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Sample records for atomic bombs hiroshima

  1. High incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shintani, Takahiro; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Hoshi, Masaharu

    1999-01-01

    Since the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, high incidences of leukemia, thyroid cancer and other tumors have been reported as atomic bomb-induced tumors. We investigated the incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. Sixty-eight patients surgically treated for meningioma who had been within 2.0 km of the hypocenter of the explosion were identified. Six hundred and seven non-exposed patients with meningioma were also studied. Treatment dates were from 1975 to 1992. The incidences of meningioma among 68 subjects within 2.0 km and 607 non-exposed patients were 8.7 and 3.0 cases per 10 5 persons per year, respectively. The incidences of meningioma among the survivors of Hiroshima in 5-year intervals since 1975 were 5.3, 7.4, 10.1, and 14.9, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by distances from the hypocenter of 1.5-2.0 km, 1.0-1.5 km and less than 1.0 km were 6.3, 7.6 and 20.0, respectively. The incidences of meningioma classified by doses to the brain of 0-0.099 Sv, 0.1-0.99 Sv and more than 1.0 Sv were 7.7, 9.2 and 18.2, respectively. The incidence of meningioma among Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors has increased since 1975. There was a significant correlation between the incidence and the dose of radiation to the brain. The present findings strongly suggest that meningioma is one of the tumors induced by atomic bombing in Hiroshima. (author)

  2. Studies on population change of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture 1965-1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    Studies of population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors from 1965 to 1979 in Hiroshima prefecture of which registered in Data Base of Atomic Bomb Survivors of RINMB were conducted, and following were obtained: 1. Population change of Japanese Atomic Bomb Survivors showed increasing trend until 1976 and diminishing trend from 1977. It would be estimated that reason of increasing trend of Atomic Bomb Survivors was correlated the same trend to get register card of ''Atomic Bomb Treatment Law'', and decreasing trend of them was related so much death of the elderly generations. 2. Analysing by residential place the survivors who make a living in Hiroshima city was almost 110,000, and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city) was 65,000. Considering exposed distance of the survivors in Hiroshima city, those survivors exposed within 2 km showed diminishing trend; and those who make a living in Hiroshima prefecture (except Hiroshima city), exposed within 2 km showed increasing trend. 3. In 1979, the ratio of male and female survivors by age level showed difference. Those male survivors over 50 years old in Hiroshima city showed much lower percentage than female. 4. In 1979, the population trends of survivors who get the ''card'' before 1964 showed rapid decrease, and those who get the ''card'' after 1965 showed mild decrease. (author)

  3. Hiroshima - the effects of the atom bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McClelland, M.

    1977-01-01

    The author, a nurse, describes her personal impressions of a visit to Hiroshima in 1977 and of the medical and nursing facilities available for atomic bomb survivors in Japan. The findings of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are briefly summarized. Hiroshima's Red Cross Hospital, recently re-built, cares for some of the survivors. The problems of discrimination against the survivors in employment and in society are discussed. (U.K.)

  4. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi

    1998-03-01

    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  5. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors from 1946 to 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, Takeshi

    1976-01-01

    In five recent years, 134 deaths from leukemia among Hiroshima citizen were recorded. Of these, 23 cases (17 acute and 6 chronic types) were atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2,000 m of the hypocenter. Fifteen of them (65%) were over 60 years of age. The frequency of chronic lymphocytic leukemia was still low. Although the risk of leukemia was greatly reduced after 1961, and the frequency of chronic granulocytic leukemia (one of the most characteristic type of Hiroshima atomic bomb-induced leukemia) was also decreased, the death rate from leukemia among survivors exposed within 2,000 m or 1,500 m from the hypocenter was about 3 to 4 times higher than the mean death rate in all Japan. Therefore, careful and long-range follow-up surveillance should be continued. A brief review was also made of relevant studies such as the influence of environmental and host factors in the epidemiology of leukemia, the incidence of leukemia in children exposed in utero, and leukemia in offspring of atomic bomb survivors. (Evans, J.)

  6. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Takashi

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) has been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors. (author)

  7. Atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.

    1986-01-01

    Better atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation dose estimates with a higher accuracy are required for the epidemiological studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Several scientists have tried to evaluate the free-in-air gamma ray and neutron dose and some weighting factors such as house shielding and body shielding. Since 1965, the tentative 1965 dose (T65D) had been widely used as the basic data for the dose determination of A-bomb survivors in epidemiological studies. In 1976, however, the reevaluation of the T65D dose was proposed by an American scientist who calculated the A-bomb doses on the basis of declassified data on the radiation spectra of the A-bomb. The development of computer technology made it possible to perform complicated dosecalculations for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs. This paper describes the history of A-bomb dosimetry, reviews some issues in the determination of T65D, and discusses the necessity of reassessment of A-bomb dose and the expected values for survivors

  8. Statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T; Ishida, S [H.ma Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, Hiroshi

    1976-03-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases.

  9. Incidence of leukemia in survivors of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Folley, J H; Borges, W; Yamawaki, Takuso

    1959-01-01

    This document contains two reports. The aim of the first investigation was to obtain information concerning all individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki having onset of symptoms of leukemia or dying of the disease since the atomic explosion in 1945. Results show that: (1) There is a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia in the exposed populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki as compared with the non-exposed populations of the two cities; (2) there is a significant increase in the incidence of leukemia within the exposed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in subjects exposed at distances less than 2000 meters from the hypocenter; and (3) The concept that radiation from the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki is a leukemogenic agent in man is supported. In the second report, 10 patients were used to study the early hematologic and preclinical phases of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. Findings are presented. 23 references, 13 figures, 15 tables.

  10. Cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, I.; Kagan, A.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents information on the following topics: sampling of atomic bomb survivors and method of cancer detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; atomic bomb dosimetry for epidemiological studies of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; tumor and tissue registries in Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the cancer registry in Nagasaki, with atomic bomb survivor data, 1973-1977; cancer mortality; methods for study of delayed health effects of a-bomb radiation; experimental radiation carcinogenesis in rodents; leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma; cancer of the thyroid and salivary glands; malignant tumors in atomic bomb survivors with special reference to the pathology of stomach and lung cancer; colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors; breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors; and ovarian neoplasms in atomic bomb survirors

  11. A statistical study of autopsy cases in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital 1956-1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    In order to study the differences in the incidence of a variety of disease (excluding tumors), between the cases exposed to the atomic bomb and those who were unexposed, main lesions were studied statistically by autopsy. The subjects were 1230 cases autopsied at the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital or the Hiroshima Red-Cross Hospital. They were divided into 318 cases exposed at a short distance from the bombed area (within 2 km), and 420 cases exposed at a long distance from that area (more than 2 km), including those who had come to Hiroshima later. Four hundred twenty nine unexposed cases were selected as controls. The incidence of tumor, disturbance of circulation, disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain, blood disease, and respiratory disease was higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. The incidence of cirrhosis of the liver was higher in females than in males, and was lower in cases farther from the bombed area. Cardiac infarction, valvular disease, and endocarditis were more often seen in the cases exposed near the bombed area. The incidence of the blood vessels in the brain was highest in the exposed cases near the bombed area. The incidence of disturbance of circulation, and disturbance of the blood vessels in the brain had a tendency to be higher in the exposed cases than in the unexposed cases. This is considered to be due to the advanced age in the exposed cases. (Serizawa, K.)

  12. Exposure to Atomic Bomb Radiation and Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Later Life: The Hiroshima-Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivor Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itakura, Katsumasa; Takahashi, Ikuno; Nakashima, Eiji; Yanagi, Masahide; Kawasaki, Ryo; Neriishi, Kazuo; Wang, Jie Jin; Wong, Tien Yin; Hida, Ayumi; Ohishi, Waka; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between radiation exposure from the atomic bombings and the prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) among older residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The Adult Health Study is a cohort study of atomic bomb survivors living in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comprising 2153 participants who underwent examinations with retinal fundus photographs in 2006-2008. The radiation dose to the eye for the analysis was estimated with the revised dosimetry system (DS02). The retinal photographs were graded according to the Wisconsin Age-Related Maculopathy Grading System modified for nonstereoscopic retinal images. Early and late AMD were defined according to the type of lesion detected in the worse eye of the participants. Person-specific data were analyzed by using a logistic regression model to assess the association between radiation dose and AMD. Among the 1824 subjects with gradable retinal images (84.7% of the overall participants), the estimated eye dose was widely distributed, with a mean of 0.45 Gy and standard deviation of 0.74 Gy. The prevalence of early and late AMD was 10.5% and 0.3%, respectively. There were no significant associations between radiation dose and AMD, with each 1-Gy increase in exposure, adjusted odds ratio was 0.93 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.75-1.15) for early AMD and 0.79 (95% CI, 0.21-2.94) for late AMD. No significant associations were found between atomic bomb irradiation early in life and the prevalence of early or late AMD later in life among Japanese atomic bomb survivors.

  13. Leukemia in atomic bomb survivors. 1. General observations. Leukemia in survivors of atomic bombing. Cytologic and biochemical studies on the granulocytes in early leukemia among atomic bomb survivors. Leukemogenic effects of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lange, R D; Moloney, W C; Yamawaki, Tokuso; Kastenbaum, M A

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 4 separate reports on leukemia in survivals of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first report, observations on seventy-five established cases of leukemia occurring in people exposed to atomic bomb radiation are presented. These data indicate a great increase in the incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors due to a single massive exposure to ionizing radiation. The leukemogenic effects of radiation are manifested equally in both sexes and at all age levels represented in this series. The striking preponderance of chronic myelogenous leukemia compared to chronic lymphatic leukemia has been noted in exposed individuals but it is pointed out that chronic lymphatic leukemia is comparatively rare among the Japanese. Cases of leukemia are still appearing in atomic bomb survivors. However, since 1950 there has been a steady decline in the number of cases. The second report consists of a review of all cases of leukemia referred to the ABCC from 1948 to April 1952, a total of 75 cases. In the third report, hematological and biochemical findings in separated leukocytes of four cases of preclinical myelogenous leukemia developing in atomic bomb survivors are described. The incidence of leukemia among survivors in Hiroshima is the topic of the fourth report. 38 references, 8 figures, 10 tables.

  14. Urinary findings of children exposed in utero to the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Keehn, R J

    1966-06-09

    Data from urinalyses at ages 9 to 16 were tabulated for children exposed to ionizing radiation in utero at the time of the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and for comparable control groups. Proteinuria was detected more often at various ages in boys in Hiroshima and girls in both cities whose mothers were within 1500 m of the bomb hypocenters. However, the differences were statistically significant only in girls ages 13 or 14. Casts were also seen more commonly in Hiroshima girls located at the same distance. Red and white blood cell excretion in the urine and glycosuria did not appear to be related to radiation exposure. Future investigations will be necessary to define the biological significance of these findings. 11 references, 8 tables.

  15. Mortality statistics among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture. 1968-1972

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, M; Munaka, M; Hayakawa, N; Yamamoto, H; Ueoka, H; Ohtaki, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1981-12-01

    In a comparative analysis of mortality among atomic bomb survivors versus the non-exposed, both resident in Hiroshima Prefecture, it was found that in addition to leukaemia, malignant lymphoma, multiple myeloma, and cancers of the thyroid gland, breast, lung, esophagus, stomach, urinary organs and salivary gland which have been reported from the past to be elevated in risk among atomic bomb survivors, cancers of the colon, larynx, accessory sinuses, uterus, ovary and testis, diseases of the blood, cirrhosis of liver, hypertensive disease and diabetes mellitus were elevated in risk, but the risk of cerebrovascular disease, heart disease, peptic ulcer, gastroenteritis, senility, and accidents was lower than the non-exposed. The relationship of atomic bomb exposure to the relative risk of cancers of the lung, breast, uterus, and testis could be readily explained, but the relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the relative risk of cancers of many other sites, diseases of the blood, and other causes of death was inconsistent. One of the reasons why the risk of senility was low and the risk of diseases of the blood, malignant neoplasms, diabetes mellitus, and hypertensive disease was high is considered to be the higher diagnostic accuracy in atomic bomb survivors.

  16. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  17. Radiation therapy among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinkston, J.A.; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Russell, W.J.

    1980-10-01

    In the continuing evaluations of atomic bomb survivors for late radiation effects, not only doses from the A-bombs but those from other radiation sources must be considered, for the latter may be concomitantly acting factors causing bias among these investigations. In the present study, among 73 Hiroshima and 22 Nagasaki Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects who reported receiving radiation therapy, from 1970 through 1979, the medical records of 72 and 20, respectively, were reviewed, and 41 Hiroshima and 14 Nagasaki subjects were confirmed to have received radiation therapy. The data obtained in the present study were pooled with those of the previous investigation on radiation therapy exposures of AHS subjects prior to 1970. A total of 190 subjects have been documented as receiving radiation therapy and their doses were estimated. Energies used in treatments and diseases treated are discussed. Malignancies developed subsequent to radiation therapy in seven cases; five after treatment for malignancies and two after treatment for benign diseases. Neoplasms of 12 AHS subjects may have been induced by earlier radiation therapy; 5 in the earlier study and 7 in the present one. These investigations underscore the need for continued documentation of exposures to ionizing radiation for medical reasons, especially from sources incurring relatively high doses. Bias in assessments of late radiation effects among A-bomb survivors can thus be avoided. (author)

  18. Immunohistochemical analysis of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Masami; Yamamoto, Tetsuro; Hata, Jotaro; Nakagawa, Hitoshi; Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Tahara, Eiichi.

    1987-01-01

    In order to elucidate the biological characteristics of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, a total of 159 cases of colorectal cancers comprising 73 cases in exposed atomic bomb survivors and 86 cases in non-exposed individuals were examined histologically and immunohistochemically for various functioning proteins. No statistical differences could be demonstrated in the incidence of various marker expressions of colorectal cancers between the exposed group and control group. However, comparison by the site of colorectal cancer showed that sigmoid colon cancers in the exposed group or high dose group showed a significantly higher frequency of glycoproteins such as α 1 -antichymotrypsin (ACT), secretory component (SC), α 1 -antitrypsin (AAT), and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) when compared with the control group. These results correlated well with the epidemiological data that the radiation effect on the incidence of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors was most remarkable in the sigmoid colon. (author)

  19. A review of 40 years studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1993-01-01

    The late health effects of ionizing radiation have been studied by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) based on a fixed population of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki which had been established in 1950. The results thus far obtained up to the present can be classified into the following three categories: (1) The effects for which a strong association with atomic bomb radiation has been found include malignant neoplasms, cataracts, chromosomal aberrations, small head size and mental retardation among the in utero exposed. (2) A weak association has been found in the several sites of cancers, some non-cancer mortalities and immunological abnormalities. (3) No association has been observed in some types of leukemia, osteosarcoma, accelerated aging, sterility and hereditary effects

  20. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srsen, S.

    1984-01-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were to small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable

  1. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)

    1984-05-01

    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  2. Estimation of the Hiroshima bomb yield and weather conditions at the time of the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajima, Eizo

    1984-01-01

    The results of the survey made immediately after the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were compiled in Collection of Reports on the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb Casualties published in 1953. Much valuable information for the reassessment of dose are included in this document. One of the major problems to be solved for the dose reassessment is the yield of the Hiroshima bomb. Two articles with relatively detailed description were selected, and the estimation of the yield was attempted, based on them. The data on roof tile melting were used for the purpose. Assuming the yield of the Nagasaki bomb as 22 kt, the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was given as 12.4 kt. By the experiment using the charred state of cypress boards, the total radiant energy from the bomb was calculated as 4.6 x 10 12 cal, and the yield of the Hiroshima bomb was estimated as 14.2 kt and 13.2 kt. The true value is likely between 12 and 13 kt. The vapor pressure at the time of bombing significantly affected the neutron spectrum. On the day of bombing, Japan was covered by hot, humid maritime air mass, namely summer monsoon pattern. The air density and water vapor content in the atmosphere were determined by the Japan Weather Association, and compared with the data of Dr. Kerr et al. (Kako, I.)

  3. Hematologic studies of irradiated survivors in Hiroshima, Japan. Refractory anemia occurring in survivors of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamasowa, Yoshimichi; Lange, R D; Wright, S W; Tomonaga, Masanobu; Kurasaki, Hirotami; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Matsunaga, Haruji

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 2 reports on the effects of radiation on the survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first report is a hematologic survey conducted 33 to 44 months after the detonation of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, Japan. The hematologic findings on a total of 824 survivors are compared with those on a control group of 1145 residents of Kure. Although statistical differences are apparent in the two groups, when one takes into account errors inherent in the hematologic methods themselves and differences in the possible incidence of parasitism and nutrition it would be unwarranted to attribute the slight changes found to radiation effect. The data presented here seem to indicate that radiation resulting from the explosion of the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, on August 6, 1945, has not significantly varied the hematologic values as analyzed in this report over a three-to four-year period. In the second report, the case histories of six Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who developed refractory anemia are presented. Four of these individuals received undoubted radiation injury. The fact that refractory anemia may occur as a late manifestation of exposure to atomic radiation is pointed out. 15 references, 5 figures, 2 tables.

  4. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M; Tomonaga, M; Amenomori, T; Matsuo, T [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1991-12-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  5. Atomic bomb and leukemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T.

    1991-01-01

    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5∼0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  6. Month of estimated onset of leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nefzger, M D; Hoshino, Takashi; Itoga, Takashi; Yamada, Atsushi; Toyoda, Shigeki

    1963-10-03

    The monthly distribution of onset of leukemia during 1946-61 has been examined in 638 known cases among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. Comparisons were made of sex, city, chronicity, and distance from the hypocenter. A summer excess was most prominent in the group 0-1999 m from the hypocenter, and an autumn deficiency was most consistently seen in the various subgroups. No explanation of these differences can be offered. 1 reference, 2 figures, 3 tables.

  7. Radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arakawa, E T

    1959-01-01

    This report summarizes the present state of knowledge in dosimetry of the Hiroshima-Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. Data have been presented on the physical factors involved in the two cities and on attenuation of radiation by various shielding situations. This information is being used to estimate a tentative radiation dose to individual A-bomb survivors. It should be emphasized that many important problems remain to be solved before accurate doses can be assigned to individual survivors. Such information will greatly strengthen investigation of biological consequences of instantaneous doses of gamma and neutron irradiation in men. 18 references, 9 figures.

  8. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Kurihara, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology) (and others)

    1991-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic romb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the site showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency ws observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  9. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kasagi, Keiko

    2002-01-01

    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8±15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  10. Bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki: a test or tragedy ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faridah Mohd Idris

    2003-01-01

    Hiroshima and Nagasaki were left as monument by the history of the man civilization. This article discussed some of related issues i.e. the scenarios of the tragedy, the history of atomic bomb - starts with the discovery of neutrons to the day the tragedy happened

  11. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1989-06-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author).

  12. Mortality statistics of major causes of death among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture from 1968 to 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Matsuura, Masaaki; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru; Ueoka, Hiroshi.

    1989-01-01

    A comparative study was made on mortality during a 15-year period from 1968 to 1982 between atomic bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima Prefecture and non-exposed controls. The mortality rate for all causes of death was lower in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but the rate was higher among those directly exposed within about 1 km than in the non-exposed. The mortality rate for malignant neoplasms was higher in atomic bomb survivors than in the non-exposed, but that for cerebrovascular disease and heart disease was lower. In examining the rate for malignant neoplasms by site, the sites showing a high mortality rate among atomic bomb survivors were almost identical to the results of the Life Span Study. For these sites, the shorter the exposure distance the higher was the mortality rate. The rate for malignant neoplasms of the uterus and stomach, and leukemia was unnaturally high among early entrants whose period after issuance of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was short. In observing the atomic bomb survivors by the level of family destruction due to the bombing as a socio-economic factor, a tendency was observed for the mortality rate for malignant neoplasms, diseases of blood and blood-forming organs, and peptic ulcer, to be higher among survivors with severe family destruction. (author)

  13. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  14. Diagnosis and treatment of leukemia recognized in atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, M [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1978-05-01

    Out of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 256 patients which were diagnosed as having leukemia by 1975 and of which exposure dose was estimated as over 1 rad were described. Chronic myelocytic leukemia (CGL) was plentiful in Hiroshima, and acute myelocytic leukemia (AGL) was comparatively plentiful in Nagasaki. Chronic lymphatic leukemia (CLL) was not recognized in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at places near the center of the explosion, but CLL was recognized plentifully in the atomic bomb survivors exposed to radiation of under 1 rad. The incidence of leukemia according to the total dose was higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. When RBE of neutron on the occurrence of leukemia was considered to be five times that of gamma-ray, the occurrence curves in both cities were consistent well. As to a relationship between leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors and the age at the exposure time, CGL occurred early in the atomic bomb survivors exposed at an early age. A specific lesion of leukemia in the atomic bomb survivors was not recognized, but cases of which leukemia cells were negative to peroxidase and were very difficult to be identified were plentiful in the atomic bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the explosion center. The treatment of leukemia in atomic bomb survivors does not differ from that of general leukemia, but a method of treatment, administration dosage, a method and a kind of supportive care must be discussed according to each case.

  15. Some demographic characteristics of Hiroshima City, 1958, related to exposure to the Atomic Bomb (Based on the 1958 Interim Urban Population Survey of Hiroshima Prefecture). Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikuni, Naoji; Kato, Hiroo; Matsumoto, Y Scott

    1960-08-17

    Based upon the data obtained by the Interim Urban Population Survey conducted on October 1, 1958, in the cities of Hiroshima Prefecture, a comparison has been made between the demographic characteristics of the Hiroshima City atomic bomb survivors and those of the nonexposed. Analysis of the data revealed: (1) the estimated number of persons exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb and still residing in Hiroshima City on October 1, 1958 was 92,180; (2) the annual mean rates of in-migration and out-migration of the exposed population during the eight year period from 1950 to 1958 were both approximately 2%, while those for the nonexposed were 8% and 4% respectively; (3) the rate of unmarried exposed females tended to be higher than the rate of unmarried women not exposed, while no difference was noted for single males by exposure status; (4) proportionately greater numbers of exposed persons were engaged in primary and secondary industries (agriculture and manufacturing), while a proportionately greater number of nonexposed were engaged in tertiary industry (commerce, government service, and service work); (5) of those in the labor force the ratio of unemployed in the exposed population seemed slightly higher, but due to the small number surveyed, statistical confirmation was not possible. Of those not in the labor force, no difference was noted according to exposure status; (6) in the sickness prevalence rate no difference could be observed between the exposed and nonexposed.

  16. Leukemia in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyssel, R; Brill, A B; Woodbury, L A; Nishimura, Edwin T; Ghose, Tarunendu; Hoshino, Takashi; Yamasaki, Mitsuru

    1959-03-01

    This report is intended to provide the basic data pertinent to the leukemia experience observed in the survivors of the Hiroshima atomic explosion. Many of the conclusions in this report are tentative. The one clear fact to emerge is that radiation increases the occurrence rate of leukemia and that the magnitude of increase is dependent on dose received. Additional observations can be made, which, while not definitive in themselves, seem to complement each other, and are corroborated by other experiences in radiation biology. From the data a linear relationship between dose and incidence of leukemia is found. The shape of the relation in the lower dose range is not known with certainty. An approximate minimum time for the appearance of leukemia following radiation is 3 years or less. The data suggest that the time of maximum risk of leukemia may be dependent on the dose of radiation received. In this group the mean latent period is found to lie in the interval between 4 and 8 years following exposure. The length of time during which the increased incidence of leukemia persists is not known. The incidence of the acute leukemias and of chronic granulocytic leukemia is increased in the exposed survivors. The chronic granulocytic variety is disproportionately increased in Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb. No effect of radiation on monocytic or chronic lymphatic leukemia incidence is noted. Aplastic anemia, polycythemia vera, and myelofibrosis have been investigated. Myelofibrosis is the only one of this group of diseases in which a suggestive relation to radiation exposure is apparent. The natural history of leukemia following radiation does not seem to differ from that of the spontaneously occurring variety. 17 references, 5 figures, 38 tables.

  17. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, Takeo; Neriishi, Shotaro

    1989-07-01

    This paper describes the results of a cytogenetic study on 8,322 children born to atomic bomb survivors (4,716 in Hiroshima and 3,606 in Nagasaki) and 7,976 controls (5,112 in Hiroshima and 2,864 in Nagasaki). Because no child was examined before age 12, the data may not be considered valid for the occurrence of chromosomal abnormalities that impose a high risk of early death. Thus, we will restrict our comparison to the sex-chromosome aneuploids and autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type, although other abnormalities encountered in this survey will be enumerated. Among the children born to exposed parents, 19 individuals (0.23 %) exhibited sex chromosome abnormalities and 23 (0.28 %) exhibited autosomal structural rearrangements, whereas among children born to unexposed parents, 24 (0.30 %) and 27 (0.34 %), respectively, were observed to exhibit these abnormalities. Only one child with a karyotype of 47,XY,+21 was found in the Hiroshima exposed group. Thus, there was no statistically significant difference in the overall frequencies of cytogenetically abnormal cases between the exposed (0.52 %) and control (0.64 %) populations. In Hiroshima, frequencies of chromosome abnormalities were similar between exposed and control groups (0.64 % vs 0.65 %). However, the value observed in the exposed group in Nagasaki was slightly lower (0.36 %) - though not statistically significant - than the value observed in the control group (0.63 %). This value of the Nagasaki control group was similar to that in Hiroshima. Family studies on probands with chromosome abnormalities revealed that the majority of cases (about 90 %) with autosomal structural rearrangements of the balanced type were inherited from one or the other parent. The mutation rates for these reaarangements were similar between the exposed and control groups, being 0.98 x 10 -4 per gamete per generation. (author)

  18. Atomic bomb injury: radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunham, C L; Cronkite, E P; Le Roy, G V; Warren, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 reports. In the first report, the clinical diagnosis and treatment of radiation syndrome in survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. The syndrome of acute radiation injury is applied to the symptom complex, or diseased state, which results from exposure of the whole body to the initial nuclear radiation of an atomic bomb. It is applied to injuries of the skin and subcutaneous tissues resulting from x-radiation or from contact with radioactive material. Internal radiation injury may result from the selective deposition, such as in bone or thyroid, of radioactive material that has been inhaled or absorbed through the gastrointestinal tract or wounds. Radiation syndrome is classified as very severe, severe, and mild. In the second report, a brief discussion is presented on the question of genetic effects in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the third report, a study was carried out on 205 4-1/2 year old children who had been exposed to the atomic bomb blast during the first half of intra-uterine life. Correlation between head size and mental development of the child with distance from the hypocenter, symptoms of radiation effect and type of shielding of the mother is discussed. The conclusion drawn from the present study is that central nervous system defects can be produced in the fetus by atomic bomb radiation, provided that exposure occurs within approximately 1200 meters of the hypocenter and that no effective shielding, such as concrete, protects the fetus from direct irradiation.

  19. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima University, Department of Environmetrics and Biometrics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Sato, Yuya [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiation Biophysics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  20. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  1. The delayed effects of radiation exposure among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Moriyama, I.M.

    1980-07-01

    The most important radiation-induced late medical effect in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of certain neoplasms, specifically, leukemia and cancers of the thyroid, lung, and breast. Other definite radiation-related effects include an increase in posterior lenticular opacities, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes, and some abnormalities of growth and development following irradiation while in utero or during childhood. Moderate to fairly strong associations between A-bomb exposure and the increased occurrence of stomach cancer, multiple myeloma, and several other types of cancer have been observed. Radiation relationships also are suggestive for alterations of certain aspects of immune mechanisms and the increased occurrence of myelofibrosis. No increase in genetic effects has been demonstrated in the children born of exposed parents, and studies to data have been negative for evidence of increased infertility, accelerated aging, or increased mortality from diseases other than cancer. In general, the radiation dose-response relationships for most positive effects have been higher in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki, and the shape of the dose-response curves for certain effects is different in the two cities. These differences may be related to differences in the quality of the radiation from the two A-bombs. For several radiation-related effects the latent period following exposure is shorter and the incidence rate is higher in personse exposed when young as compared to exposure later in life. (author)

  2. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, Joël; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  3. Deep underground measurements of 60Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hult, Mikael; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-01-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure 60 Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure 60 Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations

  4. Hyperparathyroidism among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1986-88

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Ezaki, Haruo; Sposto, R.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Kodama, Kazunori; Hosoda, Yutaka; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo.

    1990-10-01

    During the two-year period from August 1986 to July 1988, the prevalence of hyperparathyroidism (HPT) was determined among A-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima. The diagnosis of HPT was determined biochemically, based upon the presence of consistent hypercalcemia and elevated serum parathyroid hormone levels. Among a population of 4,675 individuals (1,527 males, 3,148 females), primary HPT was diagnosed in 22 (3 males, 19 females). Of these, 8 underwent surgery, of whom 6 had a single parathyroid adenoma and 2 had parathyroid hyperplasia. HPT was more prevalent among the A-bomb survivors who received higher radiation doses (p <.001 for linear trend). The prevalence rates predicted from the model were 0.204% (±0.094%) at 0 Gy and 0.893% (±0.237%) at 1 Gy. The background rate of HPT did not differ significantly by sex or by age at the time of the bombing, although the effect of radiation exposure was greater for individuals exposed at a younger age (p <.01). (author)

  5. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki

    1983-01-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (author)

  6. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-76: relationship to radiation dose absorbed by marrow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Mikami, M.; Matsunaga, M.

    1982-01-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the incidence of multiple myeloma has been examined in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls in the life-span study sample for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. From October 1950 to December 1976, 29 cases of multiple myeloma were confirmed in this sample. Our analysis shows that the standardized relative risk (RR) adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of bombings (ATB) increased with marrow-absorbed radiation dose. The increased RR does not appear to differ between cities or sexes and is demonstrable only for those survivors whose age ATB was between 20 and 59 years. The estimated risk in these individuals is approximately 0.48 cases/million person-years/rad for bone marrow total dose. This excess risk did not become apparent in individuals receiving 50 rad or more in marrow total dose until 20 years or more after exposure

  7. Neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima City. First report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ishida, Morihiro

    1960-04-01

    The 1957-1958 incidence of neoplasms among the survivors of the Hiroshima A-bomb, varies directly with radiation dose insofar as it may be inferred from distance from the hypocenter at exposure. The incidence of all malignant neoplasms among the survivors who were within 1000 meters is more than 4 times that of the non-exposed population. The incidence of benign neoplasms among the survivors exposed within 1500 meters is also significantly higher than that among the non-exposed. For survivors under 1500 meters significant differences are seen between the numbers of observed cancers of the lung, stomach, uterus and ovary and the expected cases calculated from the age-specific rates of the non-exposed portion of the Hiroshima population. The increased incidence among survivors within 1500 meters is not related to sex or age. 18 references, 2 figures, 14 tables.

  8. Distribution of onset of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in the leukemia registry by dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1946-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Tomonaga, Yuu.

    1982-03-01

    The data from the RERF Leukemia Registry for the years 1946-75 were used to determine the distribution of onset of acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to city, dose, and age at the time of the bomb (ATB). A total of 509 confirmed leukemia cases (297 in Hiroshima and 212 in Nagasaki) have occurred among A-bomb survivors in the open populations of these cities in these years. Analysis revealed that the onset of both acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia tends to shift to earlier years with increasing dose in Hiroshima, but in Nagasaki, although the onset of both types of leukemia was earlier in the high dose group than in the low dose or control groups, the latter two groups did not differ. The distribution of onset of acute leukemia in the three dose groups also depended upon age ATB. While the distribution of onset of acute leukemia among those survivors whose age ATB was less than 30 differed significantly in the three dose classes, this tendency was not observed among those individuals whose age ATB was 30 years or more. For chronic granulocytic leukemia, the onset was shifted to earlier years in the high dose group than in the control group regardless of age ATB in Hiroshima. These findings support the pattern of leukemogenesis observed in A-bomb survivors in the Life Span Study sample, a fixed cohort, in relation to city, dose, age ATB, and years after exposure. (author)

  9. Deep underground measurements of {sup 60}Co in steel exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hult, Mikael E-mail: mikael.hult@cec.eu.int; Gasparro, J.Joeel; Vasselli, Roberto; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Arnold, Dirk; Neumaier, Stefan

    2004-09-01

    When using gamma-ray spectrometry performed deep underground, it is possible to measure {sup 60}Co activities down to 0.1 mBq in steel samples of some 100 g without any pre-concentration. It is thus still possible to measure {sup 60}Co induced by neutrons from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima in pieces of steel collected at distances up to about 1200 m slant range. The results of non-destructive measurements of eight steel samples are compared with the 1986 Dose Re-Evaluation (DS86) model calculations.

  10. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, Suminori; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Stevens, R.G.

    1989-09-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima who participated in the 1979-81 period of the Adult Health Study, an on-going health follow-up program of the RERF. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers as compared to nonsmokers, levels of total protein, β globulin, and γ globulin were significantly lower (p 1 and α 2 globulin were significantly higher (p 1 globulin. Duration of smoking (years) was related to increased α 1 and α 2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect. Its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins. (author)

  11. Neutron-induced {sup 63}Ni activity and microscopic observation of copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shizuma, Kiyoshi, E-mail: shizuma@hiroshima-u.ac.jp [Quantum Energy Applications, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Endo, Satoru [Quantum Energy Applications, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Shinozaki, Kenji [Materials Joining Science and Engineering, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan); Fukushima, Hiroshi [Materials Physics, Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higashi-Hiroshima 739-8527 (Japan)

    2013-05-01

    Fast neutron activation data for {sup 63}Ni in copper samples exposed to the Hiroshima atomic bomb are important in evaluating neutron doses to the survivors. Up to until now, accelerator mass spectrometry and liquid scintillation counting methods have been applied in {sup 63}Ni measurements and data were accumulated within 1500 m from the hypocenter. The slope of the activation curve versus distance shows reasonable agreement with the calculation result, however, data near the hypocenter are scarce. In the present work, two copper samples obtained from the Atomic bomb dome (155 m from the hypocenter) and the Bank of Japan building (392 m) were utilized in {sup 63}Ni beta-ray measurement with a Si surface barrier detector. Additionally, microscopic observation of the metal surfaces was performed for the first time. Only upper limit of {sup 63}Ni production was obtained for copper sample of the Atomic bomb dome. The result of the {sup 63}Ni measurement for Bank of Japan building show reasonable agreement with the AMS measurement and to fast neutron activation calculations based on the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) neutrons.

  12. Mental retardation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb - Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wood, J W; Johnson, K G; Omori, Yoshiaki; Kawamoto, Sadahisa; Keehn, R J

    1966-05-19

    Subjects who were exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, along with suitable controls, are examined annually at ABCC. Of the 1613 subjects in the study sample, 30 have gross mental retardation. Within 1500 m from the hypocenter the prevalence of mental retardation is 5 times as high as for the more distal subjects, and 6 to 15 weeks gestation was the most sensitive period. Even when subjects with possible explanations for their retardation are excluded the pattern of differences remains the same. All but two of the retarded subjects had a smaller than average head and for those who were within 1500 m this effect is accentuated. 17 references, 2 figures, 8 tables.

  13. Yale and the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, J.Z.

    1983-01-01

    This is a description, based largely on personal discussions, of the contributions of men from the Yale University School of Medicine to the saga of the immediate and long-term studies on the medical effects of the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. They played key roles in the immediate studies of bomb effects, in the creation of long-term studies of delayed effects, and in elevating the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission after 1955 to a position of excellence in its studies and relations with the Japanese. The accumulation of the information presented in this paper derives from research for the preparation of the history of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In 1975, the commission was passed to Japanese leadership as the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

  14. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Review of Dose Related Factors for the Evaluation of Exposures to Residual Radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, George D; Egbert, Stephen D; Al-Nabulsi, Isaf; Bailiff, Ian K; Beck, Harold L; Belukha, Irina G; Cockayne, John E; Cullings, Harry M; Eckerman, Keith F; Granovskaya, Evgeniya; Grant, Eric J; Hoshi, Masaharu; Kaul, Dean C; Kryuchkov, Victor; Mannis, Daniel; Ohtaki, Megu; Otani, Keiko; Shinkarev, Sergey; Simon, Steven L; Spriggs, Gregory D; Stepanenko, Valeriy F; Stricklin, Daniela; Weiss, Joseph F; Weitz, Ronald L; Woda, Clemens; Worthington, Patricia R; Yamamoto, Keiko; Young, Robert W

    2015-12-01

    Groups of Japanese and American scientists, supported by international collaborators, have worked for many years to ensure the accuracy of the radiation dosimetry used in studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. Reliable dosimetric models and systems are especially critical to epidemiologic studies of this population because of their importance in the development of worldwide radiation protection standards. While dosimetry systems, such as Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) and Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), have improved, the research groups that developed them were unable to propose or confirm an additional contribution by residual radiation to the survivor's total body dose. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of residual radiation exposures in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a half-day technical session was held for reports on newer studies at the 59 th Annual HPS Meeting in 2014 in Baltimore, MD. A day-and-a-half workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of the newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposure to atomic bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The process also involved a re-examination of very early surveys of radioisotope emissions from ground surfaces at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and early reports of health effects. New insights were reported on the potential contribution to residual radiation from neutron-activated radionuclides in the airburst's dust stem and pedestal and in unlofted soil, as well as from fission products and weapon debris from the nuclear cloud. However, disparate views remain concerning the actual residual radiation doses received by the atomic bomb survivors at different distances from the hypocenter. The workshop discussion indicated that measurements made using thermal luminescence and optically stimulated luminescence, like earlier measurements, especially in very thin layers of the samples, could be expanded to detect possible

  15. Bone marrow cytology in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors 5 years following exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oesterle, S.N.; Finch, S.C.

    1978-11-01

    Bone marrow aspiration smears obtained from 35 individuals, 5 years following exposure to the Hiroshima atomic bomb, were intensively evaluated for radiation related cytologic abnormalities. No definite radiation related changes were observed, but some findings were very suggestive. The most interesting of these was the occurrence of internuclear bridges joining erythroid precursors in the marrow smears of seven (20%) of the heavily exposed survivors. Although not specific it is likely that this lesion is indicative of residual stem cell damage and some degree of ineffectual erythropoiesis. The bone marrow morphologic lesions may be good markers of residual radiation damage but they are too infrequent in their occurrence to be of value as a biologic dosimeter. The findings in this study also suggest that a gradual disappearance of radiation induced late bone marrow changes continues for periods of 3 to 5 years or more following high dose acute radiation exposure. (author)

  16. Pathological study on autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital, September 1956 - March 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Fujihara, Megumu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1990-01-01

    A retrospective review was made of 2,659 autopsy patients obtained during the past 31 years and a half in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital. Of the patients, 1,328 (49.9%) were A-bomb survivors. Five hundred and six A-bomb survivors (38.1%) had been exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter. There was no correlation between the incidence of malignancy and the presence of exposure to A-bombing. The incidence of multiple malignancy was slightly higher in A-bomb survivors exposed at the place nearer the hypocenter. In the group of A-bomb survivors, cancer of the lung was the most common for men; and cancer of the stomach was the most common for women. The incidence of malignancy has been high in the exposed group during the early eras of examination; however, this figure has recently become high in the non-exposed group. Regarding the kinds of malignancy, there was no significant difference between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The incidence of leukemia was high during the early eras, and tentatively decreased in both the exposed and non-exposed groups. It has recently increased again. The incidence of hepatocellular carcinoma rapidly increased during the recent eras, regardless of sex, in both groups; this was marked in women in the exposed group. Thyroid and breast cancers tentatively increased in women in the exposed group. Benign diseases were seen in 35% for the exposed group and 33% for the non-exposed group; liver diseases were most frequent in both groups. In the exposed group, the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and central nervous diseases has recently increased. (N.K.)

  17. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1998-12-01

    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  18. Measurement of the residual radiation intensity at the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb sites. Penetration of weapons radiation: application to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, N; Smith, R E; Ritchie, R H; Hurst, G S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 2 reports. The first is on the measurement of residual radiation intensity at the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bomb sites, the second is on the penetration of weapons radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  19. Studies of colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1950-1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi

    1985-01-01

    Among the 82,064 subjects, 595 cases of colorectal cancer were confirmed, 395 cases (66.4%) by microscopic examinations of histological specimens and 69 cases (11.6%) by death certificate only. Subjects with unknown exposure dose or who were not in Hiroshima city at the time of the bombing were excluded, and the analysis was based on 60,470 persons with estimated exposure dose. In this population, there were 450 colorectal cancer cases: 239 cases of colon cancer, 203 cases of rectal cancer and eight cases with unknown site. Concerning the relationship between incidence of colorectal cancer and radiation exposure, the following conclusions were obtained: 1. The incidence of colorectal cancer increased with radiation dose, and this tendency was observed in both sexes. 2. The risk of colon cancer increased with dose, and linear trend tests showed that the increase was significant both in males (p<0.05) and females (p<0.01). The effects of radiation on the incidence of colon cancer differed by age at the time of the bombing. Among survivors exposed at young ages (less than 20) the effects were especially remarkable, the relative risk of the 100+ rad group versus the 0 rad group being 6.2, which was significantly greater than unity (p<0.01). Further, by site of colon cancer, radiation dose effects on the incidence of cancer of the right side colon (cecum and ascending colon), and sigmoid colon were observed, while dose effects on the incidence of the transverse colon or descending colon were not. 3. No effects atomic bomb radiation on the incidence of rectal cancer could be demonstrated, even when examined by sex and age at the time of the bombing. 4. For both colon cancer and rectal cancer, no difference in the distribution of tumor histological types could be observed by radiation dose. (J.P.N.)

  20. Histological review of breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, Shoji; Asano, Masahide; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Sakamoto, Goi; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.P.; Henson, D.E.

    1983-09-01

    A group of pathologists from the United States and Japan reviewed breast cancer material of women exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and controls. The purpose of the review was to verify the diagnoses, establish a base of confirmed cases for epidemiologic study, and provide a reference for other pathology review. Compared to the control group, matched through the Life Span Study extended sample, there were no differences in distribution of tumor type and tumor size. There were also no differences in histological type by age or radiation dose. The peak age for cancer to develop was the same in the exposed and control groups. The type of radiation had no effect on histological type. Atypical changes or residual proliferative lesions were not found in women exposed to radiation but free from cancer. On the basis of this study, it was concluded that radiogenic breast cancer does not differ histologically from spontaneously occurring cancer in Japanese women. (author)

  1. Primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seyama, Shinichi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Iijima, Soichi; Mori, Kazuo.

    1980-02-01

    An analysis was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the occurrence of primary intracranial tumors among atomic bomb survivors and nonexposed controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, in the fixed cohort of the Life Span Study (LSS) extended sample during the period 1961-75, or 16 to 30 years after the A-bombs. Based on various medical sources, 104 cases of primary intracranial tumors were identified among approximately 99,000 LSS extended sample members who were alive as of 1 January 1961. Of these 104 cases, 45 had manifested clinical signs of brain tumors, but, 59 cases were identified incidentally at postmortem examination. The distributions of morphologic type, age, and size of tumor were quite different for those primary intracranial tumors with and without a clinical sign of brain tumor. Glioma was the most frequent type of tumor with a clinical sign and meningioma was the most frequent type without. In relation to radiation dose the incidence rate of primary intracranial tumors with a clinical sign showed a significant excess risk for males in the high dose group who received 100 rad or more after adjustment for age at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk is around 5 in this group. The data also suggest that the crude relative risk of glioma is greater in the high dose group for younger ages ATB. However, there is no increased risk in females. Among the 5,012 autopsy subjects in the LSS extended sample during 1961-75, there is no relationship between radiation dose and the prevalence rate of primary intracranial tumors in those identified incidentally by autopsy. The relative risk of subclinical adenoma of the pituitary gland between high dose subjects and controls was also examined for a sample of 95 sex- and age-matched pairs using Hiroshima autopsy materials for 1961-74, but no relationship to dose was observed. (author)

  2. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1983-08-01

    The dietary life and socio-economic status of atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima were investigated. The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste products. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique.physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no dis ease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutr itional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high

  3. Further observations on sex ratio among infants born to survivors of the atomic bombs, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schull, W J; Neel, J V; Hashizume, Asaji

    1965-11-18

    Data are presented on the sex ratio of 47,624 children born in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during 1956 to 1962. The total number of births in these two cities for which information is available is now 140,542, and of this number in 73,994 instances one or both parents were exposed to the atomic bombs. The suggestion of an effect of exposure on sex ratio in the earlier data is not borne out by the present findings. One can argue either that a small early effect has disappeared or that the original observation had no biological significance. 27 references, 4 tables.

  4. Why the USA dropped atomic bombs on Japanese cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, B.

    1997-01-01

    Why did the USA use atomic bombs on Japanese cities? Because, by summer 1945, the earlier morality that said you should not kill non-combatants had been chipped away, then eroded, and ultimately destroyed by World War II. After Hitler's viciousness, after the Japanese rape of Nanjing, after the killings in Manila, after the savagery through Asia, after Dresden, after Hamburg, after Tokyo, Osaka, Kobe, Nagoya - over sixty Japanese cities had been bombed before Hiroshima, Hiroshima was inevitable, easy, comfortable, virtually automatic. The transformation was not the use of bomb, but the bombing of non-combatants - massively, intentionally. There was probably a desire to revenge, as well. In addition, there was an expectation that the bombs used on japan would also intimidate the Soviet Union but that was not crucial. Any nation that had the capacity would have used the bomb in righteousness and comfort, self-conceived dignity, amid popular applause from its electorate people

  5. The birth of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, Louis

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the author proposes an overview of fifty years of researches and works which resulted in the fabrication and use of an atomic bomb. Thus, he evokes the discovery of radioactivity, experiments made by Rutherford, the discovery of nuclear fission induced uranium bombardment by slow neutrons, the discovery of a possibility of chain reaction with a very low critical mass, the first works on the development of a bomb in the USA and United-Kingdom, and finally the Manhattan project and the realisation of the first bombs, tests, and their use in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

  6. Some aspects of readaptation of atomic survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasconcelos, L.A.

    1992-01-01

    An overview of some aspects of psycho social readaptation of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima is presented. Reports from 31 survivors, 8 men and 23 women, were used as data for the analysis. The reports were collected individually through a structured interview, in one of the two hospitals in Hiroshima which deliver services to the survivors. The data were grouped according to the following areas: family, work, health and psychological readaptation. These data were analysed considering the psycho social aspects of disasters and the characteristics of the japanese culture. (M.A.C.)

  7. Capillary microscopic observation on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima, 1972--1973

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuya, A.; Wakano, Y.; Otake, M.; Dock, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972 to 1973 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 yr after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 yr after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956 to 1957) were found to persist in the current study (1972 to 1973) conducted 30 yr after the A-bomb, though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the nail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of bomb (ATB). A statistically significant difference was not observed with labial and lingual mucosae because the number of cases available for score evaluation was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the group exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging

  8. Action taken by three humans, an American physicist in the bomber, two Japanese with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima and Nagasaki when the atomic bombs were exploded

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    Luis W. Alvarez of the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL), University of California, USA, won the Nobel Prize for physics of elementary particle in 1968. He was very famous physicist and concerned the World War II in some ways. He joined the radar research development at MIT Radiation Lab. in 1940, then he developed the magnetron and the ground-controlled approach (GCA) for blind landing of planes. Afterwards he joined the Manhattan Project to fabricate the atomic bombs. His career connecting to those is introduced partly based on his autobiography. In addition, introduced are two reports by two Japanese, the personal experience of Yoko Ota with radiation poisoning in Hiroshima, and the action of Takashi Nagai who assisted the victims of radiation poisoning in Nagasaki even if he had radiation poisoning himself, as well as a letter from Luis W. Alvarez to Ryokichi Sagane, which was put in the tube of atomic bomb energy measuring instruments. Nightmares of the Hiroshima view are also introduced. (S.Y.)

  9. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asukai, Nozomu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Kato, Hiroshi; Nakajima, Midori; Saeki, Toshinari

    2012-01-01

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  10. Contributing factors to long-term psychological consequences in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asukai, Nozomu [Tokyo Metropolitan Inst. of Medical Science, Tokyo (Japan); Sugiyama, Hiromi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Kato, Hiroshi [Hyogo Inst. for Traumatic Stress, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Nakajima, Midori [Hiroshima International Univ., Faculty of Psychological Science, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan); Saeki, Toshinari [Hiroshima Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Hiroshima, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2012-05-15

    The atomic bombing in Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, caused an estimated casualty of 140,000 by the end of that year. Survivors faced hideous scenes and many lost family members. Later, in the early 1960s, increased rates of leukemia and other types of cancer were observed among the survivors. These long-term health effects caused serious apprehension to linger. However, only a few studies on psychological consequences among the survivors have been conducted. In 2008, Hiroshima City commissioned our study team to perform a large-scale survey on long-term health effects among the survivors. We delivered a questionnaire by mail to all subjects who were living in Hiroshima City and adjacent towns prior to the release of the A-bomb until the study was implemented. The number of potential subjects was 31,598 and the response rate was 75%. We analyzed a subsample of subjects (n=14,373) whose age at the event was 8 or above. In the multiple regression analysis, hibakusha (A-bomb victims) and those who were exposed to the Black Rain (fall-out) showed poor mental health compared to the comparison group on SF-8, K6 and IES-R scores even after adjusting socio-demographic variables. Although traumatic experiences at the event still affected mental health, anxiety for health effects and social stigma showed greater impact. Our findings suggest that even 63 years after the event, apprehension of health effects and social stigma harm mental health in A-bomb survivors. Our findings may also suggest that long-term risk communication will be vital to mitigate mental health effects among survivors of the Fukushima nuclear disaster. (author)

  11. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, H.; Ezaki, H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occuring in A-bomb survivors

  12. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Ezaki, Haruo.

