon plasma excitation techniques. The instrument has been subsequently modified to enable handling of plutonium-based samples. The modifications include building up of a specially designed glove-box around the excitation sources and consequent changes in the electro-mechanical controls associated with them. The modified system was extensively used for the trace metal assay of FBTR fuel sample. (author)

  19. Upgraded DIRAC spectrometer at CERN PS for the investigation of pi pi and pi K atoms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Adeva, B.; Benelli, A.; Čechák, T.; Doškářová, P.; Hons, Zdeněk; Klusoň, J.; Lednický, Richard; Martinčík, J.; Průša, P.; Smolík, J.; Trojek, T.; Urban, T.; Vrba, T.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 839, DEC (2016), s. 52-85 ISSN 0168-9002 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG13031 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : upgraded DIRAC spectrometer * CERN PS * pi pi and pi K atoms * Life-time measurement * long-lived excited states of pi pi atoms Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders; BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics (FZU-D) Impact factor: 1.362, year: 2016

  20. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yngström, Sten

    1994-07-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics, electrodynamics, and statistical physics. Quantum rules lead to revision of the conventional principle of local thermal equilibrium of matter and radiation. Study of electrodynamics suggests absence of spectral emission from fractions of the numbers of atoms and ions in a plasma due to radiative inhibition caused by electromagnetic force fields. Statistical probability methods are extended by the statement: A macroscopic physical system develops in the most probable of all conceivable ways consistent with the constraining conditions for the system. The crucial role of statistical physics in transforming quantum logic into common sense logic is stressed. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence.

  1. Theory of atomic spectral emission intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1989-02-01

    The theoretical derivation of a new spectral line intensity formula for atomic radiative emission is presented. The theory is based on first principles of quantum physics and statistical physics. It is argued that the formulation of the theory provides a very good example of the manner in which quantum logic transforms into common sense logic. The theory is strongly supported by experimental evidence. (author) (16 refs.)

  2. Inductively coupled plasma for atomic emission spectroscopy at the Savannah River Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coleman, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant atomic emission spectroscopy laboratory has been in operation for over 30 years. Routine analytical methods and instrumentation are being replaced with current technology. Laboratory renovation will include the installation of contained dual excitation sources (inductively coupled plasma and d-c arc) with a direct reading spectrometer. The instrument will be used to provide impurity analyses of plutonium, uranium, and other nuclear fuel cycle materials

  3. Double tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jora, M.Z.; Nóbrega, J.A.; Rohwedder, J.J.R.; Pasquini, C.

    2015-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometer based on a quartz acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) monochromator operating in the 271–453 nm range, is described. The instrument was tailored to study the formation and evolution of electrothermal atomic cloud induced either by one or two tungsten coils. The spectrometer also includes a fast response programmable photomultiplier module for data acquisition, and a power supply capable of driving two parallel tungsten coils independently. The atomization cell herein described was manufactured in PTFE and presents a new design with reduced size. Synchronization between the instant of power delivering to start the atomization process and the detection was achieved, allowing for monitoring the atomization and thermal events synchronously and in real time. Absorption signals can be sampled at a rate of a few milliseconds, compatible with the fast phenomena that occur with electrothermal metallic atomizers. The instrument performance was preliminarily evaluated by monitoring the absorption of radiation of atomic clouds produced by standard solutions containing chromium or lead. Its quantitative performance was evaluated by using Cr aqueous solutions, resulting in detection limits as low as 0.24 μg L −1 , and a relative standard deviation of 3%. - Highlights: • The use of an Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) as monochromator element in WC AAS is presented for the first time. • The system includes the possibility of using one or two parallel coils. • We propose a new atomization cell design, manufactured on PTFE with reduced size. • The temperature of the coils and the atomic clouds of Pb and Cr were observed synchronously with high temporal resolution

  4. Atomic Absorption, Atomic Fluorescence, and Flame Emission Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horlick, Gary

    1984-01-01

    This review is presented in six sections. Sections focus on literature related to: (1) developments in instrumentation, measurement techniques, and procedures; (2) performance studies of flames and electrothermal atomizers; (3) applications of atomic absorption spectrometry; (4) analytical comparisons; (5) atomic fluorescence spectrometry; and (6)…

  5. spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. K. Hedelius

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Bruker™ EM27/SUN instruments are commercial mobile solar-viewing near-IR spectrometers. They show promise for expanding the global density of atmospheric column measurements of greenhouse gases and are being marketed for such applications. They have been shown to measure the same variations of atmospheric gases within a day as the high-resolution spectrometers of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON. However, there is little known about the long-term precision and uncertainty budgets of EM27/SUN measurements. In this study, which includes a comparison of 186 measurement days spanning 11 months, we note that atmospheric variations of Xgas within a single day are well captured by these low-resolution instruments, but over several months, the measurements drift noticeably. We present comparisons between EM27/SUN instruments and the TCCON using GGG as the retrieval algorithm. In addition, we perform several tests to evaluate the robustness of the performance and determine the largest sources of errors from these spectrometers. We include comparisons of XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O. Specifically we note EM27/SUN biases for January 2015 of 0.03, 0.75, –0.12, and 2.43 % for XCO2, XCH4, XCO, and XN2O respectively, with 1σ running precisions of 0.08 and 0.06 % for XCO2 and XCH4 from measurements in Pasadena. We also identify significant error caused by nonlinear sensitivity when using an extended spectral range detector used to measure CO and N2O.

  6. Directional emission of single photons from small atomic samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miroshnychenko, Yevhen; V. Poulsen, Uffe; Mølmer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state i...... is coupled by a classical laser field to an optically excited state which rapidly decays to the ground atomic state. Our model accounts for the different field polarization components via re-absorption and emission of light by the Zeeman manifold of optically excited states.......We provide a formalism to describe deterministic emission of single photons with tailored spatial and temporal profiles from a regular array of multi-level atoms. We assume that a single collective excitation is initially shared by all the atoms in a metastable atomic state, and that this state...

  7. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winge, R.K.; Fassel, V.A.; Peterson, V.J.; Floyd, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This atlas of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy records the spectra of the elements in a way that would reveal the general nature of the spectra, in all their simplicity or complexity; and offers a definitive summary of the most prominent spectral lines of the elements, i.e., those most likely to be useful for the determination of trace and ultratrace concentrations; it provides reliable estimates, based on the recorded experimental spectra, of the powers of detection of the listed prominent lines; and assesses the very important problem of spectral interferences. The atlas is composed of three main sections. Part I is concerned with the historical aspects of compilations of spectral information. Part II is based on 232 wavelength scans of 70 elements. Each of the wavelength scans covers an 80 nm spectral region. These scans allow a rapid comparison of the background and spectral line intensities emitted in the ICP and provide a ready means for identification of the most prominent lines of each element and for estimation of the trace element analytical capabilities of these lines. A listing of 973 prominent lines with associated detection limits is also presented. Part III addresses the problem of spectral interferences. On this topic a detailed collection of coincidence profiles is presented for 281 of the most prominent lines, each with profiles of ten of the most prevalent concomitants superimposed. (Auth.)

  8. Analytical characteristics of a continuum-source tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rust, Jennifer A; Nóbrega, Joaquim A; Calloway, Clifton P; Jones, Bradley T

    2005-08-01

    A continuum-source tungsten coil electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer has been assembled, evaluated, and employed in four different applications. The instrument consists of a xenon arc lamp light source, a tungsten coil atomizer, a Czerny-Turner high resolution monochromator, and a linear photodiode array detector. This instrument provides simultaneous multi-element analyses across a 4 nm spectral window with a resolution of 0.024 nm. Such a device might be useful in many different types of analyses. To demonstrate this broad appeal, four very different applications have been evaluated. First of all, the temperature of the gas phase was measured during the atomization cycle of the tungsten coil, using tin as a thermometric element. Secondly, a summation approach for two absorption lines for aluminum falling within the same spectral window (305.5-309.5 nm) was evaluated. This approach improves the sensitivity without requiring any additional preconcentration steps. The third application describes a background subtraction technique, as it is applied to the analysis of an oil emulsion sample. Finally, interference effects caused by Na on the atomization of Pb were studied. The simultaneous measurements of Pb and Na suggests that negative interference arises at least partially from competition between Pb and Na atoms for H2 in the gas phase.

  9. Photoionization of Endohedral Atoms: Collective, Reflective and Collateral Emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborty, Himadri S.; McCune, Matthew A.; Hopper, Dale E.; Madjet, Mohamed E.; Manson, Steven T.

    2009-01-01

    The photoionization properties of a fullerene-confined atom differ dramatically from that of an isolated atom. In the low energy region, where the fullerene plasmons are active, the electrons of the confined atom emerge through a collective channel carrying a significant chunk of plasmon with it. The photoelectron angular distribution of the confined atom however shows far lesser impact of the effect. At higher energies, the interference between two single-electron ionization channels, one directly from the atom and another reflected off the fullerene cage, producuces oscillatory cross sections. But for the outermost atomic level, which transfers some electrons to the cage, oscillations are further modulated by the collateral emission from the part of the atomic charge density transferred to the cage. These various modes of emissions are studied for the photoionization of Ar endohedrally confined in C 60 .

  10. Laser solid sampling for a solid-state-detector ICP emission spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noelte, J.; Moenke-Blankenburg, L.; Schumann, T.

    1994-01-01

    Solid sampling with laser vaporization has been coupled to an ICP emission spectrometer with an Echelle optical system and a solid-state-detector for the analysis of steel and soil samples. Pulsation of the vaporized material flow was compensated by real-time background correction and internal standardization, resulting in good accuracy and precision. (orig.)

  11. Operating manual for the emission spectrometer NOI-6e for laboratory use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albornoz G, M.P.

    1993-08-01

    This manual describes graphically and specifically how to operate the Emission Spectrometer NOI-6e. Detailed instructions are given for everything form turning on the equipment, quality control of several parameters, calibration, sample analysis; measurements and obtaining final results form the microprocessors. (author)

  12. Determination numbers of ionized atoms from emission and absorption lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alizadeh Azimi, A.; Shokouhi, N.

    2002-01-01

    Saha, M., (1920) estimated that salter chromosphere is not only due to radiation from neutral atoms, but from ionized atoms. The failure to observe these stellar lines in the laboratory was attributed to internal temperature and pressure about 10* E + 6 K 10* E-7 atm. In this research we found that emission lines of ionized atoms (like Cs) could be measured in laboratory condition, (about 10* E-3 atm and 2000 K) by using Graphite France Atomic Absorption with injection 124 u g C sel. We calculated the numbers of ionized atoms from Bottzman law. We also measured these numbers from area under the energy-time curve

  13. Liquid-Arc/Spark-Excitation Atomic-Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlagen, Kenneth J.

    1992-01-01

    Constituents of solutions identified in situ. Liquid-arc/spark-excitation atomic-emission spectroscopy (LAES) is experimental variant of atomic-emission spectroscopy in which electric arc or spark established in liquid and spectrum of light from arc or spark analyzed to identify chemical elements in liquid. Observations encourage development of LAES equipment for online monitoring of process streams in such industries as metal plating, electronics, and steel, and for online monitoring of streams affecting environment.

  14. A plastic miniature x-ray emission spectrometer based on the cylindrical von Hamos geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattern, B. A.; Seidler, G. T.; Haave, M.; Pacold, J. I.; Gordon, R. A.; Planillo, J.; Quintana, J.; Rusthoven, B.

    2012-01-01

    We present a short working distance miniature x-ray emission spectrometer (miniXES) based on the cylindrical von Hamos geometry. We describe the general design principles for the spectrometer and detail a specific implementation that covers Kβ and valence level emission from Fe. Large spatial and angular access to the sample region provides compatibility with environmental chambers, microprobe, and pump/probe measurements. The primary spectrometer structure and optic is plastic, printed using a 3-dimensional rapid-prototype machine. The spectrometer is inexpensive to construct and is portable; it can be quickly set up at any focused beamline with a tunable narrow bandwidth monochromator. The sample clearance is over 27 mm, providing compatibility with a variety of environment chambers. An overview is also given of the calibration and data processing procedures, which are implemented by a multiplatform user-friendly software package. Finally, representative measurements are presented. Background levels are below the level of the Kβ 2,5 valence emission, the weakest diagram line in the system, and photometric analysis of count rates finds that the instrument is performing at the theoretical limit.

  15. Automation of the Jarrell--Ash model 70-314 emission spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, W.F.; Fisher, E.R.; Taber, L.

    1978-01-01

    Automation of the Jarrell-Ash 3.4-Meter Ebert direct-reading emission spectrometer with digital scaler readout is described. The readout is interfaced to a Data General NOVA 840 minicomputer. The automation code consists of BASIC language programs for interactive routines, data processing, and report generation. Call statements within the BASIC programs invoke assembly language routines for real-time data acquisition and control. In addition, the automation objectives as well as the spectrometer-computer system functions, coding, and operating instructions are presented

  16. Spectrochemical analysis by atomic absorption and emission

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lajunen, Lauri

    1992-01-01

    ... of these techniques. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) has become a 'hot' analytical technique during the last few years, and is being used in many branches of science. Since the publication of my previous book 'Atomispektrometria' (in Finnish) in 1986, various techniques in analytical atomic spectroscopy have undergone significant dev...

  17. Atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission in a five-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhiping; Yu Benli; Zhu Jun; Cao Zhigang; Zhen Shenglai; Wu Xuqiang; Xu Feng

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the one- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in a coherently driven five-level atomic system by means of a radio-frequency field driving a hyperfine transition. It is found that the detecting probability and precision of atom localization behaviors can be significantly improved via adjusting the system parameters. More importantly, the two-dimensional atom localization patterns reveal that the maximal probability of finding an atom within the sub-wavelength domain of the standing waves can reach unity when the corresponding conditions are satisfied. As a result, our scheme may be helpful in laser cooling or the atom nano-lithography via atom localization. - Highlights: ► One- and two-dimensional atom localization behaviors via spontaneous emission in five-level atoms are investigated. ► An assisting radio-frequency field is used to control the atom localization behaviors. ► High-precision and high-resolution two-dimensional atom localization can be realized in this scheme.

  18. Quantification of CO2 and CH4 megacity emissions using portable solar absorption spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Matthias; Hase, Frank; Blumenstock, Thomas; Morino, Isamu; Shiomi, Kei

    2017-04-01

    Urban areas already contribute to over 50% of the global population, additionally the percentage of the worldwide population living in Metropolitan areas is continuously growing. Thus, a precise knowledge of urban greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is of utmost importance. Whereas, however, GHG emissions on a nationwide to continental scale can be relatively precisely estimated using satellite observations (and fossil fuel consumption statistics), reliable estimations for local to regional scale emissions pose a bigger problem due to lack of timely and spatially high resolved satellite data and possible biases of passive spectroscopic nadir observations (e.g. enhanced aerosol scattering in a city plume). Furthermore, emission inventories on the city scale might be missing contributions (e.g. methane leakage from gas pipes). Here, newly developed mobile low resolution Fourier Transform spectrometers (Bruker EM27/SUN) are utilized to quantify small scale emissions. This novel technique was successfully tested before by KIT and partners during campaigns in Berlin, Paris and Colorado for detecting emissions from various sources. We present results from a campaign carried out in February - April 2016 in the Tokyo bay area, one of the biggest Metropolitan areas worldwide. We positioned two EM27/SUN spectrometers on the outer perimeter of Tokyo along the prevailing wind axis upwind and downwind of the city source. Before and after the campaign, calibration measurements were performed in Tsukuba with a collocated high resolution FTIR spectrometer from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). During the campaign the observed XCO2 and XCH4 values vary significantly. Additionally, intraday variations are observed at both sites. Furthermore, an enhancement due to the Tokyo area GHG emissions is clearly visible for both XCO2 and XCH4. The observed signals are significantly higher compared to prior campaigns targeting other major cities. We perform a rough estimate of the

  19. Spectrometer for X-ray emission experiments at FERMI free-electron-laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletto, L.; Frassetto, F.; Miotti, P.; Di Cicco, A.; Iesari, F.; Finetti, P.; Grazioli, C.; Kivimäki, A.; Stagira, S.; Coreno, M.

    2014-01-01

    A portable and compact photon spectrometer to be used for photon in-photon out experiments, in particular x-ray emission spectroscopy, is presented. The instrument operates in the 25–800 eV energy range to cover the full emissions of the FEL1 and FEL2 stages of FERMI. The optical design consists of two interchangeable spherical varied-lined-spaced gratings and a CCD detector. Different input sections can be accommodated, with/without an entrance slit and with/without an additional relay mirror, that allow to mount the spectrometer in different end-stations and at variable distances from the target area both at synchrotron and at free-electron-laser beamlines. The characterization on the Gas Phase beamline at ELETTRA Synchrotron (Italy) is presented

  20. [Determination of sulfur in plant using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Li, Jia-xi

    2009-05-01

    A method for the analysis of sulfur (S) in plant by molecular absorption of carbon monosulfide (CS) using a high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (CS AAS) with a fuel-rich air/acetylene flame has been devised. The strong CS absorption band was found around 258 nm. The half-widths of some absorption bands were of the order of picometers, the same as the common atomic absorption lines. The experimental procedure in this study provided optimized instrumental conditions (the ratio of acetylene to air, the burner height) and parameters, and researched the spectral interferences and chemical interferences. The influence of the organic solvents on the CS absorption signals and the different digestion procedures for the determination of sulfur were also investigated. The limit of detection achieved for sulfur was 14 mg x L(-1), using the CS wavelength of 257. 961 nm and a measurement time of 3 s. The accuracy and precision were verified by analysis of two plant standard reference materials. The major applications of this method have been used for the determination of sulfur in plant materials, such as leaves. Compared to the others, this method for the analysis of sulfur is rapid, easy and simple for sulfur determination in plant.

  1. Spectral emissivity measurements of liquid refractory metals by spectrometers combined with an electrostatic levitator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei T; Paradis, Paul-François; Ito, Yusuke; Masaki, Tadahiko; Watanabe, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    A spectral emissivity measurement system combined with an electrostatic levitator was developed for high-temperature melts. The radiation intensity from a high-temperature sample was measured with a multichannel photospectrometer (MCPD) over the 700–1000 nm spectral range, while a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) measured the radiation over the 1.1–6 µm interval. These spectrometers were calibrated with a blackbody radiation furnace, and the spectral hemispherical emissivity was calculated. The system's capability was evaluated with molten zirconium samples. The spectral hemispherical emissivity of molten zirconium showed a negative wavelength dependence and an almost constant variation over the 1850–2210 K temperature range. The total hemispherical emissivity of zirconium calculated by integrating the spectral hemispherical emissivity was found to be around 0.32, which showed good agreement with the literature values. The constant pressure heat capacity of molten zirconium at melting temperature was calculated to be 40.9 J mol −1 K −1 . (paper)

  2. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Satellite Validations of Ammonia, Methanol, Formic Acid, and Carbon Monoxide over the Canadian Oil Sands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The URLs link to the data archive of the Troposphere Emission Spectrometer (TES) retrievals. These include the transects included in the Canadian Tar Sands study. A...

  3. High-precision atom localization via controllable spontaneous emission in a cycle-configuration atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chunling; Li, Jiahua; Yu, Rong; Hao, Xiangying; Wu, Ying

    2012-03-26

    A scheme for realizing two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is proposed based on controllable spontaneous emission in a coherently driven cycle-configuration atomic system. As the spatial-position-dependent atom-field interaction, the frequency of the spontaneously emitted photon carries the information about the position of the atom. Therefore, by detecting the emitted photon one could obtain the position information available, and then we demonstrate high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization induced by the quantum interference between the multiple spontaneous decay channels. Moreover, we can achieve 100% probability of finding the atom at an expected position by choosing appropriate system parameters under certain conditions.

  4. Mapping methane emissions using the airborne imaging spectrometer AVIRIS-NG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, A. K.; Frankenberg, C.; Thompson, D. R.; Duren, R. M.; Bue, B. D.; Green, R. O.

    2017-12-01

    The next generation Airborne Visible/Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-NG) has been used to survey large regions and map methane plumes with unambiguous identification of emission source locations. This capability is aided by real time detection and geolocation of gas plumes, permitting adaptive surveys and communication to ground teams for rapid follow up. We present results from AVIRIS-NG flight campaigns in Colorado, New Mexico, and California. Hundreds of plumes were observed, reflecting emissions from the energy sector that include hydraulic fracturing, gas processing plants, tanks, pumpjacks, and pipeline leaks. In some cases, plumes observed by AVIRIS-NG resulted in mitigation. Additional examples will be shown for methane from dairy lagoons, landfills, natural emissions, as well as carbon dioxide from power plants and refineries. We describe the unique capabilities of airborne imaging spectrometers to augment other measurement techniques by efficiently surveying key regions for methane point sources and supporting timely assessment and mitigation. We summarize the outlook for near- and longer-term monitoring capabilities including future satellite systems. Figure caption. AVIRIS-NG true color image subset with superimposed methane plume showing retrieved gas concentrations. Plume extends 200 m downwind of the southern edge of the well pad. Google Earth imagery with finer spatial resolution is also included (red box), indicating that tanks in the inset scene as the source of emissions. Five wells are located at the center of this well pad and all use horizontal drilling to produce mostly natural gas.

  5. Magnetic and electric deflector spectrometers for ion emission analysis from laser generated plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torrisi Lorenzo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The pulsed laser-generated plasma in vacuum and at low and high intensities can be characterized using different physical diagnostics. The charge particles emission can be characterized using magnetic, electric and magnet-electrical spectrometers. Such on-line techniques are often based on time-of-flight (TOF measurements. A 90° electric deflection system is employed as ion energy analyzer (IEA acting as a filter of the mass-to-charge ratio of emitted ions towards a secondary electron multiplier. It determines the ion energy and charge state distributions. The measure of the ion and electron currents as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio can be also determined by a magnetic deflector spectrometer, using a magnetic field of the order of 0.35 T, orthogonal to the ion incident direction, and an array of little ion collectors (IC at different angles. A Thomson parabola spectrometer, employing gaf-chromix as detector, permits to be employed for ion mass, energy and charge state recognition. Mass quadrupole spectrometry, based on radiofrequency electric field oscillations, can be employed to characterize the plasma ion emission. Measurements performed on plasma produced by different lasers, irradiation conditions and targets are presented and discussed. Complementary measurements, based on mass and optical spectroscopy, semiconductor detectors, fast CCD camera and Langmuir probes are also employed for the full plasma characterization. Simulation programs, such as SRIM, SREM, and COMSOL are employed for the charge particle recognition.

  6. Magnetic and electric deflector spectrometers for ion emission analysis from laser generated plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrisi, Lorenzo; Costa, Giuseppe; Ceccio, Giovanni; Cannavò, Antonino; Restuccia, Nancy; Cutroneo, Mariapompea

    2018-01-01

    The pulsed laser-generated plasma in vacuum and at low and high intensities can be characterized using different physical diagnostics. The charge particles emission can be characterized using magnetic, electric and magnet-electrical spectrometers. Such on-line techniques are often based on time-of-flight (TOF) measurements. A 90° electric deflection system is employed as ion energy analyzer (IEA) acting as a filter of the mass-to-charge ratio of emitted ions towards a secondary electron multiplier. It determines the ion energy and charge state distributions. The measure of the ion and electron currents as a function of the mass-to-charge ratio can be also determined by a magnetic deflector spectrometer, using a magnetic field of the order of 0.35 T, orthogonal to the ion incident direction, and an array of little ion collectors (IC) at different angles. A Thomson parabola spectrometer, employing gaf-chromix as detector, permits to be employed for ion mass, energy and charge state recognition. Mass quadrupole spectrometry, based on radiofrequency electric field oscillations, can be employed to characterize the plasma ion emission. Measurements performed on plasma produced by different lasers, irradiation conditions and targets are presented and discussed. Complementary measurements, based on mass and optical spectroscopy, semiconductor detectors, fast CCD camera and Langmuir probes are also employed for the full plasma characterization. Simulation programs, such as SRIM, SREM, and COMSOL are employed for the charge particle recognition.

  7. Toxic metals distribution in different components of Pakistani and imported cigarettes by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.; Jalbani, N.; Arain, M.B.; Jamali, M.K.; Afridi, H.I.; Sarfraz, R.A.; Shah, A.Q.

    2009-01-01

    It was extensively investigated that a significant flux of toxic metals, along with other toxins, reaches the lungs through smoking. In present study toxic metals (TMs) (Al, Cd, Ni and Pb) were determined in different components of Pakistani local branded and imported cigarettes, including filler tobacco (FT), filter (before and after normal smoking by a single volunteer) and ash by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). Microwave-assisted digestion method was employed. The validity and accuracy of methodology were checked by using certified sample of Virginia tobacco leaves (ICHTJ-cta-VTL-2). The percentages (%) of TMs in different components of cigarette were calculated with respect to their total contents in FT of all branded cigarettes before smoking, while smoke concentration has been calculated by subtracting the filter and ash contents from the filler tobacco content of each branded cigarette. The highest percentage (%) of Al was observed in ash of all cigarettes, with range 97.3-99.0%, while in the case of Cd, a reverse behaviour was observed, as a range of 15.0-31.3% of total contents were left in the ash of all branded cigarettes understudy

  8. Optical emissions from oxygen atom reactions with adsorbates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakes, David B.; Fraser, Mark E.; Gauthier-Beals, Mitzi; Holtzclaw, Karl W.; Malonson, Mark; Gelb, Alan H.

    1992-12-01

    Although most optical materials are inert to the ambient low earth orbit environment, high velocity oxygen atoms will react with adsorbates to produce optical emissions from the ultraviolet into the infrared. The adsorbates arise from chemical releases or outgassing from the spacecraft itself. We have been investigating kinetic and spectral aspects of these phenomenon by direct observation of the 0.2 to 13 micrometers chemiluminescence from the interaction of a fast atomic oxygen beam with a continuously dosed surface. The dosing gases include fuels, combustion products and outgassed species such as unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), NO, H2O and CO. The surface studied include gold and magnesium fluoride. In order to relate the results to actual spacecraft conditions these phenomena have been explored as a function of O atom velocity, dosant flux and substrate temperature. UDMH dosed surfaces exhibit spectra typical (wavelength and intensity) of carbonaceous surfaces. The primary emitters are CO, CO2, and OH. H2O dosed surfaces are dominated by OH and /or H2O emission while CO dosed surfaces are dominated by CO and CO2 emissions. The nitric oxide dosed surface produces a glow from 0.4 to 5.4 micrometers due to NO2* continuum emission. The emission was observed to increase by a factor of two upon cooling the surface from 20 degree(s)C to -35 degree(s)C.

  9. Spatially resolvable optical emission spectrometer for analyzing density uniformity of semiconductor process plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Changhoon; Ryoo, Hoonchul; Lee, Hyungwoo; Hahn, Jae W.; Kim, Se-Yeon; Yi, Hun-Jung

    2010-01-01

    We proposed a spatially resolved optical emission spectrometer (SROES) for analyzing the uniformity of plasma density for semiconductor processes. To enhance the spatial resolution of the SROES, we constructed a SROES system using a series of lenses, apertures, and pinholes. We calculated the spatial resolution of the SROES for the variation of pinhole size, and our calculated results were in good agreement with the measured spatial variation of the constructed SROES. The performance of the SROES was also verified by detecting the correlation between the distribution of a fluorine radical in inductively coupled plasma etch process and the etch rate of a SiO 2 film on a silicon wafer.

  10. Cooling atoms with extraresonant stimulated emission below the Doppler limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shevy, Y.

    1989-01-01

    The process of cooling atoms with radiation pressure is well understood in terms of absorption and spontaneous emission of fluorescence photons. This process imposes a lower limit on the minimum equilibrium temperature of laser cooled two level atoms of K b T = ℎΓ 21 /2 (the Doppler limit), where Γ 21 is the excited state decay rate to the ground state. At high laser intensity, it has been demonstrated that the stimulated emission process changes the sign of the force to a heating force at the red side of the atomic resonance and to a cooling force at blue detunings. Although this stimulated force is more efficient than the radiation pressure force, it has been generally accepted that this force cannot lead to lower equilibrium temperatures due to the large heating caused by diffusion of momentum at high intensity. These conclusions are valid only when the sole damping mechanism is the excited state decay to the ground state by spontaneous emission. However, when the atomic system is opened, i.e., is allowed to decay to other levels, or the dipole decay rate is altered by dephasing events, the stimulated force is dramatically modified. Under this conditions the stimulated force can occur at lower laser intensity and can even reverse sign to provide damping at the red side of resonance. These phenomena originate from extraresonances in the stimulated emission process between the two counterpropagating waves. These resonances appear as a dispersive feature in pump probe spectra (Two Wave Mixing) and are closely related to the extraresonances in four wave mixing studied originally by Bloembergen and co-workers. This paper establishes this connection and the potential of these phenomena for laser cooling. The implications of these results to the recently observed ultra-cold Na and Cs atoms are also discussed

  11. Emission Spectrum Property of Modulated Atom-Field Coupling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Yun-Feng; Feng Jian; Li Yue-Ke

    2013-01-01

    The emission spectrum of a two-level atom interacting with a single mode radiation field in the case of periodic oscillation coupling coefficient is investigated. A general expression for the emission spectrum is derived. The numerical results for the initial field in pure number stare are calculated. It is found that the effect of the coupling coefficient modulation on the spectral structure is very obvious in the case of a low modulation frequency and larger amplitude when the initial field is vacuum, which is potentially useful for exploring a modulated light source. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  12. Delta-electron emission in fast heavy ion atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt-Boecking, H.; Ramm, U.; Berg, H.; Kelbch, C.; Feng Jiazhen; Hagmann, S.; Kraft, G.; Ullrich, J.

    1991-01-01

    The δ-electron emission processes occuring in fast heavy ion atom collisons are explained qualitatively. The different spectral structures of electron emission arising from either the target or the projectile are explained in terms of simple models of the kinetics of momentum transfer induced by the COULOMB forces. In collisions of very heavy ions with matter, high nuclear COULOMB forces are created. These forces lead to a strong polarization of the electronic states of the participated electrons. The effects of this polarization are discussed. (orig.)

  13. Assessment of an on-line CI-mass spectrometer as a continuous emission monitor for sewage sludge incinerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, K.R.; Hallett, D.J.; Resch, R.J.; Villinger, J.; Federer, V.

    1991-01-01

    ELI Eco Technologies Inc. tested two sewage sludge incinerators using regulator methods and a V and F CIMS-500 chemical ionization mass spectrometer. Correlations between dioxins and dibenzofurans from the regulatory MM5 trains and the continuous readings form the CIMS-500 for chlorobenzenes and chlorophenols were noted. As well, correlations between chlorinated organics and other volatile organics were obvious under poor combustion conditions. ELI Eco Technologies Inc. recently completed an extensive survey of organic chemical emissions including VOCs, chlorobenzenes, chlorophenols, chlorinated dioxins and dibenzofurans from two sewage sludge incinerators. The program was funded by the Municipality of Metro Toronto, Environment Ontario, and Environment Canada. Contaminants were measured by regulatory methods (ASME Modified Method 5) and simultaneously with the continuous mass spectrometer. The purpose of the study was to provide regulatory testing and at the same time evaluate the usefulness of the CIMS-500 mass spectrometer in assessing emissions. This paper describes the evaluation of the usefulness of this mass spectrometer

  14. Emission spectrum of a harmonically trapped Λ-type three-level atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Hong; Tang Pei

    2013-01-01

    We theoretically investigate the emission spectrum for a Λ-type three-level atom trapped in the node of a standing wave. We show that the atomic center-of-mass motion not only directly affects the peak number, peak position, and peak height in the atomic emission spectrum, but also influences the effects of the cavity field and the atomic initial state on atomic emission spectrum. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  15. Study of uranium matrix interference on ten analytes using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghazi, A.A.; Qamar, S.; Atta, M.A. (A.Q. Khan Research Labs., Rawalpindi (Pakistan))

    1993-08-01

    Maximum allowable concentrations of 12 elements in uranium hexafluoride feed for enrichment to reactor grade material (about 3%), vary from 1 to 100 ppm ([mu]g/g). Using an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer, 51 lines of tine of these elements (B, Cr, Mo, P, Sb, Si, Ta, Ti, V and W) has been studied with a uranium matrix to investigate the matrix interference on the basis of signal to background (SBR), and background to background ratios (BBR). Detection limits and limits of quantitative determination (LQDs) were calculated for these elements in a uranium matrix using SBR and relative standard deviation of the background signal (RSD[sub B]) approach. In almost all cases, the uranium matrix interference reduces the SBRs to the extent that direct trace analysis is impossible. A uranium sample having known concentrations of impurities (around LQDs) was directly analysed with results that showed reasonable accuracy and precision. (Author).

  16. Performance evaluation of indigenous thermal ionization mass spectrometer for determination of 235U/238U atom ratios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamelu, D.; Parab, A.R.; Sasi Bhushan, K.; Shah, Raju V.; Jagdish Kumar, S.; Rao, Radhika M.; Aggarwal, S.K.; Bhatia, R.K.; Yadav, V.K.; Sharma, Madhavi P.; Tulsyan, Puneet; Chavda, Pradip; Sriniwasan, P.

    2014-07-01

    A magnetic sector based Thermal Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TIMS) designed and developed at Technical Physics Division, B.A.R.C., was evaluated for its performance for the determination of 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in uranium samples. This consisted of evaluating the precision and accuracy on the 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios in various isotopic reference materials as well as indigenously generated uranium samples. The results obtained by the indigenous TIMS were also compared with those obtained using a commercially available TIMS system. The internal and external precision were found to be around 0.1% for determining 235 U/ 238 U atom ratios close to those of natural uranium ( i.e. 0.00730). (author)

  17. Effect of atomic initial phase difference on spontaneous emission of an atom embedded in photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bing, Zhang; Xiu-Dong, Sun; Xiang-Qian, Jiang

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the effect of initial phase difference between the two excited states of a V-type three-level atom on its steady state behaviour of spontaneous emission. A modified density of modes is introduced to calculate the spontaneous emission spectra in photonic crystal. Spectra in free space are also shown to compare with that in photonic crystal with different relative positions of the excited levels from upper band-edge frequency. It is found that the initial phase difference plays an important role in the quantum interference property between the two decay channels. For a zero initial phase, destructive property is presented in the spectra. With the increase of initial phase difference, quantum interference between the two decay channels from upper levels to ground level turns to be constructive. Furthermore, we give an interpretation for the property of these spectra. (atomic and molecular physics)

  18. Spontaneous emission of an atom in the presence of nanobodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klimov, Vasilii V; Ducloy, M; Letokhov, V S

    2001-01-01

    The effect of nanobodies, i.e., the bodies whose size is small compared to the emission wavelength, on spontaneous emission of an atom located near them is considered. The results of calculations performed within the framework of quantum and classical electrodynamics are presented both in analytic and graphical forms and can be readily used for planning experiments and analysis of experimental data. It is shown that nanobodies can be used to control efficiently the rate of spontaneous transitions. Thus, an excited atom located near a nanocylinder or a nanospheroid pole, whose transition dipole moment is directed normally to the nanobody surface, can decay with the rate that is tens and hundreds times higher than the decay rate in a free space. In the case of some (negative) dielectric constants, the decay rate can increase by a factor of 10 5 -10 6 and more. On the other hand, the decay of an excited atom whose transition dipole moment is directed tangentially to the nanobody surface substantially slows down. The probability of nonradiative decay of the excited state is shown to increase substantially in the presence of na-nobodies possessing losses. (review)

  19. Portable laser spectrometer for airborne and ground-based remote sensing of geological CO2 emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queisser, Manuel; Burton, Mike; Allan, Graham R; Chiarugi, Antonio

    2017-07-15

    A 24 kg, suitcase sized, CW laser remote sensing spectrometer (LARSS) with a ~2 km range has been developed. It has demonstrated its flexibility in measuring both atmospheric CO2 from an airborne platform and terrestrial emission of CO2 from a remote mud volcano, Bledug Kuwu, Indonesia, from a ground-based sight. This system scans the CO2 absorption line with 20 discrete wavelengths, as opposed to the typical two-wavelength online offline instrument. This multi-wavelength approach offers an effective quality control, bias control, and confidence estimate of measured CO2 concentrations via spectral fitting. The simplicity, ruggedness, and flexibility in the design allow for easy transportation and use on different platforms with a quick setup in some of the most challenging climatic conditions. While more refinement is needed, the results represent a stepping stone towards widespread use of active one-sided gas remote sensing in the earth sciences.

  20. STUDY OF CALIBRATION OF SOLAR RADIO SPECTROMETERS AND THE QUIET-SUN RADIO EMISSION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tan, Chengming; Yan, Yihua; Tan, Baolin; Fu, Qijun; Liu, Yuying [Key Laboratory of Solar Activity, National Astronomical Observatories of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Datun Road A20, Chaoyang District, Beijing 100012 (China); Xu, Guirong [Hubei Key Laboratory for Heavy Rain Monitoring and Warning Research, Institute of Heavy Rain, China Meteorological Administration, Wuhan 430205 (China)

    2015-07-20

    This work presents a systematic investigation of the influence of weather conditions on the calibration errors by using Gaussian fitness, least chi-square linear fitness, and wavelet transform to analyze the calibration coefficients from observations of the Chinese Solar Broadband Radio Spectrometers (at frequency bands of 1.0–2.0 GHz, 2.6–3.8 GHz, and 5.2–7.6 GHz) during 1997–2007. We found that calibration coefficients are influenced by the local air temperature. Considering the temperature correction, the calibration error will reduce by about 10%–20% at 2800 MHz. Based on the above investigation and the calibration corrections, we further study the radio emission of the quiet Sun by using an appropriate hybrid model of the quiet-Sun atmosphere. The results indicate that the numerical flux of the hybrid model is much closer to the observation flux than that of other ones.

  1. Measurement of surface temperature and emissivity by a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform infrared spectrometers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Sønnik; Morgenstjerne, Axel; Rathmann, Ole

    1996-01-01

    Surface temperatures are estimated with high precision based on a multitemperature method for Fourier-transform spectrometers. The method is based on Planck's radiation law and a nonlinear least-squares fitting algorithm applied to two or more spectra at different sample temperatures and a single...... of blackbody sources are estimated with an uncertainty of 0.2-2 K. The method is demonstrated for measuring the spectral emissivity of a brass specimen and an oxidized nickel specimen. (C) 1996 Optical Society of America...... measurement at a known sample temperature, for example, at ambient temperature. The temperature of the sample surface can be measured rather easily at ambient temperature. The spectrum at ambient temperature is used to eliminate background effects from spectra as measured at other surface temperatures...

  2. Environmental samples analysis by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, I.V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Busuioc, G.; Dima, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Vlaicu, Gh.; Marian, R.

    2002-01-01

    Biological samples are interesting from many aspects of environmental monitoring. By analyzing tree leaves conclusions can be drown regarding the metal loading in the growth medium. So that, starting from assumption that the pollution factors from environmental medium can modify the normal concentration of elements, we decided to control the presence of toxic elements and the deviation from normal state of elements in leaves of different trees from areas situated at different distances of pollution source. The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) method and Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES) method. Using AAS spectrophotometer SHIMADZU we identified and determined the concentration of: Cd, Co, Cu, Zn, Mn, Cr, Fe, Se, Pb with an instrumental error less than 1% for most of the elements analyzed. The same samples were analyzed by ICP-OES spectrometer, BAIRD ICP2070-Sequential Plasma spectrometer. We identified and determined in leaves of different trees the concentration of Mg, Ca, and Sr with a precision less than 6%. (authors)

  3. A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy dual-mode plasma spectrometer for measurements of environmentally important trace heavy metals: Initial test with elemental Hg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan T.; Wang, Chuji

    2012-09-01

    A portable optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode plasma spectrometer is described. A compact, low-power, atmospheric argon microwave plasma torch (MPT) is utilized as the emission source when the spectrometer is operating in the OES mode. The same MPT serves as the atomization source for ringdown measurements in the CRDS mode. Initial demonstration of the instrument is carried out by observing OES of multiple elements including mercury (Hg) in the OES mode and by measuring absolute concentrations of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 in the CRDS mode, in which a palm-size diode laser operating at a single wavelength 405 nm is incorporated in the spectrometer as the light source. In the OES mode, the detection limit for Hg is determined to be 44 parts per 109 (ppb). A strong radiation trapping effect on emission measurements of Hg at 254 nm is observed when the Hg solution concentration is higher than 50 parts per 106 (ppm). The radiation trapping effect suggests that two different transition lines of Hg at 253.65 nm and 365.01 nm be selected for emission measurements in lower (50 ppm), respectively. In the CRDS mode, the detection limit of Hg in the metastable state 6s6p 3P0 is achieved to be 2.24 parts per 1012 (ppt) when the plasma is operating at 150 W with sample gas flow rate of 480 mL min-1; the detection limit corresponds to 50 ppm in Hg sample solution. Advantage of this novel spectrometer has two-fold, it has a large measurement dynamic range, from a few ppt to hundreds ppm and the CRDS mode can serve as calibration for the OES mode as well as high sensitivity measurements. Measurements of seven other elements, As, Cd, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, and Sr, using the OES mode are also carried out with detection limits of 1100, 33, 30, 144, 576, 94, and 2 ppb, respectively. Matrix effect in the presence of other elements on Hg measurements has been found to increase the detection limit to 131 ppb. These elements in lower

  4. Emission of H- fragments from collisions of OH+ ions with atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhasz, Z.; Sulik, B.

    2010-01-01

    Compete text of publication follows. Detailed measurement of the kinematics of positive fragment ions from molecular collisions pro-vide useful information about the collision dynamics (see e.g. and references therein). In the present work, we turn our attention to negative fragments. Double differential emission spectra of negative charged particles have been measured in collisions of OH + ions with gas jets of Ar atoms and acetone (CH 3 -CO-CH 3 ) molecules at 7 keV impact energy. Among the emitted electrons, a relatively strong contribution of H - ions has been observed in both collision systems. According to a kinematic analysis, the observed H - ions were produced in close atom-atom collisions. For acetone, these ions originated from both the projectile and the target. The present ion impact energy range falls in the distal region of the Bragg peak. Therefore, a non negligible H - production in biological tissues could be relevant for ion therapy and for radiolysis in general. The present experiments were conducted at the 14.5 GHz Electron Cyclotron Resonance (ECR) ion source of the ARIBE facility, at the Grand Accelerateur National d'Ions Lourds (GANIL) in Caen, France. The molecular OH + ions were produced by introducing water vapor in the ECR plasma chamber. The extracted ions were collimated to a diameter of 2.5 mm before entering the collision chamber. In its center, the OH + projectiles crossed an effusive gas jet of either argon atoms or acetone molecules. In the collision area, the density of the gas target was typically of 10 13 cm -3 . The electrons and negative ions produced in the collision were detected by means of a single-stage spectrometer consisting of an electrostatic parallel-plate analyzer. Spectra taken at 30 deg observation angle are shown in Figure 1. Contributions from H - appear in clearly visible peaks. Kinematics shows that the peak at 410 eV in both panels is due emission of H - ions moving with nearly the projectile velocity. An H

  5. Modeling Emission of Heavy Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Heliosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej

    2017-01-01

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) are a fruitful tool for remote diagnosis of the plasma in the heliosphere and its vicinity. So far, instruments detecting ENAs from the heliosphere were configured for observations of hydrogen atoms. Here, we estimate emissions of ENAs of the heavy chemical elements helium, oxygen, nitrogen, and neon. A large portion of the heliospheric ENAs is created in the inner heliosheath from neutralized interstellar pick-up ions (PUIs). We modeled this process and calculated full-sky intensities of ENAs for energies 0.2–130 keV/nuc. We found that the largest fluxes among considered species are expected for helium, smaller for oxygen and nitrogen, and smallest for neon. The obtained intensities are 50–10 6 times smaller than the hydrogen ENA intensities observed by IBEX . The detection of heavy ENAs will be possible if a future ENA detector is equipped with the capability to measure the masses of observed atoms. Because of different reaction cross-sections among the different species, observations of heavy ENAs can allow for a better understanding of global structure of the heliosphere as well as the transport and energization of PUIs in the heliosphere.

  6. Modeling Emission of Heavy Energetic Neutral Atoms from the Heliosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaczyna, Paweł; Bzowski, Maciej, E-mail: pswaczyna@cbk.waw.pl [Space Research Centre of the Polish Academy of Sciences (CBK PAN), Bartycka 18A, 00-716 Warsaw (Poland)

    2017-09-10

    Observations of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) are a fruitful tool for remote diagnosis of the plasma in the heliosphere and its vicinity. So far, instruments detecting ENAs from the heliosphere were configured for observations of hydrogen atoms. Here, we estimate emissions of ENAs of the heavy chemical elements helium, oxygen, nitrogen, and neon. A large portion of the heliospheric ENAs is created in the inner heliosheath from neutralized interstellar pick-up ions (PUIs). We modeled this process and calculated full-sky intensities of ENAs for energies 0.2–130 keV/nuc. We found that the largest fluxes among considered species are expected for helium, smaller for oxygen and nitrogen, and smallest for neon. The obtained intensities are 50–10{sup 6} times smaller than the hydrogen ENA intensities observed by IBEX . The detection of heavy ENAs will be possible if a future ENA detector is equipped with the capability to measure the masses of observed atoms. Because of different reaction cross-sections among the different species, observations of heavy ENAs can allow for a better understanding of global structure of the heliosphere as well as the transport and energization of PUIs in the heliosphere.

  7. Upgraded DIRAC spectrometer at CERN PS for the investigation of ππ and πK atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adeva, B. [Santiago de Compostela University (Spain); Afanasyev, L. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Allkofer, Y. [Zurich University (Switzerland); Amsler, C. [Albert Einstein Centre for Fundamental Physics, Laboratory of High Energy Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Anania, A. [INFN, Sezione di Trieste and Messina University, Messina (Italy); Aogaki, S. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Benelli, A. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Brekhovskikh, V. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Caragheorgheopol, Gh. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Cechak, T. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Chiba, M. [Tokyo Metropolitan University (Japan); Chliapnikov, P. [IHEP, Protvino (Russian Federation); Ciocarlan, C.; Constantinescu, S. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); Detraz, C. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Doskarova, P. [Czech Technical University in Prague (Czech Republic); Drijard, D. [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland); Dudarev, A. [JINR, Dubna (Russian Federation); Duma, M.; Dumitriu, D. [IFIN-HH, National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Bucharest (Romania); and others

    2016-12-11

    The DIRAC spectrometer installed at CERN PS was upgraded in order to study simultaneously A{sub 2π} and A{sub πK} atoms, namely the bound states of two π mesons, and of π and K mesons, respectively. The detector system can now accept a high intensity beam of 2–6×10{sup 11} primary protons per second. The electronics and the data-acquisition system can handle a very large amount of data to identify π, K, p, e and µ, allowing the selection of ππ and πK pairs in the offline analysis. The resolution of the longitudinal and transverse components of the relative momentum Q of each meson pair in their center-of-mass system with respect to the direction of the pair was substantially improved. The analysis of their distributions allowed an reliable separation between the meson pairs originating from hadronic atoms and the backgrounds permitting the measurement of the lifetimes of hadronic atoms in the ground state and π–π, π–K s-wave scattering lengths. The upgraded setup also allowed the study of the long-lived excited states of ππ atoms.

  8. Correlation spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Michael B [Albuquerque, NM; Pfeifer, Kent B [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb H [Albuquerque, NM; Jones, Gary D [Tijeras, NM; Tigges, Chris P [Albuquerque, NM

    2010-04-13

    A correlation spectrometer can detect a large number of gaseous compounds, or chemical species, with a species-specific mask wheel. In this mode, the spectrometer is optimized for the direct measurement of individual target compounds. Additionally, the spectrometer can measure the transmission spectrum from a given sample of gas. In this mode, infrared light is passed through a gas sample and the infrared transmission signature of the gasses present is recorded and measured using Hadamard encoding techniques. The spectrometer can detect the transmission or emission spectra in any system where multiple species are present in a generally known volume.

  9. Measurement of fluorescence emission spectrum of few strongly driven atoms using an optical nanofiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Manoj; Shirasaki, A; Nayak, K P; Morinaga, M; Le Kien, Fam; Hakuta, K

    2010-08-02

    We show that the fluorescence emission spectrum of few atoms can be measured by using an optical nanofiber combined with the optical heterodyne and photon correlation spectroscopy. The observed fluorescence spectrum of the atoms near the nanofiber shows negligible effects of the atom-surface interaction and agrees well with the Mollow triplet spectrum of free-space atoms at high excitation intensity.

  10. A Plasma Based OES-CRDS Dual-mode Portable Spectrometer for Trace Element Detection: Emission and Ringdown Measurements of Mercury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahay, Peeyush; Scherrer, Susan; Wang, Chuji

    2012-10-01

    Design and development of a plasma based optical emission spectroscopy-cavity ringdown spectroscopy (OES-CRDS) dual-mode portable spectrometer for in situ monitoring of trace elements is described. A microwave plasma torch (MPT) has been utilized, which serves both as an atomization and excitation source for the two modes, viz. OES and CRDS, of the spectrometer. Operation of both modes of the instrument is demonstrated with initial measurements of elemental mercury (Hg). A detection limit of 44 ng mL-1 for Hg at 253.65 nm was determined with the emission mode of the instrument. Severe radiation trapping of 253.65 nm line hampers the measurement of Hg in higher concentration region (> 50 μg ml-1). Therefore, a different wavelength, 365.01 nm, is suggested to measure Hg in that region. Ringdown measurements of the metastable 6s6p ^3P0 state of Hg in the plasma using a 404.65 nm palm size diode laser was conducted to demonstrate the CRDS mode of the instrument. Along with being portable, dual-mode, and self-calibrated, the instrument is capable of measuring a wide range of concentration ranging from sub ng mL-1 to several μg ml-1 for a number of elements.

  11. Lithium determination in whole blood by flame atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Khalid, N.; Nasimullah; Iqbal, M.Z.

    2003-01-01

    A simple and rapid method for the determination of lithium in whole blood using Flame atomic emission spectrometry is described. No sample preparation was required apart from dilution with 0.02 N HNO/sub 3/. The reliability of the method was determined by analyzing Standard Reference Material (SRM) under identical experimental conditions and comparing the determined lithium concentration with the reported value. These were in good agreement with each other. The determined range of lithium in the whole blood of fifty-six healthy adult volunteers (28 males and 28 females) were 13.1 - 47.8 mg L-1. The determined average concentration of lithium in whole blood was compared with the reported values of other countries. The data was statistically analyzed with respect to sex and different age groups. (author)

  12. Two-dimensional sub-half-wavelength atom localization via controlled spontaneous emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Ren-Gang; Zhang, Tong-Yi

    2011-12-05

    We propose a scheme for two-dimensional (2D) atom localization based on the controlled spontaneous emission, in which the atom interacts with two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Due to the spatially dependent atom-field interaction, the position probability distribution of the atom can be directly determined by measuring the resulting spontaneously emission spectrum. The phase sensitive property of the atomic system leads to quenching of the spontaneous emission in some regions of the standing-waves, which significantly reduces the uncertainty in the position measurement of the atom. We find that the frequency measurement of the emitted light localizes the atom in half-wavelength domain. Especially the probability of finding the atom at a particular position can reach 100% when a photon with certain frequency is detected. By increasing the Rabi frequencies of the driving fields, such 2D sub-half-wavelength atom localization can acquire high spatial resolution.

  13. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geldzahler, B.J.; Share, G.H.; Kinzer, R.L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system. 19 refs

  14. Search for Doppler-shifted gamma-ray emission from SS 433 using the SMM spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldzahler, B. J.; Share, G. H.; Kinzer, R. L.; Magura, J.; Chupp, E. L.

    1989-01-01

    Data accumulated from 1980 to 1983 with the Gamma Ray Spectrometer aboard NASA's Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were searched for evidence of red and blue Doppler-shifted 1.37 MeV Mg-24 nuclear lines from SS 433. The SMM data base covers 270 days when SS 433 was in the field of view and includes periods of radio flaring and quiescence. No evidence was found for Doppler-shifted line emission in any of the spectra. The range of 3-sigma upper limits for individual 9 day integration periods was 0.0008-0.0023 photons/sq cm per sec for the blue beam, encompassing the reported about 1.5 MeV line, and 0.0008-0.002 photons/sq cm per sec for the red beam, encompassing the reported about 1.2 MeV line; the average 3-sigma upper limit in each beam for shifted about 1.37 MeV lines is 0.0015 photons/sq cm per sec for single 9 day integrations. The 3-sigma upper limit on 1.37 MeV gamma-ray emission over 23 9-day integration intervals for the red beam and 28 intervals for the blue beam is 0.0002 photons/sq cm per sec. These new limits from SMM can be reconciled with the HEAO 3 results only if SS 433 emits gamma radiation at or above the SMM sensitivity limit on rare occasions due to variable physical conditions in the system.

  15. Satellite observations of peroxyacetyl nitrate from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. H. Payne

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a description of the algorithm used to retrieve peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN concentrations from the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES. We describe the spectral microwindows, error analysis, and the utilization of a priori and initial guess information provided by the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model. The TES PAN retrievals contain up to one degree of freedom for signal. In general, the retrievals are most sensitive to PAN in the mid-troposphere. Estimated single-measurement uncertainties are on the order of 30 to 50%. The detection limit for a single TES measurement is dependent on the atmospheric and surface conditions as well as on the instrument noise. For observations where the cloud optical depth is less than 0.5, we find that the TES detection limit for PAN is in the region of 200 to 300 pptv. We show that PAN retrievals capture plumes associated with boreal burning. Retrievals over the Northern Hemisphere Pacific in springtime show spatial features that are qualitatively consistent with the expected distribution of PAN in outflow of Asian pollution.

  16. The Annual Cycle of Water Vapor on Mars as Observed by the Thermal Emission Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Vondrak, Richard R. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Spectra taken by the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) have been used to monitor the latitude, longitude, and seasonal dependence of water vapor for over one full Martian year (March 1999-March 2001). A maximum in water vapor abundance is observed at high latitudes during mid-summer in both hemispheres, reaching a maximum value of approximately 100 pr-micrometer in the north and approximately 50 pr-micrometer in the south. Low water vapor abundance (water vapor. The latitudinal and seasonal dependence of the decay of the northern summer water vapor maximum implies cross-equatorial transport of water to the southern hemisphere, while there is little or no corresponding transport during the decay of the southern hemisphere summer maximum. The latitude-longitude dependence of annually-averaged water vapor (corrected for topography) has a significant positive correlation with albedo and significant negative correlations with thermal inertia and surface pressure. Comparison of TES results with those retrieved from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) experiments shows some similar features, but also many significant differences. The southern hemisphere maximum observed by TES was not observed by MAWD and the large latitudinal gradient in annually-averaged water vapor observed by MAWD does not appear in the TES results.

  17. The Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapour on Mars from Assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr micron depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around L(sub S) = 240-260deg. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  18. Spectra of alkali atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Budi; Arumbinang, Haryono.

    1981-01-01

    Emission spectra of alkali atoms has been determined by using spectrometer at the ultraviolet to infra red waves range. The spectra emission can be obtained by absorption spectrophotometric analysis. Comparative evaluations between experimental data and data handbook obtained by spark method were also presented. (author tr.)

  19. Atomic absorption spectrometer readout and data reduction using the LSI-11 microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, M.J.; Wikkerink, R.W.

    1978-01-01

    Some common instruments found in the chemistry laboratory have analog chart recorder output as their primary data readout media. Data reduction from this medium is slow and relatively inaccurate. This paper describes how to interface a single LSI-11 microcomputer to PERKIN-ELMER models 603 and 303 Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometers

  20. Discovery of the radioactive decay of 223Ra by 14C emission and experiments with the magnetic spectrometer Soleno

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hourani, E.; Hussonnois, M.

    1987-01-01

    The aim of this report is to review the experiment of Rose and Jones (discovery in 1984 of radioactive decay of 223 Ra by 14 C nuclei emission) with the subsequent one of Alexandrov (et al) performed with the same technique. The experiments performed by the group at Orsay on 14 C radioactivity of radium isotopes with the magnetic spectrometer Soleno are also reviewed. This review comprises the presentation and comments of the original results and arguments taken in their historical context

  1. Characterization of particulate matter emissions from on-road gasoline and diesel vehicles using a soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer

    OpenAIRE

    Dallmann, T. R.; Onasch, T. B.; Kirchstetter, T. W.; Worton, D. R.; Fortner, E. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Wood, E. C.; Franklin, J. P.; Worsnop, D. R.; Goldstein, A. H.; Harley, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions were measured in July 2010 from on-road motor vehicles driving through a highway tunnel in the San Francisco Bay area. A soot particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SP-AMS) was used to measure the chemical composition of PM emitted by gasoline and diesel vehicles at high time resolution. Organic aerosol (OA) and black carbon (BC) concentrations were measured during various time periods that had different levels of diesel influence, as well as d...

