Sample records for atomic bomb casualty

  1. Pathology of atomic bomb casualties. (United States)

    Iijima, S


    Thirty seven years ago, 6 August 1945 marks the date of the first atomic bombing never experienced in human history. It was dropped on Hiroshima and this was followed by a second bombing three days later on Nagasaki. The total deaths following exposure to the bomb by the end of 1945 totalled 140,000 (+/- 10,000) in Hiroshima and 70,000 (+/- 10,000) in Nagasaki. The present article described and outline of the physical effects of the atomic bomb and injury to the human body by exposure to the bomb.

  2. Atomic Bomb Health Benefits


    Luckey, T. D.


    Media reports of deaths and devastation produced by atomic bombs convinced people around the world that all ionizing radiation is harmful. This concentrated attention on fear of miniscule doses of radiation. Soon the linear no threshold (LNT) paradigm was converted into laws. Scientifically valid information about the health benefits from low dose irradiation was ignored. Here are studies which show increased health in Japanese survivors of atomic bombs. Parameters include decreased mutation,...

  3. Korean atomic bomb victims. (United States)

    Sasamoto, Yukuo


    After colonizing Korea, Japan invaded China, and subsequently initiated the Pacific War against the United States, Britain, and their allies. Towards the end of the war, U.S. warplanes dropped atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, which resulted in a large number of Koreans who lived in Hiroshima and Nagasaki suffering from the effects of the bombs. The objective of this paper is to examine the history of Korea atomic bomb victims who were caught in between the U.S., Japan, the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea).

  4. Atomic bomb and leukemia

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    Ichimaru, M.; Tomonaga, M.; Amenomori, T.; Matsuo, T. (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Characteristic features of the leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. Dose estimates of atomic bomb radiation were based on T65D, but the new dosimetry system DS86 was used for some analyses. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic to atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. The threshold of CML occurrence in Hiroshima is likely to be between 0.5{approx}0.09 Gy. However, the threshold of acute leukemia appears to be nearly 1 Gy. In the distribution of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) subtypes by French-American-British classification, there was no M3 case in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Although aplastic anemia has not increased as a late effect of the atomic bomb radiation exposure, many atypical leukemia or other myeloproliferative diseases who had been diagnosed as aplastic anemia or its related diseases have been experienced among atomic bomb survivors. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral T-cells in several atomic bomb survivors. (author).

  5. Atomic bomb and leukemia

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    Ichimaru, Michito; Tomonaga, Masao; Amenomori, Tatsuhiko; Matsuo, Tatsuki (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Characteristic features of leukemia among atomic bomb survivors were studied. The ratio of a single leukemia type to all leukemias was highest for CML in Hiroshima, and the occurrence of CML was thought to be most characteristic for atomic bomb radiation induced leukemia. In the distribution of AML subtypes of FAB classification, there was no M3 cases in 1 Gy or more group, although several atypical AML cases of survivors were observed. Chromosome study was conducted using colony forming cells induced by hemopoietic stem cells of peripheral blood of proximal survivors. Same chromosome aberrations were observed in colony forming cells and peripheral blood of proximal survivors. (author).

  6. One minute after the detonation of the atomic bomb: the erased effects of residual radiation. (United States)

    Takahashi, Hiroko


    The U.S. Government's official narrative denies the effects of residual radiation which appeared one minute after the atomic bomb detonations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This paper explores declassified documents from the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, the Atomic Bomb Casualties Commission, and others and shows that these documents actually suggested the existence of serious effects from residual radiation.

  7. Peace and the Atomic Bomb

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    Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    A little over three years after assuming the directorship of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, Norris Bradbury returned to his alma mater, Pomona College, and delivered one of his first extended speeches regarding the atomic bomb. Bradbury noted that although the atomic bomb had brought a “peace of kind,” ending World War II, the bomb also had become, without much thought, a “factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world.” Bradbury hoped his speech, given to both the faculty and student body of Pomona, would give his audience a foundation on which to assess and understand the new world the bomb had ushered into existence. Bradbury’s talk was quickly printed an distributed by Pomona College and, later, reprinted in The Physical Review (Volume 75, No. 8, 1154-1160, April 15, 1949). It is reprinted here, for a third time, as a reminder of the early days of Los Alamos and its role in international affairs. "Slightly more that three years ago, this country brought to an end the most catastrophic war in history. The conflict had been characterized by an unremitting application of science to the technology of destruction. The final use of the atomic bomb, however, provided a climax so striking that the inevitable nature of future wars was illustrated with the utmost clarity. Peace of a kind followed the first military use of atomic weapons, but international understanding did not, and the atomic bomb became a factor in the political, military, and diplomatic thinking of the world. Where do we now stand in all this? What are the costs and the rewards? Where are we going? These are some of the things that I would like to discuss with you this morning."

  8. Surveys right after the atomic bombing and a relief squad

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    Mine, Mariko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    An outline of four survey reports right after the atomic bombing in Nagasaki and Hiroshima is introduced. The report of Manhattan District Atomic Bomb Investigating Groups: The subjects of this survey were 900 inpatients in Nagasaki (for 16 days from September 20) and Hiroshima (for 5 days from October 3). Two hundreds and forty-nine patients (16%) died. In cases died without injury, the severe symptoms were alopecia, purpura, hemorrhage, oral cavity and pharynx lesion, vomiting, diarrhea and fever. The residual radioactivity measured at six weeks later was 6-25 roentgen in Hiroshima and 30-110 roentgen in Nagasaki (Nishiyama riverhead area). These values were lower than the predicted value from the clinical consequence. The report of Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Atomic Bomb: Following the above survey, about 6500 subjects were investigated both in Nagasaki and Hiroshima. Incidence of alopecia was investigated by shielded situation at a spot of 2.1 to 2.5 km from a blast center. It was 7.2% of outdoors (shielded: 7.3%, non-shielded: 17.4%) and 2.9% of indoors. The report of the Special Committee for Atomic Bomb Casualty Investigation and Research of the Scientific Research Council of Japan: General part of the report consists of medical part and physical part, and reports from each university were classified and listed in the supplement. Survey of Nagasaki Medical College (not in public): About 8000 subjects were investigated from October to December. Data were gathered up about lethality, time of death, injury and radiation sickness, etc. There was also autograph of a relief squad of the Nagasaki Medical College. (K.H.)

  9. Hurricane Ike versus an Atomic Bomb (United States)

    Pearson, Earl F.


    The destructive potential of one of nature's most destructive forces, the hurricane, is compared to one of human's most destructive devices, an atomic bomb. Both can create near absolute devastation at "ground zero". However, how do they really compare in terms of destructive energy? This discussion compares the energy, the…

  10. The Manhattan Project: Making the atomic bomb

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    Gosling, F.G.


    This article is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of US government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  11. Mortality of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

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    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Yokota, Kenichi; Tomonaga, Masao; Okumura, Yutaka [Atomic Bomb Disease Institute, Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)


    We analyzed the risk in 2,743 atomic bomb survivors by using a new dosimetry system. From the database, we selected 2,743 exposed persons and a total of three times 2,743 age-matched controls who were living far from the center of the A-bomb radiation in Nagasaki at the time of the explosion and who were still alive in 1971. The mortalities from all causes for male subjects exposed were slightly lower than, or almost equal to, those of unexposed persons. Death from cancer, however, increased in both sexes after all levels of irradiation except in males exposed to 0.01-0.49 Gy. In males, the risk was showed significant reduction in death from all diseases other than cancer classified according to 0.31-0.40 Gy. (author)

  12. Ophthalmologic survey of atomic bomb survivors in Japan, 1949. Atomic bomb radiation cataract case report with histopathologic study. Medical examination of Hiroshima patients with radiation cataracts

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    Cogan, D.G.; Martin, S.F.; Kimura, S.J.; Ikui, Hiroshi; Fillmore, P.G.


    This document contains 3 reports dealing with the delayed effects of radiation on the eyes of survivors of the atomic explosions in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. In the first study, 1000 persons who were listed as having been in the open and within two kilometers of the hypocenter at the time of the explosion were selected at random from the census files of the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission for study. In addition, 231 others, comprising the total available number of surviving persons listed at present in the census files as having been within one kilometer of the hypocenter, were examined, as were several hundred others who were contacted through newspaper publicity, referrals from local ophthalmologists, or through hearsay. The survey resulted in bringing in persons having, or having had, a variety of ocular conditions. Those connected with the atomic bomb included the following diagnoses; multiple injuries of eyes and eyelids; keratoconjunctivitis from ultraviolet and ionizing radiations; thermal burn of the cornea and of the retina; retinitis proliferans; and radiation cataracts. The cataracts were the only delayed manifestations of ocular injury from the atomic bomb. The second paper is a case report of a histopathologic study of atomic bomb radiation cataract. The third paper presents the results of medical examinations of survivors having radiation induced cataracts. 32 references, 8 figures. (DMC)

  13. Medical consequences of suicide bombing mass casualty incidents: the impact of explosion setting on injury patterns. (United States)

    Kosashvili, Yona; Loebenberg, Mark I; Lin, Guy; Peleg, Kobi; Zvi, Feigenberg; Kluger, Yoram; Blumenfeld, Amir


    The increase in the incidence of suicide bombings on urban civilian populations in the recent years necessitates a better understanding of the related epidemiology in order to improve the outcome of future casualties. To characterise the epidemiology of mass casualty incidents following suicide explosions in relation to the surrounding settings. This study presents an analysis of the immediate medical consequences of 12 consecutive multiple casualty incidents (MCI's). Both pre-hospital and in-hospital data was assessed for each event including EMS evacuation times, types of injuries, body regions involved, Emergency Department (ED) triage, ED interventions and surgical procedures performed. The average arrival time of the first ambulance to the scene was 6.8+/-2.3 min. The first "urgent" patient was evacuated in average of 7.6+/-5.3 min later, while the last "urgent" patient was evacuated 27.8+/-7.9 min after the explosion. Explosions that occurred in buses had the worst rates of overall mortality (21.2%). However, those who survived closed space explosions suffered from the highest number of severe and moderate (ISS>8) injuries (22.9%). Casualties in this group underwent the largest number of both Emergency Room and Surgical interventions. Of the three settings, open space explosions resulted in the largest numbers of casualties with the smallest percentage of severe injuries or death. MCIs resulting from suicide explosions can be classified according to the setting of the event since each group was found to have distinct epidemiological characteristics.

  14. The Potentialities of the Atomic Bomb

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    Meade, Roger Allen [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradbury, Norris E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    In January 1949, Norris Bradbury gave a lecture at the National War College which summarized the progress Los Alamos had made since the end of the war. The transcript of the talk was filed and forgotten until it surfaced fifty years later. It is, perhaps, one of the best summaries of the state of the United States nuclear weapons program in 1949. It is also evidence of how Bradbury saw the future of atomic weapons. It is presented in full, with minor editing, and begins as follows: Since the first use of an atomic bomb on August 5 [sic], 1945, over the city of Hiroshima, Japan, there has been a continual flood of speculation and discussion concerning the effect of this new weapon on military technology. Much of this speculation and discussion has been intelligent and fruitful; much, I regret to say, has had neither of these characteristics. The enormity of the device, in terms of potential destruction and loss of life, and the practical necessity to surround the technical facts with full security restrictions have only combined to make the problem more difficult. At the same time, it is imperative that policymaking personnel in charge of long range national planning know the basic facts concerning atomic weapons and have these facts in a reasonable perspective. This document describes these potentialities in detail.

  15. 40 years of terrorist bombings - A meta-analysis of the casualty and injury profile. (United States)

    Edwards, D S; McMenemy, L; Stapley, S A; Patel, H D L; Clasper, J C


    Terrorists have used the explosive device successfully globally, with their effects extending beyond the resulting injuries. Suicide bombings, in particular, are being increasingly deployed due to the devastating effect of a combination of high lethality and target accuracy. The aim of this study was to identify trends and analyse the demographics and casualty figures of terrorist bombings worldwide. Analysis of the Global Terrorism Database (GTD) and a PubMed/Embase literature search (keywords "terrorist", and/or "suicide", and/or "bombing") from 1970 to 2014 was performed. 58,095 terrorist explosions worldwide were identified in the GTD. 5.08% were suicide bombings. Incidents per year are increasing (PEurope (13.2%) ranked 4th. The literature search identified 41 publications reporting 167 incidents of which 3.9% detailed building collapse (BC), 60.8% confined space (CS), 23.5% open space (OS) and 11.8% semi-confined space (SC) attacks. 60.4% reported on suicide terrorist attacks. Overall 32 deaths and 180 injuries per incident were seen, however significantly more deaths occurred in explosions associated with a BC. Comparing OS and CS no difference in the deaths per incident was seen, 14.2(SD±17.828) and 15.63 (SD±10.071) respectively. However OS explosions resulted in significantly more injuries, 192.7 (SD±141.147), compared to CS, 79.20 (SD±59.8). Extremity related wounds were the commonest injuries seen (32%). Terrorist bombings continue to be a threat and are increasing particularly in the Middle East. Initial reports, generated immediately at the scene by experienced coordination, on the type of detonation (suicide versus non-suicide), the environment of detonation (confined, open, building collapse) and the number of fatalities, and utilising the Kill:Wounded ratios found in this meta-analysis, can be used to predict the number of casualties and their likely injury profile of survivors to guide the immediate response by the medical services and the

  16. Comparison of rescue and relief activities within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. (United States)

    Matsunari, Yuko; Yoshimoto, Nao


    To clarify the factors and reasons for the differences in the outcomes of rescue and relief efforts in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, mainly focusing on the numbers of rescue/relief staffs and casualties in the period within 72 hours of the atomic bombings in August 1945. By retrieving the data and information from the records and reports concerning the disasters in the two cities, together with other publications as to the damages by the atomic bombings and subsequent rescue-relief activities, and restoration activities. It seems that there was less damage in Nagasaki, where a stronger atomic bomb was used than in Hiroshima. There were crucial geographic factors that led to the different effects in terms of the numbers of victims; however, systematic organization and mobilization of rescue and relief staffs, maintenance of functional transportation, and advanced medical knowledge and public warning with regard to disaster all may have contributed to a lower death toll and increase in survivors in Nagasaki.

  17. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition. (United States)

    Gosling, F. G.


    "The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb" is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  18. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 1999 edition.

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    Gosling, F.G.


    ``The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb`` is a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  19. Proteinuria in Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors

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    Freedman, L.R.; Seki, Masafumi; Phair, J.P.; Nefzger, M.D.


    A study of the epidemiology of proteinuria was conducted on about 5000 persons comprising a portion of the clinical sample under study at the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission. In addition, data from previous examinations of similar samples were analyzed. Proteinuria was more common in Hiroshima than in Nagasaki. The rates for men and women did not differ within cities. Age-specific rates of proteinuria were peculiar, peaking in adolescence and old age. In the subjects under study proteinuria was frequently inconstant and usually represented excretion of less than 1.0 g of protein per day. Prior exposure to radiation as measured by distance from the hypocenter was correlated with increased proteinuria rates in 18-year-old subjects who were in utero ATB. Subjects exposed after birth did not show this tendency. It is unsettled whether radiation results in renal disease by increasing the subject's susceptibility to the usual causes of glomerulonephritis or by some more direct mechanism. Persons with proteinuria had higher mean blood pressures and serum urea nitrogen levels than controls and had other findings indicative of generalized cardiovascular-renal disease. Persons with thyroid disease had an increased risk of proteinuria whereas the converse was true of those with a history of treatment for peptic ulcer. Many other factors were tested for a relation to proteinuria, including family history of renal disease, socioeconomic status, urinary symptoms, ingestion of medications, physical findings, hemoglobin levels, height, weight, ABO blood groups, audiometry, vibrometry, and serum cholesterol levels. Although urinary symptoms were more common in persons with proteinuria, the findings in other areas were not sufficiently different to suggest meaningful relations. 20 references, 2 figures, 13 tables.