    1986-01-01

    Studies on autopsied and surgical cases of colorectal cancer in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have not shown a relationship to radiation. In a recent epidemiologic study made on a fixed population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the risk of colon cancer was found to increase significantly with increasing radiation dose in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and also in both males and females. The dose effect for the cities and sexes combined was especially pronounced for cancer of the sigmoid colon. The effect of radiation was found to vary by age at the time of the bomb (ATB) and the effect was remarkable among those under age 20 ATB. The risk of rectal cancer was not found to increase significantly with radiation and the distribution of histological types for cancer of either the colon or rectum was unrelated to radiation dose. The effect of A-bomb exposure on the postoperative survival rate for colorectal cancer patients was studied. No difference by radiation dose could be demonstrated. In Japan, the incidence of colorectal cancer, and of colon cancer in particular, has been increasing. Therefore, close attention should be paid to changes occurring in A-bomb survivors. (author)

  13. Influence on social life of atomic bomb, chapter 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were far small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 3 ''Influence on social life'', the following matters are described: relations of the atomic bombings to society; destroyed societies such as disruption of regional societies and loss of wealth; life of the sufferers such as occupation, marriage, hardships of life, orphans, livelihood variation, and suffering of foreigners; and mental process of the sufferers. (J.P.N.)

  14. Atom bombs and genetic damage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, R.J.

    1982-01-01

    Comments are made on a 1981 review on genetic damage in the off-spring of the atom bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The main criticisms of the review concerned, 1) the 'minimal' doubling dose value for radiation-induced mutation in man, 2) the gametic doubling dose value for sex chromosome aneuploidy and 3) the validity of trebling an observed acute doubling dose to measure the effect of chronic irradiation. The firmest conclusion which may be deduced from the studies on A-bomb survivors is that humans are fairly resistant to genetic damage from radiation. (U.K.)

  15. Radiation injuries in atomic bomb survivors, chapter 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Atomic bombs, for the first time in human history, were dropped on Hiroshima in August 6, and on Nagasaki on August 9, 1945. Though the powers of these bombs were small as compared with those of present day nuclear weapons, the atomic bombs claimed many lives instantaneously, damaged human bodies, and destroyed all objects, annihilating the urban areas. Even today, the dreadful consequences of the bombings still remain in both body and mind of the victims. Meanwhile, the experiences of atomic bomb disasters are fading constantly. In order to maintain the vivid information, in Part 2 ''Bodily injuries'', the following matters are described: early bodily injuries such as burns, (blast) external wounds, radiation injuries, and pathology in bodily injuries; later bodily injuries such as keloids, injuries to blood and eyes, injuries in exposed women, injuries in growth, aging and life, injuries in mental/nervous system, malignant tumors, and changes in chromosomes; and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  16. Radiation exposure and disease questionnaires of early entrants after the Hiroshima bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanaka, T.; Endo, S.; Kawano, N.; Tanaka, K.

    2012-01-01

    It is popularly known that people who entered into the ground-zero area shortly after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffered from various syndromes similar to acute radiation effects. External exposures from neutron-induced radionuclides in soil have recently been reassessed based on DS02 calculations as functions of both distance from the hypo-centres and elapsed time after the explosions. Significant exposure due to induced radiation can be determined for those who entered the area within 1000 m from the hypo-centres shortly after the bombing. Although it was impossible to track the action of each of the survivors over the days or weeks following the bombings in order to make reliable dose estimates for their exposures to soil activation or fallout, four individuals among those early entrants were investigated here to describe useful information of what happened shortly after the bombing. (authors)

  17. Relationship of stature to gamma and neutron exposure among atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Amano, Takako; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1982-10-01

    A reanalysis has been undertaken of the relationship of attained adult height of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors aged less than 10 at the time of the bomb (ATB) to radiation dose based upon new dosimetry data. The present analysis aims to examine the relationship of stature to radiation dose in terms of gamma rays and neutrons, separately. The 628 individuals were selected from Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, aged less than 10 ATB, whose doses were available, and whose statures were recorded at the Adult Health Study (AHS) biennial health examination during 1970-72. To ascertain the relationship of attained adult stature to gamma and neutron doses three doseresponse models were applied to the data. The analysis revealed that the attained height is a separate function of exposure to gamma rays and neutrons. The model assuming a squared term dependence on gamma rays and a linear dependence on neutrons provides a better explanation of the data. The regression coefficient associated with the squared gamma dose is -0.00000927 and the coefficient associated with neutron dose is -0.0172. The relative biological effectiveness of neutrons in relation to gamma radiation with respect to the effect for diminished development of stature is estimated as 43.1 / √Dn in kerma (Dn=neutron dose). The 95% confidence limits are 19.3 / √Dn--96.5 / √Dn. (author)

  18. A chromosome study of 6-thioguanine-resistant mutants in T lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kodama, Yoshiaki; Hakoda, Masayuki; Shimba, Hachiro; Awa, A.A.; Akiyama, Mitoshi.

    1989-07-01

    Cytogenetic characterizations were made of lymphocyte colonies established from somatic mutation assays for 6-thioguanine (TG) resistance in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. G-banded chromosomes were analyzed in both TG-resistant (TG r ) and wild-type (not TG-selected) colonies. Included were 45 TG r and 19 wild-type colonies derived from proximally exposed A-bomb survivors, as well as colonies from distally exposed control individuals who were not exposed to a significant level of A-bomb radiation (18 TG r and 9 wild-type colonies). Various structural and numerical abnormalities of chromosomes were observed in both TG r and wild-type colonies. Aberrations of the X chromosome, on which the hypoxanthine guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HPRT) locus is present, were found in six colonies: two resistant colonies from controls [45,X/46,XX; 46,X,ins(X)], three resistant colonies [45,X/46,XX/46,X,+mar; 46,X,t(Xq+;14q-); 46,Y,t(Xq-;5q+)], and one wild-type colony [45,X/47,XXX] from proximally exposed persons. In cases with exchange aberrations, each of the break points on the X chromosome was situated proximally to band q26 where the HPRT locus is known to be assigned. DNA replicating patterns were also studied, and it was found that abnormal X chromosomes showed early replicating patterns, while normal X chromosomes showed late replicating patterns. (author)

  19. Prevalence rate of thyroid diseases among autopsy cases of the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima, 1951-1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Ezaki, Haruo; Etoh, Ryozo; Hiraoka, Toshio; Akiba, Suminori

    1995-01-01

    To examine the radiogenic risk of latent thyroid cancer, thyroid adenoma, colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis, the date for 3821 subjects collected in the course of autopsies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima from 1951 to 1985 by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) were analyzed using a logistic model. About 80% of the autopsies were performed at RERF and the remainder at local hospitals. The frequencies of the above diseases were not associated with whether the underlying cause of death was cancer. However, note that our results may be influenced by potentially biasing factors associated with autopsy selection. The relative frequency of latent thyroid cancer (greatest dimension ≤1.5 cm but detectable on a routine microscopic slide of the thyroid gland) increased as the radiation dose increased and was about 1.4-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. The relative occurrence of thyroid adenoma also increased as radiation dose increased, and was about 1.5-fold greater at 1 Gy than in the 0-Gy dose group. Sex, age at the time of the bombing or period of observation did not significantly modify the radiogenic risks for thyroid adenoma or latent thyroid cancer. No statistically significant association was found between radiation exposure and the rates of colloid/adenomatous goiter and chronic thyroiditis. The possible late effect of atomic bomb radiation on the frequency of benign thyroid diseases is discussed on the basis of these data. 38 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  20. Sulfur activation at the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly: a replica of the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1985-04-01

    Studies have been completed on the activation of sulfur by fast neutrons from the Little Boy-Comet Critical Assembly which replicates the general features of the Hiroshima bomb. The complex effects of the bomb's design and construction on leakage of sulfur-activation neutrons were investigated both experimentally and theoretically. Our sulfur activation studies were performed as part of a larger program to provide benchmark data for testing of methods used in recent source-term calculations for the Hiroshima bomb. Source neutrons capable of activating sulfur play an important role in determining neutron doses in Hiroshima at a kilometer or more from the point of explosion. 37 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs

  1. Long-term Radiation-Related Health Effects in a Unique Human Population: Lessons Learned from the Atomic Bomb Survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douple, Evan B.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Cullings, Harry M.; Preston, Dale L.; Kodama, Kazunori; Shimizu, Yukiko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Shore, Roy E.

    2014-01-01

    For 63 years scientists in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, have been assessing the long-term health effects in the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and in their children. The identification and follow-up of a large population (approximately a total of 200 000, of whom more than 40% are alive today) that includes a broad range of ages and radiation exposure doses, and healthy representatives of both sexes; establishment of well-defined cohorts whose members have been studied longitudinally, including some with biennial health examinations and a high survivor participation rate; and careful reconstructions of individual radiation doses have resulted in reliable excess relative risk estimates for radiation-related health effects, including cancer and noncancer effects in humans, for the benefit of the survivors and for all humankind. This article reviews those risk estimates and summarizes what has been learned from this historic and unique study. PMID:21402804

  2. Natural history of disease in atomic bomb exposed twins in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio; Ohmae, Kiyokazu; Okamoto, Naomasa; Abe, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Shoji

    1982-01-01

    The subjects of this study are mainly pairs of monozygotic twins, one of whom was exposed to the atomic bomb and the other not exposed, and the natural history of the diseases of these twins was analyzed to find out genetic and environmental factors of the diseases and some biological effect of the atomic bomb exposure or other. In this study, 13 pairs of monozygotic and 5 pairs of dizygotic twins and other 34 cases of non-twins were examined by means of heart and lung X-ray films and electrocardiograms. The results suggest that most of the monozygotic twins show the similar findings of chest X-ray films, though their electrocardiograms have a tendency to deviate to the left in the QRS axis. These findings will not be enough to clear up the relation between the atomic bomb exposed and the abnormal electrocardiograms. (author)

  3. Doses to early entrants to the A-bombed areas and to residents of the fallout areas and 137Cs in soil of the 'black rain' area in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeshita, Kenji

    1976-01-01

    An external exposure dose from residual activity (induced radioactivity in the fallout areas and radioactive fallout in the ''black rain'' area) caused by an atomic bomb in Hiroshima was estimated. The integrated doses to the infinite time averaged 101 rads in the atomic bombed area of Hiroshima and 32 rads in that area of Nagasaki. According to the measurement by investigators, the integrated doses of the external exposure dose due to radioactive fallout averaged 13 rads. The amount of 137 Cs in soils was determined in the southest slanting surface

  4. The message of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, S.

    1982-01-01

    A review of the research conducted during the Second World War by Japanese scientists and their in-situ experiences on the Hiroshima atomic bomb effects a week after the explosion is given. Details are presented on the activity data of samples from the site, on the results of half-life measurements and of chemical analyses. From these data the site of explosion and the neutron flux on the surface were computed. The damages caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were compared. Further, an account on the powder from the Bikini H-bomb explosion is given. Finally, the author protests against the military uses of nuclear energy. (R.P.)

  5. Health risks of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Soda, M.; Mabuchi, K.

    1992-01-01

    At the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor organization, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, mortality and morbidity surveys have been continually carried out on about 1,800 persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Although the effect of radiation exposure was marked enough to permit observation of a dose-response relationship in the 30 known cases of severe mental retardation among the in utero-exposed, the association between in utero exposure and cancer risk is still uncertain. Based on data for all cancers from 1950 through 1984 for the in utero-exposed, the excess risk per 10,000 person-year-Gy was 6.57 and the relative risk at 1 Gy was 3.77. For the recent years 1985-89, there was no evident excess of cancer risk. During the remaining lifetime, it seems unlikely that any great excess of leukemia will appear. As for the risk of solid tumors, further follow up is in progress. The 1950-89 findings for cancer risk among the in utero-exposed will be compared with cancer risk among A-bomb survivors who were less than 10 years old at the time of the bombings. (author)

  6. Comparison of medical data of atomic-bomb survivors resident in the U.S. and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The third medical examination of A-bomb survivors residing in the U.S. was performed in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle and Honolulu during the period 6 - 28 May 1981. The test results were studied and the actual state of the survivors in the U.S., was reviewed as explained hereunder. 1) The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors in the U.S. is 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.2% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. The present addresses of the survivors are distributed over 15 states, but those in California constitute 77.6% of the total, and when those residing in the states along the west coast and Hawaii are added the rate increases to 95.9%. 2) Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin concentration were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors. 3) Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination of treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (author)

  7. Health survey of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arita, Ken-ichi; Iwamori, Hiroshi; Kishi, Akihiro; Koutoku, Michiya

    1988-05-01

    Health survey was undertaken among Korea survivors exposed to atomic bomb in Japan who now reside in South Korea. Of 232 A-bomb survivors on whom raditation exposure information was available, all were exposed to atomic bomb in Hiroshima. According to the distance from the hypocenter, one (0.4 %) A-bomb survior was exposed at < 1,000 m, 60 (25.9 %) at 1,000 - 2,000 m, 124 (53.4 %) at > 2,000 - 3,000 m, and 43 (18.5 %) at < 3,000 m. In the four remaining, it was unknown. According to age, 14.7 % were in their forties, 33.6 % in their fifties, 32.6 % in their sixties, 16.0 % in their severties, and 3.1 % in their eighties, indicating the tendency for the aging of older persons. Common subjective symptoms were lumbar pain and joint pain, which seemed atributable to osteoarthritis. Other diseases included hypertension, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, sequelae of cerebral stroke, eczema, and mycosis. (Namekawa, K.).

  8. Aplastic anemia and related disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Yu; Matsunaga, Masako; Sadamori, Naoki; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1978-01-01

    Whether the incidence of aplastic anemia significantly increases due to the later effect of atomic-bomb radiation was studied. After the data of aplastic anemia which occurred within 1950 - 1973 were evaluated and the diagnoses of the cases were certified, the incidence of aplastic anemia per 109,000 inhabitants of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki was calculated and compared according to the dose of atomic-bomb radiation. There was no increase in the incidence according to an increase in radiation dose, and there was no fact that aplastic anemia increased in a certain period either. Most of the atomic-bomb survivors who were close to the epicenter and were clinically diagnosed as aplastic anemia had leukemia lesion or myeloid proliferating lesion, and it is likely to be that pathological changes resembling aplastic anemia may appear in a certain phase of myeloid proliferation or as a phenotype of myeloid proliferation. An evaluation was made on cases of aplastic anemia of other groups, but the doses of atomic-bomb radiation which they received were not so much to give effect on the bone marrow except only two cases. (Ueda, J.)

  9. Outcome and status of microsatellite stability in Japanese atomic bomb survivors with early gastric carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Manabu; Taguchi, Kenichi; Yamanaka, Takeharu; Matsuyama, Ayumi; Yoshinaga, Keiji; Tsutsui, Shinichi; Ishida, Teruyoshi

    2013-03-01

    In the decade after the 1945 atomic bombing of Hiroshima, a high incidence of leukemia was observed among atomic bomb survivors. However, the incidence of other cancers gradually increased, while that of leukemia decreased after this period. We evaluated the clinical outcome of early gastric cancer and microsatellite stability over a long-term period in atomic bomb survivors. The results of surgical treatment for early gastric cancer were reviewed for 117 atomic bomb survivors and 394 control patients between 1995 and 2006. In addition, immunohistochemical staining for hMSH2 and hMLH1 expression was performed to evaluate the status of microsatellite stability in 57 atomic bomb survivors and 82 control patients. The long-term survival rate for early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was significantly lower than that in control patients (p bomb survivorship was related to defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression. The prognosis of early gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors was poor and was related to age and sex, rather than to being an atomic bomb survivor. Furthermore, a higher rate of defective hMSH2 and/or hMLH1 expression was observed in the survivors.

  10. Leukemia among atomic bomb survivors during the 1980s

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusumi, Shizuyo; Matsuo, Tatsuki

    1990-01-01

    On the basis of the dosimetry system 1986, exposure doses were determined in a cohort of 86,502 subjects for the Life Span Study during the period 1950-1985. A total of 248 people were found to develop leukemia in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. This is an analysis of the 248 patients with leukemia in connection with exposure doses, years after A-bombing, age at the time of A-bombing, relative risk, and background. An average exposure dose was 0.20 Gy for Hiroshima and 0.22 Gy for Nagasaki. Relative risk for leukemia tended to show a linear increase in proportion to exposure doses. This was significant for acute myelocytic leukemia (AML), regardless of whether A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima or Nagasaki. The younger the age at the time of A-bombing was, the higher excess relative risk for acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) was. For AML, however, it was independent of the age at that time. These findings were similar in Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, irrespective of age. As for non-exposed group, the incidence of CML was three times higher in Hiroshima citizen than Nagasaki citizen. Similarly, Hiroshima citizen had a 1.6 fold incidence of AML. There was no significant difference in the incidence of ALL between the cities. The incidences of both AML and ALL tended to increase more and more with aging, but the prevalences tended to increase in younger generation. An increased incidence of CML was associated with aging alone. (N.K.)

  11. Fifty years after Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.

    1996-01-01

    The initial radiation was composed primarily of gamma rays and neutrons. Several estimates have in the past been advanced for the initial dose of radiation. The tentative T65D dose estimates (established in 1965) were revised in July 1987 by the US-Japan Committee for Reassessment of Atomic Bomb Radiation Dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and the new DS86 dosimetry system was adopted. However, there may still be various uncertainties involved. The uncertainties under emergency conditions, in particular, the uncertainties in estimating dose-effect, relationships in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been repeatedly discussed by professor Nishiwaki since the first meeting on the medical and pathological effects of atomic bombings held at the Department of Pathology of the late Professor Ryojun Kinoshita, the then Professor of pathology, Faculty of Medicine of Osaka University in 1945. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected in a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, chemists, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately recording the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to

  12. From Hiroshima to Harrisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, J.

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, as follows: (Part I): Hiroshima and the advent of the atomic bomb: the Manhattan Engineer District Project; the milieu of war; scientific opposition to the use of the atomic bomb; Trinity; Hiroshima; Nagasaki and surrender; Hibakusha; from trust to terror; the nuclear arms spiral; fallout; the rationale for nuclear weapons; nuclear proliferation; thinking the unthinkable; the age of overkill; (Part II):the road to Harrisburg: radiation; meltdown effects and probabilities; nuclear accidents; Harrisburg; the effects of low-level ionizing radiation; the nuclear fuel cycle (mining; milling; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication; nuclear reactors; reprocessing; transportation; waste management; summary); (Part III): Karen Silkwood - a life in death: (Part IV): our challenge - overcoming psychic numbing: (Part V): an alternative vision: the soft energy path; the way of nonviolence. (U.K.)

  13. Mental health conditions in Korean atomic bomb survivors. A survey in Seoul

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koshimoto, Rika; Nakane, Hideyuki; Kim, Hyen

    2011-01-01

    More than 60 years have elapsed since the atomic bombings to Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and since all of the atomic bomb survivors have become old, the importance of caring their mental health has become increasing in Japan. Although approximately 70% of overseas atomic bomb are living in Korea, there have been quite few studies on their mental health. The objectives of the present study were to elucidate whether the mental health conditions of atomic bomb survivor in Korea are similar to those in Japan. The subjects were 181 Korean atomic bomb survivors living in Korea (cases) and 209 outpatients of a hospital in Seoul who were not exposed to atomic bombs (controls). Interviewers administered them at the hospital a questionnaire with Impact of Event Scale-Revised, General Health Questionnaire 12 (GHQ-12), Korean version of short form Geriatric Depression Scale and the K scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory. Excluding subjects with incomplete responses we analyzed 162 cases and 189 controls. The proportion of subjects with high score of GHQ-12 (≥4) was significantly higher in cases (78/162 or 48.1%) than in controls (42/189 or 22.2%) (p<0.0001, Fisher's exact test). The present results, though preliminary, indicate that atomic bomb survivors in Korea have also mental health problems similar to those observed in Japanese atomic bomb survivors, indicating the necessity of a larger study. (author)

  14. Colorectal cancer among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakatsuka, Hirofumi; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1984-01-01

    Of 108,739 atomic-bomb (A-bomb) victims enrolled in the population of life span survey by Radiation Effects Research Foundation, 730 victims from October 1950 to December 1980 were selected as subjects of colorectal cancer based on death certificates, autopsy and operative findings, and clinicopathological reconfirmation of colorectal cancer. Tentative dose decided in 1965 (T65D) was used to estimate radiation doses of A-bomb victims. Although the incidence of colon cancer was found to be related to radiation, the relation of the incidence of rectal cancer to radiation was not confirmed. Radiation effects were dependent on the age of A-bomb victims at the time of the bombing, which was noted in A-bomb victims aged less than twenty years at that time. Dose-response relationship was found in cases of cancer of the sigmoid colon. Histological types of cancer were independent of radiation doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Cytogenetic study of the offspring of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awa, A.A.; Honda, T.; Neriishi, S.

    1987-01-01

    The main objective of the present study is to evaluate the radiation sensitivity of human germ-cell chromosomes by measuring the frequency of children with chromosome changes in structure or number induced by radiation in the germ cells of exposed parents. It is expected that stable chromosome aberrations, if induced in the germ cells, would be mot likely transmitted to the offspring. Although there is no evidence of chromosome aneuploidy being induced by radiation exposure in humans, it is difficult to exclude the possibility that abnormalities, such as XYY and XXX, would be induced in the offspring. The present chapter describes the results of somatic chromosome analysis of 8,322 children born to A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Hagasaki and 7,976 children born to parents who had received less than 1 rad (distally exposed) or were not in the cities (NIC) at the time of the bomb (ATB). Chromosome analyses were based mostly on nonbanded preparations throughout the study. Because of the recent, extensive reassessment of A-bomb dosimetry by a US-Japan team of experts, the present study samples have been divided into exposed and control groups based on the T65DR system that has been routinely used until recently at RERF. The data base for the new DS86 dose system has been entered into the RERF computer; however, calculations of the individual dose estimates for each survivor are now in progress, but are not available at this time. For this reason, no attempt has been made to analyze the present data in terms of parental radiation doses

  16. Summary of the studies at ABCC-RERF concerning the late hematologic effects of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.; Finch, C.A.

    1990-06-01

    The most significant late hematologic effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure in the populations of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been the increased occurrence of leukemia. The radiation effect for leukemia has disappeared in Nagasaki but slightly elevated rates still exist in Hiroshima. Multiple myeloma also is radiation-related, but there is only a suggestive relationship for malignant lymphoma. No evidence exists of a late radiation effect for primary disturbances of hematopoiesis in the absence of malignant disease. Somatic hematopoietic markers of previous radiation exposure include lymphocyte chromosomal aberrations and an increased frequency of mutant T-lymphocytes deficient in hypoxanthine phosphoribosyltransferase. A radiation effect also has been observed for the frequency of mutant erythrocytes lacking expression of glycophorin-A protein on the membrane. There is no evidence for radiation-induced disturbance of granulocyte function, but age-related accelerated decline in the immunological functions of T lymphocytes and age-related alteration in the number of certain subsets of circulating T and B lymphocytes appears to be radiation-related. A number of radiation-related hematology research proposals which might be considered for the future are included in this report. (author) 92 refs

  17. Tendency of socio-psychological aftereffects on aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivors home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Kiyoshi; Mishima, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Michiko

    1984-01-01

    Psychosomatic status at the time of A-bomb explosion, behavior and impression immediately after the explosion, aftereffects on life, and mental changes were sought through interview for 80 aged survivors in Hiroshima A-bomb survivor home by psychiatric social workers. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Commemoration of the bombing of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawada, Shoji

    1999-01-01

    On the occasion of 52 anniversary of bombing Hiroshima this speech is given by one if the survivors, stating that it is obvious that using nuclear weapons is the cruelest and most inexcusable crime in human history. It never should be used against anyone, for any purpose, anywhere. In the Statement of the Pugwash Council, in 1995, the theory of nuclear deterrence was clearly rejected. This certainly played a significant role in the award of 1995 Nobel Prize to Pugwash Conferences. The close of 20th century provides the best occasion to affirm the international political will to prohibit nuclear weapons

  19. Statement by IAEA Director General on the 60th anniversary of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2005-01-01

    Full text: No one who has seen the victims, the film footage or photographs of the aftermath of the destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the end of World War II can fail to be horrified by the devastation that was wrought by the use of nuclear weapons. To date, Hiroshima and Nagasaki thankfully remain the only instances in which nuclear weapons have been used, and while it is difficult to speak of any good coming out of such ruin, it has always been hoped that the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki stand as constant reminders of why preventing the further use and proliferation of such weapons - and why nuclear disarmament leading to a nuclear-weapon-free world - is of utmost importance for the survival of humankind and planet Earth. The International Atomic Energy Agency born out of President Eisenhower's 'Atoms for Peace' vision, came at a time when the horrifying consequences and images of Hiroshima and Nagasaki were still fresh. Through its safeguards and verification system in support of the 1968 Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (NPT) and other similar non-proliferation agreements, the IAEA has done a great deal of work to help stem the tide of nuclear proliferation, while ensuring that the benefits of the peaceful uses of nuclear energy are made available to all those who want them. While the Agency can effectively verify compliance with non-proliferation undertakings, the value of these efforts can be better realized if they are reinforced by all other components of the nuclear non-proliferation and arms control regime, and accompanied by the political will and dialogue among concerned States to address underlying issues of security and confidence building with a view to achieving a system of collective security that no longer relies on nuclear weapons. A world without nuclear weapons remains a far-off goal and the world continues to be burdened with nearly thirty thousand nuclear warheads. The Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty

  20. Capillary microscopic observations on the superficial minute vessels of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima 1972-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuya, Akira; Wakano, Yoichi; Otake, Masanori; Dock, D.S.

    1978-04-01

    Microscopic and photographic studies were conducted in 1972-73 at ABCC in Hiroshima on the morphology of superficial blood vessels of A-bomb survivors to determine whether the somatic effects of radiation still existed 30 years after the A-bomb. Control curves representing the relationship between age and score values assigned to morphological changes of the minute blood vessels of the fingernail fold, labial mucosa, and lingual mucosa, which could be regarded as an index of aging, were obtained. These were compared with similar curves obtained from A-bomb survivors with the aim of evaluating the effect of radiation on the aging process of these vessels. The late somatic effects of irradiation which were demonstrated 10 years after the A-bomb in a previous study (1956-57) were found to persist in the current study (1972-73) conducted 30 years after the A-bomb though not as pronounced as in the earlier study. A significant effect was observed only in the fingernail fold of those exposed to 100 rad or more under the age of 10 at the time of the bomb. A statistically significant difference was not observed for labial mucosa and lingual mucosa because the number of cases available for scoring was small, but a trend was observed for abnormalities of these two sites to be higher in frequency in the 100+ rad group under the age of 10 ATB than that of the control group. No significant difference was observed between the control and exposed with regard to radiation effect on the aging process using the relationship of score values to age as an index of aging. This is in accord with results of studies of A-bomb survivors which suggested that radiation induces life shortening attributable primarily to cancers, but not a general acceleration of the aging phenomenon. (author)

  1. Two cases of giant parathyroid adenoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Nishida, Toshihiro; Fujikura, Toshio

    1983-12-01

    In a study of parathyroid tumor among autopsy cases at RERF in Hiroshima, 16 cases of parathyroid adenoma were detected among 4,136 autopsies during 1961-77. Of these, two cases were giant adenoma (5 cm in diameter) accompanied by hyperparathyroidism. Both cases were atomic bomb survivors from Hiroshima. One was exposed to 55 rad at age 51 and died at age 71, and the other was exposed to 28 rad at age 45 and died at age 71. These two cases will be reported together with a review of the literature on parathyroid tumors developed following irradiation on the head and neck. (author)

  2. Lung cancer among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Akamizu, Hiroshi

    1984-01-01

    Patho-statistical study of the relationship between lung cancer and the atomic-bomb (A-bomb) was made on 259 lung cancer cases autopsied in Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital between 1956 and 1983. These autopsy cases were divided into 3 groups; those exposed at 2000 m from the hypocenter or those entering the city after the bombing (group B), and non-exposed group. The incidence of lung cancer was high irrespective of sex in the group A, being 1.8 times higher than in the non-exposed group. It tended to increase rapidly since 1975 in women of the group A, and the ratio of women to men was high, as compared with the other groups. In the group B and the non-exposed group, the incidence of lung cancer tended to increase year by year, particularly in men. Grip-sized adenocarcinoma was seen more frequently in the group A than in the other groups. Squamous cell carcinoma and undifferentiated cancer occurred more frequently than adenocarcinoma in older women of the exposed groups. This seemed to be due to the fact that older patients tended to have squamous cell carcinoma or undifferentiated cancer more frequently than adenocarcinoma. The incidence of lung cancer, particularly adenocarcinoma, tended to increase in the exposed groups. There was no great difference in the incidence of organ metastasis between the exposed groups and non-exposed group. Twenty-one of 24 cases of multiple cancer were A-bomb victims, although the incidence of complications was independent of exposure status. (Namekawa, K.)

  3. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Ishida, Sadamu; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were. (Tsunoda, M.)

  4. Recent results concerning radiation-induced cancer in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radford, E.P.

    1988-01-01

    The most recent data of the prospective study among Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors support the following conclusions: (a) the dose-response relationship is consistent with a straight line through the origin, including the lowest dose group (approx. 3 rad); (b) sensitivity to cancer induction varies considerably by irradiated tissues. (c) most cancers show a radiation effect still increasing 40 years after exposure; (d) a small leukemia excess among those irradiated is still present in Hiroshima; (e) the thyroid cancer excess is declining at present; (g) smoking adds to lung cancer incidence; (g) certain benign tumors show a radiation-related effect; (h) children under 10 years old at time of bombing are presently showing the highest relative cancer risk compared to other survivors at equal attained age. If this effect persists, age-specific cancer risk coefficients are necessary [fr

  5. Hot spring therapy of the patients exposed to atomic bomb radiation, 15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ouchi, Tamon [Genbaku Hibakusha Beppu Onsen Ryoyo Kenkyusho, Oita (Japan); Tsuji, Hideo

    1983-03-01

    The patients exposed to the atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima area came to Beppu Spa to have hot spring therapy. During the fiscal year of 1982 (April, 1982, to March, 1983), 3972 persons came to the hot spring sanatorium, and 586 patients (14.8 %) received physical examination. Among them, 473 patients (80.7 %) were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation on August 6, 1945, or entered in the city of Hiroshima by August 20, 1945, according to the official notebook issued by the government. Physical examination was performed twice a week during their stay, and more than 53.5 % of the patients were older than 70, and the oldest was 93 years old. Blood pressure was measured when the patients came in and went out, and hypertensive patients were asked to observe the rule of treatment strictly. The complaints of the patients which brought them to the hot spring were mostly pain in bodies and lower extremities, and hypertension, common cold syndrome, diabetes and constipation. Patients took hot spring bath 2

  6. Aging in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors: soluble--insoluble collagen ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Yamamoto, T; Thorslund, T W

    1973-01-01

    The soluble--insoluble collagen ratio was determined in aortas removed at autopsy during the period 1966--70 (21--25 years post-exposure); 261 specimens were examined from persons of both sexes, age 30--89 years at death. A portion of the test samples were from persons located less than 1500 m from the hypocenter at the time of the bomb. The ratio in this group was not significantly different from persons who were not in Hiroshima and Nagasaki at the time of the explosions. However, a possible discrepancy was noted between the two exposure groups involving both males and females who were less than 60 years of age at the time of death with lower average values among the exposed groups. This observation is interpreted and related to the pronounced life-shortening effect of radiation when animals are exposed at a young age. (DLC)

  7. Remembering the Atomic Bomb in its Birthplace, New Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Genay, Lucie

    2017-01-01

    On July 16, 1945 the « Land of Enchantment » acquired a new identity as the cradle of the nuclear age when the world’s first atomic bomb exploded in the Jornada del Muerto desert. New Mexico underwent a phenomenal transformation as a result of the arrival of atomic science in its remotest lands. The Trinity date does not hold the same place in collective memory as Hiroshima and Nagasaki but its historical significance takes various shapes on different memory scales. Therefore, this article ad...

  8. Mental retardation occurring in embryo exposed in utero to the atomic bomb (Hiroshima)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimasaki, Akira; Fujiwara, Koichi; Harada, Masazumi; Minami, Ryuichi.

    1978-01-01

    This paper deals with a long term follow-up study on psychological symptoms in four patients with microscopically microcephaly induced by prenatal exposed to atomic bomb. They were exposed to atomic bomb at 8- and 12-week-embryos. The distance from the center of the explosion was 780 - 1180 m. All their mothers had acute radiation hazards. Their growths in the uterus were markedly damaged. Postnatal body weight ranged between 1,300 and 2,000 g. They were commonly characterized by microcephaly, physiological and mental retardation, stigmata of degeneracy, and skin symptoms, who were diagnosed as ''microcephaly induced by early prenatal exposure to atomic bomb'' by the research group for microcephaly in the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These common symptoms such as microcephaly, stigmata of degeneracy, and disturbed growth, but neurological symptoms such as motor aphasia were slighter in these patients than in those having congenital Minamata disease prenatal. These results suggested that the prognosis of these patients in whom 30 years have passed is unexpectedly serious. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.

    1992-01-01

    Continued mortality surveillance and incidence studies have revealed the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki to increase with increasing dose. Among the sites where the frequency of cancer can be clearly shown to be dose-related are the following: female breast, colon, esophagus, lung, ovary, stomach, thyroid, urinary bladder and leukemia. Although the evidence is less compelling, cancers of the liver, salivary glands, and skin as well as multiple myeloma appear increased too. This increase generally manifests itself when the survivors reach those ages where the natural incidence of cancer begins to rise. Risk is, however, related to the age of the individual at the time of the bombing; the highest risks are associated with individuals who were exposed in the first two decades of life. Current evidence suggests these higher risks decline with increasing time since exposure

  10. Statistical aspects of the program of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beebe, G W

    1961-02-24

    The Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) is a medical research institute in Hiroshima and Nagasaki devoted to long term study of the late effects of nuclear radiation upon man. The work draws its great interest from the paucity of existing information on the effect of radiation on man; from the unique radiation experience of the atomic bomb survivors; from the increasing utilization of nuclear energy in modern technology; and from humanitarian concern for the survivors of the bombs. The ABCC program provides the statistician with an important opportunity to apply the tools and concepts of statistics, for the inferences to be drawn are largely statistical inferences growing out of the comparison of samples defined as to radiation exposure. The work is of international as well as statistical interest by virtue of its subject matter and as a meeting-ground for statisticians trained in different countries.

  11. Mass survey of lung cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Itoh, Chikako; Mitsuyama, Toyofumi; Mishima, Yasuhiro; Katsuta, Shizutomo.

    1978-01-01

    Men atomic bomb survivors over the age of 40 years received a survey of lung cancer by questionnaire together with the general survey for atomic bomb survivors, and the following results were obtained. The survey by questionnaire was carried out on 29780 cases during one year 1977 to 1978, and 6 cases of lung cancer were discovered. The discovery rate was 20.1 persons against a hundred thousand persons. Lung cancer discovered during 2 years from April, 1976 was 14 cases, and the discovery rate was 23.9 persons against a hundred thousand persons. The discovery rate according to exposure conditions was higher in order of a group entering Hiroshima city after A-bomb explosion and other group (33.2 persons), a group directly exposed over 2 km from the center of explosion (20.0 persons), and a group directly exposed within 2 km (1.5 persons). Therefore, results that the discovery rate of lung cancer was higher in short-distance group could not be obtained. (Tsunoda, M.)

  12. The LD50 associated with exposure to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, Shoichiro; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1989-01-01

    Data on a total of 7,593 persons in Hiroshima who were in 2,518 wooden Japanese houses and exposed to A-bomb within 1.6 km from the hypocenter have been used to estimate the LD 50/60 . The effect of radiation shielding for these people in particularly well-characterized in the new dosimetry system DS86. A range of values emerge, varying slightly with the method of estimation used. This range, derived from DS86 marrow doses, and based on a linear fit to equally weighted estimates of the probabilities of death at various doses, is 2.3-2.6 Gy. A linear estimate in which the probabilities of death at the various doses are weighted by the inverse of their variances is somewhat lower, 2.2 Gy. These values may be underestimates of actual LD 50/60 because of inclusion of deaths in the first day, and the severely injured (burns, trauma) who survived the first day but succumbed later to their injuries. (author)

  13. Some hematological disorders among atomic bomb survivors. Presidential Address

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Susumu

    1977-01-01

    Focusing on their hematological disorders, the late radiation effects among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, including cytogenetic and cytological studies, are summarized and discussed. Because of personal research experience, the data were concentrated on the Hiroshima survivors

  14. Stomach cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 1950-73

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kuniomi.

    1978-04-01

    Stomach cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Life Span Study was studied using death certificates for the period 1950-73. A consistent increase in mortality with increasing radiation dose was observed in Hiroshima, the highest rate being in the dose region of 400 - 499 rad. For Nagasaki, however, the evidence of a radiation effect is very weak. An excess in stomach cancer mortality was found only at doses above 500 rad. More evidence is needed to establish radiation as a causative factor in stomach cancer. (author)

  15. A study on thyroid disorder of Sjoegren's disease in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Koji; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Hasegawa, Kazuyo.

    1984-01-01

    Thyroid disorders were seen in eight of 25 atomic bomb survivors with Sjoegren's disease -- simple goiter in 2, chronic thyroiditis in 4, and primary hypothyroidism probably arising from chronic thyroiditis in 2. Thyroid disorders associated with Sjoegren's disease seemed to occur frequently in survivors exposed near the explosion. One of the two survivors with primary hypothyroidism had been exposed to atomic bomb 1.7 km from the explosion. As for the other clinical laboratory findings, there was no significant difference between the group with thyroid disorders and the group without them. (Namekawa, K.)

  16. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Kenji; Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-01-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  17. Increased relative risk of myelodysplastic syndrome in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Kenji [Hiroshima City Hospital (Japan); Kimura, Akiro; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Kodama, Kazunori; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    1998-12-01

    It was investigated what blood disorders except leukemia increased the relative risk with dose dependency in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects were 217 patients of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, who had blood disorders except leukemia and died between 1950 and 1990. Their medical records were analyzed and their diagnoses were reevaluated. Sixteen cases were diagnosed as the aplastic anemia and 12 as the myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). In the aplastic anemia, there was no correlation between the exposure dose and the mortality. In MDS, the excess relative risk (ERR)/bone marrow exposure dose of 1 Sv was very high (13.0). These results supports the hypothesis that MDS would be broken out by the clonal abnormality of the hematopoietic stem cell and radiation exposure could cause the appearance of the abnormal stem cell clone. (K.H.)

  18. Anti-human T-lymphotropic virus type-I antibodies in atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Nakashima, Eiji; Carter, R.L. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch] [and others

    1995-03-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL), induced by human T-lymphotropic virus type-I (HTLV-I), is endemic in Nagasaki, Japan. To investigate the effects of atomic-bomb radiation on development of this specific type of leukemia, 6182 individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) Adult Health Study sample in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were examined for positive rate of HTLV-I antibody. Several lymphocyte parameters were also studied for 70 antibody-positive subjects in Nagasaki. The HTLV-I antibody-positive rate was higher in Nagasaki (6.36%) than in Hiroshima (0.79%) and significantly increased with increasing age, but no association was observed with radiation dose. Whether relationship existed between antibody titer levels and radiation dose among antibody-positive subjects was not clear. The frequency of abnormal lymphocytes tended to be higher in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects, and higher in females than in males regardless of radiation dose. The lymphocyte count was lower in antibody-positive subjects than in antibody-negative subjects and lower in female than in male subjects. No evidence was found to suggest that atomic-bomb radiation plays an important role in HTLV-I infection. (author).

  19. Radiation therapy among A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Antoku, S

    1971-01-01

    The hospitals and clinics responsible for radiation therapy reported by ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study subjects were surveyed to confirm treatment and estimate doses they received. Of 426 cases, 137 were documented by hospital records. Their ABCC medical records were also reviewed for pertinent clinical information. Excluding the cases not verified because of unavailability of records, confirmation rates were 0.46 in Hiroshima and 0.67 in Nagasaki. Radiation therapy doses according to date of treatment, diagnosis, body site, and source of exposure are included. These data are recorded routinely for future reference, along with doses from diagnostic roentgenology for evaluating overall ionizing radiation exposure of A-bomb survivors and their comparison subjects. Radiation therapy by source and by lesion treated is included. There were three cases with malignancies possibly related to their earlier radiation therapy. One was an A-bomb survivor with lung cancer previously reported as due to ionizing radiation from the A-bomb. Radiation therapy she received for breast cancer 11 years earlier was more likely the cause of the lung lesion than was her relatively small A-bomb dose. The importance of recording all diagnostic and therapeutic radiation, especially that received by those under continuing surveillance for late A-bomb effects, is stressed. (auth)

  20. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III; Brodzinski, R.L.; Marcum, J.

    1990-02-01

    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs

  1. From Hiroshima to Harrisburg. The unholy alliance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrison, J

    1980-01-01

    The subject is covered in chapters, as follows: (Part I): Hiroshima and the advent of the atomic bomb: the Manhattan Engineer District Project; the milieu of war; scientific opposition to the use of the atomic bomb; Trinity; Hiroshima; Nagasaki and surrender; Hibakusha; from trust to terror; the nuclear arms spiral; fallout; the rationale for nuclear weapons; nuclear proliferation; thinking the unthinkable; the age of overkill; (Part II):the road to Harrisburg: radiation; meltdown effects and probabilities; nuclear accidents; Harrisburg; the effects of low-level ionizing radiation; the nuclear fuel cycle (mining; milling; uranium conversion; uranium enrichment; fuel fabrication; nuclear reactors; reprocessing; transportation; waste management; summary); (Part III): Karen Silkwood - a life in death: (Part IV): our challenge - overcoming psychic numbing: (Part V): an alternative vision: the soft energy path; the way of nonviolence.

  2. Multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 76

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Mikami, Motoko; Matsunaga, Masako.

    1979-10-01

    The relationship between atomic bomb exposure and the occurrence of multiple myeloma has been evaluated in a fixed cohort of approximately 100,000 A-bomb survivors and nonexposed controls during the period from October 1950 to December 1976. Analysis of these data revealed the standardized relative risk adjusted for city, sex, and age at the time of the bombs (ATB) to be significantly greater in the group of individuals who received 100 rad or more of radiation than in their controls. An excess risk became apparent in the high dose group about 20 years after exposure. The excess risk of multiple myeloma in those persons aged 20 - 59 ATB is estimated to be approximately 0.24 per million person-years per rad (PYR) in kerma dose and approximately 0.48 per million PYR in bone marrow dose. The interval between radiation exposure and the occurrence of an excess risk for multiple myeloma in the high dose population is considerably longer than that for leukemia. The cases of multiple myeloma observed in the high dose group showed no unusual clinical features. (author)

  3. Perinatal loss and neurological abnormalities among children of the atomic bomb. Nagasaki and Hiroshima revisited, 1949 to 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, J.N.; Schull, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Studies of the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were exposed to ionizing radiation in utero have demonstrated a significant increase in perinatal loss and the vulnerability of the developing fetal brain to injury. These studies have also helped to define the stages in the development of the human brain that are particularly susceptible to radiation-related damage. Exposure at critical junctures in development increases the risk of mental retardation, small head size, subsequent seizures, and poor performance on conventional tests of intelligence and in school. The most critical period, 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, corresponds to that time in development when neuronal production increases and migration of immature neurons to their cortical sites of function occurs. The epidemiologic data are, however, too sparse to settle unequivocally the nature of the dose-response function and, in particular, whether there is or is not a threshold to damage. If a threshold does exist, it appears to be in the 0.10- to 0.20-Gy fetal-dose range in this vulnerable gestational period

  4. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo

    1975-01-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia. (Kanao, N.)

  5. Studies on the life spans of atom-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, H [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    A shortening of whole life as late injuries of atom-bomb survivors was discussed from the aspects of aging and the studies on the causes of leukemia and cancers. Twenty-one thousands four hundreds and forty-seven of 109000 subjects died during the period between 1950 and 1970. Mortality by exposure doses presented a high value with exposure doses. Mortality of subjects which had received exposure doses of more than 200 rads rose to a level which was 1.27 times in all causes of deaths of the control which had received exposure doses of 0 to 9 rads, and it showed 1.32 times in all deaths of sickness, 18.3 times in leukemia, and 1.48 times in death from cancer. Mortality due to leukemia decreases after 1950-1954, but in the group which had received exposure doses over 100 rads, the mortality was significantly higher than that in all districts in Japan. The shape of dose-reaction curve in Hiroshima was different from that in Nagasaki. In the same dose, mortality due to leukemia in Hiroshima was higher than that in Nagasaki. The younger the age at exposure was, the higher the risk rate of occurring cancer was. Especially, the risk rate of cancer was high in the patients who were exposed to atomic bomb during the age of 0 to 9 years old. Mortality due to cancer increased with the dose. Cancers which statistically showed higher mortality than that in the control group are lung cancer, cancer of the breast (100-199 rad), carcinoma of the esophagus, cancer of the urinary organ (200-299 rad) and gastric cancer (over 300 rads). There are not so clear difference in the mortality due to cancer between Hiroshima and Nagasaki, comparing with the mortality due to leukemia.

  6. Leukemia among a-bomb survivors living in Hiroshima city, 1971-1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawakami, Masahito; Takahashi, Hiroshi; Ohkita, Takeshi; Hayakawa, Norihiko

    1980-01-01

    The death from leukemia among Hiroshima citizens from 1971 to 1978 was investigated. The total number of dead citizens was 241, and 64 of them were a-bomb survivors. Thirty-seven of a-bomb survivors were exposed to a-bomb within 2 km from hypocenter. Seventy-seven of remaining 177 citizens were born after the explosion of a-bomb, but they were not children of a-bomb survivors exposed directly to a-bomb. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed near the hypocenter was 1.67 (within 2 km) - 2.51 (within 1.5 km) times that of those exposed far from the hypocenter. The mortality of a-bomb survivors exposed within 1.5 km was significantly high. The death risk from leukemia was significantly high in women. The estimated exposure dose was over 1 rad in 25 of abovementioned 37 a-bomb survivors, and it was over 10 rad in 21 and over 100 rad in 10 of 25. Seven of 10 a-bomb survivors exposed over 100 rad were women. The age at the exposure was under 10 years in 1, teens in 1, twenties in 2, and over thirty in 6. The type of leukemia was acute in 8 and chronic in 2. Both types were myelogenous leukemia. Five of these 10 a-bomb survivors died after 1976. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Lung cancer incidence among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950 - 80

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Kopecky, K.J.; Fujikura, Toshio; Tokuoka, Shoji; Monzen, Tetsuo; Nishimori, Issei; Nakashima, Eiji; Kato, Hiroo.

    1987-05-01

    The incidence of lung cancer during 1950 - 80 in a cohort of Japanese atomic bomb survivors and controls was investigated. A total of 1,057 cases were identified; 608 of these diagnoses were based on some form of histopathologic examination, and 442 were confirmed by the present investigators. The distributions of histological types varied significantly between the sexes (p < .001), with adenocarcinoma more frequent among women and epidermoid and small cell carcinoma more frequent among men. The distributions of primary sites did not differ significantly between the sexes. The relative risk (RR) of lung cancer increased significantly with A-bomb radiation dose (p < .0001); based on tentative 1965 dose estimates as revised in 1978 (T65DR) and a linear RR model, the estimated RR at 100 rad (± SE) is 1.41 ± 0.09. Among Hiroshima survivors the women experienced radiation-related excess RR nearly twice as great as men (p = .06). RR increased with decreasing age at the time of bombing (p = .07), and after allowing for this effect, there was no significant evidence that RR varied systematically with attained age. Small cell carcinoma displayed somewhat greater sensitivity to radiation than did adenocarcinoma or epidermoid carcinoma; however the variation between the histology-specific RR functions was not statistically significant (p = .44). (author)

  8. The new radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1988-01-01

    Extensive work has been conducted over the past few years to reassess all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the A-bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This work has included reviews of the bomb yields, source terms, air transport of neutrons and gamma rays, neutron-induced radioactivity and thermoluminescence in exposed materials, shielding of individuals by buildings, and calculations of organ doses. The results of these theoretical and experimental activities have led to the development of a new dosimetry system which is designated as the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). New DS86 estimates of tissue kerma in air and absorbed dose to fifteen organs are available for 94,787 survivors who were either outside and unshielded, outside and shielded by houses, or inside and shielded by houses (64,408 in Hiroshima and 30,379 in Nagasaki). The organ doses are calculated on an age-dependent basis as follows: infants (less than 3 years old at the time of bombing, ATB), children (3 to 12 years old ATB), and adults (more than 12 years old ATB). Work in progress includes the extension of the DS86 system to Nagasaki survivors who were shielded either by terrain or by factory buildings

  9. Electron spin resonance (ESR dose measurement in bone of Hiroshima A-bomb victim.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Kinoshita

    Full Text Available Explosion of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki corresponds to the only historical moment when atomic bombs were used against civilians. This event triggered countless investigations into the effects and dosimetry of ionizing radiation. However, none of the investigations has used the victims' bones as dosimeter. Here, we assess samples of bones obtained from fatal victims of the explosion by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR. In 1973, one of the authors of the present study (SM traveled to Japan and conducted a preliminary experiment on the victims' bone samples. The idea was to use the paramagnetism induced in bone after irradiation to measure the radiation dose. Technological advances involved in the construction of spectrometers, better knowledge of the paramagnetic center, and improvement in signal processing techniques have allowed us to resume the investigation. We obtained a reconstructed dose of 9.46 ± 3.4 Gy from the jawbone, which was compatible with the dose distribution in different locations as measured in non-biological materials such as wall bricks and roof tiles.