  2. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E

    2009-01-01

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  3. Local secondary-electron emission spectra of graphite and gold surfaces obtained using the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer (SPELS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawton, J J; Pulisciano, A; Palmer, R E, E-mail: R.E.Palmer@bham.ac.u [Nanoscale Physics Research Laboratory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Birmingham, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)

    2009-11-25

    Secondary-electron emission (SEE) spectra have been obtained with the Scanning Probe Energy Loss Spectrometer at a tip-sample distance of only 50 nm. Such short working distances are required for the best theoretical spatial resolution (<10 nm). The SEE spectra of graphite, obtained as a function of tip bias voltage, are shown to correspond to unoccupied states in the electronic band structure. The SEE spectra of thin gold films demonstrate the capability of identifying (carbonaceous) surface contamination with this technique.

  4. Atomic emission and atomic fluorescence spectroscopy in the direct current plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrick, M.S.

    1985-01-01

    The Direct Current Plasma (DCP) was investigated as a source for Atomic Emission (AE) and Atomic Fluorescence Spectrometry (AFS). The DCP was optimized for AE analyses using simplex optimization and Box-Behnken partial factorial experimental design, varying argon flows, and plasma position. Results were compared with a univariate search carried out in the region of the simplex optimum. Canonical analysis demonstrated that no true optimum exists for sensitivity, precision, or drift. A stationary ridge, where combinations of conditions gave comparable instrumental responses, was found. The DCP as an excitation source for AFS in a flame was used for diagnostic studies of the DCP. Moving the aerosol introduction tube behind the DCP with respect to the flame improved the characteristics of the DCP as a narrow line source, although self-absorption was observed at high concentrations of metal salt solutions in the DCP. Detection limits for Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mg, Mn, Zn, and Ni were in the low ng/mL region. Theoretical expressions for scatter correction with a two-line technique were derived, although no correction was necessary to achieve accurate results for standard reference materials

  5. Development of the Flame Test Concept Inventory: Measuring Student Thinking about Atomic Emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretz, Stacey Lowery; Murata Mayo, Ana Vasquez

    2018-01-01

    This study reports the development of a 19-item Flame Test Concept Inventory, an assessment tool to measure students' understanding of atomic emission. Fifty-two students enrolled in secondary and postsecondary chemistry courses were interviewed about atomic emission and explicitly asked to explain flame test demonstrations and energy level…

  6. Similarity ratio analysis for early stage fault detection with optical emission spectrometer in plasma etching process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Yang

    Full Text Available A Similarity Ratio Analysis (SRA method is proposed for early-stage Fault Detection (FD in plasma etching processes using real-time Optical Emission Spectrometer (OES data as input. The SRA method can help to realise a highly precise control system by detecting abnormal etch-rate faults in real-time during an etching process. The method processes spectrum scans at successive time points and uses a windowing mechanism over the time series to alleviate problems with timing uncertainties due to process shift from one process run to another. A SRA library is first built to capture features of a healthy etching process. By comparing with the SRA library, a Similarity Ratio (SR statistic is then calculated for each spectrum scan as the monitored process progresses. A fault detection mechanism, named 3-Warning-1-Alarm (3W1A, takes the SR values as inputs and triggers a system alarm when certain conditions are satisfied. This design reduces the chance of false alarm, and provides a reliable fault reporting service. The SRA method is demonstrated on a real semiconductor manufacturing dataset. The effectiveness of SRA-based fault detection is evaluated using a time-series SR test and also using a post-process SR test. The time-series SR provides an early-stage fault detection service, so less energy and materials will be wasted by faulty processing. The post-process SR provides a fault detection service with higher reliability than the time-series SR, but with fault testing conducted only after each process run completes.

  7. High-performance liquid chromatographic separation of biologically important arsenic species utilizing on-line inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometric detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spall, W.D.; Lynn, J.G.; Andersen, J.L.; Valdez, J.G.; Gurley, L.R.

    1986-06-01

    An anion exchange, high-performance liquid chromatography technique using a 15-min linear gradient from water to 0.5 M ammonium carbonate to separate arsenite, arsenate, methylarsonic acid, and dimethylarsinic acid from neutral arsenic containing compounds was developed for application to a study of arsenic metabolism in cultured cell suspensions. Arsenic detection was accomplished by the direct coupling of the column effluent to an inductively coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICAP-AES) set to monitor the arsenic emission line at 197.19 nm. The analysis requires 20 min and is sensitive to as low as 60 ng of arsenic injected to the column.

  8. Development of wave length-dispersive soft x-ray emission spectrometers for transmission electron microscopes - an introduction of valence electron spectroscopy for transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terauchi, Masami; Koike, Masato; Fukushima, Kurio; Kimura, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    Two types of wavelength-dispersive soft X-ray spectrometers, a high-dispersion type and a conventional one, for transmission electron microscopes were constructed. Those spectrometers were used to study the electronic states of valence electrons (bonding electrons). Both spectrometers extended the acceptable energy regions to higher than 2000 eV. The best energy resolution of 0.08 eV was obtained for an Al L-emission spectrum by using the high-dispersion type spectrometer. By using the spectrometer, C K-emission of carbon allotropes, Cu L-emission of Cu 1-x Zn x alloys and Pt M-emission spectra were presented. The FWHM value of 12 eV was obtained for the Pt Mα-emission peak. The performance of the conventional one was also presented for ZnS and a section specimen of a multilayer device. W-M and Si-K emissions were clearly resolved. Soft X-ray emission spectroscopy based on transmission electron microscopy (TEM) has an advantage for obtaining spectra from a single crystalline specimen with a defined crystal setting. As an example of anisotropic soft X-ray emission, C K-emission spectra of single crystalline graphite with different crystal settings were presented. From the spectra, density of states of π- and σ-bondings were separately derived. These results demonstrated a method to analyse the electronic states of valence electrons of materials in the nanometre scale based on TEM. (author)

  9. Assessment of Mars Atmospheric Temperature Retrievals from the Thermal Emission Spectrometer Radiances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, Matthew J.; Eluszkiewicz, Janusz; Weisenstein, Deborah; Uymin, Gennady; Moncet, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the needs of Mars data assimilation. particularly quantification of measurement errors and generation of averaging kernels. we have evaluated atmospheric temperature retrievals from Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) radiances. Multiple sets of retrievals have been considered in this study; (1) retrievals available from the Planetary Data System (PDS), (2) retrievals based on variants of the retrieval algorithm used to generate the PDS retrievals, and (3) retrievals produced using the Mars 1-Dimensional Retrieval (M1R) algorithm based on the Optimal Spectral Sampling (OSS ) forward model. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared to the MGS Radio Science (RS) temperature profiles. For the samples tested, the M1R temperature profiles can be made to agree within 2 K with the RS temperature profiles, but only after tuning the prior and error statistics. Use of a global prior that does not take into account the seasonal dependence leads errors of up 6 K. In polar samples. errors relative to the RS temperature profiles are even larger. In these samples, the PDS temperature profiles also exhibit a poor fit with RS temperatures. This fit is worse than reported in previous studies, indicating that the lack of fit is due to a bias correction to TES radiances implemented after 2004. To explain the differences between the PDS and Ml R temperatures, the algorithms are compared directly, with the OSS forward model inserted into the PDS algorithm. Factors such as the filtering parameter, the use of linear versus nonlinear constrained inversion, and the choice of the forward model, are found to contribute heavily to the differences in the temperature profiles retrieved in the polar regions, resulting in uncertainties of up to 6 K. Even outside the poles, changes in the a priori statistics result in different profile shapes which all fit the radiances within the specified error. The importance of the a priori statistics prevents

  10. Precision analysis of 15N-labelled samples with the emission spectrometer NOI-5 for nitrogen balance in field trials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippold, H.

    1984-01-01

    A technique was adapted for the preparation of samples with 15 N to be analyzed with the emission spectrometer NOI-5. This technique is based on methods of analyzing 15 N labelled gas samples in denitrification experiments. Nitrogen released from ammonium compounds by using hypobromite is injected into a repeatedly usable gaseous discharge tube where it is freed from water traces by means of the molecular sieve 5A. The described procedure of activating the molecular sieve allows to record spectra of reproducible quality thus promising an accuracy of analysis of +- 0.003 at% in the range of natural isotope frequency and the possibility of soil nitrogen analysis in field trials with fertilizers of low nitrogen content (3 to 6.5 at%; corresponding with 0.055 to 0.14% N/sub t/ of soils) without being dependent on mass spectrometers. (author)

  11. X-Ray Emission Spectrometer Design with Single-Shot Pump-Probe and Resonant Excitation Capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spoth, Katherine; /SUNY, Buffalo /SLAC

    2012-08-28

    Core-level spectroscopy in the soft X-ray regime is a powerful tool for the study of chemical bonding processes. The ultrafast, ultrabright X-ray pulses generated by the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) allow these reactions to be studied in greater detail than ever before. In this study, we investigated a conceptual design of a spectrometer for the LCLS with imaging in the non-dispersive direction. This would allow single-shot collection of X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) measurements with varying laser pump X-ray probe delay or a variation of incoming X-ray energy over the illuminated area of the sample. Ray-tracing simulations were used to demonstrate how the components of the spectrometer affect its performance, allowing a determination of the optimal final design. These simulations showed that the spectrometer's non-dispersive focusing is extremely sensitive to the size of the sample footprint; the spectrometer is not able to image a footprint width larger than one millimeter with the required resolution. This is compatible with a single shot scheme that maps out the laser pump X-ray probe delay in the non-dispersive direction as well as resonant XES applications at normal incidence. However, the current capabilities of the Soft X-Ray (SXR) beamline at the LCLS do not produce the required energy range in a small enough sample footprint, hindering the single shot resonant XES application at SXR for chemical dynamics studies at surfaces. If an upgraded or future beamline at LCLS is developed with lower monochromator energy dispersion the width can be made small enough at the required energy range to be imaged by this spectrometer design.

  12. Evaluation of an open-path fourier-transform infrared spectrometer for monitoring vehicle emissions over a suburban roadway intersection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einfield, W.

    1997-05-01

    The ability of an open-path, fourier-transform infrared spectrometer to detect vehicle exhaust emissions approximately 3 meters above the roadway surface at a busy Albuquerque suburban intersection was evaluated in this study. Multiple measurements of carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide were carried out over pathlengths up to 100 meters during the morning commute period on multiple days in the summer of 1993. The carbon monoxide to fuel carbon ratio was computed from all spectral data in order to derive a vehicle fleet average ratio. The data were determined to be normally distributed with an overall carbon monoxide-fuel carbon ratio of 0.15. The 95% confidence interval about the mean was ± 0.009. Day-to-day variation of the mean ratio was determined to be on the order of 3%. The results indicate that anticipated reductions in carbon monoxide emissions following the implementation of a winter-season oxygenated fuel program could be reliably detected with an open-path fourier transform spectrometer. The periodic use of such an instrument may offer a cost-effective means of generating a city-wide carbon monoxide emission budget for vehicles sources

  13. Ultrafast atomic process in X-ray emission by using inner-shell ionization method for sodium and carbon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira; Tajima, Toshiki [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment

    1998-07-01

    An ultrafast inner-shell ionization process with X-ray emission stimulated by high-intensity short-pulse X-ray is studied. Carbon and sodium atoms are treated as target matter. It is shown that atomic processes of the target determine the necessary X-ray intensity for X-ray laser emission as well as the features of X-ray laser such as wavelength and duration time. The intensity also depends on the density of initial atoms. Furthermore, we show that as the intensity of X-ray source becomes high, the multi-inner-shell ionization predominates, leading to the formation of hollow atoms. As the density of hollow atoms is increased by the pumping X-ray power, the emission of X-rays is not only of significance for high brightness X-ray measurement but also is good for X-ray lasing. New classes of experiments of pump X-ray probe and X-ray laser are suggested. (author)

  14. Development of Multiple-Element Flame Emission Spectrometer Using CCD Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seney, Caryn S.; Sinclair, Karen V.; Bright, Robin M.; Momoh, Paul O.; Bozeman, Amelia D.

    2005-01-01

    The full wavelength coverage of charge coupled device (CCD) detector when coupled with an echelle spectrography, the system allows for simultaneously multiple element spectroscopy to be performed. The multiple-element flame spectrometer was built and characterized through the analysis of environmentally significant elements such as Ca, K, Na, Cu,…

  15. Angle-resolving time-of-flight electron spectrometer for near-threshold precision measurements of differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lange, M.; Matsumoto, J.; Setiawan, A.; Panajotovic, R.; Harrison, J.; Lower, J. C. A.; Newman, D. S.; Mondal, S.; Buckman, S. J.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a new type of low-energy crossed-beam electron spectrometer for measuring angular differential cross sections of electron-impact excitation of atomic and molecular targets. Designed for investigations at energies close to excitation thresholds, the spectrometer combines a pulsed electron beam with the time-of-flight technique to distinguish between scattering channels. A large-area, position-sensitive detector is used to offset the low average scattering rate resulting from the pulsing duty cycle, without sacrificing angular resolution. A total energy resolution better than 150 meV (full width at half maximum) at scattered energies of 0.5-3 eV is achieved by monochromating the electron beam prior to pulsing it. The results of a precision measurement of the differential cross section for electron-impact excitation of helium, at an energy of 22 eV, are used to assess the sensitivity and resolution of the spectrometer

  16. Study of atomic and molecular emission spectra of Sr by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Chet R; Alfarraj, Bader; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K; Ghany, Charles; Yueh, Fang Y; Singh, Jagdish P

    2015-12-01

    Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is an ideal analytical technique for in situ analysis of elemental composition. We have performed a comparative study of the quantitative and qualitative analysis of atomic and molecular emission from LIBS spectra. In our experiments, a mixture of SrCl2 and Al2O3 in powder form was used as a sample. The atomic emission from Sr and molecular emission from SrCl and SrO observed in LIBS spectra were analyzed. The optimum laser energies, gate delays, and gate widths for selected atomic lines and molecular bands were determined from spectra recorded at various experimental parameters. These optimum experimental conditions were used to collect calibration data, and the calibration curves were used to predict the Sr concentration. Limits of detection (LODs) for selected atomic and molecular emission spectra were determined.

  17. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy glovebox assembly system at the West Valley Demonstration Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marlow, J.H.; McCarthy, K.M.; Tamul, N.R.

    1999-01-01

    The inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy [ICP/AES (ICP)] system for elemental analyses in support of vitrification processing was first installed in 1986. The initial instrument was a Jobin Yvon (JY) Model JY-70 ICP that consisted of sequential and simultaneous spectrometers for analysis of nonradioactive samples as radioactive surrogates. The JY-70 ICP continued supporting nonradioactive testing during the Functional and Checkout Testing of Systems (FACTS) using the full-scale melter with ''cold'' (nonradioactive) testing campaigns. As a result, the need for another system was identified to allow for the analysis of radioactive samples. The Mass Spec (Spectrometry) Lab was established for the installation of the modified ICP system for handling radioactive samples. The conceptual setup of another ICP was predicated on the use of a hood to allow ease of accessibility of the torch, nebulizer, and spray chamber, and the minimization of air flow paths. However, reconsideration of the radioactive sample dose rate and contamination levels led to the configuration of the glovebox system with a common transfer interface box for the ICP and the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS) glovebox assemblies. As a result, a simultaneous Model JY-50P ICP with glovebox was installed in 1990 as a first generation ICP glovebox system. This was one of the first ICP glovebox assemblies connected with an ICP-MS glovebox system. Since the economics of processing high-level radioactive waste (HLW) required the availability of an instrument to operate 24 hours a day throughout the year without any downtime, a second generation ICP glovebox assembly was designed, manufactured, and installed in 1995 using a Model JY-46P ICP. These two ICP glovebox systems continue to support vitrification of the HLW into canisters for storage. The ICP systems have been instrumental in monitoring vitrification batch processing. To date, remote sample preparation and

  18. Frequency shifts in spontaneous emission from two interacting atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, D.F.V.

    1993-01-01

    A model radiating system consisting of two atoms in close proximity is analyzed. This system demonstrates the influence of spatial coherence on the spectrum of the radiation field. Explicit expressions for the degree of coherence, the source spectrum, and the spectrum of the radiation field are derived. The results are discussed in terms of Wolf's work [Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 1370 (1986)] on this effect, which can be considered in terms of a multiple-atom analog of the effects of radiation reaction on a single atom, i.e., spontaneous decay and the Lamb shift

  19. Broadening of the x-ray emission line due to the instrumental function of the double-crystal spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tochio, T.; Ito, Y.; Omote, K.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of the instrumental function on the Cu Kα 1 emission line was investigated for the case of a double-crystal spectrometer. The magnitude of broadening for both Si(220) and Si(440) was calculated for a Lorentzian emission line with the width of 1-5 eV; the broadening for Si(220) is 0.12-0.18 eV while that for Si(440) is only 0.015-0.043 eV. The former is too large to be neglected, so the correction for the instrumental function is important. The spectrum affected by the instrumental function seems to keep the shape of Lorentzian though its width is larger. The fact indicates that the Lorentzian fitting analysis is effective if the appropriate correction for width is done

  20. Localization of the relative position of two atoms induced by spontaneous emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, L.; Li, C.; Li, Y.; Sun, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    We reexamine the back-action of emitted photons on the wave packet evolution about the relative position of two cold atoms. We show that photon recoil resulting from the spontaneous emission can induce the localization of the relative position of the two atoms through the entanglement between the spatial motion of individual atoms and their emitted photons. The obtained result provides a more realistic model for the analysis of the environment-induced localization of a macroscopic object

  1. Impact of nonlinearity on changing the a priori of trace gas profile estimates from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Kulawik

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Non-linear maximum a posteriori (MAP estimates of atmospheric profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES contains a priori information that may vary geographically, which is a confounding factor in the analysis and physical interpretation of an ensemble of profiles. One mitigation strategy is to transform profile estimates to a common prior using a linear operation thereby facilitating the interpretation of profile variability. However, this operation is dependent on the assumption of not worse than moderate non-linearity near the solution of the non-linear estimate. The robustness of this assumption is tested by comparing atmospheric retrievals from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer processed with a uniform prior with those processed with a variable prior and converted to a uniform prior following the non-linear retrieval. Linearly converting the prior following a non-linear retrieval is shown to have a minor effect on the results as compared to a non-linear retrieval using a uniform prior when compared to the expected total error, with less than 10% of the change in the prior ending up as unbiased fluctuations in the profile estimate results.

  2. Convenient determination of luminescence quantum yield using a combined electronic absorption and emission spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prakash, John; Mishra, Ashok Kumar [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600036 (India)

    2016-01-15

    It is possible to measure luminescence quantum yield in a facile way, by designing an optical spectrometer capable of obtaining electronic absorption as well as luminescence spectra, with a setup that uses the same light source and detector for both the spectral measurements. Employment of a single light source and single detector enables use of the same correction factor profile for spectral corrections. A suitable instrumental scaling factor is used for adjusting spectral losses.

  3. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A. M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-01-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of CR II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. the plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. the light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 sto 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0. 2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sn alloys. to avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000 K), electron densities (∼∼ 10''16 cm ''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained. (Author) 56 refs

  4. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-09-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. The plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. The light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 to 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0.2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sb alloys. To avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000K), electron densities (approx 10 ''16 cm''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained

  5. Visible Light Emission from Atomic Scale Patterns Fabricated by the Scanning Tunneling Microscope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thirstrup, C.; Sakurai, M.; Stokbro, Kurt

    1999-01-01

    Scanning tunneling microscope (STM) induced light emission from artificial atomic scale structures comprising silicon dangling bonds on hydrogen-terminated Si(001) surfaces has been mapped spatially and analyzed spectroscopically in the visible spectral range. The light emission is based on a novel...

  6. Electron and X-ray emission in collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woerlee, P.H.

    1979-01-01

    The author presents experimental results of electron and X-ray emission following slow collisions of multiply charged ions and atoms. The aim of the investigation was to study the mechanisms which are responsible for the emission. (G.T.H.)

  7. The influence of atomic alignment on absorption and emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Heshou; Yan, Huirong; Richter, Philipp

    2018-06-01

    Spectroscopic observations play essential roles in astrophysics. They are crucial for determining physical parameters in the universe, providing information about the chemistry of various astronomical environments. The proper execution of the spectroscopic analysis requires accounting for all the physical effects that are compatible to the signal-to-noise ratio. We find in this paper the influence on spectroscopy from the atomic/ground state alignment owing to anisotropic radiation and modulated by interstellar magnetic field, has significant impact on the study of interstellar gas. In different observational scenarios, we comprehensively demonstrate how atomic alignment influences the spectral analysis and provide the expressions for correcting the effect. The variations are even more pronounced for multiplets and line ratios. We show the variation of the deduced physical parameters caused by the atomic alignment effect, including alpha-to-iron ratio ([X/Fe]) and ionisation fraction. Synthetic observations are performed to illustrate the visibility of such effect with current facilities. A study of PDRs in ρ Ophiuchi cloud is presented to demonstrate how to account for atomic alignment in practice. Our work has shown that due to its potential impact, atomic alignment has to be included in an accurate spectroscopic analysis of the interstellar gas with current observational capability.

  8. Steelmaking process control using remote ultraviolet atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Samuel

    Steelmaking in North America is a multi-billion dollar industry that has faced tremendous economic and environmental pressure over the past few decades. Fierce competition has driven steel manufacturers to improve process efficiency through the development of real-time sensors to reduce operating costs. In particular, much attention has been focused on end point detection through furnace off gas analysis. Typically, off-gas analysis is done with extractive sampling and gas analyzers such as Non-dispersive Infrared Sensors (NDIR). Passive emission spectroscopy offers a more attractive approach to end point detection as the equipment can be setup remotely. Using high resolution UV spectroscopy and applying sophisticated emission line detection software, a correlation was observed between metal emissions and the process end point during field trials. This correlation indicates a relationship between the metal emissions and the status of a steelmaking melt which can be used to improve overall process efficiency.

  9. Rainbow Emission from an Atomic Transition in Doped Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazarika, Abhijit; Pandey, Anshu; Sarma, D D

    2014-07-03

    Although semiconductor quantum dots are promising materials for displays and lighting due to their tunable emissions, these materials also suffer from the serious disadvantage of self-absorption of emitted light. The reabsorption of emitted light is a serious loss mechanism in practical situations because most phosphors exhibit subunity quantum yields. Manganese-based phosphors that also exhibit high stability and quantum efficiency do not suffer from this problem but in turn lack emission tunability, seriously affecting their practical utility. Here, we present a class of manganese-doped quantum dot materials, where strain is used to tune the wavelength of the dopant emission, extending the otherwise limited emission tunability over the yellow-orange range for manganese ions to almost the entire visible spectrum covering all colors from blue to red. These new materials thus combine the advantages of both quantum dots and conventional doped phosphors, thereby opening new possibilities for a wide range of applications in the future.

  10. Frequency lock of a dye laser emission on iron atomic line top

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durand, P.

    1995-03-01

    The aim of this thesis is to realize a frequency lock of a dye laser emission on iron atomic line top. To reach that goal, the author first presents the calculation of atomic vapour density by means of laser absorption ratio measure and studies the dye laser working. It is then necessary to find a device giving the required precision on the frequency of the absorption line choosen. It is obtained thanks to the atomic line reconstitution by optogalvanic effect which gives the reference. Besides, the author presents the necessity of a laser emission power regulation which is obtained thanks to a device including an acoustic and optic modulator. A reliable and accurate captor is choosen and adjusted testing various hollow cathode lamps. The method to obtain the frequency lock of laser emission on iron atomic line top is described. (TEC). 18 refs., 64 figs

  11. Emission Channeling Studies of the Lattice Site of Oversized Alkali Atoms Implanted in Metals

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    % IS340 \\\\ \\\\ As alkali atoms have the largest atomic radius of all elements, the determination of their lattice configuration following implantation into metals forms a critical test for the various models predicting the lattice site of implanted impurity atoms. The site determination of these large atoms will especially be a crucial check for the most recent model that relates the substitutional fraction of oversized elements to their solution enthalpy. Recent exploratory $^{213}$Fr and $^{221}$Fr $\\alpha$-emission channeling experiments at ISOLDE-CERN and hyperfine interaction measurements on Fr implanted in Fe gave an indication for anomalously large substitutional fractions. To investigate further the behaviour of Fr and other alkali atoms like Cs and Rb thoroughly, more on-line emission channeling experiments are needed. We propose a number of shifts for each element, where the temperature of the implanted metals will be varied between 50$^\\circ$ and 700$^\\circ$~K. Temperature dependent measurements wi...

  12. Spontaneous emission spectrum of a four-level atom coupled by three kinds of reservoirs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Dong; Wang Jian; Zhang, Hanzhuang; Yao Jinbo

    2007-01-01

    A model of a four-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic crystal (PC) is presented. The atomic transitions from the upper two levels to the lower two levels are coupled by the same reservoir which is assumed in turn to be isotropic PC modes, anisotropic PC modes and free vacuum modes. The effects of the fine structure of the atomic ground state levels and the quantum interference on the spontaneous emission spectrum of an atom are investigated in detail. Most interestingly, it is shown for the first time that new spontaneous emission lines are produced from the fine splitting of atomic ground state levels in the isotropic PC case. Quantum interference induces additional narrow spontaneous lines near the transition from the empty upper level to the lower levels

  13. On the role of coulomb forces in atomic radiative emission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yngstroem, S.

    1988-10-01

    It is shown how the generalized Coulomb interaction (electric and magnetic fields of force) competes with the radiative interaction causing overall inhibition of the radiative capability of atoms and ions in a gaseous sample of matter. Basic quantum mechanical aspects of the electromagnetic interaction are discussed in a heuristic introduction followed by a more precise treatment in the formalism of relativistic quantum electrodynamics. (author)

  14. Teleporting the one-qubit state via two-level atoms with spontaneous emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Mingliang, E-mail: mingliang0301@xupt.edu.cn, E-mail: mingliang0301@163.com [School of Science, Xi' an University of Posts and Telecommunications, Xi' an 710061 (China)

    2011-05-14

    We study quantum teleportation via two two-level atoms coupled collectively to a multimode vacuum field and prepared initially in different atomic states. We concentrated on the influence of the spontaneous emission, collective damping and dipole-dipole interaction of the atoms on fidelity dynamics of quantum teleportation and obtained the region of spatial distance between the two atoms over which the state can be teleported nonclassically. Moreover, we showed through concrete examples that entanglement of the channel state is the prerequisite but not the only essential quantity for predicting the teleportation fidelity.

  15. Coherent effects on two-photon correlation and directional emission of two two-level atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ooi, C. H. Raymond; Kim, Byung-Gyu; Lee, Hai-Woong

    2007-01-01

    Sub- and superradiant dynamics of spontaneously decaying atoms are manifestations of collective many-body systems. We study the internal dynamics and the radiation properties of two atoms in free space. Interesting results are obtained when the atoms are separated by less than half a wavelength of the atomic transition, where the dipole-dipole interaction gives rise to new coherent effects, such as (a) coherence between two intermediate collective states, (b) oscillations in the two-photon correlation G (2) , (c) emission of two photons by one atom, and (d) the loss of directional correlation. We compare the population dynamics during the two-photon emission process with the dynamics of single-photon emission in the cases of a Λ and a V scheme. We compute the temporal correlation and angular correlation of two successively emitted photons using the G (2) for different values of atomic separation. We find antibunching when the atomic separation is a quarter wavelength λ/4. Oscillations in the temporal correlation provide a useful feature for measuring subwavelength atomic separation. Strong directional correlation between two emitted photons is found for atomic separation larger than a wavelength. We also compare the directionality of a photon spontaneously emitted by the two atoms prepared in phased-symmetric and phased-antisymmetric entangled states vertical bar ±> k 0 =e ik 0 ·r 1 vertical bar a 1 ,b 2 >±e ik 0 ·r 2 vertical bar b 1 ,a 2 > by a laser pulse with wave vector k 0 . Photon emission is directionally suppressed along k 0 for the phased-antisymmetric state. The directionality ceases for interatomic distances less than λ/2

  16. Cobalt as chemical modifier to improve chromium sensitivity and minimize matrix effects in tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Sidnei G. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Donati, George L., E-mail: georgedonati@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Santos, Luana N. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, P.O. Box 676, São Carlos, SP 13560-970 (Brazil)

    2013-05-30

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Charge transfer reactions increase the population of Cr{sup +}. •Chromium ions and electrons recombine to form excited-state Cr atoms. •A 10-fold improvement in LOD is observed for Cr emission measurements. •The two-step ionization/excitation mechanism improves sensitivity and accuracy. •High concentrations of Co also minimize matrix effects. -- Abstract: Cobalt is used as chemical modifier to improve sensitivity and minimize matrix effects in Cr determinations by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). The atomizer is a tungsten filament extracted from microscope light bulbs. A solid-state power supply and a handheld CCD-based spectrometer are also used in the instrumental setup. In the presence of 1000 mg L{sup −1} Co, WCAES limit of detection for Cr (λ = 425.4 nm) is calculated as 0.070 mg L{sup −1}; a 10-fold improvement compared to determinations without Co modifier. The mechanism involved in such signal enhancement is similar to the one observed in ICP OES and ICP-MS determinations of As and Se in the presence of C. Cobalt increases the population of Cr{sup +} by charge transfer reactions. In a second step, Cr{sup +}/e{sup −} recombination takes place, which results in a larger population of excited-state Cr atoms. This alternative excitation route is energetically more efficient than heat transfer from atomizer and gas phase to analyte atoms. A linear dynamic range of 0.25–10 mg L{sup −1} and repeatability of 3.8% (RSD, n = 10) for a 2.0 mg L{sup −1} Cr solution are obtained with this strategy. The modifier high concentration also contributes to improving accuracy due to a matrix-matching effect. The method was applied to a certified reference material of Dogfish Muscle (DORM-2) and no statistically significant difference was observed between determined and certified Cr values at a 95% confidence level. Spike experiments with bottled water samples resulted in recoveries between 93% and

  17. Improving the resolution in soft X-ray emission spectrometers through photon-counting using an Electron Multiplying CCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, D J; Soman, M; Tutt, J; Murray, N; Holland, A; Schmitt, T; Raabe, J; Strocov, V N; Schmitt, B

    2012-01-01

    In 2007, a study of back-illuminated Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) for soft X-ray photon detection demonstrated the improvements that could be brought over more traditional micro-channel plate detectors for X-ray spectrometers based on diffraction gratings and position sensitive detectors. Whilst the spatial resolution was reported to be improved dramatically, an intrinsic limit of approximately 25 micrometers was found due to the spreading of the charge cloud generated in the CCD across several pixels. To overcome this resolution limit, it is necessary to move away from the current integrated imaging methods and consider a photon-counting approach, recording the photon interaction locations to the sub-pixel level. To make use of photon-counting techniques it is important that the individual events are separable. To maintain the throughput of the spectrometer for high intensity lines, higher frame rates and therefore higher readout speeds are required. With CCD based systems, the increased noise at high readout speeds can limit the photon-counting performance. The Electron-Multiplying CCD shares a similar architecture with the standard CCD but incorporates a g ain register . This novel addition allows controllable gain to be applied to the signal before the read noise is introduced, therefore allowing individual events to be resolved above the noise even at much higher readout rates. In the past, the EM-CCD has only been available with imaging areas too small to be practical in soft X-ray emission spectrometers. The current drive for large area Electron-Multiplying CCDs is opening this technology to new photon-counting applications, requiring in-depth analysis of the processes and techniques involved. Early results indicate that through the introduction of photon-counting techniques the resolution in such systems can be dramatically improved.

  18. Line emission processes in atomic and molecular shocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shull, J.M.

    1988-01-01

    The review discusses the observations and theoretical models of interstellar shock waves in diffuse and molecular clouds. After summarizing the relevant gas dynamics, atomic, molecular and grain processes, and physics of radiative and magnetic precursors, the author describes observational diagnostics of shocks. This paper concludes with a discussion of two topics: unstable or non-steady shocks and thermal conduction in metal-rich shocks

  19. Low-energy neutral atom emission from the Earth's magnetosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, K.R.; Scime, E.E.; Funsten, H.O.; McComas, D.J.; Thomsen, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    Imaging of the terrestrial magnetosphere is possible through the detection of low-energy neutral atoms (LENAs) produced by charge exchange between magnetospheric plasma ions and neutral atoms of the Earth's geocorona. The authors present calculations of both hydrogen and oxygen line-of-sight LENA fluxes expected on orbit for various plasma regimes as predicted by the Rice University Magnetospheric Specification Model. To decrease the required computation time, they are in the process of adapting their code for massively parallel computers. The speed gains achieved from parallel algorithms are substantial, and they present results from computational runs on the Connection Machine CM-2 data parallel supercomputer. They also estimate expected image count rates and image quality based on realistic instrument geometric factors, energy passbands, neutral atom scattering in the instrument, and image accumulation intervals. The results indicate that LENA imaging instruments will need a geometric factor (G) on the order of 0.1 cm 2 sr eV/eV to be capable of imaging storm time ring currents, and a G of 1.0 cm 2 sr eV/eV in order to image the quiet time ring current fluxes, ion injections from the tail, and subsequent ion drifts toward the dayside magnetopause

  20. Two-photon emission and multiphoton absorption by atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, X.

    1988-01-01

    This thesis consists of investigations of two problems concerning photon-atom interactions. The first topic deals with two-photon transitions in atomic inner shells. An independent-particle model has been used to describe the two-photon transitions between different inner-shell electron states. The first relativistic self-consistent-field calculation of these transition rates in Ag, Mo, and Xe has been carried out. The theoretical results are compared with recent measurements. Good agreement with measured rates is found except in some cases where more reliable experiments still need to be done. The second topic is multiphoton multiionization of atoms. The maximum entropy principle has been employed in this theoretical investigation. A detailed statistical analysis of measured ionic charge distributions produced in strong laser pulses has been carried out. The results of this analysis indicates that the charge-state distribution is a Poissonian, rather than the binomial which prevails under infrared radiation, and hence that ionization occurs stepwise during the pulse. This result is shown to be consistent with experimental data

  1. Electron emission in collisions of intermediate energy ions with atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garibotti, C.R.

    1988-01-01

    The aim of this work, is the analysis of the processes of electronic emission produced in the collisions of small ions (H + , He ++ ) of intermediate energy (50 a 200 KeV/amu) with light gaseous targets. (A.C.A.G.) [pt

  2. Time evolution, Lamb shift, and emission spectra of spontaneous emission of two identical atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Dawei; Li Zhenghong; Zheng Hang; Zhu Shiyao

    2010-01-01

    A unitary transformation method is used to investigate the dynamic evolution of two multilevel atoms, in the basis of symmetric and antisymmetric states, with one atom being initially prepared in the first excited state and the other in the ground state. The unitary transformation guarantees that our calculations are based on the ground state of the atom-field system and the self-energy is subtracted at the beginning. The total Lamb shifts of the symmetric and antisymmetric states are divided into transformed shift and dynamic shift. The transformed shift is due to emitting and reabsorbing of virtual photons, by a single atom (nondynamic single atomic shift) and between the two atoms (quasi-static shift). The dynamic shift is due to the emitting and reabsorbing of real photons, by a single atom (dynamic single atomic shift) and between the two atoms (dynamic interatomic shift). The emitting and reabsorbing of virtual and real photons between the two atoms result in the interatomic shift, which does not exist for the one-atom case. The spectra at the long-time limit are calculated. If the distance between the two atoms is shorter than or comparable to the wavelength, the strong coupling between the two atoms splits the spectrum into two peaks, one from the symmetric state and the other from the antisymmetric state. The origin of the red or blue shifts for the symmetric and antisymmetric states mainly lies in the negative or positive interaction energy between the two atoms. In the investigation of the short time evolution, we find the modification of the effective density of states by the interaction between two atoms can modulate the quantum Zeno and quantum anti-Zeno effects in the decays of the symmetric and antisymmetric states.

  3. Installation and calibration of a grating spectrometer for electron cyclotron emission measurements using circular waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Johns, G.; Moeller, C.; Prater, R.

    1986-01-01

    The grating spectrometer installation on the DIII-D tokamak is discussed. It uses fundamental circular waveguide propagating the TE 11 lowest order mode followed by oversized circular guide carrying the low loss TE 01 mode. The short section of fundamental guide permits use of an electronic chopper operating at 50 kHz for both calibration and plasma operation. By using a.c.-coupled amplifiers tuned to the chopping frequency, the background signal generated in the InSb detectors by neutrons and x-rays is automatically subtracted and the system noise bandwidth is reduced. Compared with a quasi-optical system, the much smaller fundamental horn and front end waveguide allow the entire waveguide system to be located outside a gate valve. With this configuration the entire waveguide run, including the actual horn and vacuum window used during plasma operations, can be included in the calibration set-up

  4. Photon emission spectroscopy of ion-atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nystroem, B.

    1995-10-01

    Emission cross sections for the 1snp 1 P 1 -levels have been measured by photon emission spectroscopy for the collision systems He + + He at 10 keV and He 2+ + He at 10-35 keV. Photon spectra of Krypton (Kr VIII) and Xenon (Xe V - IX) have also been obtained using 10q keV beams of Kr q+ (q=7-9) and Xe q+ (q=5-9) colliding with Helium and Argon. The Lifetimes of 3p 2 P-levels in Na-like Nb are reported together with lifetime for the 3s3p 3 P 1 -level in Mg-like Ni, Kr, Y, Zr and Nb where this level has an intercombination transition to the ground state. 45 refs, 20 figs

  5. Photon emission spectroscopy of ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nystroem, B

    1995-10-01

    Emission cross sections for the 1snp{sup 1}P{sub 1}-levels have been measured by photon emission spectroscopy for the collision systems He{sup +} + He at 10 keV and He{sup 2+} + He at 10-35 keV. Photon spectra of Krypton (Kr VIII) and Xenon (Xe V - IX) have also been obtained using 10q keV beams of Kr{sup q+} (q=7-9) and Xe{sup q+} (q=5-9) colliding with Helium and Argon. The Lifetimes of 3p{sup 2}P-levels in Na-like Nb are reported together with lifetime for the 3s3p{sup 3}P{sub 1}-level in Mg-like Ni, Kr, Y, Zr and Nb where this level has an intercombination transition to the ground state. 45 refs, 20 figs.

  6. Broadband transmission grating spectrometer for measuring the emission spectrum of EUV sources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bayraktar, Muharrem; Bastiaens, Hubertus M.J.; Bruineman, Caspar; Vratzov, Boris; Bijkerk, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) light sources and their optimization for emission within a narrow wavelength band are essential in applications such as photolithography. Most light sources however also emit radiation outside this wavelength band and have a spectrum extending up to deep ultraviolet (DUV)

  7. Emission Ratios for Ammonia and Formic Acid and Observations of Peroxy Acetyl Nitrate (PAN and Ethylene in Biomass Burning Smoke as Seen by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivienne H. Payne

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We use the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES aboard the NASA Aura satellite to determine the concentrations of the trace gases ammonia (NH3 and formic acid (HCOOH within boreal biomass burning plumes, and present the first detection of peroxy acetyl nitrate (PAN and ethylene (C2H4 by TES. We focus on two fresh Canadian plumes observed by TES in the summer of 2008 as part of the Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS-B campaign. We use TES retrievals of NH3 and HCOOH within the smoke plumes to calculate their emission ratios (1.0% ± 0.5% and 0.31% ± 0.21%, respectively relative to CO for these Canadian fires. The TES derived emission ratios for these gases agree well with previous aircraft and satellite estimates, and can complement ground-based studies that have greater surface sensitivity. We find that TES observes PAN mixing ratios of ~2 ppb within these mid-tropospheric boreal biomass burning plumes when the average cloud optical depth is low ( < 0.1 and that TES can detect C2H4 mixing ratios of ~2 ppb in fresh biomass burning smoke plumes.

  8. Determination of trace elements in soy milk using ICP atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Satoko; Chayama, Kenji

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimal method for the multi-element quantification of 9 elements in soy milk: calcium, copper, iron, potassium, magnesium, manganese, sodium, phosphorus, and zinc. Results obtained using ICP atomic emission spectrometry were compared with those obtained by atomic absorption spectrometry, which is the standard method. The same sample was measured using both ICP atomic emission spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry. The percentage of minerals recovered by ICP atomic emission spectrometry ranged from 99.3% to 102%, which was equivalent to that by atomic absorption spectrometry. Therefore, a good result with standard deviation was obtained. The mineral contents of 16 samples of commercially-available soy milk products were measured. The Cu content was significantly proportional to the amount of soybean solids (P < 0.001). Moreover, although relation-ships did not attain statistical significance, the consents of Fe, Zn, K, Mg and P were proportional to the amount of soybean solids, and were highest in soy milk, followed by prepared soy milk and so milk beverage. The Ca content of modified soy milk was significantly higher than that of soy milk and soy milk-based beverages (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the Na content in soy milk was significantly lower. (author)

  9. Cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc determination in precipitation: A comparison of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and graphite furnace atomization atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M.M.; Benefiel, M.A.; Claassen, H.C.

    1987-01-01

    Selected trace element analysis for cadmium, copper, lead, and zinc in precipitation samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission Spectrometry (ICP) and by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization (AAGF) have been evaluated. This task was conducted in conjunction with a longterm study of precipitation chemistry at high altitude sites located in remote areas of the southwestern United States. Coefficients of variation and recovery values were determined for a standard reference water sample for all metals examined for both techniques. At concentration levels less than 10 micrograms per liter AAGF analyses exhibited better precision and accuracy than ICP. Both methods appear to offer the potential for cost-effective analysis of trace metal ions in precipitation. ?? 1987 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Operating manual for the emission spectrometer NOI-6e for laboratory use; Manual de operacion de manejo del espectrometro de emision NOI-6e para uso de laboratorio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albornoz G, M P

    1993-08-01

    This manual describes graphically and specifically how to operate the Emission Spectrometer NOI-6e. Detailed instructions are given for everything form turning on the equipment, quality control of several parameters, calibration, sample analysis; measurements and obtaining final results form the microprocessors. (author).

  11. Atomic carbon emission from photodissociation of CO2. [planetary atmospheric chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Phillips, E.; Lee, L. C.; Judge, D. L.

    1978-01-01

    Atomic carbon fluorescence, C I 1561, 1657, and 1931 A, has been observed from photodissociation of CO2, and the production cross sections have been measured. A line emission source provided the primary photons at wavelengths from threshold to 420 A. The present results suggest that the excited carbon atoms are produced by total dissociation of CO2 into three atoms. The cross sections for producing the O I 1304-A fluorescence through photodissociation of CO2 are found to be less than 0.01 Mb in the wavelength region from 420 to 835 A. The present data have implications with respect to photochemical processes in the atmospheres of Mars and Venus.

  12. Emission and electron transitions in an atom interacting with an ultrashort electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matveev, V.I.

    2003-01-01

    Electron transitions and emission of an atom interacting with a spatially inhomogeneous ultrashort electromagnetic pulse are considered. The excitation and ionization probabilities are obtained as well as the spectra and cross sections of the reemission of such a pulse by atoms. By way of an example, one- and two-electron inelastic processes accompanying the interaction of ultrashort pulses with hydrogen- and helium-like atoms are considered. The developed technique makes it possible to take into account exactly the spatial nonuniformity of the ultrashort pulse field and photon momenta in the course of reemission

  13. A new approach for the determination of sulphur in food samples by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, N; Baysal, A

    2015-02-01

    The new approach for the determination of sulphur in foods was developed, and the sulphur concentrations of various fresh and dried food samples determined using a high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometer with an air/acetylene flame. The proposed method was optimised and the validated using standard reference materials, and certified values were found to be within the 95% confidence interval. The sulphur content of foods ranged from less than the LOD to 1.5mgg(-1). The method is accurate, fast, simple and sensitive. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Terrestrial energetic neutral atom emissions and the ground-based geomagnetic indices: First daylong observations by IBEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogasawara, K.; Dayeh, M. A.; Fuselier, S. A.; Goldstein, J.; McComas, D. J.; Valek, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    We report daylong continuous observations of bright terrestrial energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions in the energy of 0.5-6.0 keV by Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX). The unique vantage point of IBEX, 48 Earth radii (Re) from the dawn/dusk side, made an unprecedented long duration monitoring of ENAs possible from almost stable locations. This type of observation is difficult with the other ENA imager satellites since they are orbiting closer to the Earth in shorter periods. The studied energy range is unique due to the coverage of the transition from the solar wind plasma to the magnetospheric particles with a single sensor. In addition, the Coulomb decay becomes important for the protons with energy less than 1 keV. In order to minimize contamination from the sub-solar magnetosphere or the cusp emissions, we focused on two events when the auroral electrojet (AE) index exceeded 300 nT in this study. We will also show the ENA images from Two Wide-Angle Imaging Neutral-Atom Spectrometers (TWINS) in support of the IBEX observations. We found a significant correlation between the observed ENA profile and the AE indices, whose correlation coefficients were maximized at >0.75 for >1.4 keV energy. There are systematic differences between two events in terms of AU, AL, and Asy-H correlations: One event has the stronger AU correlation than AL and the Asy-H correlation, suggesting partial ring current contribution. The other has the stronger AL correlation than AU without Asy-H correlation, which suggests substorm related ENA emissions. On the contrary, we could not find a meaningful correlation with Sym-H for these two events. The other important finding is the decay time of these ENA emissions. The observed e-folding decay time, 2 to 4 hours for most of the energy bands, was a little shorter than the conventional ring-current decay time (typically >6 hours) expected from the charge exchange and the field-line curvature effect, suggesting the stronger effect of the

  15. Measurement of Apparent Temperature in Post-Detonation Fireballs Using Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-01

    thermometric species into burners.3,12 Interestingly, Wilkin- son et al.6 have recently observed Al atomic emission lines in the spectrum of aluminum...candidate thermometric species must produce several strong emission lines in the spectrum that originate from different upper energy levels in order to...allow the populations of the associated states to be determined. Barium nitrate was chosen as a thermometric impurity for the current work since Ba

  16. Automated installation for atomic emission determination of gold, silver and platinum group metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayakina, S.B.; Anoshin, G.N.; Gerasimov, P.A.; Smirnov, A.V.

    1999-01-01

    An automated installation for the direct atomic emission determination of silver, gold and platinum-group metals (Ru) in geological and geochemical materials with software for automated data acquisition and handling is designed and developed. The installation consists of a DFS-458 diffraction spectrograph, a MAES-10 multichannel analyzer of emission spectra, and a dual-jet plasmatron. A library of spectral lines of almost all elements excited in the dual-jet plasmatron is complied [ru

  17. Chemical Analysis of Impurity Boron Atoms in Diamond Using Soft X-ray Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Yasuji; Iihara, Junji; Takebe, Toshihiko; Denlinger, Jonathan D.

    2008-03-29

    To analyze the local structure and/or chemical states of boron atoms in boron-doped diamond, which can be synthesized by the microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition method (CVD-B-diamond) and the temperature gradient method at high pressure and high temperature (HPT-B-diamond), we measured the soft X-ray emission spectra in the CK and BK regions of B-diamonds using synchrotron radiation at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). X-ray spectral analyses using the fingerprint method and molecular orbital calculations confirm that boron atoms in CVD-B-diamond substitute for carbon atoms in the diamond lattice to form covalent B-C bonds, while boron atoms in HPT-B-diamond react with the impurity nitrogen atoms to form hexagonal boron nitride. This suggests that the high purity diamond without nitrogen impurities is necessary to synthesize p-type B-diamond semiconductors.

  18. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry — Critical review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bings, N.H., E-mail: bings@uni-mainz.de; Orlandini von Niessen, J.O.; Schaper, J.N.

    2014-10-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally

  19. Liquid sample introduction in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission and mass spectrometry — Critical review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bings, N.H.; Orlandini von Niessen, J.O.; Schaper, J.N.

    2014-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) can be considered as the most important tools in inorganic analytical chemistry. Huge progress has been made since the first analytical applications of the ICP. More stable RF generators, improved spectrometers and detection systems were designed along with the achievements gained from advanced microelectronics, leading to overall greatly improved analytical performance of such instruments. In contrast, for the vast majority of cases liquid sample introduction is still based on the pneumatic principle as described in the late 19th century. High flow pneumatic nebulizers typically demand the use of spray chambers as “aerosol filters” in order to match the prerequisites of an ICP. By this, only a small fraction of the nebulized sample actually contributes to the measured signal. Hence, the development of micronebulizers was brought forward. Those systems produce fine aerosols at low sample uptake rates, but they are even more prone for blocking or clogging than conventional systems in the case of solutions containing a significant amount of total dissolved solids (TDS). Despite the high number of publications devoted to liquid sample introduction, it is still considered the Achilles' heel of atomic spectrometry and it is well accepted, that the technology used for liquid sample introduction is still far from ideal, even when applying state-of-the-art systems. Therefore, this review is devoted to offer an update on developments in the field liquid sample introduction that had been reported until the year 2013. The most recent and noteworthy contributions to this field are discussed, trends are highlighted and future directions are outlined. The first part of this review provides a brief overview on theoretical considerations regarding conventional pneumatic nebulization, the fundamentals on aerosol generation and discusses characteristics of aerosols ideally

  20. Atomic nuclei decay modes by spontaneous emission of heavy ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poenaru, D.N.; Ivascu, M.; Sandulescu, A.

    1984-01-01

    The great majority of the known nuclei, including the so-called stable nuclides, are in fact metastable with respect to several modes of spontaneous superasymmetric splitting. If the lifetime against these processes is larger than 10 30 s, the phenomenon is not detectable with available experimental techniques, hence one can admit stability from the practical point of view. A model extended from the fission theory of alpha decay allows one to estimate the lifetimes and the branching ratios relatively to the alpha decay for these natural radioactivities. From a huge amount of systematical calculations it is concluded that the process should proceed with maximum intensity in the trans-lead nuclei, where the minimum lifetime is obtained for parent nuclei - heavy clusters leading to a magic ( 208 Pb) or almost daughter nucleus. More than 140 nuclides with atomic number smaller than 25 are possible candidates to be emitted from heavy nuclei, with half-life n the 10 10 -10 30 s range. The shell structure and pairing effects are clearly manifested in these new decay modes

  1. A fast-time-response extreme ultraviolet spectrometer for measurement of impurity line emissions in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ling; Xu, Zong; Wu, Zhenwei; Zhang, Pengfei; Wu, Chengrui; Gao, Wei; Shen, Junsong; Chen, Yingjie; Liu, Xiang; Wang, Yumin; Gong, Xianzu; Hu, Liqun; Chen, Junlin; Zhang, Xiaodong; Wan, Baonian; Li, Jiangang [Institute of Plasma Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230026, Anhui (China); Morita, Shigeru; Ohishi, Tetsutarou; Goto, Motoshi [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Department of Fusion Science, Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Toki 509-5292, Gifu (Japan); Dong, Chunfeng [Southwestern Institute of Physics, Chengdu 610041, Sichuan (China); and others

    2015-12-15

    A flat-field extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer working in the 20-500 Å wavelength range with fast time response has been newly developed to measure line emissions from highly ionized tungsten in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) with a tungsten divertor, while the monitoring of light and medium impurities is also an aim in the present development. A flat-field focal plane for spectral image detection is made by a laminar-type varied-line-spacing concave holographic grating with an angle of incidence of 87°. A back-illuminated charge-coupled device (CCD) with a total size of 26.6 × 6.6 mm{sup 2} and pixel numbers of 1024 × 255 (26 × 26 μm{sup 2}/pixel) is used for recording the focal image of spectral lines. An excellent spectral resolution of Δλ{sub 0} = 3-4 pixels, where Δλ{sub 0} is defined as full width at the foot position of a spectral line, is obtained at the 80-400 Å wavelength range after careful adjustment of the grating and CCD positions. The high signal readout rate of the CCD can improve the temporal resolution of time-resolved spectra when the CCD is operated in the full vertical binning mode. It is usually operated at 5 ms per frame. If the vertical size of the CCD is reduced with a narrow slit, the time response becomes faster. The high-time response in the spectral measurement therefore makes possible a variety of spectroscopic studies, e.g., impurity behavior in long pulse discharges with edge-localized mode bursts. An absolute intensity calibration of the EUV spectrometer is also carried out with a technique using the EUV bremsstrahlung continuum at 20-150 Å for quantitative data analysis. Thus, the high-time resolution tungsten spectra have been successfully observed with good spectral resolution using the present EUV spectrometer system. Typical tungsten spectra in the EUV wavelength range observed from EAST discharges are presented with absolute intensity and spectral identification.

  2. Fourier transform infrared emission spectra of atomic rubidium: g- and h-states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Civiš, Svatopluk; Ferus, Martin; Kubelík, Petr; Chernov, Vladislav E.; Zanozina, Ekaterina M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 17 (2012), s. 175002 ISSN 0953-4075 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAAX00100903 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Fourier transform infrared emission spectra * atomic rubidium * physical chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.031, year: 2012

  3. Determination of rare earth elements in aluminum by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahanti, H.S.; Barnes, R.M.

    1983-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy is evaluated for the determination of 14 rare earth elements in aluminum. Spectral line interference, limit of detection, and background equivalent concentration values are evaluated, and quantitative recovery is obtained from aluminum samples spiked with rare earth elements. The procedure is simple and suitable for routine process control analysis. 20 references, 5 tables

  4. Exact results for emission from one and two atoms in an ideal cavity at multiphoton resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fam Le Kien; Shumovskij, A.S.; Tran Quang.

    1987-01-01

    The emission from the system of one or two two-level atoms in an ideal cavity with one mode at mutiphoton resonance is examined. Exact results for the two-time dipole correlation function and the time-dependent spectra of multiphoton-induced fluorescence are presented

  5. Atomic emission lines in the near ultraviolet; hydrogen through krypton, section 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A compilation of spectra from the first 36 elements was prepared from published literature available through October 1977. In most cases, only those lines which were actually observed in emission or absorption are listed. The wavelengths included range from 2000 Angstroms to 3200 Angstroms with some additional lines up to 3500 Angstroms. Only lines of stripped atoms are reported; no molecular bands are included.

  6. Atomic emission lines in the near ultraviolet; hydrogen through krypton, section 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    A compilation of spectra from the first 36 elements was prepared from published literature available through October 1977. In most cases, only those lines which were actually observed in emission or absorption are listed. The wavelengths included range from 2000 Angstroms to 3200 Angstroms with some additional lines up to 3500 Angstroms. Only lines of stripped atoms are reported; no molecular bands are included.

  7. Atomic emission spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of incineration processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermans, E.A.H.; de Groote, F.P.J.; Jonkers, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic measurement system based on atomic emission spectroscopy has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of hazardous elements in industrial combustion gases. The aim was to construct a setup with a high durability for rough and variable experimental conditions, e.g. a strongly

  8. Gas chromatography of organic microcontaminants using atomic emission and mass spectrometric detection combined in one instrument (GC-AED/MS)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, H.G.J.; Hankemeier, T.; Brinkman, U.A.T.

    1999-01-01

    This study describes the coupling of an atomic-emission detector and mass-spectrometric detector to a single gas chromatograph. Splitting of the column effluent enables simultaneous detection by atomic-emission detection (AED) and mass spectrometry (MS) and yields a powerful system for the target

  9. Berkeley extreme-ultraviolet airglow rocket spectrometer - BEARS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotton, D. M.; Chakrabarti, S.

    1992-01-01

    The Berkeley EUV airglow rocket spectrometer (BEARS) instrument is described. The instrument was designed in particular to measure the dominant lines of atomic oxygen in the FUV and EUV dayglow at 1356, 1304, 1027, and 989 A, which is the ultimate source of airglow emissions. The optical and mechanical design of the instrument, the detector, electronics, calibration, flight operations, and results are examined.

  10. On the deviation from the sech2 superradiant emission law in a two-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goncalves, A.E.