  20. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors

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    Oshiro, Hisashi; Itamoto, Toshiyuki; Sumimoto, Ryo [Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Hospital (Japan)] [and others


    This is a retrospective review of gastric cancer in A-bomb survivors. Firstly, surgical cases of gastric cancer (1968-88) were compared in 514 A-bomb survivors and 1,092 non-exposed persons. The average age was 63.5 years in the exposed group and 60.0 years in the non-exposed group. Although there were much more men than women in the non-exposed group (67.3% vs 32.7%), there was no great difference in the exposed group (56.0% vs 44.0%). The frequency of early gastric cancer tended to be higher in the exposed group, and thus, both the curative resection and 5-year survival rates were slightly higher. This seems to have been attributed to periodical health examination for A-bomb survivors. Secondly, the frequency of gastric cancer was examined in relation to the age at the time of A-bombing (ATA). According to the ATA, 538 A-bomb survivors (1968-89) were divided into the <19 year group (n=118), 20-29 year group (n=134), 30-39 year group (n=178), and >40 year group (n=108). The <19 year group accounted for more A-bomb survivors directly exposed to A-bombing. Using 1,138 other non-exposed patients as controls, there was no factors specific to the exposed group. Thirdly, the distance from the hypocenter was examined in 569 A-bomb survivors (1966-1990) by dividing them into the {<=}2.0 km group (n=137), >2.1 km group (n=168), and secondarily exposed group (n=264). In all three groups, well-differentiated cancer was predominant. The frequency of poorly differentiated cancer was higher in those exposed nearer the hypocenter; this was significant in both the {<=}2.0 km and >2.1 km groups than the secondarily exposed group. In directly exposed groups, the frequency of poorly differentiated cancer was high in the age group of <50 and the frequency of well differentiated cancer was high in the age group of >60. This suggests the relationship between exposure doses and poorly differentiated gastric cancer. (N.K.).

  1. Foreign bodies radiographically-demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

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    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.


    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foreign bodies among atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All Adult Health Study subjects' roentgenograms demonstrating foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal, and acupuncture needles were analyzed by distance from hypocenters, sex, age, body sites involved; and the subjects' shielding at the times of the A-bombs. The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from hypocenter, heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than hand and wrist. Metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  2. Hot-spring cure of atomic-bomb survivors, 16

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    Ouchi, Tamon (Beppu Genbaku Senta (Japan))


    Though a cold winter with snowfalls, in the fiscal year 1983, the number of the atomic-bomb sufferers using the Beppu Atomic-bomb Center (a medical hot spring) was large in January and February, 1984; throughout the fiscal year, the total number was about 3,800 persons. The diseases of the sufferers, mostly in locomotion organs, are such as osteoarthritis of spine, lame hip and knee arthropathy. Being the typical diseases for which hot spring treatment is good, the effect is clear, and those desiring to enter the Center twice in a year are increasing. The situation of usage of the Center from April, 1983, to March, 1984, is described.

  3. Foreign bodies radiographically demonstrated in atomic bomb survivors

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    Tamura, S.; Onitsuka, H.; Lee, K.K.; Shimizu, Y.; Russell, W.J.


    The prevalence of roentgenologically-detected foregin bodies among atomic bomb survivors was studied as an indicator of the A-bomb blast effects. Acupuncture was studied as an indicator of possible A-bomb-related abnormalities for which it was administered. All available roentgenograms of Adult Health Study (AHS) subjects which demonstrated foreign bodies were reviewed. The frequency of glass and metal foreign bodies and of acupuncture needles was analyzed in detail. Analyses were made by distance from the hypocenter, sex, age, body sites involved, and shielding at the time of the A-bomb (ATB). The presence of glass fragments correlated closely with distance from the hypocenter, with heavy shielding from the A-bombs, and with adulthood, and they were more frequent in the chest than in the hand and wrist. On the contrary, metal foreign bodies were more frequent in the hand and wrist than in the chest, and were not associated with distance from hypocenter or heavy shielding. The prevalence of acupuncture needles increased with age, but did not correlate with A-bomb dose.

  4. The mental health state of atomic bomb survivors

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    Nakane, Yoshibumi; Imamura, Yoshihiro; Yoshitake, Kazuyasu; Honda, Sumihisa; Mine, Mariko; Hatada, Keiko; Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Tagawa, Masuko


    Our department of Neuropsychiatry has clarified the clinical features of several mental disorders and surveyed the causes of those disorders from the psychosocial aspect using the methodology of epidemiological psychiatric approach. Using this previous research experience, we began a long-planned study to examine the mental health state of atomic bomb survivors. Fifty-one years have passed since the atomic bombing, and the survivors must have suffered various psychosocial stresses, other than any direct effect on the central nervous system from exposure to radiation, and it is assumed that victims` mental state has been affected in various ways as a result. The subjects of the survey were 7,670 people who had regular health examinations for atomic bomb survivors during the study period of three years and who consented to participate in the study. Of the total, 226 subjects were selected for a second phase according to the results of the General Health Questionnaire 12-item Version which was used in the first phase of the survey. The results were as follows: 1. The distance from the hypocenter was related to the degree of ill health, and the percentage of people with a high score was greater among those exposed to the atomic bomb in proximity to the hypocenter. 2. 14.6% of the subjects were diagnosed as having some kind of mental disorders according to clinical interviews by trained psychiatrists. These results had not expected prior to the study. On the based of the study, we will try to establish a mental health support system for atomic bomb survivors. (author)

  5. The Manhattan Project: Making the Atomic Bomb. 2010 edition.

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    Gosling, F. G.


    This historical document is part of a planned 3-volume series. This volume, volume 1, provides a short history of the origins and development of the American atomic bomb program during World War II. Beginning with the scientific developments of the pre-war years, the monograph details the role of the United States government in conducting a secret, nationwide enterprise that took science from the laboratory and into combat with an entirely new type of weapon. The monograph concludes with a discussion of the immediate postwar period, the debate over the Atomic Energy Act of 1946, and the founding of the Atomic Energy Commission.

  6. Einstein, Ethics and the Atomic Bomb (United States)

    Rife, Patricia


    Einstein voiced his ethical views against war as well as fascism via venues and alliances with a variety of organizations still debated today. In 1939, he signed a letter to President Roosevelt (drafted by younger colleagues Szilard, Wigner and others) warning the U.S.government about the danger of Nazi Germany gaining control of uranium in the Belgian-controlled Congo in order to develop atomic weapons, based on the discovery of fission by Otto Hahn and Lise Meitner. In 1945, he became a member of the Princeton-based ``Emergency Committee for Atomic Scientists'' organized by Bethe, Condon, Bacher, Urey, Szilard and Weisskopf. Rare Einstein slides will illustrate Dr.Rife's presentation on Albert Einstein's philosophic and ethical convictions about peace, and public stance against war (1914-1950).

  7. Review of dosimetry for the atomic bomb survivors

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    Kerr, G.D.


    This paper summarizes and discusses results of some 1980-1981 studies of neutron and ..gamma..-ray exposure to the atomic bomb survivors by W.E. Loewe and E. Mendelsohn of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, D.C. Kaul and W.H. Scott of Science Applications, Inc., and J.V. Pace of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Some other special studies which are now underway to complete the review will also be discussed. The expert assistance of others in these special studies is being supported in part by the US Department of Energy and in part by the US Defense Nuclear Agency.

  8. The opening of the nationwide movement against atomic and hydrogen bombs in Japan : On the signature campaign against atomic and hydrogen bombs in 1954


    宇吹, 暁


    The Signature Campaign against Atomic and Hydrogen bombs in 1954 caused the nationwide movement against A- and H-bombs in Japan. The purpose of this paper is to explicate characteristics of the Japanese movement against A- and H-bombs through the examination of the Signature Campaign. Especially, this paper tries to show the following four points. 1. When the crew of the Daigo-Fukuryumaru received heavy doses of radiation in the hydrogen bomb test conducted by the United states on Bikini Atol...

  9. Organ doses from radiation therapy in atomic bomb survivors. (United States)

    Kato, K; Antoku, S; Kodama, K; Kawamura, S; Fujita, Y; Komatsu, K; Awa, A A


    Previous surveys of radiation therapy among the Life Span Study (LSS) population at the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) revealed that 1,670 (1.4%) of the LSS participants received radiation treatments before 1984. The data on therapeutic radiation doses are indispensable for studying the relationship between radiation treatments and subsequent cancer occurrences. In this study, the radiation treatments were reproduced experimentally to determine the scattered radiation doses. The experiments were conducted using a female human phantom and various radiation sources, including a medium-voltage X-ray machine and a (60)Co gamma-ray source. Doses were measured using thermoluminescence dosimetry and ionization chambers. Radiation doses were determined for the salivary glands, thyroid gland, breast, lung, stomach, colon, ovary and active bone marrow. The results have been used for documenting the organ doses received by patients in previous surveys. The contribution of therapeutic irradiation to the occurrence of chromosome aberrations was studied using data on doses to active bone marrow from both radiation treatments and atomic bomb exposures in 26 RERF Adult Health Study participants. The results suggest that radiation treatments contributed to a large part of their frequencies of stable-type chromosome aberrations. The therapeutic radiation doses determined in the present study are available for investigating the effects of therapeutic irradiation on the subsequent primary cancers among atomic bomb survivors who received radiation treatments.

  10. Axial length of atomic bomb survivors in Nagasaki

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    Wakiyama, Harumi; Kishikawa, Yasuhiro; Imamura, Naoki [Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan); Amemiya, Tsugio [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine


    We reviewed a series of 778 patients who had cataract surgery during the past 4 years at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Memorial Hospital. We evaluated the history of exposure to radiation by atomic bomb in 1945, axial length and state of refraction. All were born before 1945. The series comprised 263 males and 515 females. Their ages averaged 76.5{+-}8.6 years. History of exposure to radiation was present in 356 patients. The remaining 422 patients served as control. There was no difference in the type of cataract between the two groups. High myopia was present in 11 irradiated patients (3.2%) and in 24 patients in the control group (6.0%). The difference was not significant (p=0.083). There was no high myopia among 24 patients who were aged 18 years or less at the time of radiation and who were within 2 km from the epicenter. No difference was present regarding the axial length between the two groups or between both sexes. The present result is not definitive because ''irradiated group'' would include those with little or no exposure and because precise data has not been available about the dosis of radiation. (author)

  11. Genetic radiation effects of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srsen, S. (Komenskeho Univ., Bratislava (Czechoslovakia). Lekarska Fakulta)


    A group of researchers examined persons who had survived the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs and were irradiated and their progeny with the aim of getting an idea of the genetic effects of these explosions. Teratogenic effects are not discussed. In the lymphocytes of the peripheral blood of persons who had been exposed to high dose irradiation the researchers found a significant increase in chromosomal aberrations by conventional and more recent methods of chromosomal analysis. In parents who had survived the atomic holocaust there were no significant deviations as against the rest of the population in still births, neonatal defects, infant mortality, and mortality of first generation progeny, in neonate weight, the sex ratio, increased occurence of leukosis and chromosomal aberrations in their children. These negative findings in the first generation do not signify that there is no danger from atomic bomb blasts for human kind. They only indicate that the effects of radiation were too small to be found by routine methods or that the methods used were not suitable.

  12. Effects of radiation on the incidence of prostate cancer among Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. (United States)

    Kondo, Hisayoshi; Soda, Midori; Mine, Mariko; Yokota, Kenichi


    Atomic bomb survivors have been reported to have an increased risk of some cancers, especially leukemia. However, the risk of prostate cancer in atomic bomb survivors is not known to have been examined previously. This study examined the association between atomic bomb radiation and the incidence of prostate cancer among male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors. The subjects were classified by distance from the hypocenter into a proximal group (<2 km), a distal group (≥2 km), and an early entrance group (those who entered the region <2 km from the hypocenter within 2 weeks after the explosion). Between 1996 and 2009, 631 new cases of prostate cancer were identified among approximately 18 400 male Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors who were alive in 1996. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the risk of prostate cancer development, with adjustment for age at atomic bomb explosion, attained age, smoking status, and alcohol consumption. Compared with the distal group, the proximal group had significant increased risks of total, localized, and high-grade prostate cancer (relative risk and 95% confidence interval: 1.51 [1.21-1.89]; 1.80 [1.26-2.57]; and 1.88 [1.20-2.94], respectively). This report is the first known to reveal a significant relationship between atomic bomb radiation and prostate cancer. © 2013 Japanese Cancer Association.

  13. Accounting for neutron exposure in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors. (United States)

    Cullings, Harry M; Pierce, Donald A; Kellerer, Albrecht M


    The Japanese atomic bomb survivors that were directly exposed to both γ rays and neutrons have been followed by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF). The estimation of the γ-ray risks requires some adjustment for the greater biological effect of the neutrons per unit dose. Because the small neutron doses and the predominant γ-ray doses are highly correlated, the neutron relative biological effectiveness (RBE) cannot be reliably estimated from the survivors' data and information from radiobiology must be invoked. As data became available on neutron doses, RERF has used a constant neutron RBE value of 10, even though radiobiological studies indicate that the RBE values appear to have considerably larger values at low doses. The approximation RBE = 10 assumes that if the RBE is variable it takes roughly this value in the range of total dose most relevant for linear risk estimation, namely about 1 Gy. We consider some possible RBE functions to explain the correct use and the impact of a dose-dependent RBE. However, we do not advocate any particular choice or even that a variable RBE be employed. Rather we show that the assumed neutron RBE, within a wide range of choices, is far less important to the outcome of risk assessment of the RERF data than generally believed. Some of these misperceptions have been related to the consideration of variable RBE functions, and without due attention to the fact that in the case of the A-bomb survivors' data, the mixed field of neutrons and γ rays must be considered. Therefore, the RBE value of neutrons is much lower than the RBE in pure neutron fields that are used in radiobiological experiments. Thus, applying the pure neutron field RBE to the mixed-field A-bomb radiation can lead to an overestimation of the actual neutron RBE for moderate total dose levels of 1 Gy by a factor of more than four. While in a pure neutron exposure the RBE depends on the neutron dose, in the mixed field it depends on both components of

  14. Mass screening for prostatic cancer in atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakai, Hideki; Minami, Yuzo; Matsuya, Fukuzo; Yamashita, Syuji; Yushita, Yoshiaki; Sakuragi, Tsutomu; Kanetake, Hiroshi; Saito, Yutaka (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    Men exposed to the atomic bomb were screened for prostatic cancer in Nagasaki City, Japan. From 1983 to 1988, 2,421 subjects were examined. Of the 2,421 men, 12 (0.5%) prostatic cancer patients and 268 (11.1%) patients with benign prostatic hypertrophy requiring treatment were detected. Of the 12 prostatic cancer patients (stage B: 8, stage C: 3, and stage D: 1), 8 (67%) were suffering from early stage cancer. The measurement of serum acid phosphatase was not useful as a screening test for early stage prostatic cancer, since no patient with stage B disease had elevated acid phosphatase activity. The results of our study suggest that the following examination system would be useful for detecting early stage prostatic cancer; a digital rectal examination performed as an initial screening examination and when subjects are judged as needing further examinations, a second screening examination including digital palpation of the prostate, transrectal ultrasonography and an aspiration biopsy for cytological evaluation. (author).