  10. Electron spin resonance (ESR) dose measurement in bone of Hiroshima A-bomb victim

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Explosion of the bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki corresponds to the only historical moment when atomic bombs were used against civilians. This event triggered countless investigations into the effects and dosimetry of ionizing radiation. However, none of the investigations has used the victims’ bones as dosimeter. Here, we assess samples of bones obtained from fatal victims of the explosion by Electron Spin Resonance (ESR). In 1973, one of the authors of the present study (SM) traveled to Japan and conducted a preliminary experiment on the victims’ bone samples. The idea was to use the paramagnetism induced in bone after irradiation to measure the radiation dose. Technological advances involved in the construction of spectrometers, better knowledge of the paramagnetic center, and improvement in signal processing techniques have allowed us to resume the investigation. We obtained a reconstructed dose of 9.46 ± 3.4 Gy from the jawbone, which was compatible with the dose distribution in different locations as measured in non-biological materials such as wall bricks and roof tiles. PMID:29408890

  11. History of radiation research. On radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Pt. 2. The sword of Damocles. Decade of the atomic bomb 1940-1950

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindell, B.

    2006-01-01

    The book includes contributions with the following titles: Szilards bomb; the excess neutrons; Napoleon's successor; Einstein's letter; the interim year 1940; administration and research; the sailor from India; the production facilities; ''I am the death, destroyer of the world''; Heisenberg's bomb; from other horizons; Potsdam and the atomic bomb decision; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the beginning of nuclear power; renewed contacts; epilogue.

  12. Survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the United States. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutron-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter

  13. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi

    1978-10-01

    Three hundred and sixty cases of breast cancer were collected from among the 63,000 female members of the RERF extended Life Span Study sample which includes atomic bomb exposed women and controls of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The relationship of these breast cancer cases to A-bomb radiation was sought, and in studying 5-year survival, the following conclusions were obtained concerning its relationship to histopathological findings: 1) The prognosis of the 50 + rad high dose group is the best, followed by the nonexposed group and the low dose group; 2) The apparently better survival may be due, at least in part, to the fact that this group is heavily weighted in favor of those who were younger at the time of the bomb; 3) There is no specificity of the histologic type of breast cancer in the survivors by dose; 4) Nor, is any significant difference observed in the distribution of tumor size and histological grade; 5) Cellular reaction is significantly marked at the stroma of carcinoma tissue in the high dose group; 6) Immune reaction is considered to be strong at the affected site of breast cancer in the high dose group and this can be regarded as a finding suggestive of good prognosis; 7) Further extended studies are therefore warranted. (author)

  14. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  15. Breast cancer among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-69. Pathologic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGregor, D H [Veterans Administration Hospital, Kansas (USA); Land, C E; Choi, K; Tokuoka, S; Liu, P I

    1981-01-01

    The pathological features of 161 cases of breast cancer --7% noninfiltrating carcinoma, 47% nonspecific infiltrating duct carcinoma, 21% nonfiltrating papillary duct carcinoma, 7% comedo carcinoma, 6% medullary carcinoma, 6% colloid carcinoma, 4% lobular carcinoma, and 2% sarcoma-- were investigated and their relation to irradiation dosage due to the atomic bomb was studied. Irradiation dosage was estimated from T65 dosage, the total dosage of ..gamma..-rays and neutrons in unshielded tissue. However, there was no relation between the dosage and any specific tissue type. Breast cancers were classified as either type I, type II, or type III according to the histological grade, and each grade was divided according to the degree of differentiation, multiplicity, and mitiotic activity. The pathological characteristics, lymphatic infiltration, fibrosis, necrosis, localization, calcification, and vascular, perineurial, muscular, and dermal invasion were investigated in each case. The histological grade and the incidence of localized invasion, necrosis, localization, and calcification were lower in the patients who were irradiated with more than 50 rad than in those who were not irradiated. The absolute risk rate for breast cancer was estimated to increase by 1.9 cases/100,000 rad from 1950 to 1969. This increase was much smaller than that estimated from x-ray irradiation during medical treatment in North America. The dose response curves at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were similar and fitted well with a linear model, suggesting that the effect of ..gamma..-rays was analogous to that of neutrons in inducing cancer. The problems involved in the histological classification of breast cancer and the histological differences between cancer patients in Japan and in the U.S.A. were discussed.

  16. Message of Hiroshima. The memories and comments of a nuclear scientist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shimizu, S. (Kyoto Univ. (Japan))

    1982-01-01

    A review of the research conducted during the Second World War by Japanese scientists and their in-situ experiences on the Hiroshima atomic bomb effects a week after the explosion is given. Details are presented on the activity data of samples from the site, on the results of half-life measurements and of chemical analyses. From these data the site of explosion and the neutron flux on the surface were computed. The damages caused by the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs were compared. Further, an account on the powder from the Bikini H-bomb explosion is given. Finally, the author protests against the military uses of nuclear energy.

  17. Tentative estimations of genetic hazards for the atomic bomb radiations, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshikawa, Isao; Ayaki, Toshikazu

    1978-01-01

    The degree of genetic hazards which could appear in the offspring of A-bomb survivors (after F1) was estimated on the basis of a report by the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in 1977. The genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on humans (insufficient data) were investigated on the basis of data obtained from animal experiments (especially mice). The incidence of chromosome aberration and gene mutation induced by radiation was estimated based on data obtained from experiments with marmosets and mice, respectively. The appearance time and frequency of chromosome aberration and dominant mutation were estimated based on the incidence of mutation induced by radiation. The effects of recessive mutation were determined by estimating the probability of such mutation in a presumed human group by means of a simulation method in which a computer was used. (Tsunoda, M.)

  18. Thyroid Dysfunction and Autoimmune Thyroid Diseases Among Atomic Bomb Survivors Exposed in Childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2017-07-01

    The risk of thyroid cancer increases and persists for decades among individuals exposed to ionizing radiation in childhood, although the long-term effects of childhood exposure to medium to low doses of radiation on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases have remained unclear. To evaluate radiation dose responses for the prevalence of thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid disease among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years old at exposure underwent thyroid examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation between 2007 and 2011, which was 62 to 66 years after the bombing. Data from 2668 participants (mean age, 68.2 years; 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; dose range, 0 to 4.040 Gy) were analyzed. Dose-response relationships between atomic bomb radiation dose and the prevalence of hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism (Graves' disease), and positive for antithyroid antibodies. Prevalences were determined for hypothyroidism (129 cases, 7.8%), hyperthyroidism (32 cases of Graves' disease, 1.2%), and positive for antithyroid antibodies (573 cases, 21.5%). None of these was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Neither thyroid antibody-positive nor -negative hypothyroidism was associated with thyroid radiation dose. Additional analyses using alternative definitions of hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism found that radiation dose responses were not significant. Radiation effects on thyroid dysfunction and autoimmune thyroid diseases were not observed among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood, at 62 to 66 years earlier. The cross-sectional design and survival bias were limitations of this study. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society

  19. Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harwell, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    This paper examines the events following the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and extrapolates from these experiences to further understand the possible consequences of detonations on a local area from weapons in the current world nuclear arsenal. The first section deals with a report of the events that occurred in Hiroshima and Nagasaki just after the 1945 bombings with respect to the physical conditions of the affected areas, the immediate effects on humans, the psychological response of the victims, and the nature of outside assistance. Because there can be no experimental data to validate the effects on cities and their populations of detonations from current weapons, the data from the actual explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide a point of departure. The second section examines possible extrapolations from and comparisons with the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences. The limitations of drawing upon the Hiroshima and Nagasaki experiences are discussed. A comparison is made of the scale of effects from other major disasters for urban systems, such as damages from the conventional bombings of cities during World War II, the consequences of major earthquakes, the historical effects of the Black Plague and widespread famines, and other extreme natural events. The potential effects of detonating a modern 1 MT warhead on the city of Hiroshima as it exists today are simulated. This is extended to the local effects on a targeted city from a global nuclear war, and attention is directed to problems of estimating the societal effects from such a war

  20. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974): relation to atomic bomb radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asano, M. (Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima, Japan); Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, H.; Yagawa, K.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB. The ratio of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complications in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevalence of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed.

  1. Under the Mushroom-Shaped Cloud in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broda, E.

    1981-01-01

    In 1945 Shuntaro Hida was a young doctor. In a village at the periphery of Hiroshima he survived and he immediately began caring for victims. He has (recently?) written an eye-witness account, of which in a Western language apparently only a manuscript exists. I have extracted a few passages from the document of 41 pages. A few spelling and typing errors were corrected. - Be it added that many of the atomic weapons now in the arsenals of the powers are more than a thousand times stronger than the bomb of Hiroshima. Some 60.000 atomic weapons are thought to exist. (author)

  2. Cancer developing among atom-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, T [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1975-12-01

    Cancer (with the exception of leukemia) which had often been observed among atom bomb survivors was discussed. Prevalence of thyroid carcinoma was high in the people who had been exposed to more than 50 rad of the atomic radiation. A great difference in prevalence of cancer was seen between irradiated people whose age had been under 20 years at the time of exposure and non-irradiated. More women than men had papillary adenocarcinoma. The highest prevalence was seen 16 to 20 years after exposure to atomic radiation, but there was no difference in prevalence between those from Hiroshima and from Nagasaki. Lung cancer comprised 89% of all cancers of the people whose age was 50 years and over. Most of them had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 300 rad. The type was cellular retrograde cancer. The prevalence of gastric carcinoma was low, and breast cancer occurred at an early age before menopause. The occurrence of cancer in juvenile survivors was several times higher in the patients who had been exposed to atomic radiation of more than 100 rad than in non-irradiated. These values indicate that cancer occurs more frequently than leukemia does in such survivors.

  3. The relationship between the life environment of the atomic bomb survivors (Hibakusha) and their cardiovascular disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasaka, Masatoshi; Saito, Osamu; Miyaki, Sumiyo; Watabu, Akiko

    1978-01-01

    In order to observe clinically the effects of the atomic bomb on the human body (and on the environment), subjects were divided into group A (persons living in Hiroshima city more than 10 years after dropping of the atomic bomb) and group B (persons who changed their residence within 1 month). Group A was divided into two separate groups: group A 1 (persons living in segregated areas), and group A 2 (persons living in other areas). General examinations showed no abnormal findings. Incidence of abnormal ECG findings was higher in subjects living in segregated areas and was also higher in women than in men. (Namekawa, K.)

  4. A survey of radiation doses received by atomic-bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Yamada, H.; Marks, S.

    1976-01-01

    A survey has been completed of 300 of an estimated 500 to 750 survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who reside in the U.S. Distributions with respect to age, sex, citizenship status, distance from the hypocenter at the time of bombing, and dose from immediate weapon radiation have been tabulated from the results and are presented for this group of 300 survivors. Also presented are survey results concerning exposures to residual radiation from fallout and neutral-induced radioactivity in the areas adjacent to the hypocenter. (author)

  5. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-06

    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  6. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, George D.; Young, Rebert W.; Cullings, Harry M.; Christry, Robert F.

    2005-01-01

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  7. Effect Analysis on the Radiation Dose Rate of Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Survivors by Atmospheric Condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Ji Sun; Kim, Jong Kyung [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chang Ho [Innovative Technology Center for Radiation Safety, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Do Heon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-05-15

    The Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02) had been established to evaluate the radiation doses for the atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The radiation effects of neutrons and gamma-rays emitted from the atomic bombs detonated at both cities were analyzed, and two types of radiation transport codes (i.e., MCNP4C and DORT) were employed in their studies. It was specifically investigated for contribution of each type of radiations to total dose. However, it is insufficient to examine the effects by various environmental factors such as weather conditions, because their calculations were only performed under certain condition at the times of the bombings. In addition, the scope of them does not include acute radiation injury of the atomic bomb survivors in spite of important information for investigating hazard of unexpected radiation accident. Therefore, this study analyzed the contribution of primary and secondary effects (i.e., skyshine and groundshine) of neutrons emitted from the Nagasaki atomic bomb. These analyses were performed through a series of radiation transport calculations by using MCNPX 2.6.0 code with variations of atmospheric density. The acute radiation injury by prompt neutrons was also evaluated as a function of distance from the hypocenter, where hypocenter is the point on the ground directly beneath the epicenter which is the burst point of the bomb in air

  8. Exposure to an atomic bomb explosion is a risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Y; Takeishi, K; Guntani, A; Tsujita, E; Yoshinaga, K; Matsuyama, A; Hamatake, M; Maeda, T; Tsutsui, S; Matsuda, H; Ishida, T

    2015-01-01

    Esophagectomy, one of the most invasive of all gastrointestinal operations, is associated with a high frequency of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether exposure to the atomic bomb explosion at Hiroshima in 1945 might be a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality after esophagectomy in esophageal cancer patients. We thus reviewed the outcomes of esophagectomy in 31 atomic bomb survivors with esophageal cancer and 96 controls (also with cancer but without atomic bomb exposure). We compared the incidences of postoperative complications and in-hospital mortality. Of the clinicopathological features studied, mean patient age was significantly higher in atomic bomb survivors than in controls. Of the postoperative complications noted, atomic bomb survivors experienced a longer mean period of endotracheal intubation and higher incidences of severe pulmonary complications, severe anastomotic leakage, and surgical site infection. The factors associated with in-hospital mortality were exposure to the atomic bomb explosion, pulmonary comorbidities, and electrocardiographic abnormalities. Multivariate analysis revealed that exposure to the atomic bomb explosion was an independent significant preoperative risk factor for in-hospital mortality. Exposure to the atomic bomb explosion is thus a preoperative risk factor for in-hospital death after esophagectomy to treat esophageal cancer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the International Society for Diseases of the Esophagus.

  9. Some thoughts on Hiroshima: 50 years after the bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Shuichi

    1997-01-01

    Commemorating the fiftieth anniversary of Hiroshima, this paper covers three issues: Personal experience, concluding that the bomb was an extraordinary cruel weapon beyond imagination, Japanese experience, i.e. Japanese attitude against nuclear weapons and the actions to be undertaken in order to achieve nuclear-weapon-free world. The support of Non-proliferation Treaty, as well as the support of the protest against any kind of nuclear weapon experiments should be related to the understanding of the cause of the events against which one is protesting. The radical therapy would be the removal of the cause, i.e. the striking discrepancy of nuclear armaments

  10. A simple reductionist model for cancer risk in atom bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendelsohn, M.L.

    1995-01-01

    1) In data from the atom bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the roughly linear-quadratic radiation dose responses for chromosome aberration and leukemia correspond closely to each other, as do the linear dose responses for gene mutation and solid cancer incidence. 2) In view of the increasing evidence for multiple oncogene and suppressor gene changes in human cancer, as well as the evidence that human cancer rate is often proportional to age to the power of 6 or so, it is postulated that the radiation has contributed one and only one oncogenic mutational event to the radiation induced cancers. 3) The radiation induced cancers should therefore display a cancer rate versus age relationship that has a power of n-1, where n is the power for the corresponding background cancers. 4) It is shown that this is precisely what is happening in the collective solid cancer incidence of the atom bomb survivors. (author)

  11. Original signs and symptoms in patients surviving five years after atomic bomb exposure under 1000 meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, J J; Patterson, H A

    1959-01-01

    Atomic bomb victims in Hiroshima who were exposed under 1000 meters and survived over five years were reinvestigated. There were 619 patients who comprised a total sample. Mechanical, blast, burn and radiation injuries were evaluated as to onset, duration, severity, body area affected and type of healing. The modal patient experienced severe radiation and mild trauma. Results were compared with similar earlier studies. The question emerges as to the possibility that patients exposed within 1000 meters with radiation and/or thermal injuries have been dying at a faster rate than those with mechanical or no injuries. A short history of the development of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission is included. 17 references, 11 tables.

  12. Health effects on individuals and health services of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohkita, T.

    1984-01-01

    Human injuries caused by the A-bomb can be categorized as the result of thermal rays, ionizing radiation, or blast. Many persons sustained injuries from more than one cause, any one of which could have been fatal. In addition to such direct injuries, indirect injuries were sustained, caused by fire or the fall of rubble from demolished buildings. The severity of early A-bomb injuries was directly proportional to distance from the hypocentre. Many hospitals and clinics throughout Hiroshima City and Nagasaki City were destroyed or damaged depending on their distance from the hypocentre and the extent to which they were shielded topographically

  13. Cancer risk among children of atomic bomb survivors. A review of RERF epidemiologic studies. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes recent epidemiologic studies of cancer risk among the children of atomic bomb survivors conducted at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. These children include two groups: (1) the in utero-exposed children (ie, those born to mothers who had been pregnant at the time of the bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki) and (2) the F1 population, which was conceived after the atomic-bombings and born to parents of whom one or both were atomic bomb survivors. Although from 1950 to 1984 only 18 cancer cases were identified among the in utero sample, cancer risk did appear to significantly increase as maternal uterine dose increased. However, since the observed cases are too few in number to allow a site-specific review, the increased cancer risk cannot be definitively attributed to atomic bomb radiation, as yet. For those members of the F1 population who were less than 20 years old between 1946 and 1982, cancer risk did not appear to increase significantly as parental gonadal dose increased. Follow-up of this population will continue to determine if the patterns of adult-onset cancer are altered

  14. Medical examination of ''Minashi'' atomic bomb survivor in Hiroshima-city, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumazawa, Toshihiko

    1978-01-01

    As it is about one year (three examination terms) since health examinations for ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors has been carried out, conditions of these examinations are described. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors can receive an a-bomb survivor's health notebook when they suffer from 10 damages designated by the Ministry of Public Welfare, and the number of ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors changes frequently. ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors who received a certificate of a recipient of the examination were 2363 at the end of 1977, and by that time, 665 of them (28.1%) also received an a-bomb survivor's health notebook instead of the certificate. Accordingly, the number of persons recognized as ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors at the end of the year was 1703 (688 men and 1015 women). ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors underwent health examinations at the same time and under the same way as a-bomb survivors. There were no great differences in the undergoing rate of general health examinations, the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, the necessity rate for treatment, and kinds of diseases requiring treatment between ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors and those in a-bomb survivors. The undergoing rate of general health examinations was 67.6%, (45.6% in a-bomb survivors), the necessity rate for detailed examinations, 43.1% (50.1%), the undergoing rate of detailed examinations, 91.3% (93.3%), and the necessity rate for treatment, 20.3% (29.0%). The undergoing rate of general health examinations in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors was higher than that in a-bomb survivors, but the necessity rate for detailed examinations, the undergoing rate of detailed examination, and the necessity rate for treatment in ''Minashi'' a-bomb survivors were lower than those in a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  15. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  16. Nine cases of multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niimi, Masanobu; Matsueda, Kazuhiro; Nishida, Kazurou; Kobayashi, Makoto; Kou, Hassei; Mikami, Motoko; Nakamura, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Aisaka, Tadakazu

    1986-03-01

    Nine A-bomb survivors (2 men and 7 women) were diagnosed as having multiple myeloma (MM) 24 years to 38 years after exposure. According to exposure doses, three survivors were exposed at less than or equal to 1,800 m from the hypocenter, three between 2,200 m and 2,500 m, and three between 3,100 m and 4,100 m. Acute atomic radiation injuries, such as epilation and disturbance in bone marrow function, were observed in survivors exposed at less than or equal to 2,400 m. Complications included hypertension in two, diabetes mellitus in one, and cancer of the pharynx in one. Three of the patients are still alive with follow-up periods of 3 years and 6 months to 7 years and 11 months. Two survivors, who showed no evidence of abnormal physical findings, did not meet typical MM criteria according to Abe et al. There has been a continuing discussion regarding the association between A-bomb radiation and intermediate type MM seen in the two survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  17. G-banding analysis of radiation-induced chromosome damage in lymphocytes of Hiroshima atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Kazuo; Nakashima, Eiji.

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the G-banding analysis of somatic chromosomes in lymphocytes from 63 atomic-bomb survivors in Hiroshima to determine the type and frequency of radiation-induced chromosome aberrations. Summary findings are as follows: (1) The cells with stable-type chromosome aberrations (Cs cells) predominated among the aberrant cells and showed a dose-dependent increase. All stable chromosome aberrations were classified into 9 types: reciprocal translocations (t), translocations of complex type (t-cx), insertions (ins), complex exchanges (e-cx), peri- and paracentric inversions (inv-peri, inv-para), terminal and interstitial deletions (del-ter, del-int), and unidentified rearrangements. Aberration frequencies increased with increasing dose for all aberration categories. Among the chromosome aberrations classified, reciprocal translocations predominated in all dose ranges. The frequencies of complex aberrations were low at the low-dose level but increased sharply as dose increased. (2) The linear model was fitted to test the dose-response relationship for Cs-cell frequencies. With a constant neutron relative biological effectiveness of 10, an estimated linear slope of 15.2%/Sv was obtained for Dosimetry System 1986 bone-marrow dose with an intercept of 2.9% at dose 0. The present observation confirmed a wide variability of Cs-cell frequencies among individual survivors in every dose category.(3) Statistical analysis of data on 3370 break sites showed good correlations between relative DNA content and the distribution of chromosome breaks involved in translocations, although the involvement of chromosome 1 is significantly higher, for as-yet-unknown reasons. (J.P.N.)

  18. Italian Mass Media and the Atom in the 1960s: The Memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the Peaceful Atom (1963-1967)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciglioni, Laura

    2017-01-01

    The chapter investigates the representations of both fears and hopes related to atomic issues in Italian mass media from 1963 to 1967, through the analysis of a selection of highly circulated mass-market magazines (representing a broad spectrum of political cultures) and of television programs broadcast by the two Italian public networks of the time. The fears of the “atomic age” are analyzed through the memory of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which represents one of the privileged venues for both molding representations of the atomic bomb and negotiating fears. “Atomic hopes” are investigated, instead, examining the emergent fascination for the peaceful uses of atomic energy, analyzed as the catalyst for a positive perception of the atom at a time when national energy policies were at a crucial turning point.

  19. The age of the bomb: History of the atomic threat from Hiroshima through today

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salewski, M.

    1995-01-01

    The booklet describes the history of the ''bomb'' from the ''Manhattan project'' to the present, tracing the drastic changes provoked by the nuclear weapons for world politics, but also for ethical thought and cultural conception of ourselves. Both the crises at the brink of nuclear war - Suez crisis, Berlin crisis, Cuba crisis - and the development of strategic doctrines, the arms race, the history of arms control, and the anti-atomic movement are dealt with in the contributions written by renowned authorities. The concluding paper on the role of nuclear weapons in a world politics that has become more intricate shows insistently that the age of the bomb is anything but over since the end of the East-West conflict. The example of North Korea or of the ''plutonium transfer deals'' from nuclear installations of the Soviet Union has recently shown that also the future will remain ''atomic''. (orig./HP) [de

  20. Andrew J. Rotter, Hiroshima – The Word’s Bomb

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto, André

    2015-01-01

    O livro Hiroshima – The world’s bomb de Andrew J. Rotter descreve, sob várias perspetivas, um dos incidentes mais marcantes do século XX. O alcance das bombas atómicas lançadas sobre o Japão deu a conhecer ao mundo uma arma com um poder destrutivo de tal ordem que Estados em guerra se poderiam destruir mutuamente em segundos. A ameaça atómica esteve no centro de um dos conflitos mais longos do século XX – a Guerra Fria – e está, ainda hoje, no centro de vários conflitos entre potências region...

  1. The articles on atomic bomb of the newspaper in the past 15 years

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ubuki, Satoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Matsuura, Masaaki; Hatano, Hiroko

    1990-01-01

    A-bomb hazards are given publicity by journalism every year from the end of the 1960s, especially in July and August, in Japan. This is generally termed 'the publication of A-bomb articles'. This paper outlines 'the publication of A-bomb articles' and introduces the actual conditions of A-bomb hazard problems. Articles were selected from three major national newspapers and two domestic newspapers (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) during the past 15 years from 1975 through 1989. Contents of the articles were divided into 20 categories and subdivided into 92 categories. According to newspaper, the Hiroshima domestic newspaper published the articles in the largest number (approximately 30% of all the articles). Overall, approximately 21% of the articles were published in August. The most common article content was A-bomb survivors' experiences, accounting for 47% before 1981 and 60% since 1982. (N.K.)

  2. Estimate of person-years at risk among A-bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubec, Z

    1964-11-19

    Using information from the Supplementary Schedules of the 1950 National Census and from the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, cumulative person-years at risk in 1950 to 1960 were estimated by age ATB, sex, distance from hypocenter, radiation dose and symptoms for A-bomb survivors resident in Hiroshima and Nagasaki cities. The number of person-years at risk in 1951 to 1958 was estimated by applying the survivorship in each age group of the Adult Health Study sample during the period 1951 to 1958 to the number of survivors in 1950. To determine the number of person-years at risk from 1959 to 1960, the average yearly loss was evaluated for each exposure group for the period 1955 to 1958 in Hiroshima and for 1953 to 1958 in Nagasaki which was then applied to 1959 and 1960, respectively. The estimate of person-years among the nonexposed groups for this period was obtained from the above estimates, the total population of both cities, and the number of persons born after the A-bombing. Estimates by other associated factors were obtained by the same procedure. 20 references, 25 tables.

  3. Atomic bomb cataracts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraeda, Kanji

    1992-01-01

    Eye disturbance caused by atomic bomb radiation can be divided into three groups: direct injury immediately after exposure, eye lesions associated with radiation syndrome, and delayed disturbance. The crystalline lens of the eye is the most radiosensitive. Atomic bomb cataract has been investigated in a number of studies. The first section of this chapter discusses radiation cataract in terms of the incidence and characteristics. The second section deals with atomic bomb cataract, which can be diagnosed based on the four criteria: (1) opacity of the crystalline lens, (2) a history of proximal exposure, (3) lack of eye disease complicating cataract, and (4) non-exposure to radiation other than atomic bombing. The prevalence of cataract and severity of opacity are found to correlate with exposure doses and age at the time of exposure. Furthermore, it is found to correlate with distance from the hypocenter, the condition of shielding, epilation, and the presence or absence or degree of radiation syndrome. (N.K.)

  4. Hot spring therapy of the patients exposed to atomic bomb radiation, 15

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ouchi, Tamon; Tsuji, Hideo.

    1983-01-01

    The patients exposed to the atomic bomb radiation in Hiroshima area came to Beppu Spa to have hot spring therapy. During the fiscal year of 1982 (April, 1982, to March, 1983), 3972 persons came to the hot spring sanatorium, and 586 patients (14.8 %) received physical examination. Among them, 473 patients (80.7 %) were exposed to the atomic bomb radiation on August 6, 1945, or entered in the city of Hiroshima by August 20, 1945, according to the official notebook issued by the government. Physical examination was performed twice a week during their stay, and more than 53.5 % of the patients were older than 70, and the oldest was 93 years old. Blood pressure was measured when the patients came in and went out, and hypertensive patients were asked to observe the rule of treatment strictly. The complaints of the patients which brought them to the hot spring were mostly pain in bodies and lower extremities, and hypertension, common cold syndrome, diabetes and constipation. Patients took hot spring bath 2 - 3 times daily, and many patients had microwave and low frequency wave treatment. Soaking in a bath (containing 1.4 mg of cupric sulfate and 11.4 mg of zinc sulfate per liter) was practiced by diabetic patients. The therapeutic effects were difficult to judge because the period of stay of the most patients was about 10 days, but in most of them, subjective symptoms were relieved when they left the sanatorium. (Yamashita, S.)

  5. Thyroid disorders in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imaizumi, M.; Neriishi, K.; Akahoshi, M.; Suzuki, G.; Nakashima, E.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2003-01-01

    It is known from several studies, including those from RERF that radiation exposure can cause thyroid tumors (Socolow, N Engl J Med. 1963;268:406, Parker, Ann Intern Med. 1974;80:600). Effects of radiation on autoimmune thyroid disease are not well understood. We have conducted thyroid disease screening on a population of 2856 individuals from the Adult Health Study (AHS) cohort of atomic-bomb survivors for the period of 1984-1987. This study, which for logistical reasons involved survivors only from Nagasaki, revealed a statistically significant relationship between radiation dose and prevalence of solid nodules, including cancer, and that of autoimmune hypothyroidism (Nagataki, JAMA. 1994;272:364). Because the previous thyroid study was conducted only in Nagasaki, the new comprehensive thyroid disease screening study has been ongoing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS participants since March 2000. For about 4,000 participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki AHS cohort, thyroid ultrasonography, aspiration biopsy of nodules, thyroid function test, thyroid autoantibody (thyroid peroxidase antibody and thyroglobulin antibody) test by highly sensitive assay using enzyme linked immunosorbent assay were performed for the diagnosis of thyroid diseases. Analysis of data from the 1874 people examined through July 2001 (915 people from Hiroshima, 959 people from Nagasaki) provides evidence that thyroid cancer increases with radiation dose. The prevalence of positive result for thyroid autoantibody test is increased in the people exposed to relative low dose of radiation (0.01-0.99 Sv). Examination and measurements was completed in February 2003 for all patients. The analysis of these data is providing new and more complete insights into relationships between thyroid diseases and low doses of radiation

  6. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima a-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Okita, Hajime; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi

    1980-01-01

    Certain blood examinations were performed on a-bomb survivors having anemia more than moderate stage (the hemoglobin value under 9.0 g/dl), who were found out by the periodical health examination performed in Hiroshima-A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic during the latter period of the fiscal year 1975. The total number of a-bomb survivors who received the periodical health examination was 50,973, and the number of survivors whose hemoglobin value was under 9.0 g/dl was 201 (0.39%). The incidence of such anemia was high in women. There was not a relationship between this anemia and the exposure distance from the hypocenter. The incidence of this anemia was high in young a-bomb survivors, and more than 50% of a-bomb survivors having this anemia was under the age of 50. Iron-deficiency anemia was found in 88% of a-bomb survivors, and the course of their anemia ran in many years in many a-bomb survivors. (Tsunoda, M.)

  7. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko.

    1982-01-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant difference was observed in ''synthetic physical fitness'' between the two age groups of 50-59 years and beyond 70 years. (J.P.N.)

  8. Review of the radiological significance of revised dose estimates for the Hiroshima-Nagasaki bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myers, D.K.; Osborne, R.V.

    1988-03-01

    Recently, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has indicated that new dosimetric and epidemiological data on Japanese bomb survivors will 'raise the risk estimate (for fatal cancers) for the exposed population by a total factor of the order of 2. This change is for a population of all ages, whereas for a worker population of ages 18-65 the changes will be small'. The present report has reviewed the available scientific literature that is relevant to this statement. The topics reviewed in this report include: a) the methods used in previous reports by scientific committees to calculate estimated lifetime risks of radiation-induced fatal cancers; b) recent revisions of the dosimetry for Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; c) updates on the epidemiological data on the Hiroshima-Nagasaki survivors; and d) revised estimates of fatal cancer risk from the Hiroshima-Nagasaki data

  9. Relationship between the life environment of the atomic bomb survivors (Hibakusha) and their cardiovascular disorders. Chiefly regard to ECG findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tasaka, M; Saito, O; Miyaki, S; Watabu, A [Fukushima Medical Co-Operative Hospital (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    In order to observe clinically the effects of the atomic bomb on the human body (and on the environment), subjects were divided into group A (persons living in Hiroshima city more than 10 years after dropping of the atomic bomb) and group B (persons who changed their residence within 1 month). Group A was divided into two separate groups: group A/sub 1/ (persons living in segregated areas), and group A/sub 2/ (persons living in other areas). General examinations showed no abnormal findings. Incidence of abnormal ECG findings was higher in subjects living in segregated areas and was also higher in women than in men.

  10. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki; and Measurement of 63 Ni in Copper Samples From Hiroshima by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A. Marchetti; Stephen D. Egbert; James A. Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G. Rugel; W. Ruhm; G. Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-14

    The present paper presents the {sup 36}Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of {sup 36}Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of {sup 36}Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of {sup 36}Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction {sup 35}Cl(n,{gamma}){sup 36}Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, {sup 39}K(n,{alpha}){sup 36}Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the {sup 36}Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain {approx} 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that {sup 36}Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of {sup 36}Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded {sup 36}Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been {sup 36}Cl measurements made by a Japanese

  11. The Hiroshima Experience: Two Reflections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enloe, Walter; Cogan, John

    1985-01-01

    The bombing of Hiroshima changed forever the concept of conflict and warfare in the human family. Two Americans, one having grown up in Hiroshima and the other having spent one year in the city as a Fullbright research scholar, reflect on the Hiroshima experience. (RM)

  12. Uncertainties under emergency conditions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 and Bikini accident in 1954

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishiwaki, Y.; Kawai, H.; Shono, N.; Fujita, S.; Matsuoka, H.; Fujiwara, S.; Hosoda, T.

    2000-01-01

    In exploding an atomic bomb, in addition to ionizing radiation, strong non-ionizing radiation, such as infrared, ultraviolet light, visible light, electromagnetic pulse radiation, as well as heat and shock waves are produced. The survivors and those who visited Hiroshima immediately after the atomic bombing could have been subjected to a number of other possible noxious effects in addition to atomic radiation. Hospitals, laboratories, drugstores, pharmaceutical works, storehouses of chemicals, factories, etc. that were situated close to the hypocenter were all completely destroyed and various mutagenic, carcinogenic or teratogenic substances must have been released, many doctors, nurses and chemists were killed. There was no medical care and no food in the region of high dose exposure and the drinking water was contaminated. There would have been various possibilities of infection. Mental stress would also have been much higher in the survivors closer to the hypocenter. It is confusing which factor played a dominant role. In addition, there would be problems in accurately identifying the position of the exposed persons at the time of the atomic bombing and also in estimating the shielding factors. There may be considerable uncertainty in human memory under such conditions. It is also possible that there could have been a large storage of gasoline to be used for transportation of the army corps in Hiroshima. Therefore there is a possibility that various toxic substances, mutagenic or carcinogenic agents such as benzopyrene and other radiomimetic substances, chemical weapons (Yperit, Lewisite, etc.) could have been released from various facilities which were destroyed at the time of the atomic bombing. After the German surrender, in May 1945, it was reported in June, in Japan, that the USA might attempt landing on Japan mainland, and that they might be planning massive use of chemical weapons all over Japan on that occasion. Preparing for such case chemical officers

  13. Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma in the Retroperitoneum in an Atomic Bomb Survivor: Report of a Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yukio Nakamura

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A 76-year-old Japanese man was admitted to Kosei-Nenkin Hospital (Osaka, Japan in November 2006; his chief complaint was a 10-kg loss in body weight over 3 months prior to admission. Abdominal computed tomography (CT and dynamic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI showed three masses in the retroperitoneum. The patient subsequently underwent surgery. The final histopathological diagnosis of tumors 1 and 2 was malignant fibrous histiocytoma of the retroperitoneum, and tumor 3 was a well-differentiated liposarcoma. By the presence of the liposarcoma, tumor 1 and 2 were thought to be the dedifferentiated areas of liposarcomas. At the age of 16, the patient had been exposed to radiation from the atomic bomb at Hiroshima towards the end of the Second World War. We postulate that in this case, radiation from the atomic bomb may have played an important role in the development of the sarcomas.

  14. Background and status of clinical study is determine effects of in utero exposure Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrow, G N; Hrubec, Zdenek, Finch, S.C.

    1964-07-02

    The mortality experience of a cohort of approximately 100,000 persons selected from survivors of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings and a comparison of persons who were not in the cities at the time of bombing (ATB) was studied for the period 1 October 1950-30 September 1959.

  15. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernstein, J.; Cassidy, D.

    1995-01-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics

  16. Detection of de novo single nucleotide variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors close to the hypocenter by whole-genome sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horai, Makiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Chisa; Kinoshita, Akira; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro

    2018-03-01

    Ionizing radiation released by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 caused many long-term illnesses, including increased risks of malignancies such as leukemia and solid tumours. Radiation has demonstrated genetic effects in animal models, leading to concerns over the potential hereditary effects of atomic bomb-related radiation. However, no direct analyses of whole DNA have yet been reported. We therefore investigated de novo variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We collected peripheral blood from three trios, each comprising a father (atomic-bomb survivor with acute radiation symptoms), a non-exposed mother, and their child, none of whom had any past history of haematological disorders. One trio of non-exposed individuals was included as a control. DNA was extracted and the numbers of de novo single nucleotide variants in the children were counted by WGS with sequencing confirmation. Gross structural variants were also analysed. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the study. There were 62, 81, and 42 de novo single nucleotide variants in the children of atomic-bomb survivors, compared with 48 in the control trio. There were no gross structural variants in any trio. These findings are in accord with previously published results that also showed no significant genetic effects of atomic-bomb radiation on second-generation survivors.

  17. Late effects of atomic bomb radiation on human immune responses, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kohno, Nobuoki; Zhou, Ou-Liang; Akiba, Suminori

    1988-01-01

    In an effort to examine whether or not natural killer (NK) cell activation with IL-2 was influenced by atomic bombing, NK cell activity, the ratio of lymphocytes seropositive for NK cell-related antigens, and NK cell activation with IL-2 were examined in 328 A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima. NK activity and the ratio of lymphocytes seropositive for Leu 7, Leu 11 and OKM 1 antigens were higher in men than women. These findings became more marked with advancing age in both men and women. An activation of NK cells was significantly stimulated with IL-2. This was significantly correlated with an increase in the seropositive rate for Leu 11 antigen. NK cell activation, as expressed as stimulation index, was significantly higher in women than men. In neither men nor women was there correlation between stimulation index and both aging and exposure doses. (Namekawa, K.)

  18. Hiroshima and Nagasaki: New doses, risks, and their implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This presentation summarizes the recent re-evaluations of the dose and risk of cancer among survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It addresses briefly their limitations, and describes some of their implications for the lifetime projection of the risk of a fatal cancer following exposure to ionizing radiation

  19. Malignant breast tumors among Atomic Bomb Survivors, Hirsoshima and Nagasaki, 1950 to 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, M.; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Asano, M.; Tokuoka, S.; Ezaki, H.; Nishimori, I.; Tsuji, Y.

    1979-01-01

    From 1950 to 1974, 360 cases of malignant breast tumors were identified among the 63,000 females of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation's (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) Extended Life-Span Study sample of survivors of the 1945 atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki; 288 of these females were residing in one of these two cities at the time of bombing (ATB). Two-thirds of all cases were classified as breast cancers on the basis of microscopic review of slides, and 108 cases received an estimated breast tissue dose of at least 10 rads. The number of cases of radiogenic breast cancer could be well estimated by a linear function of radiation dose for tissue doses below 200 rads. Excess risk estimates, based on this function, for women 10 to 19, 20 to 29, 30 to 39, and 50 years old or older ATB were 7.3, 4.2, 2.6, and 4.7 cases per million women per year per rad, respectively. Women irradiated in their forties showed no dose effect. Among all women who received at least 10 rads, those irradiated before age 20 years will have experienced the highest rates of breast cancer throughout their lifetimes. Separate excess risk estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki did not differ significantly, which indicates that for radiogenic breast cancer the effects of neutrons (emitted only in the Hiroshima explosion) and gamma radiation were about equal. Radiation did not reduce the latency period for the development of breast cancer, which was at least 10 years. The distribution of histologic types of cancers did not vary significantly with radiation dose. The data suggested that irradiation prior to menarche conferred a greater risk than irradiation after menarche

  20. Impact on the Japanese atomic bomb survivors of radiation received from the bombs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M

    2014-02-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) studies various cohorts of Japanese atomic bomb survivors, the largest being the Life Span Study (LSS), which includes 93,741 persons who were in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the times of the bombings; there are also cohorts of persons who were exposed in utero and survivors' children. This presentation attempts to summarize the total impact of the radiation from the bombs on the survivors from both an individual perspective (both age-specific and integrated lifetime risk, along with a measure of life expectancy that describes how the risk affects the individual given age at exposure) and a group perspective (estimated numbers of excess occurrences in the cohort), including both early and late effects. As survivors' doses ranged well into the acutely lethal range at closer distances, some of them experienced acute signs and symptoms of radiation exposure in addition to being at risk of late effects. Although cancer has always been a primary concern among late effects, estimated numbers of excess cancers and hematopoietic malignancies in the LSS are a small fraction of the total due to the highly skewed dose distribution, with most survivors receiving small doses. For example, in the latest report on cancer incidence, 853 of 17,448 incident solid cancers were estimated to be attributable to radiation from the bombs. RERF research indicates that risk of radiation-associated cancer varies among sites and that some benign tumors such as uterine myoma are also associated with radiation. Noncancer late effects appear to be in excess in proportion to radiation dose but with an excess relative risk about one-third that of solid cancer and a correspondingly small overall fraction of cases attributable to radiation. Specific risks were found for some subcategories, particularly circulatory disease, including stroke and precedent conditions such as hypertension. Radiation-related cataract in the atomic bomb survivors is well known

  1. Histologic review of breast cancer cases in survivors of atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuoka, S.; Asano, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Tokunaga, M.; Sakamoto, G.; Hartmann, W.H.; Hutter, R.V.; Land, C.E.; Henson, D.E.

    1984-01-01

    A panel of Japanese and American pathologists reviewed existing histologic material used to study breast cancer risk among the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a population in which incidence studies have found a strong relationship between breast cancer risk and radiation dose. The primary charge to the panel was to define a body of confirmed cases in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation that would require little or no review for inclusion in future studies of breast cancer incidence. Broad agreement on histologic type was reached for 298 of 300 confirmed cases. The distribution of histologic types was, overall, similar to that seen in other studies of breast cancer in Japanese women, and did not appear to depend on dose; thus radiation-induced breast cancer appeared to be no different histologically from other breast cancer. Also, no evidence was found of variation in histologic type by city, age at exposure, age at diagnosis, or calendar time

  2. Association of Acute Radiation Syndrome and Rain after the Bombings in Atomic Bomb Survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, K; Sakata, R; Cullings, H M; Grant, E J

    2016-06-01

    Acute radiation-induced symptoms reported in survivors after the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been suspected to be associated with rain that fell after the explosions, but this association has not been evaluated in an epidemiological study that considers the effects of the direct dose from the atomic bombs and other factors. The aim of this study was to evaluate this association using information from a fixed cohort, comprised of 93,741 members of the Life Span Study who were in the city at the time of the bombing. Information on acute symptoms and exposure to rain was collected in surveys conducted by interviewers, primarily in the 1950s. The proportion of survivors developing severe epilation was around 60% at levels of direct radiation doses of 3 Gy or higher and less than 0.2% at levels <0.005 Gy regardless of reported rain exposure status. The low prevalence of acute symptoms at low direct doses indicates that the reported fallout rain was not homogeneously radioactive at a level sufficient to cause a substantial probability of acute symptoms. We observed that the proportion of reported acute symptoms was slightly higher among those who reported rain exposure in some subgroups, however, suggestions that rain was the cause of these reported symptoms are not supported by analyses specific to the known areas of radioactive fallout. Misclassification of exposure and outcome, including symptoms due to other causes and recall bias, appears to be a more plausible explanation. However, the insufficient and retrospective nature of the available data limited our ability to quantify the attribution to those possible causes.

  3. Risk of cancer among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Schull, W.J.

    1991-01-01

    This report describes the risk of cancer and in particular cancers other than leukemia among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Attention focuses primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effect Research Foundation in the period 1950-1985 based on the recently revised dosimetry, termed the DS86 doses. Mortality from malignant tumors is increased among A-bomb survivors as a late effect of A-bomb radiation. Basides the well-known increase of leukemia, there also has been demonstrated increase of cancer of the lung, breast, esophagus, stomach, colon, ovary, urinary bladder, thyroid, and of multiple myeloma, but no increase has yet been observed in mortality from cancer of the rectum, gallbladder, pancreases, prostate and uterus, and of malignant lymphoma. The pattern of appearance over time of radiation-induced cancer other than leukemia differs from that of leukemia. In general, radiation-induced solid cancer begins to appear after attaining the age at which the cancer is normally prone to develop (so-called cancer age), and countinues to increase proportionally with the increase in mortality of the control group as it ages. Sensitivity to radiation, in terms of cancer induction, is higher for persons who were young at the time of the bomb (ATB) in general than for those who were older ATB. Furthermore, susceptibility to radiation-induced cancer tends to be higher in pre- than in post-natally exposed survivors (at least those exposed as adults). Other radiation effect modifiers and the shape of the dose response curve will also be discussed. (author)

  4. Report on the results of the third medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Inoue, Nobuhisa; Yokoyama, Yutaka; Oishi, Akinori.

    1989-01-01

    The third medical examination was performed among A-bomb survivors residing in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru during the period October 17- November 4, 1988. One hundred and eighty-five A-bomb survivors were comfirmed to reside in the five countries. One hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors (64%) participated in the examination, consisting of 50 men and 68 women. Seventy seven (35 men and 42 women) and 41 (15 men and 26 women) A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. An average age of participants was 56.1±9.7 years for men and 58.4±9.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was 28.8%. A questionnaire survey for subjective symptoms revealed a high frequency of fatigue, decreased physical fitness, numbness, and dizziness. Fifty-four A-bomb survivors (47%) were needed to receive detailed examinations. Predominant diseases were hypertension, obesity, and urinary tract disease. (N.K.)

  5. Report on the results of the third medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Inoue, Nobuhisa; Yokoyama, Yutaka; Oishi, Akinori

    1989-08-01

    The third medical examination was performed among A-bomb survivors residing in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru during the period October 17- November 4, 1988. One hundred and eighty-five A-bomb survivors were comfirmed to reside in the five countries. One hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors (64%) participated in the examination, consisting of 50 men and 68 women. Seventy seven (35 men and 42 women) and 41 (15 men and 26 women) A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. An average age of participants was 56.1{plus minus}9.7 years for men and 58.4{plus minus}9.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook was 28.8%. A questionnaire survey for subjective symptoms revealed a high frequency of fatigue, decreased physical fitness, numbness, and dizziness. Fifty-four A-bomb survivors (47%) were needed to receive detailed examinations. Predominant diseases were hypertension, obesity, and urinary tract disease. (N.K.).

  6. The genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.

    1992-01-01

    Studies on the genetic effects of the atomic bombs detonated over Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been in progress since 1946. The indicators of potential genetic damage in the children of exposees which have been employed are: (1) untoward pregnancy outcomes (major congenital defect and/or stillbirth and/or neonatal death), (2) death of liveborn infants prior to average age 28.8 years, (3) cancer of onset prior to age 20, (4) sex chromosome aneuploidy, (5) mutations affecting protein electrophoretic mobility and/or activity, (6) chromosomal reciprocal translocations, (7) sex-ratio in the children of exposed mothers, and (8) physical development at birth, at 9-months, and at school age. There is no statistically significant effect of parental exposure to the bombs on any of these indicators. The net regression of indicator(s) on dose is, however, positive. On the basis of these regressions and assumptions concerning the contribution of spontaneous mutation to the indicator values in the controls, the gametic doubling dose of acute ionizing radiation under these circumstances is estimated to be 2 Sv. With a dose rate factor of 2, which seems appropriate to these circumstances, the doubling dose for chronic radiation is placed at 4 Sv. This is a substantially higher estimate than previous extrapolations to man from murine experiments

  7. Effects of A-bomb radiation on the human body

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikato; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    This publication consists of contributions by 39 authors in Hiroshima who are active in the forefront of research, diagnosis and treatment concerning atomic bomb survivors. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosomal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are described. All of the 45 chapters are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  8. Carcinogenesis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Observations from ABCC-JNIH pathology and statistical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldis, L J; Jablon, S; Ishida, Morihiro

    1963-01-01

    Studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki of a possible carcinogenic effect of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings are included in programs conducted jointly by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Japanese National Institute of Health (JNIH) with the collaboration of physicians and medical organizations in both cities. In order to cope with epidemiologic problems that attend these, in common with other studies of human populations, ABCC-JNIH programs are now oriented to the intensive surveillance of health, morbidity, and mortality principally in known, fixed cohorts of the survivors. The data reported here are derived from 3 interrelated programs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, Tumor Registry Studies, and Joint ABCC-JNIH Pathology Studies. The population samples utilized in these studies are defined along with summarizing pertinent information concerning their exposure to ionizing radiation.

  9. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)

    1995-08-01

    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  10. Serum autoantibodies in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiyama, Mitoshi; Yamakido, Michio; Hamilton, H.B.; Kobuke, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Saeko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Fujikura, Toshio.

    1983-12-01

    In order to evaluate delayed effects of radiation on humoral immunity, an attempt was made to detect antibodies in the serum of atomic bomb survivors against kidney, liver, and parietal cells from rats. The following results were observed. Comparing by sex and age, the detection frequency of antibodies increased significantly for all three organs in the male group only. Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by age and exposure dose without considering sex showed that the rates for those exposed to 100 + rad showed a trend to increase with age for all three organs (P < 0.01). However, in the 0 rad group, a significant trend to increase with age was noted for antikidney and antiliver antibodies only (P < 0.01 for both). Analysis of changes in antibody detection frequencies by sex, age, and exposure dose showed that the detection frequencies increased significantly with age for all three organs in males exposed to 100 + rad (P < 0.05), but only the antiliver antibody frequency increased significantly with age in males in the 0 rad exposure group. Females failed to show any statistical changes in any exposure group. (author)

  11. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  12. New approaches to evaluating the genetic effects of the atomic bombs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.