    1990-01-01

    The atomic superradiant emission is treated in the single particle mean field approximation. A single particle Hamiltonian, which represents a dressed two-level atom in a radiation field, can be obtained and it is verified that it describes the transient regime of the emission process. While the line shape emission for a bare atom follows the sech 2 law, for the dressed atom the line shape deviates appreciably from this law and it is verified that the deviation depends crucially on the ratio of the dynamic frequency shift to the transition frequency. This kind of deviation is observed in experimental results. (Author) [pt

  11. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Duo, E-mail: zhangduo10@gmail.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); School of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China); Li, Jiahua, E-mail: huajia_li@163.com [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2012-05-21

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  12. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Jiahua; Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission. -- Highlights: ► Spontaneous emission properties of an atom embedded in PCs are investigated. ► Spectral-line enhancement, suppression and overlapping are observed. ► The results provide more degrees of freedom to control atomic spontaneous emission.

  13. Long-range transport biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas: insights from high-resolution aerosol mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, J.; Zhang, X.; Liu, Y.; Shichang, K.; Ma, Y.

    2017-12-01

    An intensive measurement was conducted at a remote, background, and high-altitude site (Qomolangma station, QOMS, 4276 m a.s.l.) in the northern Himalayas, using an Aerodyne high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) along with other collocated instruments. The field measurement was performed from April 12 to May 12, 2016 to chemically characterize high time-resolved submicron particulate matter (PM1) and obtain the influence of biomass burning emissions to the Himalayas, frequently transported from south Asia during pre-monsoon season. Two high aerosol loading periods were observed during the study. Overall, the average (± 1σ) PM1 mass concentration was 4.44 (± 4.54) µg m-3 for the entire study, comparable with those observed at other remote sites worldwide. Organic aerosols (OA) was the dominant PM1 species (accounting for 54.3% of total PM1 mass on average) and its contribution increased with the increase of total PM1 mass loading. The average size distributions of PM1 species all peaked at an overlapping accumulation mode ( 500 nm), suggesting that aerosol particles were internally well-mixed and aged during long-range transportations. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) analysis on the high-resolution organic mass spectra identified three distinct OA factors, including a biomass burning related OA (BBOA, 43.7%) and two oxygenated OA (Local-OOA and LRT-OOA; 13.9% and 42.4%) represented sources from local emissions and long-range transportations, respectively. Two polluted air mass origins (generally from the west and southwest of QOMS) and two polluted episodes with enhanced PM1 mass loadings and elevated BBOA contributions were observed, respectively, suggesting the important sources of wildfires from south Asia. One of polluted aerosol plumes was investigated in detail to illustrate the evolution of aerosol characteristics at QOMS driving by different impacts of wildfires, air mass origins, meteorological conditions and

  14. Induced absorption and stimulated emission in a driven two-level atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavroyannis, C.

    1992-01-01

    We have considered the induced processes that occur in a driven two-level atom, where a laser photon is absorbed and emitted by the ground and by the excited states of the atom, respectively. In the low-intensity limit of the laser field, the induced spectra arising when a laser photon is absorbed by the ground state of the atom consist of two peaks describing induced absorption and stimulated-emission processes, respectively, where the former prevails over the latter. Asymmetry of the spectral lines occurs at off-resonance and its extent depends on the detuning of the laser field. The physical. process where a laser photon is emitted by the excited state is the reverse of that arising from the absorption of a laser photon by the ground state of the atom. The former differs from the latter in that the emission of a laser photon by the excited state occurs in the low frequency regime and that the stimulated-emission process prevails over that of the induced absorption. In this case, amplification of ultrashort pulses is likely to occur without the need of population inversion between the optical transitions. The computed spectra are graphically presented and discussed. (author)

  15. [Applications of atomic emission spectrum from liquid electrode discharge to metal ion detection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiu-Ling; Wu, Jian; Ying, Yi-Bin

    2010-02-01

    The fast and precise detection of metal ion is an important research project concerning studies in diverse academic fields and different kinds of detecting technologies. In the present paper, the authors review the research on atomic emission spectrum based on liquid electrode discharge and its applications in the detection of metal ion. In the first part of this paper the principles and characteristics of the methods based on electrochemistry and spectroscopy were introduced. The methods of ion-selective electrode (ISE), anodic stripping voltammetry, atomic emission spectrum and atomic absorption spectrum were included in this part and discussed comparatively. Then the principles and characteristics of liquid electrode spectra for metal ion detection were introduced. The mechanism of the plasma production and the characteristics of the plasma spectrum as well as its advantages compared with other methods were discussed. Secondly, the authors divided the discharge system into two types and named them single liquid-electrode discharge and double-liquid electrode respectively, according to the number of the liquid electrode and the configuration of the discharge system, and the development as well as the present research status of each type was illustrated. Then the characteristics and configurations of the discharge systems including ECGD, SCGD, LS-APGD and capillary discharge were discussed in detail as examples of the two types. By taking advantage of the technology of atomic emission spectrum based on liquid electrode discharge, the detecting limit of heavy metals such as copper, mercury and argent as well as active metal ions including sodium, potass and magnesium can achieve microg x L(-1). Finally, the advantages and problems of the liquid-electrode discharge applied in detection of metal ion were discussed. And the applications of the atomic emission spectrum based on liquid electrode discharge were prospected.

  16. Superradiant cascade emissions in an atomic ensemble via four-wave mixing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jen, H.H., E-mail: sappyjen@gmail.com

    2015-09-15

    We investigate superradiant cascade emissions from an atomic ensemble driven by two-color classical fields. The correlated pair of photons (signal and idler) is generated by adiabatically driving the system with large-detuned light fields via four-wave mixing. The signal photon from the upper transition of the diamond-type atomic levels is followed by the idler one which can be superradiant due to light-induced dipole–dipole interactions. We then calculate the cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) of the idler photon, which is a cumulative effect of interaction energy. We study its dependence on a cylindrical geometry, a conventional setup in cold atom experiments, and estimate the maximum CLS which can be significant and observable. Manipulating the CLS of cascade emissions enables frequency qubits that provide alternative robust elements in quantum network. - Highlights: • Superradiance from a cascade atomic transition. • Correlated photon pair generation via four-wave mixing. • Dynamical light–matter couplings in a phased symmetrical state. • Cooperative Lamb shift in a cylindrical atomic ensemble.

  17. Ultra fast atomic process in X-ray emission by inner-shell ionization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moribayashi, Kengo; Sasaki, Akira [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan). Kansai Research Establishment; Tajima, T

    1998-03-01

    An ultra-fast atomic process together with X-ray emission by inner-shell ionization using high intensity (10{sup 18} W/cm{sup 2}) short pulse (20fs) X-ray is studied. A new class of experiment is proposed and a useful pumping source is suggested. In this method, it is found that the gain value of X-ray laser amounts to larger than 1000(1/cm) with use of the density of 10{sup 22}/cm{sup 3} of carbon atom. Electron impact ionization effect and initial density effect as well as intensity of pumping source effect are also discussed. (author)

  18. Determination of heavy metals in solid emission and immission samples using atomic absorption spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fara, M.; Novak, F. [EGU Prague, PLC, Bichovice, Prague (Czechoslovakia)

    1995-12-01

    Both flame and electrothermal methods of atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) have been applied to the determination of Al, As, Be, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, TI, Se, V and Zn in emission and emission (deposition) samples decomposed in open PTFE test-tubes by individual fuming-off hydrofluoric, perchloroic and nitric acid. An alternative hydride technique was also used for As and Se determination and Hg was determined using a self-contained AAS analyzer. A graphite platform proved good to overcome non-spectral interferences in AAS-ETA. Methods developed were verified by reference materials (inc. NBS 1633a).

  19. Inductively coupled plasma as atomization, excitation and ionization sources in analytical atomic spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawaguchi, Hiroshi

    1996-01-01

    Studies on inductively coupled plasma (ICP) for atomic emission and mass spectrometry accomplished in our laboratory since 1978 are reviewed. In emission spectrometry, the characteristics of the plasma are studied concerning the spatial profiles of spectral line intensity, axial profiles of gas and excitation temperatures, spectral line widths and matrix effect. The studies are particularly emphasized on the instrumentation such as developments of plasma generator, emission spectrometers, water-cooled torches and sample introduction methods. A slew-scan type spectrometer developed in these works represents a predecessor of the current commercial spectrometers. An ICP mass spectrometer was first developed in Japan in this laboratory in 1984. Non-spectroscopic interference of this method was found to have the correlation with the atomic weight of the matrix element. Plasma gases other than argon such as nitrogen and oxygen were used for the ICP to evaluate their performance in mass spectrometry as for the sensitivity and interferences. (author). 63 refs

  20. Secondary electron emission from Au by medium energy atomic and molecular ions

    CERN Document Server

    Itoh, A; Obata, F; Hamamoto, Y; Yogo, A

    2002-01-01

    Number distributions of secondary electrons emitted from a Au metal surface have been measured for atomic and molecular ions of H sup + , He sup + , C sup + , N sup + , O sup + , H sup + sub 2 , H sup + sub 3 , HeH sup + , CO sup + and O sup + sub 2 in the energy range 0.3-2.0 MeV. The emission statistics obtained are described fairly well by a Polya function. The Polya parameter b, determining the distribution shape, is found to decrease monotonously with increasing emission yield gamma, revealing a surprising relationship of b gamma approx 1 over the different projectile species and impact energies. This finding supports certainly the electron cascading model. Also we find a strong negative molecular effect for heavier molecular ions, showing a significant reduction of gamma compared to the estimated values using constituent atomic projectile data.

  1. Effect of Cs and Li atom adsorption on MgO: Secondary emission and work function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagraev, N.T.; Borisov, V.L.

    1980-01-01

    Adsorption of Cs and Li atoms on the surface of single crystal magnesium oxide films has been investigated using Auger, LEED and contact difference techniques. A decreased work function for a single crystal MgO film grown on the Mo (100) face was observed to be accompanied by an increased secondary electron emission yield shown to be due to a larger escape depth for secondary electrons. LEED showed well ordered layers of adsorbed Cs on the MgO film surface. A model to explain the behaviour of Cs atoms on the film surface is proposed. It is shown that the stability of the Cs coating is not dependent on a prolonged bombardment of the film by incident electron beams of high current density. Depositing and implanting of thin single crystal MgO films with Li were found to result in an increased secondary electron emission yield, with Li adsorption on the MgO film surface being disordered. (orig.)

  2. Search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, A.L.; Hincks, E.P.; Cox, C.R.; Dodson, G.W.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J.R.; Rushton, A.M.; Siegel, R.T.; Welsh, R.E.; Hargrove, C.K.; Mes, H.; Dixit, M.S.; National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, Ontario)

    1983-01-01

    A search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms has been made. Intrinsic Ge detectors were positioned around target of Li, Be, B, or their hydrides, or a vessel containing B 2 H 6 , H 2 , or O 2 . Upper limits on the fraction of stopping muons which formed metastable 2S states range from approx.= 10 - 3 to 10 - 5 . (orig.)

  3. Search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, A.L.; Hincks, E.P. (Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics); Cox, C.R.; Dodson, G.W.; Eckhause, M.; Kane, J.R.; Rushton, A.M.; Siegel, R.T.; Welsh, R.E. (College of William and Mary, Williamsburg, VA (USA). Dept. of Physics); Hargrove, C.K.

    1983-05-12

    A search for two-photon emission from 2S states of low-Z muonic atoms has been made. Intrinsic Ge detectors were positioned around target of Li, Be, B, or their hydrides, or a vessel containing B/sub 2/H/sub 6/, H/sub 2/, or O/sub 2/. Upper limits on the fraction of stopping muons which formed metastable 2S states range from approximately = 10/sup -3/ to 10/sup -5/.

  4. Flame emission spectrometry using atomic absorption apparatus. I. Determination of Sr in sea water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aizawa, S.; Yoshimura, E.; Hamachi, M.; Haraguchi, H.; Dokiya, Y.; Fuwa, K.

    1976-01-01

    Flame emission determination of Sr in seawater was studied using an ordinary atomic absorption apparatus. The analytical line 4607 A was used with a background correction at 4616 A. The ionization was negligible in an air acetylene flame with seawater, and the interference of H 2 SO 4 was eliminated using the higher part of the flame. Sr concentration of seawater of Tokyo Bay and Sagami Bay has been determined

  5. Atomic emission spectroscopic investigations for determining depth profiles at boride layers on iron materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danzer, K.; Marx, G.

    1980-01-01

    A combination of atomic emission spectroscopic surface analysis and mechanical removement of defined surface areas in layers by grinding yields information about the depth distribution of boron in iron. In addition, the evaluation with the aid of the two-dimensional variance analysis leads to statements on the homogeneous distribution within individual layers at different depth. The results obtained in this way are in agreement with those of other methods

  6. Direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten in molybdenum oxide in dc arc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zolotareva, N.I.; Grazhulene, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    A method of direct atomic-emission determination of tungsten impurity in molybdenum trioxide of high purity in dc arc is presented. Chemically active additives of elementary sulfur and gallium oxide are used to optimize W evaporation rate and residence time in the arc plasma. The procedure is easy to use and provides the limit of W determination at a level of 2x10 -4 wt. % [ru

  7. Angle and Spin Resolved Auger Emission Theory and Applications to Atoms and Molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Lohmann, Bernd

    2009-01-01

    The Auger effect must be interpreted as the radiationless counterpart of photoionization and is usually described within a two-step model. Angle and spin resolved Auger emission physics deals with the theoretical and numerical description, analysis and interpretation of such types of experiments on free atoms and molecules. This monograph derives the general theory applying the density matrix formalism and, in terms of irreducible tensorial sets, so called state multipoles and order parameters, for parameterizing the atomic and molecular systems, respectively. Propensity rules and non-linear dependencies between the angular distribution and spin polarization parameters are included in the discussion. The numerical approaches utilizing relativistic distorted wave (RDWA), multiconfigurational Dirac-Fock (MCDF), and Greens operator methods are described. These methods are discussed and applied to theoretical predictions, numerical results and experimental data for a variety of atomic systems, especially the rare...

  8. Pyrolysis gas chromatographic atomic emission detection for sediments, coals and other petrochemical precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeley, J.A.; Zeng, Y.D.; Uden, P.C.; Eglinton, T.I.; Ericson, I. (Massachusetts University, Amherst, MA (USA). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-09-01

    On-line flash pyrolysis coupled to a capillary gas chromatograph for the characterization of marine sediments, coals and other heterogeneous solid samples is described. A helium microwave-induced plasma is used for chromatographic detection by atomic emission spectrometry. Simultaneous multi-element detection is achieved with a photodiode array detector. The optical path of the gas chromatographic atomic emission detector is purged with helium, allowing simultaneous, sensitive detection of atomic emission from sulfur 181 nm, phosphorous 186 nm, arsenic 189 nm, selenium 196 nm and carbon 193 nm. Several sediment and coal samples have been analysed for their carbon, nitrogen, sulfur, oxygen, phosphorous, arsenic and selenium content. Qualitative information indicating the occurrence and distribution of these elements in the samples can be used to gauge the relative stage of diagenetic evolution of the samples and provide information on their depositional environment. In some instances the chromatographic behaviour of the compounds produced upon pyrolysis is improved through on-line alkylation. This on-line derivatization is achieved by adding liquid reagents to the pyrolysis probe or by adding liquid reagents to the pyrolysis probe or by adding solid reagents either to the solid sample or by packing the reagent in the injection port of the chromatograph.

  9. Spontaneous emission spectra and simulating multiple spontaneous generation coherence in a five-level atomic medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jiahua; Liu Jibing; Qi Chunchao; Chen Aixi

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the features of the spontaneous emission spectra in a coherently driven cold five-level atomic system by means of a radio frequency (rf) or microwave field driving a hyperfine transition within the ground state. It is shown that a few interesting phenomena such as spectral-line narrowing, spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, and spontaneous emission quenching can be realized by modulating the frequency and intensity of the rf-driving field in our system. In the dressed-state picture of the coupling and rf-driving fields, we find that this coherently driven atomic system has three close-lying levels so that multiple spontaneously generated coherence (SGC) arises. Our considered atomic model can be found in real atoms, such as rubidium or sodium, so a corresponding experiment can be done to observe the expected phenomena related to SGC reported by Fountoulakis et al. [Phys. Rev. A 73, 033811 (2006)], since no rigorous conditions are required

  10. Direct observation of effective temperature of Ta atom in layer compound TaS2 by neutron resonance absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuda, Koji; Kamiyama, Takashi; Kiyanagi, Yoshiaki; Moreh, R.; Ikeda, Susumu

    2001-01-01

    A neutron resonance absorption spectrometer, DOG has been installed at KENS, High Energy Accelerator Research Organization Neutron Source, which enables us to investigate the motions of a particular element by analyzing the line width of resonance absorption spectrum. We measured the temperature dependence of the effective temperature of Ta motion in TaS 2 as well as in Ta metal using DOG. The effective temperatures extracted from the observed absorption spectrum agree well with the calculated values from the phonon density of states of Ta metal over a wide temperature range of 10 to 300 K. We also succeeded in measuring both the angular dependence and the temperature dependence of effective temperatures of Ta in a layer compound TaS 2 . Based on the temperature dependence of the effective temperature, the partial phonon density of states of Ta in TaS 2 was discussed. (author)

  11. Atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, Alain; Villani, Cedric; Guthleben, Denis; Leduc, Michele; Brenner, Anastasios; Pouthas, Joel; Perrin, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Completed by recent contributions on various topics (atoms and the Brownian motion, the career of Jean Perrin, the evolution of atomic physics since Jean Perrin, relationship between scientific atomism and philosophical atomism), this book is a reprint of a book published at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the author addressed the relationship between atomic theory and chemistry (molecules, atoms, the Avogadro hypothesis, molecule structures, solutes, upper limits of molecular quantities), molecular agitation (molecule velocity, molecule rotation or vibration, molecular free range), the Brownian motion and emulsions (history and general features, statistical equilibrium of emulsions), the laws of the Brownian motion (Einstein's theory, experimental control), fluctuations (the theory of Smoluchowski), light and quanta (black body, extension of quantum theory), the electricity atom, the atom genesis and destruction (transmutations, atom counting)

  12. Curve resolution and figures of merit estimation for determination of trace elements in geological materials by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorber, A.; Harel, A.; Goldbart, Z.; Brenner, I.B.

    1987-01-01

    In geochemical analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), spectral interferences and background enhancement in response to sample concomitants are the main cause of deterioration of the limit of detection (LOD) and inaccuracy of the determination at the trace and minor element levels. In this account, the authors describe the chemometric procedure of curve resolution for compensating for these sources of error. A newly developed method for calculating figures of merit is used to evaluate the correction procedure, test the statistical significance of the determined concentration, and determine LODs for each sample. The technique involves scanning the vicinity of the spectral line of the analyte. With prior knowledge of potential spectral interferences, deconvolution of the overlapped response is possible. Analytical data for a wide range of geological standard reference materials demonstrate the effectiveness of the chemometric techniques. Separation of 0.002 nm spectral coincidence, employing a 0.02 nm resolution spectrometer, is demonstrated

  13. Determination of copper and iron in the human aqueous humor by atomic absorption spectrometer with graphite furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iqbal, Z.; Mohammad, Z.; Shah, M.T.; Saeed, M.; Imdadullah

    1999-01-01

    The concentration of copper and iron was determined in human aqueous humor using atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace. The mean (+- SEM) concentrations of copper (n=16) and iron (n=14) were 0.0234 -+ 0.0045 mu g.ml/sup -1/ and 0.045 -+ 0.0092 mu.ml/sup -1/ respectively. In male and female, the concentrations of copper (p< 0.82) and iron (p<0.38) were not significantly different. (author)

  14. Charging induced emission of neutral atoms from NaCl nanocube corners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ceresoli, Davide; Zykova-Timan, Tatyana; Tosatti, Erio

    2008-01-01

    Detachment of neutral cations/anions from solid alkali halides can in principle be provoked by donating/subtracting electrons to the surface of alkali halide crystals, but generally constitutes a very endothermic process. However, the amount of energy required for emission is smaller for atoms located in less favorable positions, such as surface steps and kinks. For a corner ion in an alkali halide cube the binding is the weakest, so it should be easier to remove that atom, once it is neutralized. We carried out first principles density functional calculations and simulations of neutral and charged NaCl nanocubes, to establish the energetics of extraction of neutralized corner ions. Following hole donation (electron removal) we find that detachment of neutral Cl corner atoms will require a limited energy of about 0.8 eV. Conversely, following the donation of an excess electron to the cube, a neutral Na atom is extractable from the corner at the lower cost of about 0.6 eV. Since the cube electron affinity level (close to that a NaCl(100) surface state, which we also determine) is estimated to lie about 1.8 eV below vacuum, the overall energy balance upon donation to the nanocube of a zero-energy electron from vacuum will be exothermic. The atomic and electronic structure of the NaCl(100) surface, and of the nanocube Na and Cl corner vacancies are obtained and analyzed as a byproduct

  15. A novel electrostatic ion-energy spectrometer by the use of a proposed ``self-collection'' method for secondary-electron emission from a metal collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, M.; Nagashima, S.; Cho, T.; Kohagura, J.; Yoshida, M.; Ito, H.; Numakura, T.; Minami, R.; Kondoh, T.; Nakashima, Y.; Yatsu, K.; Miyoshi, S.

    2003-03-01

    For the purpose of end-loss-ion energy analyses in open-field plasmas, a newly developed electrostatic ion-energy spectrometer is proposed on the basis of a "self-collection" principle for secondary-electron emission from a metal collector. The ion-energy spectrometer is designed with multiple grids for analyzing incident ion energies, and a set of parallelly placed metal plates with respect to lines of ambient magnetic forces in an open-ended device. One of the most important characteristic properties of this spectrometer is the use of our proposed principle of a "self-collection" mechanism due to E×B drifts for secondary electrons emitted from the grounded metal-plate collector by the use of no further additional magnetic systems except the ambient open-ended fields B. The proof-of-principle and characterization experiments are carried out by the use of a test-ion-beam line along with an additional use of a Helmholtz coil system for the formation of open magnetic fields similar to those in the GAMMA 10 end region. The applications of the developed ion-energy spectrometer for end-loss-ion diagnostics in the GAMMA 10 plasma experiments are demonstrated under the conditions with simultaneous incidence of energetic electrons produced by electron-cyclotron heatings for end-loss-plugging potential formation, since these electrons have contributed to disturb these ion signals from conventional end-loss-ion detectors.

  16. Large solid-angle spectrometers for studies of double-differential charged-particle and neutron emission cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, M.; Matsuyama, S.; Sanami, T.; Soda, D.; Matsuyama, I.; Ohkubo, T.; Iwasaki, S.; Hirakawa, N.

    1995-01-01

    The large solid-angle spectrometer developed for studies of double-differential cross sections of (n, charged particle) and (n, xn') reactions using a gas-filled gridded-ionization chamber and an 80-cm long liquid scintillator is described. The charged particle spectrometer is a twin gas-filled gridded-ionization chamber with solid angle close to 4 π designed to achieve high stopping power and background suppression. The neutron spectrometer is a long NE213 liquid scintillation detector having position sensitivity. It is used as a large single spectrometer or a position sensitive detector covering wide scattering angle. The facility design, performance and examples of application are discussed. The conclusion is made that the facility provides a useful mean for studies in particular for reactions with small cross sections and/or for neutron sources with low intensity. 15 refs., 15 figs

  17. The use of double laser pulses for the atomic-emission spectral estimation of uranium content in biological samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patapovich, M.P.; Umreiko, D.S.; Zajogin, A.P.; Buloichik, J.I.

    2012-01-01

    This paper is aimed at the development of the techniques for estimation of the uranium content in biological objects (hair) using the atomic-emission laser analysis with a sufficient accuracy and high processing rate. (authors)

  18. REVIEW: Spontaneous emission of an atom in the presence of nanobodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimov, Vasilii V.; Ducloy, M.; Letokhov, V. S.

    2001-07-01

    The effect of nanobodies, i.e., the bodies whose size is small compared to the emission wavelength, on spontaneous emission of an atom located near them is considered. The results of calculations performed within the framework of quantum and classical electrodynamics are presented both in analytic and graphical forms and can be readily used for planning experiments and analysis of experimental data. It is shown that nanobodies can be used to control efficiently the rate of spontaneous transitions. Thus, an excited atom located near a nanocylinder or a nanospheroid pole, whose transition dipole moment is directed normally to the nanobody surface, can decay with the rate that is tens and hundreds times higher than the decay rate in a free space. In the case of some (negative) dielectric constants, the decay rate can increase by a factor of 105—106 and more. On the other hand, the decay of an excited atom whose transition dipole moment is directed tangentially to the nanobody surface substantially slows down. The probability of nonradiative decay of the excited state is shown to increase substantially in the presence of na-nobodies possessing losses.

  19. Atomic hydrogen determination in medium-pressure microwave discharge hydrogen plasmas via emission actinometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng Zicai; Xu Yong; Yang Xuefeng; Wang Weiguo; Zhu Aimin

    2005-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen plays an important role in the chemical vapour deposition of functional materials, plasma etching and new approaches to the chemical synthesis of hydrogen-containing compounds. This work reports experimental determinations of atomic hydrogen in microwave discharge hydrogen plasmas formed from the TM 01 microwave mode in an ASTeX-type reactor, via optical emission spectroscopy using Ar as an actinometer. The relative intensities of the H atom Balmer lines and Ar-750.4 nm emissions as functions of input power and gas pressure have been investigated. At an input microwave power density of 13.5 W cm -3 , the approximate hydrogen dissociation fractions calculated from electron-impact excitation and quenching cross sections in the literature, decreased from ∼0.08 to ∼0.03 as the gas pressure was increased from 5 to 25 Torr. The influences of the above cross sections, and the electron and gas temperatures of the plasmas on the determination of the hydrogen dissociation fraction data have been discussed

  20. Halogenated salicylaldehyde azines: The heavy atom effect on aggregation-induced emission enhancement properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiao-tong; Tong, Ai-jun

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the heavy-atom effect (HAE) on aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties of salicylaldehyde azines. For this purpose, a series of halogenated salicylaldehyde azine derivatives, namely, chloro-salicylaldehyde azine (1), bromo-salicylaldehyde azine (2) and iodo-salicylaldehyde azine (3) are synthesized. 1 and 2 display typical AIEE characteristics of salicylaldehyde azine compounds; whereas for the iodo-substituent in 3, is found to be effective “external” heavy atom quenchers to salicylaldehyde azine fluorescence in aggregated state. Based on its weak fluorescence in aggregated state and relative strong fluorescence in dispersed state, 3 can also be applied as a turn-on fluorescence probe for egg albumin detection attributed to hydrophobic interaction. -- Highlights: • This study investigates the heavy-atom effect (HAE) on aggregation-induced emission enhancement (AIEE) properties of salicylaldehyde azines. • Chloro- and bromo-salicylaldehyde display typical AIEE properties of salicylaldehyde azine, whereas the iodo-substitute quenches AIEE in aggregated state. • Iodo-salicylaldehyde can be applied as a turn-on fluorescence probe for egg albumin detection attributed to hydrophobic interaction

  1. On I(5577 Å and I (7620 Å auroral emissions and atomic oxygen densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Gattinger

    1996-07-01

    Full Text Available A model of auroral electron deposition processes has been developed using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate electron transport and energy loss. The computed differential electron flux and pitch angle were compared with in situ auroral observations to provide a check on the accuracy of the model. As part of the energy loss process, a tally was kept of electronic excitation and ionization of the important atomic and molecular states. The optical emission rates from these excited states were computed and compared with auroral observations of η(3914 Å, η(5577 Å, η(7620 Å and η(N2VK. In particular, the roles played by energy transfer from N2(A3Σ+u and by other processes in the excitation of O(1S and O2(b1Σ+g were investigated in detail. It is concluded that the N2(A3Σ+u mechanism is dominant for the production of OI(5577 Å in the peak emission region of normal aurora, although the production efficiency is much smaller than the measured laboratory value; above 150 km electron impact on atomic oxygen is dominant. Atomic oxygen densities in the range of 0.75±0.25 MSIS-86 [O] were derived from the optical comparisons for auroral latitudes in mid-winter for various levels of solar and magnetic activity.

  2. Preliminary description of a dedicated commercial ultra-sensitive mass spectrometer for direct atom counting of 14C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purser, K.H.; Schneider, R.J.; Post, R.; Dobbs, J.McG.

    1981-01-01

    A description is presented of a commercial, tandem-accelerator centered secondary ion double mass spectrometer dedicated to 14 C/ 13 C/ 12 C ratio measurements. Some design philosophy of the instrument is presented and the performance is described. A scanning cesium ion source with primary beam diameters between 100 to 200 micrometers is used to produce C - beam intensities of 10 to 20μA with the intensities remaining constant to better than 0.1% per minute after the source stabilizes. For recent carbon, these currents correspond to 14 C count rates from the ion source of 60 to 120 particles per second. Resolution of the first mass defining system, M/ΔM, is greater than 120 with the capability of rapid mass switching between isotopes. The measured isotopic ratios at the ion source for carbon are constant to better than 0.25%. The virtues of the 3MV parallel-fed Cockroft-Walton accelerator supply are presented. At the operating voltage of 2.5MV, the stability is better than 1:4000 with a terminal ripple 13 C 3+ and 12 C 3+ ions which originate from mass-14 molecular ions are measured to be 3.6mm away from the beam axis and so can be completely eliminated by the slits. Isotopic ratios have been measured beyond these slits, and it is shown that these ratios are constant to better than half a percent using recent samples. The final strong focusing magnet has a rejection ratio for unwanted carbon ions greater than 10 7

  3. Investigation of an alternating current plasma as an element selective atomic emission detector for high-resolution capillary gas chromatography and as a source for atomic absorption and atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ombaba, Jackson M.

    This thesis deals with the construction and evaluation of an alternating current plasma (ACP) as an element-selective detector for high resolution capillary gas chromatography (GC) and as an excitation source for atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and atomic emission spectrometry (AES). The plasma, constrained in a quartz discharge tube at atmospheric pressure, is generated between two copper electrodes and utilizes helium as the plasma supporting gas. The alternating current plasma power source consists of a step-up transformer with a secondary output voltage of 14,000 V at a current of 23 mA. The device exhibits a stable signal because the plasma is self-seeding and reignites itself every half cycle. A tesla coil is not required to commence generation of the plasma if the ac voltage applied is greater than the breakdown voltage of the plasma-supporting gas. The chromatographic applications studied included the following: (1) the separation and selective detection of the organotin species, tributyltin chloride (TBT) and tetrabutyltin (TEBT), in environmental matrices including mussels (Mvutilus edullus) and sediment from Boston Harbor, industrial waste water and industrial sludge, and (2) the detection of methylcyclopentadienyl manganesetricarbonyl (MMT) and similar compounds used as gasoline additives. An ultrasonic nebulizer (common room humidifier) was utilized as a sample introduction device for aqueous solutions when the ACP was employed as an atomization source for atomic absorption spectrometry and as an excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry. Plasma diagnostic parameters studied include spatial electron number density across the discharge tube, electronic, excitation and ionization temperatures. Interference studies both in absorption and emission modes were also considered. Figures of merits of selected elements both in absorption and emission modes are reported. The evaluation of a computer-aided optimization program, Drylab GC, using

  4. Effect of atomic-state coherence and spontaneous emission on three-level dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardimona, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    For a three-level atom in the ssV configuration (i.e., having two excited states each dipole-coupled to a common ground state), we have found a particular linear combination of bare-atom states in which Rabi oscillations and their associated collapses and revivals do not occur. Moving to a dressed-state picture, we discover that this particular linear combination state is just that dressed state which is decoupled from all the field modes. It is a dressed state for which the transition dipole moments with the other dressed states are zero. The existence of this decoupled dressed state depends on the tuning of the dressing laser field, which in turn depends on the bare-atom excited-state dipole moments and energy-level separation. When we include spontaneous emission, the population decays from the other dressed states into this decoupled state and remains coherently trapped there, producing a system that experiences no dynamical behavior. This is exact for δ-function photon statistics (i.e., if there is no intensity uncertainty). The trapping becomes less perfect as the photon statistics are allowed to have a greater bandwidth. Also, if the applied field is tuned incorrectly, the spontaneous realignment of the atomic state amplitudes does not result in a totally decoupled dressed state, and the dynamics proceed normally

  5. CHIANTI—AN ATOMIC DATABASE FOR EMISSION LINES. XII. VERSION 7 OF THE DATABASE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.; Young, P. R.; Dere, K. P.

    2012-01-01

    The CHIANTI spectral code consists of an atomic database and a suite of computer programs to calculate the optically thin spectrum of astrophysical objects and carry out spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. The database includes atomic energy levels, wavelengths, radiative transition probabilities, collision excitation rate coefficients, and ionization and recombination rate coefficients, as well as data to calculate free-free, free-bound, and two-photon continuum emission. Version 7 has been released, which includes several new ions, significant updates to existing ions, as well as Chianti-Py, the implementation of CHIANTI software in the Python programming language. All data and programs are freely available at http://www.chiantidatabase.org, while the Python interface to CHIANTI can be found at http://chiantipy.sourceforge.net.

  6. CHIANTI-AN ATOMIC DATABASE FOR EMISSION LINES. XII. VERSION 7 OF THE DATABASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landi, E. [Department of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Space Sciences, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E. [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Young, P. R. [College of Science, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA, 22030 (United States); Dere, K. P. [School of Physics, Astronomy and Computational Sciences, MS 6A2, George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030 (United States)

    2012-01-10

    The CHIANTI spectral code consists of an atomic database and a suite of computer programs to calculate the optically thin spectrum of astrophysical objects and carry out spectroscopic plasma diagnostics. The database includes atomic energy levels, wavelengths, radiative transition probabilities, collision excitation rate coefficients, and ionization and recombination rate coefficients, as well as data to calculate free-free, free-bound, and two-photon continuum emission. Version 7 has been released, which includes several new ions, significant updates to existing ions, as well as Chianti-Py, the implementation of CHIANTI software in the Python programming language. All data and programs are freely available at http://www.chiantidatabase.org, while the Python interface to CHIANTI can be found at http://chiantipy.sourceforge.net.

  7. Dynamical Evolution of Properties for Atom and Field in the Process of Two-Photon Absorption and Emission Between Atomic Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-ming; Xu, Xue-xiang

    2018-04-01

    Using dressed state method, we cleverly solve the dynamics of atom-field interaction in the process of two-photon absorption and emission between atomic levels. Here we suppose that the atom is initially in the ground state and the optical field is initially in Fock state, coherent state or thermal state, respectively. The properties of the atom, including the population in excited state and ground state, the atom inversion, and the properties for optical field, including the photon number distribution, the mean photon number, the second-order correlation function and the Wigner function, are discussed in detail. We derive their analytical expressions and then make numerical analysis for them. In contrast with Jaynes-Cummings model, some similar results, such as quantum Rabi oscillation, revival and collapse, are also exhibit in our considered model. Besides, some novel nonclassical states are generated.

  8. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colon, M; Todolí, J L; Hidalgo, M; Iglesias, M

    2008-02-25

    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S(2-)) at low levels (microgL(-1)) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H(2)S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was measured at 180.669nm. In comparison to when aqueous sulfide was introduced, the introduction of sulfur as H(2)S enhanced the sulfur signal emission. By setting a gas separator at the end of the reaction coil, reduced sulfur species in the form of H(2)S were removed from the water matrix, thus, interferences could be avoided. Alternatively, the gas separator was replaced by a nebulizer/spray chamber combination to introduce the sample matrix and reagents into the plasma. This methodology allowed the determination of both sulfide and sulfate in aqueous samples. For both methods the linear response was found to range from 5microgL(-1) to 25mgL(-1) of sulfide. Detection limits of 5microgL(-1) and 6microgL(-1) were obtained with and without the gas separator, respectively. These new methods were evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method and were successfully applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in environmental waters.

  9. Study of thermoelectron emission of oxidized tungsten sponge in cesium atom flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tursunmetov, K.A.; Sabirov, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Thermoelectron emission of a tungsten sponge with 30-40% porosity is studied. The tungsten sponge is produced of fine-grain tungsten powder (diameter - 1-2 μm) according to standard technology. It is shown that tungsten sponge oxidation at T=1000 K with subsequent heating in vacuum at T=1100 K allows one to obtain the minimal stable and reproducible work function at the level of 1.03-1.05 eV in a flux of cesium atoms. Estimations show that effective emitting surface is 15-20 times as much as the polycrystal surface

  10. Experimental evidence of state-selective charge transfer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2004-01-01

    State-selective charge-transfer behavior was observed for Fe, Cr, Mn and Cu in inductively coupled plasma (ICP)-atomic emission spectrometry. Charge transfer from Ar + to Fe, Cr and Mn is state-selective because of inefficient collisional mixing of the quasiresonant charge-transfer energy levels with nearby levels. This low efficiency is the consequence of differences in electronic configuration of the core electrons. The reason for state-selective charge-transfer behavior to Cu is not clear, although a tentative explanation based on efficiency of intramultiplet and intermultiplet mixing for this special case is offered

  11. Measurement of visible and UV emission from Energetic Neutral Atom Precipitation (ENAP), on Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinsley, B. A.

    1980-01-01

    The charge exchange of plasmaspheric ions and exospheric H and O and of solar wind ions with exospheric and interplanetary H are sources of precipitating neutrals whose faint emission may be observed by the imaging spectrometric observatory during dark periods of the SL-1 orbit. Measurements of the interactions of these precipitating atoms with the thermosphere are needed to evaluate the heating and ionization effects on the atmosphere as well as the selective loss of i energetic ions from the sources (predominantly the ring current).

  12. Determination of trace elements in maifanite by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Jianqiang; LU Yiqiang; JIANG Wei

    2005-01-01

    Maifanite is a nature medicinal stone used in many fields for long time. The research on it showed that there are many trace elements in maifanite. In this paper, 36 trace elements in maifanite were determined by outer cover electrode atomic emission spectrometry, and the determination conditions were studied systematically. The results show that the concentrafions of elements, which are beneficial to human health, are higher, and the elements harmful to people health such as As, Cd, Hg, Cr, and Pb are tiny in maifanite. The precision and the accuracy were also discussed.

  13. Initial state dependence of low-energy electron emission in fast ion atom collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshammer, R.; Schmitt, W.; Kollmus, H.; Ullrich, J.; Fainstein, P.D.; Hagmann, S.

    1999-06-01

    Single and multiple ionization of Neon and Argon atoms by 3.6 MeV/u Au 53+ impact has been explored in kinematically complete experiments. Doubly differential cross sections for low-energy electron emission have been obtained for defined charge state of the recoiling target ion and the receding projectile. Observed target specific structures in the electron continuum are attributable to the nodal structure of the initial bound state momentum distribution. The experimental data are in excellent accord with CDW-EIS single ionization calculations if multiple ionization is considered appropriately. (orig.)

  14. Determination of trace amounts of cerium in paint by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.L.

    1981-01-01

    The determination of Ce in paint by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is described, and the detection limit of ICP-OES of 0.0004 ppM is compared with that of other methods. The effects of the major elemental components of paint, Si, Pb, Cr, and Na on the ICP-OES determination of Ce were studied. The interference of 400 ppM of the other ions on the determination of 10 ppM Ce was small (0 to 3% error). The method is applicable to the range of 0.2 to 700 ppM Ce

  15. Quantitative criterion for quantum interference within spontaneous emission modification of a driven ladder atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jiaren; Zhang Zhiyi; Xiao George; Grover, C P

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous emission spectrum of a ladder three-level atom with an upper transition driven by a coherent field is calculated under a universal model where various decays, any incoherent pumping and coherent driving are taken into account. The analytical expression for the spectrum profile is given on the basis of the quantum regression theorem. To our knowledge, it is the first time that the quantitative criterion condition Ω ab - γ ac vertical bar, under which quantum destructive interference induced by the coherent driving field occurs, is deduced for the modification of spontaneous emission from the middle level to the ground level. The roles and limits of incoherent pumping, coherent driving and experimental configuration are discussed for realizing the quantum interference and reducing the Doppler effects

  16. Utilization of atomic emission spectroscopy methods for determination of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubova, J.; Polakovicova, J.; Medved, J.; Stresko, V.

    1997-01-01

    The authors elaborated and applied procedures for rare earth elements (REE) determination using optical emission spectrograph with D.C arc excitation and ICP atomic emission spectrometry.Some of these analytical method are described. The proposed procedure was applied for the analysis of different types of geological materials from several Slovak localities. The results the REE determination were used for e.g. investigation of REE distribution in volcanic rocks, rhyolite tuffs with uranium-molybdenum mineralization, sandstones with heavy minerals accumulations, phosphatic sandstones, granites, quartz-carbonate veins and in the meteorite found in the locality Rumanova. The REE contents were determined in 19 mineral water sources and the results obtained by the both mentioned methods compared. The total REE contents in the analysed mineral water samples were between 2 · 10 -7 and 3 · 10 -5 g dm -3

  17. Optical emission studies of atomic and ionic species in the ionized sputter-deposition process of magnesium oxide thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Y.; Koyama, Y.; Iwaya, M.; Shinohara, M.; Fujiyama, H.

    2005-01-01

    Planar magnetron (PM) power and ICP-RF power dependences of the optical emission intensities of excited atomic and ionic species in the reactive ionized sputter-deposition of magnesium oxide (MgO) thin films were investigated. With the increase in PM power at constant ICP-RF power, Mg I emission intensity increased and Ar I emission intensity gradually decreased. With the increase in ICP-RF power at constant PM power, the Mg I emission intensity increased at lower ICP-RF power and then gradually decreased at higher ICP-RF power; on the contrary, Ar I emission intensity monotonically increased. Emission intensity of atomic oxygen was negligibly small compared with those of Mg I and Ar I under the metallic sputtering mode condition

  18. Atomic Layer Deposition Re Ective Coatings For Future Astronomical Space Telescopes And The Solar Corona Viewed Through The Minxss (Miniature X-Ray Solar Spectrometer) Cubesats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Christopher Samuel

    2017-11-01

    Advances in technology and instrumentation open new windows for observing astrophysical objects. The first half of my dissertation involves the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) coatings to create high reflectivity UV mirrors for future satellite astronomical telescopes. Aluminum (Al) has intrinsic reflectance greater than 80% from 90 – 2,000 nm, but develops a native aluminum oxide (Al2O3) layer upon exposure to air that readily absorbs light below 250 nm. Thus, Al based UV mirrors must be protected by a transmissive overcoat. Traditionally, metal-fluoride overcoats such as MgF2 and LiF are used to mitigate oxidation but with caveats. We utilize a new metal fluoride (AlF3) to protect Al mirrors deposited by ALD. ALD allows for precise thickness control, conformal and near stoichiometric thin films. We prove that depositing ultra-thin ( 3 nm) ALD ALF3 to protect Al mirrors after removing the native oxide layer via atomic layer etching (ALE) enhances the reflectance near 90 nm from 5% to 30%.X-ray detector technology with high readout rates are necessary for the relatively bright Sun, particularly during large flares. The hot plasma in the solar corona generates X-rays, which yield information on the physical conditions of the plasma. The second half of my dissertation includes detector testing, characterization and solar science with the Miniature X-ray Solar Spectrometer (MinXSS) CubeSats. The MinXSS CubeSats employ Silicon Drift Diode (SDD) detectors called X123, which generate full sun spectrally resolved ( 0.15 FWHM at 5.9 keV) measurements of the sparsely measured, 0.5 – 12 keV range. The absolute radiometric calibration of the MinXSS instrument suite was performed at the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) Synchrotron Ultraviolet Radiation Facility (SURF) and spectral resolution determined from radioactive sources. I used MinXSS along with data from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (GOES), Reuven Ramaty

  19. Spatial Dependent Spontaneous Emission of an Atom in a Semi-Infinite Waveguide of Rectangular Cross Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Hai-Xi; Sun, Xiao-Qi; Lu, Jing; Zhou, Lan

    2018-01-01

    We study a quantum electrodynamics (QED) system made of a two-level atom and a semi-infinite rectangular waveguide, which behaves as a perfect mirror in one end. The spatial dependence of the atomic spontaneous emission has been included in the coupling strength relevant to the eigenmodes of the waveguide. The role of retardation is studied for the atomic transition frequency far away from the cutoff frequencies. The atom-mirror distance introduces different phases and retardation times into the dynamics of the atom interacting resonantly with the corresponding transverse modes. It is found that the upper state population decreases from its initial as long as the atom-mirror distance does not vanish, and is lowered and lowered when more and more transverse modes are resonant with the atom. The atomic spontaneous emission can be either suppressed or enhanced by adjusting the atomic location for short retardation time. There are partial revivals and collapses due to the photon reabsorbed and re-emitted by the atom for long retardation time. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11374095, 11422540, 11434011, and 11575058, National Fundamental Research Program of China (the 973 Program) under Grant No. 2012CB922103, and Hunan Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant No. 11JJ7001

  20. Atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auffray, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The atom through centuries, has been imagined, described, explored, then accelerated, combined...But what happens truly inside the atom? And what are mechanisms who allow its stability? Physicist and historian of sciences, Jean-Paul Auffray explains that these questions are to the heart of the modern physics and it brings them a new lighting. (N.C.)

  1. An Atomically Precise Au10 Ag2 Nanocluster with Red-Near-IR Dual Emission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Guan, Zong-Jie; Pei, Xiao-Li; Yuan, Shang-Fu; Wan, Xian-Kai; Zhang, Jin-Yuan; Wang, Quan-Ming

    2016-08-01

    A red-near-IR dual-emissive nanocluster with the composition [Au10 Ag2 (2-py-C≡C)3 (dppy)6 ](BF4 )5 (1; 2-py-C≡C is 2-pyridylethynyl, dppy=2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine) has been synthesized. Single-crystal X-ray structural analysis reveals that 1 has a trigonal bipyramidal Au10 Ag2 core that contains a planar Au4 (2-py-C≡C)3 unit sandwiched by two Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs. Cluster 1 shows intense red-NIR dual emission in solution. The visible emission originates from metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) from silver atoms to phosphine ligands in the Au3 Ag(dppy)3 motifs, and the intense NIR emission is associated with the participation of 2-pyridylethynyl in the frontier orbitals of the cluster, which is confirmed by a time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) calculation. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Dual-array valence emission spectrometer (DAVES): A new approach for hard x-ray photon-in photon-out spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, K. D., E-mail: kdf1@cornell.edu; Lyndaker, A.; Krawcyk, T.; Conrad, J. [CHESS Wilson Lab, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Pollock, C. J. [Dept. of Chemistry, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, Pennsylvania 16802 (United States)

    2016-07-27

    CHESS has developed and successfully deployed a novel Dual Array Valence Emission Spectrometer (DAVES) for high energy resolution, hard x-ray spectroscopy. DAVES employs the simplest method for scanning multiple spherical crystals along a Rowland Circle. The new design achieves unique 2-color collection capability and is built to take special advantage of pixel array detectors. Our initial results show why these detectors greatly improve data quality. The presentation emphasizes flexibility of experimental design offered by DAVES. Prospects and benefits of 2-color spectroscopy are illustrated and discussed.

  3. EXPERIENCE OF APPLICATION OF A PORTABLE OPTICO – EMISSION SPECTROMETER FOR MONITORING OF CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF HOT-ROLLED PRODUCTS TO IMPLEMENT THE CUSTOMER’S REQUIREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Kazakova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available One of requirements of customers in the automotive industry is the guarantee of lack of intermix of various brands of steel in a mill process of manufacture. For ensuring implementation of this requirement, it is necessary to carry out monitoring of chemical composition of each bar just before shipment, after its packing and application of the required marking. An optimal solution of this problem is application of the portable optico-emission spectrometer allowing to carry out tests of samples directly in place of location.

  4. Synchrotron radiation in atomic physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crasemann, B.

    1998-01-01

    Much of present understanding of atomic and molecular structure and dynamics was gained through studies of photon-atom interactions. In particular, observations of the emission, absorption, and scattering of X rays have complemented particle-collision experiments in elucidating the physics of atomic inner shells. Grounded on Max von Laue's theoretical insight and the invention of the Bragg spectrometer, the field's potential underwent a step function with the development of synchrotron-radiation sources. Notably current third-generation sources have opened new horizons in atomic and molecular physics by producing radiation of wide tunability and exceedingly high intensity and polarization, narrow energy bandwidth, and sharp time structure. In this review, recent advances in synchrotron-radiation studies in atomic and molecular science are outlined. Some tempting opportunities are surveyed that arise for future studies of atomic processes, including many-body effects, aspects of fundamental photon-atom interactions, and relativistic and quantum-electrodynamic phenomena. (author)

  5. Combustor exhaust-emissions and blowout-limits with diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels utilizing air-atomizing and pressure-atomizing nozzles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingebo, R. D.; Norgren, C. T.

    1975-01-01

    The effect of fuel properties on exhaust emissions and blowout limits of a high-pressure combustor segment is evaluated using a splash-groove air-atomizing fuel injector and a pressure-atomizing simplex fuel nozzle to burn both diesel number 2 and Jet A fuels. Exhaust emissions and blowout data are obtained and compared on the basis of the aromatic content and volatility of the two fuels. Exhaust smoke number and emission indices for oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, and unburned hydrocarbons are determined for comparison. As compared to the pressure-atomizing nozzle, the air-atomizing nozzle is found to reduce nitrogen oxides by 20%, smoke number by 30%, carbon monoxide by 70%, and unburned hydrocarbons by 50% when used with diesel number 2 fuel. The higher concentration of aromatics and lower volatility of diesel number 2 fuel as compared to Jet A fuel appears to have the most detrimental effect on exhaust emissions. Smoke number and unburned hydrocarbons are twice as high with diesel number 2 as with Jet A fuel.

  6. Study on performance of a simultaneous spectrometer of ICP emission source for the determination of the major elements in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, M.D.

    1987-01-01

    The optimization of operational parameters of a simultaneous spectrometer coupled to an ICP excitation source in order to establish an analytical method for the simultaneous determination of the major elements in rocks is studied. The mutual spectral interferences, calibration curves for the acid and saline matrix and the internal standard method with ytrium are analyzed. (M.J.C.) [pt

  7. Proof of Concept Coded Aperture Miniature Mass Spectrometer Using a Cycloidal Sector Mass Analyzer, a Carbon Nanotube (CNT) Field Emission Electron Ionization Source, and an Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amsden, Jason J.; Herr, Philip J.; Landry, David M. W.; Kim, William; Vyas, Raul; Parker, Charles B.; Kirley, Matthew P.; Keil, Adam D.; Gilchrist, Kristin H.; Radauscher, Erich J.; Hall, Stephen D.; Carlson, James B.; Baldasaro, Nicholas; Stokes, David; Di Dona, Shane T.; Russell, Zachary E.; Grego, Sonia; Edwards, Steven J.; Sperline, Roger P.; Denton, M. Bonner; Stoner, Brian R.; Gehm, Michael E.; Glass, Jeffrey T.

    2018-02-01

    Despite many potential applications, miniature mass spectrometers have had limited adoption in the field due to the tradeoff between throughput and resolution that limits their performance relative to laboratory instruments. Recently, a solution to this tradeoff has been demonstrated by using spatially coded apertures in magnetic sector mass spectrometers, enabling throughput and signal-to-background improvements of greater than an order of magnitude with no loss of resolution. This paper describes a proof of concept demonstration of a cycloidal coded aperture miniature mass spectrometer (C-CAMMS) demonstrating use of spatially coded apertures in a cycloidal sector mass analyzer for the first time. C-CAMMS also incorporates a miniature carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron ionization source and a capacitive transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) ion array detector. Results confirm the cycloidal mass analyzer's compatibility with aperture coding. A >10× increase in throughput was achieved without loss of resolution compared with a single slit instrument. Several areas where additional improvement can be realized are identified.

  8. New high temperature plasmas and sample introduction systems for analytical atomic emission and mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montaser, A.

    1993-01-01

    In this research, new high-temperature plasmas and new sample introduction systems are explored for rapid elemental and isotopic analysis of gases, solutions, and solids using mass spectrometry and atomic emission spectrometry. During the period January 1993--December 1993, emphasis was placed on (a) analytical investigations of atmospheric-pressure helium inductively coupled plasma (He ICP) that are suitable for atomization, excitation, and ionization of elements possessing high excitation and ionization energies; (b) simulation and computer modeling of plasma sources to predict their structure and fundamental and analytical properties without incurring the enormous cost of experimental studies; (c) spectrosopic imaging and diagnostic studies of high-temperature plasmas; (d) fundamental studies of He ICP discharges and argon-nitrogen plasma by high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometry; and (e) fundamental and analytical investigation of new, low-cost devices as sample introduction systems for atomic spectrometry and examination of new diagnostic techniques for probing aerosols. Only the most important achievements are included in this report to illustrate progress and obstacles. Detailed descriptions of the authors' investigations are outlined in the reprints and preprints that accompany this report. The technical progress expected next year is briefly described at the end of this report

  9. On I(5577 Å and I (7620 Å auroral emissions and atomic oxygen densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Gattinger

    Full Text Available A model of auroral electron deposition processes has been developed using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate electron transport and energy loss. The computed differential electron flux and pitch angle were compared with in situ auroral observations to provide a check on the accuracy of the model. As part of the energy loss process, a tally was kept of electronic excitation and ionization of the important atomic and molecular states. The optical emission rates from these excited states were computed and compared with auroral observations of η(3914 Å, η(5577 Å, η(7620 Å and η(N2VK. In particular, the roles played by energy transfer from N2(A3Σ+u and by other processes in the excitation of O(1S and O2(b1Σ+g were investigated in detail. It is concluded that the N2(A3Σ+u mechanism is dominant for the production of OI(5577 Å in the peak emission region of normal aurora, although the production efficiency is much smaller than the measured laboratory value; above 150 km electron impact on atomic oxygen is dominant. Atomic oxygen densities in the range of 0.75±0.25 MSIS-86 [O] were derived from the optical comparisons for auroral latitudes in mid-winter for various levels of solar and magnetic activity.

  10. Battery-operated, argon-hydrogen microplasma on hybrid, postage stamp-sized plastic-quartz chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weagant, Scott; Chen, Vivian; Karanassios, Vassili

    2011-11-01

    A battery-operated, atmospheric pressure, self-igniting, planar geometry Ar-H(2) microplasma for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples is described. The inexpensive microplasma device (MPD) fabricated for this work was a hybrid plastic-quartz structure that was formed on chips with an area (roughly) equal to that of a small-sized postage stamp (MPD footprint, 12.5-mm width by 38-mm length). Plastic substrates were chosen due to their low cost, for rapid prototyping purposes, and for a speedy microplasma device evaluation. To enhance portability, the microplasma was operated from an 18-V rechargeable battery. To facilitate portability even further, it was demonstrated that the battery can be recharged by a portable solar panel. The battery-supplied dc voltage was converted to a high-voltage ac. The ~750-μm (diameter) and 12-mm (long) Ar-H(2) (3% H(2)) microplasma was formed by applying the high-voltage ac between two needle electrodes. Spectral interference from the electrode materials or from the plastic substrate was not observed. Operating conditions were found to be key to igniting and sustaining a microplasma that was simply "warm" to the touch (thus alleviating the need for cooling or other thermal management) and that had a stable background emission. A small-sized (900 μL internal volume) electrothermal vaporization system (40-W max power) was used for microsample introduction. Microplasma background emission in the spectral region between 200 and 850 nm obtained using a portable fiber-optic spectrometer is reported and the effect of the operating conditions is described. Analyte emission from microliter volumes of dilute single-element standard solutions of Cd, Cu, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na, Pb, and Zn is documented. The majority of spectral lines observed for the elements tested were from neutral atoms. The relative lack of emission from ion lines simplified the spectra, thus facilitating the use of a portable spectrometer. Despite the relative spectral

  11. Monolithic spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajic, Slobodan (Knoxville, TN); Egert, Charles M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Kahl, William K. (Knoxville, TN); Snyder, Jr., William B. (Knoxville, TN); Evans, III, Boyd M. (Oak Ridge, TN); Marlar, Troy A. (Knoxville, TN); Cunningham, Joseph P. (Oak Ridge, TN)

    1998-01-01

    A monolithic spectrometer is disclosed for use in spectroscopy. The spectrometer is a single body of translucent material with positioned surfaces for the transmission, reflection and spectral analysis of light rays.