  15. Medical Database for the Atomic-Bomb Survivors at Nagasaki University


    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka


    The Scientific Data Center for Atomic-Bomb Disasters at Nagasaki University was established in 1974. The database of atomicbomb survivors has been in operation since 1977. The database is composed of following 6 physical database : (1) Fundamental information database. (2) Atomic-Bomb Hospital database, (3) Pathological database, (4) Household reconstruction database, (5) Second generation database, and (6) Address database. We review the current contents of the database for its further appli...

  16. The risk of ovarian cancer in atomic bomb survivors, Nagasaki city, Japan 1973-1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Tsuguto; Shimokawa, Isao; Higami, Yoshikazu [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others


    A population based study was conducted to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer among female atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors in Nagasaki City by using data from 1973 to 1987 of the Nagasaki Tumor Resistry. The incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the total female population in Nagasaki City decreased at ages 50-59, 60-69, and 70-79 with advancing the periods investigated (1973-1977, 1978-1982, and 1983-1987). A similar trend in the incidence rate was also observed in A-bomb survivors. The summarized risk ratio (SRR) of ovarian cancer was not significantly higher in A-bomb survivors; SRR: 1.30 (95% confidence interval of SRR: 0.64-2.68) in the survivors exposed to the A-bomb radiation within 2 km of the hypocenter, and 1.07 (0.78-1.46) in the total population of A-bomb survivors. There was also no difference in histologic type of ovarian cancer between A-bomb survivors and non-exposed persons. It should be noted, however, that the incidence rate at age 40-49 was higher in A-bomb survivors than in non-exposed persons during the all periods investigated. A follow-up study is, therefore, still necessary to evaluate the risk of ovarian cancer in A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki city. (author).

  17. Case of primary sideroblastic anemia observed among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teratani, M.; Suzuki, J.; Kajikawa, M. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    A female a-bomb survivor had anemia 18 years after the exposure to a-bomb. She was strongly suspected of developing leukemia, because she showed morphological abnormalities (erythrocytoblasts, megakaryocytes, myeloblasts, eosinocytes, and neutrocytes having 2 or 3 or 5 nuclei) and partial functional disorder extending 3 bone marrow systems and chromosome aberration. She died of hepatitis and atrioventricular block 11 years after the onset.

  18. The Boston Marathon Bombings Mass Casualty Incident: One Emergency Department's Information Systems Challenges and Opportunities. (United States)

    Landman, Adam; Teich, Jonathan M; Pruitt, Peter; Moore, Samantha E; Theriault, Jennifer; Dorisca, Elizabeth; Harris, Sheila; Crim, Heidi; Lurie, Nicole; Goralnick, Eric


    Emergency department (ED) information systems are designed to support efficient and safe emergency care. These same systems often play a critical role in disasters to facilitate real-time situation awareness, information management, and communication. In this article, we describe one ED's experiences with ED information systems during the April 2013 Boston Marathon bombings. During postevent debriefings, staff shared that our ED information systems and workflow did not optimally support this incident; we found challenges with our unidentified patient naming convention, real-time situational awareness of patient location, and documentation of assessments, orders, and procedures. As a result, before our next mass gathering event, we changed our unidentified patient naming convention to more clearly distinguish multiple, simultaneous, unidentified patients. We also made changes to the disaster registration workflow and enhanced roles and responsibilities for updating electronic systems. Health systems should conduct disaster drills using their ED information systems to identify inefficiencies before an actual incident. ED information systems may require enhancements to better support disasters. Newer technologies, such as radiofrequency identification, could further improve disaster information management and communication but require careful evaluation and implementation into daily ED workflow. Copyright © 2014 American College of Emergency Physicians. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Seeing the Light: Visibility of the July '45 Trinity Atomic Bomb Test from the Inner Solar System (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron


    In his "The Making of the Atomic Bomb," Richard Rhodes remarks of the July 16, 1945, Trinity atomic bomb test in New Mexico that "had astronomers been watching they could have seen it reflected from the moon, literal moonshine," an allusion to Ernest Rutherford's famous dismissal of the prospect of atomic energy. Investigating…

  20. The development of the atomic bomb, Los Alamos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidel, R.W.


    The historical presentation begins with details of the selection of Los Alamos as the site of the Army installation. Wartime efforts of the Army Corps of Engineers, and scientists to include the leader of Los Alamos, Robert Oppenheimer are presented. The layout and construction of the facilities are discussed. The monumental design requirements of the bombs are discussed, including but not limited to the utilization of the second choice implosion method of detonation, and the production of bomb-grade nuclear explosives. The paper ends with a philosophical discussion on the use of nuclear weapons.

  1. Accurate dating with radiocarbon from the atom bomb tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Vogel, JC


    Full Text Available The artificial radiocarbon produced by the thermonuclear bomb tests in the 1950s and 1960s significantly increased the level of C-14 in the environment. A detailed record of the subsequent changes in the C-14 concentration of the atmosphere can...

  2. Nuclear shadows on silvered walls: Atomic Bomb Cinema, from 1935 to 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, J.F.


    The cinema and the atomic bomb are two of the most significant technological innovations of the past-century - their influence on culture has provoked tremendous political, academic, and popular debate. The point at which these two technologies intersect is what the author calls Atomic Bomb Cinema.' Since 1945 almost six hundred films with images of nuclear weapons have been released in the US, and they have been virtually ignored by everyone but the film going public. This study shows how Bomb films' use recurring themes and formal structures, and therefore must be treated as a coherent body of films; identifies historical, mythological, and contemporary motifs; and analyzes these films from two points of view: interdisciplinary (history, politics, economics, sociology, and aesthetics) and cross-cultural (American, Japanese, British, and Australian). The most important element of Atomic Bomb Cinema is the Apocalyptic Imagination; film makers use it to structure their narratives and explore a wide range of ideological issues. In contrast to commonly held beliefs, Atomic Bomb Cinema is undeniably part of a process that helps people to understand the threat of nuclear war. In this instance, the cinema is one cultural institution that contributes to a healthy society.

  3. Accident in science history. Hitler's atomic bomb; Stoerfall der Wissenschaftsgeschichte. Hitlers Atombombe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, Manfred


    Up to now the historical explanation for the fact that NS Germany did not develop an atomic bomb was that there was enough scientific and technical knowledge but not enough resources. Recent historical research showed that the German scientists in the ''Uranverein'' did not know the cross section of U-235 and had no possibility to measure these cross sections. There exist only very few documents dealing with the bomb. The bomb was treated as a special case of a reactor. Obviously the German scientists did not know he bomb technology. It seems that the project was not success-oriented because the scientists expected to be sent to the front in case of a project stop.

  4. Cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors exposed as children. (United States)

    Goto, Hitomi; Watanabe, Tomoyuki; Miyao, Masaru; Fukuda, Hiromi; Sato, Yuzo; Oshida, Yoshiharu


    To compare cancer mortality among A-bomb survivors exposed as children with cancer mortality among an unexposed control group (the entire population of Japan, JPCG). The subjects were the Hiroshima and Nagasaki A-bomb survivor groups (0-14 years of age in 1945) reported in life span study report 12 (follow-up years were from 1950 to 1990), and a control group consisting of the JPCG. We estimated the expected number of deaths due to all causes and cancers of various causes among the exposed survivors who died in the follow-up interval, if they had died with the same mortality as the JPCG (0-14 years of age in 1945). We calculated the standardized mortality ratio (SMR) of A-bomb survivors in comparison with the JPCG. SMRs were significantly higher in exposed boys overall for all deaths, all cancers, leukemia, and liver cancer, and for exposed girls overall for all cancers, solid cancers, liver cancer, and breast cancer. In boys, SMRs were significantly higher for all deaths and liver cancer even in those exposed to very low doses, and for all cancers, solid cancers, and liver cancer in those exposed to low doses. In girls, SMRs were significantly higher for liver cancer and uterine cancer in those exposed to low doses, and for leukemia, solid cancers, stomach cancer, and breast cancer in those exposed to high doses. We calculated the SMRs for the A-bomb survivors versus JPCG in childhood and compared them with a true non-exposed group. A notable result was that SMRs in boys exposed to low doses were significantly higher for solid cancer.

  5. Ocular blast injuries in mass-casualty incidents: the marathon bombing in Boston, Massachusetts, and the fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas. (United States)

    Yonekawa, Yoshihiro; Hacker, Henry D; Lehman, Roy E; Beal, Casey J; Veldman, Peter B; Vyas, Neil M; Shah, Ankoor S; Wu, David; Eliott, Dean; Gardiner, Matthew F; Kuperwaser, Mark C; Rosa, Robert H; Ramsey, Jean E; Miller, Joan W; Mazzoli, Robert A; Lawrence, Mary G; Arroyo, Jorge G


    To report the ocular injuries sustained by survivors of the April 15, 2013, Boston Marathon bombing and the April 17, 2013, fertilizer plant explosion in West, Texas. Multicenter, cross-sectional, retrospective, comparative case series. Seventy-two eyes of 36 patients treated at 12 institutions were included in the study. Ocular and systemic trauma data were collected from medical records. Types and severity of ocular and systemic trauma and associations with mechanisms of injury. In the Boston cohort, 164 of 264 casualties were transported to level 1 trauma centers, and 22 (13.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. In the West cohort, 218 of 263 total casualties were transported to participating centers, of which 14 (6.4%) required ophthalmology consultations. Boston had significantly shorter mean distances to treating facilities (1.6 miles vs. 53.6 miles; P = 0.004). Overall, rigid eye shields were more likely not to have been provided than to have been provided on the scene (PBoston sustained more lower extremity injuries because of the ground-level bomb. Overall, 27.8% of consultations were called from emergency rooms, whereas the rest occurred afterward. Challenges in logistics and communications were identified. Ocular injuries are common and potentially blinding in mass-casualty incidents. Systemic and ocular polytrauma is the rule in terrorism, whereas isolated ocular injuries are more common in other calamities. Key lessons learned included educating the public to stay away from windows during disasters, promoting use of rigid eye shields by first responders, the importance of reliable communications, deepening the ophthalmology call algorithm, the significance of visual incapacitation resulting from loss of spectacles, improving the rate of early detection of ocular injuries in emergency departments, and integrating ophthalmology services into trauma teams as well as maintaining a voice in hospital-wide and community-based disaster planning. Copyright

  6. Noncancer mortality based on the Hiroshima Atomic Bomb survivors registry over 30 years, 1968-1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasagi, Keiko [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine


    The relation of radiation exposure with noncancer mortality was examined on 44,514 atomic bomb survivors (17,935 males, 26,579 females, and mean age 22.8{+-}15.7 yrs at the time of bombing) registered at Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima University, based on mortality follow-up over 30 years, 1968-1997. Noncancer mortality was significantly related to radiation dose with relative risk of 1.06 at 1 Sv radiation dose, although weaker than the dose response in solid cancer mortality. The significant dose responses were observed especially in circulatory disease, stroke and urinary organ disease, and suggestive dose response in pneumonia. The temporal pattern in dose response by age at the time of bombing indicated that the relative risk of noncancer mortality was higher with follow-up period, which is contrary to a decreasing dose response in solid cancer mortality with follow-up period. The tendency was remarkable in those survivors younger at the time of bombing. These findings suggest that the significant radiation risk observed in noncancer mortality might increase as the proportion of younger survivors among atomic bomb survivors increases. (author)

  7. Lessons from the atomic bomb about secondary MDS. (United States)

    Hata, Tomoko; Imanishi, Daisuke; Miyazaki, Yasushi


    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) is a hematological neoplasm defined by ineffective hematopoiesis, dysplasia of hematopoietic cells, and risk of progression to acute leukemia. MDS occurs as de novo or secondary, and chemoradiotherapy for cancers is thought to increase the risk of MDS among patients. Recently, an epidemiological study for MDS among A-bomb survivors was performed, and it clearly demonstrated that the exposure to external radiation significantly increased the risk of MDS. Precise epidemiological data among survivors have revealed important clinical factors related to the risk of leukemias. In this review, by comparing data for secondary MDS and leukemia/MDS among survivors, several factors which would affect the risk of MDS, especially secondary MDS, are discussed.

  8. Mathematical phantoms for use in reassessment of radiation doses to Japanese atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristy, M.


    In 1972 committees of the United Nations and the US National Academy of Sciencs emphasized the need for organ dose estimates on the Japanese atomic-bomb survivors. These estimates were then supplied by workers in Japan and the US, and they were used with the so-called T65D estimates of a survivor's radiation exposure to assess risk from radiation. Recently the T65D estimates have been questioned, and programs for reassessment of atomic-bomb radiation dosimetry have been started in Japan and the US. As a part of this new effort a mathematical analogue of the human body (or ''mathematical phantom''), to be used in estimating organ doses in adult survivors, is presented here. Recommendations on organ dosimetry for juvenile survivors are also presented and discussed. 57 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  9. Neutron and gamma ray calculation for Hiroshima-type atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Takada, Jun [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Radiation Biology and Medicine; Iwatani, Kazuo; Oka, Takamitsu; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Fujita, Shoichiro; Hasai, Hiromi


    We looked at the radiation dose of Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb again in 1986. We gave it the name of ``Dosimetry System 1986`` (DS86). We and other groups have measured the expose dose since 1986. Now, the difference between data of {sup 152}Eu and the calculation result on the basis of DS86 was found. To investigate the reason, we carried out the calculations of neutron transport and neutron absorption gamma ray for Hiroshima atomic bomb by MCNP3A and MCNP4A code. The problems caused by fast neutron {sup 32}P from sulfur in insulator of pole. To correct the difference, we investigated many models and found agreement of all data within 1 km. (S.Y.)

  10. From the Dawn of Nuclear Physics to the First Atomic Bombs (United States)

    Woolbright, Stephen; Schumacher, Jacob; Michonova-Alexova, Ekaterina


    This work gives a fresh look at the major discoveries leading to nuclear fission within the historical perspective. The focus is on the main contributors to the discoveries in nuclear physics, leading to the idea of fission and its application to the creation of the atomic bombs used at the end of the World War II. The present work is a more complete review on the history of the nuclear physics discoveries and their application to the atomic bomb. In addition to the traditional approach to the topic, focusing mainly on the fundamental physics discoveries in Europe and on the Manhattan Project in the United States, the nuclear research in Japan is also emphasized. Along with that, a review of the existing credible scholar publications, providing evidence for possible atomic bomb research in Japan, is provided. Proper credit is given to the women physicists, whose contributions had not always been recognized. Considering the historical and political situation at the time of the scientific discoveries, thought-provoking questions about decision-making, morality, and responsibility are also addressed. The work refers to the contributions of over 20 Nobel Prize winners. EM-A is grateful to Prof. Walter Grunden and to Prof. Emeritus Shadahiko Kano, Prof. Emeritus Monitori Hoshi for sharing their own notes, documents, and references, and to CCCU for sponsoring her participation in the 2013 Nuclear Weapons Seminar in Japan.