    1995-01-01

    In the aftermath of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki fifty years ago, one of the compelling biomedical questions that arose concerned the genetic effects of this exposure. More recently, revelations of the extent of industrial or accidental exposures in the former Soviet Union and charges that employment in the Sellafield Nuclear Reprocessing Plant in West Cumbria, England has resulted in a gene-mediated increase in children of plant employees have served to keep in the public mind the issue of the genetic risks of exposure to ionizing radiation. The study of the genetic effects of the atomic bombs has moved from the gross morphological level of congenital malformations to the examination of DNA. However, were the need for such genetic studies to arise in the foreseeable future, despite this impressive progress in DNA-oriented systems, the documentation of congenital defect, genetic disease and child survival would still be an essential component of any future study. Whatever the geneticists may think, the phenotypic well-being and survival of children are still the primary indicators on which the public, who ultimately supports these studies, will base its judgement of risk. 28 refs

  13. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-07

    In January 1949, Norris Bradbury gave a lecture at the National War College which summarized the progress Los Alamos had made since the end of the war. The transcript of the talk was filed and forgotten until it surfaced fifty years later. It is, perhaps, one of the best summaries of the state of the United States nuclear weapons program in 1949. It is also evidence of how Bradbury saw the future of atomic weapons. It is presented in full, with minor editing, and begins as follows: Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  14. Public health nutritional studies on the atomic bomb female survivors living in Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munaka, Masaki; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Ohtaki, Megu; Ueoka, Hiroshi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Kishida, Noriko; Ishigai, Keiko

    1982-09-01

    The atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a long distance (LDG) was found to take a great quantity of soybean curd, miso and fruit except citrus, while the atomic bomb survivors group exposed at a short distance (SDG) was found to take a significant amount of fish paste product. SDG tends to ingest processed food and in nutrient supply rate the percentage of calcium, iron and vitamin A is low. Judging from a state of food group without a meal rate, we got the result that SDG has a few kinds of ingestion food and takes them partially in each meal. In terms of socio-economic status, the rate of living alone, supporting oneself and living an empty life is high and the rate of living with a partner is low. On the other hand, we analysed the relations of three factors on physique-physical fitness and living status, and then got the following results. (1) ''Volume capacity'', in the cases of ''be married at present'', ''have a large family'', ''ingest a lot of protein and iron'', tends to be large, while in the cases of ''have no disease'', ''don't go without a meal'', ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', and ''nutritional balance is good'', it tends to be small. (2) ''Height'', in the case of ''socio-economical status was good before exposure to the atomic bomb'', tends to increase. (3) ''Synthetic physical fitness'', in the cases of ''health condition is good at present'', ''have no disease at present'', ''ingest a lot of vitamin A'' and ''nutritional balance is good'', tends to be superior; in the cases of ''food cost is high'' and ''ingest a lot of carbohydrates (non-fibrous)'', it tends to be low. The significant

  15. Serum immunoglobulin levels in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, C B; Hall, W J; Ashley, F W; Hamilton, H B

    1972-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulins (SI) were determined in 803 survivors and matched controls. Each subject's age, sex, health, exposure, and medical record were evaluated with respect to serum IgG, IgA, IgM levels. The IgG and IgA levels tended to be higher for this Hiroshima population than for Americans. Past exposure to ionizing radiation showed no significant correlation to SI levels. However, age and sex did influence the SI. IgM was significantly higher in females. With advancing age IgG and IgA increased in males, and IgM decreased in females. Elevated sedimentation rate and increased lymphocytes were accompanied by increased SI levels. Radiographic TB was detected in 45% of the population; IgG and IgA levels were somewhat elevated in these individuals. (DLC)

  16. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (3)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taketomi, Y; Abe, T; Kamada, N; Kuramoto, A; Takahashi, H [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1978-04-01

    The actual condition of polycythemia in atomic bomb survivors was evaluated laying stress on the results of general clinical examinations in Hiroshima A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic in 1973. Of 40,410 subjects examined in 1973 (male 15,390; female 25,020), 218 males and 220 females, 438 in total, excluding the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, satisfied the criteria for polycythemia that males show higher values over 17.1 g/dl of Hb and 51.5% of Ht and females over 15.2 g/dl of Hb and 46.0% of Ht. The incidence of this disease was higher in younger males but it increased with age in females. However, there was no correlationship between the incidence of this disease and the distance from the epicenter. Further, 10 males and 8 females, 18 in total, of these patients satisfied the Komiya's criteria for polycythemia (RBC 6,000,000, Ht 50% in males, and RBC 5,500,000, Ht>50% in females) in 1973 or before, and one of them was diagnosed as polycythemia vera by the present examination (1977). This survey was made on 40,410 subjects, one of which was diagnosed as polycythemia vera. Because of a lower incidence of polycythemia than that of leukemia, it was difficult to give an accurate diagnosis and it was also hard to evaluate the incidence of this disease in atomic bomb survivors comparing with that in healthy people. It is therefore required to pile up the data year after year. In various blood diseases such as chronic myelogenic leukemia and acute leukemia, the foregoing state of myeloid proliferation was sometimes observed preceding the onset of these blood diseases. Therefore, the 18 cases at least which satisfied the Komiya's criteria should be followed up carefully.

  17. Clinical survey of blood dyscrasias among Hiroshima A-bomb survivors by the periodical health examination, (3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taketomi, Yoshinori; Abe, Tsutomu; Kamada, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Takahashi, Hiroshi

    1978-01-01

    The actual condition of polycythemia in atomic bomb survivors was evaluated laying stress on the results of general clinical examinations in Hiroshima A-bomb Survivors Health Control Clinic in 1973. Of 40,410 subjects examined in 1973 (male 15,390; female 25,020), 218 males and 220 females, 438 in total, excluding the patients with cardiopulmonary diseases, satisfied the criteria for polycythemia that males show higher values over 17.1 g/dl of Hb and 51.5% of Ht and females over 15.2 g/dl of Hb and 46.0% of Ht. The incidence of this disease was higher in younger males but it increased with age in females. However, there was no correlationship between the incidence of this disease and the distance from the epicenter. Further, 10 males and 8 females, 18 in total, of these patients satisfied the Komiya's criteria for polycythemia (RBC 6,000,000, Ht 50% in males, and RBC 5,500,000, Ht>50% in females) in 1973 or before, and one of them was diagnosed as polycythemia vera by the present examination (1977). This survey was made on 40,410 subjects, one of which was diagnosed as polycythemia vera. Because of a lower incidence of polycythemia than that of leukemia, it was difficult to give an accurate diagnosis and it was also hard to evaluate the incidence of this disease in atomic bomb survivors comparing with that in healthy people. It is therefore required to pile up the data year after year. In various blood diseases such as chronic myelogenic leukemia and acute leukemia, the foregoing state of myeloid proliferation was sometimes observed preceding the onset of these blood diseases. Therefore, the 18 cases at least which satisfied the Komiya's criteria should be followed up carefully. (Ueda, J.)

  18. Cancer and non-cancer effects in Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M P

    2009-01-01

    The survivors of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are a general population of all ages and sexes and, because of the wide and well characterised range of doses received, have been used by many scientific committees (International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP), United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR), Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiations (BEIR)) as the basis of population cancer risk estimates following radiation exposure. Leukaemia was the first cancer to be associated with atomic bomb radiation exposure, with preliminary indications of an excess among the survivors within the first five years after the bombings. An excess of solid cancers became apparent approximately ten years after radiation exposure. With increasing follow-up, excess risks of most cancer types have been observed, the major exceptions being chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and pancreatic, prostate and uterine cancer. For most solid cancer sites a linear dose response is observed, although in the latest follow-up of the mortality data there is evidence (p = 0.10) for an upward curvature in the dose response for all solid cancers. The only cancer sites which exhibit (upward) curvature in the dose response are leukaemia, and non-melanoma skin and bone cancer. For leukaemia the dose response is very markedly upward curving, indeed largely describable as a pure quadratic dose response, particularly in the low dose (0-2 Sv) range. Even 55 years after the bombings over 40% of the Life Span Study cohort remain alive, so continued follow-up of this group is vital for completing our understanding of long-term radiation effects in people. In general, the relative risks per unit dose among the Japanese atomic bomb survivors are greater than those among comparable subsets in studies of medically exposed individuals. Cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy in relative risks between these two populations, although other

  19. A-bomb radiation effects digest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shigematsu, Itsuzo; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Sasaki, Hideo; Ito, Chikako; Kamada, Nanao.

    1993-01-01

    This publication is the digest of the book 'Genbaku Hoshasen no Jintai Eikyo (Effects of A-bomb Radiation on the Human Body)' (365p.), published in Japanese by Hiroshima International Council for Medical Care of the Radiation-Exposed. Following a brief description on the damage of the atomic bomb, the subjects of malignant tumors, endocrine and metabolic deseases, ocular lesions, dermatologic effects, prenatal exposure, chromosoal aberrations, mutations, sensitivity to radiation, immune function, genetic effects and other effects of radiation are summarized. (J.P.N.)

  20. Carcinogenesis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Observations from ABCC-JNIH pathology and statistical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeldis, L J; Jablon, S; Ishida, Morihiro

    1963-01-01

    Studies in Hiroshima and Nagasaki of a possible carcinogenic effect of radiation in survivors of the atomic bombings are included in programs conducted jointly by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and the Japanese National Institute of Health (JNIH) with the collaboration of physicians and medical organizations in both cities. In order to cope with epidemiologic problems that attend these, in common with other studies of human populations. ABCC-JNIH programs are now oriented to the intensive surveillance of health, morbidity, and mortality principally in known, fixed cohorts of the survivors. The data reported here are derived from 3 interrelated programs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: the JNIH-ABCC Life Span Study, Tumor Registry Studies, and Joint ABCC-JNIH Pathology Studies. The population samples utilized in these studies are defined along with summarizing pertinent information concerning their exposure to ionizing radiation. 11 references, 2 figures, 10 tables.

  1. A search for mutations affecting protein structure in children of proximally and distally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Hamilton, H.B.; Otake, Masanori; Goriki, Kazuaki; Kageoka, Takeshi; Fujita, Mikio; Neriishi, Shotaro; Asakawa, Jun-ichi.

    1981-07-01

    A total of 289,868 locus tests based on 28 different protein phenotypes, employing one-dimensional electrophoresis to detect variant proteins, has yielded one probable mutation in the offspring of 'proximally exposed' parents, who received an estimated average gonadal exposure dose of between 31 and 39 rem from the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There were no mutations in 208,196 locus tests involving children of 'distally exposed' parents, who had essentially no radiation exposure. (author)

  2. Infectious diseases in atomic bomb survivors. Statistical study on autopsy cases, 1965--1975

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T; Ishida, S [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, H

    1976-09-01

    Incidences of various infectious diseases in 986 autopsy cases at Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital and Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital from 1965 to 1975 were compared according to the distance from the explosion place, and the following results were obtained. There was not a significant difference at incidences of most infectious diseases between each exposured group and not-exposured group. Incidence of old tuberculosis focus was a little higher in exposured groups, but incidences of main lesions such as tuberculosis, active tuberculosis, and miliary tuberculosis were lower in exposured groups and effect of exposure was negative. Out of urinary tract infections, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidence of cistitis in female was. Incidence of cystitis of female was higher than that of male in the group exposured near to the explosion place. With respect to stomach cancer, leukemia, malignant lymphoma, and cerebrovascular disorder, the nearer the distance to the explosion place was, the higher incidences of various infectious diseases were.

  3. Mental retardation occurring in embryo exposed in utero to the atomic bomb (Hiroshima). After 30 years follow-up study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, H; Shimasaki, A; Fujiwara, K [Saijo Mental Hospital, Hiroshima (Japan); Harada, M; Minami, R

    1978-11-01

    This paper deals with a long term follow-up study on psychological symptoms in four patients with microscopically microcephaly induced by prenatal exposed to atomic bomb. They were exposed to atomic bomb at 8- and 12-week-embryos. The distance from the center of the explosion was 780 - 1180 m. All their mothers had acute radiation hazards. Their growths in the uterus were markedly damaged. Postnatal body weight ranged between 1,300 and 2,000 g. They were commonly characterized by microcephaly, physiological and mental retardation, stigmata of degeneracy, and skin symptoms, who were diagnosed as ''microcephaly induced by early prenatal exposure to atomic bomb'' by the research group for microcephaly in the Ministry of Health and Welfare. These common symptoms such as microcephaly, stigmata of degeneracy, and disturbed growth, but neurological symptoms such as motor aphasia were slighter in these patients than in those having congenital Minamata disease prenatal. These results suggested that the prognosis of these patients in whom 30 years have passed is unexpectedly serious.

  4. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1978-10-01

    In a search for possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of offspring of A-bomb survivors a survey was made in 1965 on approximately 200,000 children of all primary schools, junior high schools, and senior high schools in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Of the collected data, those pertaining to senior high school students 15 to 17 years of age of Hiroshima City were analyzed to determine if there was any genetic effect of A-bomb radiation on stature. Comparisons were made with regard to the mean stature and variance of the offspring and the covariance and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and offspring for the exposed group and the nonexposed group. The observed differences included those with both positive and negative signs, but none were statistically significant nor did they demonstrate any specific tendency. A comparison was made with a similar study reported by Neel and Schull. Furthermore, estimation of the regression coefficients of the mean stature, variance, covariance, and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and offspring by parental radiation dose also did not show any specific tendency. Though the genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on stature could not be accurately estimated in the current series of analyses, the stature data of 6- to 14-year-old children in Hiroshima and those of 6- to 17-year-old children in Nagasaki Will soon be studied, which should permit a more comprehensive and extensive analysis and evaluation of the possible genetic effects of radiation on stature. (author)

  5. Scars remaining in atom bomb survivors: a four year follow-up study. The status of lenticular opacities caused by atomic radiation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, 1951-1953

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wells, W; Tsukifuji, Neal; Sinskey, R M

    1959-01-01

    Two studies on injuries suffered by survivors of the atomic explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each paper for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  6. Radiation-related posterior lenticular opacities in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors based on T65DR and DS86 dosimetry systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Schull, W.J.

    1989-10-01

    This paper investigates the quantitative relationship of ionizing radiation to the occurrence of posterior lenticular opacities among the survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, as suggested by the DS86 dosimetry system. DS86 doses are available for 1,983 (93.4%) of the 2,124 A-bomb survivors analyzed in 1982. In the DS86 system, both gamma-ray and neutron regression coefficients for the best-fitting model are positive and highly significant for the estimated energy deposited in the eye, here termed the eye organ dose. The DS86 gamma regression coefficient is almost the same as that associated with the T65DR gamma kerma, the ratio of the two coefficients being 1.1 (95% confidence limits: 0.5 - 2.3) for D86 kerma in the individual data. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) values based on the individual gamma and neutron components of the DS86 eye organ dose are estimated to be 32.4 + 0.73/(D ν - 0.06)>0 with the 95% confidence limits ranging from 11.8 to 88.8 + 1.39/(D ν - 0.06)>0, where D ν is the neutron dose in gray. It is suggested that the neutron component could be more important for the eyes than for other sites of the body. Finally, it is interesting to observe that a linear-quadratic gamma and linear neutron model with two thresholds, which fits the data less well, produces very similar estimates of the two thresholds as the linear gamma-linear neutron-response model. In this model, however, the regression coefficient is not significantly associated with the quadratic gamma response. (J.P.N.)

  7. Thyroid disorders in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Inoue, Keisuke; Sugihara, Toru; Oshima, Tetuya; Matsueda, Kazuhiro

    1984-01-01

    There was no difference in blood levels of thyroid stimulating hormones among atomic bomb survivors having normal thyroid function, irrespective of the exposure distance from the explosion. Of 336 atomic bomb survivors admitted to the hospital for health examinations, hyperthyroidism was seen in one patient, hypothyroidism in four, malignant struma in three, and benign tumor in one. The incidence of struma associated with positive antithyroidglobulin antibody tended to be high in atomic bomb survivors living within 1.0 km from the explosion. The overall study in patients visiting the department of internal medicine, in addition to the 336 survivors, revealed that the incidence of thyroid disorders, especially hypothyroidism, was high in survivors directly exposed to atomic bomb. (Namekawa, K.)

  8. Urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-1972

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanefuji, Hayato; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1980-03-01

    A study was made of the relationship of radiation dose to the incidence of urinary bladder tumors among atomic bomb survivors and controls in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample. A total of 112 cases of urinary bladder tumors was identified among approximately 99,000 subjects in this fixed cohort during 1961-72. Morphologic diagnoses were available for 86 cases (76.8%), cystoscopy alone for 21 cases (18.7%), and only the cause of death recorded on death certificates for 5 cases (4.5%). Urothelial carcinoma (transitional cell carcinoma) is the most common type of urinary bladder tumor for which morphologic diagnoses are available. The 1961-72 incidence rate was calculated using 106 cases identified as urinary bladder tumors. Although the crude annual incidence rate in the high dose group (100 rad or more) is elevated in both cities and both sexes, all nine cases with this dose were aged 40 years or more at the time of the bomb (ATB). The standardized relative risk adjusted for city and sex for those of age 40 or more ATB in the high dose group is 1.8 in comparison with the control group and this is a suggestive statistical difference. A statistically significant elevation of risk occurs in the high dose group for urothelial carcinoma and adenocarcinoma of the urinary bladder among those aged 40 or more ATB. (author)

  9. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the first volume. The 8 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  10. Reassessment of the atomic bomb radiation dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Dosimetry system 2002. DS02. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, Robert W.; Kerr, George D.

    2005-01-01

    The extensive efforts to review the dosimetry of the atomic-bomb survivors and formulate the new dosimetry system DS02 have been greatly welcomed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). This accomplishment is a fine tribute to the importance of the epidemiological studies being conducted at RERF. No other study is so informative of the effects of radiation on human health. The gracious participation in the RERF program by the atomic-bomb survivors allows us to contribute to the well being of these individuals, and the high quality of the data obtained allows the RERF results to feature so prominently in the formulation of international guidelines for radiation protection. Such a great effort to improve and substantiate the dosimetry would not otherwise have been justified. RERF greatly appreciates the independent work of the U.S. and Japanese Working Groups on the atomic-bomb dosimetry and the review by the Joint Senior Review Group of this overall effort. We are assured that unbiased development of the new dosimetry system will reflect well in its application in the RERF epidemiology study. The documentation included in this report will serve as reference for the many deliberations concluded. The title publications are divided into 2 volumes. This is the second volume. The 29 of the reports in each chapter are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  11. Liver cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver among atomic bomb survivors. Study of autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    Liver cirrhosis and primary carcinoma of the liver were investigated in 1699 autopsies of atomic bomb survivors carried out in Hiroshima from 1956 to 1980. Liver cirrhosis, hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic biliary carcinoma were observed in 116, 111, and 17 cases respectively, the ratios of man to woman and were 2.3, 3.9, and 1.8 with a mean age of 56, 60, and 67 years respectively. There was no evidence that exposure to a-bomb increased the risk of these diseases significantly. About 90% of the hepatocellular carcinomas was combined with liver cirrhosis. Weight of liver and spleen, amount of ascites, hemorrhage from the digestive canals, esophageal varix, combination with other diseases, and histologic correlation with the activities of HBs antigen and ..cap alpha..-fetoprotein were discussed with the relation to the exposure.

  12. Radiosensitivity of skin fibroblasts from atomic bomb survivors with and without breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Sadayuki; Setlow, R.B.; Bender, M.A.

    1990-11-01

    Fibroblasts were established in vitro from skin biopsies obtained from 55 women and one man with or without breast cancer and with or without exposure to radiation from the atomic bomb explosion in Hiroshima. The radiosensitivity of these cells was evaluated by clonogenic assays after exposure to X rays or to fission neutrons from a 252 Cf source. Data were fitted to a multitarget model, S/S 0 = A[1-(1-e kD ) N ], for both X-ray and neutron dose-survival curves. A single-hit model, S/S 0 = Ae kD , fits the neutron dose-survival responses as well. These was no difference in the means or variances of radiosensitivity between exposed and nonexposed groups, or between patients with or without breast cancer. Hence, although the sample is not large, it provides no support for the hypothesis that A-bomb radiation preferentially induces breast cancer in women whose cells in vitro are sensitive to cell killing by radiation. (author)

  13. Activation Measurements for Thermal Neutrons, Part D. U.S. Measurements of 36Cl in Mineral Samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tore Straume; Alfredo A, Marchetti; Stephen D, Egbert; James A, Roberts; Ping Men; Shoichiro Fujita; Kiyoshi Shizuma; Masaharu Hoshi; G, Rugel; W, Ruhm; G, Korschinek; J. E. McAninch; K. L. Carroll; T. Faestermann; K. Knie; R. E. Martinelli; A. Wallner; C. Wallner

    2005-01-01

    The present paper presents the 36 Cl measurement effort in the US. A large number of 36 Cl measurements have been made in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results from these measurements are presented here and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. The production of 36 Cl by bomb neutrons in mineral samples from Hiroshima and Nagasaki was primarily via the reaction 35 Cl(n,γ) 36 Cl. This reaction has a substantial thermal neutron cross-section (43.6 b at 0.025 eV) and the product has a long half-life (301,000 y). hence, it is well suited for neutron-activation detection in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using AMS more than 50 years after the bombings. A less important reaction for bomb neutrons, 39 K(n,α) 36 Cl, typically produces less than 10% of the 36 Cl in mineral samples such as granite and concrete, which contain ∼ 2% potassium. In 1988, only a year after the publication of the DS86 final report (Roesch 1987), it was demonstrated experimentally that 36 Cl measured using AMS should be able to detect the thermal neutron fluences at the large distances most relevant to the A-bomb survivor dosimetry. Subsequent measurements in mineral samples from both Hiroshima and Nagasaki validated the experimental findings. The potential utility of 36 Cl as a thermal neutron detector in Hiroshima was first presented by Haberstock et al. who employed the Munich AMS facility to measure 36 Cl/Cl ratios in a gravestone from near the hypocenter. That work subsequently resulted in an expanded 36 Cl effort in Germany that paralleled the US work. More recently, there have also been 36 Cl measurements made by a Japanese group. The impetus for the extensive 36 Cl and other neutron activation

  14. Biochemical mutations in the children of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Chiyoko; Neel, J.V.

    1988-01-01

    Genetic effects of atomic bombs in children of survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied using two biochemical indicators. Eligible children were classified as those born to parents exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter (Group I, n=13,052); and those born to either parents exposed at a distance of over 2,500 m or parents who were not in the cities (Group II, n=10,609). Thirty blood proteins were examined by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis. In Group I, 3 mutations altering electrophoretic mobility of proteins were identified among 667,404 locus tests. This corresponded to a mutation rate of 0.45 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. In Group II, 3 mutations among 466,881 locus tests were seen, yielding a mutation rate for electromorphs of 0.64 x 10 -5 per locus per generation. According to the dose schedule developed in 1965 (T65 DR), average gonal doses of gamma and neutrons were 16.9 and 3.4, respectively, for Hiroshima's fathers; 14.0 and 1.3 for Hiroshima's mothers; 26.2 and 0.3 for Nagasaki's fathers; and 19.7 and 0.1 for Nagasaki's mothers. A screening for variants in 9 erythrocyte enzymes with activity ≤66% of normal value revealed one mutation resulting in the loss of enzyme activity in 60,529 tests for Group I, but none of the mutations in 61,741 tests for Group II. The mutation rates in both groups are thus considered to be 0.60 and 0.64 x 10 -5 , respectively, per locus per generation. (Namekawa, K)

  15. Cancer risk among atomic bomb survivors. The RERF Life Span Study. Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, Y.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.

    1990-01-01

    This article summarizes the risk of cancer among the survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. We focus primarily on the risk of death from cancer among individuals in the Life Span Study sample of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation from 1950 through 1985 based on recently revised dosimetry procedures. We report the risk of cancer other than leukemia among the atomic bomb survivors. We note that the number of excess deaths of radiation-induced malignant tumors other than leukemia increases with age. Survivors who were exposed in the first or second decade of life have just entered the cancer-prone age and have so far exhibited a high relative risk in association with radiation dose. Whether the elevated risk will continue or will fall with time is not yet clear, although some evidence suggests that the risk may be declining. It is important to continue long-term follow-up of this cohort to document the changes with time since exposure and to provide direct rather than projected risks over the lifetime of an exposed individual

  16. Genetic effects of radiation in atomic-bomb survivors and their children. Past, present and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Nori

    2006-01-01

    Genetic studies in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors have been conducted since 1948 at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor, the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Past studies include analysis of birth defects (untoward pregnancy outcome; namely, malformation, stillbirth, and perinatal death), chromosome aberrations, alterations of plasma and erythrocyte proteins as well as epidemiologic study on mortality (any cause) and cancer incidence (the latter study is still ongoing). There is, thus far, no indication of genetic effects in the offspring of survivors. Recently, the development of molecular biological techniques and human genome sequence databases made it possible to analyze DNA from parents and their offspring (trio-analysis). In addition, a clinical program is underway to establish the frequency of adult-onset multi-factorial diseases (diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and cardiovascular disease etc) in the offspring. The complementary kinds of data that will emerge from this three-pronged approach (clinical, epidemiologic, and molecular aspects) promise to shed light on health effects in the offspring of radiation-exposed people. (author)

  17. Effect of exposure of parents to the atomic bombs on the first generation offspring in Hiroshima and Nagasaki: preliminary report. Studies on the potential genetic effects of the atomic bombs. Radiation and the sex ratio in man

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J V; Morton, N E; Schull, W J; McDonald, D J; Kodani, M; Takeshima, K; Anderson, R C; Wood, J; Brewer, R; Wright, S

    1959-01-01

    This document contains 3 separate reports on studies of genetic radiation effects on survivors of the atomic explosions on Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Separate abstracts have been prepared for each report for inclusion in the Energy Database. (DMC)

  18. Incidence of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors in relation to neutron and gamma dose, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1950-71

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Otake, Masanori; Ichimaru, Michito.

    1978-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950-71 in the fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been analyzed as a function of individual gamma and neutron kerma and marrow dose. Two dose response models were tested for each of acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of the separate risks imposed by the gamma ray and neutron doses; in Model I both are assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that while the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from gamma rays is proportional to dose-squared. Weighted regression analyses were performed for each model. When the two models were fitted to the data for all types of leukemia, the estimated regression coefficients corresponding to the neutron and gamma ray doses both differed significantly from zero, for each model. However, when analysis was restricted to acute leukemia, both the neutron and gamma ray coefficients were significant only for Model II, and with respect to chronic granulocytic leukemia, only the coefficient of the neutron dose was significant, using either Model I or Model II. It appeared that the responses of the two leukemia types differed by type of radiation. If the chronic granulocytic and acute leukemias are considered together, the Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither models is rejected by the data. (author)

  19. Autoantibodies and immunoglobulins among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Carter, R.L.; Akiyama, Mitoshi

    1993-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if exposure to atomic-bomb radiation affects immune responsiveness, such as the occurrence of autoantibodies and levels of immunoglobulins. Rheumatoid factor, antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody, and immunoglobulin levels (IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE) were measured among 2061 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima and Nagasaki from December 1987 to November 1989. The prevalence and titers of rheumatoid factor increased in a statistically significant manner with increasing radiation dose. No radiation effect was found on the prevalence of antinuclear antibody, antithyroglobulin antibody, and anti-thyroid-microsomal antibody. A statistically significant relationship was also found between radiation exposure and the IgA level in females and the IgM levels in both sexes-both levels increased as radiation dose increased. However, the effects of radiation exposure were not large and accounted for less than 10% of the total variation in each measurement. Levels of IgG and IgE were not affected by radiation exposure. (author)

  20. Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori; Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m -3 and 40.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m -3 and 13.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

  1. Decline of blood leukocyte counts 1947-59, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ueda, Shoichi; Blaisdell, R K

    1963-03-03

    Earlier reports of progressive decline in leukocyte counts in Hiroshima from about 1948 to 1954 have been confirmed. A similar phenomenon has been observed in Nagasaki. Analysis indicates that this decline in white cell count with time is not related to exposure to the 1945 atomic bombs, to sex, to age, to commonly diagnosed diseases, or to the disproportionate influence of a subgroup. The principal white cells affected were neutrophils, lymphocytes and eosinophils. The precise etiologic factors accounting for the decline, and the biological significance of the present lower range of leukocyte values in Hiroshima and Nagasaki remain to be determined. 16 references, 5 figures, 5 tables.

  2. Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1993-05-01

    A survey of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m 3 and 26.5 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

  3. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunga, M.; Land, C.E.; Tokuoka, S.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950-80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiationinduced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer

  4. Breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Land, C.E.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty eight years after the atomic bombings, studies of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on the extended Life Span Study (LSS) sample have continued to provide important information on radiation carcinogenesis. The third breast cancer survey among this sample revealed 564 cases during the period 1950 - 80, of which 412 were reviewed microscopically. The following statements reflect the conclusions from the current investigation; 1) the relationship between radiation dose and breast cancer incidence was consistent with linearity and did not differ markedly between the Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors, 2) a dose-related breast cancer risk was observed among women who were in their first decade of life at the time of exposure, 3) the relative risk of radiation-induced breast cancer decreased with increasing age at exposure, 4) the pattern over time of age-specific breast cancer incidence is similar for exposed and control women (that is, exposed women have more breast cancer than control women but the excess risk closely follows normal risk as expressed by age-specific population rates), and 5) radiation-induced breast cancer appears to be morphologically similar to other breast cancer. (author)

  5. Review of the blast pressure, heat, and radiation dose of an atomic bomb received by survivors with ophthalmological disturbances. [In Japanese

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S

    1962-12-01

    Radiation damage to the eyes of subjects exposed to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is surveyed. Acute radiation sicknes was found even in those who were exposed to a dose of only 70 to 80 r. Severe burns were observed among those who had been outdoors as far as 2100 m from the hypocenter. Cataract was found in those who received large irradiation doses (2685 to 3040 r) and the cataracts progress very slowly.

  6. Mortality of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki and Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Okumura, Yutaka; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao

    2000-01-01

    A data base of A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki has been maintained at Division of Scientific Data Registry, Atomic Bomb Disease Institute at Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The data base include personal histories, records of health checks and cause of death. We have published the mortality of non-cancerous disease of A-bomb survivors using old dose estimation system, T65D, elsewhere. The mortality of non-cancerous disease was lower than controls for a dose range 50-99 cGy in male. We reanalyzed the mortality of non-cancerous disease using new dose estimation system, ABS93D. It's result was lower than controls for a dose range 31-40cGy in male. We compared the results of A-bomb survivors in our database with those or LSS's population, RERF. (1) Radiation dose for survivors in Nagasaki have been estimated by Atomic Bomb Survivor 1993 Dose (ABS93D). To study the mortality rates of A-bomb survivors for the period of 1971 through 1994, we selected 2,743 persons (dose estimate available) and age-matched 8,229 persons as control who were alive in 1971. (2) Another population is Life Span Study by Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF). RERF opened the data from 1950 to 1985. The data on deaths are stratified by city, sex, age radiation dose, the observed period and cause of death, yielding 3,640 strata. (1) The study resulted in that males exposed to 31-40cGy showed lower mortality from non-cancerous diseases than that of control. (2) Relative risk of mortality from all causes is lower than controls for a dose range 6-19cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. Relative risk of mortality from non-cancerous disease is significantly lower than controls for a dose range 6-49cGy adjusted for sex, age, and period. But result of adjusted for city is no difference. (author)

  7. Thyroid cancer incidence among atomic bomb survivors, 1958-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akiba, Suminori; Ezaki, Haruo; Ron, E.; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Shimizu, Yukiko; Kato, Hiroo; Lubin, J.; Asano, Masahide.

    1992-06-01

    One hundred and twelve cases of thyroid cancer diagnosed during the period 1958-79 among the extended Life Span Study cohort in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were studied. There was a statistically significant association between thyroid cancer incidence and exposure to atomic bomb radiation. The adjusted excess relative risk (ERR) per gray was 1.1 (95% confidence interval=0.3-2.5) and the adjusted absolute risk per 10 4 PYGy was 0.59 (95% confidence interval=0.2-1.7). Based on a comparison of the deviances obtained from relative and absolute risk models, a simple linear relative risk model appeared to fit the data better than an absolute risk model; however, it would not be appropriate to conclude that the data conform strictly to a relative risk pattern. The incidence of thyroid cancer among the members of the Adult Health Study (AHS) population, who have received biennial medical examinations at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and its successor the Radiation Effects Research Foundation, since 1958, was 70% higher than that among the rest of the extended LSS cohort after adjustments for city, sex, log age, calendar year, and Dosimetry System 1986 dose. There was no significant difference between the slope of the dose-response curve for AHS and non-AHS participants, although the estimated ERRs at 1 Gy for the AHS and non-AHS population were 1.6 and 0.3, respectively. The elevated risk appeared to be confined to women, and there was an increasing risk with decreasing attained age and age at exposure. (J.P.N.)

  8. Unpublished facts about cancer at Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delpla, M.

    1985-01-01

    The author shows that, in spite of uncertainties concerning dosimetry, scientists conducting research into radiopathology can still find their best data in the case histories of atomic bomb survivors. Using his original method he finds that the relations between dose and cancer risk have the same staged form at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and also after radiotherapy. The three-stage shift along the dose axis is easy to interpret. The recent modification proposed for dosimetry of bomb radiation only modifies the dose at each stage. This dose-risk correlation makes it possible for him to pinpoint the carcinogenic effect of supraliminal doses from this radiation with a retroactivity of over thirty years [fr

  9. Encounter with disaster: a medical diary of Hiroshima, 1945. Condensed from the original publication, 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebow, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 are described. Immediately after the bombing, Japanese civilian and military authorities mobilized an intense effort to provide help to the damaged cities and their inhabitants. At the same time, research was undertaken by the Japanese in an attempt to determine the nature of the effects of the bombs on the population. Some weeks later, the American armed services and the Manhattan District also organized an investigation of these effects. This memoir describes the early days of the American research effort, its integration with the Japanese program, and the development of a Joint Commission to study the effects of the bombing. After the first rapid survey, described in this paper, the effort was reorganized and continued under the sponsorship of the National Research Councils of America and Japan as the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission

  10. Progress in reassessment of atomic bomb radiation dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1985-01-01

    Studies for reassessment of A-bomb radiation dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are underway in both Japan and the US. The progress made in various reassessment studies has been reported at several US-Japan joint workshops. The medical follow-up studies by the RERF provide data on dose-related parameters such as the location of the survivors and their shielding by surrounding structures at the times of the bombings. To make accurate estimates of the radiation dose for individual survivors in the two cities, they need reliable information concerning (a) the hypocenters and burst heights of the bombs, (b) the energy yields of the bombs and the source terms for the initial radiations from the bombs, (c) the atmospheric radiation transport to determine the initial radiation fields at the location of the survivors, (d) the attenuation factors for shielding afforded by structures and terrain, and (e) the shielding of specific organs by overlying tissues of the body. A computer code combining the above elements has been installed at the RERF and used in a preliminary reassessment of radiation doses to survivors who were indoors, shielded by houses at the times of the bombings. These results will be presented and discussed. The discussions will be focused, however, on specific areas where binational agreement has been reached and on specific areas where additional work is needed before the reassessment can be considered final

  11. Cytogenetic and molecular genetic analysis of leukemias found in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamada, Nanao; Tanaka, Kimio; Eguchi, Mariko

    1994-01-01

    Seventy five radiation-related leukemia patients in Hiroshima including 16 patients exposed to more than one Gray were cytogenetically examined. Statistical analysis of data on the frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in the survivor groups according to bone marrow doses by DS86 estimation revealed that the heavily exposed group tended to have significantly higher aberration rates compared to the non-exposed group. Furthermore, the chromosomal aberrations in the survivors were observed to be of a more complex nature and had the characteristic findings of secondary leukemia. These observations therefore suggest that patients with a history of heavy exposure to atomic bomb radiation had leukemic cells originating from a stem cell which had been damaged by irradiation at the time of the bombing as well as cells involved in complex chromosome abnormalities. A higher incidence(p=0.06) of 11q23 abnormality was found in acute leukemia patients who had a history of exposure to A-bomb and developed from 1986 to 1993. However, we could not detect rearrangement of MLL gene in these patients. Break point region on 11q23 of radiation induced leukemias may be different from the common 8.5 kb region. Molecular biologic studies on RAS genes in acute and chronic leukemias and the BCR gene in chronic myelocytic leukemia were performed in exposed and non-exposed groups. So far, no distinctive differences have been observed in the frequency and sites of point mutations in N and K-RAS genes or in the rearrangement of the BCR gene. Further, retrospective analysis using DNA from leukemia patients who developed the disease in the early period from atomic bomb radiation exposure would be useful for elucidation of the mechanisms of radiation-induced leukemia. (author)

  12. Pathological review of lung cancer among A-bomb survivors at Hiroshima Atomic-bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Akamizu, Hiroshi; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy findings were reviewed in 161 A-bomb survivors with lung cancer during the period 1956-1987. The overall ratio of male to female was 2.1. In the group of A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2,000 m from the hypocenter, the ratio of male to female in the incidence of lung cancer was 1.3. According to age groups, it was the highest in people in their seventies. Histology revealed that the incidence was 41.6% for adenocarcinoma, 29.2% for squamous cell carcinoma, 19.9% for small cell carcinoma, 6.8% for large cell carcinoma, and 2.5% for adenosquamous cell carcinoma. The incidence of small cell carcinoma was relatively high in the ≤2,000 m group. For females in the ≤2,000 m group, the incidence of adenocarcinoma was relatively low, and the incidences of squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma tended to be high. The incidence of histologic type of lung cancer varied with time: squamous cell carcinoma and small cell carcinoma were the most predominant during the period 1957-1967; since 1968, it has been gradually replacing by adenocarcinoma. In the ≤2,000 m group, however, small cell carcinoma has still been more predominant even since 1984. For 8 A-bomb survivors exposed at the age of 20 years or less, 7 had adenocarcinoma, showing a significantly higher incidence than those exposed at older ages. (Namekawa, K)

  13. Sequelae of radiation facial epilation (North American Hiroshima maiden syndrome)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosen, I.B.; Walfish, P.G.

    1989-01-01

    Radiation for benign problems of the head and neck area has been uniformly recognized as unacceptable practice. This includes epilation for facial hirsutism. Twelve such patients, recently encountered, have characteristic radiodermatitis facies and have demonstrated multisite neoplastic involvement--including skin, thyroid, parathyroid, salivary gland, oral cavity, facial skeleton, and breast--and have also undergone extensive dermatologic treatment of complications of radiodermatitis. There was one cancer death, and three patients are alive with cancer. Such patients have a superficial resemblance to the Hiroshima maiden group of young women who survived atomic bombing and experienced severe facial burns, necessitating extensive plastic surgery. As atomic survivors they are at increased risk for cancer of thyroid, salivary gland, lung, breast, bone marrow, and gastrointestinal tract. The North American Hiroshima maiden should warrant easy clinical recognition and require lifetime scrutiny for multisite neoplastic disease

  14. Available data for house shielding estimates of Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolson, William A.

    1987-01-01

    To make intelligent decisions concerning the methods to update the dosimetry assignments for the Japanese atomic bomb survivors, it is necessary to know the available shielding information that exists in uncoded form on paper and in coded form that can be directly accessed by the computer. The objective of this report is to provide a summary of the available shielding data, both in uncoded and coded form. This report is the result of visits to RERF in Hiroshima and Nagasaki in February and November 1983. The special assistance provided by Mr. Hiroaki Yamada at Hiroshima and Mr. Yoshio Okamoto at Nagasaki is acknowledged. They were in charge of the ABCC shielding sections at their respective locations and have been long involved in the RERF shielding program. Their familiarity with the methods, procedures, and data was of invaluable assistance in this work. The following sections of this report will provide a description of the information that is available in the shielding history files in uncoded form; a brief description of the various shielding methods that were used over the course of time from the T57D system to the present day T65D; and a description of the current coded data bases that can be accessed by computer

  15. Japan - From Hiroshima to Fukushima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pons, Philippe; Guillain, Robert; Pedroletti, Brice; Bouc, Alain; Vichney, Nicolas; Izraelewicz, Erik; Mesmer, Philippe; Fenoglio, Jerome

    2013-01-01

    This publication proposes a set of articles published by Le Monde and which addressed some important events of the history of the Japanese society since the destruction of Hiroshima by the first atomic bomb until the Fukushima accident. The addressed facts and events are: the destruction of Hiroshima, the surrender of Japan, the end of the peculiar status of the emperor, the strong growth period from the 1950's to the 1980's (the revival of Japanese trusts, industrial pollution in Minamata, the activists of Zengakuren, the Osaka exhibition, Mishima's suicide, nuclear and data processing are defined as national priorities), the lost decades 1990-2010 (a new emperor, the Kobe earthquake, the increasing gap between the society and the political class, life and death in Toyota, demographic decline, etc.). The last articles address the Fukushima accident, and propose some photos and an interview with the Japanese Prime Minister

  16. Comparison of type and frequency of chromosome aberrations by conventional and G-staining methods in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtaki, Kazuo; Shimba, Hachiro; Sofuni, Toshio; Awa, A.A.

    1982-07-01

    Somatic chromosomes derived from cultured lymphocytes of 23 atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima were analyzed to determine the type and frequency of radiation-induced structural aberrations, using in sequence the ordinary staining method (O-method) and the trypsin G-banding method (G-method). Of 896 cells examined, 342 were found to contain induced aberrations, including 31 cells in which the precise identification of the type of aberrations was not possible even by the G-method. The number of chromosome aberrations observed was 376 in the 311 cells where aberrant precise identification was possible. The majority (288 or 76.6%) were intra- or inter-chromosomal symmetric exchanges due to a two-break event, while only 24 were found to be asymmetric exchanges (dicentrics, rings, and interstitial deletions). Further, there were 28 aberrations showing acentric fragments and terminal deletions, and the remaining 36 were complex intra- and inter-chromosomal exchanges involving three or more breaks which result in insertions and double translocations. A comparative karyotype analysis of the same metaphases examined by the sequential 0- And G-methods was carried out independently on 361 aberrations, mostly of the symmetric type. It was found that 78 (21.6%) of the 361 were detected only by the G-method; among these were 14 paracentric inversions, 48 reciprocal interchanges of chromosome segments with either equal length (11) or unequal length (37), 14 minor deletions and 2 complex rearrangements, all of which were nevertheless judged to fall within the normal range of variation by theO-method. In contrast, 25 aberrations detected in O-method chromosomes which were overcontracted or twisted, were shown to have normal banding patterns by the G-method. (author)

  17. Mortality statistics by causes of death among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima prefecture, 1973 - 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, Norihiko; Munaka, Masaki; Kurihara, Minoru

    1985-01-01

    The standardized mortality ratios of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Prefecture between 1973 and 1977 were compared with those of non-exposed population in this prefecture. In the malignant neoplasms, the ratios for leukemia, liver, breast, lung, larynx, brain, bone, skin, uterus, bladder and colon were higher than non-exposed. Other than the neoplasms, the ratios for cirrhosis of liver, diabetes, hypertensive diseases and blood and blood-forming organs were higher than nonexposed, while those for heart diseases, cerebro-vascular diseases, senility, gastro-enteritis and accidents were lower than non-exposed. (author)

  18. Risk of death among children of atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Furukawa, Kyoji; Sakata, Ritsu; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Sadakane, Atsuko; Takahashi, Ikuno; Utada, Mai; Shimizu, Yukiko; Ozasa, Kotaro

    2015-10-01

    No clear epidemiological hereditary effects of radiation exposure in human beings have been reported. However, no previous studies have investigated mortality into middle age in a population whose parents were exposed to substantial amounts of radiation before conception. We assessed mortality in children of the atomic bomb survivors after 62 years of follow-up. In this prospective cohort study, we assessed 75 327 singleton children of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and unexposed controls, born between 1946 and 1984, and followed up to Dec 31, 2009. Parental gonadal doses of radiation from the atomic bombings were the primary exposures. The primary endpoint was death due to cancer or non-cancer disease, based on death certificates. Median follow-up was 54·3 years (IQR 45·4-59·3). 5183 participants died from disease. The mean age of the 68 689 surviving children at the end of follow-up was 53·1 years (SD 7·9) with 15 623 (23%) older than age 60 years. For parents who were exposed to a non-zero gonadal dose of radiation, the mean dose was 264 mGy (SD 463). We detected no association between maternal gonadal radiation exposure and risk of death caused by cancer (hazard ratio [HR] for 1 Gy change in exposure 0·891 [95% CI 0·693-1·145]; p=0·36) or risk of death caused by non-cancer diseases (0·973 [0·849-1·115]; p=0·69). Likewise, paternal exposure had no effect on deaths caused by cancer (0·815 [0·614-1·083]; p=0·14) or deaths caused by non-cancer disease (1·103 [0·979-1·241]; p=0·12). Age or time between parental exposure and delivery had no effect on risk of death. Late effects of ionising radiation exposure include increased mortality risks, and models of the transgenerational effects of radiation exposure predict more genetic disease in the children of people exposed to radiation. However, children of people exposed to the atomic bombs in Hiroshima and Nagasaki had no indications of deleterious health effects after 62

  19. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Y [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    1976-09-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls.

  20. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao; Matsushita, Hiroshi.

    1980-01-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the both groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb; Die Nacht der Physiker. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker und die deutsche Bombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-07-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  2. Radiation risk of individual multifactorial diseases in offspring of the atomic-bomb survivors: a clinical health study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Yamada, Michiko; Ohishi, Waka; Hida, Ayumi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John B; Hsu, Wan-Ling; Furukawa, Kyoji; Takahashi, Norio; Nakamura, Nori; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy

    2013-01-01

    There is no convincing evidence regarding radiation-induced heritable risks of adult-onset multifactorial diseases in humans, although it is important from the standpoint of protection and management of populations exposed to radiation. The objective of the present study was to examine whether parental exposure to atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation led to an increased risk of common polygenic, multifactorial diseases—hypertension, hypercholesterolaemia, diabetes mellitus, angina pectoris, myocardial infarction or stroke—in the first-generation (F 1 ) offspring of A-bomb survivors. A total of 11 951 F 1 offspring of survivors in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, conceived after the bombing, underwent health examinations to assess disease prevalence. We found no evidence that paternal or maternal A-bomb radiation dose, or the sum of their doses, was associated with an increased risk of any multifactorial diseases in either male or female offspring. None of the 18 radiation dose–response slopes, adjusted for other risk factors for the diseases, was statistically significantly elevated. However, the study population is still in mid-life (mean age 48.6 years), and will express much of its multifactorial disease incidence in the future, so ongoing longitudinal follow-up will provide increasingly informative risk estimates regarding hereditary genetic effects for incidence of adult-onset multifactorial disease. (paper)

  3. Levels of parathyroid hormone and calcitonin in serum among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Yokoyama, Naokata; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Sposto, R.; Shimaoka, Katsutaro; Shiraki, Mastaka

    1994-01-01

    To examines the potential causes of increased levels of calcium in serum with increasing dose of atomic bomb radiation, which was obtained from the previous preliminary analysis, levels of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcitonin in serum were examined among 1459 subjects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. A significant effect of radiation on levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin in serum was found, even after patients with hyperparathyroidism were excluded. The level of calcium in serum increased with radiation dose; this can be explained partly by the increase in the level of PTH with radiation dose. However, the dose effect on calcium remained even after adjustment for PTH, calcitonin and confounding factors such as renal function, serum albumin level and medication. Parathyroid hormone increased initially by 6.8% per gray, but the dose response leveled off after about 1 Gy. The level of calcitonin increased with radiation dose, probably in part due to feedback mechanisms stimulated by the increase in calcium. However, after adjustment for the level of calcium, the increase in the level of calcitonin with dose was still found. Although the etiological mechanisms of the effect of radiation on serum levels of calcium, PTH and calcitonin are unclear, radiation exposure may affect secretion of PTH and calcitonin and regulation of calcium a long time after atomic bomb exposure. 21 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Dental radiography exposure of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki populations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoku, Shigetoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Russell, W.J.

    1987-04-01

    Dental radiography doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were estimated using doses measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter and a phantom, and survey data from dental hospitals and clinics in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Doses to organs, including the lens, pituitary fossa, thyroid gland, and skin were calculated. Average doses per examination to these body sites were calculated using data obtained during a two-week survey in both cities. The mean caput doses were calculated from the data indicating frequency per year, and were tabulated by organ, age, teeth examined, type of examination, population, sex, and city. No significant difference was observed by age, population, sex, or city. Currently, the doses incurred during dental radiography may not be sufficiently high to cause bias in the assessments for late radiation effects among atomic bomb survivors. However, the mean caput thyroid doses of 62 mrad and 67 mrad in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively, cannot be ignored from the standpoint of their potential in contributing to radiation-induced carcinogenesis. (author)

  5. The relationship of HBsub(s) antigen and antibody to atomic bomb radiation in the adult health study sample, 1975-77

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Hiroo; Mayumi, Makoto; Nishioka, Kusuya; Hamilton, H.B.