  12. Mineral distribution in rice: Measurement by Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramos, Nerissa C.; Ramos, R.G.A.; Quirit, L.L.; Arcilla, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    Microwave Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (MP-AES) is a new technology with comparable performance and sensitivity to Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Both instrument use plasma as the energy source that produces atomic and ionic emission lines. However, MP-AES uses nitrogen as the plasma gas instead of argon which is an additional expense for ICP-OES. Thus, MP-AES is more economical. This study quantified six essential minerals (Se, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn and K) in rice using MP-AES. Hot plate digestion was used for sample extraction and the detection limit for each instrument was compared with respect to the requirement for routine analysis in rice. Black, red and non-pigmented rice samples were polished in various intervals to determine the concentration loss of minerals. The polishing time corresponds to the structure of the rice grains such as outer bran layer (0 to 15), inner bran layer (15 to 30), outer endosperm layer (30 to 45), and middle endosperm layer (45 to 60). Results of MP-AES analysis showed that black rice had all essential materials (except K) in high concentration at the outer bran layer. The red and non-pigmented rice samples on the other hand, contained high levels of Se, Zn, Fe, and Mn in the whole bran portion. After 25 seconds, the mineral concentrations remained constant. The concentration of Cu however, gave consistent value in all polishing intervals, hence Cu might be located in the inner endosperm layer. Results also showed that K was uniformly distributed in all samples where 5% loss was consistently observed for every polishing interval. Therefore, the concentration of K was also affected by polishing time. Thus, the new MP-AES technology with comparable performance to ICP-OES is a promising tool for routine analysis in rice. (author)

  13. Sample Preprocessing For Atomic Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sun Tae

    2004-08-01

    This book gives descriptions of atomic spectrometry, which deals with atomic absorption spectrometry such as Maxwell-Boltzmann equation and Beer-Lambert law, atomic absorption spectrometry for solvent extraction, HGAAS, ETASS, and CVAAS and inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometer, such as basic principle, generative principle of plasma and device and equipment, and interferences, and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry like device, pros and cons of ICP/MS, sample analysis, reagent, water, acid, flux, materials of experiments, sample and sampling and disassembling of sample and pollution and loss in open system and closed system.

  14. Design of ITER divertor VUV spectrometer and prototype test at KSTAR tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seon, Changrae; Hong, Joohwan; Song, Inwoo; Jang, Juhyeok; Lee, Hyeonyong; An, Younghwa; Kim, Bosung; Jeon, Taemin; Park, Jaesun; Choe, Wonho; Lee, Hyeongon; Pak, Sunil; Cheon, MunSeong; Choi, Jihyeon; Kim, Hyeonseok; Biel, Wolfgang; Bernascolle, Philippe; Barnsley, Robin; O'Mullane, Martin

    2017-12-01

    Design and development of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer have been performed from the year 1998, and it is planned to be installed in the year 2027. Currently, the design of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer is in the phase of detail design. It is optimized for monitoring of chord-integrated VUV signals from divertor plasmas, chosen to contain representative lines emission from the tungsten as the divertor material, and other impurities. Impurity emission from overall divertor plasmas is collimated through the relay optics onto the entrance slit of a VUV spectrometer with working wavelength range of 14.6-32 nm. To validate the design of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer, two sets of VUV spectrometers have been developed and tested at KSTAR tokamak. One set of spectrometer without the field mirror employs a survey spectrometer with the wavelength ranging from 14.6 nm to 32 nm, and it provides the same optical specification as the spectrometer part of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer system. The other spectrometer with the wavelength range of 5-25 nm consists of a commercial spectrometer with a concave grating, and the relay mirrors with the same geometry as the relay mirrors of the ITER divertor VUV spectrometer. From test of these prototypes, alignment method using backward laser illumination could be verified. To validate the feasibility of tungsten emission measurement, furthermore, the tungsten powder was injected in KSTAR plasmas, and the preliminary result could be obtained successfully with regard to the evaluation of photon throughput. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  15. Determination of Metals Present in Textile Dyes Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Cross-Validation Using Inductively Coupled Plasma/Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Rehan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS was used for the quantitative analysis of elements present in textile dyes at ambient pressure via the fundamental mode (1064 nm of a Nd:YAG pulsed laser. Three samples were collected for this purpose. Spectra of textile dyes were acquired using an HR spectrometer (LIBS2000+, Ocean Optics, Inc. having an optical resolution of 0.06 nm in the spectral range of 200 to 720 nm. Toxic metals like Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, and Zn along with other elements like Al, Mg, Ca, and Na were revealed to exist in the samples. The %-age concentrations of the detected elements were measured by means of standard calibration curve method, intensities of every emission from every species, and calibration-free (CF LIBS approach. Only Sample 3 was found to contain heavy metals like Cr, Cu, and Ni above the prescribed limit. The results using LIBS were found to be in good agreement when compared to outcomes of inductively coupled plasma/atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP/AES.

  16. Control of spontaneous emission from a microwave-field-driven four-level atom in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Duo; Li, Jiahua; Ding, Chunling; Yang, Xiaoxue

    2012-05-01

    The spontaneous emission properties of a microwave-field-driven four-level atom embedded in anisotropic double-band photonic crystals (PCs) are investigated. We discuss the influences of the band-edge positions, Rabi frequency and detuning of the microwave field on the emission spectrum. It is found that several interesting features such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line overlap, and multi-peak structures can be observed in the spectra. The proposed scheme can be achieved by use of a microwave-coupled field into hyperfine levels in rubidium atom confined in a photonic crystal. These theoretical investigations may provide more degrees of freedom to manipulate the atomic spontaneous emission.

  17. Localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice determined by the Moessbauer emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masterov, V.F.; Nasredinov, F.S.; Nemov, S.A.; Seregin, P.P.; Troitskaya, N.N.; Bondarevskij, S.I.

    1997-01-01

    The 119 Sb ( 119m Sn) emission Moessbauer spectroscopy has shown that a localization of the antimony impurity atoms in the PbTe lattice is affected by the conductivity type of the host material, the antimony atoms occupied mainly anion and cation sites in n-type and p-type samples, respectively. The 119 Sn impurity in the anion sublattice of PbTe formed an decay. Its charge state was shown to be independent of the Fermi level position

  18. Multielement determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawatari, Hideyuki; Asano, Takaaki; Hu, Xincheng; Saizuka, Tomoo; Itoh, Akihide; Hirose, Akio; Haraguchi, Hiroki

    1995-01-01

    The rapid determination of rare earth elements (REEs) has been investigated by an on-line system of high performance liquid chromatography/multichannel inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry. In the present system, all REEs could be detected simultaneously in a single chromatographic measurement without spectral interferences. Utilizing a cation exchange column and 2-hydroxy-2-methylpropanoic acid aqueous solution as the mobile phase, the detection limits of 0.4-30 ng ml -1 for all REEs were obtained. The system was applied to the determination of REEs in geological standard rock samples and rare earth impurities in high purity rare earth oxides. The REEs in standard rocks could be determined by the present HPLC/ICP-AES system without pretreatment after acid digestion, although the detection limits were not sufficient for the analysis of rare earth oxides. (author)

  19. Some metals determination in beers by atomic emission spectrometry of induced argon plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsushige, I.

    1990-01-01

    It was made the identification and determination of metals in brazilian bottled and canned beer, using atomic emission spectrometry with d.c. are and argon coupled plasma excitation sources. The elements Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were determined in beer samples, after treatment with HNO sub(3) conc. /H sub(2) O sub(2) (30%). In the determination of Co, Cr, Cu, Pb and Zn and alternative method using HNO sub(3) conc. /O sub(3) was proved be useful. The results obtained for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb and Zn were below the limits established by brazilian legislation, showing the good quality of the beer concerning the metals. The results of this work were requested by the previous Ministerio do Meio Ambiente e Urbanismo in order to contribute to review the brazilian legislation in foods and beverages about metals contents. (author)

  20. Determination of rare earth elements by liquid chromatography/inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, K.; Haraguchi, H.

    1984-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) interfaced with high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) has been applied to the determination of rare earth elements. ICP-AES was used as an element-selective detector for HPLC. The separation of rare earth elements with HPLC helped to avoid erroneous analytical results due to spectral interferences. Fifteen rare earth elements (Y and 14 lanthanides) were determined selectively with the HPLC/ICP-AES system using a concentration gradient method. The detection limits with the present HPLC/ICP-AES system were about 0.001-0.3 μg/mL with a 100-μL sample injection. The calibration curves obtained by the peak height measurements showed linear relationships in the concentration range below 500 μg/mL for all rare earth elements. A USGS rock standard sample, rare earth ores, and high-purity lanthanide reagents (>99.9%) were successfully analyzed without spectral interferences

  1. Determination of total tin in canned food using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perring, Loic; Basic-Dvorzak, Marija [Department of Quality and Safety Assurance, Nestle Research Centre, P.O. Box 44, Vers chez-les-Blanc, 1000, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    2002-09-01

    Tin is considered to be a priority contaminant by the Codex Alimentarius Commission. Tin can enter foods either from natural sources, environmental pollution, packaging material or pesticides. Higher concentrations are found in processed food and canned foods. Dissolution of the tinplate depends on the of food matrix, acidity, presence of oxidising reagents (anthocyanin, nitrate, iron and copper) presence of air (oxygen) in the headspace, time and storage temperature. To reduce corrosion and dissolution of tin, nowadays cans are usually lacquered, which gives a marked reduction of tin migration into the food product. Due to the lack of modern validated published methods for food products, an ICP-AES (Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy) method has been developed and evaluated. This technique is available in many laboratories in the food industry and is more sensitive than atomic absorption. Conditions of sample preparation and spectroscopic parameters for tin measurement by axial ICP-AES were investigated for their ruggedness. Two methods of preparation involving high-pressure ashing or microwave digestion in volumetric flasks were evaluated. They gave complete recovery of tin with similar accuracy and precision. Recoveries of tin from spiked products with two levels of tin were in the range 99{+-}5%. Robust relative repeatabilities and intermediate reproducibilities were <5% for different food matrices containing >30 mg/kg of tin. Internal standard correction (indium or strontium) did not improve the method performance. Three emission lines for tin were tested (189.927, 283.998 and 235.485 nm) but only 189.927 nm was found to be robust enough with respect to interferences, especially at low tin concentrations. The LOQ (limit of quantification) was around 0.8 mg/kg at 189.927 nm. A survey of tin content in a range of canned foods is given. (orig.)

  2. Determination of cadmium in whole blood and scalp hair samples of Pakistani male lung cancer patients by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazi, T.G.; Memon, A.R.; Afridi, H.I.; Jamali, M.K.; Arain, M.B.; Jalbani, N.; Sarfraz, R.A.

    2008-01-01

    A large number of epidemiologic studies have been undertaken to identify potential risk factors for cancer, amongst which the association with cadmium has received considerable attention. There is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium and risk of lung cancer. In present study we measured the concentration of Cd in whole blood and scalp hair samples of 120 male lung cancer patients (smokers) and 150 controls or referents (smokers and nonsmokers) from different cities of Pakistan. Both referents and patients were of same age group (ranged 40-70 years), socio-economic status, localities and dietary habits. The scalp hair and whole blood samples were oxidized by 65% nitric acid: 30% hydrogen peroxide (2:1) ratio in microwave oven. To check the validity of the proposed method, a conventional wet acid digestion method was used to obtain total Cd concentration in certified samples of human hair BCR 397 and Clincheck control-lyophilized human whole blood. All digests were analyzed for Cd concentration by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer (ETAAS). The results of this study showed that the average Cd concentration was higher in the blood and scalp hair of lung cancer patients at different stages as compared to controls (p < 001). The smoker referents have high level of Cd in both biological samples as compared to nonsmoker subjects. These results illustrate that the patients who continued smoking after confirmed diagnosis of lung cancer have 34.2-67.26 and 22.4-57.3% more Cd in blood samples and scalp hair than lung cancer patients who cease smoking. This study is compelling evidence in support of positive associations between cadmium, cigarette smoking and lung cancer risk

  3. Application of Internal Standard Method for Several 3d-Transition Metallic Elements in Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry Using a Multi-wavelength High-resolution Spectrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toya, Yusuke; Itagaki, Toshiko; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2017-01-01

    We investigated a simultaneous internal standard method in flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS), in order to better the analytical precision of 3d-transition metals contained in steel materials. For this purpose, a new spectrometer system for FAAS, comprising a bright xenon lamp as the primary radiation source and a high-resolution Echelle monochromator, was employed to measure several absorption lines at a wavelength width of ca. 0.3 nm at the same time, which enables the absorbances of an analytical line and also an internal standard line to be estimated. In considering several criteria for selecting an internal standard element and the absorption line, it could be suggested that platinum-group elements: ruthenium, rhodium, or palladium, were suitable for an internal standard element to determine the 3d-transition metal elements, such as titanium, iron, and nickel, by measuring an appropriate pair of these absorption lines simultaneously. Several variances of the absorption signal, such as a variation in aspirated amounts of sample solution and a short-period drift of the primary light source, would be corrected and thus reduced, when the absorbance ratio of the analytical line to the internal standard line was measured. In Ti-Pd, Ni-Rh, and Fe-Ru systems chosen as typical test samples, the repeatability of the signal respnses was investigated with/without the internal standard method, resulting in better precision when the internal standard method was applied in the FAAS with a nitrous oxide-acetylene flame rather than an air-acetylene flame.

  4. Use of magnesium as a test element for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize atomization and ionization processes in an inductively coupled plasma used as a source in atomic emission spectrometry, the Mg II 280.270-nm/Mg I 285-213-nm line intensity ratio is used. A theoretic ratio is calculated assuming a local thermodynamic equilibrium.A review of previously published experimental values of the ratio is given as a function of the parameters influencing the energy transfer between the plasma and injected species. In particular, the effects of the power, the carrier gas flow-rate, the i.d. of the torch injector, the use of a sheathing gas and the presence of hydrogen are described. Values of the ratio close to the theoretical values are obtained with a high power (>1.4 kW), a lower carrier gas flow-rate ( -1 ) and a large i.d. of the injector (>2 mm). This optimization can also be applied to the minimization of interference effects due to the presence of sodium. (author). 64 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  5. Modification, calibration, and performance of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer for particle size distribution and volatility measurements during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom) airborne campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kupc, Agnieszka; Williamson, Christina; Wagner, Nicholas L.; Richardson, Mathews; Brock, Charles A.

    2018-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosol is a key component of the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate measurement of the concentration of atmospheric particles as a function of their size is fundamental to investigations of particle microphysics, optical characteristics, and chemical processes. We describe the modification, calibration, and performance of two commercially available, Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometers (UHSASs) as used on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom). To avoid sample flow issues related to pressure variations during aircraft altitude changes, we installed a laminar flow meter on each instrument to measure sample flow directly at the inlet as well as flow controllers to maintain constant volumetric sheath flows. In addition, we added a compact thermodenuder operating at 300 °C to the inlet line of one of the instruments. With these modifications, the instruments are capable of making accurate (ranging from 7 % for Dp 0.13 µm), precise ( 1000 to 225 hPa, while simultaneously providing information on particle volatility.We assessed the effect of uncertainty in the refractive index (n) of ambient particles that are sized by the UHSAS assuming the refractive index of ammonium sulfate (n = 1.52). For calibration particles with n between 1.44 and 1.58, the UHSAS diameter varies by +4/-10 % relative to ammonium sulfate. This diameter uncertainty associated with the range of refractive indices (i.e., particle composition) translates to aerosol surface area and volume uncertainties of +8.4/-17.8 and +12.4/-27.5 %, respectively. In addition to sizing uncertainty, low counting statistics can lead to uncertainties of 1000 cm-3.Examples of thermodenuded and non-thermodenuded aerosol number and volume size distributions as well as propagated uncertainties are shown for several cases encountered during the ATom project. Uncertainties in particle number concentration were limited by counting statistics

  6. Time-dependent first-principles study of angle-resolved secondary electron emission from atomic sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Yoshihiro; Suzuki, Yasumitsu; Watanabe, Kazuyuki

    2018-02-01

    Angle-resolved secondary electron emission (ARSEE) spectra were analyzed for two-dimensional atomic sheets using a time-dependent first-principles simulation of electron scattering. We demonstrate that the calculated ARSEE spectra capture the unoccupied band structure of the atomic sheets. The excitation dynamics that lead to SEE have also been revealed by the time-dependent Kohn-Sham decomposition scheme. In the present study, the mechanism for the experimentally observed ARSEE from atomic sheets is elucidated with respect to both energetics and the dynamical aspects of SEE.

  7. Atomic imaging by x-ray-fluorescence holography and electron-emission holography: A comparative theoretical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Len, P.M.; Thevuthasan, S.; Fadley, C.S.; Kaduwela, A.P.; Van Hove, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    We consider from a theoretical viewpoint the direct imaging of atoms at and near the surfaces of solids by both x-ray-fluorescence holography (XFH) and electron-emission holography (EEH). The more ideal nature of x-ray scattering makes XFH images superior to those in single-energy EEH. The overlap of real and twin features for pairs of atoms at ±a can cause their XFH or EEH atomic images to cancel for certain combinations of wave vector and |a|. The relative merits of XFH and EEH for structure studies are considered

  8. Sub-microanalysis of solid samples with near-field enhanced atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaohua; Liang, Zhisen; Meng, Yifan; Wang, Tongtong; Hang, Wei; Huang, Benli

    2018-03-01

    A novel approach, which we have chosen to name it as near-field enhanced atomic emission spectroscopy (NFE-AES), was proposed by introducing a scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) system into a laser-induced breakdown spectrometry (LIBS). The near-field enhancement of a laser-illuminated tip was utilized to improve the lateral resolution tremendously. Using the hybrid arrangement, pure metal tablets were analyzed to verify the performance of NFE-AES both in atmosphere and in vacuum. Due to localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), the incident electromagnetic field is enhanced and confined at the apex of tip, resulting in sub-micron scale ablation and elemental emission signal. We discovered that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and the spectral resolution obtained in vacuum condition are better than those acquired in atmospheric condition. The quantitative capability of NFE-AES was demonstrated by analyzing Al and Pb in Cu matrix, respectively. Submicron-sized ablation craters were achieved by performing NFE-AES on a Si wafer with an Al film, and the spectroscopic information from a crater of 650 nm diameter was successfully obtained. Due to its advantage of high lateral resolution, NFE-AES imaging of micro-patterned Al lines on an integrated circuit of a SIM card was demonstrated with a sub-micron lateral resolution. These results reveal the potential of the NFE-AES technique in sub-microanalysis of solids, opening an opportunity to map chemical composition at sub-micron scale.

  9. Position Dependent Spontaneous Emission Spectra of a Λ-Type Atomic System Embedded in a Defective Photonic Crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Entezar, S. Roshan

    2012-01-01

    We investigate the position dependent spontaneous emission spectra of a Λ-type three-level atom with one transition coupled to the free vacuum reservoir and the other one coupled to a double-band photonic band gap reservoir with a defect mode in the band gap. It is shown that, for the atom at the defect location, we have a two-peak spectrum with a wide dark line due to the strong coupling between the atom and the defect mode. While, when the atom is far from the defect location (or in the absence of the defect mode), the spectrum has three peaks with two dark lines due to the coupling between the atom and the photonic band gap reservoir with the largest density of states near the band edges. On the other hand, we have a four-peak spectrum for the atom at the space in between. Moreover, the average spontaneous emission spectra of the atoms uniformly embedded in high dielectric or low dielectric regions are described. It is shown that the atoms embedded in high (low) dielectric regions far from the defect location, effectively couple to the modes of the lower (upper) photonic band. However, the atoms embedded in high dielectric or low dielectric regions at the defect location, are coupled mainly to the defect modes. While, the atoms uniformly embedded in high (low) dielectric regions with a normal distance from the defect location, are coupled to both of defect and lower (upper) photonic band modes. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  10. First-principles dynamics treatment of light emission in collisions between alkali-metal atom and noble-gas atom collisions at 10keV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco, Alexander B.; Reyes, Andrés; Micha, David A.

    2006-12-01

    Collision-induced light emission during the interaction of an alkali-metal atom and a noble-gas atom is treated within a first-principles, or direct, dynamics approach that calculates a time-dependent electric dipole for the whole system, and spectral emission cross sections from its Fourier transform. These cross sections are very sensitive to excited diatomic potentials and a source of information on their shape. The coupling between electronic transitions and nuclear motions is treated with atomic pseudopotentials and an electronic density matrix coupled to trajectories for the nuclei. A recently implemented pseudopotential parametrization scheme is used here for the ground and excited states of the LiHe system, and to calculate state-to-state dipole moments. To verify the accuracy of our new parameters, we recalculate the integral cross sections for the LiHe system in the keV energy regime and obtain agreement with other results from theory and experiment. We further present results for the emission spectrum from 10keV Li(2s)+He collisions, and compare them to experimental values available in the region of light emitted at 300-900nm .

  11. The zonal structure of tropical O3 and CO as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer in November 2004 – Part 2: Impact of surface emissions on O3 and its precursors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Osterman

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The impact of surface emissions on the zonal structure of tropical tropospheric ozone and carbon monoxide is investigated for November 2004 using satellite observations, in-situ measurements, and chemical transport models in conjunction with inverse-estimated surface emissions.Vertical ozone profiles from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES and ozone sonde measurements from the Southern Hemisphere Additional Ozonesondes (SHADOZ network show elevated concentrations of ozone over Indonesia and Australia (60–70 ppb in the lower troposphere against the backdrop of the well-known zonal "wave-one" pattern with ozone concentrations of (70–80 ppb centered over the Atlantic . Observational evidence from TES CO vertical profiles and Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI NO2 columns point to regional surface emissions as an important contributor to the elevated ozone over Indonesia. This contribution is investigated with the GEOS-Chem chemistry and transport model using surface emission estimates derived from an optimal inverse model, which was constrained by TES and Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT CO profiles (Jones et al., 2009. These a posteriori estimates, which were over a factor of 2 greater than climatological emissions, reduced differences between GEOS-Chem and TES ozone observations by 30–40% over Indonesia. The response of the free tropospheric chemical state to the changes in these emissions is investigated for ozone, CO, NOx, and PAN. Model simulations indicate that ozone over Indonesian/Australian is sensitive to regional changes in surface emissions of NOx but relatively insensitive to lightning NOx. Over sub-equatorial Africa and South America, free tropospheric NOx was reduced in response to increased surface emissions potentially muting ozone production.

  12. Development of a Robust, High Current, Low Power Field Emission Electron Gun for a Spaceflight Reflectron Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southard, Adrian E.; Getty, Stephanie A.; Feng, Steven; Glavin, Daniel P.; Auciello, Orlando; Sumant, Anirudha

    2012-01-01

    Carbon materials, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD), have been of considerable interest for field emission applications for over a decade. In particular, robust field emission materials are compelling for space applications due to the low power consumption and potential for miniaturization. A reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS) under development for in situ measurements on the Moon and other Solar System bodies uses a field emitter to generate ions from gaseous samples, using electron ionization. For these unusual environments, robustness, reliability, and long life are of paramount importance, and to this end, we have explored the field emission properties and lifetime of carbon nanotubes and nitrogen-incorporated ultrananocrystalline diamond (N-UNCD) thin films, the latter developed and patented by Argonne National Laboratory. We will present recent investigations of N-UNCD as a robust field emitter, revealing that this material offers stable performance in high vacuum for up to 1000 hours with threshold voltage for emission of about 3-4 V/lJm and current densities in the range of tens of microA. Optimizing the mass resolution and sensitivity of such a mass spectrometer has also been enabled by a parallel effort to scale up a CNT emitter to an array measuring 2 mm x 40 mm. Through simulation and experiment of the new extended format emitter, we have determined that focusing the electron beam is limited due to the angular spread of the emitted electrons. This dispersion effect can be reduced through modification of the electron gun geometry, but this reduces the current reaching the ionization region. By increasing the transmission efficiency of the electron beam to the anode, we have increased the anode current by two orders of magnitude to realize a corresponding enhancement in instrument sensitivity, at a moderate cost to mass resolution. We will report recent experimental and

  13. Identifying Student and Teacher Difficulties in Interpreting Atomic Spectra Using a Quantum Model of Emission and Absorption of Radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savall-Alemany, Francisco; Domènech-Blanco, Josep Lluís; Guisasola, Jenaro; Martínez-Torregrosa, Joaquín

    2016-01-01

    Our study sets out to identify the difficulties that high school students, teachers, and university students encounter when trying to explain atomic spectra. To do so, we identify the key concepts that any quantum model for the emission and absorption of electromagnetic radiation must include to account for the gas spectra and we then design two…

  14. Ab-initio modeling of an iron laser-induced plasma: Comparison between theoretical and experimental atomic emission spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colgan, J.; Judge, E.J.; Kilcrease, D.P.; Barefield, J.E.

    2014-01-01

    We report on efforts to model the Fe emission spectrum generated from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements on samples of pure iron oxide (Fe 2 O 3 ). Our modeling efforts consist of several components. We begin with ab-initio atomic structure calculations performed by solving the Hartree–Fock equations for the neutral and singly ionized stages of Fe. Our energy levels are then adjusted to their experimentally known values. The atomic transition probabilities and atomic collision quantities are also computed in an ab-initio manner. We perform LTE or non-LTE calculations that generate level populations and, subsequently, an emission spectrum for the iron plasma for a range of electron temperatures and electron densities. Such calculations are then compared to the experimental spectrum. We regard our work as a preliminary modeling effort that ultimately strives towards the modeling of emission spectra from even more complex samples where less atomic data are available. - Highlights: • LIBS plasma of iron oxide • Ab-initio theoretical Modeling • Discussion of LTE versus non-LTE criteria and assessment • Boltzmann plots for Fe—determination of when LTE is a valid assumption • Emission spectra for Fe—comparison of theoretical modeling and measurement: good agreement obtained

  15. Grating spectrometer installation for electron cyclotron emission measurements on the DIII-D tokamak using circular waveguide and synchronous detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Jahns, G.; Moeller, C.; Prater, R.

    1986-01-01

    The grating spectrometer installation on the DIII-D tokamak uses fundamental circular waveguide propagating the TE 11 lowest-order mode followed by oversized circular guide carrying the low-loss TE 01 mode. The short section of fundamental guide permits use of an electronic chopper operating at 100 kHz for both calibration and plasma operation. By using ac-coupled amplifiers tuned to the chopping frequency, the background signal generated in the indium antimonide detectors by neutrons and x rays is automatically subtracted and the system noise bandwidth is reduced. Compared with a quasi-optical system, the much smaller fundamental horn and front-end waveguide allow the waveguide system to be located outside a gate valve. With this configuration the entire waveguide run, including the actual horn and vacuum window used during plasma operations, can be included in the calibration setup

  16. Grating spectrometer installation for electron cyclotron emission measurements on the DIII-D tokamak using circular waveguide and synchronous detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Jahns, G.; Moeller, C.; Prater, R.

    1986-03-01

    The grating spectrometer installation on the DIII-D tokamak uses fundamental circular waveguide propagating the TE 11 lowest order mode followed by oversized circular guide carrying the low loss TE 01 mode. The short section of fundamental guide permits use of an electronic chopper operating at 100 kHz for both calibration and plasma operation. By using ac-coupled amplifiers tuned to the chopping frequency, the background signal generated in the indium antimonide detectors by neutrons and x-rays is automatically subtracted and the system noise bandwidth is reduced. Compared with a quasi-optical system, the much smaller fundamental horn and front end waveguide allow the waveguide system to be located outside a gate valve. With this configuration the entire waveguide run, including the actual horn and vacuum window used during plasma operations, can be included in the calibration set-up

  17. Gaining efficiency and resolution in soft X-ray emission spectrometers thanks to directly illuminated CCD detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dinardo, M.E.; Piazzalunga, A.; Braicovich, L.; Bisogni, V.; Dallera, C.; Giarda, K.; Marcon, M.; Tagliaferri, A.; Ghiringhelli, G.

    2007-01-01

    The back-illuminated charge coupled devices (CCD) are suitable for soft X-ray photon detection. Their nominal performances suggest that they can boost both efficiency and resolving power of X-ray spectrometers based on diffraction gratings and two-dimensional position sensitive detectors. We tested the performances of two commercially available CCDs, intended to replace a more traditional microchannel plate (MCP) detector. Our tests show that the devices have excellent performances in terms of dark current, response linearity, detection efficiency and spatial resolution. We observed that the CCDs have better efficiency (more than 10 times) and better resolution (∼3 times) than the MCP. Moreover we found an intrinsic limit for the spatial resolution, which is almost independent of the detector pixel size and is estimated around 25 μm

  18. Development of novel and sensitive methods for the determination of sulfide in aqueous samples by hydrogen sulfide generation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colon, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, J.L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Hidalgo, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain); Iglesias, M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Girona, Campus Montilivi, 17071 Girona (Spain)], E-mail: monica.iglesias@udg.es

    2008-02-25

    Two new, simple and accurate methods for the determination of sulfide (S{sup 2-}) at low levels ({mu}g L{sup -1}) in aqueous samples were developed. The generation of hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) took place in a coil where sulfide reacted with hydrochloric acid. The resulting H{sub 2}S was then introduced as a vapor into an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and sulfur emission intensity was measured at 180.669 nm. In comparison to when aqueous sulfide was introduced, the introduction of sulfur as H{sub 2}S enhanced the sulfur signal emission. By setting a gas separator at the end of the reaction coil, reduced sulfur species in the form of H{sub 2}S were removed from the water matrix, thus, interferences could be avoided. Alternatively, the gas separator was replaced by a nebulizer/spray chamber combination to introduce the sample matrix and reagents into the plasma. This methodology allowed the determination of both sulfide and sulfate in aqueous samples. For both methods the linear response was found to range from 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} to 25 mg L{sup -1} of sulfide. Detection limits of 5 {mu}g L{sup -1} and 6 {mu}g L{sup -1} were obtained with and without the gas separator, respectively. These new methods were evaluated by comparison to the standard potentiometric method and were successfully applied to the analysis of reduced sulfur species in environmental waters.

  19. A computational study on tuning the field emission and electronic properties of BN nanocones by impurity atom doping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, S.; Delir Kheirollahi Nezhad, P.; Hosseinian, A.; Vessally, E.

    2018-06-01

    We have inspected the effect of substituting a boron or nitrogen atom of a BN nanocone (BNNC) by two impurity atoms with lower and higher atomic numbers based on the density functional theory calculations. Our results explain the experimental observations in a molecular level. Orbital and partial density of states analyses show that the doping processes increase the electrical conductivity by creating new states within the gap of BNNC as follows: BeB > ON > CB > CN. The electron emission current from the surface of BNNC is improved after the CB and BeB dopings, and it is decreased by CN and ON dopings. The BeB and CN dopings make the BNNC a p-type semiconductor and the CB and ON dopings make it an n-type one in good agreement with the experimental results. The ON and BeB doping processes are suggested for the field emission current, and electrical conductivity enhancement, respectively.

  20. Multidimensional spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanni, Martin Thomas; Damrauer, Niels H.

    2010-07-20

    A multidimensional spectrometer for the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum, and a method for making multidimensional spectroscopic measurements in the infrared, visible, and ultraviolet regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The multidimensional spectrometer facilitates measurements of inter- and intra-molecular interactions.

  1. Atom-specific look at the surface chemical bond using x-ray emission spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsson, A.; Wassdahl, N.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    CO and N{sub 2} adsorbed on the late transition metals have become prototype systems regarding the general understanding of molecular adsorption. It is in general assumed that the bonding of molecules to transition metals can be explained in terms of the interaction of the frontier HOMO and LUMO molecular orbitals with the d-orbitals. In such a picture the other molecular orbitals should remain essentially the same as in the free molecule. For the adsorption of the isoelectronic molecules CO and N{sub 2} this has led to the so called Blyholder model i.e., a synergetic {sigma} (HOMO) donor and {pi} (LUMO) backdonation bond. The authors results at the ALS show that such a picture is oversimplified. The direct observation and identification of the states related to the surface chemical bond is an experimental challenge. For noble and transition metal surfaces, the adsorption induced states overlap with the metal d valence band. Their signature is therefore often obscured by bulk substrate states. This complication has made it difficult for techniques such as photoemission and inverse photoemission to provide reliable information on the energy of chemisorption induced states and has left questions unanswered regarding the validity of the frontier orbitals concept. Here the authors show how x-ray emission spectroscopy (XES), in spite of its inherent bulk sensitivity, can be used to investigate adsorbed molecules. Due to the localization of the core-excited intermediate state, XE spectroscopy allows an atomic specific separation of the valence electronic states. Thus the molecular contributions to the surface measurements make it possible to determine the symmetry of the molecular states, i.e., the separation of {pi} and {sigma} type states. In all the authors can obtain an atomic view of the electronic states involved in the formation of the chemical bond to the surface.

  2. Functional Enhancements in Used Oil Analysis Spectrometers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lukas, Malte

    1998-01-01

    Spark emission spectrometers using the rotating disk electrode (RDE) technique have become the workhorses and primary analytical tool of most machine condition monitoring programs based on oil analysis...

  3. Modification, calibration, and performance of the Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometer for particle size distribution and volatility measurements during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom airborne campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kupc

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosol is a key component of the chemistry and climate of the Earth's atmosphere. Accurate measurement of the concentration of atmospheric particles as a function of their size is fundamental to investigations of particle microphysics, optical characteristics, and chemical processes. We describe the modification, calibration, and performance of two commercially available, Ultra-High Sensitivity Aerosol Spectrometers (UHSASs as used on the NASA DC-8 aircraft during the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom. To avoid sample flow issues related to pressure variations during aircraft altitude changes, we installed a laminar flow meter on each instrument to measure sample flow directly at the inlet as well as flow controllers to maintain constant volumetric sheath flows. In addition, we added a compact thermodenuder operating at 300 °C to the inlet line of one of the instruments. With these modifications, the instruments are capable of making accurate (ranging from 7 % for Dp < 0.07 µm to 1 % for Dp > 0.13 µm, precise (< ±1.2 %, and continuous (1 Hz measurements of size-resolved particle number concentration over the diameter range of 0.063–1.0 µm at ambient pressures of > 1000 to 225 hPa, while simultaneously providing information on particle volatility.We assessed the effect of uncertainty in the refractive index (n of ambient particles that are sized by the UHSAS assuming the refractive index of ammonium sulfate (n =  1.52. For calibration particles with n between 1.44 and 1.58, the UHSAS diameter varies by +4/−10 % relative to ammonium sulfate. This diameter uncertainty associated with the range of refractive indices (i.e., particle composition translates to aerosol surface area and volume uncertainties of +8.4/−17.8 and +12.4/−27.5 %, respectively. In addition to sizing uncertainty, low counting statistics can lead to uncertainties of < 20 % for aerosol surface area and < 30

  4. Rapid prototyping of solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, sugar-cube size microplasma on hybrid, 3D chips for elemental analysis of liquid microsamples using a portable optical emission spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Karanassios, V.

    2012-06-01

    A solar-powered, battery-operated, atmospheric-pressure, self-igniting microplasma the size of a sugar-cube developed on a hybrid, 3d-chip is described. Rapid prototyping of the 3d-chip; some fundamental aspects and a brief characterization of its background spectral emission using a portable, fiber-optic spectrometer are discussed.

  5. Revisiting the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of magnesium with online inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirskiy, Viacheslav; King, Andrew D; Gharbi, Oumaïma; Volovitch, Polina; Scully, John R; Ogle, Kevin; Birbilis, Nick

    2015-02-23

    The electrochemical impedance of reactive metals such as magnesium is often complicated by an obvious inductive loop with decreasing frequency of the AC polarising signal. The characterisation and ensuing explanation of this phenomenon has been lacking in the literature to date, being either ignored or speculated. Herein, we couple electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with online atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) to simultaneously measure Mg-ion concentration and electrochemical impedance spectra during Mg corrosion, in real time. It is revealed that Mg dissolution occurs via Mg(2+) , and that corrosion is activated, as measured by AC frequencies less than approximately 1 Hz approaching DC conditions. The result of this is a higher rate of Mg(2+) dissolution, as the voltage excitation becomes slow enough to enable all Mg(2+) -enabling processes to adjust in real time. The manifestation of this in EIS data is an inductive loop. The rationalisation of such EIS behaviour, as it relates to Mg, is revealed for the first time by using concurrent AESEC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Light emission from sputtered or backscattered atoms on tungsten surfaces under ion irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Yasuhiro; Nogami, Keisuke; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Kenmotsu, Takahiko; Furuya, Kenji; Motohashi, Kenji

    2013-01-01

    We measured the intensity of light emission from sputtered atoms on tungsten surfaces under the irradiations of Kr"+ ion and Ar"+ ion, as a function of the perpendicular distance from the surface. Using the analysis of decay curve, we estimated the mean vertical velocity component in direction normal to the surface. We found that the estimated mean velocity had much differences according to the excited state. For example, although the estimated mean vertical velocity component normal to the surface from the 400.9 nm line((5d"5(6S)6p "7p_4→(5d"5(6S)6s "7S_3 transition) was 5.6±1.7 km/sec, that from the 386.8 nm line((5d"4(6S)6p "7D_4→(5d"5(6S)6s "7S_4 transition) was 2.8±1.0 km/sec. However, for different projectiles and energies, we found no remarkable changes in the velocity. (author)

  7. Inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry: trace elements in oil matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, Charlie Albert [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1977-12-01

    The simultaneous determination of up to 20 trace elements in various oil matrices by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry is reported. The oil matrices investigated were lubricating oils (for wear metals), fuel oil, centrifuged coal liquefaction product, crude soybean oil, and commercial edible oils. The samples were diluted with appropriate organic solvents and injected into the plasma as an aerosol generated by a pneumatic nebulization technique. Detection limits of the 28 elements studied ranged from 0.0006 to 9 μg/g with the majority falling in the 0.01 to 0.1 μg/g range. Analytical calibration curves were linear over at least two orders of magnitude and for some elements this linearity extended over 4.5 orders of magnitude. Relevant data on precision and accuracy are included. Because metals often occur as particles in lubricating oil and coal liquefaction products, the effect of particles on the analytical results was examined. Wear metal particles in used oil did not appear to affect the analytical results. However, incomplete recovery relative to organometallic reference solutions was obtained for iron particles with a nominal mean diameter of 3.0 μm suspended in oil. It was shown that the following factors contributed to incomplete recovery for the particles: settling of the suspended particles in the flask, a difference in nebulization efficiency between particle suspensions and organometallic solutions, and indications of incomplete vaporization of the larger particles in the plasma.

  8. Atomic emission spectroscopy for the on-line monitoring of incineration processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timmermans, E.A.H.; Groote, F.P.J. de; Jonkers, J.; Gamero, A.; Sola, A.; Mullen, J.J.A.M. van der

    2003-01-01

    A diagnostic measurement system based on atomic emission spectroscopy has been developed for the purpose of on-line monitoring of hazardous elements in industrial combustion gases. The aim was to construct a setup with a high durability for rough and variable experimental conditions, e.g. a strongly fluctuating gas composition, a high gas temperature and the presence of fly ash and corrosive effluents. Since the setup is primarily intended for the analysis of combustion gases with extremely high concentrations of pollutants, not much effort has been made to achieve low detection limits. It was found that an inductively coupled argon plasma was too sensitive to molecular gas introduction. Therefore, a microwave induced plasma torch, compromising both the demands of a high durability and an effective evaporation and excitation of the analyte was used as excitation source. The analysis system has been installed at an industrial hazardous waste incinerator and successfully tested on combustion gases present above the incineration process. Abundant elements as zinc, lead and sodium could be easily monitored

  9. Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric determination of tin in canned food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumitani, H; Suekane, S; Nakatani, A; Tatsuka, K

    1993-01-01

    Various canned foods were digested sequentially with HNO3 and HCl, diluted to 100 mL, and filtered, and then tin was determined by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP/AES). Samples of canned Satsuma mandarin, peach, apricot, pineapple, apple juice, mushroom, asparagus, evaporated milk, short-necked clam, spinach, whole tomato, meat, and salmon were evaluated. Sample preparations did not require time-consuming dilutions, because ICP/AES has wide dynamic range. The standard addition method was used to determine tin concentration. Accuracy of the method was tested by analyzing analytical standards containing tin at 2 levels (50 and 250 micrograms/g). The amounts of tin found for the 50 and 250 micrograms/g levels were 50.5 and 256 micrograms/g, respectively, and the repeatability coefficients of variation were 4.0 and 3.8%, respectively. Recovery of tin from 13 canned foods spiked at 2 levels (50 and 250 micrograms/g) ranged from 93.9 to 109.4%, with a mean of 99.2%. The quantitation limit for tin standard solution was about 0.5 microgram/g.

  10. Methods for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, George C. Y. [Bloomington, IN; Hieftje, Gary M [Bloomington, IN

    2010-08-03

    A method for detecting and correcting inaccurate results in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). ICP-AES analysis is performed across a plurality of selected locations in the plasma on an unknown sample, collecting the light intensity at one or more selected wavelengths of one or more sought-for analytes, creating a first dataset. The first dataset is then calibrated with a calibration dataset creating a calibrated first dataset curve. If the calibrated first dataset curve has a variability along the location within the plasma for a selected wavelength, errors are present. Plasma-related errors are then corrected by diluting the unknown sample and performing the same ICP-AES analysis on the diluted unknown sample creating a calibrated second dataset curve (accounting for the dilution) for the one or more sought-for analytes. The cross-over point of the calibrated dataset curves yields the corrected value (free from plasma related errors) for each sought-for analyte.

  11. Determination of methylmercury in fish tissue by gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmieri, H.E.L.; Leonel, L.V. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear - Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    2000-03-01

    The detection of methylmercury species (MeHg) in fish tissue was investigated. Samples were digested with KOH-methanol and acidified prior to extraction with methylene chloride. MeHg was back-extracted from the organic phase into water. An aliquot of this aqueous solution (buffered to pH 5) was subjected to derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh{sub 4}) and then extracted with toluene. The organic phase containing MePhHg was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) which is on-line with a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MIP-AED). The quantification limit was about 0.6 {mu}g/g and 0.1 {mu}g/g of MeHg (as Hg) for 0.08 g of freeze-dried fish powder and 0.5 g of fresh samples, respectively. Two certified reference materials, CRM 464 (tuna fish) from Community Bureau of Reference-BCR and DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) from National Research Council Canada-NRC were selected for checking the accuracy of the method. This methodology was applied to the determination of MeHg in some kinds of fish from the Carmo river with alluvial gold recovery activities (''garimpos'') in Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil. (orig.)

  12. Determination of methylmercury in fish tissue by gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry after derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, H E; Leonel, L V

    2000-03-01

    The detection of methylmercury species (MeHg) in fish tissue was investigated. Samples were digested with KOH-methanol and acidified prior to extraction with methylene chloride. MeHg was back-extracted from the organic phase into water. An aliquot of this aqueous solution (buffered to pH 5) was subjected to derivatization with sodium tetraphenylborate (NaBPh4) and then extracted with toluene. The organic phase containing MePhHg was injected into a gas chromatograph (GC) which is on-line with a microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometer (MIP-AED). The quantification limit was about 0.6 microg/g and 0.1 microg/g of MeHg (as Hg) for 0.08 g of freeze-dried fish powder and 0.5 g of fresh samples, respectively. Two certified reference materials, CRM 464 (tuna fish) from Community Bureau of Reference-BCR and DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) from National Research Council Canada-NRC were selected for checking the accuracy of the method. This methodology was applied to the determination of MeHg in some kinds of fish from the Carmo river with alluvial gold recovery activities ("garimpos") in Mariana, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

  13. Detection of formaldehyde emissions from an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta region of China using a proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Diao, Yiwei; Zhang, Bingjie; Wang, Weiwei; Ren, Xinrong; Yang, Dongsen; Wang, Ming; Shi, Xiaowen; Zheng, Jun

    2016-12-01

    A proton transfer reaction ion-drift chemical ionization mass spectrometer (PTR-ID-CIMS) equipped with a hydronium (H3+O) ion source was developed and deployed near an industrial zone in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region of China in spring 2015 to investigate industry-related emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Air pollutants including formaldehyde (HCHO), aromatics, and other trace gases (O3 and CO) were simultaneously measured. Humidity effects on the sensitivity of the PTR-ID-CIMS for HCHO detection were investigated and quantified. The performances of the PTR-ID-CIMS were also validated by intercomparing with offline HCHO measurement technique using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazone (DNPH) cartridges and the results showed fairly good agreement (slope = 0.81, R2 = 0.80). The PTR-ID-CIMS detection limit of HCHO (10 s, three-duty-cycle averages) was determined to be 0.9-2.4 (RH = 1-81.5 %) parts per billion by volume (ppbv) based on 3 times the standard deviations of the background signals. During the field study, observed HCHO concentrations ranged between 1.8 and 12.8 ppbv with a campaign average of 4.1 ± 1.6 ppbv, which was comparable with previous HCHO observations in other similar locations of China. However, HCHO diurnal profiles showed few features of secondary formation. In addition, time series of both HCHO and aromatic VOCs indicated strong influence from local emissions. Using a multiple linear regression fit model, on average the observed HCHO can be attributed to secondary formation (13.8 %), background level (27.0 %), and industry-related emissions, i.e., combustion sources (43.2 %) and chemical productions (16.0 %). Moreover, within the plumes the industry-related emissions can account for up to 69.2 % of the observed HCHO. This work has provided direct evidence of strong primary emissions of HCHO from industry-related activities. These primary HCHO sources can potentially have a strong impact on local and regional air pollution formation

  14. Determination of trace elements in Egyptian cane sugar (Deshna Factories) by neutron activation, atomic absorption spectrophotometric and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awadallah, R.M.; Sherif, M.K.; Mohamed, A.E.; Grass, F.

    1986-01-01

    Multielement instrumental neutron activation (INAA), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometric (ICP-AES) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analyses were utilized for the determination of Ag, Al, As, Au, Ba, Be, Br, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cu, Eu, Fe, Ga, Hf, K, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nb, Ni, P, Pb, Sb, Sc, Se, Sm, Sn, Sr, Ta, Th, Ti, U, V, W and Zn in sugar cane plant, raw juice, juice in different stages, syrup, deposits, molasses, A, B and C sugar, refinery 1 and 2 sugar, and in soil samples picked up from the immediate vicinity of the cane plant roots at surface, 30 and 60 cm depth, respectively. (author)

  15. Study of interferences in the atomic - absorption and emission of barium in nitrous oxide/acetylene flame

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Curtius, A.J.; Couto, M.I.

    1979-01-01

    The interferences of several ions that are present in oifield water and sea water in the atomic absorption and emission of barium were investigated. It was verified that the interferences of sodium, potassium, calcium, strontium and chloride are the most important. The indirect method for the determination of sulfate by measuring barium by atomic absorption after precipitating barium sulfate with an excess of barium chloride, should not be used for highly salted matrix. To avoid the interferences that are not compensated by an ionization supressor, the measurement of barium by the standard addition method or a previous sulfate separation is recommended. (Author) [pt

  16. Tunable Reflective Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer: A Technique for High Resolving Power, Wide Field Of View Observation Of Diffuse Emission Line Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Seyedeh Sona

    The purpose of this dissertation is to discuss the need for new technology in broadband high-resolution spectroscopy based on the emerging technique of Spatial Heterodyne Spectroscopy (SHS) and to propose new solutions that should enhance and generalize this technology to other fields. Spectroscopy is a proven tool for determining compositional and other properties of remote objects. Narrow band imaging and low resolving spectroscopic measurements provide information about composition, photochemical evolution, energy distribution and density. The extension to high resolving power provides further access to temperature, velocity, isotopic ratios, separation of blended sources, and opacity effects. In current high resolving power devices, the drawback of high-resolution spectroscopy is bound to the instrumental limitations of lower throughput, the necessity of small entrance apertures, sensitivity, field of view, and large physical instrumental size. These limitations quickly become handicapping for observation of faint and/or extended targets and for spacecraft encounters. A technique with promise for the study of faint and extended sources at high resolving power is the reflective format of the Spatial Heterodyne Spectrometer (SHS). SHS instruments are compact and naturally tailored for both high etendue (defined in section 2.2.5) and high resolving power. In contrast, to achieve similar spectral grasp, grating spectrometers require large telescopes. For reference, SHS is a cyclical interferometer that produces Fizeau fringe pattern for all other wavelengths except the tuned wavelength. The large etendue obtained by SHS instruments makes them ideal for observations of extended, low surface brightness, isolated emission line sources, while their intrinsically high spectral resolution enables one to study the dynamical and physical properties described above. This document contains four chapters. Chapter 1, introduces a class of scientific targets that formerly have

  17. Determination of the elemental composition of cyanobacteria cells and cell fractions by atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sedykh, Eh.M.; Lyabusheva, O.A.; Bannykh, L.N.; Tambiev, A.Kh.

    2005-01-01

    An approach to studying the elemental composition of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc commune using a set of complementary analytical methods (ICP-AES, PAAS, and ETAAS) was proposed . The procedures were adapted for the determination of macro- and microelements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, B, and Se) in the biomass of cyanobacteria and separated cell fractions (chloroform and water-methanol extracts and precipitates). The conditions for the mineralization of biological materials were optimized for autoclave and microwave sample preparation procedures. The evaporation and atomization of Se and Mo in a graphite furnace in the presence of chloroform and methanol were studied [ru

  18. Efficacy of using multiple open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers in an odor emission episode investigation at a semiconductor manufacturing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu; Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu; Hwang, Yaw-Huei

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring. - Research highlights: → To conduct multi

  19. Efficacy of using multiple open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers in an odor emission episode investigation at a semiconductor manufacturing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsao, Yung-Chieh; Wu, Chang-Fu [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (China); Chang, Pao-Erh; Chen, Shin-Yu [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu City 310, Taiwan 310 (China); Hwang, Yaw-Huei, E-mail: yhhwang@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, National Taiwan University College of Public Health, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei City 100, Taiwan (China)

    2011-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of simultaneously employing three open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectrometers with 3-day consecutive monitoring, using an odor episode as an example. The corresponding monitoring paths were allocated among the possible emission sources of a semiconductor manufacturing plant and the surrounding optoelectronic and electronic-related factories, which were located in a high-tech industrial park. There was a combined total odor rate of 43.9% for the three monitoring paths, each comprised of 736 continuous 5-minute monitoring records and containing detectable odor compounds, such as ammonia, ozone, butyl acetate, and propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA). The results of the logistic regression model indicated that the prevailing south wind and the OP-FTIR monitoring path closest to the emission source in down-wind direction resulted in a high efficacy for detecting odorous samples with odds ratios (OR) of 3.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.9-5.0) and 5.1 (95% CI: 3.6-7.2), respectively. Meanwhile, the odds ratio for detecting ammonia odorous samples was 7.5 for Path II, which was downwind closer to the possible source, as compared to Path III, downwind far away from the possible source. PGMEA could not be monitored at Path II but could be at Path III, indicating the importance of the monitoring path and flow ejection velocities inside the stacks on the monitoring performance of OP-FTIR. Besides, an odds ratio of 5.1 for odorous sample detection was obtained with south prevailing wind comprising 65.0% of the monitoring time period. In general, it is concluded that OP-FTIR operated with multiple paths simultaneously shall be considered for investigation on relatively complicated episodes such as emergency of chemical release, multiple-source emission and chemical monitoring for odor in a densely populated plant area to enhance the efficacy of OP-FTIR monitoring. - Research highlights: {yields} To conduct

  20. Biological Particle Emissions From a South-East Asian Tropical Rainforest Using a Real- Time Dual Channel UV Fluorescence Bio-Aerosol Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabey, A.; Coe, H.; Gallagher, M.; McFiggans, G.; Kaye, P.; Stanley, W.; Foot, V.

    2008-12-01

    and net emission for all fungal spores is ~1 μ g m-3 and ~50 Tg yr-1. These calculations demonstrate the potential importance of PBA, and in particular fungal spores, for global budgets of organic aerosols, particularly in tropical regions, however uncertainties are extremely large, ranging from 50 - 1000 Tg yr- 1. In this study we use the WIBS-3: a low-cost portable single-particle dual-channel UV fluorescence spectrometer (Kaye et al., 2008) to investigate the dynamics of PBA in real-time within and above a tropical forest of 50 m height in Borneo, Malaysia, to estimate net PBA emissions. Different circadian cycles were observed for bio and non-bio aerosol sources and the factors controlling bioaerosol emissions will be discussed in detail.

  1. Modification and control of the spontaneous emission from an M-type atom embedded in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Lue Xinyou

    2011-01-01

    We describe the spontaneous emission properties of an M-type five-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal (PC), which is coherently driven by two external laser fields. It leads to two types of quantum interference: reservoir-induced interference and laser-induced interference. Considering different detunings of atomic transition frequencies from band edges, we reveal some interesting phenomena such as spectral-line enhancement, spectral-line suppression, spectral-line narrowing, reservoir-induced cancellation of spontaneous emission and the appearance of dark lines, which originate from the quantum interference effects and the control of external laser fields. These investigations suggest possible applications in quantum optics, optical communications and in the fabrication of novel optoelectronic devices.

  2. Metastable argon atom density in complex argon/acetylene plasmas determined by means of optical absorption and emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sushkov, Vladimir; Herrendorf, Ann-Pierra; Hippler, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    Optical emission and absorption spectroscopy has been utilized to investigate the instability of acetylene-containing dusty plasmas induced by growing nano-particles. The density of Ar(1s 5 ) metastable atoms was derived by two methods: tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy and with the help of the branching ratio method of emitted spectral lines. Results of the two techniques agree well with each other. The density of Ar(1s 3 ) metastable atoms was also measured by means of optical emission spectroscopy. The observed growth instability leads to pronounced temporal variations of the metastable and other excited state densities. An analysis of optical line ratios provides evidence for a depletion of free electrons during the growth cycle but no indication for electron temperature variations. (paper)

  3. Development of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry for palladium and Rhodium determination in platinum-based alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kovacevic, R.; Todorovic, M.; Manojlovic, D.; Mutic, J.