  11. Report on results of fourth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in the U. S

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monzen, Tetsuo (Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan)); Ito, Chikako; Tanaka, Yoshikiyo; Kodama, Kazunori; Inamizu, Tsutomu


    Review was made of the fourth medical examination and the actual state of health of the U.S. atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivors. The number of survivors registered with the Committee of A-bomb Survivors residing in the U.S. as of the end of June 1983 in 592 (males 154, females 438), of whom 58.8% possess U.S. citizenship. Survivor's health handbooks issued to survivors under the Japanese A-bomb Survivors Medical Treatment Law are possessed by 29.2%, with female holders being about twice as numerous as males. Responses to the health survey questionnaire were received from 306. Complaints of subjective symptoms tended to be higher in the early entrants, and by place of examination, those of Honolulu had the higher rate. Those who underwent health examination numbered 305 (73 males and 232 females). RBC and hemoglobin value were higher in the U.S. survivors than in Hiroshima survivors. No abnormality was observed in 47.5%. The main abnormalities noted were obesity, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, ischemic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, hypothyroidism, and liver disease. Comparison of those who had received examination on two consecutive occasions in 1981 and 1983 and those who were examined for the first time in 1983 showed a decrease in the frequency of obesity and hypertension.

  12. The quantum exodus jewish fugitives, the atomic bomb, and the holocaust

    CERN Document Server

    Fraser, Gordon Murray


    It was no accident that the Holocaust and the Atomic Bomb happened at the same time. When the Nazis came into power in 1933, their initial objective was not to get rid of Jews. Rather, their aim was to refine German culture: Jewish professors and teachers at fine universities were sacked. Atomic science had attracted a lot of Jewish talent, and as Albert Einstein and other quantum exiles scattered, they realized that they held the key to a weapon of unimaginable power. Convincedthat their gentile counterparts in Germany had come to the same conclusion, and having witnessed what the Nazis were

  13. Gastric cancer in atomic bomb survivors, 2; In relation to age at the time of A-bomb explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshiro, Hisashi; Odan, Hideki; Hinoi, Takao; Inagaki, Kazuo; Tanaka, Issei (Hiroshima Prefectural Hiroshima Hospital (Japan))


    During 22 years from 1968 through 1989, 538 A-bomb survivors were operated on for gastric cancer, accounting for 30.9% of 1,741 surgical cases of gastric cancer during that period. To determine whether age at the time of exposure to A-bombing might influenced the occurrrence of gastric cancer, these A-bomb survivors were compared with 1,138 other non-exposed gastric cancer patients. According to age at the time of exposure, the 538 A-bomb survivors were divided into those under the age of 19 (118), those in their twenties (134), those in their thirties (178), and those over the age of 40 (108). The largest number of gastric cancer was those in their thirties at the time of exposure, followed by the twenties, 19 years or less, and 40 years or more in the exposed group. The younger A-bomb survivors were at the time of exposure, the earlier gastric cancer occurred. These findings were common to the non-exposed group. Postoperative 5-year survival rate was 72.0% in A-bomb survivors aged 19 years or less at the time of exposure, which was better than the other age groups. This may be explained by active participation in health examination for A-bomb survivors. (N.K.).

  14. Case of anemia with left atrial myxoma suspected as late effect of an atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, H.; Aosaki, N.; Kurita, A. (National Defense Medical College, Tokorozawa, Saitama (Japan))


    A 43 years old housewife with a history of exposure to an atomic bomb at 8 years old, recently developed anemia and palpitation. The laboratory data showed accelerated ESR, anemia (Hb 10.0 g/dl), and hyper ..gamma..-globulinemia. Despite the suspicion of late effect of atomic radiation, further examinations confirmed the diagnosis of left atrial myxoma. The echocardiographic studies revealed the decrease of diastolic descent rate, and multiple echos reflected from the tumor within the mitral orifice during diastole. Cardiac catheterization demonstrated remarkably high value of PCWP (V-wave 38 mmHg) and space filling defect moving from left atrium to left ventricle by cineangiography. Phonecardiographic studies were similar to mitral stenosis. After left atrial myxoma was removed, her symptoms and laboratory data including all noninvasive findings were improved. Therefore we suspected that her symptoms was related with left atrial myxoma rather than the late effect of atomic bomb exposure. We have discussed its significance and usefulness of noninvasive diagnostic approaches as well as whole body computed tomography in heart tumor.

  15. Listeria monocytogenes meningitis in an atomic bomb survivor receiving corticosteroid therapy for aplastic anemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihara, Kazuo; Shida, Norihiko; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Hospital (Japan)


    We report a case of successfully treated Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) meningitis in a atomic bomb survivor receiving steroid therapy for aplastic anemia. The patient was a 62-year-old woman and the past medical history included hypothyroidism due to radioiodide therapy for Basedow disease, breast cancer, aplastic anemia, steroid-induced diabetes mellitus, and pulmonary tuberculosis. At the time of onset, she was receiving corticosteroid, anabolic steroid, an H{sub 2}-blocker (famotidine), and other medication. Since she developed symptoms of meningitis when she visited our hospital for regular medical check-up for aplastic anemia, she was hospitalized and given antibiotic therapy, including ABPC, without delay. With this effective antibiotic therapy and successful management of the co-existing medical conditions, she was cured except for being a little euphoric. Lm meningitis is known to occur in aged and immunocompromised patients. Since most of the atomic bomb survivors are now aged and the prevalence of malignancy, diabetes mellitus, and other diseases which cause immunodeficiency have been rising year by year, Lm meningitis is one of the emergency neurologic conditions whose diagnosis should not be delayed in this population. (author).

  16. Did the Allies Know in 1942 About Nazi Germany's Poor Prospects for an Atomic Bomb? (United States)

    Lustig, Harry


    According to official accounts, the U.S. knew nothing about Nazi Germany's efforts to get an atomic bomb until the end of the World War II, but had feared the worst. As it turned out, the Germans had made little progress. But did someone in the Allied camp know in 1942? In his 1986 book, The Griffin, Arnold Kramish relates how Paul Rosbaud, a spy for MI6, the British secret intelligence service, kept his handlers informed during the War about the German atomic project and reported the decision to give up on a bomb. Kramish's revelations are, understandably, thinly documented and Rosbaud's name can hardly be found independenly anywhere else. But as Samuel Goudsmit's papers in the Bohr Library show, he knew and communicated with Rosbaud from August 1945 on. In 1986, 15 letters exchanged by Goudsmit and Rosbaud were removed by the Government from the Library and eventually placed in the National Archives under classification review. Renewed interest in the Rosbaud story was engendered last year when his family sued MI6 in an English court for the release of the Rosbaud file. So far the spy agency has refused to reveal even that there is such a file. Discovering authoritatively what Rosbaud told the British and what they did with the information is clearly of historical interest.

  17. The age of the bomb: History of the atomic threat from Hiroshima through today; Das Zeitalter der Bombe. Die Geschichte der atomaren Bedrohung von Hiroshima bis heute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salewski, M. [ed.] [Kiel Univ. (Germany)


    The booklet describes the history of the ``bomb`` from the ``Manhattan project`` to the present, tracing the drastic changes provoked by the nuclear weapons for world politics, but also for ethical thought and cultural conception of ourselves. Both the crises at the brink of nuclear war - Suez crisis, Berlin crisis, Cuba crisis - and the development of strategic doctrines, the arms race, the history of arms control, and the anti-atomic movement are dealt with in the contributions written by renowned authorities. The concluding paper on the role of nuclear weapons in a world politics that has become more intricate shows insistently that the age of the bomb is anything but over since the end of the East-West conflict. The example of North Korea or of the ``plutonium transfer deals`` from nuclear installations of the Soviet Union has recently shown that also the future will remain ``atomic``. (orig./HP) [Deutsch] Das Buch schildert die Geschichte der `Bombe` vom `Manhattan-Projekt` bis in die Gegenwart, und es zeichnet die einschneidenden Veraenderungen nach, die die Kernwaffe fuer die Weltpolitik, aber auch fuer das ethische Denken und unser kulturelles Selbstverstaendnis heraufbeschworen haben. Die Krisen am nuklearen Abgrund - Suez-Krise, Berlin-Krise, Kuba-Krise - werden in den von ausgewiesenen Sachkennern geschriebenen Beitraegen ebenso behandelt wie die Entwicklung der strategischen Doktrinen, der Ruestungswettlauf, die Geschichte der Ruestungskontrolle und die Anti-Atombewegung. Dass das Zeitalter der Bombe mit dem Ende des Ost-West-Konflikts keineswegs vorueber ist, zeigt eindringlich der abschliessende Beitrag ueber die Rolle der Kernwaffen in einer unuebersichtlicher gewordenen Weltpolitik. Das Beispiel Nord-Korea oder die `Plutonium-Transfergeschaefte` aus den Atomanlagen der ehemaligen Sowjetunion haben in juengster Zeit gezeigt, dass auch die Zukunft `atomar` bleiben wird. (orig./HP)

  18. Immune function in aging atomic bomb survivors residing in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, E.T. (VA West Los Angeles Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA); Korn, E.L.; Takasugi, M.; Toji, D.S.; Onari, K.; Makinodan, T.


    Immunologic parameters were studied among survivors of the 1945 atomic bombs who now reside in the United States. Of all known survivors living in the US, about 40% (n = 189) participated in this study. Of those survivors on whom radiation exposure information was available (n = 168), 96% were exposed to less than 50 rad at the time of the bomb (ATB). Survivors were divided into two groups; those exposed to varying low doses of radiation (S/sub +/ group, exposed at less than or equal to 2500 m from the hypocenter) were compared with those exposed to 0 rad (S/sub 0/ group, exposed at > 2500 m from the hypocenter). Of the former group, 92% were exposed to less than 100 rad and 89% to less than 50 rad ATB. Cellular immune responses, including natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity (NCMC), interferon production, and the mitogenic response to PHA, tended to be higher among S/sub +/ individuals, although only the different for NCMC was statistically significant. This was suggestive of a trend which was consistent with the higher serum interferon levels and lower frequencies of detectable immune complexes and antimitochondrial antibodies among the S/sub +/ group, although these differences were not statistically significant.

  19. Towards a "Common" View of Difficult Past? The Representation of Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Trilateral Teaching Materials (United States)

    Szczepanska, Kamila


    The centrality of atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in Japanese collective memory has been often perceived by the country's neighbours, i.e. the People's Republic of China and South Korea, as a pillar of the country's (alleged) "victim consciousness" and amnesia in regard to the suffering inflicted on others. For this reason, the…

  20. Parallel analysis of cancer mortality among atomic bomb survivors and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darby, S.C.; Nakashima, E.; Kato, H.


    Radiation-induced cancer mortality rates among atomic bomb survivors with doses of at least 100 rad and patients with ankylosing spondylitis given X-ray therapy have been compared for the first time. The estimated average mean bone marrow dose for the spondylitics is more than twice that for atomic bomb survivors, and yet spondylitics experienced only half the risk of radiation-induced leukemia of atomic bomb survivors. For sites that were heavily irradiated in the spondylitics, provisional estimates indicate comparable doses in the two studies, and similar levels of cancer risk were observed. For these sites, when information from the studies was combined, there were statistically significant excesses for cancers of the esophagus, stomach, lung, and ovaries, multiple myeloma, other lymphomas, and tumors of the spinal cord and nerves. Very high relative risks (RR's) for tumors of the spinal cord and nerves were observed in both studies. For sites that were lightly irradiated in the spondylitics, in addition to previously documented sites, there was a statistically significant excess of cancers of the liver and gallbladder among atomic bomb survivors. A previous subdivision of cancer sites into radiosensitive and other tissues was not supported by the atomic bomb survivor data. Changes in the rates of radiation-induced cancers with age at exposure and time since exposure were studied and compared with the use of generalized linear modeling of the RR's and also by examination of the excess mortality rates. The level of agreement between the two studies was high; provided it is accepted that the reduced level of leukemia risk in the spondylitics is due to cell sterilization, no inconsistencies were found.

  1. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, S.; Cologne, J.; Akahoshi, M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, S.; Kodama, K.; Yoshizawa, H.


    The purpose of this study is to analyze various laboratory indicators of inflammation measured in atomic bomb survivors. Subjects are 6304 survivors who underwent inflammatory tests at RERF between 1998 and 1992 and whose radiation doses (DS86) are available. Inflammatory tests include leukocyte counts, neutrophil counts, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate, alpha 1 globulin, alpha 2 globulin, and sialic acid. Adjusting for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence, regression analysis was conducted. Regression analysis, adjusted for age, sex, smoking, and city of residence showed statistically significant associations with radiation dose for leukocyte counts (71.0 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.00151), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.58 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), corrected erythrocyte sedimentation rate (1.14 mm/hour/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 1 globulin (0.0057 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), alpha 2 globulin (0.0128 g/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), and sialic acid (1.2711 mg/dl/Gy, p=0.0001), but not for neutrophil counts (29.9 /mm{sup 3}/Gy, p=0.1729). Standardized scores combining results from these seven inflammatory tests showed significant associations with radiation dose both for persons with and without inflammatory disease, and for two inflammatory conditions in particular, chronic thyroiditis and chronic liver disease. In analyses of data from 403 AHS patients, in whom both inflammation indicators and T-cell ratios were measured, increased inflammation correlates with decreases in CD4 T-cells. Since the laboratory indicators of inflammation that we studied are not specific for particular clinical diseases, the implication of their dose-response-pattern is hard to interpret. The general occurrence of infectious diseases in survivors is not related to radiation dose. Such a relationship does exist, however, for other diseases in which infection may play an etiologic role. Virologic studies in A-bomb survivors have suggested dose-response alterations in immune

  2. Hepatitis virus infection and chronic liver disease among atomic-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujiwara, Saeko; Cologne, John; Akahoshi, Masazumi [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Kusumi, Shizuyo [Institute of Radiation Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Association, Tokyo (Japan); Kodama, Kazunori; Yoshizawa, Hiroshi [Hiroshima University School of Medicine, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Hepatitis C and B virus (HCV, HBV) infection plays a crucial role in the etiology of chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma, which have been reported to increase with radiation dose among the atomic bomb survivors. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether radiation exposure altered the prevalence of hepatitis virus infection or accelerated the progress toward chronic hepatitis after hepatitis virus infection. Levels of serum antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), HBs antigen (HBsAg), and anti-HBs antibody (anti-HBs) were measured for 6,121 participants in the Adult Health Study of atomic bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki. No relationship was found between anti-HCV prevalence and radiation dose, after adjusting for age, sex, city, history of blood transfusion, acupuncture, and family history, but prevalence of anti-HCV was significantly lower overall among the radiation-exposed people (relative prevalence 0.84, p=0.022) compared to people with estimated radiation dose 0 Gy. No significant interaction was found between any of the above mentioned risk factors and radiation dose. People with anti-HCV positive had 13 times higher prevalence of chronic liver disease than those without anti-HCV. However, the radiation dose response for chronic liver disease among anti-HCV positive survivors may be greater than that among anti-HCV negative survivors (slope ratio 20), but the difference was marginally significant (p=0.097). Prevalence of HBsAg increased with whole-body kerma. However, no trend with radiation dose was found in the anti-HBs prevalence. In the background, prevalence of chronic liver disease in people with HBsAg-positive was approximately three times higher that in those without HBsAg. No difference in slope of the dose was found among HBsAg positive and negative individuals (slope: HBsAg positive 0.91/Gy, HBsAg negative 0.11/Gy, difference p=0.66). In conclusion, no dose-response relationship was found between

  3. Autopsy findings of the first and second filial generations of atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Satow, Yukio (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    Autopsy findings of 652 fetuses whose parents or one parent were exposed to the Atomic Bomb (F[sub 1]) and 115 fetuses which had one or two grandparents exposed (F[sub 2]) were compared with that of 8570 fetuses whose parents were not exposed (control). The F[sub 1] fetuses have been collected since 1963 and F[sub 2] fetuses since 1971 voluntarily in Hiroshima. The findings were classified according to the types of delivery and to the distances away from the hypocenter where the parents and grandparents were exposed. Many normal cases in the group of artificial abortions and many malformations and pathological findings in the group of spontaneous abortions were found in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. The malformations were cardiovascular, central nervous and urogenital system, quantitatively in that order, in both groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. Although there were a few cases of cystic kidney and chondrodystrophy which belong to autosomal dominant and osteogenesis imperfecta which belong to autosomal recessive, these cases were not correlated with the distance. Most cases of malformation which belong to the multifactorial inheritance were found in each organ. No peculiar malformation was found in the groups of F[sub 1] and F[sub 2]. (author).