    1983-01-01

    A study was conducted on the frequency of HBsub(s) positive antigen and antibody reactions as an index for determining whether there is any change in the immune competence as a late observable effect of atomic bomb exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. There was no difference between the two comparison groups in the occurrence of positive HBsub(s) antibody reactions (prevalence of HB virus). However, the frequency of positive HBsub(s) antigen reactions (79% remained persistently antigen-positive) was significantly higher in those exposed to 100 rad or more than in the controls. The same tendency was apparent for the two exposure groups when classified by sex, city, and age, though by age the difference between exposure groups among the younger age groups (age 20 or less at the time of the bomb) was more marked. On the other hand, contrary to expectation, there was no difference between exposure groups in the distribution by high vs low titers among the antigen-positive individuals. There is no difference in the prevalence of positive HBsub(s) antibody reactions between Nagasaki and Hiroshima, but the frequency of positive antigen reactions is higher in Nagasaki. With respect to HBsub(s) antigen subtypes, adr occurs in a higher and adw in a lower frequency in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, corresponding to earlier reports for the Japan archipelago of reverse and complementary distributions of these two subtypes. (author)

  6. Noncancer mortality among the Japanese atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakeford, R.

    1999-01-01

    Yukiko Shimizu and her colleagues from the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in Hiroshima have recently published the results of the updated analysis of deaths from causes other than cancer among the Japanese survivors of the atomic bomb explosions, covering the period 1950-1990 (Shimizu Y, Pierce D A, Preston D L and Mabuchi K 1999 Studies of the mortality of atomic bomb survivors. Report 12, Part II. Noncancer mortality: 1950-1990 Radiat. Res. 152 374-389). The primary analyses are based on 27 000 deaths, 30% more than in the previous report on this subject. These latest findings confirm a statistically significant trend of an increasing rate of noncancer mortality with increasing dose, due to trends for diseases of circulatory, digestive and respiratory systems. At 1 Sv, the proportional increase is about 10%, much smaller than for cancer (at around 50%), but the numbers of excess deaths are more comparable. The all-important question of the dose-response relationship remains unresolved: linearity is possible, but the data are also consistent with a threshold at 0.5 Sv. The authors conclude that misclassification, confounding or selection effects are unlikely to fully explain the findings. Enhanced knowledge of the biological mechanisms underlying these epidemiological observations would enable the nature of the dose-response to be better understood. Also reported is a statistically significant trend of an increasing rate of noncancer blood diseases with dose, which cannot be accounted for by misclassification. This paper also confirms that suicide rates tend to decrease with increasing dose. Clearly, the impact of these latest results for noncancer mortality upon risk estimates for low dose exposures is going to be much discussed by the radiological protection community. (author)

  7. Chromosome abnormalities in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Yu

    1976-01-01

    Chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells were recognized in 6 cases which consisted of one case of chronic myelogenous leukemia, two cases of acute myelogenous leukemia, one case of sideroblastic anemia, and two cases of myelodysplasis. Frequency of stable type chromosome abnormalities in bone marrow cells was investigated in 45 atomic bomb survivors without hematologic disorders and 15 controls. It was 1.4% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 1 km from the hypocenter, which was significantly higher as compared with 0.1% (15 cases) in the group exposed to atomic bomb over 2.5 km from the hypocenter and 0.2% in normal controls. Examination of chromosome was also made on 2 of 3 cases which were the seconds born of female with high chromosome abnormality, who was exposed to within 1 km from the hypocenter, and healthy male exposed 3 km from the hypocenter. These two cases showed chromosome of normal male type, and balanced translocation was not recognized. There was not a significant difference in chromosome abnormalities between the seconds of atomic bomb survivors and controls. (Kanao, N.)

  8. Hiroshima: A Study in Science, Politics and the Ethics of War. Teacher and Student Manuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Jonathan

    By focusing on the question of whether it was right or wrong to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima, this social studies unit seeks to illuminate the political, military, scientific, and moral complexities involved in making far-reaching decisions today. Sections of the unit use primary materials from American, Japanese, and English sources to…

  9. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monzen, Tetsuo; Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension. (J.P.N.)

  10. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Tetsuo (Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan)); Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension.

  11. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Tetsuo [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu

    1984-01-01

    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension.

  12. Bone maturation in children exposed in utero to the atomic bomb. [Closure of epiphyseal centers in hands and wrists

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, W J; Keehn, R J; Ihno, Y; Hattori, F; Kogure, T; Imamura, K

    1972-01-20

    Five hundred and fifty-six subjects exposed while in utero to the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bombs, and comparison subjects were observed by posteroanterior hand and wrist roentgenograms for epiphyseal closure. There were delays in closure of 6-7 and 8-9 months for males and females respectively, as compared for Japanese and American children. These findings did not correlate with the A-bomb exposure doses of the mothers of these children. Brachymesophalangia occurred in 11% of males and 19% of females in Hiroshima. Possible contributory factors to the relative delay in maturation are discussed. (auth)

  13. Report on results of medical survey of atomic bomb survivors residing in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsuhashi, Akio; Monzen, Tetsuo; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Oguma, Nobuo; Yotsuya, Koichi; Ozaki, Shinpei; Takamatsu, Katsuro; Kawaguchi, Kiyoshi.

    1986-01-01

    Medical survey of A-bomb survivors was made from October 21 through November 7, 1985 in Brazil, Argentine, and Paraguay. One hundred fifty four A-bomb survivors were identified in these three countries. Of these A-bomb survivors, 133 (86 %) participated in this survey. Eighy six survivors came from Hiroshima and the other 47 from Nagasaki. The average age of them was 55.8 +- 11.1 yr for men and 56.3 +- 9.9 yr for women. Abnormal findings requiring detailed examinations and life instruction were seen in 56 % of the participants. Common findings were hypertension, heart disease, and obesity. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Re-evaluation of atomic bomb radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo

    1984-01-01

    The background and current status of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation doses are presented. Problems in re-evaluating radiation doses are discussed: spectra of gamma-rays and neutrons emitted in the air, A-bomb structures, and meterological elements should be taken into account. In Japan, in an attempt to estimate A-bomb radiation doses, radioactive residues contained in roof tiles, bricks, rocks, and teeth and shell button of clothes are being actually measured. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Malignant lymphoma in survivors of the atomic bomb, Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R E; Ishida, Kenzo

    1964-02-01

    The present study demonstrates an increased prevalence of Hodgkin's disease, lymphosarcoma and multiple myeloma in survivors within 1400 m from the hypocenter in Hiroshima who had surgical or post-mortem examinations at ABCC. Reticulum cell sarcoma appears to have decreased prevalence in this same group. The pathologic material demonstrating these relationships consists of 91 cases of unequivocal malignant lymphoma and is drawn from two essentially independent ABCC sources, the autopsy series and diagnostic lymph node biopsies. A consideration of the epidemiologic characteristics of this material supports the view that the increase in prevalence is a reflection of the occurrence of lymphoma in the general population of survivors within 1400 m of the hypocenter. In addition, among such persons autopsied at ABCC there appears to be a shift to death at an earlier age than is found in the other comparison groups. The possible implications of this are discussed. A comparison of the lymphomas examined shows no morphologic differences in the corresponding diagnostic categories between the various comparison groups. 21 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. The night of the physicists. Heisenberg, Hahn, Weizsaecker, and the German bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schirach, Richard von

    2014-01-01

    Finally the German atomic physicists around Heisenberg, von Weizsaecker, and Hahn worked on their ''uranium machine'' in a Swabian beer-cellar - and took themselves for the world elite of nuclear research. In imprisonment they heared from the dropping of the Hiroshima bomb - a shock. Richard von Schirach shows the hindered ''fathers of the German atomic bomb'' in close-up, their eagerness, their hybris, their true importance, and their attempts to give after the war a new interpretation of their own role. A book, which raises in the sense of Duerrenmatt the question for the responsibility of science.

  17. The grave is wide: the Hibakusha of Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the legacy of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Malley, Gerald F

    2016-07-01

    Following the atomic bomb attacks on Japan in 1945, scientists from the United States and Japan joined together to study the Hibakusha - the bomb affected people in what was advertised as a bipartisan and cooperative effort. In reality, despite the best efforts of some very dedicated and earnest scientists, the early years of the collaboration were characterized by political friction, censorship, controversy, tension, hostility, and racism. The 70-year history, scientific output and cultural impact of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and the Radiation Effects Research Foundation are described in the context of the development of Occupied Japan.

  18. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Masanori

    1980-01-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early. (Tsunoda, M.)

  19. Relationship between epidemiological factors and mortality among atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, M [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-11-01

    In 1965, mail survey on environmental and individual factors was performed for 11,724 male a-bomb survivors, with the age of 40 to 69, selected from the group subjected to joint JNIH-ABCC investigation of life span in a-bomb survivors. During 10 years after the mail survey, 2,834 died. The aim of this mail survey was to clarify the relationship between the mortality and specific environmental, social, and economic factors. There was a relationship between high mortality and low social and economical condition for all causes of death combined, cerebral vascular diseases, all malignant neoplasms, and gastric cancer. Smoking was a significant risk factor to all causes of death combined, ischemic heart diseases, all malignant neoplasms, gastric, tracheal, bronchial, and lung cancers. The mortality due to cardiovascular diseases was significantly higher in a-bomb survivors with heavy weight. The mortality due to all causes of death combined, all malignant neoplasms, lung, and gastric cancer tended to become higher in a-bomb survivors who got married early.

  20. Health status of atomic bomb survivors in South Korea, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishida, Sadamu; Kawamura, Torataro; Kurihara, Minoru; Watanabe, Masaharu; Cheong, Chang-Saeng.

    1980-01-01

    Investigation was made on 405 A-bomb survivors in Hap Cheon Gun who received health examinations from December 1973 to December 1977. Excepting 16 exposed in Nagasaki, they were exposed in Hiroshima. The distribution of their age at the time of exposure showed its peak at the age between 25 and 29 years, and it decreased before and after that age. The percentage of A-bomb survivors exposed directly was 93.3%, and that of A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km from the center of explosion was 51.8%. Seventeen A-bomb survivors were exposed within 1 km. Acute disturbances such as loss of hair (over one second loss), tiredness, fever, vomiting on the day of exposure, and diarrhea were found with high incidence, but incidences of lesions in the oral cavity and the pharynx were low. Incidences of burn and bruise were high, but those of wound and injuries were low. Loss of hair, vomiting, hemorrhage, tiredness, and dairrhea appeared with high incidence in A-bomb survivors whose age advanced at the time of exposure. Most of A-bomb survivors who were young at the time of exposure had not these acute disturbances. These acute symptoms appeared frequently in a short-distance group, and burn, wound and injuries, and bruise also appeared frequently in A-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km. (Tsunoda, M.)

  1. Thermal analysis of pyrotechnic mixture-fireworks, atom-bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Jeya; Thanulingam, T.L.

    2008-01-01

    Sound level produced from two varieties of sound producing fireworks of atom-bomb, cake bomb and thunder bomb were measured. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) of compositions 57.5/19.9/22.1(0.5)% very much similar to commercial atom-bomb were taken and five cake bomb and seven thunder bomb with different net weight of chemicals were manufactured specifically for analysis. Cake bomb with 1g pyrotechnic mixture and thunder bomb with 2g pyrotechnic mixture produce -3 . Ignition temperature of the mixture is above the melting point of the metallic fuel, Al (660 deg C) and self propagating decomposition occurred at high temperature. The pyrotechnic mixture, KNO 3 /S/Al(H 3 BO 3 ) is a safe mixture from accidental factor, static electricity. DSC studies indicate slight formation of potassium nitrite with evolution of NO above 400 deg C. (author)

  2. Malignant Lymphoma in an Atomic-bomb Survivor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Chia Lee

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomic bomb survivors outside of Japan are few and often hard to follow-up. Spinal malignant lymphoma among these survivors is rare in established studies from Japan or the United States. Here, we report an 81-year-old woman, who experienced the atomic bomb explosion in Nagasaki when she was 19 years old, who presented with papillary thyroid carcinoma when she was 70 years old. Both follicular lymphoma over the right elbow region and vertebral malignant lymphoma were found when she turned 81 years old. Bone scan did not show any increased uptake of isotope. However, thoracolumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed multiple infiltrative soft tissue masses involving vertebral bodies at the T10–11 level. Computed tomography-guided biopsy further showed lymphocyte infiltration. Fortunately, the neurological deficit was improved after chemotherapy. The diagnosis of malignant lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors should be more careful and aggressive, even when their bone scan results show negative findings. In addition, the authors suggest that atomic bomb survivors should be followed-up carefully throughout their entire life.

  3. A comparison of clinicopathological features and prognosis in prostate cancer between atomic bomb survivors and control patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, Koichi; Teishima, Jun; Hayashi, Tetsutaro; Shinmei, Shunsuke; Akita, Tomoyuki; Sentani, Kazuhiro; Takeshima, Yukio; Arihiro, Koji; Tanaka, Junko; Yasui, Wataru; Matsubara, Akio

    2017-07-01

    An atomic bomb (A-bomb) was dropped on Hiroshima on 6th August 1945. Although numerous studies have investigated cancer incidence and mortality among A-bomb survivors, only a small number have addressed urological cancer in these survivors. The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinicopathological features of prostate cancer (PCa) in A-bomb survivors. The clinicopathological features and prognosis of PCa were retrospectively reviewed in 212 survivors and 595 control patients between November 1996 and December 2010. The histopathological and clinical outcomes of surgical treatment of PCa were also evaluated in 69 survivors and 162 control patients. Despite the higher age at diagnosis compared with the control group (P=0.0031), survivors were more likely to have been diagnosed with PCa from a health check compared with the control group (Pbomb exposure was not found to be an independent predictor for prognosis by multivariate analysis (OS, P=0.7800; CS, P=0.8688). The clinicopathological features of patients who underwent a prostatectomy were similar except for the diagnosis opportunity between the two groups. Progression-free survival rates were similar between the two groups (P=0.5630). A-bomb exposure was not a significant and independent predictor for worsening of progression-free prognosis by multivariate analysis (P=0.3763). A-bomb exposure does not appear to exert deleterious effects on the biological aggressiveness of PCa and the prognosis of patients with PCa.

  4. Endocrine and gonadial tumors among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Fujikura, Toshio

    1986-01-01

    A review of 4,136 consecutive autopsies between 1961 and 1977 and surgical cases from A-bomb survivors seen in Hiroshima University School of Medicine was made in terms of pituitary tumors, parathyroid tumors, thyroid cancer, carcinoid, tumors of the adrenal cortex, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, and multiple endocrine gonadial tumors (MEGT). The occurrence of thyroid cancer, parathyroid tumors, and MEGT may be correlated with atomic radiation. Mortality from endocrine and gonadial tumors tended to be higher with increasing T65 doses. As for MEGT, the combination of thyroid cancer and ovarian tumors occurred frequently among A-bomb survivors. The combination of medullary carcinoma of the thyroid gland and pheochromacytoma of the adrenal gland was unlikely to be related to atomic radiation. Further study may be needed in elucidating possible effects of atomic radiation on endocrine hormones. (Namekawa, K.)

  5. Potential influence of new doses of A-bomb after re-evaluation of epidemiological research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.

    1983-01-01

    Since the peaceful use of atomic energy appears essential for future human existence, we must provide risk estimates from low-dose exposures to human beings. The largest body of human data has been derived from the studies of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Recently, it was proposed by an Oak Ridge National Laboratory group that the current free-in-air doses of atomic bombs are significantly different from the doses recalculated on the basis of the new output spectra of neutrons and gamma rays from the atomic bombs which were declassified by the US Department of Energy in 1976. A joint commission on dose re-evaluation of the United States of America and Japan was established in 1981 to pursue the dose reassessment programme between US and Japanese research groups and to decide an agreed best estimate of organ or tissue doses in survivors as soon as possible. The paper reviews the physical concepts of the re-evaluation of atomic bomb doses and discusses the potential influence of new dosimetric parameters on the epidemiological studies of the atomic bomb survivors in future, although the re-assessment programme is still in progress. (author)

  6. Audiometric changes with age in Hiroshima: a statistical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Ishii, Goro

    1960-10-01

    Audiometry observations were analyzed for 290 irradiated survivors of the 1945 atomic bomb in Hiroshima and in 293 nonirradiated subjects. The study was undertaken in order to determine the age changes in audiology in irradiated and nonirradiated subjects as well as to investigate the pattern of hearing levels in a Japanese population for comparison with patterns in Caucasians. The following statistical observations were made. Correlation between hearing levels for right and left ear. Correlation between hearing levels at various cycles. Changes in hearing levels by age and sex. The relation between age and decibel loss was not linear and correlation ratios with age were 0.45 to 0.72. Audiometry seems to be of some value as one of a battery of tests of physiologic aging designed for detection of irradiation induced nonspecific aging acceleration. In this relatively small sample, no differences in hearing acuity were detected in the atomic bomb survivors as compared with the control sample. 6 references, 3 figures, 9 tables.

  7. Association of radiation dose with prevalence of thyroid nodules among atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood (2007-2011).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Misa; Ohishi, Waka; Nakashima, Eiji; Sera, Nobuko; Neriishi, Kazuo; Yamada, Michiko; Tatsukawa, Yoshimi; Takahashi, Ikuno; Fujiwara, Saeko; Sugino, Keizo; Ando, Takao; Usa, Toshiro; Kawakami, Atsushi; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Hida, Ayumi

    2015-02-01

    Few studies have evaluated the association of radiation dose with thyroid nodules among adults exposed to radiation in childhood. To evaluate radiation dose responses on the prevalence of thyroid nodules in atomic bomb survivors exposed in childhood. This survey study investigated 3087 Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were younger than 10 years at exposure and participated in the thyroid study of the Adult Health Study at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Thyroid examinations including thyroid ultrasonography were conducted between October 2007 and October 2011, and solid nodules underwent fine-needle aspiration biopsy. Data from 2668 participants (86.4% of the total participants; mean age, 68.2 years; 1213 men; and 1455 women) with known atomic bomb thyroid radiation doses (mean dose, 0.182 Gy; median dose, 0.018 Gy; dose range, 0-4.040 Gy) were analyzed. The prevalence of all thyroid nodules having a diameter of 10 mm or more (consisting of solid nodules [malignant and benign] and cysts), prevalence of small thyroid nodules that were less than 10 mm in diameter detected by ultrasonography, and atomic bomb radiation dose-responses. Thyroid nodules with a diameter of 10 mm or more were identified in 470 participants (17.6%): solid nodules (427 cases [16.0%]), malignant tumors (47 cases [1.8%]), benign nodules (186 cases [7.0%]), and cysts (49 cases [1.8%]), and all were significantly associated with thyroid radiation dose. Excess odds ratios per gray unit were 1.65 (95% CI, 0.89-2.64) for all nodules, 1.72 (95% CI, 0.93-2.75) for solid nodules, 4.40 (95% CI, 1.75-9.97) for malignant tumors, 2.07 (95% CI, 1.16-3.39) for benign nodules, and 1.11 (95% CI, 0.15-3.12) for cysts. The interaction between age at exposure and the dose was significant for the prevalence of all nodules (P = .003) and solid nodules (P bomb survivors 62 to 66 years after their exposure in childhood. However, radiation exposure is not associated with small thyroid

  8. Cardiovascular disease among atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Takahashi, Ikuno; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2017-10-01

    The profile of cardiovascular disease in Japan has been different from that in Western countries. Hypertension was the major cause not only for hemorrhagic stroke but also for ischemic stroke and heart disease in the past, and the influence of hypertension has decreased with calendar years because of reduced salt intake and westernization of lifestyle, and also improved medical care. The health status of atomic bomb survivors has reflected this profile as well as radiation effects. It is also likely that this cohort has been affected by the difficult conditions experienced in the aftermath of the war and atomic bombings. In this article, we tried to make a consistent interpretation of epidemiological findings of atomic bomb radiation effects on cardiovascular disease. Among the atomic bomb survivors, radiation exposure was associated with some cardiovascular diseases that are often associated with hypertension, and dose response appeared to be primarily non-linear among those who were exposed at younger ages. These effects are thought to reflect the nature of whole body irradiation. But, some findings remain inconsistent, possibly because of possible misclassification in death certificate diagnoses in the Life Span Study as well as selected information from the Adult Health Study which was limited to participants, focused on specific outcomes, and gathered in selected periods of follow-up. Therefore, a comprehensive and balanced interpretation of the results from both groups is necessary.

  9. 36Cl measurements of Hiroshima concrete samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuhiro, T.; Nagashima, Y.; Seki, R.; Takahashi, T.

    2002-01-01

    The 36 Cl AMS studies are reported. A new steps of procedure of a sample preparation is developed and a tremendous reduction of sulphur background has been achieved. The 36 Cl contents of two atomic bombed concrete samples, old Hiroshima Bank one and Gokoku Shrine one, have been measured as a function of 36 Cl to Cl ratio by the Tsukuba AMS system. The 36 Cl to Cl ratio of the old Hiroshima Bank sample shows very nice agreement with the result of γ measurement of 152 Eu. Otherwise, the ratio is about 20% smaller than an estimation by the DS86 dosimetry system. A result of the Gokoku Shrine sample is also smaller than a depth profile estimation by the same DS86. It might be clear that the DS86 has a tendency of overestimation. It seems that a calculation method and/or the parameters used in the calculation are requested to be improved. (author)

  10. Doses from Hiroshima mass radiologic gastric surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoku, S; Sawada, S; Russell, W J [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)

    1980-05-01

    Doses to examinees from mass radiologic surveys of the stomach in Hiroshima Perfecture were estimated by surveying for the frequency of the examinations, and for the technical factors used in them, and by phantom dosimetry. The average surface, active bone marrow and male and female gonad doses per examination were 5.73 rad, 231 mrad, and 20.6 and 140 mrad, respectively. These data will be used in estimating doses from medical X-rays among atomic bomb survivors. By applying them to the Hiroshima population, the genetically significant, per caput mean marrow, and leukemia significant doses were 0.14,8.6 and 7.4 mrad, respectively. There was a benefit-to risk ratio of about 50 for mass gastric surveys performed in 1976. However, the calculated risk was greater than the benefit for examinees under 29 years of age because of the lower incidence of gastric cancer in those under 29 years.

  11. Age-at-exposure effects on risk estimates for non-cancer mortality in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Muirhead, Colin R; Hunter, Nezahat

    2005-01-01

    Statistically significant increases in non-cancer disease mortality with radiation dose have been observed among survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The increasing trends arise particularly for diseases of the circulatory, digestive, and respiratory systems. Rates for survivors exposed to a dose of 1 Sv are elevated by about 10%, a smaller relative increase than that for cancer. The aetiology of this increased risk is not yet understood. Neither animal nor human studies have found clear evidence for excess non-cancer mortality at the lower range of doses received by A-bomb survivors. In this paper, we examine the age and time patterns of excess risks in the A-bomb survivors. The results suggest that the excess relative risk of non-cancer disease mortality might be highest for exposure at ages 30-49 years, and that those exposed at ages 0-29 years might have a very low excess relative risk compared with those exposed at older ages. The differences in excess relative risk for different age-at-exposure groups imply that the dose response relationships for non-cancer disease mortality need to be modelled with adjustment for age-at-exposure

  12. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4. Combined analysis of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S C; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao

    1988-03-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at less than or equal to9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia found in an atomic bomb survivor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sonoda, Y; Edagawa, J; Taniwaki, M; Ide, T; Misawa, S [Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan)

    1981-03-01

    An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia, presumably on a sequela to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is reported. On admission, severe anemia and thrombocytosis were found and the bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia without definite maturation arrest. Mild to moderate eosinophilia and basophilia continued during the course of the disease, accompaning mild monocytosis 2 years later. Furthermore, he had the radical operation for the early gastric cancer in this preleukemic stage. After the administration of methenolone acetate (25 mg/day), severe anemia has dramatically improved, but leukocytosis with profound monocytosis persisted, and subsequently acute myelocytic leukemia developed. He died from an intracerebral bleeding due to an accidental trauma on the head. Autopsy findings disclosed the systemic leukemic infiltration. Repeated chromosome analyses revealed the mosaic karyotype of 46, XY/45, XY, -16 on admission, but it was 46, XY/46, XY, del (8) (p 12) in the overt leukemic phase. The granulopoietic colony forming capacity of bone marrow cells was already low one year before the onset of overt leukemia. This finding suggested that the existence of an abnormal clone could be predictable. In addition, the possible causative effect of the exposure to the atomic bomb in leukemogenesis in this case is discussed.

  14. Delayed effects occurring within the first decade after exposure of young individuals to the Hiroshima atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R W

    1956-01-01

    The review of the literature and the data presented in this report describe the late effects of exposure of young subjects to ionizing radiation or to nuclear weapons as known in the early part of 1955. The new information may be useful in the further definition of the tolerance of humans to ionizing radiation. In 6 years ending in December 1954, 19 persons who were within 2100 meters of the hypocenter have developed leukemia before attaining the age of 19 years. The annual incidence of this disease among those who were within 1500 meters and who were younger than 19 years of age at the time of exposure is 1:1000. There are no cataracts that impair vision among the present pediatic group. An increased incidence of a mild visual disability, the cause of which is thus far indefinite, has been found among those now 16 through 19 years of age who were within 1800 meters of the bomb center. The incidence of chronic otitis media is the same for the 2 exposure groups, as are the means of the hematologic values for the patients with this ailment. There is no increase in the tumor incidence of the exposed children as compared with the nonexposed. There are no data to prove it, but the impression is that among the survivors the fear of late effects may be common and potentially disabling. Of those 19 years of age and younger, there were 2771 within 3000 meters of the hypocenter at the time of detonation of the bomb who were examined in 1954. Twenty-four of these had sequelae of the blast or thermal effects of the bomb other than well-heated scars. No other abnormalities related to atomic bomb exposure have been identified.

  15. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto

    1990-01-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author)

  16. Carcinoma of the stomach in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehiro, Shinichi; Ogawa, Yuichiro; Nagasue, Naofumi; Abe, Shunichi; Sasaki, Yukiharu.

    1985-01-01

    A retrospective study of 135 atomic bomb survivors (A-bomb group) and 377 non-atomic bomb survivors (control group) who had carcinoma of the stomach was made with respect to surgical and pathological findings of carcinoma. An average age was significantly older in the A-bomb group (65 years) than in the control group (57 years). The number of female patients was significantly larger in the A-bomb group than in the control group. Although there was no difference of incidence in liver and peritoneal metastases, lymph node metastases along the left gastric artery, common hepatic artery and splenic artery, around the celiac artery, and at the splenic hilus occurred less frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. When carcinoma of the stomach was histologically classified as differentiated and undifferentiated, the incidence of differentiated type was higher than that of undifferentiated type in the A-bomb group. Regarding postoperative complications and follow-up results, there was no significant difference between the groups, synchronous or heterochronous multiple cancer occurred more frequently in the A-bomb group than in the control group. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Differential effects of atomic bomb irradiation in inducing major leukemia types

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Carter, R.L.

    1993-05-01

    In this report we utilize data from the additional 517 cases from the leukemia registry together with the Life Span Study (LSS) cohort data to study the effects of atomic bomb irradiation on major leukemia types. The French-American-British classification and other improved diagnostic methods were used to reclassify cases into 21 categories, including new disease entities such as adult T-cell leukemia (ATL). These categories were then grouped into four major types for analysis: (1) acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL), (2) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) including myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), (3) chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and (4) OTHER types including ATL. Analyses of radiation effects were based on the updated Dosimetry System 1986(DS86). Incidence rates of all four leukemia types increased with increasing exposure level. The effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidence of ALL and CML than on that of AML and OTHER. In the two lowest dose categories (1-49 and 50-499 mGy), estimated incidence either remained constant or increased slightly as the population of survivors aged. In the two highest dose categories (500-1,499 and ≥ 1,500 mGy). Among unexposed persons, the estimated risk of CML in Nagasaki relative to Hiroshima was significantly less than that of AML, whereas that of OTHER types was significantly greater. The time to onset of ALL, AML, and CML declined with increasing dose. The rate of decline, however, was greater for ALL and CML than for AML. The resulting differences at high doses reflect shorter incubation times for atomic-bomb-induced ALL and CML than for AML. (J.P.N.)

  18. Mortality of Hiroshima A-bomb survivors exposed at the black rain region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Tonda, Tetsuji

    2012-01-01

    An epidemiological study was performed on the black rain as a death risk factor of survivors in Hiroshima Uda's (U) light to heavy black rain regions using the positional parameters at their exposure. Subjects were 27,610 A-bomb survivors at Jan. 1, 1970 with known positional coordinate and direct dose at explosion, followed until Dec. 31, 2009, whose endpoint was defined to be their all deaths due to cardiovascular, cerebrovascular diseases, pneumonia, cancers, etc. Confounding factors were sex (11,457 males/16,153 females), age at exposure (av. 25 y) and dose (av. 0.045 Gy), with which analysis was done by Cox proportional hazard model. The confounding interaction of the age/U region was found significant: e.g., at the exposed age 25 y, the hazard ratio was calculated to be 1.084, indicating about 8% higher hazard ratio of U region than the area outside of U. When the effect of the sex, exposed age and direct dose were adjusted to be minimized, the risk was found distributed mainly in concentric circle from hypocenter, yet still the effect of indirect exposure was observed though. When the distance instead of the indirect dose was used as an explanatory variable, it resulted in being significant with no significance of the direct exposure dose. Risk map employing the positional information at explosion revealed that the risk distribution was locally different even in U region itself. Thus this study suggested that the black rain was a mortality risk factor in the U raining region of Hiroshima. (T.T.)

  19. The shadow of Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bagley, Sharon.

    1990-01-01

    In light of the findings from a test carried out on 72216 children born from parents who felt the bomb radiation at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, it appears that humans are less sensitive to genetic effects of radiation that previously thought. The new assessment of radiation's effect has not found an increase in birth defects, in chromosomal abnormalities in white blood cells or in cancer in the victim's children. However, it is assumed that as they enter their 50s, they may suffer the long-delayed consequences of the bomb. ills

  20. The Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma: Missing puzzle piece No. 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gold, Raymond

    1999-01-01

    More than a decade has elapsed since the serious nature of the discrepancy between neutron dosimetry experiments (E) and neutron transport calculations (C) for the Hiroshima site was identified. Since that time extensive efforts to resolve this Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma have not only failed, but now demonstrate that the magnitude of this discrepancy is much greater than initially estimated. The currently evaluated E/C ratio for thermal neutron fluence at the Hiroshima site increases rapidly with increasing slant range from the epicenter. In the slant range region beyond 1000 m, E/C exceeds unity by one to two orders of magnitude depending on the specific dosimetry data that are utilized. Principal features that characterize the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma are summarized. Puzzle Piece No. 6: In-situ production and Prompt fallout of radionuclides from Little Boy is advanced as a possible contributory phenomenon to this enigma. (The atom bomb detonated over Hiroshima was called Little Boy.) Measurements of 60 Co and 152 Eu specific activity at the Hiroshima site are used to obtain order of magnitude numerical estimates that show this conjecture is plausible. Comparison of different 60 Co measurements at the Hiroshima site reveals that the variation of E/C with slant range depends on the method used to quantify 60 Co specific activity as well as the type of dosimetry samples that are employed. These 60 Co comparisons lend additional qualitative credence to this conjecture. Within the limits of presently available data, these assessments show that Puzzle Piece No. 6 qualitatively satisfies the principal features that characterize the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma. Nevertheless, current lack of data prevent this conjecture from being conclusively confirmed or refuted. Consequently, specific recommendations are advanced to resolve the Hiroshima neutron dosimetry enigma with emphasis on experimental tests that can quantitatively evaluate Puzzle Piece

  1. An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia found in an atomic bomb survivor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonoda, Yoshiaki; Edagawa, Junichi; Taniwaki, Masafumi; Ide, Tohru; Misawa, Shinichi

    1981-01-01

    An autopsy case of acute myelocytic leukemia preceded by hemopoietic dysplasia, presumably on a sequela to the atomic bomb in Hiroshima is reported. On admission, severe anemia and thrombocytosis were found and the bone marrow aspiration showed myeloid hyperplasia without definite maturation arrest. Mild to moderate eosinophilia and basophilia continued during the course of the disease, accompaning mild monocytosis 2 years later. Furthermore, he had the radical operation for the early gastric cancer in this preleukemic stage. After the administration of methenolone acetate (25 mg/day), severe anemia has dramatically improved, but leukocytosis with profound monocytosis persisted, and subsequently acute myelocytic leukemia developed. He died from an intracerebral bleeding due to an accidental trauma on the head. Autopsy findings disclosed the systemic leukemic infiltration. Repeated chromosome analyses revealed the mosaic karyotype of 46, XY/45, XY, -16 on admission, but it was 46, XY/46, XY, del (8) (p 12) in the overt leukemic phase. The granulopoietic colony forming capacity of bone marrow cells was already low one year before the onset of overt leukemia. This finding suggested that the existence of an abnormal clone could be predictable. In addition, the possible causative effect of the exposure to the atomic bomb in leukemogenesis in this case is discussed. (author)

  2. Cytogenetics of the in-utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Shotaro; Shimba, Hachiro

    1978-01-01

    The presence of chimaerism in peripheral lymphocyte chromosome 21 years after A-bomb radiation was examined using 16 males who had been exposed in-utero to radiation from A-bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (10 cases in Hiroshima and 6 cases in Nagasaki). At the same time, doses of in-utero radiation were estimated. It was found that no cells possess XX chromosome by observing 1,600 chromosome metaphases in 16 cases (100 per a person). Estimated dose of in-utero radiation was 44 - 151 rad, or 75.6 rad on the average for 10 cases in Hiroshima and 61 - 197 rad, or 104 rad on the average for 6 cases in Nagasaki. Estimated radiation dose of their mothers used as a basis for estimating in-utero radiation dose was 120 - 149 rad or 207.9 rad on the average for cases in Hiroshima and 148 - 477 rad or 251 rad on the average for cases in Nagasaki. A ratio of total dose given to mother to that given to fetus was 2.75 in cases of Hiroshima and 2.41 in those of Nagasaki. (Iwagami, H.)

  3. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The indicators are frequency of untoward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during the first postnatal weak); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average of life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an eletrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  4. Genetic effects of the atomic bombs: a reappraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, M.; Neel, J.V.

    1981-01-01

    Data are presented on four indicators of genetic effects from studies of children born to survivors of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Negasaki. The indicators are frequency of un toward pregnancy outcomes (stillbirth, major congenital defect, death during first postnatal week); occurrence of death in live-born children, through an average life expectancy of 17 years; frequency of children with sex chromosome aneuploidy; and frequency of children with mutation resulting in an electrophoretic variant. In no instance is there a statistically significant effect of parental exposure; but for all indicators the observed effect is in the direction suggested by the hypothesis that genetic damage resulted from the exposure. On the basis of assumptions concerning the contribution that spontaneous mutation in the preceding generation makes to the indicators in question, it is possible to estimate the genetic doubling dose for radiation for the first three indicators (the data base is still too small for the fourth). The average of these estimates is 156 rems. This is some four times higher than the results from experimental studies on the mouse with comparable radiation sources, which have been the principal guide to the presumed human sensitivities. The relevance of these data in setting permissible limits for human exposures is discussed briefly

  5. Hiroshima - Monday August 6, 1945, 8h15 a.m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersey, John; Belmont, Georges; Haas, Pascale

    2011-01-01

    On 6 August 1945 at 8.15 a.m., Hiroshima was destroyed by the first atom bomb ever dropped on a city, killing one hundred thousand men, women and children in its white fury. This book, John Hersey's journalistic masterpiece, tells what happened on that day. Told through the memories of six civilians who survived against the odds, this timeless, powerful and compassionate document tells the moments that have preceded and followed the atomic explosion. John Hersey's spare, devastating report on the attack was first published in the New Yorker in 1946. Written in the immediate aftermath of the disaster, it is a classic piece of journalism, and a defining moment of the nuclear age

  6. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-01-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims' mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  7. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko

    1997-03-01

    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  8. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won

    2009-01-01

    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  9. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-01-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair—as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) ‘in-the-city-control’ people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher.

  10. Why 159°?: a story about the dropping of the Hiroshima atom bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prunty, Sean L.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the evasive manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot of the Enola Gay aircraft following the dropping of the first uranium bomb. The pilot was instructed to make a 159° turn following the bomb’s release in order to acquire the greatest distance from the point at which the bomb explodes. Accordingly, the objective here is to investigate why the angle should be exactly 159°. The optimum flight-path to maximize the distance from the detonation point is analysed by considering the escape or exit angle taken by the aircraft following a turning-manoeuvre that points it directly away from the detonation site. A range of escape angles are predicted based on the requirement to exit the turning radius prior to detonation. By using information that appeared in a historical account of the event regarding the manoeuvre undertaken by the pilot following the release of the bomb, an estimate is made of the escape angle. Despite the fact that the result shows reasonable agreement with the value of 159°, some uncertainty is expressed as to the close coincidence obtained. In addition, the location of the aircraft and the time of arrival of the shock wave following detonation are also briefly discussed.

  11. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We previously reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we clarified that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant in 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of the total 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, and that the correlation was the same even when the cases were divided by sex. In this report, we examined the chronological change of the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, using the data of the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster. It is likely that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors has increased after 1962, especially after 1975 in those exposed within 2.5km from the hypocenter compared to those exposed at 3.0km or more. (author)

  12. Analysis of atomic-bomb survivor data: ongoing research and opportunities for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, A.C.

    1984-01-01

    Study of the atomic bomb survivors has provided uniquely valuable information about the types of effects that are produced by ionizing radiation and their relation to dose, age at exposure, time after irradiation, and other variables. There are still, however, many unresolved questions requiring further investigation. These include reassessment of the dosimetry in both Hiroshima and Nagasaki; continued follow-up of survivors for cancer and other late effects, especially those who were exposed early in life and are just now reaching the age when the common cancers of adult life make their appearance; further evaluation of the possibility of measuring genetic effects in the children of survivors; and continued longitudinal investigation of risk factors predisposing to cancer, preneoplastic lesions, and other diseases. To the extent that a strong statistical foundation is essential to such investigations, the high calibre and sophistication of ongoing statistical research at RERF augers well for the future. 30 references, 4 figures

  13. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1980-02-01

    In a search for possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the stature of the offspring of A-bomb survivors a comparative study has been made of junior high school students 12 to 14 years of age born in Hiroshima to exposed and nonexposed parents. The mean stature and variance of the offspring and the covariance and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and their children were compared. The observed differences were both positive and negative in sign, and only a few were statistically significant. No clear tendency was demonstrated. When one parent was exposed, seven variance values of the offspring were statistically significant and six were positive in sign. Regression analyses of the mean stature and variance of the offspring, or the covariance, and correlation between one parent or the sum for both parents and their offspring by parental radiation dose revealed no clear effects of exposure. Only a very few of the regression coefficients were significantly different from zero. While genetic effects of A-bomb radiation on the stature of the children of exposed parents cannot be ruled out by this study, neither can such effects be unequivocally demonstrated. (author)

  14. Socio-psycho-historical observation on the twin. Sampling methods and case study of the atomic bomb exposed twins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watanabe, S; Satow, Y; Ueoka, Hiroshi; Munaka, M; Kurihara, M [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology

    1980-07-01

    The so-called ''twin control study'', mainly on the monozygotic twins one of which was A-bomb exposed and the other was non-exposed were carried out. Sampling was conducted utilizing the materials as follows: 1) The survey on casualities of A-bomb exposed families in Hiroshima which was undertaken in 1946. 2) The survey of A-bomb survivors in 1965. 3) A-bomb exposed family survey conducted between 1973 to 1975. 4) Investigations of A-bomb victims exposed in the proximal areas from the hypocenter. From the above mentioned materials 470 pairs were selected, of which 220 were exposed. Among them 172 pairs were twins of the same sex. Female and male pair were also employed. In one case they were exposed, while the others were nonexposed. Two pairs were examined under the following methods: 1) Depth interview to ascertain familial casualities with reference to the family life cycle. 2) Socio-historical research. 3) Motoaki's Jinkaku Shindan Kensa (Modified Rorschach test by H. Motoaki), and T.A.T. test. Results obtained were summarized as follows: 1) Both pairs of twins were of similar appearance and personality traits, and had a strong feeling of companionship for each other. 2) In family relationships, the persons studied were very conscious of the role expectations of elder and younger siblings in the twin pairs. 3) Through depth interviews and projective tests, A-bomb exposed pairs still showed deep psychological stresses, resulting from the A-bomb disaster. 4) Both among the exposed twins and within the nonexposed control group twin siblings had a close feeling of companionship for each other. However, nonexposed twins could not understand the psychological experience of twins who had been subjected to the atomic disaster.

  15. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-01-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  16. Rediscovery of an old article reporting that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation, indicating that exposure doses of A-bomb survivors were largely underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutou, Shizuyo

    2017-09-01

    The A-bomb blast released a huge amount of energy: thermal radiation (35%), blast energy (50%), and nuclear radiation (15%). Of the 15%, 5% was initial radiation released within 30 s and 10% was residual radiation, the majority of which was fallout. Exposure doses of hibakusha (A-bomb survivors) were estimated solely on the basis of the initial radiation. The effects of the residual radiation on hibakusha have been considered controversial; some groups assert that the residual radiation was negligible, but others refute that assertion. I recently discovered a six-decade-old article written in Japanese by a medical doctor, Gensaku Obo, from Hiroshima City. This article clearly indicates that the area around the epicenter in Hiroshima was heavily contaminated with residual radiation. It reports that non-hibakusha who entered Hiroshima soon after the blast suffered from severe acute radiation sickness, including burns, external injuries, fever, diarrhea, skin bleeding, sore throat and loss of hair-as if they were real hibakusha. This means that (i) some of those who entered Hiroshima in the early days after the blast could be regarded as indirect hibakusha; (ii) 'in-the-city-control' people in the Life Span Study (LSS) must have been irradiated more or less from residual radiation and could not function properly as the negative control; (iii) exposure doses of hibakusha were largely underestimated; and (iv) cancer risk in the LSS was largely overestimated. Obo's article is very important to understand the health effects of A-bombs so that the essence of it is translated from Japanese to English with the permission of the publisher. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japan Radiation Research Society and Japanese Society for Radiation Oncology.

  17. Hiroshima Diary - August 6-September 30, 1945

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Michihiko; Duran, Simon

    2011-01-01

    Michihiko Hachiya was director of the Hiroshima Communications Hospital when the world's first atomic bomb was dropped on the city. Though his responsibilities in the appalling chaos of a devastated city were awesome, he found time to record the story daily, with compassion and tenderness. Hachiya's diary covers the period from Aug. 6, 1945 to Sept. 30, 1945. He described the effects of the atomic bomb blast from its first flash in the early morning as he rested from his night shift as an air warden at the hospital. The force of the blast stripped all the clothes from his body but he and his wife survived, however they both received serious burns to their bodies and had to journey to the hospital Michihiko worked at. He spent the night in the care of the hospital staff who were not seriously injured and started making his daily rounds that he would have normally made as a doctor. As time passes an understanding of what hit their city clears up, and historical events such as the surrender of Japan are brought up. The condition of the hospital also drastically improves as more medical supplies are brought into the city, allowing them to better treat patients

  18. Surgical techniques for the atomic bomb survivors of thyroid cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeichi, Nobuo; Dohi, Kiyohiko; Noso, Yoshihiro

    2016-01-01

    As for proper surgical techniques for radiation-induced thyroid carcinogenesis, this paper explains with a focus on the Hiroshima University cases, with an addition of the cases of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Takeichi Clinic. The definitive diagnosis of thyroid cancer is usually carried out by echo-guided aspiration biopsy cytology, but Takeichi Clinic faces the surgery by preparing 'thyroid - cervical lymph node map' by combining this technique with CT and MRI. As the surgery examples at Hiroshima University, 259 cases during 1955-1972 and 363 cases during 1965-1982 were taken up, and the survival rate and cancer death rate classified by tissue types for 10 years after the initial operations were shown in a table. Dead patients were mostly the surgery cases of senior persons of 60 years in age or older, and the death rate for surgery cases of the persons of 19 years old or younger was only 1.9% at 6 cases. Higher cancer death rate was seen in the cases of papillary cancer of more than 5 cm in size, where extra glandular infiltration could not be curated or cut out, and 64/318 cases of patients had a recurrence of cancer at thyroid gland. The mortality rate up to 20 years after the surgery of atomic bomb survivors was not significantly different from that of non-victims. Information on the multicentric cancerous focuses and microscopic cancer in the thyroid gland, as well as the tissue types and high risk of cancer death were described from the cases of Hiroshima University and Takeichi Clinic. The thyroid cancer of radiation exposure victims often results in papillary cancer, and the following are described related with this: (1) selection of ablation method, (2) method to protect the parathyroid tissue, and (3) method to prevent damage to the recurrent laryngeal nerve and superior laryngeal nerve. The surgical procedure to perform the neck outside area lymph node dissection due to the quasi-subtotal or quasi-complete removal of the thyroid gland is

  19. Atomic bomb survivor data: utilization and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prentice, R.L.; Thompson, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    There were several motivations for organizing the SIMS Conference reported in this monograph. Risk assessment and its methods have been subjects of several SIMS Conferences in the recent past, and focusing these newer, more powerful methods on the largest human experience of exposure to ionizing radiation seemed an appropriate sequel. There was also the conviction that the data resources of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), generated through the mortality and medical follow-up of large samples of the survivors of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, were being under utilized, and that a conference and its proceedings would create interest in exploiting this resource. The time seemed ripe for gathering a small group of current RERF scientists, veteran US statisticians and epidemiologists, and others with more recent entry into the field of radiation biology to consider long range plans for maximizing the output of information not only on the long term effects of ionizing radiation on man but on new knowledge of the determinants of health and disease that can be learned by study of the records of this cohort. This seemed particularly appropriate at this time while intensive joint Japanese-US efforts are underway to provide a new, more accurate dosimetry for use in these studies. Finally, there was a hope that an ad hoc forum of this type would provide not only a summary of current statistical and epidemiologic activities at RERF, but a useful critique of their scope and quality

  20. Cytogenetics of the in-utero exposed of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Supplemental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neriishi, S; Shimba, H [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan)

    1978-04-01

    The presence of chimaerism in peripheral lymphocyte chromosome 21 years after A-bomb radiation was examined using 16 males who had been exposed in-utero to radiation from A-bomb in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (10 cases in Hiroshima and 6 cases in Nagasaki). At the same time, doses of in-utero radiation were estimated. It was found that no cells possess XX chromosome by observing 1,600 chromosome metaphases in 16 cases (100 per a person). Estimated dose of in-utero radiation was 44 - 151 rad, or 75.6 rad on the average for 10 cases in Hiroshima and 61 - 197 rad, or 104 rad on the average for 6 cases in Nagasaki. Estimated radiation dose of their mothers used as a basis for estimating in-utero radiation dose was 120 - 149 rad or 207.9 rad on the average for cases in Hiroshima and 148 - 477 rad or 251 rad on the average for cases in Nagasaki. A ratio of total dose given to mother to that given to fetus was 2.75 in cases of Hiroshima and 2.41 in those of Nagasaki.

  1. Cancer incidence in atomic bomb survivors. Part IV: Comparison of cancer incidence and mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ron, E.; Preston, D.L.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Thompson, D.E.; Soda, Midori

    1994-01-01

    This report compares cancer incidence and mortality among atomic bomb survivors in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study (LSS) cohort. Because the incidence data are derived from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki tumor registries, case ascertainment is limited to the time (1958-1987) and geographic restrictions (Hiroshima and Nagasaki) of the registries, whereas mortality data are available from 1950-1987 anywhere in Japan. With these conditions, there were 9,014 first primary incident cancer cases identified among LSS cohort members compared with 7,308 deaths for which cancer was listed as the underlying cause of death on death certificates. When deaths were limited to those occurring between 1958-1987 in Hiroshima or Nagasaki, there were 3,155 more incident cancer cases overall, and 1,262 more cancers of the digestive system. For cancers of the oral cavity and pharynx, skin, breast, female and male genital organs, urinary system and thyroid, the incidence series was at least twice as large as the comparable mortality series. Although the incidence and mortality data are dissimilar in many ways, the overall conclusions regarding which solid cancers provide evidence of a significant dose response generally confirm the mortality findings. When either incidence or mortality data are evaluated, significant excess risks are observed for all solid cancers, stomach, colon, liver (when it is defined as primary liver cancer or liver cancer not otherwise specified on the death certificate), lung, breast, ovary and urinary bladder. No significant radiation effect is seen for cancers of the pharynx, rectum, gallbladder, pancreas, nose, larynx, uterus, prostate or kidney in either series. There is evidence of a significant excess of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the incidence data, but not in the mortality series. 19 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs

  2. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.

    1999-01-01

    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  3. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1999-01-01

    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  4. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi; Hamada, Tadao.

    1994-01-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  5. Autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Megumu; Kurihara, Kanji; Aimitsu, Shiomi; Yukaya, Hirofumi [Hiroshima Red Cross Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Hamada, Tadao

    1994-12-01

    Since 1956, 388 autopsy cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) have been obtained at the Hiroshima Red Cross and A-Bomb Survivors Hospital, which consisted of those of proximately exposed 52 A-bomb survivors (mean age, 63.8 years), 105 distally exposed A-bomb survivors (mean age, 64.2 years), and the other 231 non-exposed patients (mean age, 60.6 years). Since 1985, the incidence of HCC tended to be higher in both proximately and distally exposed groups than the non-exposed group. There was no consistent tendency for the incidence of HCC by ages at autopsy and A-bombing. The incidence of liver cirrhosis was approximately 2 times higher in males than females in the non-exposed group, although no gender difference existed after 1981. In the exposed group, the incidence was similar in male and female groups. Approximately 90% of HCC patients had coexistent liver cirrhosis. Liver cirrhosis was associated with HCC in 50-60%. No significant differences in these incidences were observed between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The proportion of liver cirrhosis associated with HCC became constant in patients over the age of 40 in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, on the other hand, the proportion reached the peak in those in their fifties and sixties. Survival time tended to be longer in the exposed group than the non-exposed group. The patients in the non-exposed group tended to have histologically atypical type and metastases, as compared with those in the exposed group. (N.K.).

  6. Incidence of skin cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors; Preliminary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine) (and others)

    1990-09-01

    Among a total of 65,268 Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine, 140 cases with skin cancer were collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City from 1961 through 1987. Subsequently, these cases of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors were statistically analyzed in relation to the estimated distance from the hypocenter by age, sex, histology and latent period. The results were as follows: (1) A high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and the distance from the hypocenter. (2) The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors now appears to be increasing in relation to exposure distance. (3) Among 140 cases, basal cell epithelioma was observed in 67 cases (47.9%) and squamous cell carcinoma in 43 cases (30.7%). (author).

  7. Outline of developing projects of atomic bomb in Japan and USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, Shuji

    2007-01-01

    The content of the title connecting with the World War II is described hoping that younger researchers of nuclear physics could know some of the facts that scientists and the military of Japan and USA, respectively, had have developing projects of atomic bomb by fission reaction, although there are no official documents of those in Japan, even if there are some unofficial documents that are uncertain partly in Japan. Described are a chronological table, the content of research and development of atomic bombs, Japan's experiments by Kikuchi Laboratory of Osaka Imperial University and Nishina Laboratory of RIKEN, as well as the USA's action such as production of fissile nuclide, Pu-239 and U-235, selection of the site to fabricate atomic bomb, investigation the state of research and development of atomic bombs in Germany, Italy and Japan. (S.Y.)

  8. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi

    2013-10-01

    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  9. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-08-25

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  10. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamura, Shozo; Onitsuka, Hideo; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Yukiko; Russell, W.J.