    2008-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy with internal standardization was applied for the analysis of an in-house reference platinum alloy containing palladium and rhodium (approximately 5% by weight). In order to compensate for variations in signal recovery due to matrix interferences, and therefore to improve the precision, platinum. the major component, was chosen as an internal standard. Quantitative analysis was based on calibration using a set of matrix-matched calibration standards with and without employing the internal standard. These results were compared with those obtained by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The results for both techniques were in a good agreement, although the precision was slightly better in the inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique, with or without the internal standard

  4. Elemental analysis using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry: a comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Yong Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon; Moon, Jong Hwa; Kim, Sun Ha; Lim, Jong Myoung; Kim, Young Jin; Quraishi, Shamshad Begum

    2003-05-01

    Elemental analyses for certified reference materials were carried out using instrumental neutron activation analysis and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Five Certified Reference Materials (CRM) were selected for the study on comparative analysis of environmental samples. The CRM are Soil (NIST SRM 2709), Coal fly ash (NIST SRM 1633a), urban dust (NIST SRM 1649a) and air particulate on filter media (NIST SRM 2783 and human hair (GBW 09101)

  5. Simultaneous determination of Cr, Ga, In and V in soil and water samples by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donati, George L.; Kron, Benjamin E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)], E-mail: jonesbt@wfu.edu

    2009-06-15

    Tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry is employed for the simultaneous determination of Cr, Ga, In, and V. Both V and In are detected by this technique for the first time. The atomizer is a simple, inexpensive tungsten filament extracted from a mass-produced, commercially-available 150 W, 15 V microscope bulb. A 25 {mu}l sample aliquot is placed directly on the coil and a small constant-current power source is used to carefully dry, ash and atomize the sample. Analytical signals are detected with a Czerny-Turner spectrograph and a charge coupled device detector. Multiple emission lines from all 4 elements are monitored simultaneously in a 54 nm spectral window. Concentration limits of detection are in the {mu}g l{sup - 1} range for all elements, and the absolute limits of detection are 0.2, 2, 0.5, and 10 ng for Cr, Ga, In, and V, respectively. Even lower values may be obtained by combining the signals for the multiple emission lines of a single element. The method precision is typically better than 5.0% relative standard deviation, and sometimes as good as 0.95% (Ga). Standard reference materials of soil and water are used to check the method accuracy. After a simple acid extraction, the values determined by the method presented no significant difference from the reported values at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Projectile X-ray emission in relativistic ion-atom collisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salem, Shadi Mohammad Ibrahim

    2010-03-16

    This work reports on the study of the projectile X-ray emission in relativistic ion-atom collisions. Excitation of K-shell in He-like uranium ions, electron capture into H-like uranium ions and Simultaneous ionization and excitation of initially He-like uranium ions have been studied using the experimental storage ring at GSI. For the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} and K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} transitions originating from the excitation of the He-like uranium ions, no alignment was observed. In contrast, the Ly{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} radiation from the simultaneous ionization-excitation process of the He-like uranium ions shows a clear alignment. The experimental value leads to the inclusion of a magnetic term in the interaction potential. The capture process of target electrons into the highly-charged heavy ions was studied using H-like uranium ions at an incident energy of 220 MeV/u, impinging on N{sub 2} gas-target. It was shown that, the strongly aligned electrons captured in 2p{sub 3/2} level couple with the available 1s{sub 1/2} electron which shows no initial directional preference. The magnetic sub-state population of the 2p{sub 3/2} electron is redistributed according to the coupling rules to the magnetic sub-states of the relevant two-electron states. This leads to the large anisotropy in the corresponding individual ground state transitions contributing to the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} emission. From the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1}/K{sub {alpha}}{sub 2} ratio, the current results show that the incoherent addition of the E1 and M2 transition components yield to an almost isotropic emission of the total K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1}. In contrast to the radiative electron capture, the experimental results for the K-shell single excitation of He-like uranium ions indicate that only the {sup 1}P{sub 1} level contributes to the K{sub {alpha}}{sub 1} transition. For this case, the anisotropy parameter {beta}{sub 20} was found to be -0.20{+-}0.03. This work also reports on the study of a two

  7. Building and analyzing models from data by stirred tank experiments for investigation of matrix effects caused by inorganic matrices and selection of internal standards in Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grotti, Marco [Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, Via Dodecaneso 31, 16146 Genova (Italy)], E-mail: grotti@chimica.unige.it; Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador; Todoli, Jose Luis [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, Universidad de Alicante, 03080, Alicante (Spain)

    2008-05-15

    Interfering effects caused by inorganic matrices (inorganic acids as well as easily ionized elements) in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy have been modeled by regression analysis of experimental data obtained using the 'stirred tank method'. The main components of the experimental set-up were a magnetically-stirred container and two peristaltic pumps. In this way the matrix composition was gradually and automatically varied, while the analyte concentration remained unchanged throughout the experiment. An inductively coupled plasma spectrometer with multichannel detection based on coupled charge device was used to simultaneously measure the emission signal at several wavelengths when the matrix concentration was modified. Up to 50 different concentrations were evaluated in a period of time of 10 min. Both single interfering species (nitric, hydrochloric and sulphuric acids, sodium and calcium) and different mixtures (aqua regia, sulfonitric mixture, sodium-calcium mixture and sodium-nitric acid mixture) were investigated. The dependence of the emission signal on acid concentration was well-fitted by logarithmic models. Conversely, for the easily ionized elements, 3-order polynomial models were more suitable to describe the trends. Then, the coefficients of these models were used as 'signatures' of the matrix-related signal variations and analyzed by principal component analysis. Similarities and differences among the emission lines were highlighted and discussed, providing a new insight into the interference phenomena, mainly with regards to the combined effect of concomitants. The combination of the huge amount of data obtained by the stirred tank method in a short period of time and the speed of analysis of principal component analysis provided a judicious means for the selection of the optimal internal standard in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy.

  8. Measuring the energies and multiplicities of prompt gamma-ray emissions from neutron-induced fission of $^{235}$U using the STEFF spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2093036; Smith, Alastair Gavin; Wright, Tobias James

    Following a NEA high priority nuclear data request, an experimental campaign to measure the prompt $\\gamma$-ray emissions from $^{235}$U has been performed. This has used the STEFF spectrometer at the new Experimental Area 2 (EAR2) within the neutron timeof-flight facility (n_TOF), a white neutron source facility at CERN with energies from thermal to approximately 1 GeV. Prior to the experimental campaign, STEFF has been optimised for the environment of EAR2. The experimental hall features a high background $\\gamma$-ray rate, due to the nature of the spallation neutron source. Thus an investigation into reduction of the background $\\gamma$-ray rate, encountered by the NaI(Tl) detector array of STEFF, has been carried out. This has been via simulations using the simulation package FLUKA. Various materials and shielding geometries have been investigated but the effects determined to be insufficient in reducing the background rate by a meaningful amount. The NaI(Tl) detectors have been modified to improve their ...

  9. HISS spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greiner, D.E.

    1984-11-01

    This talk describes the Heavy Ion Spectrometer System (HISS) facility at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Bevalac. Three completed experiments and their results are illustrated. The second half of the talk is a detailed discussion of the response of drift chambers to heavy ions. The limitations of trajectory measurement over a large range in incident particle charge are presented

  10. Spectrometer gun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waechter, David A.; Wolf, Michael A.; Umbarger, C. John

    1985-01-01

    A hand-holdable, battery-operated, microprocessor-based spectrometer gun includes a low-power matrix display and sufficient memory to permit both real-time observation and extended analysis of detected radiation pulses. Universality of the incorporated signal processing circuitry permits operation with various detectors having differing pulse detection and sensitivity parameters.

  11. Analytical applications of atomic spectroscopy, with particular reference to inductively coupled plasma emission analysis of coal and fly ash

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pougnet, M.A.B.

    1983-08-01

    This thesis outlines the analytical applications of atomic emission and absorption spectroscopy to a variety of materials. Special attention was directed to the analysis of coal and coal ashes. A simple slurry sampling technique was developed and used to determine V, Ni, Co, Mo and Mn in the National Bureau of Standards Standard Reference Materials (NBS-SRM) coals 1632a and 1635 by furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS). Coal and fly ash were analysed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The determination of B, Be, Li, C, K and other trace elements by ICP-AES was investigated. Analytical methods were developed for the analysis of coal, fly ash and water samples. Fusion with sodium carbonate and a digestion bomb dissolution method were compared for the determination of boron in a South African boron-rich mineral (Kornerupine). Eight elements were determined in 10 industrial water samples from a power plant. Ca, Mg, Si and B were determined by ICP-AES and V, Ni, Co and Mo by FAAS. Various problems encountered during the course of the work and interferences in ICP-AES analysis are discussed. Some recommendations concerning method development and routine analysis by this technique are suggested

  12. Search for Fermi shuttle mechanisms in electron emission from atomic collision sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez, S.; Jung, M.; Rothard, H.; Schosnig, M.; Maier, R.; Clouvas, A.; Groeneveld, K.O.

    1994-01-01

    In electron spectra induced by slow heavy ion bombardment of solids a high energy tail can be observed, which is suggested to be explained by multiple collision sequences. In order to find those multiple collision effects like the ''Fermi shuttle'' acceleration mechanism we measured doubly differential electron emission cross sections for H + (33.5-700 keV) impact on different targets (He, Ne, C and Au) as a function of projectile energy and electron emission angle. We observed a surprising target dependence of the electron emission within the range of electron energies close to that of the binary encounter electrons for all observed angles of emission. (orig.)

  13. Surface and electron emission properties of hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon films investigated by atomic force microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Dongping; Zhang, Sam; Ong, S.-E.; Benstetter, Guenther; Du Hejun

    2006-01-01

    In this study, we have deposited hydrogen-free diamond-like carbon (DLC) films by using DC magnetron sputtering of graphite target at various r.f. bias voltages. Surface and nanoscale emission properties of these DLC films have been investigated using a combination of atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanowear tests and conducting-AFM, by simultaneously measuring the topography and the conductivity of the samples. Nanowear tests show that these DLC films are covered with the thin (1.5-2.0 nm) graphite-like layers at surfaces. Compared to the film bulk structure, the graphite-like surface layers are more conductive. The graphite-like surface layers significantly influence the electron emission properties of these films. Low-energy carbon species can be responsible for the formation of graphite-like surface layers. Nanoscale electron emission measurements have revealed the inhomogeneous emission nature of these films. The low-field emission from these films can be attributed to the existence of sp 2 -configured nanoclusters inside the films

  14. Flagging and correcting non-spectral matrix interferences with spatial emission profiles and gradient dilution in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Yan; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2015-01-01

    Matrix interference remains one of the most daunting challenges commonly encountered in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the present study, a method is described that enables identification and correction of matrix interferences in axial-viewed ICP-AES through a combination of spatial mapping and on-line gradient dilution. Cross-sectional emission maps of the plasma are used to indicate the presence of non-spectral (plasma-related and sample-introduction-related) matrix interferences. In particular, apparent concentrations of an analyte species determined at various radial locations in the plasma differ in the presence of a matrix interference, which allows the interference to be flagged. To correct for the interference, progressive, on-line dilution of the sample, performed by a gradient high-performance liquid-chromatograph pump, is utilized. The spatially dependent intensities of analyte emission are monitored at different levels of sample dilution. As the dilution proceeds, the matrix-induced signal variation is reduced. At a dilution where the determined concentrations become independent of location in the plasma, the matrix interference is minimized. - Highlights: • Non-spectral matrix interference in ICP-AES is flagged and minimized. • Emission from different locations of the plasma are collected simultaneously. • Spatially dependent determined concentrations indicate the presence of interference. • Gradient dilution is performed on both calibration standards and sample. • Optimal dilution factor to minimize interference is found as dilution increases

  15. Flagging and correcting non-spectral matrix interferences with spatial emission profiles and gradient dilution in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Yan; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M., E-mail: hieftje@indiana.edu

    2015-08-01

    Matrix interference remains one of the most daunting challenges commonly encountered in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). In the present study, a method is described that enables identification and correction of matrix interferences in axial-viewed ICP-AES through a combination of spatial mapping and on-line gradient dilution. Cross-sectional emission maps of the plasma are used to indicate the presence of non-spectral (plasma-related and sample-introduction-related) matrix interferences. In particular, apparent concentrations of an analyte species determined at various radial locations in the plasma differ in the presence of a matrix interference, which allows the interference to be flagged. To correct for the interference, progressive, on-line dilution of the sample, performed by a gradient high-performance liquid-chromatograph pump, is utilized. The spatially dependent intensities of analyte emission are monitored at different levels of sample dilution. As the dilution proceeds, the matrix-induced signal variation is reduced. At a dilution where the determined concentrations become independent of location in the plasma, the matrix interference is minimized. - Highlights: • Non-spectral matrix interference in ICP-AES is flagged and minimized. • Emission from different locations of the plasma are collected simultaneously. • Spatially dependent determined concentrations indicate the presence of interference. • Gradient dilution is performed on both calibration standards and sample. • Optimal dilution factor to minimize interference is found as dilution increases.

  16. Data correlation in on-line solid-phase extraction-gas chromatography-atomic emission/mass spectrometric detection of unknown microcontaminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hankemeier, Th.; Rozenbrand, J.; Abhadur, M.; Vreuls, J.J.; Brinkman, U.A.Th.

    1998-01-01

    A procedure is described for the (non-target) screening of hetero-atom-containing compounds in tap and waste water by correlating data obtained by gas chromatography (GC) using atomic emission (AED) and mass selective (MS) detection. Solid-phase extraction (SPE) was coupled on-line to both GC

  17. Fast Excitation and Photon Emission of a Single-Atom-Cavity System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bochmann, J.; Muecke, M.; Langfahl-Klabes, G.; Erbel, C.; Weber, B.; Specht, H. P.; Moehring, D. L.; Rempe, G.

    2008-01-01

    We report on the fast excitation of a single atom coupled to an optical cavity using laser pulses that are much shorter than all other relevant processes. The cavity frequency constitutes a control parameter that allows the creation of single photons in a superposition of two tunable frequencies. Each photon emitted from the cavity thus exhibits a pronounced amplitude modulation determined by the oscillatory energy exchange between the atom and the cavity. Our technique constitutes a versatile tool for future quantum networking experiments

  18. Influence of asymmetries in the magnetic draping pattern at Titan on the emission of energetic neutral atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabanovic, Slawa; Feyerabend, Moritz; Simon, Sven; Meeks, Zachary; Wulms, Veit

    2018-03-01

    We model the emission of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) that are generated by the interaction between energetic ions from Saturn's magnetosphere and neutrals from the upper atmosphere of the giant planet's largest moon Titan. The trajectories of the parent ions and the resulting ENA emission morphology are highly sensitive to the electromagnetic field configuration near the moon. We therefore compare the ENA emission pattern for spatially homogeneous fields to the emission obtained from a magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) and a hybrid (kinetic ions, fluid electrons) model of Titan's magnetospheric interaction, by computing the trajectories of several billion energetic test particles. While the MHD model takes into account the draping of the magnetic field lines around Titan, the hybrid approach also considers the significant asymmetries in the electromagnetic fields due to the large gyroradii of pick-up ions from Titan's ionosphere. In all three models, the upstream parameters correspond to the conditions during Cassini's TA flyby of Titan. The shape, magnitude, and location of the ENA emission maxima vary considerably between these three field configurations. The magnetic pile-up region at Titan's ramside deflects a large number of the energetic parent ions, thereby reducing the ENA flux. However, the draped magnetic field lines in Titan's lobes rotate the gyration planes of the incident energetic ions, thereby facilitating the observable ENA production. Overall, the ENA flux calculated for the MHD model is weaker than the emission obtained for the electromagnetic fields from the hybrid code. In addition, we systematically investigate the dependency of the ENA emission morphology on the energy of the parent ions and on the upstream magnetic field strength.

  19. Atomic parity violation in heavy alkalis: detection by stimulated emission for cesium and traps for cold francium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguinetti, St

    2004-07-01

    The present work deals with the recent advances of atomic spectroscopy experiments on cesium and francium, which aim at precise parity violation (PV) measurements in these atoms. Within the framework of a 'double-badged thesis', the candidate devoted himself on the one hand to the preliminary PV measurement (8% accuracy) of the present Cs experiment at the Kastler-Brossel laboratory in Paris and on the other hand to the preparation of a Fr radioactive atomic sample (production and trapping) at the LNL (INFN) in Italy. The two experiments are at very different stages. The measurements reported for cesium were actually made possible thanks to the work initiated in 1991, for the PV detection by stimulated emission. The Italian experiment is instead in a beginning stage: in order to probe the properties of francium, which is unstable, a number of atoms large enough has to be first produced and collected. The PV schemes which proved to be well suited for cesium are a solid starting point for the case of francium. (author)

  20. Non-Contact Measurement of the Spectral Emissivity through Active/Passive Synergy of CO2 Laser at 10.6 µm and 102F FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared) Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ren-Hua; Su, Hong-Bo; Tian, Jing; Mi, Su-Juan; Li, Zhao-Liang

    2016-01-01

    In the inversion of land surface temperature (LST) from satellite data, obtaining the information on land surface emissivity is most challenging. How to solve both the emissivity and the LST from the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation is a hot research topic related to quantitative thermal infrared remote sensing. The academic research and practical applications based on the temperature-emissivity retrieval algorithms show that directly measuring the emissivity of objects at a fixed thermal infrared waveband is an important way to close the underdetermined equations for thermal infrared radiation. Based on the prior research results of both the authors and others, this paper proposes a new approach of obtaining the spectral emissivity of the object at 8–14 µm with a single-band CO2 laser at 10.6 µm and a 102F FTIR spectrometer. Through experiments, the spectral emissivity of several key samples, including aluminum plate, iron plate, copper plate, marble plate, rubber sheet, and paper board, at 8–14 µm is obtained, and the measured data are basically consistent with the hemispherical emissivity measurement by a Nicolet iS10 FTIR spectrometer for the same objects. For the rough surface of materials, such as marble and rusty iron, the RMSE of emissivity is below 0.05. The differences in the field of view angle and in the measuring direction between the Nicolet FTIR method and the method proposed in the paper, and the heterogeneity in the degree of oxidation, polishing and composition of the samples, are the main reasons for the differences of the emissivities between the two methods. PMID:27347964

  1. Background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering and X-ray emission spectroscopy. A study for Johann-type spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paredes Mellone, O. A.; Bianco, L. M.; Ceppi, S. A.; Goncalves Honnicke, M.; Stutz, G. E.

    2018-06-01

    A study of the background radiation in inelastic X-ray scattering (IXS) and X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) based on an analytical model is presented. The calculation model considers spurious radiation originated from elastic and inelastic scattering processes along the beam paths of a Johann-type spectrometer. The dependence of the background radiation intensity on the medium of the beam paths (air and helium), analysed energy and radius of the Rowland circle was studied. The present study shows that both for IXS and XES experiments the background radiation is dominated by spurious radiation owing to scattering processes along the sample-analyser beam path. For IXS experiments the spectral distribution of the main component of the background radiation shows a weak linear dependence on the energy for the most cases. In the case of XES, a strong non-linear behaviour of the background radiation intensity was predicted for energy analysis very close to the backdiffraction condition, with a rapid increase in intensity as the analyser Bragg angle approaches π / 2. The contribution of the analyser-detector beam path is significantly weaker and resembles the spectral distribution of the measured spectra. Present results show that for usual experimental conditions no appreciable structures are introduced by the background radiation into the measured spectra, both in IXS and XES experiments. The usefulness of properly calculating the background profile is demonstrated in a background subtraction procedure for a real experimental situation. The calculation model was able to simulate with high accuracy the energy dependence of the background radiation intensity measured in a particular XES experiment with air beam paths.

  2. Analysis of the summertime buildup of tropospheric ozone abundances over the Middle East and North Africa as observed by the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jane J.; Jones, Dylan B. A.; Worden, John R.; Noone, David; Parrington, Mark; Kar, Jay

    2009-03-01

    We use the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model to interpret observations of tropospheric ozone from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite instrument in summer 2005. Observations from TES reveal elevated ozone in the middle troposphere (500-400 hPa) across North Africa and the Middle East. Observed ozone abundances in the middle troposphere are at a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter, consistent with the previously predicted summertime "Middle East ozone maximum." This summertime enhancement in ozone is associated with the Arabian and Sahara anticyclones, centered over the Zagros and Atlas Mountains, respectively. These anticyclones isolate the middle troposphere over northeast Africa and the Middle East, with westerlies to the north and easterlies to the south, facilitating the buildup of ozone. Over the Middle East, we find that in situ production and transport from Asia provides comparable contributions of 30-35% to the ozone buildup. Over North Africa, in situ production is dominant (at about 20%), with transport from Asia, North America, and equatorial Africa each contributing about 10-15% to the total ozone. We find that although the eastern Mediterranean is characterized by strong descent in the middle and upper troposphere in summer, transport from the boundary layer accounts for about 25% of the local Middle Eastern contribution to the ozone enhancement in the middle troposphere. This upward transport of boundary layer air is associated with orographic lifting along the Zagros Mountains in Iran and the Asir and Hijaz Mountain ranges in Saudi Arabia, and is consistent with TES observations of deuterated water.

  3. Transition probabilities for lines of Cr II, Na II and Sb I by laser produced plasma atomic emission spectroscopy; Probabilidades de transicion de algunos niveles de Cr II, Na II y Sb I medediante espectroscopia de plasma producidos por laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, A. M.; Ortiz, M.; Campos, J.

    1995-07-01

    Absolute transition probabilities for lines of CR II, Na II and Sb I were determined by emission spectroscopy of laser induced plasmas. the plasma was produced focusing the emission of a pulsed Nd-Yag laser on solid samples containing the atom in study. the light arising from the plasma region was collected by and spectrometer. the detector used was a time-resolved optical multichannel analyzer (OMA III EG and G). The wavelengths of the measured transitions range from 2000 sto 4100 A. The spectral resolution of the system was 0. 2 A. The method can be used in insulators materials as Cl Na crystals and in metallic samples as Al-Cr and Sn-Sn alloys. to avoid self-absorption effects the alloys were made with low Sb or Cr content. Relative transition probabilities have been determined from measurements of emission-line intensities and were placed on an absolute scale by using, where possible, accurate experimental lifetime values form the literature or theoretical data. From these measurements, values for plasma temperature (8000-24000 K), electron densities ({approx}{approx} 10''16 cm ''-3) and self-absorption coefficients have been obtained. (Author) 56 refs.

  4. The Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    In the fall of 1999 I was shown an Ocean Optics spectrometer-in-the-computer at St. Patricks College at Maynooth, Ireland, and thought that I had seen heaven. Of course, it could not resolve the sodium D-lines (I had done that many years before with a homemade wire diffraction grating), and I began to realize that inside was some familiar old…

  5. A separation method to overcome the interference of aluminium on zinc determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Jesus, Djane S. de; Korn, Maria das Graças Andrade; Ferreira, Sergio Luis Costa; Carvalho, Marcelo Souza de

    2000-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.389–394 The use of polyurethane foam (PUF) to separate zinc from large amounts of aluminium and its determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy technique (ICP-AES) in aluminium matrices is described. The proposed method is based on the solid-phase extraction of the zinc(II) cation as a thiocyanate complex. Parameters such as effect of pH on zinc sorption, zinc desorption from the foam and analytical features of the procedure w...

  6. An expression for the atomic fluorescence and thermal-emission intensity under conditions of near saturation and arbitrary self-absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omenetto, N.; Winefordner, J.D.; Alkemade, C.T.J.

    An expression for the effect of self-absorption on the fluorescence and thermal emission intensities is derived by taking into account stimulated emission. A simple, idealized case is considered, consisting of a two level atomic system, in a flame, homogeneous with respect to temperature and

  7. Calculation of spontaneous emission from a V-type three-level atom in photonic crystals using fractional calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Chih-Hsien; Hsieh, Wen-Feng; Wu, Jing-Nuo; Cheng, Szu-Cheng; Li, Yen-Yin

    2011-01-01

    Fractional time derivative, an abstract mathematical operator of fractional calculus, is used to describe the real optical system of a V-type three-level atom embedded in a photonic crystal. A fractional kinetic equation governing the dynamics of the spontaneous emission from this optical system is obtained as a fractional Langevin equation. Solving this fractional kinetic equation by fractional calculus leads to the analytical solutions expressed in terms of fractional exponential functions. The accuracy of the obtained solutions is verified through reducing the system into the special cases whose results are consistent with the experimental observation. With accurate physical results and avoiding the complex integration for solving this optical system, we propose fractional calculus with fractional time derivative as a better mathematical method to study spontaneous emission dynamics from the optical system with non-Markovian dynamics.

  8. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla

    2012-01-01

    The green (5577 Å) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Å) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the 1 S and 1 D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H 2 O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O( 1 S) and O( 1 D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H 2 O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO 2 and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% ( 1 S) to O( 1 D) would be around 0.03 (±0.01) if H 2 O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is ∼0.6 if the parent is CO 2 . Our calculations suggest that the yield of O( 1 S) production in the photodissociation of H 2 O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  9. A COUPLED CHEMISTRY-EMISSION MODEL FOR ATOMIC OXYGEN GREEN AND RED-DOUBLET EMISSIONS IN THE COMET C/1996 B2 HYAKUTAKE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Raghuram, Susarla, E-mail: bhardwaj_spl@yahoo.com, E-mail: anil_bhardwaj@vssc.gov.in, E-mail: raghuramsusarla@gmail.com [Space Physics Laboratory, Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Trivandrum 695022 (India)

    2012-03-20

    The green (5577 Angstrom-Sign ) and red-doublet (6300, 6364 Angstrom-Sign ) lines are prompt emissions of metastable oxygen atoms in the {sup 1}S and {sup 1}D states, respectively, that have been observed in several comets. The value of the intensity ratio of green to red-doublet (G/R ratio) of 0.1 has been used as a benchmark to identify the parent molecule of oxygen lines as H{sub 2}O. A coupled chemistry-emission model is developed to study the production and loss mechanisms of the O({sup 1}S) and O({sup 1}D) atoms and the generation of red and green lines in the coma of C/1996 B2 Hyakutake. The G/R ratio depends not only on photochemistry, but also on the projected area observed for cometary coma, which is a function of the dimension of the slit used and the geocentric distance of the comet. Calculations show that the contribution of photodissociation of H{sub 2}O to the green (red) line emission is 30%-70% (60%-90%), while CO{sub 2} and CO are the next potential sources contributing 25%-50% (<5%). The ratio of the photoproduction rate of O({sup 1} S) to O({sup 1} D) would be around 0.03 ({+-}0.01) if H{sub 2}O is the main source of oxygen lines, whereas it is {approx}0.6 if the parent is CO{sub 2}. Our calculations suggest that the yield of O({sup 1} S) production in the photodissociation of H{sub 2}O cannot be larger than 1%. The model-calculated radial brightness profiles of the red and green lines and G/R ratios are in good agreement with the observations made on the comet Hyakutake in 1996 March.

  10. Dependence of ion - photon emission characteristics on the concentration of implanted atoms of the bombarding beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belykh, S.F.; Evtukhov, R.N.; Redina, I.V.; Ferleger, V.Kh.

    1989-01-01

    Results of experiment, where Dy + beams, its spraying products emitting intensively optical radiation with continuous spectrum (CSR), are used for tantalum surface bombardment, are presented. The given experiment allowed one to separate the scattered particle CSR contribution and was conducted under controlled beam n atom concentration on the target surface. E 0 energy and j 0 dysprosium ion flux density made up respectively 3.5 keV and 3x10 5 Axcm -2 . The obtained result analysis has shown that a notable dependence of spectrum type on n value is detected. Dy scattered atoms to not emit CSR. The main contribution to CSR is made by sprayed particles, containing dysprosium atoms

  11. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — TES focuses on the troposphere, the layer of atmosphere that stretches from the ground to the altitude at which airplanes fly. With very high spectral resolution,...

  12. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single-exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal-production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly-collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission. (author). 3 figs., 10 refs

  13. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Mosher, D.; De Groot, J.S.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays in 5-MA Saturn discharges is reported. The timing of multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra (1 to 10 keV) agree with 2D radiation-hydrocode simulations. Nonthermal x-ray emission (10 to 100 keV) correlates with pinch spots distributed along the z-axis. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum, yield, and pinch-spot emission with those of 0.8-MA, single- exploded-wire discharges on Gamble-II suggest a common nonthermal- production mechanism. Nonthermal x-ray yields are lower than expected from current scaling of Gamble II results, suggesting that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single-wire geometries for nonthermal x-ray production. The instabilities, azimuthal asymmetries, and inferred multiple implosions that accompany the implosion geometry lead to larger, more irregular pinch spots, a likely reason for reduced nonthermal efficiency. A model for nonthermal-electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly- collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas combined with 1D hydrocode simulations of Saturn compact loads predicts weak nonthermal x-ray emission

  14. Acoustic emission and magnification of atomic lines resolution for laser breakdown of salt water in ultrasound field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulanov, Alexey V.; Nagorny, Ivan G.

    2015-01-01

    Researches of the acoustic effects accompanying optical breakdown in a water, generated by the focused laser radiation with power ultrasound have been carried out. Experiments were performed by using 532 nm pulses from Brilliant B Nd:YAG laser. Acoustic radiation was produced by acoustic focusing systems in the form hemisphere and ring by various resonance frequencies of 10.7 kHz and 60 kHz. The experimental results are obtained, that show the sharply strengthens effects of acoustic emission from a breakdown zone by the joint influence of a laser and ultrasonic irradiation. Essentially various thresholds of breakdown and character of acoustic emission in fresh and sea water are found out. The experimental result is established, testifying that acoustic emission of optical breakdown of sea water at presence and at absence of ultrasound essentially exceeds acoustic emission in fresh water. Atomic lines of some chemical elements like a Sodium, Magnesium and so on were investigated for laser breakdown of water with ultrasound field. The effect of magnification of this lines resolution for salt water in ultrasound field was obtained

  15. The Use of a Microprocessor-Controlled, Video Output Atomic Absorption Spectrometer as an Educational Tool in a Two-Year Technical Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerfoot, Henry B.

    Based on instructional experiences at Charles County Community College, Maryland, this report examines the pedagogical advantage of teaching atomic absorption (AA) spectroscopy with an AA spectrophotometer that is equipped with a microprocessor and video output mechanism. The report first discusses the growing importance of AA spectroscopy in…

  16. Two photon emission by hydrogen-like atoms in high temperature plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costescu, A.; Manzatu, I.; Dinu, C.; Mihailescu, I.N.

    1981-08-01

    New exact solutions and a rather simple polynomial expression of the power emitted in the two photon transition from a metastable 2s state to the ground state of a hydrogen-like atom were infered with the aid of the Coulomb Green's function method. It was shown that the two photon decay represents under certain circumstances a significant power loss mechanism. (authors)

  17. CHIANTI—AN ATOMIC DATABASE FOR EMISSION LINES. XIII. SOFT X-RAY IMPROVEMENTS AND OTHER CHANGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, E.; Young, P. R.; Dere, K. P.; Del Zanna, G.; Mason, H. E.

    2013-01-01

    The CHIANTI spectral code consists of two parts: an atomic database and a suite of computer programs in Python and IDL. Together, they allow the calculation of the optically thin spectrum of astrophysical objects and provide spectroscopic plasma diagnostics for the analysis of astrophysical spectra. The database includes atomic energy levels, wavelengths, radiative transition probabilities, collision excitation rate coefficients, ionization, and recombination rate coefficients, as well as data to calculate free-free, free-bound, and two-photon continuum emission. Version 7.1 has been released, which includes improved data for several ions, recombination rates, and element abundances. In particular, it provides a large expansion of the CHIANTI models for key Fe ions from Fe VIII to Fe XIV to improve the predicted emission in the 50-170 Å wavelength range. All data and programs are freely available at http://www.chiantidatabase.org and in SolarSoft, while the Python interface to CHIANTI can be found at http://chiantipy.sourceforge.net.

  18. The design and characteristics of direct current glow discharge atomic emission source operated with plain and hollow cathodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qayyum, A.; Mahmood, M.I.

    2008-01-01

    A compact direct current glow discharge atomic emission source has been designed and constructed for analytical applications. This atomic emission source works very efficiently at a low-input electrical power. The design has some features that make it distinct from that of the conventional Grimm glow discharge source. The peculiar cathode design offered greater flexibility on size and shape of the sample. As a result the source can be easily adopted to operate in Plain or Hollow Cathode configuration. I-V and spectroscopic characteristics of the source were compared while operating it with plain and hollow copper cathodes. It was observed that with hollow cathode, the source can be operated at a less input power and generates greater Cu I and Cu II line intensities. Also, the intensity of Cu II line rise faster than Cu I line with argon pressure for both cathodes. But the influence of pressure on Cu II lines was more significant when the source is operated with hollow cathode

  19. Determination of lithium and potassium in uranium oxide powders and pellets by Flame Atomic Emission Spectrometric method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jat, J.R.; Balaji Rao, Y.; Prasada Rao, G.; Prahlad, B.

    2012-01-01

    The present paper describes a method developed at Control Laboratory, NFC which includes prior separation of lithium and potassium from uranium matrix before their measurements. Solvent extraction, using Tri-n-Butyl Phosphate (TBP) in CCI 4 followed by Tri-n-Octyl Phosphine Oxide (TOPO) in CCI 4 , is employed for prior separation of Li and K. The resultant aqueous solution was analyzed by Flame-Atomic Emission Spectrometric (AES) method. Solvent extraction conditions are optimized for measurement of Li and K in the same aliquot. Experimental conditions such as instrument calibration, flame condition, fuel flow, sample flow rate through nebulizer, burner height etc. are also optimized. Under the optimal condition the detection limits achieved for lithium is 0.02 ppm and 0.2 ppm for potassium. A RSD of ± 3 % for Li at 0.05 ppm and ± 4% for K at 1 ppm level has been achieved in this method. The results of lithium in the sample are compared with the values obtained by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectrometry (ICP-OES). Similarly, values of potassium are compared with Flame-Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (Flame-AAS) technique. The comparisons are in good agreement. The above method is simple, sensitive, reproducible and can be used for measurement of lithium and potassium in UO 2 powder and pellets on regular basis

  20. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dancsak, Stacia E. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Silva, Sidnei G.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Group of Applied Instrumental Analysis, Department of Chemistry, Federal University of São Carlos, São Carlos, SP (Brazil); Jones, Bradley T. [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States); Donati, George L., E-mail: georgedonati@yahoo.com.br [Department of Chemistry, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC 27109 (United States)

    2014-01-02

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Direct analysis of biodiesel on a tungsten coil atomizer. •Determination of Na, K, Cr and V by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry. •Sample dilution with methanol or ethanol. •Ten-microliter sample aliquots and limits of detection between 20 and 90 μg kg{sup −1}. •Low consumption of reagents, samples and gases in a 140 s per run procedure. -- Abstract: High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg{sup −1} for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg{sup −1} for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg{sup −1} for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated

  1. Direct determination of sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium in biodiesel fuel by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dancsak, Stacia E.; Silva, Sidnei G.; Nóbrega, Joaquim A.; Jones, Bradley T.; Donati, George L.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Direct analysis of biodiesel on a tungsten coil atomizer. •Determination of Na, K, Cr and V by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry. •Sample dilution with methanol or ethanol. •Ten-microliter sample aliquots and limits of detection between 20 and 90 μg kg −1 . •Low consumption of reagents, samples and gases in a 140 s per run procedure. -- Abstract: High levels of sodium and potassium can be present in biodiesel fuel and contribute to corrosion, reduced performance and shorter engine lifetime. On the other hand, trace amounts of chromium and vanadium can increase the emission of pollutants during biodiesel combustion. Sample viscosity, immiscibility with aqueous solutions and high carbon content can compromise biodiesel analyzes. In this work, tungsten filaments extracted from microscope light bulbs are used to successively decompose biodiesel's organic matrix, and atomize and excite the analytes to determine sodium, potassium, chromium and vanadium by tungsten coil atomic emission spectrometry (WCAES). No sample preparation other than simple dilution in methanol or ethanol is required. Direct analysis of 10-μL sample aliquots using heating cycles with less than 150 s results in limits of detection (LOD) as low as 20, 70, 70 and 90 μg kg −1 for Na, K, Cr and V, respectively. The procedure's accuracy is checked by determining Na and K in a biodiesel reference sample and carrying out spike experiments for Cr and V. No statistically significant differences were observed between reference and determined values for all analytes at a 95% confidence level. The procedure was applied to three different biodiesel samples and concentrations between 6.08 and 95.6 mg kg −1 for Na and K, and between 0.22 and 0.43 mg kg −1 for V were obtained. The procedure is simple, fast and environmentally friendly. Small volumes of reagents, samples and gases are used and no residues are generated. Powers of detection are

  2. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry: analytical assessment of the technique at the beginning of the 90's

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanz-Medel, A.

    1991-01-01

    The main application of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) today is in atomic emission spectroscopy (AES), as an excitation spectrochemical source, although uses of an ICP for fluorescence as just an atomizer, and specially for mass spectrometry, as an ionization source, are rocketing in the last few years. Since its inception, only a quarter of a century ago, ICP-AES has rapidly evolved to one of the preferred routine analytical techniques for convenient determination of many elements with high speed, at low levels and in the most varied samples. Perhaps its comparatively high kinetic temperature (capable of atomizing virtually every compound of any sample), its high excitation and ionization temperatures, and its favourable spatial structure at the core of the ICP success. By now, the ICP-AES can be considered as having achieved maturity in that a huge amount of analytical problems can be tackled with this technique, while no major or fundamental changes have been adopted for several years. Despite this fact, important driving forces are still in operation to further improve the ICP-AES sensitivity, selectivity, precision, sample throughput, etc. Moreover, proposals to extend the scope of the technique to traditionally elusive fields (e.g. non-metals and organic compound analysis) are also appearing in the recent literature. In this paper the 'state of the art', the last developments and the expectations in trying to circumvent the limitations of the ICP-AES (on the light of literature data and personal experience) are reviewed. (author)

  3. Research as a guide for curriculum development: An example from introductory spectroscopy. II. Addressing student difficulties with atomic emission spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanjek, L.; Shaffer, P. S.; McDermott, L. C.; Planinic, M.; Veza, D.

    2015-02-01

    This is the second of two closely related articles (Paper I and Paper II) that together illustrate how research in physics education has helped guide the design of instruction that has proved effective in improving student understanding of atomic spectroscopy. Most of the more than 1000 students who participated in this four-year investigation were science majors enrolled in the introductory calculus-based physics course at the University of Washington (UW) in Seattle, WA, USA. The others included graduate and undergraduate teaching assistants at UW and physics majors in introductory and advanced physics courses at the University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia. About half of the latter group were preservice high school physics teachers. Paper I describes how several conceptual and reasoning difficulties were identified among university students as they tried to relate a discrete line spectrum to the energy levels of atoms in a light source. This second article (Paper II) illustrates how findings from this research informed the development of a tutorial that led to improvement in student understanding of atomic emission spectra.

  4. Interference between radiative emission and autoionization in the decay of excited states of atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, L. Jr.; Theodosiou, C.E.; Wall, M.J.

    1978-01-01

    An excited state of an atom which can autoionize can also undergo radiative decay. We consider the interaction between the final states resulting from these two modes of decay, and its effects on such quantities as the fluorescence yield of the excited state, excitation profile of the excited state, and the spectra of the emitted photons and electrons. It is shown that the fraction of decays of the excited state resulting in a photon (fluorescence yield) is particularly sensitive to the details of the final-state interaction. In lowest order in the final-state interaction, the fluorescence yield is increased by a factor (1 + 1/q 2 ) from the traditional value, where q is the Fano q parameter relating to the excited state and the final atomic state

  5. Spontaneous light emission by atomic hydrogen: Fermi's golden rule without cheating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debierre, V.; Durt, T.; Nicolet, A.; Zolla, F.

    2015-10-01

    Focusing on the 2 p- 1 s transition in atomic hydrogen, we investigate through first order perturbation theory the time evolution of the survival probability of an electron initially taken to be in the excited (2 p) state. We examine both the results yielded by the standard dipole approximation for the coupling between the atom and the electromagnetic field - for which we propose a cutoff-independent regularisation - and those yielded by the exact coupling function. In both cases, Fermi's golden rule is shown to be an excellent approximation for the system at hand: we found its maximal deviation from the exact behaviour of the system to be of order 10-8 /10-7. Our treatment also yields a rigorous prescription for the choice of the optimal cutoff frequency in the dipole approximation. With our cutoff, the predictions of the dipole approximation are almost indistinguishable at all times from the exact dynamics of the system.

  6. Characterization of near-infrared nonmetal atomic emission from an atmospheric helium microwave-induced plasma using a Fourier transform spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubert, J.; Van Tra, H.; Chi Tran, K.; Baudais, F.L.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach for using Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS) for the detection of atomic emission from an atmospheric helium plasma has been developed and the results obtained are described. Among the different types of plasma source available, the atmospheric pressure microwave helium plasma appears to be an efficient excitation source for the determination of nonmetal species. The more complete microwave plasma emission spectra of Cl, Br, I, S, O, P, C, N, and He in the near-infrared region were obtained and their corrected relative emission intensities are reported. This makes qualitative identification simple, and aids in the quantitative analysis of atomic species. The accuracy of the emission wavelengths obtained with the Fourier transform spectrophotometer was excellent and the resolution provided by the FTS allowed certain adjacent emission lines to be adequate for analytical applications

  7. Electron emission induced by atomic collisions in gaseous targets and solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meckbach, W.

    1988-01-01

    In this work, it is considered only the process of single collision with gaseous targets. The possible inelastic processes are: excitation and ionization of both, target and incident beam. The attention was concentrated to the processes of direct ionization which may give rise to electron emission. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  8. Gas Chromatic Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wey, Chowen

    1995-01-01

    Gas chromatograph/mass spectrometer (GC/MS) used to measure and identify combustion species present in trace concentration. Advanced extractive diagnostic method measures to parts per billion (PPB), as well as differentiates between different types of hydrocarbons. Applicable for petrochemical, waste incinerator, diesel transporation, and electric utility companies in accurately monitoring types of hydrocarbon emissions generated by fuel combustion, in order to meet stricter environmental requirements. Other potential applications include manufacturing processes requiring precise detection of toxic gaseous chemicals, biomedical applications requiring precise identification of accumulative gaseous species, and gas utility operations requiring high-sensitivity leak detection.

  9. Estimation of the time scale of last chance alpha emission using an ''atomic clock''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gallamore, L.; Sarantites, D.G.; Charity, R.J.; Nicolis, N.G.; Sobotka, L.G.; Beene, J.R.; Halbert, M.L.; Varner, R.L.

    1994-01-01

    The probability of filling a K-vacancy, created on the incoming part of the collision, before α-particle emission is used to time the decay of Yb compound nuclei. These nuclei were produced in the fusion reaction 250 MeV 60 Ni+ 100 Mo. In general the nuclear decays are too fast to be timed by this clock, however, α-particle emitting compound nucleus states have lifetimes sufficiently long for this technique to work when both the α-particle has low energy and the compound nucleus spin is large. This supports the existence of last, or near last, chance α-particle emission in the deexcitation of high spin compound nuclei

  10. Differential electron emission in multi-charged ion atom collisions: Systematics for distant and close collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DuBois, R.D.; Toburen, L.H.; Middendorf, M.E.; Jagutzki, O.

    1992-09-01

    Absolute doubly differential cross sections for electron emission are presented for 0.5 MeV/u multi-charged ion impact on helium, neon, and argon targets. For the helium target, Bq+, Cq+ (q = 2--5) and Oq+, Fq+ (q = 3--6) projectiles were studied; for neon and argon, only Cq+ (q = 2--5) projectiles were used. Electron emission for 10 degrees ≤ Θ ≤ 60 degrees was studied. The measured cross sections were assumed to scale as the square of an effective projectile charge, Z eff , which was determined as a function of emitted electron energy and angle. For distant collisions (low emitted electron energies), we find that Z eff ∼ q for small q and Z eff eff > Z and increases as q decreases. This is true for all angles and targets investigated

  11. Experimental study of the electron-atom Bremsstrahlung emission in an argon plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranson, P.; Vallee, O.; Chapelle, J.

    1977-01-01

    Electron-neutral atom bremsstrahlung is studied between 0.4 μm and 5 μm in a decaying argon plasma jet; in visible and infra-red range, some discrepancies appear between experimental results and theoretical calculations of different authors (Geltman, Stallcop). In the infra-red, the discrepancy can be partly explained because theoretical elastic cross sections are higher than experimental values in the vicinity of the Ramsauer minimum. In the visible range, a very small amount of fast electrons due to superelastic and recombination collisions explain the observed discrepancy [fr

  12. SPIRAL STRUCTURE OF M51 - DISTRIBUTION AND KINEMATICS OF THE ATOMIC AND IONIZED HYDROGEN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    TILANUS, RPJ; ALLEN, RJ

    The atomic hydrogen (H I) and the H-alpha emission lines in the grand-design spiral galaxy M51 have been observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope and the TAURUS Fabry-Perot imaging spectrometer, respectively. Across the inner spiral arms significant tangential and radial velocity

  13. X-Ray Emission from a Merger Remnant, NGC 7252 (the ``Atoms-for-Peace'' Galaxy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awaki, Hisamitsu; Matsumoto, Hironori; Tomida, Hiroshi

    2002-03-01

    We observed a nearby merger remnant NGC 7252 with the X-ray satellite ASCA and detected X-ray emission with the X-ray flux of (1.8+/-0.3)×10-13 ergs s-1 cm-2 in the 0.5-10 keV band. This corresponds to the X-ray luminosity of 8.1×1040 ergs s-1. The X-ray emission is well described with a two-component model: a soft component with kT=0.72+/-0.13 keV and a hard component with kT>5.1 keV. Although NGC 7252 is referred to as a dynamically young protoelliptical, the 0.5-4 keV luminosity of the soft component is about 2×1040 ergs s-1, which is low for an early-type galaxy. The ratio of LX/LFIR suggests that the soft component originated from the hot gas due to star formation. Its low luminosity can be explained by the gas ejection from the galaxy as galaxy winds. Our observation reveals the existence of hard X-ray emission with the 2-10 keV luminosity of 5.6×1040 ergs s-1. This may indicate the existence of nuclear activity or an intermediate-mass black hole in NGC 7252.

  14. X-ray emission from a high-atomic-number z-pinch plasma created from compact wire arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, T.W.L.; Nash, T.J.; Marder, B.M.

    1996-03-01

    Thermal and nonthermal x-ray emission from the implosion of compact tungsten wire arrays, driven by 5 MA from the Saturn accelerator, are measured and compared with LLNL Radiation-Hydro-Code (RHC) and SNL Hydro-Code (HC) numerical models. Multiple implosions, due to sequential compressions and expansions of the plasma, are inferred from the measured multiple x-radiation bursts. Timing of the multiple implosions and the thermal x-ray spectra measured between 1 and 10 keV are consistent with the RHC simulations. The magnitude of the nonthermal x-ray emission measured from 10 to 100 keV ranges from 0.02 to 0.08% of the total energy radiated and is correlated with bright-spot emission along the z-axis, as observed in earlier Gamble-11 single exploding-wire experiments. The similarities of the measured nonthermal spectrum and bright-spot emission with those measured at 0.8 MA on Gamble-II suggest a common production mechanism for this process. A model of electron acceleration across magnetic fields in highly-collisional, high-atomic-number plasmas is developed, which shows the existence of a critical electric field, E c , below which strong nonthermal electron creation (and the associated nonthermal x rays) do not occur. HC simulations show that significant nonthermal electrons are not expected in this experiment (as observed) because the calculated electric fields are at least one to two orders-of-magnitude below E c . These negative nonthermal results are confirmed by RHC simulations using a nonthermal model based on a Fokker-Plank analysis. Lastly, the lower production efficiency and the larger, more irregular pinch spots formed in this experiment relative to those measured on Gamble II suggest that implosion geometries are not as efficient as single exploding-wire geometries for warm x-ray production

  15. Superradiators created atom by atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschede, Dieter

    2018-02-01

    High radiation rates are usually associated with macroscopic lasers. Laser radiation is “coherent”—its amplitude and phase are well-defined—but its generation requires energy inputs to overcome loss. Excited atoms spontaneously emit in a random and incoherent fashion, and for N such atoms, the emission rate simply increases as N. However, if these atoms are in close proximity and coherently coupled by a radiation field, this microscopic ensemble acts as a single emitter whose emission rate increases as N2 and becomes “superradiant,” to use Dicke's terminology (1). On page 662 of this issue, Kim et al. (2) show the buildup of coherent light fields through collective emission from atomic radiators injected one by one into a resonator field. There is only one atom ever in the cavity, but the emission is still collective and superradiant. These results suggest another route toward thresholdless lasing.

  16. Emission Channeling Studies on the Behaviour of Light Alkali Atoms in Wide-Band-Gap Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Recknagel, E; Quintel, H

    2002-01-01

    % IS342 \\\\ \\\\ A major problem in the development of electronic devices based on diamond and wide-band-gap II-VI compound semiconductors, like ZnSe, is the extreme difficulty of either n- or p-type doping. The only reports of successful n-type doping of diamond involves ion implanted Li, which was found to be an intersititial donor. Recent theoretical calculations suggest that Na, P and N dopant atoms are also good candidates for n-type doping of diamond. No experimental evidence has been obtained up to now, mainly because of the complex and partly unresolved defect situation created during ion implantation, which is necessary to incorporate potential donor atoms into diamond. \\\\ \\\\In the case of ZnSe, considerable effort has been invested in trying to fabricate pn-junctions in order to make efficient, blue-light emitting diodes. However, it has proved to be very difficult to obtain p-type ZnSe, mainly because of electrical compensation related to background donor impurities. Li and Na are believed to be ampho...

  17. Quenching of the OH and nitrogen molecular emission by methane addition in an Ar capacitively coupled plasma to remove spectral interference in lead determination by atomic fluorescence spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentiu, T., E-mail: ftibi@chem.ubbcluj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ponta, M., E-mail: mponta@chem.ubbcluj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mihaltan, A.I., E-mail: alinblaj2005@yahoo.co [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Darvasi, E., E-mail: edarvasi@chem.ubbcluj.r [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Frentiu, M., E-mail: frentiu.maria@yahoo.co [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cordos, E., E-mail: emilcordos@gmail.co [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2010-07-15

    A new method is proposed to remove the spectral interference on elements in atomic fluorescence spectrometry by quenching of the molecular emission of the OH radical (A{sup 2{Sigma}+} {yields} X{sup 2{Pi}}) and N{sub 2} second positive system (C{sup 3{Pi}}{sub u} {yields} B{sup 3{Sigma}}{sub g}) in the background spectrum of medium power Ar plasmas. The experiments were carried out in a radiofrequency capacitively coupled plasma (275 W, 27.12 MHz) by CH{sub 4} addition. The quenching is the result of the high affinity of OH radical for a hydrogen atom from the CH{sub 4} molecule and the collisions of the second kind between nitrogen excited molecules and CH{sub 4}, respectively. The decrease of the emission of N{sub 2} second positive system in the presence of CH{sub 4} is also the result of the deactivation of the metastable argon atoms that could excite the nitrogen molecules. For flow rates of 0.7 l min{sup -1} Ar with addition of 7.5 ml min{sup -1} CH{sub 4}, the molecular emission of OH and N{sub 2} was completely removed from the plasma jet spectrum at viewing heights above 60 mm. The molecular emission associated to CH and CH{sub 2} species was not observed in the emission spectrum of Ar/CH{sub 4} plasma in the ultraviolet range. The method was experimented for the determination of Pb at 283.31 nm by atomic fluorescence spectrometry with electrodeless discharge lamp and a multichannel microspectrometer. The detection limit was 35 ng ml{sup -1}, 2-3 times better than in atomic emission spectrometry using the same plasma source, and similar to that in hollow cathode lamp microwave plasma torch atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

  18. Determination of daily intake of elements from Philippine total diet samples using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leon, G.C. de; Shiraishi, K.; Kawamura, H.; Igaraishi, Y.; Palattao, M.V.; Azanon, E.M.

    1990-10-01

    Total diet samples were analyzed for major elements (Na, K, Ca, Mg, P) and some minor trace elements (Fe, Zn, Mn, Al, Sr, Cu, Ba, Yt) using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Samples analyzed were classified into sex and age groups. Results for some elements (Na, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, Mn) were compared with values from Bataan dietary survey calculated using the Philippine composition table. Exceot for Na, analytical results were similar to calculated values. Analytical results for Ca and Fe were also compared with the values from Food and Nutrition Research Institute. In general, values obtained in the study were lower than the FNRI values. Comparison of the analytical and calculated results with the Japanese and ICRP data showed that Philippine values were lower than foreign values. (Auth.). 22 refs., 9 tabs

  19. Solid phase microextraction capillary gas chromatography combined with furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry for speciation of mercury in fish tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grinberg, Patricia; Campos, Reinaldo C.; Mester, Zoltan; Sturgeon, Ralph E.

    2003-01-01

    The use of solid phase microextraction in conjunction with tandem gas chromatography-furnace atomization plasma emission spectrometry (SPME-GC-FAPES) was evaluated for the determination of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in fish tissue. Samples were digested with methanolic potassium hydroxide, derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate and extracted by SPME. After the SPME extraction, species were separated by GC and detected by FAPES. All experimental parameters were optimized for best separation and analytical response. A repeatability precision of typically 2% can be achieved with long-term (3 months) reproducibility precision of 4.3%. Certified Reference Materials DORM-2, DOLT-2 and TORT-2 from the National Research Council of Canada were analyzed to verify the accuracy of this technique. Detection limits of 1.5 ng g -1 for methylmercury and 0.7 ng g -1 for inorganic mercury in biological tissues were obtained

  20. Accuracy and Precision in Elemental Analysis of Environmental Samples using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quraishi, Shamsad Begum; Chung, Yong-Sam; Choi, Kwang Soon

    2005-01-01

    Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry followed by micro-wave digestion have been performed on different environmental Certified Reference Materials (CRMs). Analytical results show that accuracy and precision in ICP-AES analysis were acceptable and satisfactory in case of soil and hair CRM samples. The relative error of most of the elements in these two CRMs is within 10% with few exceptions and coefficient of variation is also less than 10%. Z-score as an analytical performance was also within the acceptable range (±2). ICP-AES was found as an inadequate method for Air Filter CRM due to incomplete dissolution, low concentration of elements and very low mass of the sample. However, real air filter sample could have been analyzed with high accuracy and precision by increasing sample mass during collection. (author)

  1. Extraction of butyltins from sediments and their determination by liquid chromatography interfaced to inductively coupled plasma atomic emission detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivaro, P.; Frache, R.

    2000-01-01

    A liquid-liquid extraction of the butyltin compounds from sediment, suitable for their subsequent following determination by high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission detector system, is proposed. Recoveries of 86%, 80% and 42% for tributyltin (TBT), dibutyltin (DBT) and monobutyltin (MBT) respectively were achieved. The relative detection limits of butyltin compounds by this method ranged from 27 to 62 ng of tin per gram of dry sediment. The method was applied to real sediment samples collected in the Venice lagoon (Italy). The results showed that, despite the restrictions on the use of butyltin contained in antifoulting paints, a considerable amount of organotin compounds is still present in Venice sediments [it

  2. Proton Induced X-Rays Emission (PIXE) and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) applied in the environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popescu, Ion V.; Iordan, M.; Stihi, C.; Bancuta, A.; Dima, G.; Busuioc, G.; Ciupina, V.; Belc, M.; Badica, T.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the elemental composition of tree leaves using Proton-Induced X-Rays Emission (PIXE) and Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) methods. By PIXE Spectrometry we identified and determined the concentration of S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu Zn, As, Br, Sr and by AAS method the concentration of elements: Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Se, Cd. Pb was identified in only 2 samples from 29. For tree leave samples collected at a large distance to the polluting source the Sr concentration decreased and the Mg, Ca, Se, Zn and Fe concentrations increased. Also, we can observe a small affinity of these leaves for the environmental Pb which was detected for two samples at a small distance to polluting source. (authors)

  3. Semi-automatic determination of tin in marine materials by continuous flow hydride generation inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Yonglai; Narasaki, Hisataki; Chen Hongyuan; Tian Liching

    1997-01-01

    A semi-automated continuous flow hydride generation system with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) was used for the determination of tin in marine materials. The effects of acids (H 2 SO 4 and HCl) were studied. The analytical parameters were thoroughly investigated. Under optimized conditions, the detection limit is 0.4 ng/ml. Interferences from transition elements were investigated and seven masking reagents were tested. L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate (1%) was used to mask the interferences from foreign ions. Finally, the accuracy, checked with a marine standard reference material obtained from the National Research Council (NRC), was within the certified value. (orig.). With 6 figs., 4 tabs

  4. Spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom in a double-band photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Han Zhuang; Tang Sing Hai; Dong Po; He Jun

    2002-01-01

    The spontaneous emission spectrum from a V-type three-level atom embedded in a double-band photonic band gap (PBG) material has been investigated for the first time. Most interestingly it is shown that there is not only a black dark line, but also a narrow spontaneous line near the edges of the double photonic band. The positions of the dark line and narrow spontaneous line are near the transition from an empty upper level to a lower level. The lines stem from destructive and constructive quantum interferences, which induce population transfer between the two upper levels, in the PBG reservoirs. The effects of system parameters on the interference have been discussed in detail

  5. Zinc, lead and copper in human teeth measured by induced coupled argon plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chew, L.T.; Bradley, D.A. E-mail: D.A.Bradley@exeter.ac.uk; Mohd, Y.; Jamil, M

    2000-11-15

    Inductively Coupled Argon Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) has been used to determine Pb, Zn and Cu levels in 47 exfoliated human teeth (all of which required extraction for orthodontic reasons). Lead concentrations for the group were 1.7 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} to 40.5 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}, with a median of 9.8 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1}. A median lead level in excess of the group value was found for the teeth of six lorry drivers who were included in the study. A more significant enhancement was found for the seven subjects whose age was in excess of 60 years. The median values for Zn and Cu were 123.0 and 0.6 {mu}g (g tooth mass){sup -1} respectively. Present values for tooth-Zn are lower than published data for other ethnic groups.

  6. Standard test method for determining elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the specimen. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and nonnuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable to process control within waste treatment facilities. This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels which do not require special personnel or environmental protection. A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is included

  7. Filling of double vacancy in the K atomic shell with emission of one single photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbert, G.