  4. Detection of de novo single nucleotide variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors close to the hypocenter by whole-genome sequencing. (United States)

    Horai, Makiko; Mishima, Hiroyuki; Hayashida, Chisa; Kinoshita, Akira; Nakane, Yoshibumi; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tsuruda, Kazuto; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Sato, Shinya; Imanishi, Daisuke; Imaizumi, Yoshitaka; Hata, Tomoko; Miyazaki, Yasushi; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro


    Ionizing radiation released by the atomic bombs at Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 caused many long-term illnesses, including increased risks of malignancies such as leukemia and solid tumours. Radiation has demonstrated genetic effects in animal models, leading to concerns over the potential hereditary effects of atomic bomb-related radiation. However, no direct analyses of whole DNA have yet been reported. We therefore investigated de novo variants in offspring of atomic-bomb survivors by whole-genome sequencing (WGS). We collected peripheral blood from three trios, each comprising a father (atomic-bomb survivor with acute radiation symptoms), a non-exposed mother, and their child, none of whom had any past history of haematological disorders. One trio of non-exposed individuals was included as a control. DNA was extracted and the numbers of de novo single nucleotide variants in the children were counted by WGS with sequencing confirmation. Gross structural variants were also analysed. Written informed consent was obtained from all participants prior to the study. There were 62, 81, and 42 de novo single nucleotide variants in the children of atomic-bomb survivors, compared with 48 in the control trio. There were no gross structural variants in any trio. These findings are in accord with previously published results that also showed no significant genetic effects of atomic-bomb radiation on second-generation survivors.

  5. Was Nazi Germany on the Road to an Atomic Bomb after all? (United States)

    Lustig, Harry


    The story of Germany's efforts to develop a nuclear weapon during World War II is a much written about and contentious subject. However there has been agreement on one thing: by the end of the War the Germans had not achieved and were nowhere near to building a bomb. The dispute therefore has been about why Germany did not succeed. Now, from Germany, comes a challenge to this truth, in the provocative book Hitlers Bombe by Rainer Karlsch. The bombshell in Hitler's Bombe is the assertion that German scientists developed and tested a primitive fission and fusion nuclear weapon in March 1945. Karlsch bases this claim on testimony of witnesses in 1962, previously secret Russian documents, and the results of soil tests carried out in 2004 and 2005. However the physics is very murky and it seems out of the question that Germany had enough Uranium 235 or produced any Plutonium for a bomb. Hitlers Bombe also makes other, better documented and more credible revisionist assertions. These include the claim that the Nazis did continue to try to build a bomb after 1942 and that not Werner Heisenberg, but Kurt Diebner and Walther Gerlach were then the leaders of the German Uranium project. Karlsch's book therefore deserves more attention from physicists and historians than it has received in the United States.

  6. Prejudice and Health Anxiety about Radiation Exposure from Second-Generation Atomic Bomb Survivors: Results from a Qualitative Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Kamite


    Full Text Available The effect of atomic bomb radiation exposure on the survivors and their children has been a worrisome problem since soon after the 1945 Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings. Researchers have examined physical and genetic effects; however, no research has focused on second-generation survivors’ (SGS psychological effects. Consequently, this study shed light on the SGS’ experience of discrimination and prejudice and their anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure. This study utilized semi-structured interviews with 14 SGS (10 women, mean age = 56 ± 6.25 years, range = 46–68 years. Data were analyzed using a modified version of the grounded theory approach. Three categories were extracted: low awareness as an SGS, no health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation, and health anxiety regarding the effect of radiation. The results did not reveal that SGS who grew up in the bombed areas experienced discrimination or prejudice. They had little health anxiety from childhood to adolescence. In this study, some of the SGS developed health anxiety about their third-generation children, but only among female participants. Perhaps the transgenerational transmission of anxiety concerning the genetic effects of radiation exposure causes stress, particularly among women with children. However, a change was seen in adulthood health anxiety regarding the effects of radiation, suggesting the possibility that changes in the psychological experiences of SGS can be observed throughout their lifetimes and that their own health status, and that of their children, the third-generation survivors, affects their health anxiety regarding radiation.

  7. Micronuclei and chromosome aberrations found in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes form thorotrast patients and atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Izumi, Takaki; Ohkita, Takeshi; Kamada, Nanao (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    As two cytogenetic parameters of radiation exposure, the frequency of micronucleus in erythroblasts, lymphocytes and red cells (Howell-Jolly body) as well as chromosome aberrations in bone marrow cells and in lymphocytes were studied in 24 thorotrast patients and in 32 atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors who were exposed within one kilometer from the Hiroshima hypocenter. The incidence of both micronucleus and chromosome aberrations in these two exposed groups were significantly higher than that in non-exposed controls. So that these two parameters are useful guide for evaluating the residual effects of radiation, especially on hematopoietic cells. Because of its simple procedures, micronucleus test is also helpful as screening for prediction of chromosome aberrations. The characteristics of lymphocyte chromosome aberrations differed considerably between thorotrast patients and A-bomb survivors; the incidence of unstable type aberrations and intracellular complexity of chromosome aberrations were much higher in the former group. The incidence of micronucleus in erythroblasts and lymphocytes was also higher in thorotrast patients. Such differences are attributable to the differences in the radiation quality (..cap alpha..-ray or ..gamma..-ray+neutron) and in the mode of exposure (persistent or single) of these two groups.

  8. Workshop Report on Atomic Bomb Dosimetry--Residual Radiation Exposure: Recent Research and Suggestions for Future Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    There is a need for accurate dosimetry for studies of health effects in the Japanese atomic bomb survivors because of the important role that these studies play in worldwide radiation protection standards. International experts have developed dosimetry systems, such as the Dosimetry System 2002 (DS02), which assess the initial radiation exposure to gamma rays and neutrons but only briefly consider the possibility of some minimal contribution to the total body dose by residual radiation exposure. In recognition of the need for an up-to-date review of the topic of residual radiation exposure in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, recently reported studies were reviewed at a technical session at the 57th Annual Meeting of the Health Physics Society in Sacramento, California, 22-26 July 2012. A one-day workshop was also held to provide time for detailed discussion of these newer studies and to evaluate their potential use in clarifying the residual radiation exposures to the atomic-bomb survivors at Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Suggestions for possible future studies are also included in this workshop report.

  9. The cohort of the atomic bomb survivors major basis of radiation safety regulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rühm, W; Nekolla, E A


    Since 1950 about 87 000 A-bomb survivors from Hiroshima and Nagasaki have been monitored within the framework of the Life Span Study, to quantify radiation-induced late effects. In terms of incidence and mortality, a statistically significant excess was found for leukemia and solid tumors. In another major international effort, neutron and gamma radiation doses were estimated, for those survivors (Dosimetry System DS02). Both studies combined allow the deduction of risk coefficients that serve as a basis for international safety regulations. As an example, current results on all solid tumors combined suggest an excess relative risk of 0.47 per Sievert for an attained age of 70 years, for those who were exposed at an age of 30 years. After exposure to an effective dose of one Sievert the solid tumor mortality would thus be about 50% larger than that expected for a similar cohort not exposed to any ionizing radiation from the bombs.

  10. Significance of HER2 and C-MYC oncogene amplifications in breast cancer in atomic bomb survivors: associations with radiation exposure and histologic grade. (United States)

    Miura, Shiro; Nakashima, Masahiro; Ito, Masahiro; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Meirmanov, Serik; Hayashi, Tomayoshi; Soda, Midori; Matsuo, Takeshi; Sekine, Ichiro


    It has been postulated that radiation induces breast cancers in atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Oncogene amplification is an important mechanism during breast carcinogenesis and also serves as an indicator of genomic instability (GIN). The objective of this study was to clarify the association of oncogene amplification in breast cancer in A-bomb survivors with radiation exposure. In total, 593 breast cancers were identified in A-bomb survivors from 1968 to 1999, and the association between breast cancer incidence and A-bomb radiation exposure was evaluated. Invasive ductal cancers from 67 survivors and 30 nonsurvivors were analyzed for amplification of the HER2 and C-MYC genes by fluorescence in situ hybridization, and expression levels of hormone receptors were analyzed by immunostaining. The incidence rate increased significantly as exposure distance decreased from the hypocenter (hazard ratio per 1-km decrement, 1.47; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 1.30-1.66). The incidence of HER2 and C-MYC amplification was increased significantly in the order of the control group, the distal group (P = .0238), and the proximal group (P = .0128). Multivariate analyses revealed that distance was a risk factor for the coamplification of C-MYC and HER2 in breast cancer in survivors (odds ratio per 1-km increment, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.01-0.63). The histologic grade of breast cancers became significantly higher in the order of the control group, the distal group, and the proximal group and was associated with oncogene amplifications. The current results suggested that A-bomb radiation may affect the development of oncogene amplification by inducing GIN and may be associated with a higher histologic grade in breast cancer among A-bomb survivors. (c) 2008 American Cancer Society.

  11. Report on the results of the twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Ohama, Koso; Fujiwara, Saeko (and others)


    The twelfth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors residing in North America, was conducted in San Francisco and Seattle from May 20 through June 2 1999, and in Los Angeles and Hawaii from June 9 through 23 1999, The examination included an interview, measurement of height, weight, and blood pressure, an ECG, urine and stool tests, blood tests, a physical examination, examination of the breast, thyroid, and rectum by a surgeon, and screening for uterine cancer and a gynecological interview and examination by an obstetrician and gynecologist. The total confirmed number of A-bomb survivors residing in North America as of the end of June 1999 was 1076. Of the 1062 survivors that remained after excluding the 14 subjects whose survey was incomplete, 279 males and 654 females had been exposed in Hiroshima, and 10 males and 119 females in Nagasaki. The peak age at the time of exposure in both sexes was 15-19 years, followed by 10-14 years. The number of survivors exposed <2000 m from the hypocenter was 236, accounting for 21.9% of the total. The confirmed number of survivors exposed in utero was 26. The survivors' age (mean {+-}S.D.) was: 69.0{+-}8.69 years; males, 68.4{+-}80.5 years; females, 69.2{+-}8.91 years. A total of 414 survivors were examined (male 129; female 285; mean age 68.0 years). Approximately 80% of the examinees had experienced at least one general symptom. Many still complain of symptoms that suggest possible posttraumatic stress disorder as a result of exposure to the A-bomb. It will be necessary to consider providing mental health care by psychiatrists beginning with the next examination. The prevalence of life-style diseases has been gradually increased with age. A previous history of cancer was found in 9.2% of the examinees. The most prevalent was of breast cancer, followed by malignant tumors of the colon, rectum, uterus, brain, stomach, and thyroid. The need for cancer screening and promotion of life-style education was keenly felt. (K.H.)

  12. From the atomic bomb to the Landau Institute autobiography top non-secret

    CERN Document Server

    Khalatnikov, Isaak M


    The book is an expanded autobiography of the famous theoretical physicist Isaak Khalatnikov. He worked together with L.D. Landau at the Institute for Physical Problems lead by P.L. Kapitza. He is the co-author of L.D. Landau in a number of important works. They worked together in the frame of the so-called Nuclear Bomb Project. After the death of L.D. Landau, I.M. Khalatnikov initiated the establishment of the Institute for Theoretical Physics, named in honour of L.D. Landau, within the USSR Academy of Sciences. He headed this institute from the beginning as its Director. The institute inherited almost all traditions of the Landau scientific school and played a prominent role in the development of theoretical physics. So, this is a story about how the institute was created, how it worked, and about the life of the physicists in the "golden age" of the Soviet science. A separate chapter is devoted to today´s life of the institute and the young generation of physicists working now in science. It is an historic...

  13. Cytogenetic Reconstruction of Gamma-Ray Doses Delivered to Atomic Bomb Survivors: Dealing with Wide Distributions of Photon Energies and Contributions from Hematopoietic Stem/Progenitor Cells. (United States)

    Nakamura, Nori; Hirai, Yuko; Kodama, Yoshiaki; Hamasaki, Kanya; Cullings, Harry M; Cordova, Kismet A; Awa, Akio


    Retrospective estimation of the doses received by atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors by cytogenetic methods has been hindered by two factors: One is that the photon energies released from the bomb were widely distributed, and since the aberration yield varies depending on the energy, the use of monoenergetic 60Co gamma radiation to construct a calibration curve may bias the estimate. The second problem is the increasing proportion of newly formed lymphocytes entering into the lymphocyte pool with increasing time intervals since the exposures. These new cells are derived from irradiated precursor/stem cells whose radiosensitivity may differ from that of blood lymphocytes. To overcome these problems, radiation doses to tooth enamel were estimated using the electron spin resonance (ESR; or EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance) method and compared with the cytogenetically estimated doses from the same survivors. The ESR method is only weakly dependent on the photon energy and independent of the years elapsed since an exposure. Both ESR and cytogenetic doses were estimated from 107 survivors. The latter estimates were made by assuming that although a part of the cells examined could be lymphoid stem or precursor cells at the time of exposure, all the cells had the same radiosensitivity as blood lymphocytes, and that the A-bomb gamma-ray spectrum was the same as that of the 60Co gamma rays. Subsequently, ESR and cytogenetic endpoints were used to estimate the kerma doses using individual DS02R1 information on shielding conditions. The results showed that the two sets of kerma doses were in close agreement, indicating that perhaps no correction is needed in estimating atomic bomb gamma-ray doses from the cytogenetically estimated 60Co gamma-ray equivalent doses. The present results will make it possible to directly compare cytogenetic doses with the physically estimated doses of the survivors, which would pave the way for testing whether or not there are any systematic trends

  14. Report on the result of the eighth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Red Cross Hospital (Japan); Ishioka, Shinichi; Hayakawa, Tohru; Kawano, Michimura; Sasaki, Yoshioki; Hirakami, Kojiro


    The atomic bomb survivors emigrating in the South America were 189 in total (160 in Brazil, 4 in Paraguay, 8 in Bolivia, 14 in Argentina and 3 in Peru) in November, 1998. Ninety-three persons (49%) took a medical examination (72 in Brazil, 3 in Paraguay, 6 in Bolivia, 9 in Argentina and 3 in Peru). The mean age was 68.6 years in male, and 68.1 years in female. They had hypertension (21.5%), diabetes (8.6%), cancer (6.5%), heart disease (5.4%), and thyroid gland diseases (4.3%). The subjective symptoms with high frequency were complete exhaustion or fatigue (58.1%), loss of vigor (55.9%), heat intolerance (49.5%) and numbness or tingling (47.1%). Electrocardiogram abnormality, total protein decrement, hypercholesterolemia and corpulence were almost the same as the last time. There was no change of a ratio of persons who needed tests on treatments. (K.H.)