    1978-01-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose. (author)

  11. Rethinking the Concept of Sustainability: Hiroshima as a Subject of Peace Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Kanako

    2017-01-01

    The article discusses a sustainable educational approach for developing a moral value of peace by using a historical event, the bombing of Hiroshima. To make the case, the article uses the care theory of Nel Noddings to discuss the interpersonal aspects of peace education. The article asks how care theory handles tragedies like Hiroshima and it…

  12. Tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors. Study of autopsy cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, T [H.ma Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Matsushita, Hiroshi

    1980-03-01

    Effects of atomic bomb on tuberculosis among atomic bomb survivors necropsied after 1956 when Atomic Bomb Hospital was opened were observed statistically and the following results were obtained. The morbidity of tuberculosis in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter was higher than that of the control group, but there was not a significant difference between the groups. The morbidity of all types of tuberculosis was significantly higher in the group exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter than in the control group. The morbidity of tuberculosis tended to decrease in both exposed and non-exposed groups with time. However, the morbidity of miliary or active tuberculosis has tended to rise in the exposed since 1975. The morbidity in young a-bomb survivors exposed within 2 km was higher than that in those of other groups, but there was not a difference in the morbidity among the aged. The higher the rate of complication of active tuberculosis with stomach cancer or acute myelocytic leukemia or liver cirrhosis, the nearer the places of exposure were to the hypocenter. Out of 26 patients with miliary tuberculosis, 6 were suspected to have leukemia while they were alive and were suggested to have leukemoid reaction by autopsy. They all were a-bomb survivors, and 4 of them were exposed within 2 km from the hypocenter.

  13. Chernobyl or Hiroshima. Tschernobyl oder Hiroshima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deserno, H [Sigmund-Freud-Institut, Frankfurt am Main (Germany, F.R.)

    1987-07-01

    The so called peaceful use of atomic power is an ideology specifically apt for appeasement in an illusionary way: although everyone could know about the desastrous effects of radioactivity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the civil use of atomic power serves to demonstrate, that the incompatibility of radionuclides with health and life could be controlled and mastered. In this context the civil use of atomic power appears as an instrument of social control. (orig.).

  14. Epidemiological research on radiation-induced cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozasa, Kotaro

    2016-01-01

    The late effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on cancer occurrence have been evaluated by epidemiological studies on three cohorts: a cohort of atomic bomb survivors (Life Span Study; LSS), survivors exposed in utero, and children of atomic bomb survivors (F 1 ). The risk of leukemia among the survivors increased remarkably in the early period after the bombings, especially among children. Increased risks of solid cancers have been evident since around 10 years after the bombings and are still present today. The LSS has clarified the dose–response relationships of radiation exposure and risk of various cancers, taking into account important risk modifiers such as sex, age at exposure, and attained age. Confounding by conventional risk factors including lifestyle differences is not considered substantial because people were non-selectively exposed to the atomic bomb radiation. Uncertainty in risk estimates at low-dose levels is thought to be derived from various sources, including different estimates of risk at background levels, uncertainty in dose estimates, residual confounding and interaction, strong risk factors, and exposure to residual radiation and/or medical radiation. The risk of cancer in subjects exposed in utero is similar to that in LSS subjects who were exposed in childhood. Regarding hereditary effects of radiation exposure, no increased risk of cancers associated with parental exposure to radiation have been observed in the F 1 cohort to date. In addition to biological and pathogenetic interpretations of the present results, epidemiological investigations using advanced technology should be used to further analyze these cohorts

  15. Los Alamos, Hiroshima, Nagasaki - a personal recollection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrison, P.

    1995-01-01

    The author, a physicist participating in the Manhattan Project, recalls his experiences and work in the laboratories at the time which marked the onset of the nuclear era, the construction of the first uranium and plutonium bombs in Los Alamos, and the hidious effects shown to the world by the nuclear bombing of Japan. His thoughts and memories presented 50 years after the nuclear destruction of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, and now that the Cold War has ended, call for a global ban of nuclear weapons. (orig.) [de

  16. Severe mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi; Schull, W.J.

    1988-05-01

    In March 1986, as a result of a comprehensive reevaluatioin of the exposures of the survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, a new method for the estimation of individual doses was introduced, termed the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86). In the new system they are computed individually without the use generally of explicit, average correction factors and thus allow better for the scattering of radiant energy that occurs within tissues. The comparisons described here rest on the computed dose to the mother's uterus. The DS86 sample itself consists of 1,544 individuals (96.6 %) of the 1,598 belonging to the clinical sample on whom T65DR doses are available. A variety of models with and without a threshold have been fitted to the individual as well as grouped dose data to ascertain the most suitable dose-response relationship. Briefly the findings of this comparison are as follows: The risk of severe mental retardation due to radiation exposure changes little from one dosimetric system to the other. The highest risk of radiation damage to the embryonic and fetal brain occurs 8 - 15 weeks after fertilization under both the T65DR and DS86 systems. Somewhat more evidence exists under the DS86 system of a threshold to the dose-response relationship in the 8 - 15 week interval than existed with the T65DR doses. However, the location and reality of the threshold are difficult to assess. Damage to the fetus 16 - 25 weeks after fertilization seems linear-quadratically or quadratically related to dose, especially in the DS86 sample, and suggests a threshold in the neighborhood of 0.70 Gy (DS86 dose), under a linear model using the individual dose data, with a lower 95 % confidence bound of 0.21 Gy. Grouped dose data give the same lower bound, but an estimate of the threshold of 0.64 Gy. (author)

  17. Cold pressor test on atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Tomoyoshi; Sweedler, D R; Okamoto, Akira

    1964-03-12

    Cold pressor test was performed on a sample of 1156 atomic bomb survivors and other persons (ages ranging between 15 to 81 years) residing in Nagasaki City. Response values differed according to such factors as age, sex, blood pressure and month of examination. The response in systolic pressure increased with age but no evidence was found to support an acceleration of aging by irradiation. The response in diastolic blood pressure showed no change with age, but differed between Comparison Groups during the summer months. However, this was apparently due to some other cause than exposure to the atomic bomb. 25 references, 8 tables.

  18. Current trend of malignant neoplasms among atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamada, Tadao

    1984-01-01

    A survey was made on 7,589 admitted patients and 1,965 autopsy cases. The overall incidence of malignant neoplasms tended to decrease in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases and to increase in admitted patients. The incidence of pulmonary cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of gastric cancer tended to increase up to 1975, and thereafter tended to decrease. The incidence of liver cancer tended to increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients, which was marked in males. The incidence of leukemia was high in the group exposed to atomic bomb within 2 km in autopsy cases, and in the group within 1 km and the group which entered the city after the explosion in admitted patients. The incidence of malignant lymphoma tended to decrease, and the incidence of carcinoma of the colon tended to gradually increase in both autopsy cases and admitted patients. The incidence of multiple carcinomas tended to increase in both atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group, being higher in atomic bomb group than in non-exposed group. The incidence of breast cancer became constant since 1970. The incidence of carcinoma of the thyroid gland tended to decrease, although it was high in the group exposed near the explosion. (Namekawa, K.)

  19. Atomic bombs and conspiracy theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnie, A.

    2001-01-01

    There have been a number of articles in the press concerning Australia's bid to get the atomic bomb. These articles are based on the recent publication of a book, 'Australia's Bid for the Bomb' by Wayne Reynolds. The book at first sight appears to be very well researched, with many archival references from a number of countries, and the hypotheses appear to be well supported and argued. Its major shortcoming is the way that the science and technology involved is presented. The author seems to have a complete lack of understanding of basic science and engineering principles, and the manner in which scientists and politicians communicate with each other. This paper will attempt to redress these shortcomings, I shall look at the way communities of scientists and politicians present their ideas to each other and to the public at large. By investigating the backgrounds to the establishment of the Snowy Mountains Scheme and the later establishment of the Australian Atomic Energy Commission, the author is able to explain how such a hypothesis ever saw the light of day

  20. Thyroid carcinoma in the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1958 - 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manabe, Yoshitaka; Toyota, Emiko; Yamamoto, Tsutomu

    1978-01-01

    Relation between radiation dose and incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma in A-bomb survivors exposed with large doses was studied by analyzing 82 cases in total consisting of those reported by Parker et al. from 1956 to 1971 and additional 19 cases lately occurred until 1976. Among them, 40 cases were clinically evident cancer confirmed histologically from clinical findings, and 42 cases were silent cancer confirmed by autopsy findings. The incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma during these 18 years rose along with the increase of radiation dose, and especially, this trend is marked in women. More noticeable dose-response was observed in clinically evident cancer. In a dose-response curve, it was observed that the incidence rate tends to rise higher with an increase of doses. However, in terms of statistics, a significantly higher incidence rate than that of a control group of 0 rad was first observed in the group of 50 - 100 rad. As far as the annual changes of radiation-induced thyroid carcinoma are concerned, the group of over 100 rad still showed an increase of the incidence rate of thyroid carcinoma. By ages when patients were exposed to A-bomb, a group of those exposed under 30 years old showed an increase of the incidence rate since 1968 or 1969, while the group of those exposed at relatively higher ages recorded the high incidence rate already in 1958 and showed no remarkable increase afterwards. Also it was indicated that a noticeable influence given by A-bomb radiation appears after cancer age. By histological types, papillary type and papillary sclerosing type were often observed in clonically evident cancer and silent cancer, respectively. Papillary type was rather often seen in the group of over 100 rad. (Iwagami, H.)

  1. Radiation-related ophthalmologic changes and aging among the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otake, Masanori; Finch, S.C.; Choshi, Kanji; Takaku, Isao; Mishima, Hiromu; Takase, Tomoko.

    1993-05-01

    The relationship of ionizing radiation to the age-related ophthalmologic findings of the 1978-80 ophthalmologic examination of the atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki has been reanalyzed using Dosimetry System 1986 eye organ dose estimates. The main purpose of this re-evaluation was to determine whether age and radiation exposure have an additive, synergistic, or antagonistic effect on ophthalmologic changes. The best model fitting axial opacities gives a significant positive effect for both linear dose-response and linear age-related regression coefficients and a significant negative effect for an interaction between radiation dose and age. Such a negative interaction implies an antagonistic effect in that the relative risks with relation to radiation doses decrease with increasing age. This phenomenon suggests that the lenses of younger persons are more sensitive to radiation than are those of older persons. However, the best-fitting relationship for posterior subcapsular changes suggested a linear-quadratic dose response and linear age-related effects. The quadratic estimate of radiation dose squared showed a highly significant effect with a negative trend, but the negative quadratic estimate was so extremely small it had almost no contributive value within an appropriative dose area. These data suggest an additive relationship between aging and radiation for the induction of posterior subcapsular changes, and they also indicate that there is no distinct evidence of a radiation-induced aging effect. The radiation-related relative risks increase with a log linearity. The decrease of visual acuity and accommodation with increasing age were comparable in both exposed and control subjects, with age-related visual acuity decreasing more than accommodation. (J.P.N.)

  2. A search for effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1980-08-01

    A comparative study to detect possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of offspring of A-bomb survivors was made on a group of junior high school students 12 to 14 years of age born to exposed and to nonexposed parents in Hiroshima using as variables weight, sitting height, and chest circumference. With data from offspring born to nonexposed parents, a regression analysis was made for the effect of parental age on the weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of the offspring, but no statistically significant relation was observed. The mean values of weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of offspring of nonexposed parents were compared with those of offspring born to exposed fathers and nonexposed mothers, of exposed mothers and nonexposed fathers, and with those of offspring of parents both exposed. The differences showed no specific tendency and very few of them were statistically significant. Next, the variance values were compared, and some of the differences between the two groups of offspring were statistically significant; in every case the variance of offspring of exposed parents was larger, suggesting a genetic effect due to exposure to A-bomb radiation. However, the sample of offspring born to exposed parents is small and the parent-offspring correlation is unknown for want of comparable measurements on the parents. (author)

  3. A recalculation of the age dependent dose-effect-relationship of the life span study of Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kottbauer, M.M.; Fleck, C.M.; Schoellnberger, H.

    1996-01-01

    The basis of the presented model is the multistage process of carcinogenesis as a biological effect. It provides simultaneously the age-dependent mortality of spontaneous and radiation induced solid tumors and dose-effect relationships at any age after exposure. The model has been used to describe the solid cancer mortality rates of the atomic bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It has characteristics of both relative and absolute risk projections depending on the age of exposure. (author)

  4. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University

    OpenAIRE

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka

    1992-01-01

    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  5. [A-bomb experience and Hibakushas' lives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiba, Tadatoshi

    2012-01-01

    The A-bomb experience of Hiroshima may shed light on the reconstruction plan of the Eastern Japan Earthquake and Tsunami and on implementing middle to long range care plans for the victims of the catastrophe. An important element in the success of Hiroshima's reconstruction was the understanding of the realities of everyday life of citizens and hibakusha by local and national government, and incorporation of those points of view into the reconstruction plan. Sharing of accurate and fair information about the disaster, restoration, and reconstruction with citizens was and still is a prerequisite for success. To convey learned lessons from the Hiroshima experience, three books are helpful: "A-bomb Mayor" by Shinzo Hamai, "The Meaning of Survival" compiled by the Chugoku Shimbun and "The Children of the A-bomb" compiled by Arata Osada. They help understand the history of hibakusha psychology from the point of view of their everyday lives and may help those affected by the Earthquake and Tsunami. To summarize the history of psychological changes among the hibakusha, three key transitional pairs of statements used widely by them over the span of 66 years help show the change in their attitude and emotional outlook. Each pair consists of an expression from the period immediately following the bombing and a second more recent expression: (1) Transition from "I would rather die." to "I am glad I am alive." (2) Transition from "I would rather forget." to "We should not forget." (3) Transition from "You will understand if you are a victim." to "No one else should ever suffer as we did".

  6. Late radiation responses in man: Current evaluation from results from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schull, William J.

    Among the late effects of exposure to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, none looms larger than radiation related malignancies. Indeed, the late effects of A-bomb radiation on mortality appear to be limited to an increase in malignant tumors. At present, it can be shown that cancers of the breast, colon, esophagus, lungs, stomach, thyroid, and urinary tract as well as leukemia and multiple myeloma increase in frequency with an increase in exposure. No significant relationship to radiation can as yet be established for malignant lymphoma, nor cancers of the rectum, pancreas or uterus. Radiation induced malignancies other than leukemia seem to develop proportionally to the natural cancer rate for the attained age. For specific age-at-death intervals, both relative and absolute risks tend to be higher for those of younger age at the time of bombing. Other late effects include radiation-related lenticular opacities, disturbances of growth among those survivors still growing at the time of exposure, and mental retardation and small head sizes among the in utero exposed. Chromosomal abnormalities too are more frequently encountered in the peripheral leucocytes of survivors, and this increase is functionally related to their exposure. Some uncertainty continues to surround both the quantity and quality of the radiation released by these two nuclear devices, particularly the Hiroshima bomb. A recent reassessment suggests that the gamma radiation estimates which have been used in the past may be too low at some distances and the neutron radiation estimates too high at all distances; moreover, the energies of the neutrons released now appear ``softer'' than previously conjectured. These uncertainties not sufficiently large, however, to compromise the reality of the increased frequency of malignancy, but make estimates of the dose response, particularly in terms of gamma and neutron exposures, tentative.

  7. Multiple primary cancer in cases of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Tsuneo; Matsuda, Masahiro; Matsugu, Yasuhiro; Ishimoto, Tatsuro; Nakahara, Hideki; Kagawa, Naoki; Fukuda, Yasuhiko

    2006-01-01

    Multiple primary cancer was investigated in individual atomic bomb survivors more than 50 years after exposure. During the decade from 1995 to 2004, double cancer was detected in 275 individuals visiting our facility. These 275 patients with multiple primary cancer were divided into an atomic bomb-exposed group and a non-exposed group. In terms of age at the time of definite diagnosis of double cancer and age upon onset of the first cancer, there was no significant difference between the atomic bomb-exposed group and the non-exposed group. In both groups, the percentage of males was higher than that of females. However, the percentage of females was higher in the exposed group than in the non-exposed group. Synchronous double cancer (cases where a second cancer develops within one year after onset of the first cancer) was seen in 32 individuals from the exposed group. Triple cancer was seen in 3 cases. In the exposed group, the site affected by cancer was the stomach in 28% and the colon/rectum in 27% of cases. Thus, cancer affected the stomach or colon/rectum in the majority of cases. The most frequent combination of organs affected by double cancer was the stomach+colon/rectum (20 cases, 25%). In a study of multiple primary cancer patients, the percentage of females was higher in the atomic bomb exposed group compared to the non-exposed group. There was no other difference between the two groups. (author)

  8. Leukemia and lymphoma in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finch, S.C.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemia has been observed to increase with increasing radiation dose in the A-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first radiation-related cases occurred 3 to 5 years following exposure. The peak incidence years were about 7 to 8 years following exposure and the leukemogenic effect has decreased since that time, but it may last for 40 years or longer in the most heavily exposed persons. A bimodal susceptibility pattern was observed, with peaks following exposure during childhood and after age 50. Latent periods for the development of acute leukemia were shortest in the younger exposed persons. Both acute and chronic forms of leukemia occurred in exposed persons at younger ages in life than normally is expected. The most common types of radiation-induced leukemia were acute and chronic granulocytic in adults and children, and acute lymphocytic in children. The highest radiation-related leukemia risk was for chronic granulocytic leukemia following childhood exposure

  9. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.

    1978-02-01

    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  10. A study on aging by physical measurements among female A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Hisashi; Kurihara, Minoru; Hayakawa, Norihiko; Ikeuchi, Minoru; Munaka, Masaki

    1978-01-01

    One hundred and fifty-two women living in Hiroshima underwent physical measurements in 1970 and 1976. Those in the short-distance group (60) were directly exposed to the a-bomb within 1 km of the center of explosion. Those in the long-distance group (92) either were directly exposed over 3 km from the center of explosion, entered the city on or following the 4th day after the explosion, or nursed the exposed and disposed of the dead. Changes in physical measurement values were determined. Systolic pressure was more elevated and grasping power and vital capacity decreased more in the short-distance group than in the long-distance group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between both groups. There were few other differences between the groups. Regarding those under the age of 29 at the time of exposure, the physiological age, estimated from physical abilities (8 items were measured), was about 1 year older than the actual age at the time of the investigation. However, as the actual age increased, the physiological age tended to greatly decrease. (Tsunoda, M.)

  11. Sociological and socio-psycho-historical problems of A-bomb exposed twin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Shoji

    1983-01-01

    The atomic bombing of Hiroshima brought many casualities on human society, and collapsed human communities. The purpose of this study is to make mainly on pairs of monozygotic twins one of whom was exposed and the other was not, or both of whom were exposed, a general socio-psycho-historical investigations through a twin control study to find whether the bombing, which can be considered to cause major environmental changes, has had any psychological effects on the individuals. Due to the limited sample of atomic bomb exposed twins, in numbers available for study, it is necessary to have an understanding for their condions of the living and identity they have developed from the numerous mental stress they suffered, and rapid socio-cultural changes they experienced, including for changes in life from birth until the atomic bombing and aftermath of the disaster. As the result of this study, by depth interview, projective psychological research and research on socio-psycho-history of exposed twin and the nonexposed before the A-bomb and aftermath of disaster, the following were obtained: a) Although at the age of four and eight they exposed, they still keep it in clear memory of the damage and suffering in the minds. b) The damage and suffereng of the family who belonged were relatively small, the effects of their psychological sufferings continued even after these thirtyseven years. c) In the aftermath of the A-bomb disaster, the psychological bond showed strengthen through crises and following social distress. d) During the long period since the bombing, those who did not experienced A-bombing, have shown high degree of support and co-operation on their familial and social role to their counterpart. e) Even though their social or medical effects of A-bombing are relatively limited, if their spouse or close relative suffer psychological stress caused by A-bomb, they too suffer from their similar experiences. (J.P.N.)

  12. Dose-response relationship of neutrons and γ rays to leukemia incidence among atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki by type of leukemia, 1950--1971

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, T.; Otake, M.; Ichimaru, M.

    1979-01-01

    The incidence of leukemia during 1950 to 1971 in a fixed mortality sample of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was analyzed as a function of neutron and γ kerma and marrow doses. Two dose-response models were tested for acute leukemia, chronic granulocytic leukemia, and all types of leukemia, respectively. Each model postulates that the leukemia incidence depends upon the sum of separate risks imposed by γ and neutron doses. In Model I the risk from both types of radiation is assumed to be directly proportional to the respective doses, while Model II assumes that whereas the risk from neutrons is directly proportional to the dose, the risk from γ rays is proportional to dose-squared. The analysis demonstrated that the dose-response of the two types of leukemia differed by type of radiation. The data suggested that the response of acute leukemia was best explained by Model II, while the response of chronic granulocytic leukemia depended almost linearly upon neutron dose alone, because the regression coefficients associated with γ radiation for both Models I and II were not significant. The relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons in relation to γ rays for incidence of acute leukemia was estimated to be approximately 30/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 17/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 54/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for kerma and 32/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ [95% confidence limits; 18/(Dn)/sup 1/2/ approx. 58/(Dn)/sup 1/2/] for marrow dose (Dn = neutron dose). If acute and chronic granulocytic leukemias are considered together as all types of leukemia, Model II appears to fit the data slightly better than Model I, but neither model is statistically rejected by the data

  13. Summary of fifty years research on the late effects of atomic bomb irradiation in Japan with special reference to possible similar late effects by nuclear weapons tests in Semipalatinsk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, M.

    2000-01-01

    The investigation clearly demonstrated statistically significant increases of risks for acute myeloid and lymphoid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, and solid tumors including thyroid cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, lung cancer, hepatoma and skin cancer. The excess relative risks was highest for acute lymphoid leukemia, followed by chronic myeloid leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, and solid cancer. The increased risk for leukemia has almost completely disappeared after 50 years, whereas the risks for cancers are apparently persisting giving a great threat to general health of atomic bomb survivors. These observations can be directly referred to the possible late effects of the acute and chronic exposure to irradiation caused by nuclear tests in Semipalatinsk region. Recent dose-estimation efforts by Kazakhstan, US and Japanese scientists indicated that there had been Hiroshima/Nagasaki atomic bomb equivalent high-dose exposure in some residents around the test sites. Some researchers suggested increased risks for malignant diseases such as leukemia and cancers. Unfortunately there was a lack of high-quality statistics in the Semipalatinsk survey, providing a considerable difficulty in interpreting the estimated incidences of such malignant diseases

  14. Smoking and serum proteins in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stram, D.O.; Akiba, S.; Neriishi, K.; Stevens, R.G.; Hosoda, Y.

    1990-01-01

    Associations of smoking habit with serum levels of total protein as well as protein fractions were studied in a population consisting of 4,739 atomic-bomb survivors and unexposed control subjects in Hiroshima, Japan who participated in the 1979-1981 period of the Adult Health Study, an ongoing health follow-up program of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. Smoking was strongly related to serum protein concentration after correction for age, sex, and body mass index. Among current smokers, levels of total protein, beta globulin, and gamma globulin were significantly lower and levels of alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin were significantly higher, when compared with nonsmokers. For serum albumin levels a decrease was also noted, but it failed to attain statistical significance. Ex-smokers were indistinguishable from nonsmokers in terms of the serum protein levels analyzed. With an increase of the amount of daily cigarette consumption, monotonic increases of serum levels were observed only in alpha-1 globulin. Duration of smoking was related to increased alpha-1 and alpha-2 globulin. Smoking duration was also associated with albumin level, but the trend was not monotonic. The radiation exposure effect on serum protein level was significant in several instances but was in general much smaller than the smoking effect, and its inclusion in the regression models did not noticeably affect the association between smoking and serum proteins

  15. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1985-09-01

    In a search for possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the stature of the offspring of A-bomb survivors, a comparative study was made on elementary school pupils 6 to 11 years of age born to exposed and nonexposed parents in Hiroshima. The mean stature and variance for the offspring were determined, and the covariance and correlation were calculated in a comparison between either the values for one parent or the sum for both parents, and those for the offspring. Only a few of the differences in mean stature between exposed and nonexposed groups were statistically significant, but in all instances the difference tends to be larger in the exposed group than in the nonexposed group. Also, only a few of the differences in variance between the two groups were statistically significant, but the variance value of the exposed group was higher. Concerning the difference in correlation (Z transformation) between the two groups, only a very few were statistically significant, but the values of the exposed group were higher. A few of the regression coefficient of variance values were statistically significant and the signs of these regression coefficients were not always in agreement. (author)

  16. A search for genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of the F1 generation, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furusho, Toshiyuki; Otake, Masanori.

    1978-08-01

    A comparative study to detect possible genetic effects of atomic bomb radiation on the growth and development of offspring of A-bomb survivors was made on a group of senior high school students 15 to 17 years of age born to survivors and to nonexposed parents in Hiroshima using as variables weight, sitting height, and chest circumference. Using data from students born to nonexposed parents, regression analysis was made to determine the effect of parental age on the weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of the offspring, but no statistically significant relation was observed. The mean and variance values of weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of offspring of nonexposed parents were compared to those of offspring born to exposed father and nonexposed mother, and of offspring born to exposed mother and nonexposed father, but very few statistically significant differences were found. The mean and variance values of weight, sitting height, and chest circumference of offspring born to nonexposed parents were compared to those of offspring born to parents both exposed, and again there were very few statistically significant differences. No specific tendency was observed in relation to the combined radiation dose of both parents. (author)

  17. Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed a-bomb survivors following radiotherapy for breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikami, Motoko; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao; Ohkita, Takeshi; Sawada, Hisao.

    1980-03-01

    Two cases of acute leukemia in heavily exposed atomic bomb survivors following postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy for breast cancer are presented. Case 1, a female who received an estimated dose of 364 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 22, was diagnosed as having left breast cancer 17 years later. At the age of 48, about 8 years after undergoing postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy, she developed acute monocytic leukemia. Case 2, a female who received an estimated dose of 594 rad from the A-bomb at the age of 37, was diagnosed as having right breast cancer 22 years later. At the age of 63, 4 years after postoperative 60 Co radiotherapy, she was found to have acute erythroleukemia. Both cases had been exposed to the A-bomb in Hiroshima and to therapeutic radiation after developing breast cancer presumably induced by A-bomb exposure. Thus it is proposed that acute leukemia was induced by exposure to large doses of radiation from two sources. (author)

  18. Mutation and cancer in relation to the atomic-bomb radiation effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Sohei

    1988-01-01

    Epidemiologic studies have provided many clues useful for elucidating mechanisms of induction of cancer and mutation in man after exposure to radiation. In the present paper, these clues are considered together with recent developments in the knowledge of carcinogenesis and mutagenesis in Drosophila, mice, rats and cultured human cells. A working hypothesis is presented for radiation carcinogenesis in man. The descriptions are given under two sections: I) Genetic and oncogenic effects of the A-bomb radiations, and II) Experimental mutagenesis and carcinogenesis relevant to the A-bomb radiation effects. Using data on somatic deletion and recombination in hemopoietic stem cells of A-bomb survivors, the two-mutation model is converted into a numerical equation for the frequency of the production of a preleukemic cell as a function of radiation dose. The slope of the theoretical dose-response curve obtained from this equation agrees faily well with those of the actual dose-response of leukemia in A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki except at a low dose. Experimental evidence supports the model that radiation acts, at high doses above a threshold value, as a promotor to produce cancer. Obviously, the promotor model predicts a sigmoidal dose-response. In fact, 4 out of 5 types of cancer in Nagasaki show seemingly sigmoidal curves; the mortality rate is lower among the group exposed in a limited low dose range than among the unexposed group. Whether such a low-level radiation really exerts beneficial effects is open for future study. (N.K.) 68 refs

  19. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.

    2013-01-01

    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  20. M-proteinemia in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neriishi, Kazuo; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Mikami, Motoko

    1990-01-01

    A comparative analysis of monoclonal gammopathy (M proteinemia) in A-bomb survivors, detected during the period from October 1979 through September 1981 (the first survey) and the period from June 1985 through May 1987 (the second survey), was made by using the 1986 dosimetry system. M-proteinemia was detected in 33 (0.38%) of 8,796 participants in the first survey and in 69 (0.94%) of 7,350 participants in the second survey; the prevalence of M-proteinemia was 2.5 times higher in the second survey than the first survey. It occurred more frequently with aging, especially in the 70 years and older age group. In 9 (27%) of 33 patients detected at the first survey, death was confirmed at the second survey; it was attributable to malignant tumor in 4, multiple myeloma in 2, and colon cancer, lung cancer and prostatic cancer in one each. Follow-up, available in 8 patients diagnosed as benign monoclonal gammopathy at the first survey, revealed the occurrence of immunoglobulin suppression in 4 patients. The relative risk between the persons exposed to 0.01 Gy or more and non-exposed persons was 2.0 for monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance and 1.3 for benign monoclonal gammopathy; however, this was not statistically significant. (N.K.) 50 refs

  1. Leukemia incidence among individuals exposed in utero, children of atomic bomb survivors, and their controls; Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1945-79

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Ichimaru, Michito; Mikami, Motoko.

    1982-03-01

    The incidence of leukemia has been analyzed in relation to the fetal dose of individuals exposed in utero, and the parental gonadal dose of individuals born to atomic bomb survivors and controls in the two fixed RERF cohorts. Among 3,636 in utero exposed children and controls, 3 leukemia cases have been identified through 1979. No excess risk of leukemia for in utero exposed children is apparent. For children born to exposed parents and controls, 36 leukemia cases have been identified in the years 1946-79 among 50,689 study subjects where the parental gonadal dose is available. Again, no excess risk of leukemia exists. (author)

  2. Profiles of non-cancer diseases in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazunori Kodama; Saeko Fujiwara; Michiko Yamada; Fumiyoshi Kasagi; Yukiko Shimizu; Itsuzo Shigematsu

    1996-01-01

    This article summarizes the results of a recent study of atomic bomb radiation and non-cancer diseases in the AHS (Adult Health Study) population by the RERF (Radiation Effects Research Foundation) along with a general discussion of previous studies. Recent studies have demonstrated almost certainly that uterine myoma is more frequent among atomic bomb survivors. It cannot, at present, be concluded that uterine myoma is caused by radiation, because there are no reported studies of other exposed populations. Further analyses including the role of confounding factors as well as molecular approaches are needed to verify this radiation effect. The relationship between atomic bomb radiation exposure and hyperparathyroidism can now be said to have been established in view of the strong dose response, the agreement with results of studies of other populations, the high risk in the younger survivors, and the biological plausibility. Future studies by molecular approaches, etc., are needed to determine the pathogenic mechanism. Among other benign tumours, a dose response has been demonstrated for tumours of the thyroid, stomach and ovary. Although fewer studies have been conducted than for cancer, a clear association between radiation and various benign tumours is emerging. 79 refs, 5 figs, 1 tab

  3. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A

    2006-01-01

    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  4. Tumor registry data, Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1957-1959: malignant neoplasms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harada, Tomin; Ide, Masao; Ishida, Morihiro; Troup, G M

    1963-10-03

    The report concerns three aspects of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki Tumor Registry data, 1957-1959: comparability, reliability and validity of incidence rates of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries and various statistical problems of registered data related to the Life Span Study sample and Adult Health Study sample; incidence rates of main site of malignant neoplasms obtained from the Tumor Registries are compared with those of the United States and Denmark; and incidence of malignant neoplasm among Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. 15 references, 7 figures, 30 tables.

  5. Liver cancer in atomic-bomb survivors. Histological characteristics and relationships to radiation and hepatitis B and C viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuhara, Toshiyuki; Sharp, G.B.; Mizuno, Terumi

    2001-01-01

    Histological features of primary liver cancer among atomic-bomb survivors and their relationship to hepatitis B (HBV) and C viral (HCV) infections are of special interest because of the increased risk of liver cancer in persons exposed to ionizing radiation and the high and increasing liver cancer rates in Japan and elsewhere. We conducted a pathology review of liver cancers occurring from 1958 to 1987 among subjects in the 120,321 member cohort of 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki residents. A panel of pathologists classified tumor histological types and defined accompanying cirrhotic changes of the liver. Archival tissue samples were assessed for HBV using pathology stains and PCR. Reverse transcriptase (RT) PCR was used to determine HCV status. We used unconditional logistic regression to compare 302 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases to 53 cholangiocarcinoma (CC) cases, adjusting for age, year of diagnosis, sex and viral status. Cirrhotic changes occurred significantly more often among HCC than CC cases (76% in HCC and 6% in CC). Compared to CC cases, HCC cases were 10.9 times more likely to be HBV-positive (95% confidence interval: 2.1-83.2) and 4.3 times more likely to be HCV-positive (95% confidence interval: 1.1-20.5) No significant differences were found between HCC and CC cases in radiation exposures. The predominance of HCC in the atomic-bomb survivors follows the background liver cancer pattern in Japan. Our findings suggest that HBV and HCV are involved in the pathogenesis of HCC with or without cirrhosis and are significantly less important in that of CC. (author)

  6. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F.G.

    1994-09-01

    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  7. Evaluation of adverse events in atomic bomb survivors receiving curative-intent radiation therapy from 2005 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Yoshiko; Murakami, Yuji; Kenjo, Masahiro; Imano, Nobuki; Kimura, Tomoki; Nagata, Yasushi

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the safety of radiation therapy (RT) in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors (ABS), we evaluated the frequency of RT-associated adverse events (AEs) in ABS. We selected patients who underwent curative external-beam RT (EBRT) at Hiroshima University Hospital between January 2005 and December 2010 and were born before August 1946; the patients were divided into ABS and non-ABS groups, which groups received identical treatments without stratification. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 220 ABS and 753 non-ABS patients. The median age was 72 years. The median observation durations were 41 and 37 months for the ABS and non-ABS groups, respectively. The ABS group had higher frequencies of women, breast cancer patients, and concurrent chemotherapy and had a lower incidence of only acute hematological AEs. However this tendency disappeared when breast cancer patients were excluded, and no significant differences were observed between the ABS and non-ABS groups regarding Grade ⩾ 3 other acute and late AEs. The overall cumulative incidence of Grade ⩾ 3 late AEs did not significantly differ between the ABS and non-ABS groups. Notable increases in AEs were not observed during or after RT among ABS. This study clarified that stratification is not required when treating ABS with RT. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Hiroshima and ourselves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lifton, R.J.

    1985-01-01

    The author discusses his feelings and responses which he experienced from interviewing Hiroshima survivors. As survivors attempted to recall their feelings at the time of the bomb, they conveyed a sense of having been immersed in a sea of death. They remembered not only the expectation of their own death but also the sense that the whole world was dying. What impressed the author most was the survivor's lifelong encounter with death, which could be understood as taking place in four stages: the immersion in death at the time of the bomb; the experience of acute radiation effects (including extreme weakness, severe gastrointestinal symptoms, bleeding into the skin and from bodily orifices, high fever, low white blood cell counts, alopecia, and death); delayed radiation effects (increased incidence of leukemia and of many forms of cancer); and an eventual sense of permanent death taint associated with the identity of hibakusha, or explosion-affected person

  9. Photography and nuclear catastrophe. The visual representation of the occurrences in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Chernobyl; Fotografie und atomare Katastrophe. Die visuelle Repraesentation der Ereignisse von Hiroshima/Nagasaki und Tschernobyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buerkner, Daniel

    2014-02-13

    The dissertation project seeks to analyse the photographic positions that deal with the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. This focus includes press photographs of the events as well as artistic, documentary and touristic images that take an approach towards the disasters often years after and hereby form iconographic or material references to the events. The study reveals central strategies for photographic images of atomic catastrophes, be they of military or civil nature. It is the inability to visualize non-visible nuclear rays or the complexity of processes on an atomic level that has turned out to be crucial. This incapacity of making images, a paradigm of invisibility, substantially coins the cultural role of the events. The question of how a society deals with these abstract potentials of nuclear technology has turned out to be always anew of high relevance in regard to ecological, social and technological policies of images.

  10. A review of colorectal cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakao, Susumu; Sawai, Terumitsu; Ishii, Toshiyo; Eida, Kazuyuki; Noguchi, Kyoichi; Takahara, Osamu

    1989-01-01

    Clinical and pathological characteristics of patients with colorectal cancer amongst atomic bomb survivors, who had undergone operations from 1971∼1984, have been reviewed and compared with that of a control group. The survival rate of the atomic bomb survivors over the age of 60 years was statistically better than that of the same age group in the controls. In this age bracket, the control group were in a more advanced stage of the disease than were the survivors, this accounting for the reason why the survivors had better prognosis. Further, the fact that the survivors continually have received more medical attention than have the aged in the control group affects this statistic. (author)

  11. FROM THE HISTORY OF PHYSICS: The development of the first Soviet atomic bomb

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncharov, German A.; Ryabev, Lev D.

    2001-01-01

    In the late 1930s and early 1940s, two remarkable physical phenomena — the fission of heavy nuclei and the chain fission reaction — were discovered, implying that a new powerful source of energy (nuclear fission energy) might become a practical possibility for mankind. At that time, however, the political situation in the world made the development of the atomic bomb the main objective of nuclear energy research in the countries involved. The first atomic bombs, notoriously used in the war against Japan, were produced by the United States of America only six and a half years after the discovery of fission. Four years later, the first Soviet atomic bomb was tested. This was a major step toward the establishment of nuclear parity which led to stability and global peace and thus greatly influenced the destiny of human kind. Based on documentary materials covering the period from 1939 to 1949, this paper traces the origin and evolution of the physical ideas behind the first Soviet atomic bomb and discusses the most important events associated with the project.

  12. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-01-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.)

  13. Report on the results of the fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Mukai, Hideaki; Suga, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kunihara, Michitoshi; Ishida, Shigeki.

    1991-01-01

    From October 21 through November 5, 1990, health examination was performed in atomic bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay. A total of 194 persons were recognized as having been exposed to A-bombing. Among them, 122 atomic-bomb survivors (62.9%) participated in the present health examination, consisting of 55 men and 67 women. An average age was 61.5±9.0 years for men and 59.6±8.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of health handbook for atomic bomb survivors was 35.2%. Past history for cancer resection was seen in 4 atomic bomb survivors. The presenting subjective symptoms were fatigue, heat intolerance, decreased physical fitness, and unintentional weight loss. Laboratory findings included: a decreased value of hemoglobin (5 atomic-bomb survivors), hypertension (26), noticeable ECG findings (5), abnormal values of GOT (28) and GPT (14), hypercholesteremia (43), hyperuricemia (19), and fasting hyperglycemia (8). Overall evaluation showed that 48 atomic bomb survivors need to receive detailed medical examination for hypertension, heart disease, liver disease, and hyperlipemia. (N.K.)

  14. Report on the results of the fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, Kenji (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine); Kuramoto, Kiyoshi; Mukai, Hideaki; Suga, Kentaro; Yamamoto, Yoshio; Kunihara, Michitoshi; Ishida, Shigeki

    1991-08-01

    From October 21 through November 5, 1990, health examination was performed in atomic bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru, and Paraguay. A total of 194 persons were recognized as having been exposed to A-bombing. Among them, 122 atomic-bomb survivors (62.9%) participated in the present health examination, consisting of 55 men and 67 women. An average age was 61.5{+-}9.0 years for men and 59.6{+-}8.6 years for women. The acquisition rate of health handbook for atomic bomb survivors was 35.2%. Past history for cancer resection was seen in 4 atomic bomb survivors. The presenting subjective symptoms were fatigue, heat intolerance, decreased physical fitness, and unintentional weight loss. Laboratory findings included: a decreased value of hemoglobin (5 atomic-bomb survivors), hypertension (26), noticeable ECG findings (5), abnormal values of GOT (28) and GPT (14), hypercholesteremia (43), hyperuricemia (19), and fasting hyperglycemia (8). Overall evaluation showed that 48 atomic bomb survivors need to receive detailed medical examination for hypertension, heart disease, liver disease, and hyperlipemia. (N.K.).

  15. Malignant tumors during the first 2 decades of life in the offspring of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Y.; Neel, J.V.; Schull, W.J.; Kato, H.; Soda, M.; Eto, R.; Mabuchi, K.

    1990-01-01

    The risk of cancer (incidence) prior to age 20 years has been determined for children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of such childhood tumors as retinoblastoma and Wilms tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated by the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for one or both of whose parents a DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom an ad hoc dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of (1) a cohort of 31,150 live-born children one or both of whose parents received greater than 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the atomic bombings (average conjoint gonad exposure 0.43 Sv) and (2) two suitable comparison groups totaling 41,066 children. Altogether, 43 malignant tumors were ascertained in the children of exposed parents, and 49 malignant tumors were ascertained in the two control groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0-5.0% of the tumors of childhood that were observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. There is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings that Nomura found in a mouse system

  16. Detection at a distance of atomic bomb tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nahmias, M E

    1954-01-01

    Nahmias describes the radioassay of air, rain, and snowfall as the basis for detecting atomic bomb tests. Tables and graphs give time vs. Ra equivalents, distance vs Roentgens/h of radiation, and distribution of radioelements which can be expected.

  17. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  18. Teaching and Learning Multiple Perspectives: The Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppen, Frans H.

    2000-01-01

    Explores how historical empathy can give students a richer understanding of the past, focusing on the development of the students' historical understanding through an analysis of 18 documents on President Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb against Japan. (CMK)

  19. A californium-252 source for radiobiological studies at Hiroshima University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Takeoka, Seiji; Kuroda, Tokue; Tsujimura, Tomotaka; Kawami, Masaharu; Hoshi, Masaharu; Sawada, Shozo

    1987-01-01

    A 1.93 Ci (3.6 mg) californium-252 source was installed in the radiation facility of the Research Institute for Nuclear Medicine and Biology, Hiroshima University. This source produces fission neutrons (8.7 x 10 9 n/s at the time of its installation), which are similar to neutron spectrum of the atomic bombs. It is useful for studying biological effects of fission neutrons and neutron dosimetry. An apparatus was dosigned to accomodate this source and to apply it to such studies. It has resulted in profitable fission neutron exposures, while suppressing scattered neutrons and secondary gamma rays. This apparatus incorporates many safety systems, including one which interlocks with all of doors and an elevator serving the exposure room, so as to prevent accidents involving users. (author)

  20. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satow, Yukio

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F 1 ) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F 2 ) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F 1 fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F 2 fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F 1 and F 2 . Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F 1 and F 2 . (author)

  1. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1992-01-01

    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  2. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    We already reported that there was a high correlation between the exposure dose and the incidence of skin cancer in A-bomb survivors using the data of the Nagasaki Life Span Study of Radiation Effects Research Foundation and Nagasaki Tumor Registry. In Report 3 of this series, we confirmed that the correlation between the exposure distance and the incidence of skin cancer was statistically significant. In Report 4, we clarified that the incidence of skin cancer in proximally exposed Nagasaki A-bomb survivors when compared to distally exposed victims appears to be increasing since 1975. In this final report of the series, we examined the characteristics of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors using 140 skin cancer cases collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts on the basis of the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. Among the various items examined, the only item that showed a statistical significance was the age at exposure in the cases of squamous cell carcinoma, i.e., those exposed within 2.5 km from the hypocenter were significantly younger than those exposed at 3.0 km or more. (author)

  3. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.

    1987-06-01

    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.).

  4. Pathological study on breast lesions examined at Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital and Atomic Bomb Survivors Hospital, April 1985-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nambu, Shigeru; Fujihara, Megumu; Kuramoto, Kiyoshi

    1990-01-01

    An analysis of 312 breast biopsies of 303 patients, performed during a 5-year period from April 1985 through March 1990 in a survey of the effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation, yielded the following findings. Sixty four (20.5%) of the 312 biopsies were in patients who had been exposed to A-bomb radiation or who had entered the city after the A-bombing, 10 of which were in patients exposed at up to 2,000 m from the hypocenter. Of the 64 biopsies performed for breast lesions in the exposed group, 42 (65.6%) yielded breast cancer. This figure was higher when compared with 47.0% (64 biopsies) of 136 patients who had been born before the A-bombing in the non-exposed group. In the exposed group, age distribution at the time of A-bombing was 11.9% in the first decade, 35.7% in the second decade, 31.0% in the third decade, 16.7% in the fourth decade, and 4.8% in the fifth decade. There was no correlation between histology type and exposure history in breast cancer. Nor did correlation exist between the age at the time of A-bombing and histology type in the exposed group. (N.K.)

  5. A lifelong journey of moving beyond wartime trauma for survivors from Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liehr, Patricia; Nishimura, Chie; Ito, Mio; Wands, Lisa Marie; Takahashi, Ryutaro

    2011-01-01

    This study examines 51 stories of health, shared by people who survived the wartime trauma of Hiroshima and Pearl Harbor, seeking to identify turning points that moved participants along over their lifetime. The central turning point for Hiroshima survivors was "becoming Hibabusha (A-bomb survivor)" and for Pearl Harbor survivors was "honoring the memory and setting it aside." Wartime trauma was permanently integrated into survivors' histories, surfacing steadily over decades for Hiroshima survivors and intermittently over decades for Pearl Harbor survivors. Regardless of experience or nationality, participants moved through wartime trauma by connecting with others, pursuing personal and global peace.

  6. A study of sibling leukemia in the second generations of A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takagi, Nobuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Although the sibling leukemia (SL) is very rare, it is known in 4 families living in Osaka and Hiroshima, of which mothers are A-bomb survivors (2 exposed in Hiroshima/2 in Nagasaki). This study was performed on the 8 cases of SL to examine factors concerned with SL morbidity by comparison with SL in families unrelated to A-bomb exposure. Subjects were 4 cases of SL in Osaka, 4 cases in Hiroshima, and comparative 28 cases of age <20 y in 13 families (1930-1974) in a textbook published in 1979. The SL cases from mothers exposed at ages of 10-20 y were 5 males/3 females, and died at ages of 6-17 y (av. 11 y) due to acute, myeloid/monocytic leukemia. Three mothers' exposures were due to entrance in the City just/1 or 10 days after explosion and 2 mothers had lived in the black rain regions of either Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Comparisons were made on sex, type of L, age at death, parents' exposure, family composition, complication, and parents' consanguineous marriage. Findings of SL specific in the second generations of A-bomb survivors were from exposed mothers, and were mostly myeloid (monocyte) type leukemia, suggesting the effect of exposure. These facts may suggest that oocytes/ovula are of high sensitivity to internal exposure or low dose exposure. (T.T.)

  7. Incidence of leukemia in a fixed cohort of atomic bomb survivors and controls, Hiroshima and Nagasaki October 1950 - December 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Mikami, Motoko; Yamada, Yasuaki; Ohkita, Takeshi.

    1982-12-01

    The present analysis of leukemia incidence is confined to 189 cases in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The analysis again demonstrates that the risk of all types of leukemia has increased with dose in both cities except among individuals who received less than 100 rad in kerma total dose in Nagasaki. The shape of the dose-response curve is different in the two cities and between the two major types of leukemia (acute leukemia and chronic granulocytic leukemia), though the average marrow total dose is quite similar in each total kerma dose class in the two cities. The present findings are quite consistent with those described in the previous report. The excess risk among survivors who received 100 rad or more kerma total dose has gradually declined with years after exposure in both cities. It had disappeared among Nagasaki survivors by 1970 (25 years after exposure) but the risk was still high even after 1970 among exposed survivors in Hiroshima who were 30 years of age or older ATB. The leukemogenic effect of radiation differs in relation to dose, age ATB, and duration after exposure between Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors. The analysis has again supported previous observations that the leukemogenic effect of radiation in those individuals exposed at younger ages ATB was greater in the early postbomb period and declined more rapidly in subsequent years, while the effect in older individuals ATB appeared later and persisted longer. (author)

  8. Primary liver carcinoma and liver cirrhosis in atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-75, with special reference to HBs antigen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Kato, Hiroo; Yoshimoto, Keiko; Seyama, Shinichi; Itakura, Hideyo.

    1982-03-01

    During 1961-75, 128 cases of primary liver carcinoma (PLC) in the RERF Life Span Study extended sample and 301 cases of liver cirrhosis in the RERF Pathology Study sample were observed. All cases were assessed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HB sub(s) Ag) using orcein and aldehyde fuchsin staining. The incidence of PLC was 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima which was statistically significant, but the prevalence of liver cirrhosis showed hardly any difference between the two cities. Meaningful findings that may possibly explain the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki were that the presence of HB sub(s) Ag in the liver of patients without overt liver disease was 2.3 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima, and the prevalence of liver cirrhosis associated with PLC, especially that of posthepatitic cirrhosis with PLC, was almost 2.0 times higher in Nagasaki than in Hiroshima. In both cities a suggestive relationship of radiation dose with the prevalence of liver cirrhosis was noted but not with PLC. We believe that the higher incidence of PLC in Nagasaki is attributable to HB virus infection, though other factors, such as immunological competence affected by radiation, cannot be excluded. (author)

  9. Chernobyl or Hiroshima?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deserno, H.

    1987-01-01

    The so called peaceful use of atomic power is an ideology specifically apt for appeasement in an illusionary way: although everyone could know about the desastrous effects of radioactivity since Hiroshima and Nagasaki, the civil use of atomic power serves to demonstrate, that the incompatibility of radionuclides with health and life could be controlled and mastered. In this context the civil use of atomic power appears as an instrument of social control. (orig.) [de

  10. Analysis of peripheral blood lymphocytes of atomic bomb survivors using monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kobuke, Kyoko; Hakoda, Masayuki; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Jones, S.L.; Olson, G.B.