    1978-12-01

    A method was developed to calculate the transition rate for two-electron one-photon K(sub αα) transition (2s 2p → 1s 2 ). The method was tested for Ni with two K-shell vacancies in the initial state. The (sub αα) rate is calculated within the framework of a single system formed by the atom and the radiation. The transition is originated in the interactiion between the parts of that system. In the dipole approximation, the transition rate is obtained from the second order term of the time dependente perturbation theory. Hartree-Fock-Slater wave functions were used in the calculations for Ni. The results are compared with the available theoretical and experimental information. (Author) [pt

  8. Atomic scale properties of magnetic Mn-based alloys probed by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mn-based alloys are characterized by a wealth of properties, which are of interest both from fundamental physics point of view and particularly attractive for different applications in modern technology: from magnetic storage to sensing and spin-based electronics. The possibility to tune their magnetic properties through post-growth thermal processes and/or stoichiometry engineering is highly important in order to target different applications (i.e. Mn$_{x}$Ga) or to increase their Curie temperature above room temperature (i.e. off-stoichiometric MnSi). In this project, the Mössbauer effect will be applied at $^{57}$Fe sites following implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn, to probe the micro-structure and magnetism of Mn-based alloys on the atomic-scale. The proposed experimental plan is devoted to establish a direct correlation between the local structure and bulk magnetism (and other physical properties) of Mn-based alloys.

  9. Atomic data of Ti II from laser produced Ti plasmas by optical emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refaie, A.I.; Farrag, A.A.; El Sharkawy, H.; El Sherbini, T.M.

    2005-06-01

    In the present study, the emission spectrum of titanium produced from laser induced plasma has been measured at different distances from the target. The Titanium target is irradiated by using the high power Q-switched Nd:YAG laser (λ=1064 nm) that generates energy 750 mJ/pulse of duration rate 6 ns and repetition rate 10 Hz in vacuum and at different distances. The variation of the distance from the target affects the measured plasma parameters, i.e. the electron density, the ion temperature and the velocity distribution. The electron density increases with the increase of the distance from the target. At a distance 0.6 mm from the target it decreases to 2.28·10 16 cm -3 . The temperature increases with the distance from the get until a distance of 1 mm, after that it decreases. It is found that the plasma velocity increases with the distance then it decreases again. Then, Energy levels and transition probabilities for 3d 2 4p →(3d 2 4s + 3d 3 ) lines have been determined by measurement of emission line intensities from an optically thin laser produced plasma of Ti II in vacuum. Calculations with intermediate coupling using Hartree-Fock wave functions have been carried out in order to place the experimental data on an absolute scale and also to evaluate the lifetimes. The plasma parameters in different regions of the plasma plume have been measured and used to obtain further transition probabilities. (author)

  10. Small angle spectrometers: Summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Courant, E.; Foley, K.J.; Schlein, P.E.

    1986-01-01

    Aspects of experiments at small angles at the Superconducting Super Collider are considered. Topics summarized include a small angle spectrometer, a high contingency spectrometer, dipole and toroid spectrometers, and magnet choices

  11. Line-emission cross sections for the charge-exchange reaction between fully stripped carbon and atomic hydrogen in tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, K.; Kato, T.

    1992-01-01

    Line-emission cross sections of the charge-exchange reaction between fully stripped carbon and atomic hydrogen are measured in the energy range of 18 - 38 keV/amu in tokamak plasmas. The energy dependence of the emission cross sections for the transition of Δn = 8 - 7 and Δn = 7 - 6 and their ratios are compared with theoretical calculations. (author)

  12. Distorted wave models applied to electron emission study in ion-atom collisions at intermediate and high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fainstein, P.D.

    1989-01-01

    The electron emission from different atoms induced by impact of multicharged bare ions at intermediate and high energies is studied. To perform these studies, the continuum distorted wave-eikonal initial state model is used. With this distorted wave model, analytical expressions are obtained for the transition amplitudes as a function of the transverse momentum transfer for hydrogen targets in an arbitrary initial state and for every any orbital of a multielectronic target represented as a linear combination of Slater type orbitals. With these expressions, the different cross sections which are compared with the experimental data available are numerically calculated. The results obtained for different targets and projectiles and the comparison with other theoretical models and experimental data allows to explain the electron emission spectra and to predict new effects which have not been measured so far. The results of the present work permit to view the ionization process as the evolution of the active electron in the combined field of the target and projectile nuclei. (Author) [es

  13. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Jon R.; Mims, Forrest M.; Parisi, Alfio V.

    2018-01-01

    Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades. PMID:29342899

  14. Smartphone Spectrometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J.S. McGonigle

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Smartphones are playing an increasing role in the sciences, owing to the ubiquitous proliferation of these devices, their relatively low cost, increasing processing power and their suitability for integrated data acquisition and processing in a ‘lab in a phone’ capacity. There is furthermore the potential to deploy these units as nodes within Internet of Things architectures, enabling massive networked data capture. Hitherto, considerable attention has been focused on imaging applications of these devices. However, within just the last few years, another possibility has emerged: to use smartphones as a means of capturing spectra, mostly by coupling various classes of fore-optics to these units with data capture achieved using the smartphone camera. These highly novel approaches have the potential to become widely adopted across a broad range of scientific e.g., biomedical, chemical and agricultural application areas. In this review, we detail the exciting recent development of smartphone spectrometer hardware, in addition to covering applications to which these units have been deployed, hitherto. The paper also points forward to the potentially highly influential impacts that such units could have on the sciences in the coming decades.

  15. Detection of metal ions by atomic emission spectroscopy from liquid-electrode discharge plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Jian; Yu Jing; Li Jun; Wang Jianping; Ying Yibin

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the discharge ignited in a capillary connecting two beakers filled with electrolyte solution is investigated. During the experiment, an external electrical voltage is applied through two platinum electrodes dipped in the beakers. A gas bubble forms inside the capillary when the applied voltage is higher than 1000 V. Since the beakers are tilted slightly, after generation, the bubble moves slowly to the uphill outlet of the capillary due to buoyancy. When the bubble reaches the end of the capillary, it cracks and a bright discharge is ignited. The emission spectra of the discharge plasma are related to the metal ions dissolved in the solution and thus can be used for metal ion detection. An application of the system to measurement of water hardness is shown

  16. Analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Ramon M.; Mahanti, Himansu S.

    Methods are described for the analysis of bauxite by inductively coupled plasma (ICP) emission spectroscopy. Bauxite samples were dissolved either in HCl, HNO 3, and HF at 160°C in all-PTFE bomb or fused with NaOH. Spectral lines were selected after examination of experimental wavelength scans at each potential analyte wavelength. Limits of detection, background equivalent concentration, and analytical figures of merit were established. The accuracy of the method was confirmed by determining 17 elements in NBS-SRM bauxite samples. Silicon in HF solutions was analyzed using a modified ICP torch with a graphite injector tube, an inert nebulizer using PTFE capillary tubes, and a PTFE spray chamber.

  17. Determination of boron in waters by using methyl borate generation and flame atomic-emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castillo, J.R.; Mir, J.M.; Martinez, C.; Bendicho, C.

    1985-01-01

    An improved method is proposed for the determination of boron in waters. The esterification reaction between boric acid and methanol in a concentrated sulphuric acid medium and the vaporisation of the methyl borate formed (boiling-point, 68 C) are used in the determination by boron by measuring the emission of the BO 2 radical at 548 nm. This reaction is carried out in a simple and inexpensive generator, designed for this purpose, and the heat developed in it causes the rapid volatilisation of the methyl borate. Thus no collection systems or carrier gas are required. The proposed method gives an improved detection limit and it can be applied to the determination of boron in water samples. It is both rapid and highly selective. (author)

  18. Atomic Emission Spectra Diagnosis and Electron Density Measurement of Semiconductor Bridge (SCB) Plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng Hongyan; Zhu Shunguan; Zhang Lin; Wan Xiaoxia; Li Yan; Shen Ruiqi

    2010-01-01

    Emission spectra of a semiconductor bridge (SCB) plasma in a visible range was studied in air. The electron density was measured in a conventional way from the broadening of the A1 I 394.4 nm Stark width. Based on the Saha equation, a system for recording the intensity of Si I 390.5 nm and Si II 413.1 nm was designed. With this technique, the SCB plasma electron density was measured well and accurately. Moreover, the electron density distribution Vs time was acquired from one SCB discharge. The individual result from the broadening of the Al I 394.4 nm Stark width and Saha equation was all in the range of 10 15 cm -3 to 10 16 cm -3 . Finally the presumption of the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) condition was validated.

  19. Emission and chemistry of organic compounds from biomass burning: measurements from an iodide time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (I- ToF-CIMS) during the FIREX FireLab 2016 intensive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, B.; Krechmer, J. E.; Warneke, C.; Coggon, M.; Koss, A.; Lim, C. Y.; Selimovic, V.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Stark, H.; Kang, H.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Liggio, J.; Roberts, J. M.; Kroll, J. H.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Biomass burning can emit large amounts of many different organic compounds to the atmosphere. The emission strengths of these emitted organic compounds and their subsequent atmospheric chemistry are not well known. In this study, we deployed a time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer using iodide as reagent ions (Iodide ToF-CIMS) to measure direct emissions of organic compounds during the FIREX laboratory 2016 intensive in the USDA Fire Sciences Lab in Missoula, MT. An interpretation of the I­- TOF-CIMS mass spectra from biomass burning emissions will be presented. The dependence of the emissions of selected organic compounds with fuel types, combustion efficiency and fuel chemical compositions will be discussed. The I- TOF-CIMS also measured aged biomass burning smoke from a small smog chamber and an oxidative flow reactor (OFR). The I- TOF-CIMS consistently observed much higher signals of highly oxygenated organic compounds in the aged biomass burning smoke than in fresh emissions, indicative of strong secondary formation of these organic compounds in biomass burning plumes.

  20. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given

  1. Determination of tellurium at ultra-trace levels in drinking water by on-line solid phase extraction coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pedro, Juana; Stripekis, Jorge; Bonivardi, Adrian; Tudino, Mabel

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, two time-based flow injection (FI) separation pre-concentration systems coupled to graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) for tellurium determination are studied and compared. The first alternative involves the pre-concentration of the analyte onto Dowex 1X8 employed as packaging material of a micro-column inserted in the flow system. The second set-up is based on the co-precipitation of tellurium with La(OH) 3 followed by retention onto XAD resins. Both systems are compared in terms of limit of detection, linear range, RSD%, sample throughput, micro-columns lifetime and aptitude for fully automatic operation. The features of the Dowex system are: 37% efficiency of retention and an enhancement factor of 42 for a pre-concentration time of 180 seconds (sample flow rate = 3 ml min -1 ) with acetic acid elution volumes of 80 μl. The detection limit (3 s) is 7 ng l -1 and the relative standard deviation (n = 7200 ng l -1 ) is 5.8%. The analytical performance of the XAD system is: 72% efficiency of retention and an enhancement factor of 25 for a pre-concentration time of 180 s (sample flow rate = 3 ml min -1 ) with nitric acid elution volumes of 300 μl. The detection limit is 66 ng l -1 and the relative standard deviation (n = 7200 ng l -1 ) is 8.3%. Applications to the determination of tellurium in tap water and the validation of the analytical methodology employing SRM 1643e as certified reference material are shown

  2. Internal standardization in atomic-emission spectrometry using inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.

    1985-01-01

    The principle of internal standardization has been used in quantitative analytical emission spectroscopy since 1925 to minimize the errors arising from fluctuations in sample preparation, excitation-source conditions, and detection parameters. Although modern spectroscopic excitation sources are far more stable and electronic detection methods are more precise than before, the system for the introduction of the sample in spectrometric analysis using inductively coupled plasma (ICP) introduces significant errors, and internal standardization can still play a useful role in improving the overall precision of the analytical results. The criteria for the selection of the elements to be used as internal standards in arc and spark spectrographic analysis apply to a much lesser extent in ICP-spectrometric analysis. Internal standardization is recommended for use in routine ICP-simultaneous spectrometric analysis to improve its accuracy and precision and to provide a monitor for the reassurance of the analyst. However, the selection of an unsuitable reference element can result in misuse of the principle of internal standardization and, although internal standardization can be applied when a sequential monochromator is used, the main sources of error will not be minimized

  3. Atom spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodling, K.

    1981-01-01

    Experiments on atom photoabsorption spectroscopy using synchrotron radiation in the 10-1000 eV range are reviewed. Properties of the necessary synchrotron radiation and the experiment on absorption spectroscopy are briefly described. Comparison with other spectroscopy methods is conducted. Some data on measuring photoabsorption, photoelectron emission and atom mass spectra are presented [ru

  4. Low-frequency-field-induced spontaneous-emission interference in a two-level atom placed in an anisotropic photonic crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Gaoxiang; Evers, Joerg; Keitel, Christoph H

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the spontaneous-emission properties of a two-level atom embedded in a three-dimensional anisotropic photonic crystal. In addition to the modified density of states, the atom is driven by a coherent intense low-frequency field (LFF), which creates additional multiphoton decay channels with the exchange of two low-frequency photons and one spontaneous photon during an atomic transition. Due to the low frequency of the applied field, the various transition pathways may interfere with each other and thus give rise to a modified system dynamics. We find that even if all the atomic (bare and induced) transition frequencies are in the conducting band of the photonic crystal, there still may exist a photon-atom bound state in coexistence with propagating modes. The system also allows us to generate narrow lines in the spontaneous-emission spectrum. This spectrum is a function of the distance of the observer from the atom due to the band gap in the photonic crystal. The system properties depend on three characteristic frequencies, which are influenced by quantum interference effects. Thus these results can be attributed to a combination of interference and band-gap effects

  5. The Philippine spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juliano, J.O.

    1965-01-01

    A notable project for international collaboration, in which participants from Indonesia, Korea, Thailand, China and the Philippines are working together, has been launched in the Philippines with Indian assistance under the aegis of the Agency. This is a regional training and research programme using a neutron crystal spectrometer, which has been established since January 1965 at the Philippine Atomic Research Centre in Diliman, Quezon City, Philippines. It is called the IPA Project after the signatories to a five year trilateral agreement, namely, the Government of India,the Republic of the Philippines, and the International Atomic Energy Agency. The programme is administered by a Joint Committee composed of one representative each of the Philippines, India and the Agency. The objective of this cooperative venture is to establish a research centre on neutron diffraction in which scientists and technicians from any Member State of IAEA in South Asia, South-East Asia and Pacific, or Far East regions could come to participate in research and training. Studies in solid state physics, such a s the structure determination of alloys and organic crystals, studies on the orientation of magnetic moments in the lattice of magnetic substances, and other problems based on elastic and inelastic scattering of neutrons are undertaken. There are a number of research reactors in this region where neutron spectrometers can be utilized and the recent establishment of this cooperative international research and training programme has been a timely one for this area of the world. Indeed, a number of other countries have shown a strong growing interest in the development of the project

  6. Evaluation of an improved atomic data basis for carbon in UEDGE emission modeling for L-mode plasmas in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Burgos, J.M., E-mail: munozj@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Loch, S.D.; Ballance, C.P. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    New scaled carbon atomic electron-impact excitation data is utilized to evaluate comparisons between experimental measurements and fluid emission modeling of detached plasmas at DIII-D. The C I and C II modeled emission lines for 909.8 and 514.7 nm were overestimated by a factor of 10–20 than observed experimentally for the inner leg, while the outer leg was within a factor of 2. Due to higher modeled emissions, a previous study using the UEDGE code predicted that a higher amount of carbon was required to achieve a detached outboard divertor plasma in L-mode at DIII-D. The line emission predicted by using the new scaled carbon data yields closer results when compared against experiment. We also compare modeling and measurements of D{sub α} emission from neutral deuterium against predictions from newly calculated R-Matrix with pseudostates data available at the ADAS database.

  7. Antimatter atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In january 1996, CERN broadcasted the information of the creation of nine anti-hydrogen atoms, observed through disintegration products. The experimental facility was CERN LEAR ring. An antiproton beam scattered a xenon jet, and the resulting antimatter was first selected by its insensitivity to beam bending magnets. Their disintegration was detected in thin NaI detectors, in which the anti-atoms are at once deprived from their positron. Then, magnetic and time-of-flight spectrometers are used. (D.L.)

  8. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery. © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Biophotonics published by WILEY-VCH Verlag.

  9. Particle transport in a He-microchip plasma atomic emission system with an ultrasonic nebulizer for aqueous sample introduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Joosuck [Department of Chemistry, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, H.B. [Department of Chemistry, Dankook University, 126 Jukjeon-dong, Suji-gu, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do, 448-701 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: plasma@dankook.ac.kr

    2008-11-15

    The transport efficiency of dried particles generated from an ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was studied to improve the analytical performance of a lab-made, He-microchip plasma system, in which a quartz tube ({approx} 1 mm i.d.) was positioned inside the central channel of a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) polymer chip. The polymer microchip plasma has the advantages of low cost, small size, easy handling and design, and self-ignition with long stabilization (> 24 h). However, direct introduction of aqueous solution into the microplasma for the detection of metals remains problematic due to plasma instability. In addition, the much smaller size of the system can cause signal suppression due to low transport efficiency. Therefore, knowledge of particle transport efficiency in this microplasma system is required to enhance the sensitivity and stability. The weight of transported particles in the range of 0.02 to 10 mg m{sup -3} was measured using a piezobalance with a precision of 0.4-17.8%, depending on the operating conditions. The significant effects of the USN operating conditions and the physical properties of the tubing, namely, length, inner diameter and surface characteristics, on the number of particles transported from the nebulizer to the microplasma were studied. When selected metals, such as Na, Mg and Pb, at a concentration of 5 mg L{sup -1} were nebulized, transported particles were obtained with a mass range of 0.5-5 mg m{sup -3}, depending on atomic weights. For application of the He-rf-microplasma, the atomic emission system was optimized by changing both the radio frequency (rf) power (60-200 W) and cooling temperature of the USN (- 12-9 deg. C). The limits of detection obtained for K, Na and Cu were 0.26, 0.22, and 0.28 mg L{sup -1}, respectively. These results confirmed the suitable stability and sensitivity of the He-rf-PDMS microchip plasma for application as an atomization source.

  10. Intra- and intercycle interference of angle-resolved electron emission in laser-assisted XUV atomic ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gramajo, A. A.; Della Picca, R.; López, S. D.; Arbó, D. G.

    2018-03-01

    A theoretical study of ionization of the hydrogen atom due to an XUV pulse in the presence of an infrared (IR) laser is presented. Well-established theories are usually used to describe the laser-assisted photoelectron effect: the well-known soft-photon approximation firstly posed by Maquet et al (2007 J. Mod. Opt. 54 1847) and Kazansky’s theory in (2010 Phys. Rev. A 82, 033420). However, these theories completely fail to predict the electron emission perpendicularly to the polarization direction. Making use of a semiclassical model (SCM), we study the angle-resolved energy distribution of PEs for the case that both fields are linearly polarized in the same direction. We thoroughly analyze and characterize two different emission regions in the angle-energy domain: (i) the parallel-like region with contribution of two classical trajectories per optical cycle and (ii) the perpendicular-like region with contribution of four classical trajectories per optical cycle. We show that our SCM is able to assess the interference patterns of the angle-resolved PE spectrum in the two different mentioned regions. Electron trajectories stemming from different optical laser cycles give rise to angle-independent intercycle interferences known as sidebands. These sidebands are modulated by an angle-dependent coarse-grained structure coming from the intracycle interference of the electron trajectories born during the same optical cycle. We show the accuracy of our SCM as a function of the time delay between the IR and the XUV pulses and also as a function of the laser intensity by comparing the semiclassical predictions of the angle-resolved PE spectrum with the continuum-distorted wave strong field approximation and the ab initio solution of the time-dependent Schrödinger equation.

  11. Spectrometers for compact neutron sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigt, J.; Böhm, S.; Dabruck, J. P.; Rücker, U.; Gutberlet, T.; Brückel, T.

    2018-03-01

    We discuss the potential for neutron spectrometers at novel accelerator driven compact neutron sources. Such a High Brilliance Source (HBS) relies on low energy nuclear reactions, which enable cryogenic moderators in very close proximity to the target and neutron optics at comparably short distances from the moderator compared to existing sources. While the first effect aims at increasing the phase space density of a moderator, the second allows the extraction of a large phase space volume, which is typically requested for spectrometer applications. We find that competitive spectrometers can be realized if (a) the neutron production rate can be synchronized with the experiment repetition rate and (b) the emission characteristics of the moderator can be matched to the phase space requirements of the experiment. MCNP simulations for protons or deuterons on a Beryllium target with a suitable target/moderator design yield a source brightness, from which we calculate the sample fluxes by phase space considerations for different types of spectrometers. These match closely the figures of todays spectrometers at medium flux sources. Hence we conclude that compact neutron sources might be a viable option for next generation neutron sources.

  12. Energetic neutral atom precipitation during magnetic storms: optical emission, ionization, and energy deposition at low and middle latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tinsley, B.A.

    1979-01-01

    Observations of hydrogen Balmer β and He + 4686-A emission made at Huancayo, Peru, during two magnetic storms are consistent with the expectations of energetic neutral atom precipitation resulting from charge exchange loss of ring current ions and support the view that charge exchange is the major loss process for larger geomagnetic storms. The intensities are consistent with previous satellite observations of the emission (called the equatorial aurora) and when translated into ionization rates for the upper E region give production rates in order of magnitude larger than normal nighttime levels. Such ionization enhancements have previously been measured by ionosondes and incoherent scatter at low latitudes and attributed to electron precipitation. New calculations of the latitude variation correct earlier work and show that for a ring current with pitch angle distribution isotropic to the loss cone, located on shells of L value 2 to 6, the maximum influx rate of precipitating neutrals is found at magnetic latitudes 25 0 to 50 0 . Most of the energetic neutrals are lost to interplanetary space, and the fraction impacting the thermosphere has been recalculated to range from 11 to 2.2% for L values 2 to 6. For a typical magnetic storm with energy loss rate due to charge exchange, the equivalent to a Dst rate of change of 20 n T/h, the energy input into the thermosphere at the latitude of maximum is calculated to be 0.15 to 0.05 mW/m 2 from L shells 2 to 6. The ionization production can be of the order of 10 ions cm 3 s 1 at 140 km, and optical emission, of the order of 1 rayleigh (R), both varying according to the species and energy of the impacting neutrals (i.e., the former ring current ions). The latitude distribution shrinks toward the equator after injection has ceased, as the magnetospheric pitch angle distribution evolves toward 90 0 , on a time scale (for protons <30 keV at L=3) of the order of 2 hours

  13. Standard test method for determining elements in waste Streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the sample. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable in process control within waste treatment facilities. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels that do not require special personnel or environmental protection. 1.3 A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is found in Table 1. 1.4 This test method has been used successfully for treatment of a large variety of waste solutions and industrial process liquids. The com...

  14. Determination of the mineral compositions of in six beans by microwave digestion with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan, Q.; Yang, L.; Chen, S.; Liu, X.; Ma, X.

    2012-01-01

    In the study, microwave digestion procedure optimized was applied for digesting beans. Nineteen mineral element concentrations were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES). The result indicated detection limits for the 19 elements were less than 0.0998, and relative standard deviations were 1.01% - 5.02% for all the elements, and recoveries were 90.89% - 104.55% by adding standard recovery experiment. The study showed the beans selected were abundant in mineral element contents in human nutrition, determination mineral element contents by ICP-AES with microwave digestion technology were a lot of merits of small environmental pollution, fast and accurate determination result, which could satisfy the examination request of bean samples. The results provided evidence that the six beans were a good source of K, P, Mg and Ca. This study is to give important reference value to people due to individual differences by adjusting the dietary to complement the different mineral elements. (author)

  15. Standard practice for analysis of aqueous leachates from nuclear waste materials using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice is applicable to the determination of low concentration and trace elements in aqueous leachate solutions produced by the leaching of nuclear waste materials, using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). 1.2 The nuclear waste material may be a simulated (non-radioactive) solid waste form or an actual solid radioactive waste material. 1.3 The leachate may be deionized water or any natural or simulated leachate solution containing less than 1 % total dissolved solids. 1.4 This practice should be used by analysts experienced in the use of ICP-AES, the interpretation of spectral and non-spectral interferences, and procedures for their correction. 1.5 No detailed operating instructions are provided because of differences among various makes and models of suitable ICP-AES instruments. Instead, the analyst shall follow the instructions provided by the manufacturer of the particular instrument. This test method does not address comparative accuracy of different devices...

  16. Participation of the public in licensing procedures under the Atomic Energy Act and the Federal Emission Control Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hett, F.T.

    1994-01-01

    Section 7 of the Atomic Energy Act (AtG), section 4 of the Federal Emission Control Act (BImSchG), the Nuclear Installations Licensing Ordinance (AtVfV), and the Ninth Ordinance on the Implementation of the BImSchG (Principles of the licensing procedure) require participation of the public in the procedure before administrative provisions or decisions are issued. The book presents the legally prescribed steps at which participation of the public is mandatory, for the simple case (only one license on the agenda), and for the multi-stage licensing procedure: preliminary negotiations / filling of applications for a license and filing of documents / public announcement of projects / access to files / objections / preclusion of delayed objections / public hearing and other expert discussions / termination of procedure, decision-making by the authorities / decisions on subdivision of procedure into defined stages / modification of the procedure. The analysis of the functions of participation of the public examines the following goals: information / representation of interests / reconciliation of interests / legitimation / control / protection of rights / support. Finally, the book explains the principles of the Constitution demanding participation of the public: human dignity / democracy / rule of law / anticipated effects of the right to have recourse to the courts / civil rights. (orig./HP) [de

  17. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Mihaltan, Alin I.; Ponta, Michaela; Darvasi, Eugen; Frentiu, Maria; Cordos, Emil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Use of a miniaturized analytical system with microtorch plasma for Hg determination. → Determination of Hg in non- and biodegradable materials using cold vapor generation. → Figures of merit and advantages of the miniaturized system for Hg determination. - Abstract: A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min -1 Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl 2 reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml -1 or 0.08 μg g -1 in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg -1 , while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 ± 4.5% (95% confidence level).

  18. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu; Mihaltan, Alin I; Ponta, Michaela; Darvasi, Eugen; Frentiu, Maria; Cordos, Emil

    2011-10-15

    A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min(-1) Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl(2) reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO(3)-H(2)SO(4) mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml(-1) or 0.08 μg g(-1) in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg(-1), while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 ± 4.5% (95% confidence level). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Mercury determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold vapor capacitively coupled plasma microtorch atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frentiu, Tiberiu, E-mail: ftibi@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Mihaltan, Alin I., E-mail: alinblaj2005@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Ponta, Michaela, E-mail: mponta@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Darvasi, Eugen, E-mail: edarvasi@chem.ubbcluj.ro [Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Babes-Bolyai University, Arany Janos 11, 400028 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Frentiu, Maria, E-mail: frentiu.maria@yahoo.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Cordos, Emil, E-mail: emilcordos@gmail.com [National Institute for Research and Development of Optoelectronics Bucharest - Research Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Donath 67, 400293 Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2011-10-15

    Highlights: {yields} Use of a miniaturized analytical system with microtorch plasma for Hg determination. {yields} Determination of Hg in non- and biodegradable materials using cold vapor generation. {yields} Figures of merit and advantages of the miniaturized system for Hg determination. - Abstract: A new analytical system consisting of a low power capacitively coupled plasma microtorch (20 W, 13.56 MHz, 150 ml min{sup -1} Ar) and a microspectrometer was investigated for the Hg determination in non- and biodegradable materials by cold-vapor generation, using SnCl{sub 2} reductant, and atomic emission spectrometry. The investigated miniaturized system was used for Hg determination in recyclable plastics from electronic equipments and biodegradable materials (shopping bags of 98% biodegradable polyethylene and corn starch) with the advantages of easy operation and low analysis costs. Samples were mineralized in HNO{sub 3}-H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} mixture in a high-pressure microwave system. The detection limits of 0.05 ng ml{sup -1} or 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1} in solid sample were compared with those reported for other analytical systems. The method precision was 1.5-9.4% for Hg levels of 1.37-13.9 mg kg{sup -1}, while recovery in two polyethylene certified reference materials in the range 98.7 {+-} 4.5% (95% confidence level).

  20. Fingerprinting of complex mixtures with the use of high performance liquid chromatography, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy and chemometrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni Yongnian; Peng Yunyan; Kokot, Serge

    2008-01-01

    The molecular and metal profile fingerprints were obtained from a complex substance, Atractylis chinensis DC-a traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), with the use of the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) techniques. This substance was used in this work as an example of a complex biological material, which has found application as a TCM. Such TCM samples are traditionally processed by the Bran, Cut, Fried and Swill methods, and were collected from five provinces in China. The data matrices obtained from the two types of analysis produced two principal component biplots, which showed that the HPLC fingerprint data were discriminated on the basis of the methods for processing the raw TCM, while the metal analysis grouped according to the geographical origin. When the two data matrices were combined into a one two-way matrix, the resulting biplot showed a clear separation on the basis of the HPLC fingerprints. Importantly, within each different grouping the objects separated according to their geographical origin, and they ranked approximately in the same order in each group. This result suggested that by using such an approach, it is possible to derive improved characterisation of the complex TCM materials on the basis of the two kinds of analytical data. In addition, two supervised pattern recognition methods, K-nearest neighbors (KNNs) method, and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were successfully applied to the individual data matrices-thus, supporting the PCA approach

  1. An Investigation on the Extraction and Quantitation of a Hexavalent Chromium in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene Copolymer (ABS) and Printed Circuit Board (PCB) by Ion Chromatography Coupled with Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sang Ho; Kim, Yu Na [Mokpo National University, Muan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    A hexavalent chromium (Cr (VI)) is one of the hazardous substances regulated by the RoHS. The determination of Cr (VI) in various polymers and printed circuit board (PCB) has been very important. In this study, the three different analytical methods were investigated for the determination of a hexavalent chromium in Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene copolymer (ABS) and PCB. The results by three analytical methods were obtained and compared. An analytical method by UV-Visible spectrometer has been generally used for the determination of Cr (VI) in a sample, but a hexavalent chromium should complex with diphenylcarbazide for the detection in the method. The complexation did make an adverse effect on the quantitative analysis of Cr (VI) in ABS. The analytical method using diphenylcarbazide was also not applicable to printed circuit board (PCB) because PCB contained lots of irons. The irons interfered with the analysis of hexavalent chromium because those also could complex with diphenylcarbazide. In this study, hexavalent chromiums in PCB have been separated by ion chromatography (IC), then directly and selectively detected by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The quantity of Cr (VI) in PCB was 0.1 mg/kg

  2. TOF spectrometer with improved sensitivity for ERDA of light isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siketic, Z.; Bogdanovic Radovic, I.; Jaksic, M.

    2009-01-01

    Time-of-Flight Elastic Recoil Detection Analysis (TOF ERDA) is a well established and powerful ion beam analytical technique. It is used for simultaneous and quantitative analysis of elemental depth distributions of light and medium mass elements in both light and heavy matrices. Contrary to silicon particle detectors, the efficiency of the carbon-foil MCP time detectors in TOF system depends on energy and electronic stopping power of analyzing recoil atoms in the C foil and it is often less than 100% for light elements (H, He, Li). This is particularly critical for hydrogen isotopes where detection efficiency can be drastically reduced (∼ 10%). Therefore, TOF ERDA spectrometers were so far not the best choice for depth profiling and quantification of light elements. To improve the detection efficiency of TOF ERDA, the electron emission of C foils (∼ 0.3 μg/cm 2 ) has been enhanced by evaporating a thin LiF layer on the foil. That procedure improved significantly detection efficiency of hydrogen and other light elements, making TOF ERDA spectrometer more suitable for multielemental analysis applications. The capabilities of upgraded spectrometer were demonstrated on samples with well known as well as unknown concentration and depth distribution of H and D.(author)

  3. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reverdin, Charles; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Busquet, M; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S; Blenski, T; Caillaud, T; Ducret, J E; Foelsner, W; Gilles, D; Gilleron, F; Pain, J C; Poirier, M; Serres, F; Silvert, V; Soullie, G; Turck-Chieze, S; Villette, B

    2012-10-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  4. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B.; Thais, Frédéric; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M.; Busquet, M.; Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F.; Ducret, J. E.; Foelsner, W.; Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S.

    2012-01-01

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution ∼ 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at École Polytechnique (France) to measure the Δn = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  5. X-ray grating spectrometer for opacity measurements in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range at the LULI 2000 laser facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reverdin, Charles; Caillaud, T.; Gilleron, F.; Pain, J. C.; Silvert, V.; Soullie, G.; Villette, B. [CEA, DAM, DIF, 91297 Arpajon (France); Thais, Frederic; Loisel, Guillaume; Blenski, T.; Poirier, M. [CEA, DSM, IRAMIS, Service Photons, Atomes et Molecules, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Busquet, M. [ARTEP Inc, Ellicott City, Maryland 21042 (United States); Bastiani-Ceccotti, S.; Serres, F. [LULI, Ecole Polytechnique, CNRS, CEA, UPMC, route de Saclay, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Ducret, J. E. [CELIA, UMR5107, CEA, CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, 33400 Talence (France); Foelsner, W. [Max Planck Instituet fuer Quantum Optik, 85748 Garching (Germany); Gilles, D.; Turck-Chieze, S. [CEA, DSM, IRFU, Service d' astrophysique, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2012-10-15

    An x-ray grating spectrometer was built in order to measure opacities in the 50 eV to 250 eV spectral range with an average spectral resolution {approx} 50. It has been used at the LULI-2000 laser facility at Ecole Polytechnique (France) to measure the {Delta}n = 0, n = 3 transitions of several elements with neighboring atomic number: Cr, Fe, Ni, and Cu in the same experimental conditions. Hence a spectrometer with a wide spectral range is required. This spectrometer features one line of sight looking through a heated sample at backlighter emission. It is outfitted with one toroidal condensing mirror and several flat mirrors cutting off higher energy photons. The spectral dispersion is obtained with a flatfield grating. Detection consists of a streak camera sensitive to soft x-ray radiation. Some experimental results showing the performance of this spectrometer are presented.

  6. Optical emission spectroscopy of metal-halide lamps: Radially resolved atomic state distribution functions of Dy and Hg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimalasuriya, T.; Flikweert, A.J.; Stoffels, W.W.; Haverlag, M.; Mullen, van der J.J.A.M.; Pupat, N.B.M.

    2006-01-01

    Absolute line intensity measurements are performed on a metal-halide lamp. Several transitions of atomic and ionic Dy and atomic Hg are measured at different radial positions from which we obtain absolute atomic and ionic Dy intensity profiles. From these profiles we construct the radially resolved

  7. Development of the 2nd generation z(Redshift) and early universe spectrometer & the study of far-IR fine structure emission in high-z galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferkinhoff, Carl

    The 2nd generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-2), is a long-slit echelle-grating spectrometer (R~1000) for observations at submillimeter wavelengths from 200 to 850 microm. Its design is optimized for the detection of redshifted far-infrared spectral lines from galaxies in the early universe. Combining exquisite sensitivity, broad wavelength coverage, and large (˜2.5%) instantaneous bandwidth, ZEUS-2 is uniquely suited for studying galaxies between z˜0.2 and 5---spanning the peaks in both the star formation rate and number of AGN in the universe. ZEUS-2 saw first light at the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO) in the Spring of 2012 and was commissioned on the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) in November 2012. Here we detail the design and performance of ZEUS-2, first however we discuss important science results that are examples of the science enabled by ZEUS-2. Using the first generation z (Redshift) and Early Universe Spectrometer (ZEUS-1) we made the first high-z detections of the [NII] 122 microm and [OIII] 88 microm lines. We detect these lines from starburst galaxies between z ˜2.5 and 4 demonstrating the utility of these lines for characterizing the properties of early galaxies. Specifically we are able to determine the most massive star still on the main sequence, the number of those stars and a lower limit on the mass of ionized gas in the source. Next we present ZEUS-2's first science result. Using ZEUS-2 on APEX we have detected the [CII] 158 microm line from the z = 1.78 galaxy H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 with a line flux of (6.44 +/- 0.42) ˜ 10-18 W m-2. Combined with its far-infrared luminosity and a new Herschel-PACS detection of the [OI] 63 microm line we are able to conclude that H-ATLAS J091043.1-000322 is a high redshift analogue of a local ultra-luminous infrared galaxy, i.e. it is likely the site of a compact starburst due to a major merger. This detection, combined with the ZEUS-1 observations of the [NII

  8. Implanting very low energy atomic ions into surface adsorbed cage molecules: the formation/emission of Cs/C60+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolodney, Eli; Kaplan, Andrey; Manor, Yoni; Bekkerman, Anatoly; Tsipinyuk, Boris

    2004-01-01

    Full Text: We demonstrate the formation of an endo-complex via a collision of energetic ions with molecular overlayers on a surface. An incoming atomic ion is encapsulated inside a very large molecule or cluster by implanting the primary ion into the target species, which then recovers its original structure or rearrange itself around the implanted ion in some stable configuration. Here we describe an experiment resulting in the formation and ejection of an endo-complex, within a single collision. We study the formation and emission of endohedral fullerenes, Cs/C 60 + and Cs/C 70 + , following a single collision of Cs + ion with a sub-monolayer of C 60 (steady state coverage) on gold and silicon surfaces and with a sub-monolayer of C 70 on gold. A continuous low energy (E 0 =35-220 eV) Cs + ion beam hit the Cs + covered surface and the collisional formation and ejection of the endohedral Cs/Cs 60 + complex, within a single Cs + /C 60 collision was observed and characterized. Several experimental observations clearly demonstrate the single collision nature of the combined atom penetration endo-complex ejection event. The fullerene molecule is actually being picked up off the surface by the penetrating Cs + ion. The evidence for the trapping of the Cs + ion inside the fullerene cage is given both by the appearance of the Cs/Cs (602-2n) + (n=1-5) sequence and its termination at Cs/Cs 50 + . Kinetic Energy Distributions (KEDs) of the outgoing Cs/Cs 60 + were measured for two different Cs + impact energies under field-free conditions. The most striking observation is the near independence of the KEDs on the impact energy. Both KEDs peak around 1.2 eV with similar line shapes. A simple model for the formation/ejection/fragmentation dynamics of the endohedral complex is proposed and is found to be in good agreement with the experimental results

  9. Indigenously built resonance ionization mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razvi, M.A.N.; Jayasekharan, T.; Thankarajan, K.; Guhagarkar, M.B.; Dixit, M.N.; Bhale, G.L.

    2000-04-01

    Design, fabrication and performance testing of an indigenously built Resonance Ionization Mass Spectrometer (RIMS) is presented in this report. The instrument is totally indigenous, but for the laser components consisting of the excimer laser and tunable dye lasers. Constructional details of atomic beam source and linear time-of-flight mass spectrometer are included. Finally, commissioning and performance testing of the instrument is described. Mass resolving power of 400 and a detection limit of 100 atoms has been achieved using this RIMS set-up. (author)

  10. Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loos-Vollebregt, M.T.C. de.

    1980-01-01

    A new method of background correction in atomic absorption spectroscopy has recently been introduced, based on the Zeeman splitting of spectral lines in a magnetic field. A theoretical analysis of the background correction capability observed in such instruments is presented. A Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer utilizing a 50 Hz sine wave modulated magnetic field is described. (Auth.)

  11. Isotopes and atomic weights

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qinglian

    1990-01-01

    A review of the chemical and mass spectrometric methods of determining the atomic weights of elements is presented. A, special discussion is devoted to the calibration of the mass spectrometer with highly enriched isotopes. It is illustrated by the recent work on europium. How to choose the candidate element for new atomic weight determination forms the last section of the article

  12. Measurements of double differential charged particle emission cross sections and development of a wide range charged particles spectrometer for ten`s MeV neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nauchi, Yasushi; Baba, Mamoru; Kiyosumi, Takehide [Tohoku Univ., Sendai (Japan). Faculty of Engineering] [and others

    1997-03-01

    We measured (n,xp), (n,xd) cross sections of C and Al for En=64.3 MeV neutrons at the {sup 7}Li(p,n) neutron sources facility at TIARA (Takasaki Establishment, JAERI) by using a conventional SSD-NaI telescope placed in the air. They show characteristic energy and angular dependence in high energy regions. In order to extend the measurements to low energy protons and {alpha} particles, a new spectrometer consisting of low pressure gas counters and BaF{sub 2} scintillators is now under development. A low threshold for low energy {alpha} particles will be achieved by using the gas counters. The particle identification over a wide energy range will be achieved by combining the {Delta}E-E method for low energy particles with the pulse shape discrimination (PSD) method of BaF{sub 2} for high energy particles. (author)

  13. X-ray emission spectroscopy applied to glycine adsorbed on Cu(110): An atom and symmetry projected view

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasselstroem, J.; Karis, O.; Weinelt, M. [Uppsala Univ. (Sweden)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    When a molecule is adsorbed on a metal surface by chemical bonding new electronic states are formed. For noble and transition metals these adsorption-induced states overlap with the much more intense metal d-valence band, making them difficult to probe by for instance direct photoemission. However, it has recently been shown that X-ray emission spectroscopy (XES) can be applied to adsorbate systems. Since the intermediate state involves a core hole, this technique has the power to project out the partial density of states around each atomic site. Both the excitation and deexcitation processes are in general governed by the dipole selection rules. For oriented system, it is hence possible to obtain a complete separation into 2p{sub x}, 2p{sub y} and 2p{sub z} contributions using angular resolved measurements. The authors have applied XES together with other core level spectroscopies to glycine adsorption on Cu(110). Glycine (NH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}COOH) is the smallest amino acid and very suitable to study by core level spectroscopy since it has several functional groups, all well separated in energy by chemical shifts. Its properties are futhermore of biological interest. In summary, the authors have shown that it is possible to apply XES to more complicated molecular adsorbates. The assignment of different electronic states is however not as straight forward as for simple diatomic molecules. For a complete understanding of the redistribution and formation of new electronic states associated with the surface chemical bond, experimental data must be compared to theoretical calculations.

  14. Separation of gold, palladium and platinum in chromite by anion exchange chromatography for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometric analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Kwang Soon; Lee, Chang Heon; Park, Yeong Jae; Joe, Kih Soo; Kim, Won Ho

    2001-01-01

    A study has been carried out on the separation of gold, iridium, palladium, rhodium, ruthenium and platinum in chromite samples and their quantitative determination using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The dissolution condition of the minerals by fusion with sodium peroxide was optimized and chromatographic elution behavior of the rare metals was investigated by anion exchange chromatography. Spectral interference of chromium, a matrix of the minerals, was investigated on determination of gold. Chromium interfered on determination of gold at the concentration of 500 mg/L and higher. Gold plus trace amounts of iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium, which must be preconcentrated before ICP-AES was separated by anion exchange chromatography after reducing Cr(VI) to Cr(III) by H 2 O 2 . AuCl - 4 retained on the resin column was selectively eluted with acetone- HNO 3 -H 2 O as an eluent. In addition, iridium, palladium, rhodium and ruthenium remaining on the resin column were eluted as a group with concentrated HCl. However, platinum was eluted with concentrated HNO 3 . The recovery yield of gold with acetone-HNO 3 -H 2 O was 100.7 ± 2.0 % , and the yields of palladium and platinum with concentrated HCl and HNO 3 were 96.1 ± 1.8% and 96.6 ± 1.3%, respectively. The contents of gold and platinum in a Mongolian chromite sample were 32.6 ± 2.2 μg/g and 1.6 ± 0.14 μg/g, respectively. Palladium was not detected

  15. Spectral evolution of energetic neutral atom emissions at the heliospheric poles as measured by IBEX during its first three years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dayeh, M. A.; Allegrini, F.; Desai, M. I.; Ebert, R. W.; Fuselier, S. A.; Livadiotis, G.; McComas, D. J.; Schwadron, N. A. [Southwest Research Institute, San Antonio, TX 78228 (United States); DeMajistre, R. [Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Janzen, P.; Reisenfeld, D. [University of Montana, Missoula, MT 59812 (United States); Siewert, M., E-mail: maldayeh@swri.edu [Institut für Astronomie der Universität Bonn, Abteilung f. Astrophysik und Extraterrestrische Forschung, Auf dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany)

    2014-12-10

    The Interstellar Boundary Explorer (IBEX) mission continues to measure energetic neutral atom (ENA) emissions produced by charge exchange between solar wind (SW) protons and interstellar neutrals at the edge of our heliosphere. Using the first 3 yr of IBEX-Hi ENA measurements (2009-2011), we examined the spectral evolution of ∼0.5-6 keV ENAs at the polar regions (above 60°). We found the following: (1) pixels with a characteristic 'ankle' spectra (lower spectral index at higher energies) increase by ∼5% in 2010 and ∼10% in 2011 compared to 2009. (2) The averaged spectral index in 2011 is smaller than that of 2009. (3) The slope of the ENA spectrum above ∼1.7 keV is more variable than the slope below ∼1.7 keV. The lower spectral index at higher energies of the spectrum does not appear to be caused by an increase of the ENA production at these energies, but rather from a consistent decrease at lower energies. (4) The decrease in polar ENA fluxes does not correlate significantly with the averaged SW dynamic pressure, back-traced in time to 1 AU along the flow streamlines (originating between 10° and 30° for slow SW, and 60° and 80° for fast SW), assuming these are the respective conditions of ENA progenitors back in time. These results provide insights into the complexity of relating the slow and fast SW contributions to polar ENAs and shed light on how the solar output and the resulting change in the global heliospheric structure possibly affect the heliosheath (HS) populations.

  16. Upgrade for detection system of JARREL ASH 70-000 atomic emission spectrography with source of arc - spark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santa Cruz D E; Grau F N; Bellavigna H J; Garavaglia R N; Fernandez R O; Servant R

    2012-01-01

    Methodologies used in spectrochemical analysis have showed breakthroughs in last decades due to the newest digital technologies. The simultaneous determination of multiple elements in a short time has been allowed by the development of solid state multichannel detectors. Since its beginning CNEA has developed several spectroscopic methodologies that have been applied to the area of fuels and specific materials of the nuclear activity. The Analytical Chemistry Department has an atomic emission spectrograph with a source of arc/spark whose focal length is 3.4 meters and a spectral dispersion from 2.5 to 5 A/mm. This equipment was originally equipped with photographic detection. This feature although allowed the simultaneous detection of multiple elements, their response (photographic plate) has been not linear and their data's treatment has been very complex. Two alternatives of digital detection have been examined: CCD2 and CMOS3 according to the progress achieved in the instrumentation that is applied to similar techniques. After exhaustive evaluation an arrangement of 9 linear CCD detectors located in the focal plane originally occupied by 2 x10 inch photographic plates was chosen. The software provided by the manufacturer has been insufficient for cover our analytical necessities due to the requirements of our instrumental application. This led to develop an own program for our applications. Today, our detection system includes an assembly of 7 detectors and an acquisition program with basic control that has been developed in-house. Calibration curves for some chemical elements have shown very promising results, the sensitivity has increased at least 10 times and an important improvement of accuracy of the measurements has also been achieved thanks to our modification. An upgrade with an associated database that will allow obtaining spectra in 3D configuration and extend the instrumental capabilities to second order is being prepared (author)

  17. Plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectrometry by group I and group II matrix-elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Chan, W.-T.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of Na, K, Ca and Ba matrices on the plasma excitation conditions in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) were studied. Normalized relative intensity was used to indicate the extent of the plasma-related matrix effects. The group I matrices have no effects on the plasma excitation conditions. In contrast, the group II matrices depress the normalized relative intensities of some spectral lines. Specifically, the Group II matrices have no effects on the normalized relative intensity of atomic lines of low upper energy level (soft lines), but reduce the normalized relative intensity of some ionic lines and atomic lines of high energy level (hard lines). The Group II matrices seem to shift the Saha balance of the analytes only; no shift in the Boltzmann balance was observed experimentally. Moreover, for some ionic lines with sum of ionization and excitation potentials close to the ionization potential of argon (15.75 eV), the matrix effect is smaller than other ionic lines of the same element. The reduced matrix effects may be attributed qualitatively to charge transfer excitation mechanism of these ionic lines. Charge transfer reaction renders ionic emission lines from the quasi-resonant levels similar in characteristics of atomic lines. The contribution of charge transfer relative to excitation by other non-specific excitation mechanisms (via Saha balance and Boltzmann balance) determines the degree of atomic behavior of a quasi-resonant level. A significant conclusion of this study is that plasma-related matrix effect depends strongly on the excitation mechanism of a spectral line. Since, in general, more than one excitation mechanism may contribute to the overall excitation of an emission line, the observed matrix effects reflect the sum of the effects due to individual excitation mechanisms. Excitation mechanisms, in addition to the often-used total excitation energy, should be considered in matrix effect studies

  18. Infrared (1-12 μm) atomic and molecular emission signatures from energetic materials using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumi Barimah, E.; Hömmerich, U.; Brown, E.; Yang, C. S.-C.; Trivedi, S. B.; Jin, F.; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Samuels, A. C.; Snyder, A. P.

    2013-05-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a powerful analytical technique to detect the elemental composition of solids, liquids, and gases in real time. For example, recent advances in UV-VIS LIBS have shown great promise for applications in chemical, biological, and explosive sensing. The extension of conventional UVVIS LIBS to the near-IR (NIR), mid-IR (MIR) and long wave infrared (LWIR) regions (~1-12 μm) offers the potential to provide additional information due to IR atomic and molecular signatures. In this work, a Q-switched Nd: YAG laser operating at 1064 nm was employed as the excitation source and focused onto several chlorate and nitrate compounds including KClO3, NaClO3, KNO3, and NaNO3 to produce intense plasma at the target surface. IR LIBS studies on background air, KCl , and NaCl were also included for comparison. All potassium and sodium containing samples revealed narrow-band, atomic-like emissions assigned to transitions of neutral alkali-metal atoms in accordance with the NIST atomic spectra database. In addition, first evidence of broad-band molecular LIBS signatures from chlorate and nitrate compounds were observed at ~10 μm and ~7.3 μm, respectively. The observed molecular emissions showed strong correlation with FTIR absorption spectra of the investigated materials.

  19. Airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in its role as collector and disseminator of information on nuclear techniques has long had an interest in gamma ray spectrometer methods and has published a number of Technical Reports on various aspects of the subject. At an Advisory Group Meeting held in Vienna in November 1986 to review appropriate activities the IAEA could take following the Chernobyl accident, it was recommended that preparation begin on a new Technical Report on airborne gamma ray spectrometer surveying, taking into account the use of the technique for environmental monitoring as well as for nuclear emergency response requirements. Shortly thereafter the IAEA became the lead organization in the Radioelement Geochemical Mapping section of the International Geological Correlation Programme/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) Project on International Geochemical Mapping. These two factors led to the preparation of the present Technical Report. 18 figs, 4 tabs

  20. Development of cold neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Changhee; Lee, C. H.; So, J. Y.; Park, S.; Han, Y. S.; Cho, S. J.; Moon, M. K.; Choi, Y. H.; Sun, G. M.

    2012-03-01

    □ Cold Neutron Triple Axsis Spectrometer (Cold-TAS) Development Ο Fabrication and Installation of the Major Cold-TAS Components Ο Performance Test of the Cold-TAS □ Cold Neutron Time-of-Flight Spectrometer(DC-TOF) Development Ο Fabrication of the Major DC-TOF Components Ο Development DC-TOF Data Reduction Software □ Expected Contribution The two world-class inelastic neutron scattering instruments measure atomic or molecular scale dynamics of meV energy range. This unprecedented measurement capability in the country will enable domestic and international scientists to observe new phenomena in their materials research to obtain world class results. Especially those who work in the fields of magnetic properties of superconductors and multiferroics, molecular dynamics, etc. will get more benefit from these two instruments

  1. QQDDQ magnet spectrometer 'BIG KARL'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, S A; Hardt, A; Meissburger, J; Berg, G P.A.; Hacker, U; Huerlimann, W; Roemer, J G.M.; Sagefka, T; Retz, A; Schult, O W.B.

    1983-09-01

    A magnet spectrometer consisting of two quadrupoles, two dipole magnets and another larger quadrupole in front of the detector was designed and installed at the nuclear research institute of the KFA Juelich. It has been used for charged-particle spectroscopy at the isochronous cyclotron since early 1979. Special features of the spectrometer are variable and high dispersion, coils for higher order field corrections in the dipole magnets and a focal plane perpendicular to the optical axis. A large mass-energy product of mE/q/sup 2/ < 540 u x MeV, an angular acceptance of d..cap omega..<12.5 msr, a high resolving power of p/..delta..p up to 3 x 10/sup 4/ and the possibility of kinematical corrections up to K=0.8 make the instrument a very versatile tool for many experiments in the fields of nuclear and atomic physics. 51 references.

  2. Characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in the particulate and gas phase from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic hydrogen/carbon ratios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Tzu-Ting, E-mail: d89844001@ntu.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan (China); Lin, Shaw-Tao [Department of Applied Chemistry, Providence University, No. 200 Chung-Chi Rd., Salu Dist., Taichung City 43301, Taiwan (China); Lin, Tser-Sheng [Department of Safety, Health, and Environmental Engineering, National United University, 2 Lien Da, Maioli 360, Taiwan (China); Chung, Hua-Yi [Department of Environmental Engineering and Health, Yuanpei University, No. 306, Yuanpei St., Hsin Chu 30015, Taiwan (China)

    2015-02-15

    The polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emissions in particulate and gas phases generated from smoldering mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios were examined. Five types of mosquito coils were burned in a test chamber with a total airflow rate of 8.0 L/min at a constant relative humidity and temperature. The concentrations of individual PAHs were determined using the GC/MS technique. Among the used mosquito coils, the atomic H/C ratio ranged from 1.23 to 1.57, yielding total mass, gaseous, and particulate PAH emission factors of 28.17–78.72 mg/g, 26,139.80–35,932.98 and 5735.22–13,431.51 ng/g, respectively. The various partitions of PAHs in the gaseous and particulate phases were in the ranges, 70.26–83.70% and 16.30–29.74% for the utilized mosquito coils. The carcinogenic potency of PAH emissions in the particulate phase (203.82–797.76 ng/g) was approximately 6.92–25.08 times higher than that of the gaseous phase (26.27–36.07 ng/g). Based on the analyses of PAH emissions, mosquito coils containing the lowest H/C ratio, a low oxygen level, and additional additives (i.e., CaCO{sub 3}) are recommended for minimizing the production of total PAH emission factors and carcinogenic potency. - Highlights: • PAHs emissions are influenced by mosquito coils containing various atomic H/C ratios. • The PAHs generated by burning mosquito coils mainly occur in the gaseous phase. • Total TEQ emission factors of PAHs mainly consisted of the particulate phase (> 87%). • The BaP and BaA accounted for 71.13–77.28% of the total TEQ emission factors. • Special PAH ratios were regarded as characteristic ratios for burning mosquito coil.

  3. Primary emissions and chemical oxidation of volatile organic compounds emitted from laboratory biomass burning sources during the 2016 FIREX FireLab campaign: measurements from a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coggon, M. M.; Warneke, C.; Koss, A.; Sekimoto, K.; Yuan, B.; Lim, C. Y.; Hagan, D. H.; Kroll, J. H.; Cappa, C. D.; Gilman, J.; Lerner, B. M.; Jimenez, J. L.; Yokelson, R. J.; Roberts, J. M.; De Gouw, J. A.

    2017-12-01

    Non-methane organic gases (NMOG) emitted by biomass burning constitute a large source of reactive carbon in the atmosphere. Once emitted, these compounds may undergo series of reactions with the OH radical and nitrogen oxides to form secondary organic aerosol (SOA), ozone, or other health-impacting products. The complex emission profile and strong variability of biomass burning NMOG play an important, yet understudied, role in the variability of air quality outcomes such as SOA and ozone. In this study, we summarize measurements of biomass burning volatile organic compounds (VOCs) conducted using a H3O+ chemical ionization mass spectrometer (H3O+-CIMS) during the 2016 FIREX laboratory campaign in Missoula, MT. Specifically, we will present data demonstrating the chemical evolution of biomass burning VOCs artificially aged in a field-deployable photooxidation chamber and an oxidation flow reactor. More than 50 OH-oxidation experiments were conducted with biomass types representing a range of North American fuels. Across many fuel types, VOCs with high SOA and ozone formation potential, such as aromatics and furans, were observed to quickly react with the OH radical while oxidized species were generated. We compare the calculated OH reactivity of the primary emissions to the calculated OH reactivity used in many photochemical models and highlight areas requiring additional research in order to improve model/measurement comparisons.