  15. Long term effects of radiation exposure on telomere lengths of leukocytes and its associated biomarkers among atomic-bomb survivors. (United States)

    Lustig, Ana; Shterev, Ivo; Geyer, Susan; Shi, Alvin; Hu, Yiqun; Morishita, Yukari; Nagamura, Hiroko; Sasaki, Keiko; Maki, Mayumi; Hayashi, Ikue; Furukawa, Kyoji; Yoshida, Kengo; Kajimura, Junko; Kyoizumi, Seishi; Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Ohishi, Waka; Nakachi, Kei; Weng, Nan-Ping; Hayashi, Tomonori


    Ionizing radiation (IR) is a major source of cellular damage and the immediate cellular response to IR has been well characterized. But the long-term impact of IR on cell function and its relationship with aging are not known. Here, we examined the IR effects on telomere length and other biomarkers 50 to 68 years post-exposure (two time points per person) in survivors of the atomic bombing at Hiroshima during WWII. We found that telomere length of leukocytes was inversely correlated with the dose of IR (p=0.008), and this effect was primarily found in survivors who were exposed at younger ages; specifically those <12 years old (p=0.0004). Although a dose-related retardation of telomere shortening with age was observed in the cross-sectional data, longitudinal follow-up after 11 years did not show IR exposure-related alteration of the rate of telomere shortening with age. In addition, IR diminished the associations between telomere length and selected aging biomarkers that were observed in survivors with no dose. These included uric acid metabolism, cytokines, and blood T cell counts. These findings showed long-lasting detrimental effects of IR on telomere length of leukocytes in both dose- and age-at-exposure dependent manner, and on alterations of biomarkers with aging.

  16. Investigation on circular asymmetry of geographical distribution in cancer mortality of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors based on risk maps: analysis of spatial survival data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonda, Tetsuji; Satoh, Kenichi; Otani, Keiko; Ohtaki, Megu [Hiroshima University, Department of Environmetrics and Biometrics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Sato, Yuya [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Maruyama, Hirofumi; Kawakami, Hideshi [Hiroshima University, Department of Epidemiology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Tashiro, Satoshi [Hiroshima University, Division of Radiation Information Registry, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hiroshima University, Department of Cellular Biology, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan); Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Department of Radiation Biophysics, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine (Japan)


    While there is a considerable number of studies on the relationship between the risk of disease or death and direct exposure from the atomic bomb in Hiroshima, the risk for indirect exposure caused by residual radioactivity has not yet been fully evaluated. One of the reasons is that risk assessments have utilized estimated radiation doses, but that it is difficult to estimate indirect exposure. To evaluate risks for other causes, including indirect radiation exposure, as well as direct exposure, a statistical method is described here that evaluates risk with respect to individual location at the time of atomic bomb exposure instead of radiation dose. In addition, it is also considered to split the risks into separate risks due to direct exposure and other causes using radiation dose. The proposed method is applied to a cohort study of Hiroshima atomic bomb survivors. The resultant contour map suggests that the region west to the hypocenter has a higher risk compared to other areas. This in turn suggests that there exists an impact on risk that cannot be explained by direct exposure. (orig.)

  17. Health care or Atom bombs? Interest profiles connected to a science career in Sweden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus Oskarsson


    Full Text Available The ROSE survey explores which science topics 15-year-old students want to study. By carrying out a factor analysis on results from Sweden it was possible to describe ten interest profiles. The interest profile with the strongest connection to the students’ interest in school science consists of topics such as explosive chemicals, ABC weapons, electric shocks, atoms and molecules. Only a minority of the students has these interests, but it is this minority who appreciates school science and who chooses to study science at upper secondary school. The factor analysis also reveals large differences between genders and furthermore, that the students’ own interests govern their choice of study programme at upper secondary school.

  18. Rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene found for the first time in adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer cases among atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamatani, K.; Mukai, M.; Takahashi, K.; Nakachi, K.; Kusunoki, Y. [Radiobiology/Molecular Epidemiology, Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan); Hayashi, Y. [Geriatric Health Service Facility Hidamari, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Full text of the publication follows: Thyroid cancer is one of the malignancies most strongly associated with ionizing radiation in humans. Epidemiology studies of atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors have indicated that excess relative risk of papillary thyroid cancer per Gy was remarkably high in the survivors. We therefore aim to clarify mechanisms linking A-bomb radiation exposure and development of papillary thyroid cancer. Toward this end, we intend to clarify characteristics of gene alterations occurring in radiation-associated adult-onset papillary thyroid cancer from the Life Span Study cohort of A-bomb survivors. We have thus far found that with increased radiation dose, papillary thyroid cancer cases with chromosomal rearrangements (mainly RET/PTC rearrangements) significantly increased and papillary thyroid cancer cases with point mutations (mainly BRAF-V600E) significantly decreased. Papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations that carried no mutations in RET, NTRK1, BRAF or RAS genes tended to increase with increased radiation dose. In addition, we found that relative frequency of these papillary thyroid cancer cases significantly decreased with time elapsed since exposure. Through analysis of papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations, we recently discovered a new type of rearrangement for the first time in papillary thyroid cancer, i.e., rearranged anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, although identification of any partner gene(s) is needed. Specifically, rearrangement of ALK was found in 10 of 19 exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases with non-detected gene alterations but not in any of the six non-exposed papillary thyroid cancer cases. Furthermore, papillary thyroid cancer with ALK rearrangement was frequently found in the cases with high radiation dose or with short time elapsed since A-bomb exposure. These results suggest that chromosomal rearrangement, typically of RET and ALK, may play an important

  19. Dose-responses for mortality from cerebrovascular and heart diseases in atomic bomb survivors: 1950-2003. (United States)

    Schöllnberger, Helmut; Eidemüller, Markus; Cullings, Harry M; Simonetto, Cristoforo; Neff, Frauke; Kaiser, Jan Christian


    The scientific community faces important discussions on the validity of the linear no-threshold (LNT) model for radiation-associated cardiovascular diseases at low and moderate doses. In the present study, mortalities from cerebrovascular diseases (CeVD) and heart diseases from the latest data on atomic bomb survivors were analyzed. The analysis was performed with several radio-biologically motivated linear and nonlinear dose-response models. For each detrimental health outcome one set of models was identified that all fitted the data about equally well. This set was used for multi-model inference (MMI), a statistical method of superposing different models to allow risk estimates to be based on several plausible dose-response models rather than just relying on a single model of choice. MMI provides a more accurate determination of the dose response and a more comprehensive characterization of uncertainties. It was found that for CeVD, the dose-response curve from MMI is located below the linear no-threshold model at low and medium doses (0-1.4 Gy). At higher doses MMI predicts a higher risk compared to the LNT model. A sublinear dose-response was also found for heart diseases (0-3 Gy). The analyses provide no conclusive answer to the question whether there is a radiation risk below 0.75 Gy for CeVD and 2.6 Gy for heart diseases. MMI suggests that the dose-response curves for CeVD and heart diseases in the Lifespan Study are sublinear at low and moderate doses. This has relevance for radiotherapy treatment planning and for international radiation protection practices in general.

  20. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako (Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Survivors Health Clinic (Japan)); Kodama, Kazunori; Sasaki, Hideo; Ishibashi, Shinzo; Dote, Keigo; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Hirata, Katsumi; Sugimoto, Sumio


    During a one-month period from June 13 through July 13, 1989, the seventh medical examination was conducted at five cities, including San Francisco, Los Angeles, Seattle, Wailuku and Honolulu, for A-bomb survivors residents in North America. Nine hundred and eighteen A-bomb survivors, including 21 living in Canada, were confirmed, consisting of 234 men and 684 women as of the end of July 1989. The number was increased by 167, compared with that as of the end of July 1987. During the past three years, there were 40 deaths; and 878 A-bomb survivors (223 men and 655 women) are still alive. Ninety percent of the survivors came from Hiroshima. U.S. nationality was seen in 61% and Japanese nationality with permanent U.S. residency rights was seen in 32%. The majority (39%) of the A-bomb survivors were in their fifties, with an average age of 59.4 years. The survivors were residing in 26 states in the USA and in 3 provinces in Canada. The acquisition rate of the A-bomb survivors' health handbook was 52%. Four hundred and six A-bomb survivors participated in the medical examination, including one male and 8 female children born to A-bomb survivors. Questionnaire survey revealed a history of surgical resection for cancer in 21 survivors. Subjective symptoms included complete exhaustion or fatigue, heat intolerance, loss of vigor, and numbness of the body. Overall evaluation revealed the necessity of medical treatment or observation in 71%. This was independent of exposure status. Hypertension was the most common (27%), followed by obesity, hyperlipidemia, heart disease, and diabetes mellitus. Malignant tumors were seen in 9 survivors, consisting of 3 with breast cancer, 2 with colorectal cancer, and single survivors with lung cancer, Hodgkin's disease, cervical cancer, or hepatoma. Only 29% of them have had finantial guarantee for their health management according to the Japanese law. (N.K.).

  1. Ph sup 1 chromosomes and bcr gene rearrangements in chronic myelocytic leukemia patients developed from atomic bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Takechi, Miho; Shigeta, Chiharu; Sakatani, Keiko; Oguma, Nobuo; Kamada, Nanao; Takimoto, Yasuo; Kuramoto, Atsushi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    This study compared findings of chronic myelocytic leukemia (CML) in A-bomb survivors (n=8) developing CML within 10 years after the bombing and in non-exposed CML patients (n=14). Both Ph{sup 1} chromosomes and bcr rearrangement were observed in all patients in both exposed and non-exposed groups. There was no significant difference in distribution sites of bcr rearrangement between the groups. These results suggest that bcr-abl chimera mRNA and chimera protein associated with Ph{sup 1} chromosomes have an important role in the development of CML among A-bomb survivors, as well as among non-exposed patients. (N.K.).

  2. The Atomic Papers: A citizen's guide to selected books and articles on the bomb, the arms race, nuclear power, the peace movement, and related issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, G.


    The Atomic Papers annotates over 800 books published since 1945 and approximately 300 periodical articles since 1980 on every facet of the nuclear dilemma: the development and effects of the bomb, the arms race, nuclear proliferation, and the peace movement. Work on both sides of the nuclear power controversy also receives substantial attention. All references are to English-language material, and nearly half are to work published since 1980. The concluding chapter, ''The Art of Fission,'' describes over one hundred novels and stories with nuclear themes published since 1945--and, in a few cases, before that date.

  3. What is the origin of ^<137>Cs detected in under-floor soil samples of houses built in 1-3 years after the Hiroshima atomic bomb ?


    Yamamoto, Masayoshi; Sakaguchi, Aya; Hoshi, Masaharu; Endo, Satoru; Imanaka, Tetsuji; MIYAMOTO, Yutaka


    Since 2008, we have measured 137Cs and 239,240Pu isotopes in about 60 soil samples from the under-floor of 20 houses built within 1-3 years after 1945, in order to evaluate the close-in fallout deposition due to the "Black rain" at the time of Hiroshima atomic explosion. 239,240Pu was used as indicator to evaluate the contamination from global fallout 137Cs other than Hiroshima A-bomb derived 137Cs. As a result, it seems likely that 137Cs deposition at that time due to the Hiroshima A-bom...

  4. Mental disorders in 37 cases of 'Hibakusya' 40 years after exposure to the atomic bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nonaka, Takeshi; Tohyama, Teruhiko; Nakazawa, Masao; Ando, Ichiro; Hayashi, Hideki; Miura, Hirofumi


    In 1985, 40 years after the bombing, 37 (8 %) of a total of 814 A-bomb survivors living in Tokyo visited the Department of Neuro-Psychiatry. This is an analysis of these A-bomb survivors suffering from mental disorders. There were 11 men and 26 women. They ranged in age from 45 to 87 years with a median of 61. Eighteen survivors (55 %) were exposed within 2,000 m from ground zero, and 21 (66 %) presented with acute radiation symptoms. According to the classification of DSM-III, features of mental disorders fell into five types: (1) organic psychotic conditions (n = 7), (2) endogenous psychotic conditions (n = 14), (3) delution (n = 3), (4) anxiety somatization (n = 11), and (5) personality disorder (n = 2). Psychotic conditions characterized by mixed atypical symptoms, variable clinical features during the process, and undefined somatic symptoms were noticeable in this series. This is in contrast to the previous reports dealing with neurasthenic A-bomb survivors. The etiology of psychotic conditions must await further study. (Namekawa, K.).

  5. Effects of atomic-bomb radiation on human immune responses. 12. Analysis of T cell function using the limiting dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kusunoki, Yoichiro; Morishita, Yukari; Maki, Mayumi; Kyouizumi, Seishi; Hirai, Yuko; Akiyama, Mitoshi; Kodama, Kazunori [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)


    The study was performed to see whether the exposure to the atomic-bomb radiation gave any influence on the T cell functions. The function of peripheral T cells was analyzed by the limiting dilution analysis in 159 highly exposed subjects (63 males and 96 females; 43-86 years old) whose exposure dose due to the atomic-bomb radiation had been estimated to exceed 1.5 Gy. The control was 251 subjects (102 males and 149 females; the same range of age as above) exposed at a long distance (<0.005 Gy). Subjects were those who visiting the authors` facility for the purpose of health examination and giving the consent. There was any significant difference neither between frequencies of T cells responsible to PHA for proliferation nor between those of CD4 T cells responsible to Con A. In highly exposed subjects, an increase of CD4 T cells incapable of producing IL-2 by Con A stimulation was detected, which suggested a shift of helper T cell to Th-2 cell. (K.H.)