    1986-01-01

    In order to study the effects of exposure to atomic bomb radiation on the immune competence of man, the proportions of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets (subpopulations) were determined by an indirect immunofluorescence antibody assay using monoclonal antibodies and fluorescence microscopy. The study was based on a total of 104 Adult Health Study participants in Hiroshima, including 29 individuals exposed to 100 + rad, 46 exposed to 1 - 99 rad, and 29 0 rad controls. No change in the proportion of Leu-1 positive cells (total T cells) and Leu-2a positive cells (cytotoxic/suppressor T cells) and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a was observed with age, while Leu-3a positive cells (helper/inducer T cells) decreased with age and HLA-DR positive cells (B cells and monocytes) increased with age, with the differences occurring predominantly in the oldest age group (age > 75). The proportion of HLA-DR positive cells was higher in males, but there was no significant sex difference in the proportions of other cell types and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. Radiation exposure did not significantly affect the proportions of Leu-1, Leu-2a, Leu-3a, and HLA-DR positive cells and the ratio of Leu-3a/Leu-2a. No interaction between the effects of age and radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

  11. Mortality among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors, 1946-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Schull, W.J.; Kato, Hiroo; Neel, J.V.

    1991-01-01

    We compare the mortality in the years of 1946-85 in a cohort of 31,159 children born to parents one or both of whom were exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (a parental gonadal dose ≥0.01 Sv) with that in a control group of 41,069 children. The average gonadal dose for the exposed parents was 0.435 Sv. The mean age of the cohorts was 28.8 years. In the ≥0.01 Sv dose group 1,253 deaths were observed in the subset of children both of whose parents have been assigned DS86 doses. 3.2% were attributed to cancers, 72.9% to all diseases except neoplasms. These proportions in the 0 Sv dose group were about the same. Based on a linear relative risk model, no statistically significant increase in the mortality attributable to diseases other than neoplasms is noted following parental exposure, the excess relative risk being 0.030 (±0.046) per sievert based on the DS86 doses (RBE of neutrons=20). For fatal cancer, no statistically significant effect of parental radiation dose was also observed. An analysis based on the full sample, using not only the DS86 dose group but also ad hoc dose group, yields essentially the same results as the analysis restricted to the DS86 dose group. (author)

  12. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-01-01

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring

  13. Development of A-bomb survivor dosimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1995-12-31

    An all important datum in risk assessment is the radiation dose to individual survivors of the bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The first set of dose estimates for survivors was based on a dosimetry system developed in 1957 by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). These Tentative 1957 Doses (T57D) were later replaced by a more extensive and refined set of Tentative 1965 Doses (T65D). The T65D system of dose estimation for survivors was also developed at ORNL and served as a basis for risk assessment throughout the 1970s. In the late 1970s, it was suggested that there were serious inadequacies with the T65D system, and these inadequacies were the topic of discussion at two symposia held in 1981. In early 1983, joint US- Japan research programs were established to conduct a thorough review of all aspects of the radiation dosimetry for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors. A number of important contributions to this review were made by ORNL staff members. The review was completed in 1986 and a new Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86) was adopted for use. This paper discusses the development of the various systems of A-bomb survivor dosimetry, and the status of the current DS86 system as it is being applied in the medical follow-up studies of the A-bomb survivors and their offspring.

  14. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at ≤2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the ≤2500 m group than in the ≥3000 m group. (N.K.)

  15. Epidemiologic study of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-01-01

    Data from 140 A-bomb survivors with skin cancer were analyzed with the purpose of elucidating the relationship between atomic bombing and skin cancer. The incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated with the distance from the hypocenter (p<0.01), regardless of sex. Basal cell epithelioma was the most predominant, followed by squamous cell carcinoma. Histology of skin cancer seemed independent of the distance. Since 1965, the incidence of skin cancer has been increased with aging in A-bomb survivors exposed at le2500 m from the hypocenter. It has been significantly higher since 1975 in the le2500 m group than in the ge3000 m group. (N.K.).

  16. Food habits in atomic bomb survivors suffering from malignant neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, Kazue; Inoue, Hisako; Uchino, Chito

    1984-01-01

    Food habits were surveyed in patients admitted to 13 hospitals in Nagasaki prefecture and other prefectures to compare the incidence of malignant neoplasms according to the food intake between atomic bomb exposed group and non-exposed group. The incidence of malignant neoplasms was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of milk and salted fish than in those having the high intake of them in atomic bomb exposed group, while it was significantly higher in male patients having the low intake of potatoes and milk and in female patients having the low intake of boiled fish paste than in those having the high intake of them in non-exposed group. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. ABCC-JNIH adult health study Hiroshima and Nagasaki 1961 exposure to medical x-ray. Preliminary survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimaru, Toranosuke; Russell, W J

    1962-05-16

    A survey was conducted for three months among subjects seen in the medical clinics of ABCC, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, to determine the extent of medical x-ray received in ABCC and other hospitals and clinics. Emphasis was chiefly methodological to prepare for later studies designed to evaluate the contribution of medical x-ray to total radiation dose received by survivors of the atomic bombings and controls. The frequency, the institution in which the subject received x-ray, as well as the types of exposure were the prime considerations in the survey. The data were analyzed for each city by sex, age, and exposure status. 2 references, 5 figures, 11 tables.

  18. The Rhetoric of "Unconditional Surrender" and the Decision to Drop the Atomic Bomb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikins, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Analyzes the decision to drop the atomic bomb from a rhetorical point of view, arguing that the bombs were launched because of an American commitment to a particular rhetoric that focused on the propaganda slogan "unconditional surrender." (PD)

  19. Relationship between spontaneous γH2AX foci formation and progenitor functions in circulating hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells among atomic-bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kubo, Yoshiko; Misumi, Munechika; Yoshida, Kengo; Hayashi, Tomonori; Imai, Kazue; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Young, Lauren F; Shieh, Jae-Hung; Moore, Malcolm A; van den Brink, Marcel R M; Kusunoki, Yoichiro

    2016-05-01

    Accumulated DNA damage in hematopoietic stem cells is a primary mechanism of aging-associated dysfunction in human hematopoiesis. About 70 years ago, atomic-bomb (A-bomb) radiation induced DNA damage and functional decreases in the hematopoietic system of A-bomb survivors in a radiation dose-dependent manner. The peripheral blood cell populations then recovered to a normal range, but accompanying cells derived from hematopoietic stem cells still remain that bear molecular changes possibly caused by past radiation exposure and aging. In the present study, we evaluated radiation-related changes in the frequency of phosphorylated (Ser-139) H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation in circulating CD34-positive/lineage marker-negative (CD34+Lin-) hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) among 226Hiroshima A-bomb survivors. An association between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation in HSPCs and the radiation dose was observed, but the γH2AX foci frequency was not significantly elevated by past radiation. We found a negative correlation between the frequency of γH2AX foci formation and the length of granulocyte telomeres. A negative interaction effect between the radiation dose and the frequency of γH2AX foci was suggested in a proportion of a subset of HSPCs as assessed by the cobblestone area-forming cell assay (CAFC), indicating that the self-renewability of HSPCs may decrease in survivors who were exposed to a higher radiation dose and who had more DNA damage in their HSPCs. Thus, although many years after radiation exposure and with advancing age, the effect of DNA damage on the self-renewability of HSPCs may be modified by A-bomb radiation exposure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Material for 258 atom bombs disappeared?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruemm, H.

    1988-01-01

    In a report published in the news magazine, 'Der Spiegel', it was said that IAEA safeguards obviously had failed, for large amounts of fissile material had disappeared, which could be turned into 258 atomic bombs. The article in this issue of atw by the former Deputy Director General with the IAEA Safeguards Division sketches the background to the assertions made by 'Der Spiegel' and presents an overview of the inspection and verification methods employed by IAEA. (orig./HP) [de

  1. Report on the results of the sixth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Hiroaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumio; Nawachi, Sadahiro; Terada, Kensaku.

    1995-01-01

    The medical examination of A-bomb survivors was carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Republic of Peru, and Paraguay from October 25th to November 11th 1994. The survivors were 191 persons, and 98 (51.3%) of them received health consultation. Sixty-two persons were exposured in Hiroshima and 36 in Nagasaki. Average age of the medical examinee was 65.0±8.5-year-old. The holding rate of A-bomb survivor's handbook was 55.1%. The lowered physical vitality and the involution of the mental vitality with increased age were observed from interview sheets. This first orthopedic examination revealed abnormal findings in 12 persons. Sixty-five persons required further examinations. Cardiovascular risk factors of such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were observed. (H.O.)

  2. Report on the results of the sixth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Hiroaki [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Hirata, Katsumi; Taguchi, Atsushi; Sakamoto, Fumio; Nawachi, Sadahiro; Terada, Kensaku

    1995-11-01

    The medical examination of A-bomb survivors was carried out in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Republic of Peru, and Paraguay from October 25th to November 11th 1994. The survivors were 191 persons, and 98 (51.3%) of them received health consultation. Sixty-two persons were exposured in Hiroshima and 36 in Nagasaki. Average age of the medical examinee was 65.0{+-}8.5-year-old. The holding rate of A-bomb survivor`s handbook was 55.1%. The lowered physical vitality and the involution of the mental vitality with increased age were observed from interview sheets. This first orthopedic examination revealed abnormal findings in 12 persons. Sixty-five persons required further examinations. Cardiovascular risk factors of such as hypertension, obesity, hyperlipidemia and diabetes mellitus were observed. (H.O.).

  3. Some examination on the A-bomb exposed population and the number deceased through the population changes in census, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuzaki, Minoru; Ueoka, Hiroshi

    1976-01-01

    The rise and fall of population of Hiroshima City before and after 1945 and a movement of population in suburban districts, towns and villages corresponding to it were discussed mainly from census in 1944 and 1945, and A-bomb exposed population and the number decreased were estimated. Population in Hiroshima City after A-bomb exposure decreased by two hundred and six thousand which was 60% of that before A-bomb exposure. In contrast with this, population in suburban districts increased 21.8%. Population of the whole prefecture decreased by seventy-seven thousand. Furthermore, the number decreased was estimated in consideration of the general movement of population after the war. As a result, it was estimated that the number decreased of the whole prefecture was one hundred and ten thousand and that of Hiroshima City ranged from eighty-four thousand to one hundred and four thousand. (Takeda, Y.)

  4. Status of Los Alamos efforts related to Hiroshima and Nagasaki dose estimates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whalen, P.P.

    1981-09-01

    The Los Alamos efforts related to resolution of the Hiroshima, Nagasaki doses are described as follows: (1) Using recently located replicas of the Hiroshima bomb, measurements will be made which will define the upper limit of the Hiroshima yield. (2) Two-dimensional calculations of the neutron and gamma-ray outputs of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki weapons are in progress. Neutron and gamma-ray leakage spectra measurements will be made. Similar measurements on the Mark 9 weapon and on the Ichiban assembly are proposed. These measurements will provide a check for present day cross sections and calculations. (3) Calculations of several air transport experiments are in progress. A comparison of calculated results with experimental results is given. (4) The neutron and gamma-ray output spectra of several devices tested in the atmosphere at the Nevada Test Site are being calculated. The results of these calculations will allow models of the debris cloud contribution to the total dose to be tested

  5. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka

    1999-01-01

    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  6. The incidence of leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma among atomic bomb survivors: 1950 – 2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Wan-Ling; Preston, Dale L.; Soda, Midori; Sugiyama, Hiromi; Funamoto, Sachiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kimura, Akiro; Kamada, Nanao; Dohy, Hiroo; Tomonaga, Masao; Iwanaga, Masako; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Cullings, Harry M.; Suyama, Akihiko; Ozasa, Kotaro; Shore, Roy E.; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko

    2013-01-01

    A marked increase in leukemia risks was the first and most striking late effect of radiation exposure seen among the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. This paper presents analyses of radiation effects on leukemia, lymphoma, and multiple myeloma incidence in the Life Span Study cohort of atomic bomb survivors updated 14 years since the last comprehensive report on these malignancies. These analyses make use of tumor- and leukemia-registry-based incidence data on 113,011 cohort members with 3.6 million person-years of follow-up from late 1950 through the end of 2001. In addition to a detailed analysis of the excess risk for all leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia (neither of which appear to be radiation-related), we present results for the major hematopoietic malignancy types: acute lymphoblastic leukemia, chronic lymphocytic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, chronic myeloid leukemia, adult T-cell leukemia, Hodgkin and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and multiple myeloma. Poisson regression methods were used to characterize the shape of the radiation dose response relationship and, to the extent the data allowed, to investigate variation in the excess risks with sex, attained age, exposure age, and time since exposure. In contrast to the previous report that focused on describing excess absolute rates, we considered both excess absolute rate (EAR) and excess relative risk (ERR) models and found that ERR models can often provide equivalent and sometimes more parsimonious descriptions of the excess risk than EAR models. The leukemia results indicated that there was a non-linear dose response for leukemias other than chronic lymphocytic leukemia or adult T-cell leukemia, which varied markedly with time and age at exposure, with much of the evidence for this non-linearity arising from the acute myeloid leukemia risks. Although the leukemia excess risks generally declined with attained age or time since exposure, there was evidence

  7. Photography and nuclear catastrophe. The visual representation of the occurrences in Hiroshima/Nagasaki and Chernobyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buerkner, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The dissertation project seeks to analyse the photographic positions that deal with the atomic bomb attacks on Hiroshima and Nagasaki and the accident of the nuclear power plant in Chernobyl. This focus includes press photographs of the events as well as artistic, documentary and touristic images that take an approach towards the disasters often years after and hereby form iconographic or material references to the events. The study reveals central strategies for photographic images of atomic catastrophes, be they of military or civil nature. It is the inability to visualize non-visible nuclear rays or the complexity of processes on an atomic level that has turned out to be crucial. This incapacity of making images, a paradigm of invisibility, substantially coins the cultural role of the events. The question of how a society deals with these abstract potentials of nuclear technology has turned out to be always anew of high relevance in regard to ecological, social and technological policies of images.

  8. ABCC-JNTH Adult Health Study. Report 4. 1960-1962 cycle of examinations, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freedman, L R; Fukushima, Kazuko; Seigel, D G

    1963-10-29

    The purpose is to determine by clinical investigation any late medical effects of radiation in persons exposed to the 1945 atomic bombings of the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The prevalence and incidence of certain findings were found to be different in Hiroshima and Nasasaki. For example, tuberculosis, neoplasms of the digestive organs, gastric ulcer, diseases of the thyroid, diabetes mellitus, blood diseases, and arteriosclerosis were more frequent in Hiroshima. On the other hand, syphilis, cerebrovascular accidents, intestinal parasitism, liver and kideny disease, and arthritis were more frequent in Nagasaki. The data from the hematological examinations demonstrate a decrease in hemoglobin and hematocrit with increasing age in men. In both sexes total white blood cell counts decreased with age and the values for males were higher than those for females. Total white blood cell counts in Hiroshima were higher than in Nagasaki. The need continues for superimposition of a number of epidemiologic investigations onto the basic structure of the Adult Health Study to better define and explore the differences between cities. These substudies will undoubtedly provide a more precise foundation for the study of radiation effects and further understanding of important diseases. Finally, since this study brings together scientists from two parts of the world, patterns of disease detected in Japan inevitably were compared with personal and published experience in the United States. Many suspected differences between these countries have been commented upon in the medical literature. The Adult Health Study is contributing data which will establish or deny these differences. 147 references, 18 figures, 35 tables.

  9. Injury to the human body, part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    Injuries by exposure to the atomic bomb at Hiroshima and Nagasaki and its effects were studied as follows: 1) Injury to the human body following exposure to the atomic bomb; 2) Body injury in the initial stage-acute stage of atomic bomb injury; 3) Aftereffects and genetic effects. (J.P.N.)

  10. Hot spring therapy of atomic bomb exposed patients, (9)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatta, O [Balneogic Sanatorium for the Atomic Bomb Injured Beppu, Oita (Japan); Tsuji, H

    1978-03-01

    The following description shows the statistics and the results of medical examinatin concerning the patients utilized Beppu Atomic Bomb Center from April, 1977, to March, 1978. Number of persons utilized the center was 3904, and 20285 man-days in total. Number of case treated there was 268. Number of diseases amounted to 442 of 66 sorts, excluding temporary of acute diseases such as acute entergastritis and cold diseases, etc. According to the report by the Ministry of Health and Welfare, atomic bomb-exposed persons show twice as much rate of incidence as normal persons, and owing to aging, many of them have more than two kinds of diseases. Among the diseases, 60 cases were hypertension, 32 heart disease, 30 knee-arthritis, 26 diabetes, 25 hepatitis, 23 spondylosis deformans, etc. Among 268 cases treated by hot spring therapy, 6 were totally cured, and 252 showed alleviation, while 10 showed no change.

  11. Skin cancer of Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Noda, Yoshinori; Fujiwara, Naoko; Takahara, Osamu; Sadamori, Michiko; Nishimoto, Katsutaro; Ota, Hisahiro.

    1990-01-01

    In Report 1 of this series, we suspected that the incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki A-bomb survivors might have increased based on evidence of chromosomal aberrations and clonal formations in cultured skin cells. In Report 2, we described the results of a preliminary study using 110 cases of skin cancer collected from the three major hospitals in Nagasaki City (Nagasaki University Hospital, A-bomb Hospital and Citizens Hospital). In that study a high correlation was observed between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure distance in the analysis of all 110 cases and of the 50 male cases (p<0.01), but no such correlation was noted in a separate analysis of the 60 female cases. In this report, 140 cases of skin cancer collected from 31 hospitals in Nagasaki City and adjacent districts were statistically analyzed in respect to the estimated distance from the hypocenter, using the data of a total of 66,276 A-bomb survivors recorded in the Scientific Data Center of the Atomic Bomb Disaster, Nagasaki University School of Medicine. The results disclosed a high correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and the exposure distance (p<0.01). In addition, this correlation was the same even when the cases were analyzed separately according to sex. (author)

  12. Report on the results of the ninth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Neriishi, Kazuo; Hirabayashi, Naoki; Sato, Reiko; Kawamoto, Hirofumi; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Nishihara, Yoji; Yamane, Kiyoaki; Fukuhara, Teruaki.

    1994-01-01

    The 9th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in the North America was conducted from June 16 to July 15, 1993 at Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu. As of the end of July 1993, the number of A-bomb survivors registered in the North America was 1073, including 23 in Canada. Of these survivors, 53 deaths were confirmed. Thus, the total number of living survivors was 1020, being composed of 268 men and 752 women, with an average age of 62.8 years. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 88.5%. U.S. nationality was seen in 62.1%; Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights in 30.6%. The most common residential state was California (61.6%), followed by Hawaii (18.8%) and Washington (5.6%). The rate of A-bomb survivors' health handbook possession was 58.5%, which was 3.9 times higher than that 10 years ago. Four hundreds and seventy-one A-bomb survivors (46.2%) participated in the present examination. In addition, 78 offsprings (F 1 ) of A-bomb survivors also participated in it, consisting of 35 men and 43 women. The most common disease requiring treatment and follow-up was hyperlipidemia (33.7%), followed by hypertension, liver disease, heart disease, thyroid disease and diabetes mellitus in that order. Cancer was seen in 4 survivors, consisting of colon cancer (2), leukemia (one) and Hodgkin's disease (one). (N.K.)

  13. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron

    2006-01-01

    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  14. Dietary factors and cancer mortality among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sauvaget, Catherine; Kasagi, Fumiyoshi; Waldren, Charles A.

    2004-01-01

    Dietary factors such as fruit and vegetables are thought to reduce the risk of cancer incidence and mortality. We investigated the effect of a diet rich in fruit and vegetables against the long-term effects of radiation exposure on the risk of cancer. A cohort of 36,228 atomic-bomb survivors of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, for whom radiation dose estimates were currently available, had their diet assessed in 1980. They were followed for a period of 20 years for cancer mortality. The joint-effect of fruit and vegetables intake and radiation exposure on risk of cancer death was examined, in additive (sum of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) and multiplicative (product of effects of diet alone and radiation alone) models. In the additive model, a daily intake of fruit and vegetables significantly reduced the risk of cancer deaths by 13%, compared to an intake of once or less per week. Radiation exposure of 1 Sievert (Sv) increased significantly the risk of cancer death by 48-49%. The additive joint-effects showed a lower risk of cancer among those exposed to 1 Sv who had a diet rich in vegetables (49%-13%=36%) or fruit (48%-13%=35%). The multiplicative model gave similar results. The cancer risk reduction by vegetables in exposed persons went from 52% (effect of radiation alone) to 32% (product of effect of vegetables and radiation), and cancer risk reduction by fruit was 52% (radiation alone) to 34% (product of effect of fruit and radiation). There was no significant evidence to reject either the additive or the multiplicative model. A daily intake of fruit and vegetables was beneficial to the persons exposed to radiation in reducing their risks of cancer death

  15. JNIH-ABCC life span study of children born to atomic bomb survivors. Report II. Mortality in children of atomic bomb survivors and controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neel, J V; Kato, H; Schull, W J; Jablon, S

    1972-01-01

    The study was updated so that the average interval between birth and verification of death or survival is now 17 years. The mortality experience is based on 18,946 children liveborn to parents proximally exposed (dose 117 rem); 16,516 children born to distally exposed parents (essentially no dose); and 17,263 children born to parents not in Hiroshima or Nagasaki at the time of the bombs. No clearly significant effect of parental exposure on child's survival can be demonstrated by contingency chi/sup 2/ or regression analysis. Based on regression, the minimal gametic doubling dose for mutations resulting in death during the first 17 years for liveborn infants conceived 0--13 years after parental exposure is 46 rem for fathers and 125 rem for mothers. Since the regression coefficients do not differ significantly from zero, it is preferable, in a situation where men and women are irradiated in equal numbers, to employ the average of the two estimates, namely 85 rem. The gametic doubling dose for chronic, low-level radiation is expected to be 3 to 4 times this value. (DLC)

  16. Growth and development studies Hiroshima and Nagasaki: research plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, S C; Jablon, S; Hrubec, Zdenek

    1962-03-21

    This report summarizes the research plan for prospective evaluation of growth and development in those exposed to varying amounts of ionizing radiation during childhood or while in utero in Hiroshima or Nagasaki. Some experimental observations are briefly presented to provide background information, and the results of previous studies of growth and development at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) are reviewed. Procedures have been described for determining the top of the growth curve for the in utero exposed and the maximum growth and development of those exposed during childhood in comparison to their nonexposed counterparts. Differences in growth and development found between exposed and nonexposed individuals will be analysed in relation to radiation dose, age at time of exposure, sex, and socioeconomic factors. Attempts will be made to determine whether or not abnormalities in visual acuity are increased in those exposed while in utero or during childhood as compared to nonexposed or comparable ages. 23 references, 2 tables.

  17. Cardiovascular disease in relation to exposure to ionizing radiation. ABCC-JNIH Adult Health Study Hiroshima 1958-60. Cardiovascular Project Report 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Katsuhiko; Ueda, Shoichi

    1962-12-12

    The prevalence of cardiovascular disease in Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors was analyzed for a possible radiation effect. Suggestive differences among comparison groups were observed concerning: High blood pressure in both sexes; Prevalence of coronary heart disease in females; and Age change in serum cholesterol level in males. It is not clear, however, from the present data whether these differences are radiation effects per se or concomitant effects of differences in environmental factors or even in accuracy of diagnosis. These points will be further investigated as follow-up data become available. 15 references, 2 figures, 17 tables.

  18. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Ozasa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  19. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors' Offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozasa, Kotaro; Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-04-05

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors-including those exposed in utero-and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors' children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young.

  20. Japanese Legacy Cohorts: The Life Span Study Atomic Bomb Survivor Cohort and Survivors’ Offspring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Eric J; Kodama, Kazunori

    2018-01-01

    Cohorts of atomic bomb survivors—including those exposed in utero—and children conceived after parental exposure were established to investigate late health effects of atomic bomb radiation and its transgenerational effects by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) in the 1950s. ABCC was reorganized to the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) in 1975, and all work has been continued at RERF. The Life Span Study, the cohort of survivors, consists of about 120,000 subjects and has been followed since 1950. Cohorts of in utero survivors and the survivors’ children include about 3,600 and 77,000 subjects, respectively, and have been followed since 1945. Atomic bomb radiation dose was estimated for each subject based on location at the time of the bombing and shielding conditions from exposure, which were obtained through enormous efforts of investigators and cooperation of subjects. Outcomes include vital status, cause of death, and cancer incidence. In addition, sub-cohorts of these three cohorts were constructed to examine clinical features of late health effects, and the subjects have been invited to periodic health examinations at clinics of ABCC and RERF. They were also asked to donate biosamples for biomedical investigations. Epidemiological studies have observed increased radiation risks for malignant diseases among survivors, including those exposed in utero, and possible risks for some non-cancer diseases. In children of survivors, no increased risks due to parental exposure to radiation have been observed for malignancies or other diseases, but investigations are continuing, as these cohorts are still relatively young. PMID:29553058

  1. Proceedings of the 46th Research Society for the Late Effects of A-Bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Shimizu, Yukiko; Tomonaga, Masao

    2006-01-01

    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title (in Hiroshima City, June 5, 2005), which containing following documents: the special lecture concerning The 60-year history after A-bomb by a doctor who has pursued the medical works for the survivors for about 40 years; 4 symposia on the view in coming decade of researches for the late effects of A-Bomb concerning Solid cancer risks, Blood disease risks (leukemia, myelodysplastic syndrome/MDS and multiple myeloma), Mechanism of radiation carcinogenesis, and Health problems in the second generations of survivors; and 30 general presentations. The general presentations involve 10 clinical and social examination-related studies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivors, a study on the internal exposure dose evaluation in residents around Chernobyl, 5 clinical and basic studies on thyroid, 2 studies on MDS, 3 basic or epidemiological studies on A-bomb radiation effects, 9 basic radiation biology studies related to gene analysis, DNA, apoptosis, 40 K and p53 in the survivors and/or in experimental cells/animals. (T.I.)

  2. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi; Kusumi, Shizuyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi

    2000-01-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  3. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2000-05-01

    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  4. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki; Amemiya, Tsugio

    2002-01-01

    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5±8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  5. Impact of Nagasaki atomic bomb exposure on myelodysplastic syndrome patients who are treated with azacitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Tatsuro; Horio, Kensuke; Shigematsu, Kazuto

    2015-05-01

    High-dose radiation exposure greatly increases the risk of myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS), however the clinical characteristics of MDS among atomic bomb survivors have not been thoroughly investigated to date. We designed this study to identify these characteristics. We retrospectively evaluated data from 13 atomic bomb survivors with MDS and 15 elderly patients with de novo MDS who were diagnosed between April 2011 and April 2013 at the Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital. All patients were treated with azacitidine (AZA; a hypomethylating agent) and overall survival rates were estimated. No clear difference was observed in the clinical response to AZA between the two groups. However, atomic bomb survivors had a survival disadvantage, independent of their karyotype. Minute genetic alterations caused by exposure to atomic radiation can adversely affect the response to AZA, even 66 years after the exposure. Further studies are required to clarify the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)

    2000-06-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  7. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina

    2014-03-01

    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  8. Is the excess risk of childhood leukemia at Sellafield consistent with the experiences of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki ?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this communication is to summarize briefly selected studies relevant to the difference between the apparent pre-conception radiation-associated leukemia risks in the offspring born in the area near the Sellafield plant and to the atomic bomb survivors. Although no doubt exists about the hypothesis that radiation damages the genetic material in reproductive cells, it is important to recognize how small the effect in the first generation would be based on the various genetic endpoints. Generally only a small fraction of leukemia cases are inherited -- the proportion among all spontaneous cases does not exceed 10 %. Because there is still uncertainty and controversy about the genetic effects of radiation, the possible complex confounding factors are also briefly mentioned. It is clear that the studies of the atomic bomb survivors are pertinent to the possible genetic effect due to radiation-induced mutations in the spermatogonia and oocytes while the observations in Sellafield are, as suggested by Gardner et al. pertinent to the in post-meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. No significant effect of atomic bomb radiation can be shown on the risk of leukemia as well as other genetic effect endpoints, such as the frequency of mutations associated with specific proteins, cytogenetic abnormalities, survival, and so on. (author)

  9. Report on the results of the fifth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegawa, Kenji; Hirata, Katsumi; Chiyoda, Shin; Moteki, Noriyuki; Ishino, Makoto; Hirai, Motohisa; Fukumoto, Masayuki.

    1993-01-01

    From October 20 to Novermber 6, 1992, medical examination was made in A-bomb survivors living in Brazil, Argentina, Bolivia, Peru and Paraguay. A total of 198 A-bomb survivors were identified in these 5 countries. Among them, 106 (53.5%) participated in the present medical examination, consisting of 49 men and 57 women. Seventy-two and 34 persons came from Hiroshima and Nagasaki, respectively. A mean age was 63.5±8.5 years for men and 63.8±7.3 years for women. The acquisition rate of A-bomb survivors' handbook was 51.9%. Medical questionnaires revealed surgical treatment for cancer in 4 persons. Subjective symptoms included fatigue, heat exhaustion, decreased body strength, and sensation of numbness. Laboratory findings revealed hypertension in 36 persons (38.3%), the necessity of ECG in 7 (6.5%), abnormal GOT in 5 (5.3%) and abnormal GPT in 2 (2.1%), hypercholesteremia in 20 (21.3%), hyperuricemia in 14 (14.9%), and high levels of fasting glucose in 10 (10.6%). The present medical examination revealed that 38 persons (35.8%) were required to take detailed examination and that common diseases were hypertension, hyperlipemia, hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases. (N.K.)

  10. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation. Artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Masao S.; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi

    2014-01-01

    Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation remains poorly defined because of ambiguity in the quantitative link to doses below 0.2 Sv in atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki arising from limitations in the statistical power and information available on overall radiation dose. To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. The analysis revealed unique features at low doses that could not be accounted for by nominal exposure dose, including (1) the presence of a threshold that varied with organ, gender and age at exposure, and (2) a small but significant bumping increase in cancer risk at low doses in Nagasaki that probably reflects internal exposure to 239 Pu. The threshold was distinct from the canonical definition of zero effect in that it was manifested as negative excess relative risk, or suppression of background cancer rates. Such a unique tissue response at low doses of radiation exposure has been implicated in the context of the molecular basis of radiation–environment interplay in favor of recently emerging experimental evidence on DNA double-strand break repair pathway choice and its epigenetic memory by histone marking. (author)

  11. Sister chromatoid exchanges in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Mimako; Awa, Akio

    1980-01-01

    Sister chromatoid exchange (SCE) frequencies in the peripheral lymphocyte with and without mitomycin-C (MMC) were studied, in the age of tens and thirties for an atomic-bomb survivor group and in thirties, fifties, and seventies for an unexposed group. The observation of 100 cells showed no statistically significant difference of SCE frequencies with aging or irradiation. The increasing rates of SCE frequencies by MMC showed no difference among the groups. The average increasing ratio by MMC was 3.6. (Nakanishi, T.)

  12. Serum TSH, thyroglobulin, and thyroidal disorders in atomic bomb survivors exposed in youth: 30-year follow-up study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morimoto, I.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Sato, K.; Hamilton, H.B.; Kawamoto, S.; Izumi, M.; Nagataki, S.

    1987-01-01

    Follow-up examinations to determine the frequency of thyroidal disorders were conducted by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) on individuals in Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were less than 20 yr of age at the time of exposure to the atomic bomb. Concentrations of serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), thyroglobulin (TG), and anti-TG antibody 30 yr after exposure were also determined. Nontoxic uninodular goiter was found in 13 cases of the 100 + rad exposed group (n = 477) and in three cases of the nonexposed group (n = 501). The prevalence in the 100+ rad exposed group was significantly higher (chi-squared = 6.584, p less than 0.01). Thyroid cancer was found in eight exposed cases, all of whom were in the 100+ rad group, and the prevalence was significantly greater (chi-squared = 7.919, p less than 0.01). Regardless of the presence or absence of thyroid disorders, serum TSH and TG levels were not statistically different between the 100 rad + exposed and nonexposed groups. Although hypothyroidism was found in 23 of the total cases, there was no correlation between its development and exposure to ionizing irradiation

  13. Chain reaction. History of the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mania, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    Henri becquerel tracked down in 1896 a strange radiation, which was called radioactivity by Marie Curie. In the following centuries German scientists Max Planck, Albert Einstein and Werner Heisenberg presented fundamental contributions to understand processes in the atomic nucleus. At Goettingen, center of the international nuclear physics community, the American student J. Robert Oppenheimer admit to this physical research. In the beginning of 1939 the message of Otto Hahns' nuclear fission electrified researchers. The first step, unleashing atomic energy, was done. A half year later the Second World War begun. And suddenly being friend with and busily communicating physicians were devided into hostile power blocs as bearers of official secrets. The author tells in this exciting book the story of the first atomic bomb as a chain reaction of ideas, discoveries and visions, of friendships, jealousy and intrigues of scientists, adventurers and genius. (orig./GL)

  14. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 2010 edition.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gosling, F. G.

    2010-01-15

    This historical document is part of a planned 3-volume series. This volume, volume 1, provides a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  15. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Jun; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor's health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.)

  16. Report on the results of the tenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Jun [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohta, Nobuhiro; Sasaki, Hideo [and others

    1996-01-01

    The 10th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 6 June to 6 July 1995 in L.A., S.F., Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu. Since this is the 10th medical examination, results of the previous examination are summarized. With the exclusion of 55 whose death has been confirmed, the total registered number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America is 1,043. The examinees in the present examination amounted to 463 (48 of them are the children of A-bomb survivors), 26 of whom are newly registered survivors. The mean age of the examinees in 64 years. The proportion of those having US nationality gradually increased and reached 62% at the time of the 10th examination, while that of those who have Japanese nationality and permanent US residency rights decreased to 30%. When the examination program was initiated, A-bomb survivors resident in 15 states of the US, but now, in Canada and 31 states of the US. About 90% of these survivors reside along the west coast of the US including Hawaii. The number of holders of A-bomb survivor`s health handbook has increased year after year, reaching 612. When the holders in North-America visit Japan for medical treatment, they are treated similarly with their counterparts in Japan. The major subjective symptoms are complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness or tingling. The prevalence of obesity, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus and the proportion of abnormal ECG findings has been increasing with the age. The prevalence of hypercholesterolemia was high and that of low HDL cholesterolemia was low. A significant difference was observed between the A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and North America. Hypertension, hyperlipidemia, obesity, ischemic heart disease, and diabetes mellitus were observed mainly. Diseased of specific places were not observed. (H.O.).

  17. Cancer risks and neutron RBE's from Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobson, R.L.; Straume, T.

    1982-01-01

    The new radiation dose estimates for Hiroshima and Nagasaki are here combined with epidemiologic data from the A-bomb survivors and examined radiobiologically for compatability with other human and experimental data. The new doses show certain improvements over the original T65 doses. However, they suggest for chronic granulocytic leukemia, total malignancies, and chromosome aberrations, at neutron doses of 1 rad, RBEs in excess of 100, higher than expected from other findings. This and other indications suggest that either there are unrecognized systematic problems with the various radiobiological data, or the new doses are deficient in neutrons for Hiroshima, by a factor of about five. If in fact there were actually some 5-fold more dose from neutrons at Hiroshima than estimated by the new calculations, the RBEs would agree well with laboratory results, and other inconsistencies would largely disappear. Cancer risks are estimated for neutrons from the new doses and are compared with those estimated from radiobiologically reconciled doses (the new doses adjusted by adding approximately 5-fold more neutrons). The latter estimates appear more reasonable. For low-LET radiation, cancer risk estimates are altered very little by the new dose estimates for Nagasaki

  18. Effect on intelligence test score of prenatal exposure to ionizing radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schull, W.J.; Otake, Masanori; Yoshimaru, Hiroshi.

    1988-10-01

    Analyses of intelligence test scores (Koga) at 10-11 years of age of individuals exposed prenatally to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki using estimates of the uterine absorbed dose based on the recently introduced system of dosimetry, the Dosimetry System 1986 (DS86), reveal the following: 1) there is no evidence of a radiation-related effect on intelligence among those individuals exposed within 0-7 weeks after fertilization or in the 26th or subsequent weeks; 2) for individuals exposed at 8-15 weeks after fertilization, and to a lesser extent those exposed at 16-25 weeks, the mean tests scores but not the variances are significantly heterogeneous among exposure categories; 3) the cumulative distribution of test scores suggests a progressive shift downwards in individual scores with increasing exposure; and 4) within the group most sensitive to the occurrence of clinically recognizable severe mental retardation, individuals exposed 8 through 15 weeks after fertilization, the regression of intelligence score on estimated DS86 uterine absorbed dose is more linear than with T65DR fetal dose, the diminution in intelligence score under the linear model is 21-29 points at 1Gy. The effect is somewhat greater when the controls receiving less than 0.01 Gy are excluded, 24-33 points at 1 Gy. These findings are discussed in the light of the earlier analysis of the frequency of occurrence of mental retardation among the prenatally exposed survivors of the A-bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. It is suggested that both are the consequences of the same underlying biological process or processes. (author)

  19. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Kodama, Kazunori; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Dote, Keigo; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Sumio.

    1990-01-01

    During a one-month period from June 13 through July 13, 1989, the seventh medical examination was conducted at five cities, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu, for A-bomb survivors residents in North America. Nine hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors, including 21 living in Canada, were confirmed, consisting of 234 men and 684 women as of the end of July 1989. The number was increased by 167, compared with that as of the end of July 1987. During the past three years, there were 40 deaths; and 878 A-bomb survivors (223 men and 655 women) are still alive. Ninety percent of the survivors came from Hiroshima. U.S. nationality was seen in 61% and Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights was seen in 32%. The majority (39%) of the A-bomb survivors were in their fifties, with an average age of 59.4 years. The survivors were residing in 26 states in the USA and in 3 provinces in Canada. The acquisition rate of the A-bomb survivors' health handbook was 52%. Four hundred and six A-bomb survivors participated in the medical examination, including one male and 8 female children born to A-bomb survivors. Questionnaire survey revealed a history of surgical resection for cancer in 21 survivors. Subjective symptoms included complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness of the body. Overall evaluation revealed the necessity of medical treatment or observation in 71%. This was independent of exposure status. Hypertension was the most common (27%), followed by obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Malignant tumors were seen in 9 survivors, consisting of 3 with breast cancer, 2 with colorectal cancer, and single survivors with lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, or hepatoma. Only 29% of them have had finantial guarantee for their health management according to the Japanese law. (N.K.)

  20. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, O; Toyoda, S; Tsuno, S; Mukai, H; Uemura, S [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)

    1976-09-01

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarcely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically.

  1. Statistical observation on autopsy cases of malignancy at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahara, Osamu; Toyoda, Shigeki; Tsuno, Sumio; Mukai, Hideaki; Uemura, Seiji

    1976-01-01

    Statistical observation was made as to autopsy cases of atomic-bomb survivors in Nagasaki. The total of autopsy cases at the Japanese Red Cross, Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital from the opening of the hospital, 1968, to December in 1975 was 1,486 cases (autopsy rate, 65.1%) in which 880 cases of atomic bomb survivors (autopsy rate, 68.0%) were contained. Cases of malignancy totaled 829 and 528 cases of those were atomic bomb survivors. Cases of malignancy were divided into three groups, that is, group exposured to atomic bomb at place within 2 km from the explosion place, group exposured at place from more than 2 km or entering after explosion into the city, and not-exposured group. Relationship between main malignancies and exposure was discussed, and the following results were obtained. 1) Obvious relationship was found to exist between exposure and acute and chronic medullary leukemia. 2) Malignant lymphoma was scarecely correlated with exposure, but its occurrence rate was higher than the mean rate in Japan in reflection the region where this disease occurs much geographically. 3) Relationship between exposure and stomach cancer, lung cancer, cancer of the large intestine, and double cancer was not found obviously, but occurrence rate of hepatic cancer was higher than the mean rate in Japan in three groups. The reason was supposed to be geographical factor. 4) Cases of thyroid gland cancer were a small number in female of the group exposured within 2 km, and cases of prostate cancer were a small number in the group within 2 km, but their occurrence rate was high specifically. (Tsunoda, M.)

  2. Report on the results of eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Sasaki, Hideo; Neriishi, Kazuo

    1992-01-01

    This is a report of the 7th survey of A-bomb survivor residents in Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, Wailuku, and Honolulu conducted from June 11 through July 11, 1991. As of the end of July 1991, the number of A-bomb survivors registered in North America was 1,012, including 23 in Canada, which was increased by 94 compared with the end of July 1989. Of these A-bomb survivors, 963 (255 males and 708 females), excluding 49 deaths, were eligible for the present analysis. A-bomb survivors who had been exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 89.5%. The US nationality and the Japanese nationality with permanent US residency rights were seen in 61.5% and in 30.8%, respectively. They ranged in age from 45 to over 80 years of age, with a mean age of 61.2 years: those aged 55 to 64 years accounted for 52.5%. Those eligible for the Medicare program occupied one fourth of the total. Their residence was comprised of 28 states in the US and 3 provinces in Canada, with 60.7% living in the state of California, 19.4% in the state of Hawaii, and 5.8% in the state of Washington: overall, 67.8% were living on the west coast of the US. The number of A-bomb survivor's health handbook holders showed a 3.2-fold increase during the previous 8 years, with the acquisition rate being 55.5%. During the same period, the number of handbook holders among those with the US nationality showed a 3.4-fold increase, with the acquisition rate being 51.5%. Of a total of 963 eligible A-bomb survivors, 482 (50.1%) participated in the present examination, including 50 offspring (F 1 ). The most common disease requiring treatment and follow-up was hypertension (27.6%) followed by hyperlipidemia, liver disease, thyroid disease, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus in that order. The incidence of liver disease and thyroid disease was increased. (N.K.)

  3. Molecular analyses of in vivo hprt mutant T cells from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hakoda, M.; Hirai, Y.; Kyoizumi, S.; Akiyama, M.

    1989-01-01

    In vivo-derived hprt-deficient mutant T cells isolated from three nonirradiated controls and two atomic bomb survivors were studied by Southern blot analysis to investigate the molecular spectra of the mutations. Mutant frequencies for the three controls were 1.8, 2.3, and 7.3 x 10(-6), and those for the two survivors (who had received radiation doses of 2.46 and 2.15 Gy, based upon the revised atomic bomb shielded kerma estimates) were 9.3 and 14.4 x 10(-6), respectively. Fourteen (13%) of 105 mutant T-cell colonies from the controls showed various structural changes in the hprt gene. The frequency of mutants with hprt gene structural changes in one atomic bomb survivor, who exhibited a mutant frequency of 9.3 x 10(-6), was 26% (16/61), which was significantly higher than that of the controls. However, the frequency of structural changes in the other survivor (14%, 8/59) was not higher than that of the controls. Two sets of mutants (in total, eight mutants) from the survivor, who showed a significantly higher frequency of mutants with hprt gross alterations than did the controls, had the same hprt changes and the same rearrangements of T-cell receptor (TcR) beta- and gamma-chain genes, indicating a clonal expansion from one progenitor mutant. This phenomenon may reflect an in vivo recovery process of T cells in the periphery after exposure to atomic bomb radiation. However, when comparing the frequency of mutations, these two sets of mutants should be reduced. After reducing the total number of mutants from the number of gross hprt changes, the frequency was not significantly higher than that of the controls

  4. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oguma, N.; Dohy, H.; Kyo, T.; Saito, O.; Okita, H. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1980-11-01

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients.

  5. Toward the abolition of nuclear arms, part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The activities of various survey and relief groups in the period immediately after the atomic bombings are reported. The researches on atomic bombing casualties and the publication of the results by Japanese scientists were greatly restricted during the occupation period, but the conditions improved in 1951, when the San Francisco Peace Treaty was signed. In 1954, a Japanese fishing boat was exposed to the fallout from the hydrogen bomb test carried out by the U.S. in Bikini atoll. Thereafter, many national and international works concerning the use of radiation have been carried out in Japan. The status of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 is reported. Especially the medical care soon after the bombings, and keloid treatment and A-bomb disease treatment thereafter are described. The guidelines for medical treatment of A-bomb aftereffects was drafted, and the A-bomb victims medical care law was enacted. The policies of the government and local governments for A-bomb victims, and the movements of citizens against atomic weapons, especially peace education, are described. The tests of the Peace Declaration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1980, respectively, are reprinted as the appendix. Also the chronology from 1945 to 1978 on the events related to atomic bombing damages is given. (Kako, I.)

  6. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, M.; Ishimaru, T.; Ohkita, T.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20-59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM

  7. Leukemia, multiple myeloma, and malignant lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimaru, Michito; Ohkita, Takeshi; Ishimaru, Toranosuke.

    1986-01-01

    Excess risk of leukemia among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors increased with radiation dose in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The incidence of all types of leukemia, except chronic lymphocytic leukemia, has increased among A-bomb survivors. However, chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is thought to be the most characteristic type of the A-bomb induced leukemias. The highest risk of leukemia among A-bomb survivors was recognized in 1951 and has not yet disappeared in survivors in Hiroshima. Excess risk of leukemia in the younger age at time of bomb (ATB) groups appeared early; however, in the older age ATB groups it appeared much later especially among Hiroshima survivors. In both cities the effect of radiation exposure on the occurrence of CML was more clearly observable in the younger age ATB groups and occurred more frequently in Hiroshima. Leukemia among individuals exposed in utero and children of A-bomb survivors has not increased significantly. The relationship between radiation induced leukemia and chromosome abnormalities is discussed. Twenty years after the A-bomb, the risk of multiple myeloma (MM) increased among survivors aged 20 - 59 years ATB. Non-Hodgkin's malignant lymphoma also increased among A-bomb survivors and showed roughly the same tendency as MM. (author)

  8. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  9. Chromosomal aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao

    1992-01-01

    It has been thought that A-bomb survivors who entered the city early after A-bombing were exposed to residual A-bomb radiation both externally and internally (through inhalation, food, drink or skin). This paper summarizes the data on estimated radiation doses in A-bomb survivors who entered Hiroshima within 3 days after A-bombing based on the chromosome staining analysis of lymphocytes of peripheral blood taken from A-bomb survivors. The subjects were 40 A-bomb survivors; according to a stay period and a history of medical irradiation, they were divided into four: group A with a long stay, group B with a long stay + medical irradiation, group C with a short stay, and group D with a short stay + medical irradiation. A mean estimated radiation dose was 4.8 rad (one rad or less to 13.5 rad) in group A, 13.9 rad (one rad or less to 71.2 rad) in group B, one rad or less in group C, and 1.9 rad (one rad or less to 21.2 rad) in group D. The highest rate of chromosomal aberrations was 3.1% in group B, followed by 2.1% in group A, 0.83% in group D, and 0.73% in group C. The frequency of chromosomal aberrations was coincident with the duration of stay in the city. Furthermore, medical irradiation seemed to have contributed to the additional effects of A-bomb radiation. (N.K.)

  10. Aging studies in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belsky, J.L.; Moriyama, I.M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Kawamoto, Sadahisa.

    1979-07-01

    Although the studies of the effect of ionizing radiation on atomic bomb survivors have not produced any evidence of radiation-induced aging, there have been studies on experimental animals and man which suggest accelerated aging after exposure to ionizing radiation. To determine if certain physiologic functions could be related to exposure to ionizing radiation, a battery of age-related tests was given at the time of the physical examinations at ABCC. Some 11,351 persons were given these non-invasive age-related tests. The results were essentially negative. Until a satisfactory operational definition of biologic or physiologic age is developed, the administration of functional tests as a measure of aging does not seem justified. (author)

  11. The way to the extinction of nuclear weapons, chapter 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The atomic bomb disasters in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are reviewed, investigated and reported. The surveys and investigations related to the medical and natural scientific problems are classified into the investigations immediately after having been bombed, the investigating activities by universities and laboratories in the early days after having been bombed, the activities of special study committee for the atomic bomb disasters in the learning research conference, the establishment and activities of the Japan-USA cooperative study group, the documentary film of the Japan Cinema Company and the investigating group of the US Strategic Bombing Survey, the establishment of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC) and its activity, the re-starting of the studies after the end of occupation system, the evolution after the Bikini explosion, the establishment of the laboratories for the atomic bombing investigation and the establishment of the radiation influence research laboratory. The investigations concerning the humanity and social scientific problems are also classified into the systematic organization of the studies on the victims of atomic bombing, the historical studies and the movement of the victims of atomic bombing. The investigations are explained in detail about each item. The relief and medical treatment of the sufferers in 1945 in Hiroshima and Nagasaki are described in detail. The actual medical treatment methods and the conditions of the patients are presented. The law on the medical services related to the atomic bombing is introduced with the modifications being conducted from 1954 until 1974. The administration for the victims of atomic bombing and the activities of citizens, including the countermeasures for the victims of atomic bombing and so on are explained. (Nakai, Y.)

  12. Report on results of third medical examination of Atomic Bomb Survivors residing in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsubara, Hiroomi; Yamakido, Michio; Ito, Chikako; Yamada, Hiroaki.

    1982-01-01

    The number of survivors actually registered with the Committee of A-bomb survivors in the U.S. in 491 (133 males and 358 females) of whom 57.3% are U.S. citizens. Those exposed in Hiroshima accounted for 91.8%. The mean age was 53.3 +- 8.9, thus they were more than 3 years younger than their counterparts in Hiroshima. Responses to the Health Survey Questionnaires numbered 255, and those with symptoms which appeared to be related to diseases were found at a high rate among the early entrants, but as the number of those receiving examination in this group was few, it is considered that many of those in poor health had come in for the examination. No association could be demonstrated between psychological complaints and exposure status. Those who underwent health examination numbered 166 (45 males and 121 females), and comparison of the U.S. survivors against the Hiroshima survivors showed there to be a difference in the following points. The prevalence of hypertension was lower among the U.S. survivors, but RBC counts and hemoglobin values were significantly higher. The same was observed for blood lipids with hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia being found at a significantly higher rate in the U.S. survivors, the cause being considered to be the larger intake of animal fat and sugar by those of Japanese ancestry than the indigenous Japanese. Those free of clinical abnormalities in this survey were 37.3%, and the rest required dietary guidance, follow-up observation, detailed examination or treatment. Those with diseases which are considered would make them eligible for health management allowance if in Japan, accounted for 18.7%. (J.P.N.)