  4. [Study on the method for the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current arc full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Zhi-hong; Yao, Jian-zhen; Tang, Rui-ling; Zhang, Xue-mei; Li, Wen-ge; Zhang, Qin

    2015-02-01

    The method for the determmation of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples by direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectroscopy (DC-Arc-AES) was established. Direct current are full spectrum direct reading atomic emission spectrometer with a large area of solid-state detectors has functions of full spectrum direct reading and real-time background correction. The new electrodes and new buffer recipe were proposed in this paper, and have applied for national patent. Suitable analytical line pairs, back ground correcting points of elements and the internal standard method were selected, and Ge was used as internal standard. Multistage currents were selected in the research on current program, and each current set different holding time to ensure that each element has a good signal to noise ratio. Continuous rising current mode selected can effectively eliminate the splash of the sample. Argon as shielding gas can eliminate CN band generating and reduce spectral background, also plays a role in stabilizing the are, and argon flow 3.5 L x min(-1) was selected. Evaporation curve of each element was made, and it was concluded that the evaporation behavior of each element is consistent, and combined with the effects of different spectrographic times on the intensity and background, the spectrographic time of 35s was selected. In this paper, national standards substances were selected as a standard series, and the standard series includes different nature and different content of standard substances which meet the determination of trace boron, molybdenum, silver, tin and lead in geochemical samples. In the optimum experimental conditions, the detection limits for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 1.1, 0.09, 0.01, 0.41, and 0.56 microg x g(-1) respectively, and the precisions (RSD, n=12) for B, Mo, Ag, Sn and Pb are 4.57%-7.63%, 5.14%-7.75%, 5.48%-12.30%, 3.97%-10.46%, and 4.26%-9.21% respectively. The analytical accuracy was

  5. Secondary electron emission of thin carbon foils under the impact of hydrogen atoms, ions and molecular ions, under energies within the MeV range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidovic, Z.

    1997-06-01

    This work focuses on the study of the emission statistics of secondary electrons from thin carbon foils bombarded with H 0 , H 2 + and H 3 + projectiles in the 0.25-2.2 MeV energy range. The phenomenon of secondary electron emission from solids under the impact of swift ions is mainly due to inelastic interactions with target electrons. The phenomenological and theoretical descriptions, as well as a summary of the main theoretical models are the subject of the first chapter. The experimental set-up used to measure event by event the electron emission of the two faces of a thin carbon foil traversed by an energetic projectile is described in the chapter two. In this chapter are also presented the method and algorithms used to process experimental spectra in order to obtain the statistical distribution of the emitted electrons. Chapter three presents the measurements of secondary electron emission induced by H atoms passing through thin carbon foils. The secondary electron yields are studied in correlation with the emergent projectile charge state. We show the peculiar role of the projectile electron, whether it remains or not bound to the incident proton. The fourth chapter is dedicated to the secondary electron emission induced by H 2 + and H 3 + polyatomic ions. The results are interpreted in terms of collective effects in the interactions of these ions with solids. The role of the proximity of the protons, molecular ion fragments, upon the amplitude of these collective effects is evidenced from the study of the statistics of forward emission. These experiences allowed us to shed light on various aspects of atom and polyatomic ion inter-actions with solid surfaces. (author)

  6. Dye laser spectrometer for the analysis of pulsed vacuum arcs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Robertson, M.M.

    1975-01-01

    A pulsed dye laser spectrometer which is used to obtain detailed single shot spectroscopic measurements of the plasma in a pulsed vacuum arc was developed. The capabilities of this spectrometer are indicated by the detection of laser induced fluorescence signals from 10 6 neutral Ti atoms in the plasma of a pulsed vacuum arc with a Ti anode. (U.S.)

  7. Scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The distribution of arsenic (As) and cadmium (Cd) in himematsutake was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (SEM-EDX). The atomic percentage of the metals was confirmed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer (ICP-MS). Results show that the accumulation of ...

  8. New spectrometer for charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajsfelner, Rene

    1970-02-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study and development of an electrostatic spectrometer which is not only more accurate for the determination of size distributions of electrically charged radio-active atmospheric aerosols, but which can also be used for measuring the grain-size distribution of any cloud of particles which will previously have been charged according to a known, reproducible law. An experimental study has been made of the development of this precipitator and also of its calibration. The electrical charge on spherical polystyrene latex particles suspended in air by atomization has been studied; a theoretical explanation of these results is put forward. (author) [fr

  9. Clustering of germanium atoms in silica glass responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band studied by optical absorption and X-ray absorption fine structure analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Muto, Shunsuke; Yuliati, Leny; Yoshida, Hisao; Inada, Yasuhiro

    2009-01-01

    Correlation between the 3.1 eV emission band and local atomic configuration was systematically examined for Ge + implanted silica glass by UV-vis optical absorption spectroscopy and X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis. The 2.7 eV emission band, commonly observed in defective silica, was replaced by the sharp and intense 3.1 eV emission band for the Ge + fluence > 2 x 10 16 cm -2 , in which UV-vis absorption spectra suggested clustering of Ge atoms with the size ∼1 nm. XAFS spectroscopy indicated that the Ge atoms were under coordinated with oxygen atoms nearly at a neutral valence state on average. The present results are consistent with the previous ESR study but imply that the small Ge clusters rather than the O=Ge: complexes (point defects) are responsible for the 3.1 eV emission band.

  10. Auroral nitric oxide concentration and infrared emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reidy, W. P.; Degges, T. C.; Hurd, A. G.; Stair, A. T., Jr.; Ulwick, J. C.

    1982-05-01

    Rocket-borne measurements of infrared auroral emission by nitric oxide are analyzed. Four rocket flights provided opportunities to measure 5.3- and 2.7-micron NO emission by means of infrared fixed band radiometers and CVF spectrometers, narrow band photometers, and incident energy spectra on various occasions. Analysis of infrared emission profiles and electron flux data indicates the NO density to be significantly enhanced with respect to midlatitude values. NO emission in the fundamental 5.3-micron band is attributed to resonance excitation by warm earth radiation, collisional excitation primarily by O atoms and chemiluminescence from the reaction of N with O2; with an energy efficiency of 0.015. The overtone band emission at 2.7 microns is accounted for by chemiluminescence produced with an energy efficiency of 0.0054. Total photon yield for the chemiluminescence reaction is estimated to range from 1.2 to 2.4 vibrational quanta per NO molecule.

  11. In-situ determination of cross-over point for overcoming plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, George C.-Y.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2008-01-01

    A novel method is described for overcoming plasma-related matrix effects in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The method is based on measurement of the vertically resolved atomic emission of analyte within the plasma and therefore requires the addition of no reagents to the sample solution or to the plasma. Plasma-related matrix effects enhance analyte emission intensity low in the plasma but depress the same emission signal at higher positions. Such bipolar behavior is true for all emission lines and matrices that induce plasma-related interferences. The transition where the enhancement is balanced by the depression (the so-called cross-over point) results in a spatial region with no apparent matrix effects. Although it would be desirable always to perform determinations at this cross-over point, its location varies between analytes and from matrix to matrix, so it would have to be found separately for every analyte and for every sample. Here, a novel approach is developed for the in-situ determination of the location of this cross-over point. It was found that the location of the cross-over point is practically invariant for a particular analyte emission line when the concentration of the matrix was varied. As a result, it is possible to determine in-situ the location of the cross-over point for all analyte emission lines in a sample by means of a simple one-step sample dilution. When the original sample is diluted by a factor of 2 and the diluted sample is analyzed again, the extent of the matrix effect is identical (zero) between the original sample and the diluted sample at one and only one location - the cross-over point. This novel method was verified with several single-element matrices (0.05 M Na, Ca, Ba and La) and some mixed-element matrices (mixtures of Na-Ca, Ca-Ba, and a plant-sample digest). The inaccuracy in emission intensity due to the matrix effect could be as large as - 30% for conventional measurements in the

  12. Characterization of a Carbon Nanotube Field Emission Electron Gun for the VAPoR Miniaturized Pyrolysis-Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getty, Stephanie; Li, Mary; Costen, Nicholas; Hess, Larry; Feng, Steve; King, Todd; Brinckerhoff, William; Mahaffy, Paul; Glavin, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We are developing the VAPoR (Volatile Analysis by Pyrolysis of Regolith) instrument towards studying soil composition, volatiles, and trapped noble gases in the polar regions of the Moon. VAPOR will ingest a soil sample and conduct analysis by pyrolysis and time-of-flight mass spectrometry (ToF-MS). Here, we describe miniaturization efforts within this development, including a carbon nanotube (CNT) field emission electron gun that is under consideration for use as the electron impact ionization source for the ToF-MS.

  13. Spherical grating spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Darragh; Clemens, J. Christopher

    2014-07-01

    We describe designs for spectrometers employing convex dispersers. The Offner spectrometer was the first such instrument; it has almost exclusively been employed on satellite platforms, and has had little impact on ground-based instruments. We have learned how to fabricate curved Volume Phase Holographic (VPH) gratings and, in contrast to the planar gratings of traditional spectrometers, describe how such devices can be used in optical/infrared spectrometers designed specifically for curved diffraction gratings. Volume Phase Holographic gratings are highly efficient compared to conventional surface relief gratings; they have become the disperser of choice in optical / NIR spectrometers. The advantage of spectrometers with curved VPH dispersers is the very small number of optical elements used (the simplest comprising a grating and a spherical mirror), as well as illumination of mirrors off axis, resulting in greater efficiency and reduction in size. We describe a "Half Offner" spectrometer, an even simpler version of the Offner spectrometer. We present an entirely novel design, the Spherical Transmission Grating Spectrometer (STGS), and discuss exemplary applications, including a design for a double-beam spectrometer without any requirement for a dichroic. This paradigm change in spectrometer design offers an alternative to all-refractive astronomical spectrometer designs, using expensive, fragile lens elements fabricated from CaF2 or even more exotic materials. The unobscured mirror layout avoids a major drawback of the previous generation of catadioptric spectrometer designs. We describe laboratory measurements of the efficiency and image quality of a curved VPH grating in a STGS design, demonstrating, simultaneously, efficiency comparable to planar VPH gratings along with good image quality. The stage is now set for construction of a prototype instrument with impressive performance.

  14. Low Altitude Emission (LAE) of Energetic Neutral Atoms (ENA) Observed by TWINS and its Relation to the CINEMA CubeSat Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazell, D.; Sotirelis, T.; Nair, H.; Roelof, E. C.; Brandt, P. C.

    2009-12-01

    The brightest source of energetic neutral atoms (ENAs) at energies >1keV is low altitude emission (LAE) from ~200-400km near auroral latitudes where precipitating energetic ions undergo multiple atomic collisions with the monatomic (O) exosphere. This emission is many times brighter than that from the high-altitude ring current region where the energetic ions interact only weakly with the much less dense monatomic (H) hydrogen geocorona. The recently selected NSF CubeSat mission CINEMA [Lin et al., this special session] has, as part of its science payload (STEIN), an ENA imager covering energies 4-100keV. From a high-inclination ~800km orbit, STEIN will view the LAE four times during every 90 minutes. The NASA TWINS stereo ENA imagers (2-40keV) will also view the LAE from their Molniya orbits (apogee radius~7Re). We have been analyzing the TWINS ENA images of LAE and comparing them with in situ ion measurements (1-40keV) from DMSP spacecraft when their tracks take them under the ion precipitation regions imaged by TWINS. We have developed an ENA emissivity function that relates the directionally-dependent emergent ENA spectrum to that of the precipitating ions. The TWINS/DMSP direct comparisons show good agreement. We offer suggestions on joint observing strategies for CINEMA, TWINS and DMSP after the CINEMA launch in the second half of 2011.

  15. Assessing the role of "bottom-up" emissions and simplified chemical mechanisms in reconciling CESM2.0 with TOGA observations from the ORCAS and ATom-2 campaigns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asher, E.; Emmons, L. K.; Kinnison, D. E.; Tilmes, S.; Hills, A. J.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Stephens, B. B.; Apel, E. C.

    2017-12-01

    Surface albedo and precipitation over the Southern Ocean are sensitive to parameterizations of aerosol formation and cloud dynamics in global climate models. Observations of precursor gases for natural aerosols can help constrain the uncertainty in these parameterizations, if used in conjunction with an appropriately simplified chemical mechanism. We implement current oceanic "bottom-up" emission climatologies of dimethyl sulfide (DMS) and isoprene in CESM2.0 (Lana et al. 2016; Archer et al. 2009) and compare modeled constituents from two separate chemical mechanisms with data obtained from the Trace Organic Gas Analyzer (TOGA) on the O2/N2 Ratios and CO2 Airborne Study in the Southern Ocean (ORCAS) and the Atmospheric Tomography Mission 2 (ATom-2). We use ORCAS measurements of DMS, isoprene, methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) from over 10 flights in Jan. - Feb. 2016 as a training dataset to improve "bottom-up" emissions. Thereafter, we evaluate the scaled "top-down" emissions in CESM with TOGA data obtained from the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom-2) in Feb. 2017. Recent laboratory studies at NCAR confirm that TOGA surpasses proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and commercial gas chromatography (GC) instruments with respect to accurate measurements of oxygenated VOCs in low nitrogen oxide (NO) environments, such as MVK and MACR.

  16. Sputtering measurements on JET using a multichannel visible spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamp, M.F.; Morgan, P.D.; Summers, H.P.

    1989-01-01

    A multichannel visible spectrometer has been used on JET to simultaneously observe the emission from D, H, C and O atoms and ions in the proximity of a belt limiter. The absolute intensity of the line emission, along with a Langmuir probe measurement of the edge electron temperature and an atomic physics model, allows us to calculate the influxes of these species. Under steady-state conditions the influxes of D and He are the same as the effluxes, so the ratio of impurity to fuel fluxes, e.g. carbon to deuterium, is the apparent sputtering yield of deuterium on carbon in the tokamak environment. The measured flux ratio Γ c /Γ D is also indicative of the central carbon impurity concentration in JET, because the limiters are the main source of impurities. For similar particle transport, Γ c /Γ D =n c (o)/n D (o), so for a 10% flux ratio, n c /n e =6.6%, Z eff =3. (author) 7 refs., 5 figs

  17. The SPEDE spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadakis, P.; Cox, D. M.; O'Neill, G. G.; Borge, M. J. G.; Butler, P. A.; Gaffney, L. P.; Greenlees, P. T.; Herzberg, R.-D.; Illana, A.; Joss, D. T.; Konki, J.; Kröll, T.; Ojala, J.; Page, R. D.; Rahkila, P.; Ranttila, K.; Thornhill, J.; Tuunanen, J.; Van Duppen, P.; Warr, N.; Pakarinen, J.

    2018-03-01

    The electron spectrometer, SPEDE, has been developed and will be employed in conjunction with the Miniball spectrometer at the HIE-ISOLDE facility, CERN. SPEDE allows for direct measurement of internal conversion electrons emitted in-flight, without employing magnetic fields to transport or momentum filter the electrons. Together with the Miniball spectrometer, it enables simultaneous observation of γ rays and conversion electrons in Coulomb excitation experiments using radioactive ion beams.

  18. A gamma scintillation spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Symbalisty, S

    1952-07-01

    A scintillation type gamma ray spectrometer employing coincidence counting, designed and built at the Physics Department of the University of Western Ontario is described. The spectrometer is composed of two anthracene and photomultiplier radiation detectors, two pulse analyzing channels, a coincidence stage, three scalers and a high voltage stabilized supply. A preliminary experiment to test the operation of the spectrometer was performed and the results of this test are presented. (author)

  19. Determination of some inorganic metals in edible vegetable oils by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Özcan, M.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Seventeen edible vegetable oils were analyzed spectrometrically for their metal (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn contents. Toxic metals in edible vegetable oils were determined by Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry (ICP-AES. The highest metal concentrations were measured as 0.0850, 0.0352, 0.0220, 0.0040, 0.0010, 0.0074, 0.0045, 0.0254 and 0.2870 mg/kg for copper in almond oil, for iron in corn oil-(c, for manganese in soybean oil, for cobalt in sunflower oil-(b and almond oil, for chromium in almond oil, for lead in virgin olive oil, for cadmium in sunflower oil-(e, for nickel almond oil and for zinc in almond oil respectively. The method for determining toxic metals in edible vegetable oils by using ICP-AES is discussed. The metals were extracted from low quantities of oil (2-3 g with a 10% nitric acid solution. The extracted metal in acid solution can be injected into the ICPAES. The proposed method is simple and allows the metals to be determined in edible vegetable oils with a precision estimated below 10% relative standard deviation (RSD for Cu, 5% for Fe, 15% for Mn, 8% for Co, 10% for Cr, 20% for Pb, 5% for Cd, 16% for Ni and 11% for Zn.En este estudio se analizó espectrométricamente el contenido en metales (Cu, Fe, Mn, Co, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Zn de 17 aceites vegetales comestibles mediante ICP-AES. Las concentaciones más elevadas se encontraron para el cobre en el aceite de almendra (0.0850 mg/kg, para el hierro en el aceite de maiz(c,(0.0352 mg/kg, para el manganeso en el aceite de soja (0.0220 mg/kg, para el cobalto en el aceite de girasol (b (0.0040 mg/kg, para el cromo en el aceite de almendra (0.0010 mg/kg, para el plomo en el aceite de oliva virgen (0.0074 mg/kg, para el cadmio en el aceite de girasol (e (0.0045 mg/kg, para el niquel en el aceite de almendra (0.0254 mg/kg y para el zincen el aceite de almendra (0.2870 mg/kg. Los metales se extrajeron a partir de bajas cantidades de aceite (2-3 g, con

  20. Determination of 21 trace impurities in UO2 with tributyl phosphate chromatographic separation-USN-inductively coupled/atomic emission spectrometric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hou Lieqi; Wang Shuan; Li Jie

    1996-03-01

    A method of tributyl phosphate chromatographic separation-USN-inductively coupled/atomic emission spectrometric was selected. And the parameters, interference of acid concentrations, interference of coexisting elements, selecting of flow for carrier gas, solution temperature were studied. When the sampling amount is 250 mg, the determination range for Al, Ag, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, In, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sn, Ti, V, Y and Zn are 0.2∼100 ng· -1 , recovery are 94%∼110%. The RSD (n 8) are 0.8%∼6.2%. (3 refs., 4 tabs.)

  1. Semi-automated technique for the separation and determination of barium and strontium in surface waters by ion exchange chromatography and atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, F.D.; Brown, H.R.

    1977-01-01

    A semi-automated method for the separation and the analysis of barium and strontium in surface waters by atomic emission spectrometry is described. The method employs a semi-automated separation technique using ion exchange and an automated aspiration-analysis procedure. Forty specimens can be prepared in approximately 90 min and can be analyzed for barium and strontium content in 20 min. The detection limits and sensitivities provided by the described technique are 0.003 mg/l and 0.01 mg/l respectively for barium and 0.00045 mg/l and 0.003 mg/l respectively for strontium

  2. Use of oxidative and reducing vapor generation for reducing the detection limits of iodine in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vtorushina, Eh.A.; Saprykin, A.I.; Knapp, G.

    2009-01-01

    Procedures of microwave combustion in an oxygen flow and microwave acid decomposition of biological samples were optimized for the subsequent determination of iodine. A new method was proposed for the generation of molecular iodine from periodate iona using hydrogen peroxide as a reductant. Procedures were developed for determining iodine in biological samples by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) using oxidative and reducing vapor generation; these allowed the detection limit for iodine to be lowered by 3-4 orders of magnitude. The developed procedures were used to analyze certified reference materials of milk (Skim Milk Powder BCR 150) and seaweed (Sea Lettuce BCR 279) and a Supradyn vitamin complex

  3. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lockrem, L.L.; Owens, J.W.; Seidel, C.M.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste samples in a hot cell environment. The 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  4. LASER ABLATION-INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROSCOPY STUDY AT THE 222-S LABORATORY USING HOT-CELL GLOVE BOX PROTOTYPE SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, C.M.; Jain, J.; Owens, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the installation, testing, and acceptance of the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) procured laser ablation-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (LA-ICP-AES) system for remotely analyzing high-level waste (HLW) samples in a hot cell environment. The work was completed by the Analytical Process Development (APD) group in accordance with Task Order 2005-003; ATS MP 1027, Management Plan for Waste Treatment Plant Project Work Performed by Analytical Technical Services. The APD group at the 222-S Laboratory demonstrated acceptable turnaround time (TAT) and provide sufficient data to assess sensitivity, accuracy, and precision of the LA-ICP-AES method

  5. Optimization and development of the instrumental parameters for a method of multielemental analysis through atomic spectroscopy emission, for the determination of My, Fe Mn and Cr

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lanzoni Vindas, E.

    1998-01-01

    This study optimized the instrumental parameters of a method of multielemental (sequential) analysis, through atomic emission, for the determination of My, Fe,Mn and Cr. It used the factorial design at two levels and the method of Simplex optimization, that permitted the determination of the four cations under the same instrumental conditions. The author studied an analytic system, in which the conditions were not lineal between instrumental answers and the concentration, having to make adjustment of the calibration curves in homocedastic and heterocedastic conditions. (S. Grainger)

  6. Emissive properties of xenon ions from a laser-produced plasma in the 100-140 Aa spectral range: Atomic-physics analysis of the experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilleron, F.; Poirier, M.; Blenski, T.; Schmidt, M.; Ceccotti, T.

    2003-01-01

    In order to design extreme ultraviolet (EUV) sources for nanolithography, xenon EUV emission has been experimentally studied in a plasma generated by the interaction of a high-power laser with a droplet jet. A theoretical model assuming that the resulting plasma is optically thick allows one to find the distribution of the relevant ions and transitions involved in the emission process. Atomic physics computations are performed using the HULLAC code to give a detailed account of the transitions involved. The importance of 4p-4d, 4d-4f, and 4d-5p transitions is stressed, as well as the need for configuration-interaction treatment of the Δn=0 transitions. Comparisons of a modeled local thermodynamical equilibrium spectrum with experiment provides qualitative agreement and permits an estimate of the plasma temperature, density, and dimensions

  7. Determination of low cadmium concentrations in wine by on-line preconcentration in a knotted reactor coupled to an inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer with ultrasonic nebulization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lara, R.F. [Inst. de Investigaciones Mineras, Universidad Nacional de San Juan (Argentina); Wuilloud, R.G.; Salonia, J.A. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Olsina, R.A.; Martinez, L.D. [Dept. of Analytical Chemistry, National University of San Luis (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)

    2001-12-01

    An on-line cadmium preconcentration and determination system implemented with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) associated to flow injection (FI) with ultrasonic nebulization system (USN) was studied. The cadmium was retained as the cadmium-2-(5-bromo-2-pyridylazo)-5-diethylaminophenol, Cd-(5-Br-PADAP), complex, at pH 9.5. The cadmium complex was removed from the knotted reactor (KR) with 3.0 mol/L nitric acid. A total enhancement factor of 216 was obtained with respect to ICP-OES using pneumatic nebulization (12 for USN and 18 for KR) with a preconcentration time of 60 s. The value of the detection limit for the preconcentration of 5 mL of sample solution was 5 ng/L. The precision for 10 replicate determinations at the 5 {mu}g/L Cd level was 2.9% relative standard deviation (RSD), calculated from the peak heights obtained. The calibration graph using the preconcentration system for cadmium was linear with a correlation coefficient of 0.9998 at levels near the detection limits up to at least 1000 {mu}g/L. The method was successfully applied to the determination of cadmium in wine samples. (orig.)

  8. Characterization of a microwave microstrip helium plasma with gas-phase sample introduction for the optical emission spectrometric determination of bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon using a miniaturized optical fiber spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, Pawel; Zapata, Israel Jimenez; Amberger, Martin A.; Bings, Nicolas H.; Broekaert, Jose A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous flow generation of Br 2 , Cl 2 and H 2 S coupled to a low-power 2.45 GHz microwave microstrip He plasma exiting from a capillary gas channel in a micro-fabricated sapphire wafer with microstrip lines has been used for the optical emission spectrometric determination of Br, Cl and S using a miniaturized optical fiber CCD spectrometer. Under optimized conditions, detection limits (3σ) of 330, 190 and 220 μg l -1 for Br, Cl and S, respectively, under the use of the Br II 478.5 nm, Cl I 439.0 nm and S I 469.0 nm lines were obtained and the calibration curves were found to be linear over 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, when introducing CO 2 and using the rotational line of the CN molecular band at 385.7 nm the detection limit for C was 4.6 μg l -1 . The procedure developed was found to be free from interferences from a number of metal cations and non-metal anions. Only the presence of CO 3 2- and CN - was found to cause severe spectral interferences as strong CN and C 2 molecular bands occurred as a result of an introduction of co-generated CO 2 and HCN into the plasma. With the procedure described Br, Cl and S could be determined at a concentration level of 10-30 mg l -1 with accuracy and precision better than 2%

  9. Electron-ion-x-ray spectrometer system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Southworth, S.H.; Deslattes, R.D.; MacDonald, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    The authors describe a spectrometer system developed for electron, ion, and x-ray spectroscopy of gas-phase atoms and molecules following inner-shell excitation by tunable synchrotron radiation. The spectrometer has been used on beamline X-24A at the National Synchrotron Light Source for excitation-dependent studies of Ar L-shell and K-shell photoexcitation and vacancy decay processes. The instrumentation and experimental methods are discussed, and examples are given of electron spectra and coincidence spectra between electrons and fluorescent x-rays

  10. Mass spectrometers in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bushman, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes how the mass spectrometer enables true lung function, namely the exchange of gases between the environment and the organism, to be measured. This has greatly improved the understanding of respiratory disease and the latest generation of respiratory mass spectrometers will do much to increase the application of the technique. (author)

  11. The Omicron Spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Allardyce, B W

    1976-01-01

    It is intended to build a spectrometer with a large solid angle and a large momentum acceptance at the reconstructed synchrocyclotron at CERN. This spectrometer will have an energy resolution of about 1 MeV for particles with momenta up to about 400 MeV/c.

  12. Development of triple axis neutron spectrometer (Paper No. 24)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, B.C.; Wadhwa, N.R.; Goveas, S.H.

    1987-02-01

    The triple axis neutron spectrometers are the basic instruments intended for use with neutron beams from reactors. Various types of spectrometers, each devoted to different kinds of measurement can be designed and manufactured, once a prototype having all the attributes of a versatile instrument is designed and developed. With the view to achieving self reliance in this field, Central Workshops of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Bombay designed and developed a prototype of triple axis spectrometer meeting the specifications prepared by Nuclear Physics Division of BARC . This spectrometer, with a moving wedge system was successfully manufactured and installed at 'DHRUVA'. Another version of this spectrometer, called the 'Polarised Neutron Spectrometer' was also built and exported to South Korea and installed at Korea Advanced Energy Research Institute, Seoul. This paper deals with basic concept, development of design, engineering of mechanical assemblies, the manufacturing approach and problems encountered during manufacture. (author). 3 figs

  13. On the multiphoton emission during U.V. and X-ray absorption by atoms in intense laser fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, L.C.M.

    1981-09-01

    A discussion of the u.v. and x-ray absorption cross section by a hydrogen atom in the presence of an intense i.r. laser field is presented, taking into account the influence of laser field on the electronic states. (Author) [pt

  14. Fast calculator for X-ray emission due to Radiative Recombination and Radiative Electron Capture in relativistic heavy-ion atom collisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herdrich, M. O.; Weber, G.; Gumberidze, A.; Wu, Z. W.; Stöhlker, Th.

    2017-10-01

    In experiments with highly charged, fast heavy ions the Radiative Recombination (RR) and Radiative Electron Capture (REC) processes have significant cross sections in an energy range of up to a few GeV / u . They are some of the most important charge changing processes in collisions of heavy ions with atoms and electrons, leading to the emission of a photon along with the formation of the ground and excited atomic states. Hence, for the understanding and planning of experiments, in particular for X-ray spectroscopy studies, at accelerator ring facilities, such as FAIR, it is crucial to have a good knowledge of these cross sections and the associated radiation characteristics. In the frame of this work a fast calculator, named RECAL, for the RR and REC process is presented and its capabilities are demonstrated with the analysis of a recently conducted experiment at the Experimental Storage Ring (ESR) at the GSI Helmholtz Center for Heavy Ion Research in Darmstadt, Germany. A method is presented to determine unknown X-ray emission cross sections via normalization of the recorded spectra to REC cross sections calculated by RECAL.

  15. Study of neutron spectrometers for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaellne, Jan

    2005-11-15

    A review is presented of the developments in the field of neutron emission spectrometry (NES) which is of relevance for identifying the role of NES diagnostics on ITER and selecting suitable instrumentation. Neutron spectrometers will be part of the ITER neutron diagnostic complement and this study makes a special effort to examine which performance characteristics the spectrometers should possess to provide the best burning plasma diagnostic information together with neutron cameras and neutron yield monitors. The performance of NES diagnostics is coupled to how much interface space can be provided which has lead to an interest to find compact instruments and their NES capabilities. This study assesses all known spectrometer types of potential interest for ITER and makes a ranking of their performance (as demonstrated or projected), which, in turn, are compared with ITER measurement requirements as a reference; the ratio of diagnostic performance to interface cost for different spectrometers is also discussed for different spectrometer types. The overall result of the study is an assessment of which diagnostic functions neutron measurements can provide in burning plasma fusion experiments on ITER and the role that NES can play depending on the category of instrument installed. Of special note is the result that much higher quality diagnostic information can be obtained from neutron measurements with total yield monitors, profile flux cameras and spectrometers when the synergy in the data is considered in the analysis and interpretation.

  16. Application of a VMI spectrometer to near-threshold photoionization with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Keeffe, P; Bolognesi, P; Ovcharenko, E; Avaldi, L; Mihelic, A; Richter, R; Moise, A; King, G C

    2011-01-01

    A new developed velocity map imaging spectrometer has been used to study the photoionization of atoms near threshold. The application of the spectrometer to the measurement of the angular distributions of the photoelectrons emitted in the photoionization of the Ne 2p 3/2 state between the 2p spin orbit thresholds and of polarised Ne atoms are presented.

  17. The SAGE spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J. [STFC Daresbury Laboratory, Warrington (United Kingdom)

    2014-03-15

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  18. The SAGE spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakarinen, J.; Papadakis, P.; Sorri, J.; Greenlees, P.T.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Konki, J.; Rahkila, P.; Sandzelius, M.; Herzberg, R.D.; Butler, P.A.; Cox, D.M.; Cresswell, J.R.; Mistry, A.; Page, R.D.; Parr, E.; Sampson, J.; Seddon, D.A.; Thornhill, J.; Wells, D.; Coleman-Smith, P.J.; Lazarus, I.H.; Letts, S.C.; Pucknell, V.F.E.; Simpson, J.

    2014-01-01

    The SAGE spectrometer has been constructed for in-beam nuclear structure studies. SAGE combines a Ge-detector array and an electron spectrometer for detection of γ-rays and internal conversion electrons, respectively, and allows simultaneous observation of both electrons and γ-rays emitted from excited nuclei. SAGE is set up in the Accelerator Laboratory of the University of Jyvaeskylae and works in conjunction with the RITU gas-filled recoil separator and the GREAT focal-plane spectrometer allowing the use of the recoil-decay tagging method. (orig.)

  19. The MEG positron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiguchi, Hajime

    2007-01-01

    We have been developing an innovative spectrometer for the MEG experiment at the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in Switzerland. This experiment searches for a lepton flavour violating decay μ + →e + γ with a sensitivity of 10 -13 in order to explore the region predicted by supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. The MEG positron spectrometer consists of a specially designed superconducting solenoidal magnet with a highly graded field, an ultimate low-mass drift chamber system, and a precise time measuring counter system. This innovative positron spectrometer is described here focusing on the drift chamber system

  20. Deflection of atomic beams with isotope separation by optical resonance radiation using stimulated emission and the ac stark effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjorkholm, J.E.; Liao, P.F.H.

    1977-01-01

    Improved atomic beam deflection and improved isotope separation, even in vapors, is proposed by substituting the A.C. Stark effect for the baseband chirp of the pushing beam in the prior proposal by I. Nebenzahl et al., Applied Physics Letters, Vol. 25, page 327 (September 1974). The efficiency inherent in re-using the photons as in the Nebenzahl et al proposal is retained; but the external frequency chirpers are avoided. The entire process is performed by two pulses of monochromatic coherent light, thereby avoiding the complication of amplifying frequency-modulated light pulses. The A.C. Stark effect is provided by the second beam of coherent monochromatic light, which is sufficiently intense to chirp the energy levels of the atoms or isotopes of the atomic beam or vapor. Although, in general, the A.C. Stark effect will alter the isotope shift somewhat, it is not eliminated. In fact, the appropriate choice of frequencies of the pushing and chirping beams may even relax the requirements with respect to the isotope absorption line shift for effective separation. That is, it may make the isotope absorption lines more easily resolvable

  1. Combination of the ionic-to-atomic line intensity ratios from two test elements for the diagnostic of plasma temperature and electron number density in Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tognoni, E. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: tognoni@ipcf.cnr.it; Hidalgo, M.; Canals, A. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia. Universidad de Alicante. Apdo. 99, 03080, Alicante (Spain); Cristoforetti, G.; Legnaioli, S.; Salvetti, A.; Palleschi, V. [Istituto per i Processi Chimico-Fisici, Area della Ricerca del Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2007-05-15

    In Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-AES) spectrochemical analysis, the MgII(280.270 nm)/MgI(285.213 nm) ionic to atomic line intensity ratio is commonly used as a monitor of the robustness of operating conditions. This approach is based on the univocal relationship existing between intensity ratio and plasma temperature, for a pure argon atmospheric ICP in thermodynamic equilibrium. In a multi-elemental plasma in the lower temperature range, the measurement of the intensity ratio may not be sufficient to characterize temperature and electron density. In such a range, the correct relationship between intensity ratio and plasma temperature can be calculated only when the complete plasma composition is known. We propose the combination of the line intensity ratios of two test elements (double ratio) as an effective diagnostic tool for a multi-elemental low temperature LTE plasma of unknown composition. In particular, the variation of the double ratio allows us discriminating changes in the plasma temperature from changes in the electron density. Thus, the effects on plasma excitation and ionization possibly caused by introduction of different samples and matrices in non-robust conditions can be more accurately interpreted. The method is illustrated by the measurement of plasma temperature and electron density in a specific analytic case.

  2. Use of gradient dilution to flag and overcome matrix interferences in axial-viewing inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Yan; Schwartz, Andrew J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the undisputed power of inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), its users still face serious challenges in obtaining accurate analytical results. Matrix interference is perhaps the most important challenge. Dilution of a matrix-containing sample is a common practice to reduce matrix interference. However, determining the optimal dilution factor requires tedious and time-consuming offline sample preparation, since emission lines and the effect of matrix interferences are affected differently by the dilution. The current study exploits this difference by employing a high-performance liquid chromatography gradient pump prior to the nebulizer to perform on-line mixing of a sample solution and diluent. Linear gradient dilution is performed on both the calibration standard and the matrix-containing sample. By ratioing the signals from two emission lines (from the same or different elements) as a function of dilution factor, the analyst can not only identify the presence of a matrix interference, but also determine the optimal dilution factor needed to overcome the interference. A ratio that does not change with dilution signals the absence of a matrix interference, whereas a changing ratio indicates the presence of an interference. The point on the dilution profile where the ratio stabilizes indicates the optimal dilution factor to correct the interference. The current study was performed on axial-viewing ICP-AES with o-xylene as the solvent

  3. Digital positron annihilation spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Bin; Weng Huimin; Han Rongdian; Ye Bangjiao

    2010-01-01

    With the high speed development of digital signal process, the technique of the digitization and processing of signals was applied in the domain of a broad class of nuclear technique. The development of digital positron lifetime spectrometer (DPLS) is more promising than the conventional positron lifetime spectrometer equipped with nuclear instrument modules. And digital lifetime spectrometer has many advantages, such as low noise, long term stability, flexible online or offline digital processing, simple setup, low expense, easy to setting, and more physical information. Digital constant fraction discrimination is for timing. And a new method of optimizing energy windows setting for digital positron lifetime spectrometer is also developed employing the simulated annealing for the convenient use. The time resolution is 220ps and the count rate is 200cps. (authors)

  4. Micro Plasma Spectrometer

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of this IRAD project is to develop a preliminary design elements of miniature electron and ion plasma spectrometers and supporting electronics, focusing...

  5. Fourier Transform Spectrometer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Joel F. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A Fourier transform spectrometer (FTS) data acquisition system includes an FTS spectrometer that receives a spectral signal and a laser signal. The system further includes a wideband detector, which is in communication with the FTS spectrometer and receives the spectral signal and laser signal from the FTS spectrometer. The wideband detector produces a composite signal comprising the laser signal and the spectral signal. The system further comprises a converter in communication with the wideband detector to receive and digitize the composite signal. The system further includes a signal processing unit that receives the composite signal from the converter. The signal processing unit further filters the laser signal and the spectral signal from the composite signal and demodulates the laser signal, to produce velocity corrected spectral data.

  6. A new nebulization device with exchangeable aerosol generation mode as a useful tool to investigate sample introduction processes in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grotti, Marco; Lagomarsino, Cristina; Frache, Roberto

    2004-01-01

    A new sample introduction device has been designed in order to differentiate between the effects of the aerosol production and its following desolvation on analytical performances of an inductively coupled plasma optical spectrometer. This research tool allows to easily switch between the pneumatic and ultrasonic aerosol generation mode and to use a joint desolvation chamber. In this way, a real comparison between aerosol production systems may be attained and the influence of aerosol generation process on analytical figures clearly distinguished from that of the desolvation process. In this work, the separate effects of the aerosol generation and desolvation processes on analytical sensitivity and tolerance towards matrix effects have been investigated. Concerning sensitivity, it was found that both the processes play an important role in determining emission intensities, being the increase in sensitivity due to desolvation higher than that due to the improved aerosol generation efficiency. Concerning the matrix effects, a predominant role of the desolvation system was found, while the influence of the aerosol generation mode was much less important. For nitric acid, the decreasing effect was mitigated by the presence of a desolvation system, due to partial removal of the acid. On the contrary, the depressive effect of sulfuric acid was enhanced by the presence of a desolvation system, due to degradation of the solvent removal efficiency and to further decrease in the analyte transport rate caused by clustering phenomena. Concerning the interferences due to sodium and calcium, a depressive effect was observed, which is enhanced by desolvation

  7. Characterization of a microwave microstrip helium plasma with gas-phase sample introduction for the optical emission spectrometric determination of bromine, chlorine, sulfur and carbon using a miniaturized optical fiber spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohl, Pawel; Zapata, Israel Jimenez; Amberger, Martin A.; Bings, Nicolas H. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany); Broekaert, Jose A.C. [Universitaet Hamburg, Institut fuer Anorganische und Angewandte Chemie, Martin-Luther-King-Platz 6, D-20146 Hamburg (Germany)], E-mail: jose.broekaert@chemie.uni-hamburg.de

    2008-03-15

    Continuous flow generation of Br{sub 2}, Cl{sub 2} and H{sub 2}S coupled to a low-power 2.45 GHz microwave microstrip He plasma exiting from a capillary gas channel in a micro-fabricated sapphire wafer with microstrip lines has been used for the optical emission spectrometric determination of Br, Cl and S using a miniaturized optical fiber CCD spectrometer. Under optimized conditions, detection limits (3{sigma}) of 330, 190 and 220 {mu}g l{sup -1} for Br, Cl and S, respectively, under the use of the Br II 478.5 nm, Cl I 439.0 nm and S I 469.0 nm lines were obtained and the calibration curves were found to be linear over 2 orders of magnitude. In addition, when introducing CO{sub 2} and using the rotational line of the CN molecular band at 385.7 nm the detection limit for C was 4.6 {mu}g l{sup -1}. The procedure developed was found to be free from interferences from a number of metal cations and non-metal anions. Only the presence of CO{sub 3}{sup 2-} and CN{sup -} was found to cause severe spectral interferences as strong CN and C{sub 2} molecular bands occurred as a result of an introduction of co-generated CO{sub 2} and HCN into the plasma. With the procedure described Br, Cl and S could be determined at a concentration level of 10-30 mg l{sup -1} with accuracy and precision better than 2%.

  8. MID-INFRARED ATOMIC FINE-STRUCTURE EMISSION-LINE SPECTRA OF LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES: SPITZER/IRS SPECTRA OF THE GOALS SAMPLE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inami, H. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Armus, L.; Stierwalt, S.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Surace, J.; Howell, J.; Marshall, J. [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, CA 91125 (United States); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Groves, B. [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Königstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Kewley, L. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Australian National University, Cotter Road, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Petric, A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 320-47, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Rich, J. [The Observatories, Carnegie Institute of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Haan, S. [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, Marsfield, NSW 2122 (Australia); Evans, A. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Mazzarella, J.; Lord, S. [Infrared Processing and Analysis Center, MS 100-22, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Appleton, P. [NASA Herschel Science Center, 770 South Wilson Avenue, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Spoon, H. [Astronomy Department, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Frayer, D. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 2, Green Bank, WV 24944 (United States); Matsuhara, H., E-mail: inami@noao.edu [Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (Japan); and others

    2013-11-10

    We present the data and our analysis of mid-infrared atomic fine-structure emission lines detected in Spitzer/Infrared Spectrograph high-resolution spectra of 202 local Luminous Infrared Galaxies (LIRGs) observed as part of the Great Observatories All-sky LIRG Survey (GOALS). We readily detect emission lines of [S IV], [Ne II], [Ne V], [Ne III], [S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}}, [O IV], [Fe II], [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}, and [Si II]. More than 75% of these galaxies are classified as starburst-dominated sources in the mid-infrared, based on the [Ne V]/[Ne II] line flux ratios and equivalent width of the 6.2 μm polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon feature. We compare ratios of the emission-line fluxes to those predicted from stellar photo-ionization and shock-ionization models to constrain the physical and chemical properties of the gas in the starburst LIRG nuclei. Comparing the [S IV]/[Ne II] and [Ne III]/[Ne II] line ratios to the Starburst99-Mappings III models with an instantaneous burst history, the emission-line ratios suggest that the nuclear starbursts in our LIRGs have ages of 1-4.5 Myr, metallicities of 1-2 Z{sub ☉}, and ionization parameters of 2-8 × 10{sup 7} cm s{sup –1}. Based on the [S III]{sub 33.5{sub μm}}/[S III]{sub 18.7{sub μm}} ratios, the electron density in LIRG nuclei is typically one to a few hundred cm{sup –3}, with a median electron density of ∼300 cm{sup –3}, for those sources above the low density limit for these lines. We also find that strong shocks are likely present in 10 starburst-dominated sources of our sample. A significant fraction of the GOALS sources (80) have resolved neon emission-line profiles (FWHM ≥600 km s{sup –1}) and five show clear differences in the velocities of the [Ne III] or [Ne V] emission lines, relative to [Ne II], of more than 200 km s{sup –1}. Furthermore, six starburst and five active galactic nucleus dominated LIRGs show a clear trend of increasing line width with ionization potential

  9. Multichannel Dynamic Fourier-Transform IR Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balashov, A. A.; Vaguine, V. A.; Golyak, Il. S.; Morozov, A. N.; Khorokhorin, A. I.

    2017-09-01

    A design of a multichannel continuous scan Fourier-transform IR spectrometer for simultaneous recording and analysis of the spectral characteristics of several objects is proposed. For implementing the design, a multi-probe fiber is used, constructed from several optical fibers connected into a single optical connector and attached at the output of the interferometer. The Fourier-transform spectrometer is used as a signal modulator. Each fiber is individually mated with an investigated sample and a dedicated radiation detector. For the developed system, the radiation intensity of the spectrometer is calculated from the condition of the minimum spectral resolution and parameters of the optical fibers. Using the proposed design, emission spectra of a gas-discharge neon lamp have been recorded using a single fiber 1 mm in diameter with a numerical aperture NA = 0.22.

  10. Calibration of an electron volt neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayers, J.; Adams, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The procedure for calibrating the VESUVIO eV neutron spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source is described. VESUVIO is used primarily to measure the momentum distribution n(p) of atoms, by inelastic scattering of very high energy (5-150 eV) neutrons. The results of the calibrations show that measurements of n(p) in atoms with masses lower than 16 amu can be measured with a resolution width ∼25% of the intrinsic peak widths in the current instrument configuration. Some suggestions as to how the instrument resolution could be significantly improved are made.

  11. Testing of the SPEDE conversion electron spectrometer at ISOLDE

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2157167

    2017-04-24

    The aim of this work was to test the performance of the SPEDE detector in the MINIBALL setup at CERN’s ISOLDE laboratory. The main research objective of MINIBALL is to study properties of atomic nuclei employing radioactive ion beams. Radioactive Bi-207 and Hg-191 were used in this experiment. SPEDE detects internal conversion electrons which are created in transitions between states in atomic nucleus. The internal conversion is competing process to more common γ-ray emission. This way it is possible to measure different properties of nuclear structure for example the E0-transitions. The simultaneous γ and electron measurements are possible when SPEDE is used in conjunction with the MINIBALL spectrometer. The GEANT4 simulation results were used to help interpretation of experimental results. As a result, αK/L-ratio was determined for Bi-207 conversion electrons, for the 5^2− -> 1^2− transition αK/L = 3.29±0.06 and for the 13^2+-> 5^2− transition αK/L = 3.11±0.05 were obtained. Also, the partial...

  12. Speciation of mercury compounds by gas chromatography with atomic emission detection. Simultaneous optimization of a headspace solid-phase microextraction and derivatization procedure by use of chemometric techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carro, A.M.; Neira, I.; Rodil, R.; Lorenzo, R. A. [Univ. Santiago de Compostela (Spain). Dpto. Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia

    2003-06-01

    A method is proposed for the extraction and determination of organomercury compounds and Hg(II) in seawater samples by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) combined with capillary gas chromatography-microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry. The mercury species were derivatized with sodium tetraphenylborate, sorbed on a polydimethylsiloxane-coated fused-silica fibre, and desorbed in the injection port of the GC, in splitless mode. Experimental design methodology was used to evaluate the effect of six HS-SPME-derivatization variables: sample volume, NaBPh{sub 4} volume, pH, sorption time, extraction-derivatization temperature, and rate of stirring. Use of a multicriterion decision-making approach, with the desirability function, enabled determination of the optimum working conditions of the procedure for simultaneous analysis of three mercury species. (orig.)

  13. Speciation analysis of organomercurial compounds in Fish Tissue by capillary gas chromatography coupled to microwave-induced plasma atomic emission detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorfe Díaz

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel approach for analysis of mercury speciation in fish using gas chromatography coupled with microwave-induced plasma optical emission spectrometry (GC-MIP-OES in surfatron resonant cavity. Sample treatment was based on quantitative leaching of mercury species from fish tissue with ultrasound-assisted acid-toluene extraction. The extracted mercury species analyzed with GC-MIP-OES attained detection limits of 5 and 9 pg for methylmercury (MeHg and ethylmercury (EtHg, respectively. A complete chromatogram could be completed in 1.5 min. MeHg values obtained with GC-MIP-OES were matched with organic mercury values obtained with selective reduction cold vapour- atomic absorption spectrometry (CV-AAS.

  14. Determination of Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd by atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma in waters and sediments from San Juan Ecosystem, Santiago de Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argota Perez, George; Argota Coello, Humberto; Fernandez-Heredia, Angel

    2014-01-01

    In this paper the levels of concentration of copper, zinc, lead and cadmium in waters and sediments from the ecosystem San Juan in the Santiago of Cuba province were evaluated. Two sampling of the ecosystem in two stations belonging to the high and middle part of the river, in rainy and little rainy periods were carried out. The conservation and treatment of the samples were developed according to established standards and the determinations of the elements were realized using atomic emission spectrometry with inductively coupled plasma. The concentrations intervals of the studied elements were established so much in the superficial waters like in the sediments and it was demonstrated that exists statistical significant differences for the factors station, period and type of sample, being the middle part of the river, the little rainy period and the sediments, where the grater concentrations of the pollutants appear

  15. Laser based analysis using a passively Q-switched laser employing analysis electronics and a means for detecting atomic optical emission of the laser media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Steven D.; Mcintyre, Dustin L.

    2016-03-29

    A device for Laser based Analysis using a Passively Q-Switched Laser comprising an optical pumping source optically connected to a laser media. The laser media and a Q-switch are positioned between and optically connected to a high reflectivity mirror (HR) and an output coupler (OC) along an optical axis. The output coupler (OC) is optically connected to the output lens along the optical axis. A means for detecting atomic optical emission comprises a filter and a light detector. The optical filter is optically connected to the laser media and the optical detector. A control system is connected to the optical detector and the analysis electronics. The analysis electronics are optically connected to the output lens. The detection of the large scale laser output production triggers the control system to initiate the precise timing and data collection from the detector and analysis.

  16. Critical comparison of performances of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and neutron activation analysis for the determination of elements in human lungs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alimonti, A.; Coni, E.; Caroli, S.; Sabbioni, E.; Nicolaou, G.E.; Pietra, R.

    1989-01-01

    A study was carried out to assess the performance of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and neutron activation analysis (NAA) techniques for determining reference values for Al, Cd, Cr, Cu, Mg, Mn, V and Zn in human lungs of urban non-smoking subjects. Experimental data were subjected to the usual basic statistical tests to evaluate the respective merits of the two basically different analytical techniques. Both approaches, if used under carefully optimised experimental conditions, can yield reliable results affected only minimally by systematic and random errors. On the other hand, on a more routine basis, particular attention should be paid to elements such as Al, Cd and V which may pose some problems with both techniques. (author)

  17. Determination of benzothiazole and alkylphosphates in water samples from the Great Lakes Drainage Basin by gas chromatography/atomic emission detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, B.F. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre; Sverko, E.; Maguire, R.J. [Environment Canada, Burlington, ON (Canada). Wastewater Technology Centre

    1996-06-01

    Centrifuged water extracts from large receiving water bodies were analyzed for heteroatom-containing compounds. Extracts from aqueous environmental samples were analyzed by gas chromatography/atomic emission detection for P-, S-, and N- containing compounds. The samples exhibited complex chromatographic traces. Benzothiazole, tri-n-butylphosphate, tris(2-chloroethyl)phosphate, tris({beta}-chloroisopropyl)phosphate and two isomers of this last chemical were detected in all archived water extracts collected from permanent sampling stations at Fort Erie, Niagara-on-the-Lake and Wolfe Island. The concentrations of the trialkylphosphates reported in this study were at least four orders of magnitude lower than concentrations of some other trialkylphosphates and triarylphosphates that cause acute toxicity to rainbow trout, water fleas, midge larvae and shrimp. Further work on trialkylphosphates is under way to assess their environmental distribution, their levels in industrial and municipal effluents and their acute and chronic toxicity to aquatic organisms. 32 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  18. Determination of metal impurities in MOX powder by direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy. Application of standard addition method for direct analysis of powder sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furuse, Takahiro; Taguchi, Shigeo; Kuno, Takehiko; Surugaya, Naoki

    2016-12-01

    Metal impurities in MOX powder obtained from uranium and plutonium recovered from reprocessing process of spent nuclear fuel have to be determined for its characterization. Direct current arc atomic emission spectroscopy (DCA-AES) is one of the useful methods for direct analysis of powder sample without dissolving the analyte into aqueous solution. However, the selection of standard material, which can overcome concerns such as matrix matching, is quite important to create adequate calibration curves for DCA-AES. In this study, we apply standard addition method using the certified U_3O_8 containing known amounts of metal impurities to avoid the matrix problems. The proposed method provides good results for determination of Fe, Cr and Ni contained in MOX samples at a significant quantity level. (author)

  19. Comparison in the analytical performance between krypton and argon glow discharge plasmas as the excitation source for atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagatsuma, Kazuaki

    2009-04-01

    The emission characteristics of ionic lines of nickel, cobalt, and vanadium were investigated when argon or krypton was employed as the plasma gas in glow discharge optical emission spectrometry. A dc Grimm-style lamp was employed as the excitation source. Detection limits of the ionic lines in each iron-matrix alloy sample were compared between the krypton and the argon plasmas. Particular intense ionic lines were observed in the emission spectra as a function of the discharge gas (krypton or argon), such as the Co II 258.033 nm for krypton and the Co II 231.707 nm for argon. The explanation for this is that collisions with the plasma gases dominantly populate particular excited levels of cobalt ion, which can receive the internal energy from each gas ion selectively, for example, the 3d(7)4p (3)G(5) (6.0201 eV) for krypton and the 3d(7)4p (3)G(4) (8.0779 eV) for argon. In the determination of nickel as well as cobalt in iron-matrix samples, more sensitive ionic lines could be found in the krypton plasma rather than the argon plasma. Detection limits in the krypton plasma were 0.0039 mass% Ni for the Ni II 230.299-nm line and 0.002 mass% Co for the Co II 258.033-nm line. However, in the determination of vanadium, the argon plasma had better analytical performance, giving a detection limit of 0.0023 mass% V for the V II 309.310-nm line.

  20. Elemental speciation via high-performance liquid chromatography combined with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic detection: application of a direct injection nebulizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaFreniere, K.E; Fassel, V.A.; Eckels, D.E.

    1987-01-01

    An evaluation is presented of a direct injection nebulizer (DIN) interfaced to a high-performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopic (ICP-AES) detection for simultaneous multielement speciation. The limits of detection (LODs) obtained with the DIN interface in the HPLC mode were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of 4. In addition, the DIN allowed for the direct injection into the ICP of a variety of common HPLC solvents (up to 100% methanol, acetonitrile, methyl isobutyl ketone, pyridine, and water). The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system was compared to other HPLC-atomic spectroscopic detection techniques and was found to offer substantial improvement over the alternative on-line, detection methods in terms of LODs. Representative applications of the HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES system to the elemental speciation of coal process streams, shale oil, solvent refined coal, and crude oil are presented

  1. The impact of molecular emission in compositional depth profiling using Glow Discharge-Optical Emission Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtson, Arne

    2008-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to investigate and discuss how molecular emission can affect elemental analysis in glow discharge optical emission (GD-OES), particularly in compositional depth profiling (CDP) applications. Older work on molecular emission in glow discharges is briefly reviewed, and the nature of molecular emission spectra described. Work on the influence of hydrogen in the plasma, in particular elevated background due to a continuum spectrum, is discussed. More recent work from sputtering of polymers and other materials with a large content of light elements in a Grimm type source is reviewed, where substantial emission has been observed from several light diatomic molecules (CO, CH, OH, NH, C 2 ). It is discussed how the elevated backgrounds from such molecular emission can lead to significant analytical errors in the form of 'false' depth profile signals of several atomic analytical lines. Results from a recent investigation of molecular emission spectra from mixed gases in a Grimm type glow discharge are presented. An important observation is that dissociation and subsequent recombination processes occur, leading to formation of molecular species not present in the original plasma gas. Experimental work on depth profiling of a polymer coating and a thin silicate film, using a spectrometer equipped with channels for molecular emission lines, is presented. The results confirm that molecular emission gives rise to apparent depth profiles of elements not present in the sample. The possibilities to make adequate corrections for such molecular emission in CDP of organic coatings and very thin films are discussed

  2. A new method of organizing spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations of nightglow emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thelin, B.

    1986-02-01

    In this paper a new kind of linearization effect between the atmospheric night airglow emissions is presented. The same kind of linearization effect has previously been studied with spectrochemical light sources together with a spectrometer. A linear graph was obtained for atomic spectral lines and vibrational bandspectra when the spectral line intensity ratio fluctuations were plotted versus the photon energies of these emissions. To study this effect data from a number of different photometer investigations of night airglow emissions at different times and places have been used. (author)

  3. Comparison of a neural network with multiple linear regression for quantitative analysis in ICP-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schierle, C.; Otto, M.

    1992-01-01

    A two layer perceptron with backpropagation of error is used for quantitative analysis in ICP-AES. The network was trained by emission spectra of two interfering lines of Cd and As and the concentrations of both elements were subsequently estimated from mixture spectra. The spectra of the Cd and As lines were also used to perform multiple linear regression (MLR) via the calculation of the pseudoinverse S + of the sensitivity matrix S. In the present paper it is shown that there exist close relations between the operation of the perceptron and the MLR procedure. These are most clearly apparent in the correlation between the weights of the backpropagation network and the elements of the pseudoinverse. Using MLR, the confidence intervals over the predictions are exploited to correct for the optical device of the wavelength shift. (orig.)