  6. The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities. (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina


    Ever since the discovery of the mutagenic properties of ionizing radiation, the possibility of birth sex odds shifts in exposed human populations was considered in the scientific community. Positive evidence, however weak, was obtained after the atomic bombing of Japan. We previously investigated trends in the sex odds before and after the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant accident. In a pilot study, combined data from the Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Norway, Poland, and Sweden between 1982 and 1992 showed a downward trend in the sex odds and a significant jump in 1987, the year immediately after Chernobyl. Moreover, a significant positive association of the sex odds between 1986 and 1991 with Chernobyl fallout at the district level in Germany was observed. Both of these findings, temporality (effect after exposure) and dose response association, yield evidence of causality. The primary aim of this study was to investigate longer time periods (1950-2007) in all of Europe and in the USA with emphasis on the global atmospheric atomic bomb test fallout and on the Chernobyl accident. To obtain further evidence, we also analyze sex odds data near nuclear facilities in Germany and Switzerland. DATA AND STATISTICAL METHODS: National gender-specific annual live births data for 39 European countries from 1975 to 2007 were compiled using the pertinent internet data bases provided by the World Health Organization, United Nations, Council of Europe, and EUROSTAT. For a synoptic re-analysis of the period 1950 to 1990, published data from the USA and from a predominantly western and less Chernobyl-exposed part of Europe were studied additionally. To assess spatial, temporal, as well as spatial-temporal trends in the sex odds and to investigate possible changes in those trends after the atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities, we applied ordinary linear logistic regression. Region-specific and eventually changing spatial

  7. Report on the results of the second medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamitsuna, Akimitsu; Monzen, Tetsuo; Oguma, Nobuo; Sakuma, Saburo; Takata, Yoshiki; Nakashima, Yoshiaki; Sakata, Morimitsu.


    In October 9 - 31, 1986, the second medical examination for A-bomb survivors was undertaken in Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Peru. Among 173 recognized A-bomb survivors in the five countries, 126 (73 %) participated in the examination, consisting of 61 men and 65 women. Seventy-eight A-bomb survivors came from Hiroshima and 48 from Nagasaki. The average age was 55.6 +- 9.7 years for men and 56.5 +- 9.8 years for women. The acquisition rate of ''Survivor's Health Handbook'' was 34 %. Gastric cancer was observed in two survivors and cervical cancer in one survivor. Major subjective symptoms were: fatigue, sensation of paralysis, heat intolerance, decreased physical strength, and itching. None of the abnormal findings were observed in 33 %. The incidence of hypertension, obesity, cardiac disease, and liver disease was high. The incidence of hypercholesteremia and diabetes mellitus was lower than that in the USA. (Namekawa, K.).

  8. Recommendations for postexposure interventions to prevent infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus, and tetanus in persons wounded during bombings and other mass-casualty events--United States, 2008: recommendations of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (United States)

    Chapman, Louisa E; Sullivent, Ernest E; Grohskopf, Lisa A; Beltrami, Elise M; Perz, Joseph F; Kretsinger, Katrina; Panlilio, Adelisa L; Thompson, Nicola D; Ehrenberg, Richard L; Gensheimer, Kathleen F; Duchin, Jeffrey S; Kilmarx, Peter H; Hunt, Richard C


    This report outlines recommendations for postexposure interventions to prevent infection with hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, or human immunodeficiency virus, and tetanus in persons wounded during bombings or other events resulting in mass casualties. Persons wounded during such events or in conjunction with the resulting emergency response might be exposed to blood, body fluids, or tissue from other injured persons and thus be at risk for bloodborne infections. This report adapts existing general recommendations on the use of immunization and postexposure prophylaxis for tetanus and for occupational and nonoccupational exposures to bloodborne pathogens to the specific situation of a mass-casualty event. Decisions regarding the implementation of prophylaxis are complex, and drawing parallels from existing guidelines is difficult. For any prophylactic intervention to be implemented effectively, guidance must be simple, straightforward, and logistically undemanding. Critical review during development of this guidance was provided by representatives of the National Association of County and City Health Officials, the Council of State and Territorial Epidemiologists, and representatives of the acute injury care, trauma and emergency response medical communities participating in CDC's Terrorism Injuries: Information, Dissemination and Exchange (TIIDE) project. The recommendations contained in this report represent the consensus of U.S. federal public health officials and reflect the experience and input of public health officials at all levels of government and the acute injury response community.

  9. Report on the results of the thirteenth medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in north america

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, Yasuji; Ohta, Michiya [Hiroshima Prefectural Medical Association (Japan); Urabe, Takeshi [Hiroshima Prefectural Hospital (Japan)] [and others


    The thirteenth medical examination of A-bomb survivors resident in North America was carried out from June 13th through June 27th and from July 12th through July 26th, 2001, in the cities of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Seattle, and Honolulu. The total number of those who underwent the thirteenth medical examination was 399, 53 of whom were second-generation A-bomb survivors. As the survivors in North America are advancing in age, the average age of the examinee was 69.5 years. The examination items included an interview, clinical and physical examinations, electrocardiography (E.C.G.), and blood, urine, and stool tests. The review of the medical history showed that hypertension was the most frequent in the survivors examined, with the prevalence of 39.3%. Previous history of malignant tumors was observed in 13.6% of the survivors examined, with major sites being the mammary gland, uterine, and colon. As a result of the blood test, 9.5% of the survivors examined were diagnosed as diabetic, and hypercholesterolemia was found in 32.1% of the survivors examined. Latent hypothyroidism was found in 18.5% of the survivors examined. No disease or examination finding showed a clear relation with exposure status. A report providing the results of the medical examination and necessity of undergoing closer examination and receiving medical treatment, if any, was mailed to each examinee. (author)

  10. Comprehensive medical research on survivors from the atomic bomb hypocenter. The results of the last ten years

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamada, Nanao; Yamamoto, Hisashi (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology); Yuzaki, Minoru


    The results of medical follow-up of 78 A-bomb survivors who had been exposed to A-bomb at the site within 500 m of the hypocenter were reviewed. In those survivors, who had exposure at an average of 28.6 years old, 75% had very severe, acute radiation-injuries such as trauma, depilation, vomiting, diarrhea, and hemorrhage. Physical examination revealed high incidences of ophthalmologic abnormalities, traumatic scar, and deformation of the lower extremities. Clinical findings included abnormal roentgen pictures of the stomach and the duodenum, and a rather high incidence of PPD negative cases. Functional and morphological abnormalities are often found in the circulatory system, eyeball, digestive organs, and joints. One survivor had an average of 2.5 diseases to be treated. Hematological observation revealed a high incidence of increased EB virus antibody, and a high incidence of abnormalities at the chromosomal level in T and B lymphocytes, and myelocytes. Of 78 survivors, 13 died in the subsequent 10 years, 4 of them had had cancer such as leukemia and lung cancer. Implication of the chromosome in the cancerization process in these cases was discussed.

  11. Simulation-extrapolation method to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates, 1950-2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allodji, Rodrigue S.; Schwartz, Boris; Diallo, Ibrahima; Vathaire, Florent de [Gustave Roussy B2M, Radiation Epidemiology Group/CESP - Unit 1018 INSERM, Villejuif Cedex (France); Univ. Paris-Sud, Villejuif (France); Agbovon, Cesaire [Pierre and Vacances - Center Parcs Group, L' artois - Espace Pont de Flandre, Paris Cedex 19 (France); Laurier, Dominique [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), DRPH, SRBE, Laboratoire d' epidemiologie, BP17, Fontenay-aux-Roses Cedex (France)


    Analyses of the Life Span Study (LSS) of Japanese atomic bombing survivors have routinely incorporated corrections for additive classical measurement errors using regression calibration. Recently, several studies reported that the efficiency of the simulation-extrapolation method (SIMEX) is slightly more accurate than the simple regression calibration method (RCAL). In the present paper, the SIMEX and RCAL methods have been used to address errors in atomic bomb survivor dosimetry on solid cancer and leukaemia mortality risk estimates. For instance, it is shown that using the SIMEX method, the ERR/Gy is increased by an amount of about 29 % for all solid cancer deaths using a linear model compared to the RCAL method, and the corrected EAR 10{sup -4} person-years at 1 Gy (the linear terms) is decreased by about 8 %, while the corrected quadratic term (EAR 10{sup -4} person-years/Gy{sup 2}) is increased by about 65 % for leukaemia deaths based on a linear-quadratic model. The results with SIMEX method are slightly higher than published values. The observed differences were probably due to the fact that with the RCAL method the dosimetric data were partially corrected, while all doses were considered with the SIMEX method. Therefore, one should be careful when comparing the estimated risks and it may be useful to use several correction techniques in order to obtain a range of corrected estimates, rather than to rely on a single technique. This work will enable to improve the risk estimates derived from LSS data, and help to make more reliable the development of radiation protection standards. (orig.)

  12. Epidemiology of ovarian cancer in Nagasaki city with reference to atomic bomb exposure, 1973/similar to/1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sasaki, Hidetaka; Shimokawa, Isao; Iwasaki, Keisuke; Matsuo, Takeshi; Ikeda, Takayoshi; Mine, Mariko; Mori, Hiroyuki


    Epidemiological study was conducted on 151 cases (67 exposed and 84 nonexposed) of ovarian cancer registered at the Nagasaki Tumor Registry from 1973 to 1982, with emphasis on the relation to radiation exposure. Although the crude incidence rate of ovarian cancer in the exposed group was higher than in the nonexposed group, the age-adjusted relative risk was not significantly different. The relative risk of ovarian cancer incidence by age at the time of the A-bomb was high in the 10-19 group (puberty), and was low in the 40-49 group. It suggested the possibility that radiation carcinogenesis in the ovary was closely related to the secondary excess of gonadotrophic hormones following radiation injury of the ovary. No significant different in histological type between the exposed and nonexposed groups could be found.

  13. Reassessment of diagnosis and subtyping of leukemias among atomic bomb survivors, 4. Combined analysis of Hiroshima and Nagasaki cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao; Kuriyama, Kazutaka; Ichimaru, Michito; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Finch, S.C.; Imanaka, Fumio; Kuramoto, Atsushi; Kamada, Nanao.


    In evaluable 456 (60 %) of 750 leukemic patients exposed at less than or equal to9,000 m from the hypocenter, diagnosis and subtypes of leukemia were reevaluated in relation to radiation doses and age at the time of bombing using a new classification method of French-American-British (FAB). The FAB classification diagnosed 63 patients (13.5 %) as acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL), 181 (39.0 %) as acute myeloid leukemia (AML), 26 (5.6 %) as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), 106 (22.8 %) as chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), 39 (7.5 %) as adult T-cell leukemia, and 5 (0.8 %) as chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to radiation doses, the incidence of CML increased in the group exposed to one to 99 cGy; the incidences of ALL and MDS increased in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy. The incidence of CML was definitively higher in Hiroshima than Nagasaki in all groups; this was noted in the group exposed to 0 cGy (approximately 2.5 times higher). The incidences of ALL and MDS showed a tendency to increase in proportion to radiation doses. In the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy, the incidences of ALL, CML, and MDS increased in patients younger than 15 years, those aged 16 - 35 years, and those older than 36 years, respectively, at the time of the bombing. In this group, there were also differences in latent period (10 yr in ALL and CML, 15 yr in AML, and 17 yr in MDS). None of the AML patients in the group exposed to greater than or equal to100 cGy had M3. (Namekawa, K.).

  14. History of radiation research. On radiation, radioactivity and radiation protection. Pt. 2. The sword of Damocles. Decade of the atomic bomb 1940-1950; Geschichte der Strahlenforschung. Ueber Strahlung, Radioaktivitaet und Strahlenschutz. T. 2. Das Damoklesschwert. Jahrzehnt der Atombombe: 1940-1950

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindell, B.


    The book includes contributions with the following titles: Szilards bomb; the excess neutrons; Napoleon's successor; Einstein's letter; the interim year 1940; administration and research; the sailor from India; the production facilities; ''I am the death, destroyer of the world''; Heisenberg's bomb; from other horizons; Potsdam and the atomic bomb decision; Hiroshima and Nagasaki; the beginning of nuclear power; renewed contacts; epilogue.

  15. Report on the results of the eleventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors resident in North America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamakido, Michio [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Dohy, Hiroo; Neriishi, Kazuo [and others


    The 11th medical examination of A-bomb survivors was conducted in 1997. Two medical teams conducted health examinations in Los Angeles and Seattle, and in San Francisco and Hawaii, respectively. The total number of A-bomb survivors resident in North America as of the end of July 1997 was 1,060, an increase of 17 over that confirmed in 1995. The number of survivors exposed <2,000-m from the hypocenter was 234, accounting for 22.1% of the total. The confirmed number of in-utero exposed survivors was 26. As to the past medical history information, breast cancer, thyroid cancer, and heart disease were frequently observed in the <2,000-m group. Frequent subjective symptoms include complete exhaustion or fatigue, loss of vigor, blurring of vision, itching of the skin, which were reported in more than 40% of the survivors. The frequencies of nocturia, nervousness, severe headache, and excessive sweating in cold weather were higher in the <2,000-m group. Chest pain was seen frequently in the <2,000-m group for males, but no difference was observed in females. Nocturia was observed in more than half of the males in the <2,000-m group. There were 99 cases (22.8%) with fasting plasma glucose level of 110 mg/dl or above, consisting of 39 males (32.0%) and 60 females (19.2%). Abnormal HbA1c levels were observed in 33 cases (7.6%), including 12 males (9.8%) and 11 females (6.7%). The proportion of cases with abnormal HbA1c levels was higher in males. No difference by exposure status was observed either for fasting plasma glucose or HbA1c. The disease of the highest prevalence was hyperlipidemia (57.4%), followed by hypertension (35.0%), obesity (27.2%), liver disease (21.9%), thyroid disease (20.0%), gastrointestinal disease (20.7%), heart disease (13.4%) and urological disease (12.9%). Malignant tumors were observed in two cases in L.A., two in Seattle, and one in S.F. Cancer will be important issue in the future examinations. (K.H.)

  16. Atomic bomb irradiation-induced leukemias revisited. Summary data of 50 years-long term follow up study on survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomonaga, Masao [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). Atomic Disease Inst.; Matsuo, Tatsuki; Preston, D.L.; Bennett, J.M.


    The Life Span Study (LSS) on 93,741 survivors (fixed cohort) and the Open City Study (OCS) on all survivors (unfixed) irrespective of whether they belonged to LSS or not, have been conducted in parallel over 45 years to ensure reliable case detection. We adopted the FAB classification for acute leukemias and for exposure dose of individual survivors, the new dosimetry system 1986 (DS86). In LSS, 221 leukemia cases were analysed. There was strong evidence of radiation-induced risks for acute myeloid leukemia (AML), acute lymphoid leukemia (ALL) and chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), but not for adult T-cell leukemia and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. There was also significant difference between three major types with respect to the effects of age at bombing and sex, and in the temporal pattern of the elevated risks. For AML the dose response function was non-linear, whereas there was no evidence against linearity for ALL and CML. The hypothesis of a 0.5 Gy threshold could be rejected for three major types of leukemia. Excess Absolute Risk (EAR) estimates in cases per 10,000 Person Year Sievert (PYSv) were 0.6, 1.1, 0.9 for ALL, AML and CML, respectively. The corresponding relative risk at 1.0 Sv were 9.1, 3.3, 6.2, respectively. Although childhood exposure <15 age at bombing apparently induced three major types, the age-related highest risk was observed for ALL. In OCS, 413 cases with DS86 estimates were used for analysis. Type specific incidence rates were calculated indirectly by using the over all incidence of leukemia from LSS data and multiplying these values by the corresponding proportions of cases in OCS. In conjunction with LSS data, the effects of radiation were significantly greater on the incidences of ALL and CML than on that of AML. In the high dose group there was a strong evidence for shorter incubation time and faster decline of elevated risk for ALL and CML than for AML. AML risk was apparently persistent through 1980. (K.H.)