  13. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb; Stoerfall der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Hitlers Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Manfred

    2016-07-01

    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  14. Report on the results of the fifth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the United States and Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikako; Inamizu, Tsutomu; Sasaki, Hideo; Niimi, Masanobu; Yamada, Hiroaki; Doko, Fumio; Sugimoto, Sumio.

    1986-01-01

    The 5th medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was conducted from 11 June to 18 July 1985 in San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Maui, and Honolulu in the US and in Vancouver in Canada. A total of 682 A-bomb survivors (177 men and 505 women) were confirmed as of the end of July 1985, including 23 who died. Among them, 90.7 % were exposed to A-bombing in Hiroshima. By nationality, 60.8 % and 35.3 % of the survivors possessed US nationality and Japanese nationality with permanent US residency right, respectively. The mean age of the survivors was 56.4 years. By residence, 445 of 659 A-bomb survivors (67.5 %) were residing in California. The rate of health handbook acquisition was 33.2 %. Questionnaires performed in 350 survivors revealed a history of cancer in 16 survivors, and subjective symptoms, such as fatigue, heat intolerance, itching, loss of vigor, and chest pain, in high frequencies. The medical examination performed in 339 survivors, including 115 participating in it for the first time, revealed no abnormality in 12.3 %, and higher incidence of hypertension and heart diseases than those in the previous examinations. According to the Japanese law, health management allowance would be payable in 30.3 % of the survivors with a certain disease. (Namekawa, K.)

  15. Frequency of marriage and live birth among survivors prenatally exposed to the atomic bomb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blot, W.J.; Shimizu, Y.; Kato, H.; Miller, R.W.

    1975-01-01

    Frequency of marriage and birth as of January 1973 was determined for persons exposed in utero to the atomic bombs in 1945 and for controls. The marriage rate was lower in persons heavily exposed in utero than in the non-exposed or lightly exposed. This difference is attributed partly to the lesser marriageability of persons with mental retardation who are significantly more numerous among the heavily exposed, and partly to unmeasured variables, possibly including social discrimination against survivors of the atomic bomb. No consistent relation was observed between radiation exposure and three reproductive indices: childless marriages, number of births, and interval between marriage and first birth

  16. The incidence of skin cancer in Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1955 - 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadamori, Naoki; Mine, Mariko; Hori, Makoto; Yoshida, Hikotaro; Ichimaru, Michito; Honda, Takeo; Yoshida, Katsuro; Fujiwara, Naoko; Sadamori, Michiko.

    1988-01-01

    Of 20,348 persons included in the extended Life Span Study in Nagasaki, 59 persons were registered as having skin tumors during the years 1955 - 1984. Included in this study were 40 patients with histologically proven skin cancer. Thirty five patients were considered to be exposed to ≥ one cGy. There was statistically significant correlation between the incidence of skin cancer and exposure doses in both men and women (p < 0.01). Overall, the incidence of skin cancer was significantly correlated as well with the distance from the hypocenter; however, this was not significant when restricted to either men or women. Because the incidence of skin cancer has definitively increased since 1955 among A-bomb survivors, follow-up of A-bomb survivors is warranted with respect to atomic bomb-related skin cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  17. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko

    2000-01-01

    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean ±S.D.) was: 69.0±8.69 years; males, 68.4±80.5 years; females, 69.2±8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  18. Aging study on atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okajima, Shunzo; Aoyama, Takashi; Norimura, Toshiyuki; Nishimori, Issei; Shiomi, Toshio

    1976-01-01

    This is an ad interim report on the survey which is being performed at the Atomic Disease Institute, Nagasaki University School of Medicine for the acceleration of aging in atomic bomb survivors. The survivors group consisted of 50 females between 40 and 49 years of age who were exposed somewhere within 1.4 km where exposure dose could be estimated accurately and whose mean estimated exposure dose was 225.9+-176.8 rads. The control group consisted of females of the same age group who were exposed at sites more than 2.5 km apart (atmospheric dose 2.9 rads). The items for the judgement of aging included physical measurements, external findings, functional findings, and special tests (urine, blood, pattern of serum protein fraction, and chromosome aberrations). As far as chromosome aberrations were concerned, the number of cells with stable aberrations, Cs, showed differences between the two groups, and the number of cells with exchange-type aberrations was large in the survivors group. No significant differences were observed in the other tests. (Serizawa, K.)

  19. Dosimetry studies in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, T.; Kumamoto, Y.; Hashizume, T.

    1982-01-01

    In 1967 the National Institute of Radiological Sciences in Chiba estimated the radiation doses in air from the atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by using some building materials exposed to the nuclear explosions in both cities. These estimated doses were in good agreement with the doses estimated on the basis of the Ichiban project by the research group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory which were the basis for the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission's tentative 1965 radiation dose (T65D). Recently the radiation doses in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been reevaluated by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory. In Japan a new research group was started last August, with the intention of making new estimates of doses from the atomic bombs in cooperation with US research groups

  20. Capsule summary of results of radiation studies on Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors, 1945-75

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, I.M.

    1978-04-01

    This is a summary in capsule form of the more significant findings of studies that have been conducted over the past 30 years. The growth and development in terms of height, weight, and head and chest circumferences were less for children in utero whose mothers were proximally exposed. Smaller head size and mental retardation appeared to be associated with radiation exposure. Mortality especially during infancy, was significantly higher among children exposed in utero, and increased with dose. Delayed effects of disease occurrence, particularly neoplasms, have been observed. Of special significance is the increased leukemia incidence with a clear-cut dose response relationship with the peak coming 6 years after exposure. Although the leukemia rates in the high dose groups have declined persistently from 1950 to 1972, they have not yet reached the level experienced by the general population. For the solid tumors, lung cancer, thyroid cancer, salivary gland tumors, breast cancer, cancer of the esophagus, stomach and the urinary tract, and lymphomas have been found to be associated with A-bomb radiation exposure. The latent period for the solid tumors appears to be less than 20 years. After a latent period of about 15 years, children who received 100 rad or more A-bomb radiation have begun to develop an excess of malignancies. Some 25 years or more after exposure, the accumulated increase of cancer is relatively high, with no indication that a peak has been reached. Radiation induced chromosome aberrations in survivors continue to persist, and the aberration frequency is, in general, proportional to the radiation dose received. To date, there is no evidence of a relationship between radiation dose and the other diseases. (author)

  1. Alterations of body mass index and body composition in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsukawa, Y; Misumi, M; Yamada, M; Masunari, N; Oyama, H; Nakanishi, S; Fukunaga, M; Fujiwara, S

    2013-08-01

    Obesity, underweight, sarcopenia and excess accumulation of abdominal fat are associated with a risk of death and adverse health outcomes. Our aim was to determine whether body mass index (BMI) and body composition, assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), are associated with radiation exposure among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in the Adult Health Study of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. We examined 2686 subjects (834 men and 1852 women), aged 48-89 years (0-40 years at A-bomb exposure), for BMI analysis. Among them, 550 men and 1179 women underwent DXA in 1994-1996 and were eligible for a body composition study. After being adjusted for age and other potential confounding factors, A-bomb radiation dose was associated significantly and negatively with BMI in both sexes (P=0.01 in men, P=0.03 in women) and appendicular lean mass (Pbomb radiation exposure. We will need to conduct further studies to evaluate whether these alterations affect health status.

  2. Clinical study of infectious diseases on aged A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima Welfare Home for aged A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Tadakazu; Orimen, Akio; Niimi, Masanobu; Simizu, Kiyoshi.

    1978-01-01

    Infections, especially urinary passage and respiratory infections of aged A-bomb survivers under special protective care was examined. Urinary passage infections have recently shown an increasing tendency. These infections are related to the factors such as their basic diseases and wearing napkins rather than a severe degree of protective care. In the case of respiratory infection, diseases such as influenza are observed rather in patients who can walk, but they tend to be aggravated in bedridden patients. It cannot be said that more urinary passage infections are observed in A-bomb survivers than non A-bomb survivers. Both urinary passage infection and respiratory infection tend to recur repeatedly. Aged A-bomb survivers show no significant difference of acquired immunity from that of non A-bomb survivers group. However, a maintenance of neutralizing antibody by vaccination of influenza in the former is worse than in the latter. Bedridden patients show a higher rate of infection to potential urinary passage diseases than patients who can walk, irrespective of sex. Moreover, bedridden patients have a large number of bacteria, but other significant host reaction couldn't be observed. In bedridden patients with potential urinary passage infection, a variety of bacteria, most of which are bacteria resistant to rutinely used broad spectrum antibiotics, is detected. As a main disease or a direct cause of death, pyelonephritis in women and bronchopneumonia are often observed. (Iwagami, H.)

  3. Correlations between tests of aging in Hiroshima subjects: an attempt to define physiologic age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hashizume, Asaji; Jablon, Seymour

    1964-12-01

    Nine physiologic functions which change with age were measured in 437 subjects during their regular visits to the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission clinic in Hiroshima, Japan. This pilot study was undertaken to determine the feasibility of collecting such data in a population sample physiologic age score. Tests conducted consisted of: skin elasticity, systolic blood pressure, vital capacity, hand grip strength, light extinction time, vibrometer, visual activity, audiometry, and serum cholesterol. The study demonstrated that adequate sample data could be obtained, and that statistical treatment could construct a physiologic age for individual subjects. However, the tests were of limited value below age 40, and the validation of the concept of physiologic age requires eventual correlation with mortality. Since the ABCC program includes a highly accurate mortality survey, it is hoped that data on physiologic aging can be collected and eventually related to mortality. 11 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  4. The association between chronic kidney disease and cardiovascular disease risk factors in atomic bomb survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sera, Nobuko; Hida, Ayumi; Imaizumi, Misa; Nakashima, Eiji; Akahoshi, Masazumi

    2013-01-01

    Atomic bomb (A-bomb) radiation is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic CVD risk factors. Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is also known to be a risk factor for CVD and little is known whether CKD is associated with A-bomb radiation. To examine whether CKD is associated with CVD risk factors or with A-bomb radiation in A-bomb survivors, we classified renal dysfunction in 1,040 A-bomb survivors who were examined in 2004-2007 as normal [n = 121; estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) ≥ 90 ml/min/1.73 m(2)]; mild (n = 686; eGFR 60-89 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); moderate (n = 217; eGFR 30-59 ml/min/1.73 m(2)); or severe (n = 16; eGFR bomb radiation. Hypertension [odds ratio (OR), 1.57; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.12-2.20, P = 0.009]; DM (OR, 1.79; 95% CI, 1.23-2.61, P = 0.002); hyperlipidemia (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.12-2.14, P = 0.008); and MetS (OR, 1.86; 95% CI, 1.32-2.63, P bomb survivors.

  5. Clinical study of aplastic anemia among A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oguma, Nobuo; Dohy, Hiroo; Kyo, Taiichi; Saito, Osamu; Okita, Hajime

    1980-01-01

    In 90 patients with aplastic anemia who were seen at Dept. Med. RINMB, Hiroshima Univ. from 1962 to March, 1980, clinical findings of 33 A-bomb survivors (which included the second generation of the survivors) and those of 57 nonexposed patients were compared. No relationship was found between the age at the time of exposure and the period preceding onset of the disease. The A-bomb survivors showed higher neutrophil counts and higher reticulocyte counts than the nonexposed patients. There were less severe cases in the A-bomb survivors. There was no difference in the incidence of atypical aplastic anemia between the exposed patients and the nonexposed ones. No difference was found in overall survival (one-year and five-year survival rates) between the exposed and the nonexposed. The A-bomb survivors often had complete remission or maintenance of remission, and rarely had acute progression. These results suggested that clinical picture of aplastic anemia in the A-bomb survivors is different from that in the nonexposed patients. (Ueda, J.)

  6. Autopsy studies of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954-1974)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asano, Masahide; Norman, J.E. Jr.; Kato, Hiroo; Yagawa, Kanichi.

    1978-01-01

    The authors examined 155 autopsy cases of Hashimoto's thyroiditis in the Life Span Study sample including both A-bomb survivors and controls in Hiroshima and Nagasaki (1954 to 1974). Hashimoto's thyroiditis was classified into lymphoid, diffuse and fibrous types and the following results were obtained. No difference existed in the effects of A-bomb radiation in the incidence and ATB (At the time of the A-bomb). The ration of males to females did not reveal statistical significance, even though reversed ratio was noted in the high dose group. The variation of thyroid gland weight in T65 dose or by variant showed no significant pattern, even though the smallest average weight was found in the highest radiation exposure group. The complication in the patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were noted to have high prevalance of ovarian cancer and low prevalence of stomach cancer and total cancer. Only two patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis were found to be complicated with thyroid carcinoma. Among collagen diseases, the prevalence of rheumatic fever and rheumatoid arthritis was high as complication. And the prevance of combined diseases suggested that no late effect of A-bomb radiation existed. (author)

  7. Pancreatic exocrine secretion in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, Masataka; Kawanishi, Masahiro; Ohtaki, Megu

    1989-01-01

    This study was designed to examine the effect of A-bombing on pancreatic exocrine secretion in 6 A-bomb survivors (an average age of 57 years) and the age- and sex-matched non-exposed 6 persons (an average age of 58 years). Six A-bomb survivors consisted of: three who had been directly exposed to A-bombing, one who had entered the city within 3 days after bombing, one who had worked in caring for A-bomb survivors, and one who had later entered the city. Caerulein-Secretin test revealed no significant difference in the total secretion of lipase, maximum bicarbonate, amylase output, or lipase output between the exposed and non-exposed groups. The concentration of lipase ten min after stimulation was significantly decreased in the exposed group than the control group. This suggests that radiation may be responsible for abnormality in the ability of pancreatic exocrine secretion. (N.K.)

  8. Radiation standards and A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, R.

    1984-01-01

    For more than 33 years, the US government has supported the Life Span Study of Japanese survivors as a follow-up of the 1945 nuclear bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Since 1975, the study has been funded jointly by the United States and Japan under the auspices of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation. In the May issue of this bulletin radiation epidemiologists Dr. Alice Stewart and George Kneale raise perhaps the most fundamental question of all: Does the Japanese A-bomb survivor study have any value in deriving risk estimates for low-level radiation. On the basis of data published by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation in 1978, Stewart and Kneale suggest that Foundation analysts have confused long-term effects of tissue-destructive high doses with single-cell low-dose effects. If they are correct, the method of linear extrapolation from high-dose studies for low-level radiation risk estimates is invalid. The author feels the A-bomb survivors study should be opened up to an independent peer review process

  9. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei

    1992-01-01

    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.)

  10. Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in a fixed population, Hiroshima and nagasaki 1961 - 74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko

    1978-01-01

    A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

  11. Do gamma rays and alpha particles cause different types of lung cancer? A comparison between atomic bomb survivors and uranium miners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, C.E.

    1995-01-01

    Excess lung cancer risk has been associated with exposure to alpha particle radiation from inhaled radon daughter products among uranium miners in Czechoslovakia, Canada, the United States, and elsewhere, and with exposure to gamma rays and neutrons from the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan. Differences in distribution by histological type, as well as certain epidemiological differences, suggest the possibility of differences in the causation of radiation-induced lung cancer. An epidemiological analysis is summarised of results from a blind pathology panel review of tissue slides from lung cancer cases diagnosed in 108 Japanese A bomb survivors and 92 American uranium miners selected on the basis of radiation exposure, smoking history, sex, age, and source and quality of pathology material. Consensus diagnoses were obtained with respect to principal sub-type, including squamous cell cancer, small cell cancer, adenocarcinoma, and less frequent sub-types. The results were analysed in terms of population, radiation dose, and smoking history. As expected, the proportion of squamous cell cancer was positively related to smoking history in both populations. The relative frequencies of small cell cancer and adenocarcinoma were very different in the two populations, but this difference was adequately accounted for by differences in radiation dose (more specifically, dose-based relative risk estimates based on published risk coefficients). Data for the two populations conformed to a common pattern, in which radiation-induced cancers appeared more likely to be of the small-cell sub-type, and less likely to be adenocarcinomas. No additional explanation in terms of radiation quality (alpha particles or gamma rays), uniform or local irradiation, inhaled as against external radiation source, or other population differences, appeared to be required. (author)

  12. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, T; Tomonaga, M; Ichimaru, M; Kamata, N; Kuramoto, A

    1984-11-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The incidence of acute leukemia decreased slightly among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the incidence of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developing among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.).

  13. Review of diagnosis and classification of leukemias that occurred in A-bomb survivors (preliminary report)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Ichimaru, Michito; Kamata, Nanao; Kuramoto, Atsushi.

    1984-01-01

    According to the current knowledge of diagnosis and classification, a review of 157 patients who had developed leukemia before June 30, 1967 was made. The total number of acute leukemia slightly decreased among A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima; however, the number of acute lymphatic leukemia (ALL) increased. The number of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) was unchanged. The frequency of CML implied that A-bombing damaged stem cells in a high incidence. Among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki, although the number of acute non-lymphatic leukemia decreased, the number of ALL was unchanged. Adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) was diagnosed in 7 A-bomb survivors, confirming that Nagasaki is an endemic area for ATL. These preliminary results seem to be of importance in elucidating the mechanism of leukemia developiong among A-bomb survivors. (Namekawa, K.)

  14. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1981-01-01

    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and γ-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency

  15. Finding peace from Hiroshima. One oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skoufalos, M.N.

    2006-01-01

    The article informs about one oncologist's fight to rectify the damage caused by radiation. In a small town just outside Osaka, Japan, Ritsuko Komaki was born, quite literally, into the atomic age. She was just an infant in 1945 when the first atomic bomb ever detonated on a human population devastated her family's ancestral home of Hiroshima. One of her friends, Sasaki was diagnosed with leukemia, and was later hospitalized with bone marrow suppression. Her grandmother had been exposed to the same chemical radiation that Sasaki had, yet never contracted leukemia despite presenting with all the other side effects of exposure. Komaki wa wondering why her grandmother never had any leukemia, but Sadako did? She never had any cancer, but she had all the symptoms of exposure, e.g. hair loss, diarrhea and bone marrow problems. During medical school, Komaki volunteered her summers at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, the institute the United States built in Japan to examine the victims of atomic exposure. Anyone diagnosed as anemic underwent a bone marrow exam, and Komaki learned a great deal about chromosomal abnormalities by performing blood tests alongside visiting researchers from Yale University and other American hospitals. The bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki had fostered a national paranoia about radiation and radioactivity. In Japan, they hate radiation, and for so many years, they did not want to hear about radiation therapy. Patients had an illogical fear of it that delayed offering it as treatment there. In Japan, the majority of cancer treatment culminated in surgery. Radiation oncology was not a recognized specialization; oncologists were grouped in with diagnostic radiation techs. Yet today, Ritsuko Komaki, MD, is the chief operating officer of one of the most sophisticated radiation oncology treatment facilities in the United States: the 120 million US Dollar M.D. Anderson Cancer Center in Houston. And ironically, the technical equipment that forms

  16. Estimation of risk map for cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. 1970-2010

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Sato, Yuya; Maruyama, Hirofomi; Kawakami, Hideshi; Tashiro, Satoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Ohtaki, Megu

    2012-01-01

    A risk map (map I) involving the effects of direct A-bomb exposure and of other confounding factors was estimated to analyze the death risk in the geographic distribution, and another risk map (map II) was also made by subtracting the direct exposure effect to see the confounder effect. The cohort was 37,382/157,327 survivors at Jan. 1, 1970, whose positional coordinates at the exposure were known, and was followed up until Dec. 31, 2009. For survival analysis, the endpoint was defined to be death (total 19,119) by regarding other 18,263 as censoring. Confounding factors were sex, age at the exposure, exposed dose and shielded condition. Maps I and II were depicted using the hazard ratio at the exposed position relative to the hypocenter, which was estimated by previously reported hazard model functions. Map I was found to be rather similar to concentric circle of the hypocenter, but to be tended a bit distorted toward northwest area. The distortion was clearer in the map II, indicating that death causes other than direct exposure existed. The confounder was thought to be the indirect exposure through the black rain, residual radiation and/or internal exposure, which awaiting future investigation. (T.T.)

  17. Neutrons confirmed in Nagasaki and at the Army pulsed radiation Facility: Implications for Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, T.; Harris, L.J.; Marchett, A.A.; Egbert, S.D.

    1994-01-01

    Recent reports have clearly demonstrated that large discrepancies exist between neutron activation measured in Hiroshima and activation calculated using the current dosimetry system DS86. The reports confirmed previous results for cobalt activation in Hiroshoma that suggested problems, and this has spurred a joint U.S.-Japan effort to identify the source(s) of this discrepancy. Here, new results are presented that appear to eliminate both the measurements of neutron activation and the DS86 air-transport calculations are potential sources of the discrepancy in Hiroshima. Computer transport of DS86 fission neutrons through large distances of air was validated using concrete samples from Nagasaki and chloride detectors placed at selected distances from a bare uranium reactor. In both cases accelerator mass spectrometry was used to measure thermal neutron activation via the reaction. 35 Cl(n, γ) 36 Cl (half-life, 301,000 years). Good agreement was observed between measurements of neutron activation and DS86 calculations for Nagasaki, as well as for the reactor experiment. Thus the large discrepancy observed in Hiroshima appears not to be due to uncertainties in air-transport calculations or in the activation measurements; rather, the discrepancy appears to be due to uncertainties associated with the Hiroshima bomb itself. 15 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs

  18. Investigation of radiation effects in Hiroshima and Nagasaki using a general Monte Carlo-discrete ordinates coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cramer, S.N.; Slater, C.O.

    1990-01-01

    A general adjoint Monte Carlo-forward discrete ordinates radiation transport calculational scheme has been created to study the effects of the radiation environment in Hiroshima and Nagasaki due to the bombing of these two cities. Various such studies for comparison with physical data have progressed since the end of World War II with advancements in computing machinery and computational methods. These efforts have intensified in the last several years with the U.S.-Japan joint reassessment of nuclear weapons dosimetry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Three principal areas of investigation are: (1) to determine by experiment and calculation the neutron and gamma-ray energy and angular spectra and total yield of the two weapons; (2) using these weapons descriptions as source terms, to compute radiation effects at several locations in the two cities for comparison with experimental data collected at various times after the bombings and thus validate the source terms; and (3) to compute radiation fields at the known locations of fatalities and surviving individuals at the time of the bombings and thus establish an absolute cause-and-effect relationship between the radiation received and the resulting injuries to these individuals and any of their descendants as indicated by their medical records. It is in connection with the second and third items, the determination of the radiation effects and the dose received by individuals, that the current study is concerned

  19. Radiation-related small head sizes among prenatally exposed atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otaki, Masanori; Schull, William J.

    2004-01-01

    The population prenatally exposed to the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, referred to as the In Utero Clinical Sample, on whom Dosimetry System 1986 doses are available consists of 1566 individuals (1242 in Hiroshima and 324 in Nagasaki). Of these study subjects, 1473 had the circumference of their heads measured at least once between ages 9 to 19. Among these 1473 individuals, 62 had small heads - the circumference of the head was two standard deviations or more below the observed specific age-at-measurement mean. Twenty-six of the 30 cases with severe mental retardation described elsewhere are included among these subjects. Of these 26 severely mentally retarded cases, 15 (58%) had small heads. Most (86%) of the individuals with small heads were exposed in the first or second trimester of pregnancy - 55% in the former period and 31% in the latter. Various dose-response relationships, with and without a threshold, have been fitted to the data grouped by the trimester or postovulatory age (weeks after ovulation) at which exposure occurred. A significant effect of radiation on the frequency of individuals with atypically small heads is observed only in the first and second trimesters and for the intervals postovulation of 0-7 weeks and 8-15 weeks. Although the risk of a small head at 0-7 weeks postovulation increases significantly with increasing dose, no increase in risk for severe mental retardation is noted in this period. No excess risk of a small head was seen in the third trimester or among individuals exposed at ≥ 16 weeks postovulation. The estimated threshold, based either on a linear or a linear-quadratic dose-response relationship, is zero or thereabouts. This apparent absence of a threshold and the somewhat different periods of vulnerability suggest an embryological difference in the development of both a small head and mental retardation. Mean IQ (using the Koga test) and its standard deviation are 63.8 and 8.5, respectively, for the

  20. Cancer mortality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, H.

    1986-01-01

    The Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor, the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), have conducted mortality surveillance on a fixed sample, the Life Span Study (LSS), of 82,000 atomic bomb survivors and 27,000 nonexposed residents of Hiroshima and Nagasaki since 1950. The results of the most recent analysis of the LSS are summarized

  1. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.

    1988-01-01

    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at ≤9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to ≥100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to ≥100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.)

  2. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristy, M.

    1985-07-01

    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs

  3. Frequency of malignant tumors during the first two decades of life in the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Neel, J.V.; Kato, Hiroo; Mabuchi, Kiyohiko; Schull, W.J.; Soda, Midori; Eto, Ryozo.

    1990-05-01

    The incidence of cancer prior to age 20 has been determined in children born to atomic bomb survivors and to a suitable comparison group. Tumor ascertainment was through death certificates and the tumor registries maintained in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The rationale for the study stemmed from the evidence that a significant proportion of childhood tumors such as retinoblastoma and Wilms' tumor arise on the basis of a mutant gene inherited from one parent plus a second somatic cell mutation involving the allele of this gene. Gonadal radiation doses were calculated using the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children whose parents' (one or both) DS86 dose could not be computed but for whom a dose could be developed on the basis of the available information. The total data set consisted of: 1) a cohort of 31,150 liveborn children, one or both of whose parents received ≥ 0.01 Sv of radiation at the time of the A-bombings (an average conjoint gonad exposure of 0.435 Sv), and 2) two suitable comparison groups, totaling 41,066 children. A total of 92 cancer cases at age less than 20 years was confirmed; 49 and 43 cases, respectively, in the 0 Sv and ≥ 0.01 Sv groups. A multiple linear regression analysis revealed no increase in malignancy in the children of exposed parents. However, examination of the data suggested that only 3.0 % to 5.0 % of the tumors of childhood observed in the comparison groups are associated with an inherited genetic predisposition that would be expected to exhibit an altered frequency if the parental mutation rate were increased. These is thus far no confirmation of the positive findings of Nomura in a mouse system. (author)

  4. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray

    2012-01-01

    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  5. Organ doses to atomic bomb survivors from radiological examinations at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Kazuo; Antoku, Shigetoshi; Sawada, Shozo; Russell, W.J.

    1990-04-01

    When estimating the risks of oncogenesis and cancer mortality as a result of atomic bomb radiation exposure, medical X-ray doses received by the A-bomb survivors must also be estimated and considered. Using a phantom human, we estimated the X-ray doses received by A-bomb survivors during routine biennial medical examinations conducted at RERF as part of the long-term Adult Health Study (AHS), since these examinations may represent about 45 % of the survivors' total medical irradiations. Doses to the salivary glands, thyroid gland, lung, breast, stomach and colon were measured using thermoluminescent dosimeters. The results reported here will aid in estimating organ doses received by individual AHS participants. (author)

  6. Proliferative and nonproliferative breast disease in atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Masayoshi; Land, C.E.; Aoki, Yoichiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Asano, Masahide; Sato, Eiichi; Tokuoka, Shoji; Sakamoto, Goi; Page, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    The risk of female breast cancer in association with radiation exposure is well established, on the basis of follow-up studies of the atomic-bomb survivors and other exposed populations. This association is especially strong for women exposed before age 20 yr and appears to be much weaker among women exposed after age 40 yr. In this study, breast-tissue autopsy samples from high-dose and low-dose individuals in the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study sample were examined in detail to determine whether nonproliferative or proliferative breast lesions are associated with radiation exposure. The results suggest that proliferative disease in general and atypical hyperplasia in particular are associated with radiation exposure and that the risk is strongest for subjects who were ages 40-49 yr at the time of the bombings. It is hypothesized that this finding may be related to the age dependence of radiation-induced breast cancer, in the sense that potential cancers reflecting early-stage changes induced at these ages by radiation exposure may receive too little hormonal promotion to progress to frank cancers. (author)

  7. Search for mutations altering protein charge and/or function in children of atomic bomb survivors: final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neel, J.V.; Satoh, Chiyoko; Goriki, Kazuaki; Asakawa, Jun-ichi; Fujita, Mikio; Takahashi, Norio; Kageoka, Takeshi; Hazama, Ryuji.

    1990-04-01

    A sample of children whose parents were proximally exposed at the time of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki (i.e., within 2,000 m of the hypocenter) and a suitable comparison group have been examined for the occurrence of mutations altering the electrophoretic mobility or activity of a series of 30 proteins. The examination of the equivalent of 667,404 locus products in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded three mutations altering electrophoretic mobility; the corresponding figure for the comparison group was three mutations in 466,881 tests. The examination of a subset of 60,529 locus products for loss of enzyme activity in the children of proximally exposed persons yielded one mutation; no mutations were encountered in 61,741 determinations on the children of the comparison group. Combining these two series, the mutation rate observed in the children of proximally exposed is thus 0.60 x 10 -5 /locus/generation, with 95 % confidence intervals between 0.2 and 1.5 x 10 -5 , and in the comparison children, 0.64 x 10 -5 /locus/generation, with 95 % intervals between 0.1 and 1.9 x 10 -5 . The average conjoint gonad doses of the proximally exposed parents are estimated to be 0.437 Gy of gamma radiation and 0.002 Gy of neutron radiation. Assigning a relative biological effectiveness of 20 to the neutron radiation, the combined total gonad dose of the parents becomes 0.477 Sv. (author)

  8. Study on the multiple cancer in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wakabayashi, Toshiro; Yamamoto, Tsutomu.

    1984-01-01

    Autopsy data from cohort studies performed on A-bomb victims revealed that the incidence rate of multiple cancer was 7.8% (193 of 2,472 cancer A-bomb victims), being higher than that (5.8%) found from the tumor registry in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Multiple cancer occurred more frequently in women than in men in both Nagasaki and Hiroshima. The incidence of multiple cancer was 1.5 times higher in the victims exposed to more than 100 rad (Vsub(+) group) than in those exposed to less than one rad (V 0 group), suggesting that there might be dose-response relationship, although this was not statistically significant between the exposed groups. According to the organs, relative risk ratio of developing cancer in the Vsub(+) group to that in the V 0 group was high in the colon and rectum, bladder, lungs, and testes in men; in the thyroid gland, lungs, colon and rectum, bladder, and breast in women, although no statistically significant differences were observed between the groups. This was suggestive of cancer that arises frequently in the lungs of men in the Vsub(+) group. Occult cancer of the thyroid gland and testes was also discussed in relation to the incidence of multiple cancer. (Namekawa, K.)

  9. Studies on preparation of the database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Tsuyoshi

    1981-01-01

    Construction of the database system aimed at multipurpose application of data on clinical medicine was studied through the preparation of database system for clinical records of atomic bomb survivors. The present database includes the data about 110,000 atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki City. This study detailed: (1) Analysis of errors occurring in a period from generation of data in the clinical field to input into the database, and discovery of a highly precise, effective method of input. (2) Development of a multipurpose program for uniform processing of data on physical examinations from many organizations. (3) Development of a record linkage method for voluminous files which are essential in the construction of a large-scale medical information system. (4) A database model suitable for clinical research and a method for designing a segment suitable for physical examination data. (Chiba, N.)

  10. Clinico-pathological investigation of resectable gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takashi; Saeki, Toshiaki; Hirai, Toshihiro; Toge, Tetuya; Niimoto, Minoru; Hattori, Takao; Ootaki, Megu; Munaka, Masaki

    1989-01-01

    This is a review of 1074 patients with resectable gastric cancer who have satisfied the following criteria: primary cancer, histological confirmation, the description of exposed or non-exposed patients, and certification of atomic bomb survivor's health handbook in exposed patients. There were 250 men and 162 women in the exposed group, and 460 men and 203 women in the non-exposed group. Gastric cancer was detected in 29.6% for the exposed group and 7.4% for the non-exposed group, although the patients had not complained of any symptoms. These figures tended to increase annually, probably benefiting from health examination. The difference between the exposed and non-exposed patients tended to be smaller when preoperative stages and the percentage of macroscopic early cancer were adjusted by age and the presence of complaints. The difference in histology between the groups also tended to be smaller. In the exposed group, however, men and women tended to have well differentiated cancer and poorly differentiated cancer, respectively. Since A-bomb survivors consist of radiation exposed population and are managed under intensive medical care, adjustment of some factors is necessary in comparing A-bomb survivors with general population. (Namekawa, K)

  11. Experimental patients of drug treatment for cataracta in the persons exposed to an atomic bomb near the explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Shigenori [Hiroshima City (Japan)

    1976-03-01

    This paper describes the clinical process of 4 persons exposed to an atomic bomb near the explosion in Nagasaki who have received chemotherapy because of incipient senile cataracta associated by cataracta due to an atomic bomb. The dropping of Catalin and Tathion in the eyes, oral administration of Thiola, and injection of Glutathione were done. Dramatic results were not obtained. However, when the administration was done at the time of slight corneal opacity, it did not developed. Therefore, it can't be denied now that the chemotherapy is effective.

  12. Experimental patients of drug treatment for cataracta in the persons exposed to an atomic bomb near the explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Shigenori

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes the clinical process of 4 persons exposed to an atomic bomb near the explosion in Nagasaki who have received chemotherapy because of incipient senile cataracta associated by cataracta due to an atomic bomb. The dropping of Catalin and Tathion in the eyes, oral administration of Thiola, and injection of Glutathione were done. Dramatic results were not obtained. However, when the administration was done at the time of slight corneal opacity, it did not developed. Therefore, it can't be denied now that the chemotherapy is effective. (Kanao, N.)

  13. Leukaemia following childhood radiation exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors and in medically exposed groups

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, M. P.

    2008-01-01

    Incidence and mortality risks of radiation-associated leukaemia are surveyed in the Japanese atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors exposed in early childhood and in utero. Leukaemia incidence and mortality risks are also surveyed in 16 other studies of persons who received appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment in childhood and for whom there is adequate dosimetry and cancer incidence or mortality follow-up. Relative risks tend to be lower in the medical series than in the Japanese A-bomb survivors. The relative risks in the medical studies tend to diminish with increasing average therapy dose. After taking account of cell sterilisation and dose fractionation, the apparent differences between the relative risks for leukaemia in the Japanese A-bomb survivors and in the medical series largely disappear. This suggests that cell sterilisation largely accounts for the discrepancy between the relative risks in the Japanese data and the medical studies. Excess absolute risk has also been assessed in four studies, and there is found to be more variability in this measure than in excess relative risk. In particular, there is a substantial difference between the absolute risk in the Japanese atomic bomb survivor data and those in three other (European) populations. In summary, the relative risks of leukaemia in studies of persons exposed to appreciable doses of ionizing radiation in the course of treatment for a variety of malignant and non-malignant conditions in childhood are generally less than those in the Japanese A-bomb survivor data. The effects of cell sterilisation can largely explain the discrepancy between the Japanese and the medical series. (authors)

  14. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashizawa, K.; Imaizumi, M.; Usa, T.; Tominaga, T.; Hida, A.; Ejima, E.; Neriishi, K.; Soda, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Maeda, R.; Akahoshi, M.; Nagataki, S.; Eguchi, K.

    2005-01-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T 3 , F T 4 ) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T 4 (0.71∼1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45∼4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: Nine individuals had TSH<0.1 m U/L. In the Sh group, six individuals were TPO antibody-positive (17%) and 14 were TG antibody-positive (40%); hence, TG antibody-positive was significantly greater in number (p=0.0096). Hematological biochemical tests showed no significant difference between the two groups. Electrocardiograms indicated that more individuals had atrial fibrillation [p=0.028; Odds ratio (OR)=3.98; 95% Confidential interval (CI)=1.2-13.7] or ventricular premature contraction [p=0.016; OR=3.29; 95% CI=1.3-8.6] in the Sh group. In terms of the presence or absence of diabetes, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and hyperuricemia, there was no difference between the two groups. One individual from the Sh group was confirmed to have Graves' disease two years later. Conclusion: Since more individuals in the Sh group were

  15. Relation of radiation to gastric carcinoma observed in autopsy cases in the life span study sample, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1961-74

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamamoto, Tsutomu; Shimizu, Yukiko.

    1978-11-01

    A study was made of the relation to atomic bomb radiation of 535 cases of gastric carcinoma among 4,694 deaths occurring in a fixed population of Hiroshima and Nagasaki who were autopsied between 1961 and 1974. The proportion of all autopsies with gastric carcinoma as autopsy diagnosis tended to be high in the high dose group, but it could not be concluded with the present amount of information that there is a relation between gastric carcinoma and radiation in this autopsy study. Although no specific distribution of the histological types of gastric carcinoma was noted by radiation dose, the data indicated increases in the degree of extension of tumor cells in the gastric wall and the degree of metastasis to the lymph nodes seemed to be high in the high dose group. (author)

  16. An operated case with post-traumatic epilepsy following atomic bombing injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morioka, Takato; Nishio Shunji; Muraishi; Mitsuteru; Hisada, Kei; Takase, Keiichirou; Matsukado, Koichiro; Sasaki, Masayuki; Fukui, Masashi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Graduate School of Medicine; Ohta, Michiya

    1999-12-01

    The case was 54-years-old man who was bombed at 4-years old 1.5 km apart from the center of explosion in Hiroshima, and had intractable epilepsy after 10 years or more. He suffered from systemic convulsion from 18 years old and took anti-convulsant drugs from 23 years old. The frequency of seizure increased from once a half year to thrice 2 months for these 3-4 years. The attack mainly occurred at night, and it was generalized tonicoclonic convulsion accompanied with unconsciousness and urinary incontience. Valproate (1,800 mg) and clonazepam (1 mg) failed to control the attack, and then he was referred to author's hospital. By CT scanning, MRI and HMPAO-SPECT, the area around the ossified lesion in the right frontal lobe was considered the focus of the epilepsy, and the focus was removed on June 4, 1998. No neurodegeneration and convulsive seizure occurred after surgery. The ossified lesion was confirmed to be bone tissue containing osteoblasts from histological findings and was accompanied by severe gliosis to the brain surface. A large number of active astrocytes were found around the nerve cells in the cortex showing spine-like wave focus, but there were no significant changes in blood vessels in the brain. (K.H.)

  17. Incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures among adult health study participants, Hiroshima and Nagasaki, 1958-86

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Mizuno, Shoichi; Ochi, Yoshimichi; Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Russell, W.J.; Hosoda, Yutaka.

    1990-01-01

    The incidence of thoracic vertebral fractures (TVF) in a fixed Hiroshima and Nagasaki population of 16,027 was determined by sex, age, and atomic bomb ionizing radiation exposure. Diagnosis was based on lateral chest radiographs made from 1 July 1958 to 28 February 1986. Born between 1880 and 1940, the subjects were categorized by sex into 10-year birth cohorts. When examined by birth cohort and age at onset, the age dependency of TVF incidence showed a good fit to a log-linear regression model. In females, TVF incidence tended to be lower in the younger birth cohorts and tended to increase with age in all birth cohorts. With each 10-year increase in age, the incidence among females increased by a factor of 1.7. In males, the incidence was significantly lower in the younger birth cohorts, but did not increase with age. The incidence decreased by a factor of 0.5 in males and 0.6 in females as the birth cohort age became younger. TVF incidence was greater in males until the age of 50, was equal by sex in the sixth decade, and was greater among females, who were 60 years of age or older. TVF incidence did not differ by city, and no correlation with A-bomb radiation exposure was demonstrated. (author)

  18. A-bomb survivor dosimetry update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loewe, W.E.

    1982-06-01

    A-bomb survivor data have been generally accepted as applicable. Also, the initial radiations have tended to be accepted as the dominant radiation source for all survivors. There was general acceptance of the essential reliability of both the biological effects data and the causative radiation dose values. There are considerations casting doubt on these acceptances, but very little quantification of th implied uncertainties has been attempted. The exception was A-bomb survivor dosimetry, where free-field kerma values for initial radiations were thought to be accurate to about 30%, and doses to individual survivors were treated as effectively error-free. In 1980, a major challenge to the accepted A-bomb survivor dosimetry was announced, and was quickly followed by a succession of explanations and displays showing the soundness of that challenge. In fact, a complete replacement set of free-field kerma values was provided which was suitable for use in constructing an entire new dosimetry for Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The new values showed many changes greater than the accepted 30% uncertainty. An approximate new dosimetry was indeed constructed, and used to convert existing leukemia cause-and-effect data from the old to the new dose values, by way of assessing the impact

  19. ABCC-NIH adult health study, Hiroshima 1958-1960. Cardiovascular project report Number 6, heart size norm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, Shoichi, Russell, W.J.; Yano, Katsuhiko

    1962-05-01

    Utilizing the information obtained from the detailed clinical examinations of subjects seen at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission, standard heart size determinations in the Hiroshima population are provided. A formula has been devised to express the normal transverse cardiac diameter, obtained from the routine posteroanterior chest roentgenogram, in relation to weight, height, and age. The analysis was made for each sex separately. Values computed by using this formula are regarded as standard heart size. Deviations from the standard are interpreted as individual variability in the normal group, with a standard deviation of 9 mm. When this standard was applied to abnormal subjects, a high correlation between the relative heart size and the blood pressure or the presence of overt heart disease was evident. For this reason, the relative heart size for this standard should prove useful, together with other related factors, in the diagnosis and investigation of cardiovascular disease. A nomograph has been devised for practical use. 12 references, 7 figures, 4 tables.

  20. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Bloom, E.T.; Makinodan, Takashi; California Univ., Los Angeles

    1988-01-01

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  1. Selection, follow-up, and analysis in the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jablon, S.

    1985-01-01

    More is known about ionizing radiation as a cause of human cancer than about any other carcinogen. Most of this knowledge is derived from the studies conducted by the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission and Radiation Effects Research Foundation on about 100,000 Japanese survivors of the atomic bombing in 1945. The importance of these studies is based on the large size of the exposed population and the fact that individual estimates of radiation dose were possible. These factors and the combined excellence of the centralized vital statistics reporting and population registration systems in Japan have made feasible the continuing longitudinal studies of cancer mortality by site in relation to radiation dose over a span of more than 30 years. Excellent voluntary cooperation by the survivors has enabled the continuation of a biennial physical examination program which has made possible the acquisition of blood for studies of radiation-induced chromosomal aberrations and mutations at the level of specific genes. Similarly, with the cooperation of local universities, hospitals, and physicians, tumor and tissue registries necessary for the study of cancer incidence have been developed. An autopsy pathology program has enabled study of the accuracy of cause of death certification

  2. Harry Truman and the Atomic Bomb: An Excursion into Character Education through Storytelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Tony R.

    2006-01-01

    This article asserts the importance of character education through the utilization of historical storytelling in the social studies classroom. After briefly noting the value of the historical story in this regard, a specific, ready-made example is provided concerning Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb and includes a crucial set of follow-up…

  3. The mutual exchange of the doctors and the information on radiation related medicine between Kazakhstan and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dohi Hiroo

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of IPPNW is prevention of nuclear wars. As the first city suffered by Atomic Bomb, Doctors in Hiroshima Medical Community has a strongest wish to peace. IPPNW has been established in 1981 with the co-operative works of US and former Soviet Union. HICARE, Hiroshima International Council for Health Care of the Radiation-Exposed, was established in 1991. The purpose is, for the benefit of radiation-exposed populations in various parts of the world, to make the expertise available that has been accumulated in Hiroshima from the health care of A-bomb survivors and research on A-bomb radiation effects. By the concept of above HICARE accepted 9 researches from Kazakstan from 1992. And HICARE team visited Kazakstan twice. Firstly, in 1998 Professor Kamada visited here. He and other persons attended the second international meeting on the radiation, ecology and health, which was held in Semipalatinsk. They worked with the cooperation with other members from Hiroshima. Secondly, in 1999 five members visited with two Kazakstan researchers studying in Hiroshima. The aim of this mission was technical assistance from the thyroid examination of the people and the decision on the future direction

  4. Mortality among the offspring (F1) of atomic bomb survivors, 1946-85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Schull, W.J.; Kato, Hiroo; Neel, J.V.

    1991-03-01

    We compare deaths occurring in the years 1946-85 in a cohort of 31,159 children born to parents one or both of whom were exposed to the atomic bombing of Hiroshima or Nagasaki, and received a combined (i.e., joint) gonadal dose of 0.01 Sv or more, with deaths in a comparable control group, totaling 41,069 children. The average combined gonadal dose equivalent for the exposed parents was 0.435 Sv. Gonadal doses were calculated using the recently established DS86 system, supplemented by an ad hoc system for those children for whom a DS86 dose could not be computed for one or both parents. The mean age of living members of the cohorts was 28.8 years. When a linear relative risk model is fitted to the data, no statistically significant increase in the risk of mortality attributable to diseases other than neoplasms is noted following parental exposure, the excess relative risk being 0.030 (±0.046) per sievert based on the subset of individuals with DS86 doses, assuming the RBE of neutrons to be 20. For fatal cancer, in confirmation of an earlier report on cancer incidence below the age of 20 in this same group, again no statistically significant effect was observed as parental radiation dose increased. This model was also fitted to the data used in the relative risk estimate to provide some continuity with the past. The results give an intercept of 0.0420(±0.0015) and a linear regression coefficient of 0.00169 (±0.00157) per sievert. This leads to the calculation of a (statistically nonsignificant) excess relative risk of 0.040, in good agreement with the excess obtained by fitting the relative risk model. An analysis based on the full sample, using not only the DS86 dose group but also the ad hoc dose group, yields essentially the same result as the analysis restricted to the DS86 dose group. (J.P.N.)

  5. Small head size following in utero exposure to atomic radiation, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R W; Blot, W J

    1972-01-01

    There was a progressive increase with dose in the frequency of abnormality among persons whose mothers were exposed before the 18th week of pregnancy. In Hiroshima the minimum dose producing an effect was 10 to 19 rad, but in Nagasaki no effect was observed under 150 rad. At maternal doses of > 150 rad, small head circumference was often accompanied by mental retardation. The low doses in Hiroshima are not directly applicable to medical radiology because of the presence of neutrons and environmental disturbances. (DLC)

  6. Activation measurements for thermal neutrons. Part D. 36Cl measurements in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straume, Tore; Men, Ping; Marchetti, Alfredo A.; Egbert, Stephen D.; Roberts, James A.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-01-01

    A large number of measurements were performed in the United States of 36 Cl in both granite and concrete samples obtained from various locations and distances in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. These measurements employed accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) to quantify the number of atoms of 36 Cl per atom of total Cl in the sample. Results of these measurements are presented in this section and discussed in the context of the DS02 dosimetry reevaluation effort for Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic-bomb survivors. (J.P.N.)

  7. Study of gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takayama, Sadamatsu; Tadehara, Futoshi; Okusaki, Ken; Ito, Yoshiko; Ogawa, Junichiro; Kato, Masafumi; Ito, Chikako; Oyama, Hiroko; Mito, Kazuyo.

    1990-01-01

    Ten gastric cancer A-bomb survivors who had been false negative in mass screening for gastric cancer one year before the diagnosis were entered in a study determining an adequate interval of gastric mass screening for A-bomb survivors. Doubling time of cancer was determined on X-ray films. Of the 10 A-bomb survivors, 8 had entered the city after the bombing and the other two had been exposed at 1,700 m and 2,500 m, respectively, from the hypocenter. Six had early gastric cancer and the other 4 had advanced cancer. Doubling time averaged 19.1 months for early cancer and 7.6 months for advanced cancer. Three measurements of tumor diameter available for 4 A-bomb survivors revealed a very rapid increase in doubling time during the progression period from early to advanced cancer. An interval of one year seems to be adequate in mass screening to detect early cancer. (N.K.)

  8. Organ dose estimates for the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.

    1978-10-01

    Recent studies concerning radiation risks to man by the Committee on Biological Effects of Ionizing Radiation of the National Academy of Sciences-National Research Council and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation have emphasized the need for estimates of dose to organs of the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. Shielding of internal organs by the body has been investigated for fission-weapon gamma rays and neutrons, and ratios of mean absorbed dose in a number of organs to survivors' T65D assignments of tissue kerma in air are provided for adults. Ratios of mean absorbed dose to tissue kerma in air are provided also for the thyroid and active bone marrow of juveniles. These organ dose estimates for juveniles are of interest in studies of radiation risks due to an elevated incidence of leukemia and thyroid cancer in survivors exposed as children compared to survivors exposed as adults

  9. Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) in atomic-bomb survivors in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashizawa, K; Imaizumi, M; Usa, T; Tominaga, T; Hida, A; Ejima, E; Neriishi, K; Soda, M; Fujiwara, S; Maeda, R; Akahoshi, M; Nagataki, S; Eguchi, K [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Nagasaki (Japan). Nagasaki Branch

    2005-07-01

    Full text: Purpose/Background Subclinical hyperthyroidism (Sh) is defined as a biochemical abnormality characterized by a subnormal level of TSH with otherwise normal thyroid tests (F T{sub 3}, F T{sub 4}) and no clinical symptoms. There are only a small number of cross-sectional studies on the prevalence of Sh. With the improvement of the sensitivity of TSH assay, it has become possible to survey the clinical significance of Sh. With regard to both Sh and subclinical hypothyroidism, discussions are being focused on such as the necessity of treatment. In order to elucidate the clinical significance of Sh, examination data of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki were analyzed. Subjects and Method Between 2000 and 2003, of 4,090 A-bomb survivors (1,352 males and 2,738 females with average age of 70.7), 75 individuals (1.83%) with Sh were found who had normal Free T{sub 4} (0.71{approx}1.51 ng/dL) and TSH<0.45 m U/L. Analysis was limited to those who had not taken antithyroid drugs or thyroxin, and the Sh group (n=35; 9 males and 26 females) was compared with a control group with TSH:0.45{approx}4.5 m U/L (Group C; N=3,243; 1,109 males and 2,134 females). Result: N