  4. Major constituent quantitative determination in uranium alloys by coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry and X ray fluorescence wavelength dispersive spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Luis Claudio de; Silva, Adriana Mascarenhas Martins da; Gomide, Ricardo Goncalves; Silva, Ieda de Souza

    2013-01-01

    A wavelength-dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF) spectrometric method for determination of major constituents elements (Zr, Nb, Mo) in Uranium/Zirconium/Niobium and Uranium/Molybdenum alloy samples were developed. The methods use samples taken in the form of chips that were dissolved in hot nitric acid and precipitate particles melted with lithium tetraborate and dissolved in hot nitric acid and finally analyzed as a solution. Studies on the determination by inductively coupled plasma optic emission spectrometry (ICP OES) using matched matrix in calibration curve were developed. The same samples solution were analyzed in both methods. The limits of detection (LOD), linearity of the calibrations curves, recovery study, accuracy and precision of the both techniques were carried out. The results were compared. (author)

  5. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paredes, Eduardo [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Maestre, Salvador E. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain); Todoli, Jose L. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica, Nutricion y Bromatologia, University of Alicante, 03080 Alicante (Spain)]. E-mail: jose.todoli@ua.es

    2006-03-15

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l{sup -1} in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l{sup -1} for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min.

  6. Use of stirred tanks for studying matrix effects caused by inorganic acids, easily ionized elements and organic solvents in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes, Eduardo; Maestre, Salvador E.; Todoli, Jose L.

    2006-01-01

    A stirred tank was used for the first time to elucidate the mechanism responsible for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) matrix effects caused by inorganic, acids and easily ionized elements (EIEs), as well as organic, ethanol and acetic acid, compounds. In order to gradually increase the matrix concentration, a matrix solution was introduced inside a stirred container (tank) initially filled with an aqueous multielement standard. PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE) tubing was used to deliver the resulting solution to the liquid sample introduction system. Matrix concentration ranged from 0 to 2 mol l -1 in the case of inorganic acids (i.e., nitric, sulfuric, hydrochloric and a mixture of them), from 0 to about 2500 mg l -1 for EIEs (i.e., sodium, calcium and mixtures of both) and from 0% to 15%, w/w for organic compounds. Up to 40-50 different solutions were prepared and measured in a period of time shorter than 6-7 min. This investigation was carried out in terms of emission intensity and tertiary aerosols characteristics. The experimental setup used in the present work allowed to thoroughly study the effect of matrix concentration on analytical signal. Generally speaking, the experiments concerning tertiary aerosol characterization revealed that, in the case of inorganic acids and EIEs, the mechanism responsible for changes in aerosol characteristics was the droplet fission. In contrast, for organic matrices it was found that the interference was caused by a change in both aerosol transport and plasma thermal characteristics. The extent of the interferences caused by organic as well as inorganic compounds was compared for a set of 14 emission lines through a wide range of matrix concentrations. With a stirred tank, it is possible to choose an efficient internal standard for any given matrix composition. The time required to complete this procedure was shorter than 7 min

  7. Evaluation of a new dielectric barrier discharge excitation source for the determination of arsenic with atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenli; He, Haiyang; He, Dong; Zheng, Hongtao; Zhang, Caixiang; Hu, Shenghong

    2014-05-01

    A low power dielectric barrier discharge excitation source was developed to determine arsenic in a cost-effective manner. Arsenic in water was reduced to AsH₃ by hydride generation (HG), which was transported to the miniature dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) excitation source for excitation and optical detection at As 193.7 nm atomic line. The DBD source consists of a quartz tube, a tungsten rod electrode, and a copper coil electrode. The main operation parameters and the potential interferences affecting the determination were investigated. The detection limit for arsenic with the proposed DBD-AES was 4.8 μg L(-1) when the HG products were dried with concentrated H₂SO₄ before introducing to DBD. Repeatability, expressed as the relative standard deviation of the spectral peak height, was 2.8% (n=11) for 0.1 mg L(-1) arsenic solution. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determinations of certified reference material (GBW08605) and nature water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Contactless friction and the {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He dimer. Studies with the atomic-beam spin-echo spectrometer; Kontaktlose Reibung und das {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He-Dimer. Untersuchungen mit dem Atomstrahlspinechospektrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janke, Matthias

    2016-04-20

    In this thesis the time of flight resolved atomic beam spin echo method (SEToF) is applied to a {sup 3}He-beam for the first time and studied systematically. This method is shown to be superior to the usual atomic beam spin echo technique. With SEToF it is possible to almost completely remove unpolarized background and to reach a beam polarisation close to 100%. The SEToF technique is shown to be crucial for the first experimental proof of the existence of the {sup 3}He-{sup 4}He dimer. This dimer is the weakest bound van-der-Waals-molecule known to date. Furthermore, a drag force between an atom and a dielectric surface is detected originating from the fluctuating dipole moment of the atom. Not only the measured friction coefficients match their theoretical predictions perfectly, but our data also shows the correct temperature dependence. A great many technological renewals and improvements were installed in the apparatus during this thesis work. They have become necessary or sensible due to the relocation of the physics institute. A few of them are documented and motivated in this thesis.

  9. Investigation of impact-parameter dependent double differential electron emission probabilities in proton-helium collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiwietz, G.

    1986-07-01

    The process of ionization in ion-atom collisions was investigated. Thus absolute double differential electron emission yields were measured for the collision system H + +He. The experimental results are compared with theoretical results partially calculated in this work. For the coincidence measurements an electron time-of-flight spectrometer with a large solid angle was constructed. For the measurement of the scattered projectiles a fast position sensitive ion detector and a data preprocessing unit were developed. (orig.)

  10. Studies on the spectral interference of gadolinium on different analytes in inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, Arijit; Thulasidas, S.K.; Natarajan, V.; Airan, Yougant

    2015-01-01

    Due to the multi-electronic nature, rare earth elements are prone to exhibit spectral interference in ICP-AES, which leads to erroneous determination of analytes in presence of such matrix. This interference is very significant, when the analytes are to be determined at trace level in presence of emission rich matrix elements. An attempt was made to understand the spectral interference of Gd on 29 common analytes like Ag, Al, B, Ba, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cu, Dy, Fe, Ga, Gd, In, La, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Sr, Tl and Zn using ICP-AES with capacitive Charged Coupled Device (CCD) as detector. The present study includes identification of suitable interference free analytical lines of these analytes, evaluation of correction factor for each analytical line and determination of tolerance levels of these analytical lines along with the ICP-AES based methodology for simultaneous determination of Gd. Based on the spectral interference study, an ICP-AES based method was developed for the determination of these analytes at trace level in presence of Gd matrix without chemical separation. Further the developed methodology was validated using synthetic samples prepared from commercially available reference material solution of individual element; the results were found to be satisfactory. The method was also compared with other existing techniques

  11. Cyclotrons as mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, D.J.

    1984-04-01

    The principles and design choices for cyclotrons as mass spectrometers are described. They are illustrated by examples of cyclotrons developed by various groups for this purpose. The use of present high energy cyclotrons for mass spectrometry is also described. 28 references, 12 figures

  12. Miniature Raman spectrometer development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonvallet, Joseph; Auz, Bryan; Rodriguez, John; Olmstead, Ty

    2018-02-01

    The development of techniques to rapidly identify samples ranging from, molecule and particle imaging to detection of high explosive materials, has surged in recent years. Due to this growing want, Raman spectroscopy gives a molecular fingerprint, with no sample preparation, and can be done remotely. These systems can be small, compact, lightweight, and with a user interface that allows for easy use and sample identification. Ocean Optics Inc. has developed several systems that would meet all these end user requirements. This talk will describe the development of different Ocean Optics Inc miniature Raman spectrometers. The spectrometer on a phone (SOAP) system was designed using commercial off the shelf (COTS) components, in a rapid product development cycle. The footprint of the system measures 40x40x14 mm (LxWxH) and was coupled directly to the cell phone detector camera optics. However, it gets roughly only 40 cm-1 resolution. The Accuman system is the largest (290x220X100 mm) of the three, but uses our QEPro spectrometer and get 7-11 cm-1 resolution. Finally, the HRS-30 measuring 165x85x40 mm is a combination of the other two systems. This system uses a modified EMBED spectrometer and gets 7-12 cm-1 resolution. Each of these units uses a peak matching algorithm that then correlates the results to the pre-loaded and customizable spectral libraries.

  13. Magnetic spectrometer Grand Raiden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, M.; Akimune, H.; Daito, I.; Fujimura, H.; Fujita, Y.; Hatanaka, K.; Ikegami, H.; Katayama, I.; Nagayama, K.; Matsuoka, N.; Morinobu, S.; Noro, T.; Yoshimura, M.; Sakaguchi, H.; Sakemi, Y.; Tamii, A.; Yosoi, M.

    1999-01-01

    A high-resolution magnetic spectrometer called 'Grand Raiden' is operated at the RCNP ring cyclotron facility in Osaka for nuclear physics studies at intermediate energies. This magnetic spectrometer has excellent ion-optical properties. In the design of the spectrometer, the second-order dispersion matching condition has been taken into account, and almost all the aberration terms such as (x vertical bar θ 3 ), (x vertical bar θφ 2 ), (x vertical bar θ 2 δ) and (x vertical bar θδ 2 ) in a third-order matrix calculation are optimized. A large magnetic rigidity of the spectrometer (K = 1400 MeV) gives a great advantage to measure the charge-exchange ( 3 He, t) reactions at 450 MeV. The ability of the high-resolution measurement has been demonstrated. Various coincidence measurements are performed to study the nuclear structures of highly excited states through decay properties of nuclear levels following nuclear reactions at intermediate energies

  14. Microprocessor monitored Auger spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapin, Michel; Ghaleb, Dominique; Pernot, Bernard.

    1982-05-01

    The operation of an Auger spectrometer, used for studying surface impurity diffusion, has been fully automatized with the help of a microprocessor. The characteristics, performance and practical use of the system are described together with the main advantage for the experimentator [fr

  15. The Omega spectrometer

    CERN Multimedia

    1972-01-01

    The Omega spectrometer which came into action during the year. An array of optical spark chambers can be seen withdrawn from the magnet aperture. In the 'igloo' above the magnet is located the Plumbicon camera system which collects information from the spark chambers.

  16. Heat of vaporization spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, D. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Multilayer desorption measurements of various substances adsorbed on a stainless steel substrate are found to exhibit desorption profiles consistent with a zeroth order desorption model. The singleness of the desorption transients together with their narrow peak widths makes the technique ideally suited for a heat of vaporization spectrometer for either substance analysis or identification

  17. Speckle-based spectrometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chakrabarti, Maumita; Jakobsen, Michael Linde; Hanson, Steen Grüner

    2015-01-01

    A novel spectrometer concept is analyzed and experimentally verified. The method relies on probing the speckle displacement due to a change in the incident wavelength. A rough surface is illuminated at an oblique angle, and the peak position of the covariance between the speckle patterns observed...

  18. Electron volt neutron spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pietropaolo, A.; Senesi, R.

    2011-01-01

    The advent of pulsed neutron sources has made available intense fluxes of epithermal neutrons (500 meV ≤E≤100 eV ). The possibility to open new investigations on condensed matter with eV neutron scattering techniques, is related to the development of methods, concepts and devices that drive, or are inspired by, emerging studies at this energy scale. Electron volt spectrometers have undergone continuous improvements since the construction of the first prototype instruments, but in the last decade major breakthroughs have been accomplished in terms of resolution and counting statistics, leading, for example, to the direct measurement of the proton 3-D Born–Oppenheimer potential in any material, or to quantitatively probe nuclear quantum effects in hydrogen bonded systems. This paper reports on the most effective methods and concepts for energy analysis and detection, as well as devices for the optimization of electron volt spectrometers for different applications. This is set in the context of the progress made up to date in instrument development. Starting from early stages of development of the technique, particular emphasis will be given to the Vesuvio eV spectrometer at the ISIS neutron source, the first spectrometer where extensive scientific, as well as research and development programmes have been carried out. The potential offered by this type of instrumentation, from single particle excitations to momentum distribution studies, is then put in perspective into the emerging fields of eV spectroscopy applied to cultural heritages and neutron irradiation effects in electronics. - Highlights: ► Neutron spectrometers at eV energies. ► Methods and techniques for eV neutrons counting at spallation sources. ► Scattering, imaging and radiation hardness tests with multi-eV neutrons.

  19. Exotic atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunselman, R.

    1993-01-01

    The experiments use a solid hydrogen layer to form muonic hydrogen isotopes that escape into vacuum. The method relies on transfer of the muon from protium to either a deuteron or a triton. The resulting muonic deuterium or muonic tritium will not immediately thermalize because of the very low elastic cross sections, and may be emitted from the surface of the layer. Measurements which detect decay electrons, muonic x-rays, and fusion products have been used to study the processes. A target has been constructed which exploits muonic atom emission in order to learn more about the energy dependence of transfer and muon molecular formation

  20. Flow Injection Photochemical Vapor Generation Coupled with Miniaturized Solution-Cathode Glow Discharge Atomic Emission Spectrometry for Determination and Speciation Analysis of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mo, Jiamei; Li, Qing; Guo, Xiaohong; Zhang, Guoxia; Wang, Zheng

    2017-10-03

    A novel, compact, and green method was developed for the determination and speciation analysis of mercury, based on flow injection photochemical vapor generation (PVG) coupled with miniaturized solution cathode glow discharge-atomic emission spectroscopy (SCGD-AES). The SCGD was generated between a miniature hollow titanium tube and a solution emerging from a glass capillary. Cold mercury vapor (Hg(0)) was generated by PVG and subsequently delivered to the SCGD for excitation, and finally the emission signals were recorded by a miniaturized spectrograph. The detection limits (DLs) of Hg(II) and methylmercury (MeHg) were both determined to be 0.2 μg L -1 . Moreover, mercury speciation analysis could also be performed by using different wavelengths and powers from the UV lamp and irradiation times. Both Hg(II) and MeHg can be converted to Hg(0) for the determination of total mercury (T-Hg) with 8 W/254 nm UV lamp and 60 s irradiation time; while only Hg(II) can be reduced to Hg(0) and determined selectively with 4 W/365 nm UV lamp and 20 s irradiation time. Then, the concentration of MeHg can be calculated by subtracting the Hg(II) from the T-Hg. Because of its similar sensitivity and DL at 8 W/254 nm, the simpler and less toxic Hg(II) was used successfully as a primary standard for the quantification of T-Hg. The novel PVG-SCGD-AES system provides not only a 365-fold improvement in the DL for Hg(II) but also a nonchromatographic method for the speciation analysis of mercury. After validating its accuracy, this method was successfully used for mercury speciation analysis of water and biological samples.

  1. Inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy: an evaluation of the use of nitrogen--argon admixtures as plasma discharge atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalewski, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    The effects of the use of nitrogen in either the plasma coolant or aerosol carrier gas flows on the physical and spectrochemical properties of the inductively coupled plasma (ICP) were examined. While the plasma operated with nitrogen in the coolant flow exhibited a stability comparable to that of the argon plasma, the use of nitrogen in the aerosol carrier gas flow resulted in a plasma that was less stable. The detection limits obtained for the three plasmas exhibited a similar trend. In addition, the use of nitrogen--argon admixtures in the plasma coolant gas flow yielded an increase in both the net analyte and the background emission intensities when the corresponding argon and nitrogen--argon plasmas were operated under various conditions. Furthermore, the effect of aluminum on the Ca II (393.4 nm) spectral line was reported for the 1000/1 Al/Ca molar ratio. At an observation height of 15 mm, the signal depressions were 4 and 14% for the nitrogen--argon and the argon plasmas, respectively. The above experimental evidence suggested that the operation of the ICP with an Ar--N 2 coolant gas might be hotter than the argon plasma currently in use in this laboratory. The demountable plasma torch designed in collaboration with K. Olson yielded detection limits for 15 elements and 19 spectral lines that were approximately within a factor of two of those obtained with the torch of fused quartz design. The design also appeared to offer a more readily initiated plasma discharge. The experimental evidence presented supports the utilization of nitrogen--argon admixtures in the plasma coolant gas flow as alternate discharge atmospheres for inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy. In contrast, the experimental evidence shows that there is a deterioration in both physical and spectrochemical properties of plasmas operated with a nitrogen aerosol carrier gas

  2. The transition-edge EBIT microcalorimeter spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt-Martinez, Gabriele L.; Adams, Joseph; Bandler, Simon; Beiersdorfer, Peter; Brown, Gregory; Chervenak, James; Doriese, Randy; Eckart, Megan; Irwin, Kent; Kelley, Richard; Kilbourne, Caroline; Leutenegger, Maurice; Porter, F. S.; Reintsema, Carl; Smith, Stephen; Ullom, Joel

    2014-07-01

    The Transition-edge EBIT Microcalorimeter Spectrometer (TEMS) is a 1000-pixel array instrument to be delivered to the Electron Beam Ion Trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in 2015. It will be the first fully operational array of its kind. The TEMS will utilize the unique capabilities of the EBIT to verify and benchmark atomic theory that is critical for the analysis of high-resolution data from microcalorimeter spectrometers aboard the next generation of x-ray observatories. We present spectra from the present instrumentation at EBIT, as well as our latest results with time-division multiplexing using the current iteration of the TEMS focal plane assembly in our test platform at NASA/GSFC.

  3. The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Richard; Sander, Stanley; Eldering, Annmarie; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Bekker, Dmitriy; Manatt, Ken; Rider, David; Wu, Yen-Hung

    2012-01-01

    The Geostationary Fourier Transform Spectrometer (GeoFTS) is an imaging spectrometer designed for a geostationary orbit (GEO) earth science mission to measure key atmospheric trace gases and process tracers related to climate change and human activity. GEO allows GeoFTS to continuously stare at a region of the earth for frequent sampling to capture the variability of biogenic fluxes and anthropogenic emissions from city to continental spatial scales and temporal scales from diurnal, synoptic, seasonal to interannual. The measurement strategy provides a process based understanding of the carbon cycle from contiguous maps of carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), carbon monoxide (CO), and chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) collected many times per day at high spatial resolution (2.7kmx2.7km at nadir). The CO2/CH4/CO/CF measurement suite in the near infrared spectral region provides the information needed to disentangle natural and anthropogenic contributions to atmospheric carbon concentrations and to minimize uncertainties in the flow of carbon between the atmosphere and surface. The half meter cube size GeoFTS instrument is based on a Michelson interferometer design that uses all high TRL components in a modular configuration to reduce complexity and cost. It is self-contained and as independent of the spacecraft as possible with simple spacecraft interfaces, making it ideal to be a "hosted" payload on a commercial communications satellite mission. The hosted payload approach for measuring the major carbon-containing gases in the atmosphere from the geostationary vantage point will affordably advance the scientific understating of carbon cycle processes and climate change.

  4. Wide band ENDOR spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendonca Filho, C.

    1973-01-01

    The construction of an ENDOR spectrometer operating from 0,5 to 75 MHz within a single band, with ore Klystron and homodine detection, and no fundamental changes on the electron spin resonance spectrometer was described. The ENDOR signal can be detected both by amplitude modulation of the frequency field, or direct detection of the ESR output, which is taken to a signal analyser. The signal-to-noise ratio is raised by averaging rather than filtering avoiding the use of long time constants, providing natural line widths. The experimental apparatus and the spectra obtained are described. A discussion, relating the ENDOR line amplitudes with the experimental conditions is done and ENDOR mechanism, in which there is a relevant presence of cross relaxation is proposed

  5. The OPERA magnetic spectrometer

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Dusini, S; Dulach, B; Fanin, C; Felici, G; Corso, F D; Garfagnini, A; Grianti, F; Gustavino, C; Monacelli, P; Paoloni, A; Stanco, L; Spinetti, M; Terranova, F; Votano, L

    2004-01-01

    The OPERA neutrino oscillation experiment foresees the construction of two magnetized iron spectrometers located after the lead-nuclear emulsion targets. The magnet is made up of two vertical walls of rectangular cross section connected by return yokes. The particle trajectories are measured by high precision drift tubes located before and after the arms of the magnet. Moreover, the magnet steel is instrumented with Resistive Plate Chambers that ease pattern recognition and allow a calorimetric measurement of the hadronic showers. In this paper we review the construction of the spectrometers. In particular, we describe the results obtained from the magnet and RPC prototypes and the installation of the final apparatus at the Gran Sasso laboratories. We discuss the mechanical and magnetic properties of the steel and the techniques employed to calibrate the field in the bulk of the magnet. Moreover, results of the tests and issues concerning the mass production of the Resistive Plate Chambers are reported. Final...

  6. Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry applied to dealloying phenomena II. Selective dissolution of iron and chromium during active-passive cycles of an austenitic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogle, K.; Mokaddem, M.; Volovitch, P.

    2010-01-01

    Atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry was used to investigate selective dissolution of a 304 austenitic stainless steel sample in 2 M H 2 SO 4 . The partial dissolution rates of Fe, Cr, Ni, Mn, Mo, and Cu were measured as function of time during a series of potentiostatic triggered activation/passivation cycles. When first exposed to sulfuric acid solution, the steel sample was in a passive state with a total steady state ionic dissolution rate expressed as an equivalent current density of 10 μA cm -2 . A transition into the active and passive state could be triggered by cathodic (-700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) and anodic (+400 to +700 mV vs. Ag/AgCl) potentiostatic pulses respectively of variable time. Excess Cr dissolution was observed during the activation cycle as compared to Fe and a depletion of Cr dissolution was observed during the passivation cycle. These results are interpreted in terms of the dissolution of a Cr rich passive layer during activation and selective dissolution of Fe, Mn, Ni and other elements to form a Cr rich passive layer during passivation. Quantitative analysis of the excess Cr showed that the residual film contained approximately 0.38 μg Cr/cm 2 . Fe does not appear to be incorporated into the film at this early stage of passive film growth. Residual films of metallic nickel and copper were formed on the surface during the active period that subsequently dissolved during passivation.

  7. Preconcentration of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium with oxine supported on microcrystalline naphthalene and their determinations by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naveen Kumar, P.; Sanjay Kumar; Vijay Kumar; Nandakishore, S.S.; Bangroo, P.N.

    2013-01-01

    A sensitive and rapid method for the determination of uranium, thorium, zirconium, titanium, molybdenum and vanadium by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) after solid-liquid extraction with microcrystalline naphthalene is developed. Analytes were quantitatively adsorbed as their oxinate complexes on naphthalene and determined by ICP-AES after stripping with 2 M HCl. The effect of various experimental parameters such as pH, reagent amounts, naphthalene amount and stripping conditions on the determination of these elements was investigated in detail. Under the optimized experimental conditions, the detection limits of this method for U (VI), Th (IV), Zr (IV), Ti (IV), Mo (VI) and V (V) were 20.0 ng mL -1 and the relative standard deviations obtained for three replicate determinations at a concentration of 1.0 µg mL -1 were 1.5-3.0%. The proposed method has been applied in the analysis of SY-2, SY-3 and pre-analysed samples for U, Th, Zr, Ti, Mo and V the analytical results are in good agreement with recommended values. (author)

  8. Headspace solid-phase microextraction for the determination of volatile organic sulphur and selenium compounds in beers, wines and spirits using gas chromatography and atomic emission detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, Natalia; Peñalver, Rosa; López-García, Ignacio; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2009-09-25

    A rapid and solvent-free method for the determination of eight volatile organic sulphur and two selenium compounds in different beverage samples using headspace solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography with atomic emission detection has been developed. The bonded carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber was the most suitable for preconcentrating the analytes from the headspace of the sample solution. Volumes of 20 mL of undiluted beer were used while, in the case of wines and spirits, sample:water ratios of 5:15 and 2:18, respectively, were used, in order to obtain the maximum sensitivity. Quantitation was carried out by using synthetic matrices of beer and wine, and a spiked sample for spirits, and using ethyl methyl sulphide and isopropyl disulphide as internal standards. Detection limits ranged from 8 ng L(-1) to 40 ng mL(-1), depending on the compound and the beverage sample analyzed, with a fiber time exposure of 20 min at ambient temperature. The optimized method was successfully applied to different samples, some of the studied compounds being detected at concentration levels in the 0.04-152 ng mL(-1) range.

  9. Speciation of organotin compounds in waters and marine sediments using purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campillo, Natalia; Aguinaga, Nerea; Vin-tilde as, Pilar; Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio; Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    A procedure for the simultaneous determination of six organotin compounds, including methyl-, butyl- and phenyltins, in waters and marine sediments is developed. The analytes were leached from the solid samples into an acetic acid:methanol mixture by using an ultrasonic probe. The organotins were derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt 4 ) in the aqueous phase, stripped by a flow of helium, pre-concentrated in a trap and thermally desorbed. This was followed by capillary gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry as the detection system (GC-AED). Each chromatographic run took 22 min, including the purge time. Calibration curves were obtained by plotting peak area versus concentration and the correlation coefficients for linear calibration were at least 0.9991. Detection limits ranged from 11 to 50 ng Sn l -1 for tributyltin and tetramethyltin, respectively. The seawater samples analyzed contained variable concentrations of mono-, di- and tributyl- and monophenyltin, ranging from 0.05 to 0.48 μg Sn l -1 , depending on the compound. Some of the sediments analyzed contained concentrations of dibutyl- and tributyltin of between 6.0 and 13.0 ng Sn g -1 . Analysis of the certified reference material PACS-2, as well as of spiked water and sediment samples showed the accuracy of the method. The proposed method is selective and reproducible, and is considered suitable for monitoring organotin compounds in water and sediment samples

  10. Speciation of organotin compounds in waters and marine sediments using purge-and-trap capillary gas chromatography with atomic emission detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campillo, Natalia [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Aguinaga, Nerea [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Vin-tilde as, Pilar [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Lopez-Garcia, Ignacio [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain); Hernandez-Cordoba, Manuel [Department of Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Murcia, E-30071 Murcia (Spain)]. E-mail: hcordoba@um.es

    2004-11-08

    A procedure for the simultaneous determination of six organotin compounds, including methyl-, butyl- and phenyltins, in waters and marine sediments is developed. The analytes were leached from the solid samples into an acetic acid:methanol mixture by using an ultrasonic probe. The organotins were derivatized with sodium tetraethylborate (NaBEt{sub 4}) in the aqueous phase, stripped by a flow of helium, pre-concentrated in a trap and thermally desorbed. This was followed by capillary gas chromatography with microwave-induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry as the detection system (GC-AED). Each chromatographic run took 22 min, including the purge time. Calibration curves were obtained by plotting peak area versus concentration and the correlation coefficients for linear calibration were at least 0.9991. Detection limits ranged from 11 to 50 ng Sn l{sup -1} for tributyltin and tetramethyltin, respectively. The seawater samples analyzed contained variable concentrations of mono-, di- and tributyl- and monophenyltin, ranging from 0.05 to 0.48 {mu}g Sn l{sup -1}, depending on the compound. Some of the sediments analyzed contained concentrations of dibutyl- and tributyltin of between 6.0 and 13.0 ng Sn g{sup -1}. Analysis of the certified reference material PACS-2, as well as of spiked water and sediment samples showed the accuracy of the method. The proposed method is selective and reproducible, and is considered suitable for monitoring organotin compounds in water and sediment samples.

  11. Volatile organo-selenium speciation in biological matter by solid phase microextraction-moderate temperature multicapillary gas chromatography with microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietz, C.; Sanz Landaluze, J.; Ximenez-Embun, P.; Madrid-Albarran, Y.; Camara, C

    2004-01-16

    Microwave induced plasma atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES) in combination with multicapillary (MC) gas chromatography could be proven to be useful for element specific detection of volatile species. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for preconcentration and sample-matrix separation. The fiber desorption unit as well as the heating control for the MC column were in-house developed and multicapillary column was operated at moderate temperatures (30-100 deg. C). The method was optimized for organo-selenium species (dimethylselenide (DMSe), diethylselenide (DEtSe) and dimethyldiselenide (DMDSe)), using a chemometric approach. Stationary phases for the separation column were optimized using a conventional GC and contrasted with the results obtained with the MC. Application was focussed on selenium accumulating biological matter, such as lupine, yeast, Indian mustard and garlic. These samples were grown in hydroponic solution containing inorganic selenium (Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SeO{sub 4}). SPME sampling was carried out in fixed volume flow boxes in headspace above the living plants and in vials using treated samples. Results demonstrate inorganic selenium transformation into volatile organic species during metabolism. Separation is fast, a chromatogram can be obtained in less than 3 min and detection limits were at sub-ppb level for all investigated species. The system is independent from the use of a conventional gas chromatographic oven and can be used as a versatile alternative to highly cost intensive methods such as GC-ICP-MS.

  12. An electrostatic ion pump with nanostructured Si field emission electron source and Ti particle collectors for supporting an ultra-high vacuum in miniaturized atom interferometry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, Anirban; Velásquez-García, Luis F

    2016-01-01

    We report a field emission-based, magnetic-less ion pump architecture for helping maintain a high vacuum within a small chamber that is compatible with miniaturized cold-atom interferometry systems. A nanostructured silicon field emitter array, with each nano-sharp tip surrounded by a self-aligned proximal gate electrode, is used to generate a surplus of electrons that cause impact ionization of gas molecules. A two-stage cylindrical electron collector, made of titanium, is used to increase the travel distance of the electrons, augmenting the ionization probability; gas ionization is subsequently followed by gettering of the ions by a negatively charged, annular-shaped titanium electrode. A proof-of-concept pump prototype was characterized using a 25 cm 3 stainless steel vacuum chamber backed up by an external turbomolecular pump, a diaphragm pump, and a standard ion pump. Pumping action was observed with the electrostatic pump operating alone after an initial rapid rise of the chamber pressure due to electron/ion scrubbing. In addition, running the electrostatic pump in combination with the standard ion pump results in a lower vacuum level compared to the vacuum level produced by the standard ion pump acting alone. A proposed reduced-order model accurately predicts the functional dependence of the pressure versus time data and provides a good estimate of the characteristic pumping time constant inferred from the experiments. (paper)

  13. Comparison of digestion procedures used for the determination of boron in biological tissues by ICP-AES [inductively-coupled, plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauer, W.F.; Miller, D.L.; Steele, S.M.

    1988-01-01

    A study was designed to identify the most accurate and reliable procedures for the digestion of biological tissues prior to the determination of boron by inductively-coupled, plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The four procedures used in this study were an acid bomb digestion and digestions performed in test tubes using perchloric acid and hydrogen peroxide, nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide, and nitric acid alone. Digestions using nitric acid and hydrogen peroxide and nitric acid alone were performed in a manner analogous to the perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide procedure. The tissues used in the study were from dogs that had been administered a boron compound (Na 2 B 12 H 11 SH) and included two brain tissues, a liver and a tongue. These tissues were selected in order to eliminate results that may be due to surface spiking only. None of the test tube procedures were successful in completely dissolving the samples, as was evidenced by residual color and a coagulated precipitate. The amount of precipitate was much larger for the brain tissues in all cases. The acid bomb digestion and the perchloric acid/hydrogen peroxide procedures gave comparable boron concentrations for all of the tissues in this study. 2 refs., 1 tab

  14. Simultaneous Pre-Concentration of Cadmium and Lead in Environmental Water Samples with Dispersive Liquid-Liquid Microextraction and Determination by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salahinejad

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The dispersive liquid–liquid microextraction (DLLME method for determination of Pb+2 and Cd+2 ions in the environmental water samples was combined with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, chloroform and ethanol were used as chelating agent, extraction solvent and disperser solvent, respectively. Some effective parameters on the microextraction and the complex formation were selected and optimized. These parameters included extraction and disperser solvent type as well as their volume, extraction time, salt effect, pH, sample volume and amount of the chelating agent.   Under the optimum conditions, the enrichment factor of 75 and 105 for Cd+2 and Pb+2 ions respectively was obtained from only 5.00mL of water sample. The detection limit (S/N=3 was 12 and 0.8ngmL−1 for Pb and Cd respectively. The relative standard deviation (RSDs for five replicate measurements of 0.50 mgL−1 of lead and cadmium was 6.5 and 4.4 % respectively. Mineral, tap, river, sea, dam and spiked water samples were analyzed for Cd and Pb amount.

  15. Multielement detection limits and sample nebulization efficiencies of an improved ultrasonic nebulizer and a conventional pneumatic nebulizer in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, K.W.; Haas, W.J. Jr.; Fassel, V.A.

    1977-01-01

    Two important aspects of the analytical performance of a newly developed ultrasonic nebulizer and a specially designed pneumatic nebulizer have been compared for use in inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES). The ultrasonic nebulizer, when combined with a conventional aerosol desolvation apparatus, provided an order of magnitude or more improvement in simultaneous multielement detection limits as compared to those obtained when the pneumatic nebulizer was used either with or without desolvation. Application of a novel method for direct measurement of the overall efficiency of nebulization to the two systems showed that an approximately tenfold greater rate of sample delivery to the plasma torch was primarily responsible for the superior detection limits afforded by the ultrasonic nebulizer. A unique feature of the ultrasonic nebulizer described is the protection against chemical attack which is achieved by completely enclosing the transducer in an acoustically coupled borosilicate glass cylinder. Direct sample introduction, convenient sample change, and rapid cleanout are other important characteristics of the system which make it an attractive alternate to pneumatic nebulizer systems

  16. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Investigation into spatial distribution of macroelements in dried drops of albumins and proteins by the methods of atomic-emission multichannel spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin', N.Kh.; Zazhogin, A.P.; Bulojchik, Zh.I.; Tanin, A.L.; Pashkovskaya, I.D.; Nechipurenko, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    Based on local analysis of the line intensities of Al, Ca, Mg, and Zn in spectra for the samples of dried drops of egg albumin, the possibility for estimation of the spatial elemental distribution by the drop diameter was demonstrated using the atomic-emission multichannel spectrometry method. It was found that with an increase in the concentration of the elements with a high diffusion coefficient (Ca) diffusion counteracts their carry-over to the boundary of evaporating drops, simultaneously displacing the salts of other elements (Al, Fe, Zn) to the drop periphery. This work shows that excitation of the analyzed surface of a dried protein drop by double laser pulses enables a semi-quantitative estimation of the distribution of essential elements by the drop radius. Such investigations look very promising in search for markers of various diseases and in the development of methods revealing the pathological processes at the preclinical stage, making it possible to look for the causes of the elemental unbalance, to realize a targeted selection of preparations and active additives, to correct the treatment course. (authors)

  18. Problems, possibilities and limitations of inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of platinum, palladium and rhodium in samples with different matrix composition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrova, P.; Velichkov, S. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Velitchkova, N. [Geological Institute, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str., bl.24, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Havezov, I. [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria); Daskalova, N., E-mail: das15482@svr.igic.bas.b [Institute of General and Inorganic Chemistry, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Acad. G. Bontchev Str. bl. 11, 1113 Sofia (Bulgaria)

    2010-02-15

    The economic and geological importance of platinum group of elements has led to the development of analytical methods to quantify them in different types of samples. In the present paper the quantitative information for spectral interference in radial viewing 40.68 MHz inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in the presence of complex matrix, containing Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, Mn, P and Ti as matrix constituents was obtained. The database was used for optimum line selections. By using the selected analysis lines the following detection limits in ng g{sup -1} were obtained: Pt 1700, Pd-1440, Rh-900. The reached detection limits determine the possibilities and limitation of the direct ICP-AES method in the determination of Pt, Pd and Rh in geological and environmental materials. The database for spectral interferences in the presence of aluminum can be used for the determination of platinum group of elements in car catalysts. The accuracy of the analytical results was experimentally demonstrated by two certified reference materials that were analyzed: SARM 7, Pt ore and recycled auto-catalyst certified reference material SRM 2556.

  19. Microwave-assisted versus conventional decomposition procedures applied to a ceramic potsherd standard reference material by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadopoulou, D.N.; Zachariadis, G.A.; Anthemidis, A.N.; Tsirliganis, N.C.; Stratis, J.A

    2004-03-03

    Inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) is a powerful, sensitive analytical technique with numerous applications in chemical characterization including that of ancient pottery, mainly due to its multi-element character, and the relatively short time required for the analysis. A critical step in characterization studies of ancient pottery is the selection of a suitable decomposition procedure for the ceramic matrix. The current work presents the results of a comparative study of six decomposition procedures applied on a standard ceramic potsherd reference material, SARM 69. The investigated decomposition procedures included three microwave-assisted decomposition procedures, one wet decomposition (WD) procedure by conventional heating, one combined microwave-assisted and conventional heating WD procedure, and one fusion procedure. Chemical analysis was carried out by ICP-AES. Five major (Si, Al, Fe, Ca, Mg), three minor (Mn, Ba, Ti) and two trace (Cu, Co) elements were determined and compared with their certified values. Quantitation was performed at two different spectral lines for each element and multi-element matrix-matched calibration standards were used. The recovery values for the six decomposition procedures ranged between 75 and 110% with a few notable exceptions. Data were processed statistically in order to evaluate the investigated decomposition procedures in terms of recovery, accuracy and precision, and eventually select the most appropriate one for ancient pottery analysis.

  20. Fully automated dissolution and separation methods for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry rock analysis. Application to the determination of rare earth elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Govindaraju, K.; Mevelle, G.

    1987-01-01

    In rock analysis laboratories, sample preparation is a serious problem, or even an enormous bottleneck. Because this laboratory is production-oriented, this problem was attacked by automating progressively, different steps in rock analysis for major, minor and trace elements. This effort has been considerably eased by the fact that all sample preparation schemes in this laboratory for the past three decades have been based on an initial lithium borate fusion of rock samples and all analytical methods based on multi-element atomic emission spectrometry, with switch-over from solid analysis by arc/spark excitation to solution analysis by plasma excitation in 1974. The sample preparation steps which have been automated are: weighing of samples and fluxes, lithium borate fusion, dissolution and dilution of fusion products and ion-exchange separation of difficult trace elements such as rare earth elements (REE). During 1985 and 1986, these different unit operations have been assembled together as peripheral units in the form of a workstation, called LabRobStation. A travelling robot is the master of LabRobStation, with all peripheral units at its reach in 10 m 2 workspace. As an example of real application, the automated determination of REE, based on more than 8000 samples analysed during 1982 and 1986, is presented. (author)

  1. Determination of Hg(2+) by on-line separation and pre-concentration with atmospheric-pressure solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qing; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Zheng

    2014-10-03

    A simple and sensitive method to determine Hg(2+) was developed by combining solution-cathode glow discharge atomic emission spectrometry (SCGD-AES) with flow injection (FI) based on on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE). We synthesized l-cysteine-modified mesoporous silica and packed it in an SPE microcolumn, which was experimentally determined to possess a good mercury adsorption capacity. An enrichment factor of 42 was achieved under optimized Hg(2+) elution conditions, namely, an FI flow rate of 2.0 mL min(-1) and an eluent comprised of 10% thiourea in 0.2 mol L(-1) HNO3. The detection limit of FI-SCGD-AES was determined to be 0.75 μg L(-1), and the precision of the 11 replicate Hg(2+) measurements was 0.86% at a concentration of 100 μg L(-1). The proposed method was validated by determining Hg(2+) in certified reference materials such as human hair (GBW09101b) and stream sediment (GBW07310). Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Comparative measurements of mineral elements in milk powders with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, W Q; El Haddad, J; Motto-Ros, V; Gilon-Delepine, N; Stankova, A; Ma, Q L; Bai, X S; Zheng, L J; Zeng, H P; Yu, J

    2011-07-01

    Mineral elements contained in commercially available milk powders, including seven infant formulae and one adult milk, were analyzed with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The purpose of this work was, through a direct comparison of the analytical results, to provide an assessment of the performance of LIBS, and especially of the procedure of calibration-free LIBS (CF-LIBS), to deal with organic compounds such as milk powders. In our experiments, the matrix effect was clearly observed affecting the analytical results each time laser ablation was employed for sampling. Such effect was in addition directly observed by determining the physical parameters of the plasmas induced on the different samples. The CF-LIBS procedure was implemented to deduce the concentrations of Mg and K with Ca as the internal reference element. Quantitative analytical results with CF-LIBS were validated with ICP-AES measurements and nominal concentrations specified for commercial milks. The obtained good results with the CF-LIBS procedure demonstrate its capacity to take into account the difference in physical parameters of the plasma in the calculation of the concentrations of mineral elements, which allows a significant reduction of the matrix effect related to laser ablation. We finally discuss the way to optimize the implementation of the CF-LIBS procedure for the analysis of mineral elements in organic materials.

  3. ALICE photon spectrometer crystals

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Members of the mechanical assembly team insert the last few crystals into the first module of ALICE's photon spectrometer. These crystals are made from lead-tungstate, a crystal as clear as glass but with nearly four times the density. When a high-energy particle passes through one of these crystals it will scintillate, emitting a flash of light allowing the energy of photons, electrons and positrons to be measured.

  4. Magnetic spectrometer control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lecca, L.A.; Di Paolo, Hugo; Fernandez Niello, Jorge O.; Marti, Guillermo V; Pacheco, Alberto J.; Ramirez, Marcelo

    2003-01-01

    The design and implementation of a new computerized control system for the several devices of the magnetic spectrometer at TANDAR Laboratory is described. This system, as a main difference from the preexisting one, is compatible with almost any operating systems of wide spread use available in PC. This allows on-line measurement and control of all signals from any terminal of a computer network. (author)

  5. Polarized neutron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abov, Yu.G.; Novitskij, V.V.; Alfimenkov, V.P.; Galinskij, E.M.; Mareev, Yu.D.; Pikel'ner, L.B.; Chernikov, A.N.; Lason', L.; Tsulaya, V.M.; Tsulaya, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The polarized neutron spectrometer, intended for studying the interaction of polarized neutrons with nuclei and condensed media in the area of energies from thermal up to several electron-volt, is developed at the IBR-2 reactor (JINR, Dubna). Diffraction on the Co(92%)-Fe(8%) magnetized monocrystals is used for the neutron polarization and polarization analysis. The neutron polarization within the whole energy range equals ∼ 95% [ru

  6. Development of Neutron Spectrometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Hee; Lee, J. S.; Seong, B. S. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    Neutron spectrometers which are used in the basic researches such as physics, chemistry and materials science and applied in the industry were developed at the horizontal beam port of HANARO reactor. In addition, the development of core components for neutron scattering and the upgrade of existing facilities are also performed. The vertical neutron reflectometer was fabricated and installed at ST3 beam port. The performance test of the reflectometer was completed and the reflectometer was opened to users. The several core parts and options were added in the polarized neutron spectrometer. The horizontal neutron reflectometer from Brookhaven National Laboratory was moved to HANARO and installed, and the performance of the reflectometer was examined. The HIPD was developed and the performance test was completed. The base shielding for TAS was fabricated. The soller collimator, Cu mosaic monochromator, Si BPC monochromator and position sensitive detector were developed and applied in the neutron spectrometer as part of core component development activities. In addition, the sputtering machine for mirror device are fabricated and the neutron mirror is made using the sputtering machine. The FCD was upgraded and the performance of the FCD are improved over the factor of 10. The integration and upgrade of the neutron detection system were also performed.

  7. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hola, Marketa; Otruba, Vitezslav; Kanicky, Viktor

    2006-01-01

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm 3 ) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between ± 3% and ± 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed. The

  8. Influence of binders on infrared laser ablation of powdered tungsten carbide pressed pellets in comparison with sintered tungsten carbide hardmetals studied by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hola, Marketa [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Otruba, Vitezslav [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, Viktor [Research Centre for Environmental Chemistry and Ecotoxicology and Laboratory of Atomic Spectrochemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University in Brno, Kotlarska 2, CZ 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)]. E-mail: viktork@chemi.muni.cz

    2006-05-15

    Laser ablation (LA) was studied as a sample introduction technique for the analysis of powdered and sintered tungsten carbides (WC/Co) by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). The possibility to work with powdered and compact materials with close chemical composition provided the opportunity to compare LA sampling of similar substances in different forms that require different preparation procedures. Powdered WC/Co precursors of sintered hardmetals were prepared for the ablation as pressed pellets with and without powdered silver as a binder, while sintered hardmetal blocks were embedded into a resin to obtain discs, which were then smoothed and polished. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser operated at its fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm with a pulse frequency of 10 Hz and maximum pulse energy of 220 mJ was used. A single lens was used for the laser beam focusing. An ablation cell (14 cm{sup 3}) mounted on a PC-controlled XY-translator was connected to an ICP spectrometer Jobin Yvon 170 Ultrace (laterally viewed ICP, mono- and polychromator) using a 1.5-m tubing (4 mm i.d.). Ablation was performed in a circular motion (2 mm diameter). Close attention was paid to the study of the crater parametres depending on hardness, cohesion and Ag binder presence in WC/Co samples. The influence of the Co content on the depth and structure of the ablation craters of the binderless pellets was also studied. Linear calibration plots of Nb, Ta and Ti were obtained for cemented WC/Co samples, binderless and binder-containing pellets. Relative widths of uncertainty intervals about the centroids vary between {+-} 3% and {+-} 7%, and exceptionally reach a value above 10%. The lowest determinable quantities (LDQ) of Nb, Ta and Ti calculated from the calibration lines were less than 0.5% (m/m). To evaluate the possibility of quantitative elemental analysis by LA-ICP-OES, two real sintered WC/Co samples and two real samples of powdered WC/Co materials were analysed

  9. Responsivity calibration of the extreme ultraviolet spectrometer in the range of 175-435 Å

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Tu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We reported the relative responsivity calibration of the grazing-incidence flat-field EUV spectrometer between 175 and 435 Å by means of two methods. The first method is implemented by measuring the diffraction efficiency of the grating with synchrotron radiation light source. Considering the transmission efficiency and quantum efficiency of the other optical components in the spectrometer, the total responsivity was then obtained. The second one was carried out by measuring line emissions from C3+, N4+ and O3+ ions at Shanghai high temperature super conductor electron beam ion trap (SH-HtscEBIT. The EUV spectra were also simulated theoretically via a collisional radiative model. In the calculation, the second-order relativistic many-body perturbation theory approach based on the flexible atomic code was used to calculate the energy levels and transition rates; the close-coupling R-matrix approach and relativistic distorted wave method were utilized to calculate the collision strength of electron impact excitation. In comparison with the spectroscopic measurements at EBIT device, the differences between the measured and simulated relative line intensities were obtained. The responsivity calibration for the spectrometer was then achieved by a 3rd degree polynomial function fitting. Our measurement shows that the responsivity between 175 and 435 Å varies by factor of ∼ 46. The two results of calibration demonstrated a consistency within an average deviation of 24%. In addition, an evaluation of our calculations on C iv, N v and O iv line emissions in this wavelength region was given.

  10. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorn, Daniel Bristol [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2008-11-19

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of

  11. Spectroscopic Investigations of Highly Charged Ions using X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thorn, D. B.

    2008-01-01

    Spectroscopy of K-shell transitions in highly charged heavy ions, like hydrogen-like uranium, has the potential to yield information about quantum electrodynamics (QED) in extremely strong nuclear fields as well as tests of the standard model, specifically parity violation in atomic systems. These measurements would represent the 'holy grail' in high-Z atomic spectroscopy. However, the current state-of-the-art detection schemes used for recording the K-shell spectra from highly charged heavy ions does not yet have the resolving power to be able to attain this goal. As such, to push the field of high-Z spectroscopy forward, new detectors must be found. Recently, x-ray calorimeter spectrometers have been developed that promise to make such measurements. In an effort to make the first steps towards attaining the 'holy grail', measurements have been performed with two x-ray calorimeter spectrometers (the XRS/EBIT and the ECS) designed and built at Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, MD. The calorimeter spectrometers have been used to record the K-shell spectra of highly charged ions produced in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, CA. Measurements performed with the XRS/EBIT calorimeter array found that the theoretical description of well-above threshold electron-impact excitation cross sections for hydrogen-like iron and nickel ions are correct. Furthermore, the first high-resolution spectrum of hydrogen-like through carbon-like praseodymium ions was recorded with a calorimeter. In addition, the new high-energy array on the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS) was used to resolve the K-shell x-ray emission spectrum of highly charged xenon ions, where a 40 ppm measurement of the energy of the K-shell resonance transition in helium-like xenon was achieved. This is the highest precision result, ever, for an element with such high atomic number. In addition, a first-of-its-kind measurement of the effect of the

  12. Characterization of petroleum distillates by GC-AED (coupling with gas chromatography and atomic emission detection); Caracterisation des distillats petroliers par couplage chromatographie en phase gazeuse et detection par emission atomique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baco, F.

    1997-05-21

    This thesis describes the characterization of atmospheric petroleum distillates (kerosenes and gas-oils) and vacuum distillates by hyphenated technic of Gas Chromatography and Atomic Emission Detector (GC-AED). A gas chromatographic simulated distillation, which gives the weight % of sample as a function of the petroleum cut temperature, was adapted to the GC-AED to obtain an original information about the elemental composition profile. After generalities, historic of the development of the instrument and the first petroleum applications are described. In the experimental part, analytical conditions used, different technics of characterisation of distillates and the base of samples analyzed are exposed. After a study of the GC-AED`s performances for the target elements (C, H, S, N), a quantitative method for the elemental analysis of distillates was developed and validated at three levels: total elemental analysis, simulated distillation and elemental composition as a function of the distillation profile. Finally, different ways for the applications of the GC-AED in order to characterize the distillates were explored, in particular to classify products and predict some petroleum properties (cetane number, density,...). The more interesting outlook seems to be the prediction of some properties as a function of the distillation profile. (author) 155 refs.

  13. Calibration and intercomparison of neutron moderation spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rimpler, A.; Hermanska, J.; Prouza, Z.

    1989-01-01

    Results have been reported of comparative measurements of neutron fields from bare PuBe and Cf sources using multisphere (Bonner) spectrometers. The experiments were carried out by the Institute of Biophysics and Nuclear Medicine at Charles University in Prague and the National Board for Atomic Safety and Radiation Protection in Berlin. Both sides agreed upon uniform measuring conditions and calibration factors thus rendering possible the comparability of the dosimetric parameters which have been determined and verified, respectively, to an accuracy of ± 10%. 20 refs., 10 tabs., 2 figs. (author)

  14. Commissioning of the vacuum system of the KATRIN Main Spectrometer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Arenz, M.; Dragoun, Otokar; Kovalík, Alojz; Lebeda, Ondřej; Ryšavý, Miloš; Sentkerestiová, Jana; Slezák, Martin; Špalek, Antonín; Vénos, Drahoslav; Zbořil, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, APR (2016), P04011 ISSN 1748-0221 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP203/12/1896; GA MŠk LG14004 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : gas systems and purification * neutriono detectors * spectrometers Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders Impact factor: 1.220, year: 2016

  15. Electric discharges in air - Near infrared emission spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benesch, W. M.; Saum, K. A.

    1972-01-01

    The emission from glow discharges in flowing air has been investigated in the 1- to 5-micron wavelength region with a vacuum spectrometer. Most of the spectral features observed in the pressure range of .5 to 10 torr are identified, including atomic lines of OI, NI, and HI and molecular bands of N2, NO, N2O, CO2, and CO. The spectra are presented as a function of pressure and a table compiled of the atomic lines. Of particular interest are the contrasts between the emission of the air discharge and that of the pure gases, nitrogen and oxygen. In addition, the results of studies of several discharge modes, employing steady voltages and pulsed, provide data on details of the energy flow within the plasma.

  16. High Resolution, Non-Dispersive X-Ray Calorimeter Spectrometers on EBITs and Orbiting Observatories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Frederick S.

    2010-01-01

    X-ray spectroscopy is the primary tool for performing atomic physics with Electron beam ion trap (EBITs). X-ray instruments have generally fallen into two general categories, 1) dispersive instruments with very high spectral resolving powers but limited spectral range, limited count rates, and require an entrance slit, generally, for EBITs, defined by the electron beam itself, and 2) non-dispersive solid-state detectors with much lower spectral resolving powers but that have a broad dynamic range, high count rate ability and do not require a slit. Both of these approaches have compromises that limit the type and efficiency of measurements that can be performed. In 1984 NASA initiated a program to produce a non-dispersive instrument with high spectral resolving power for x-ray astrophysics based on the cryogenic x-ray calorimeter. This program produced the XRS non-dispersive spectrometers on the Astro-E, Astro-E2 (Suzaku) orbiting observatories, the SXS instrument on the Astro-H observatory, and the planned XMS instrument on the International X-ray Observatory. Complimenting these spaceflight programs, a permanent high-resolution x-ray calorimeter spectrometer, the XRS/EBIT, was installed on the LLNL EBIT in 2000. This unique instrument was upgraded to a spectral resolving power of 1000 at 6 keV in 2003 and replaced by a nearly autonomous production-class spectrometer, the EBIT Calorimeter Spectrometer (ECS), in 2007. The ECS spectrometer has a simultaneous bandpass from 0.07 to over 100 keV with a spectral resolving power of 1300 at 6 keV with unit quantum efficiency, and 1900 at 60 keV with a quantum efficiency of 30%. X-ray calorimeters are event based, single photon spectrometers with event time tagging to better than 10 us. We are currently developing a follow-on instrument based on a newer generation of x-ray calorimeters with a spectral resolving power of 3000 at 6 keV, and improved timing and measurement cadence. The unique capabilities of the x

  17. Triple axis spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clausen, K.N.

    1997-01-01

    Conventional triple-axis neutron spectroscopy was developed by Brockhouse over thirty years ago' and remains today a versatile and powerful tool for probing the dynamics of condensed matter. The original design of the triple axis spectrometer is technically simple and probes momentum and energy space on a point-by-point basis. This ability to systematically probe the scattering function in a way which only requires a few angles to be moved under computer control and where the observed data in general can be analysed using a pencil and graph paper or a simple fitting routine, has been essential for the success of the method. These constraints were quite reasonable at the time the technique was developed. Advances in computer based data acquisition, neutron beam optics, and position sensitive area detectors have been gradually implemented on many triple axis spectrometer spectrometers, but the full potential of this has not been fully exploited yet. Further improvement in terms of efficiency (beyond point by point inspection) and increased sensitivity (use of focusing optics whenever the problem allows it) could easily be up to a factor of 10-20 over present instruments for many problems at a cost which is negligible compared to that of increasing the flux of the source. The real cost will be in complexity - finding the optimal set-up for a given scan and interpreting the data as the they are taken. On-line transformation of the data for an appropriate display in Q, ω space and analysis tools will be equally important for this task, and the success of these new ideas will crucially depend on how well we solve these problems. (author)

  18. Deviation from Boltzmann distribution in excited energy levels of singly-ionized iron in an argon glow discharge plasma for atomic emission spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Lei; Kashiwakura, Shunsuke; Wagatsuma, Kazuaki, E-mail: wagatuma@imr.tohoku.ac.jp

    2012-01-15

    A Boltzmann plot for many iron ionic lines having excitation energies of 4.7-9.1 eV was investigated in an argon glow discharge plasma when the discharge parameters, such as the voltage/current and the gas pressure, were varied. A Grimm-style radiation source was employed in a DC voltage range of 400-800 V at argon pressures of 400-930 Pa. The plot did not follow a linear relationship over a wide range of the excitation energy, but it yielded a normal Boltzmann distribution in the range of 4.7-5.8 eV and a large overpopulation in higher-lying excitation levels of iron ion. A probable reason for this phenomenon is that excitations for higher excited energy levels of iron ion would be predominantly caused by non-thermal collisions with argon species, the internal energy of which is received by iron atoms for the ionization. Particular intense ionic lines, which gave a maximum peak of the Boltzmann plot, were observed at an excitation energy of ca. 7.7 eV. They were the Fe II 257.297-nm and the Fe II 258.111-nm lines, derived from the 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels. The 3d{sup 5}4s4p {sup 6}P excited levels can be highly populated through a resonance charge transfer from the ground state of argon ion, because of good matching in the excitation energy as well as the conservation of the total spin before and after the collision. An enhancement factor of the emission intensity for various Fe II lines could be obtained from a deviation from the normal Boltzmann plot, which comprised the emission lines of 4.7-5.8 eV. It would roughly correspond to a contribution of the charge transfer excitation to the excited levels of iron ion, suggesting that the charge-transfer collision could elevate the number density of the corresponding excited levels by a factor of ca.10{sup 4}. The Boltzmann plots give important information on the reason why a variety of iron ionic lines can be emitted from glow discharge plasmas.

  19. A superconducting electron spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von

    1983-03-01

    The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)

  20. Intermediate PT jet spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutay, L.J.; Koltick, D.; Hauptman, J.; Stork, D.; Theodosiou, G.

    1988-01-01

    A design is presented for a limited solid angle, high resolution double arm spectrometer at 90 degree to the begin, with a vertex detector and particle identification in both arms. The jet arm is designed to accept a complete jet, and identify its substructure of sub-jets, hadrons, and leptons. The particle arm would measure e,π,K,p ratios for P T 0 to the beam for the purpose of tagging Higgs production by boson fusion, 1 gauge boson (WW, ZZ, and WZ) scattering 2 L, and other processes involving the interactions of virtual gauge bosons