  17. Trash can bomb can fall into the hands of terrorists

    CERN Multimedia


    Leading scientists from CERN described how if terrorists were able to get their hands on plutonium or uranium, they would be able to manufacture a 'trash can' nuclear bomb simply by inserting the radioactive material into a normal bomb. Once detonated a large area could be contaminated leading to the immediate deaths of many with many more future casualties due to cancers caused by the radiation.

  18. Breast cancer risk in atomic bomb survivors from multi-model inference with incidence data 1958-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.C.; Jacob, P.; Meckbach, R. [Institute of Radiation Protection, Helmholtz-Zentrum Muenchen, German Research Centre for Environmental Health, Neuherberg (Germany); Cullings, H.M. [Radiation Effects Research Foundation, Department of Statistics, Hiroshima (Japan)


    Breast cancer risk from radiation exposure has been analyzed in the cohort of Japanese a-bomb survivors using empirical models and mechanistic two-step clonal expansion (TSCE) models with incidence data from 1958 to 1998. TSCE models rely on a phenomenological representation of cell transition processes on the path to cancer. They describe the data as good as empirical models and this fact has been exploited for risk assessment. Adequate models of both types have been selected with a statistical protocol based on parsimonious parameter deployment and their risk estimates have been combined using multi-model inference techniques. TSCE models relate the radiation risk to cell processes which are controlled by age-increasing rates of initiating mutations and by changes in hormone levels due to menopause. For exposure at young age, they predict an enhanced excess relative risk (ERR) whereas the preferred empirical model shows no dependence on age at exposure. At attained age 70, the multi-model median of the ERR at 1 Gy decreases moderately from 1.2 Gy{sup -1} (90% CI 0.72; 2.1) for exposure at age 25 to a 30% lower value for exposure at age 55. For cohort strata with few cases, where model predictions diverge, uncertainty intervals from multi-model inference are enhanced by up to a factor of 1.6 compared to the preferred empirical model. Multi-model inference provides a joint risk estimate from several plausible models rather than relying on a single model of choice. It produces more reliable point estimates and improves the characterization of uncertainties. The method is recommended for risk assessment in practical radiation protection. (orig.)

  19. A study on social life and mental health of middle-aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors. Analysis of general health questionnaire (GHQ-30)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Yasuyuki [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Allied Medical Sciences; Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Toriyama, Fumiko; Sugasaki, Hiroyuki


    The psychological state of middle aged and elderly atomic bomb survivors was analyzed by GHQ, which had been done from September to November, 1992. Subjects were 1,399 Nagasaki survivors of the average age of 61.3 y and 1,054 non-irradiated people of 62.2 y living in the countryside of Nagasaki prefecture as the control. Analyses were performed with {chi} square method and t-test. When the subordinate measure derived from factor analysis of GHQ was compared with that of the control group, the score possibly attributable to anxiety reaction to the stress was significantly higher in the survivors. However, the two scores attributable to obstacle in personal relations and to avoidance of social activities were significantly lower, which suggested that the survivors are able to have rich personal and social interactions. Besides, it was suggested that the GHQ score was increased possibly by anxiety for the future in the essential part of life such as loss of feeling of healthiness and dissatisfaction for the present life conditions. It was confirmed that systematic and continuous examinations are necessary from the bio-psycho-social viewpoint. (H.O.)

  20. Italian Bombs & Fuzes (United States)


    document states that the practice of galvanising aircraft bombs has ceased, and that a protective coat of paint is now used instead. These colourings...that the Italians are still in possession of large stocks of galvanised bombs. SECTION I CHEMICAL WARFARE BOMBS No. C.W. bombs have yet been

  1. Reviews Equipment: Vibration detector Equipment: SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Equipment: Pelton wheel water turbine Book: Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book: Outliers: The Story of Success Book: T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Equipment: Fridge Rover Equipment: Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Web Watch (United States)


    WE RECOMMEND Vibration detector SEP equipment measures minor tremors in the classroom SPARK Science Learning System PS-2008 Datalogger is easy to use and has lots of added possibilities Atomic: The First War of Physics and the Secret History of the Atom Bomb 1939-49 Book is crammed with the latest on the atom bomb T-Minus: The Race to the Moon Graphic novel depicts the politics as well as the science Fridge Rover Toy car can teach magnetics and energy, and is great fun Red Tide School Spectrophotometer Professional standard equipment for the classroom WORTH A LOOK Pelton wheel water turbine Classroom-sized version of the classic has advantages Outliers: The Story of Success Study of why maths is unpopular is relevant to physics teaching WEB WATCH IOP webcasts are improving but are still not as impressive as Jodrell Bank's Chromoscope website

  2. Bomb apologetics: Farm Hall, August 1945

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernstein, J. [Professor of Physics at Stevens Institute of Technology in Hoboken New Jersey (United States); Cassidy, D. [Professor at Hofstra University, in Hempstead, New York (United States)


    On hearing the news from Hiroshima, the incredulous internees came up with a self-serving story to explain their failures in nucleus research: To keep Hitler from winning, they had deliberately not developed the atomic bomb. {copyright} 1995 {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  3. Medical Effects of a Transuranic "Dirty Bomb". (United States)

    Durakovic, Asaf


    The modern military battlefields are characterized by the use of nonconventional weapons such as encountered in the conflicts of the Gulf War I and Gulf War II. Recent warfare in Iraq, Afghanistan, and the Balkans has introduced radioactive weapons to the modern war zone scenarios. This presents the military medicine with a new area of radioactive warfare with the potential large scale contamination of military and civilian targets with the variety of radioactive isotopes further enhanced by the clandestine use of radioactive materials in the terrorist radioactive warfare. Radioactive dispersal devices (RDDs), including the "dirty bomb," involve the use of organotropic radioisotopes such as iodine 131, cesium 137, strontium 90, and transuranic elements. Some of the current studies of RDDs involve large-scale medical effects, social and economic disruption of the society, logistics of casualty management, cleanup, and transportation preparedness, still insufficiently addressed by the environmental and mass casualty medicine. The consequences of a dirty bomb, particularly in the terrorist use in urban areas, are a subject of international studies of multiple agencies involved in the management of disaster medicine. The long-term somatic and genetic impact of some from among over 400 radioisotopes released in the nuclear fission include somatic and transgenerational genetic effects with the potential challenges of the genomic stability of the biosphere. The global contamination is additionally heightened by the presence of transuranic elements in the modern warzone, including depleted uranium recently found to contain plutonium 239, possibly the most dangerous substance known to man with one pound of plutonium capable of causing 8 billion cancers. The planning for the consequences of radioactive dirty bomb are being currently studied in reference to the alkaline earths, osteotropic, and stem cell hazards of internally deposited radioactive isotopes, in particular

  4. Details of Nazis' A-Bomb program surface

    CERN Multimedia

    Glanz, J


    Werner Heisenberg, leader of the Nazi atomic bomb program, revealed the projects existence to Niels Bohr in a meeting in Copenhagen in 1941. But contrary to several historical accounts of the meeting, Heisenberg never expressed moral qualms about building a bomb for Hitler nor hinted that he might be willing to sabotage the project, according to secret documents cited in a London newspaper yesterday (2 pages).

  5. Collection of trace evidence of explosive residues from the skin in a death due to a disguised letter bomb. The synergy between confocal laser scanning microscope and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer analyses. (United States)

    Turillazzi, Emanuela; Monaci, Fabrizio; Neri, Margherita; Pomara, Cristoforo; Riezzo, Irene; Baroni, Davide; Fineschi, Vittorio


    In most deaths caused by explosive, the victim's body becomes a depot for fragments of explosive materials, so contributing to the collection of trace evidence which may provide clues about the specific type of device used with explosion. Improvised explosive devices are used which contain "homemade" explosives rather than high explosives because of the relative ease with which such components can be procured. Many methods such as chromatography-mass spectrometry, scanning electron microscopy, stereomicroscopy, capillary electrophoresis are available for use in the identification of explosive residues on objects and bomb fragments. Identification and reconstruction of the distribution of explosive residues on the decedent's body may give additional hints in assessing the position of the victim in relation to the device. Traditionally these residues are retrieved by swabbing the body and clothing during the early phase, at autopsy. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and other analytical methods may be used to analyze the material swabbed from the victim body. The histological examination of explosive residues on skin samples collected during the autopsy may reveal significant details. The information about type, quantity and particularly about anatomical distribution of explosive residues obtained utilizing confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) together with inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES), may provide very significant evidence in the clarification and reconstruction of the explosive-related events. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Response to W. Kramer: The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities: comment (doi:10.1007/s11356-011-0644-8). (United States)

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina


    This paper is in response to criticism of our article "The human sex odds at birth after the atmospheric atomic bomb tests, after Chernobyl, and in the vicinity of nuclear facilities" published in Environ Sci Pollut Res 18(5):697-707, 2011. Our findings and methods concerning the disturbed human sex odds at birth have been criticized in this journal for being artifacts of data mining, that the concept of statistical significance was misunderstood, and that confounding factors have not been accounted for. Here, we show that this criticism has no basis. We applied well-established statistical methods to large official data sets, and confounding is less important at the level of secular sex odds trends in aggregated annual figures from countries or continents. Moreover, our results are strengthened by recent findings concerning increased infant death sex odds in Germany and increased Down syndrome prevalence at birth across Europe after Chernobyl. Prompted by our studies, an official investigation in Lower Saxony, Germany, by the "Niedersächsisches Landesgesundheitsamt (NLGA)" confirmed our observation of severely escalated sex odds within 40 km distance from the nuclear storage site in Gorleben, Germany.

  7. Imaginary Savior: the image of the nuclear bomb in Korea, 1945-1960. (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Won


    Two atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945 brought the unexpected liberation of Korea from the 35-year Japanese occupation. Koreans therefore had a very favorable and positive image of the nuclear bomb and nuclear energy from the beginning. The image of the nuclear bomb as "savior" was strengthened during the Korean War when the United States openly mentioned the possible use of the nuclear bomb against North Korean and Chinese military. After the end of the Korean War in July 1953 South Koreans strongly supported the development of the nuclear bomb in order to deter another North Korean invasion. When the US government provided South Korea with a research nuclear reactor in the late 1950s, most South Koreans hailed it as the first step to developing their own nuclear bomb. This paper will analyze how and why the savior image of the nuclear bomb originated and spread in Korea during the 1950s.

  8. The Freezing Bomb (United States)

    Mills, Allan


    The extreme pressures that are generated when water freezes were traditionally demonstrated by sealing a small volume in a massive cast iron "bomb" and then surrounding it with a freezing mixture of ice and salt. This vessel would dramatically fail by brittle fracture, but no quantitative measurement of bursting pressure was available. Calculation…

  9. (In)security factor atomic bomb. An analysis of the crisis with the Iranian nuclear program; (Un-)Sicherheitsfaktor Atombombe. Eine Analyse der Krise um das iranische Nuklearprogramm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Andreas [Augsburg Univ. (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Friedens- und Konfliktforschung


    Iran is a rational actor in the international politics that decides on the basis of the perception of threat. Iran's security situation is comparable with that of Israel with the rational consequence to rely on the atomic program with respect to deterrence and self-defense. The solution of the Iran crisis is basically dependent on a change of the perception of threat. A military act against the Iranian nuclear facilities would be counterproductive, would only slowing down the program but not prevent further activities. In fact a military act would enhance the perception of threat. For the analysis of the Iran crises the author used the Cuba crisis as blueprint, were mislead perceptions were responsible for the escalation.

  10. Control the fear atomic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jong Gwan [I and Book, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    This book has a lot of explanation of nuclear energy with articles. Their titles are the bad man likes atomic, the secret of atom, nuclear explosion, NPT?, the secret of uranium fuel rod, nuclear power plant vs nuclear bomb, I hate atomic, keep plutonium in control, atomic in peace and find out alternative energy.

  11. Physical medicine and rehabilitation in the military: the Bosnian mass casualty experience. (United States)

    Marin, R


    On February 5, 1994, a 120-mm mortar shell crashed into the main Market Square of Sarajevo, Bosnia. The explosion killed 66 and injured 206. The United States evacuated 71 of the injured to Landstuhl Regional Medical Center, where the Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Service evaluated 28 victims. This mass casualty evacuation underscores the role of Army physiatrists in humanitarian assistance and wartime casualty management. The author collected data regarding demographic factors, injury types, complications, and functional limitations. Seventeen of the 28 patients evaluated were injured during the market bombing, with the rest being injured before the bombing. Of 132 diagnoses in these 28 patients, 31 were fractures, 14 were amputations, 8 were peripheral neuropathies, 3 were spinal cord injuries, and 1 was a traumatic brain injury. Contractures and decubitus ulcers, both complications of immobility, accounted for 18 of the diagnoses. Ambulatory impairments were present in all of the patients, and 4 patients had major impairments in activities of daily living.

  12. Atomic rivals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldschmidt, B.


    This book is a memoir of rivalries among the Allies over the bomb, by a participant and observer. Nuclear proliferation began in the uneasy wartime collaboration of the United States, England, Canada, and Free France to produce the atom bomb. Through the changes of history, a young French chemist had a role in almost every act of this international drama. This memoir is based on Goldschmidt's own recollections, interviews with other leading figures, and 3,000 pages of newly declassified documents in Allied archives. From his own start as Marie Curie's lab assistant, Goldschmidt's career was closely intertwined with Frances complicated rise to membership in the nuclear club. As a refugee from the Nazis, he became part of the wartime nuclear energy project in Canada and found himself the only French scientist to work (although briefly) on the American atom bomb project.

  13. Marine Casualty and Pollution Data for Researchers (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  14. Bomb Penetration Project (United States)


    the unaltered Unaweep granite of the Underground Explosion ’rest site. The tensile strength of the unweathered Zuni granite is more than five great as that of the Unaweep granite. 5----Modulus of Rupture Both NX and EX diamond drill cores were used foi modulus of rupture tests. The NX...4.6 times as great. If the strength of the Zuni granite of the Paxton Springs bombing site is compared with that of the Unaweep granite of the

  15. Diagnostic and Treatment Innovations for Mass Casualties (United States)


    222 newton (N) Energy /Work/Power electron volt (eV) 1.602 177 × 10 –19 joule (J) erg 1 × 10 –7 joule (J) kiloton (kt) (TNT equivalent ) 4.184...6201 Fort Belvoir, VA 22060-6201 T E C H N IC A L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-16-91 Diagnostic and Treatment Innovations for Mass Casualties...2.831 685 × 10 –2 cubic meter (m 3 ) Mass /Density pound (lb) 4.535 924 × 10 –1 kilogram (kg) unified atomic mass unit (amu) 1.660 539 × 10

  16. The present state of the medical record data base for the A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Kondo, Hisayoshi; Okumura, Yutaka (Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)


    It has been 13 years since the operation of medical record data base for A-bomb survivors was started in the Scientific Data Center for Atomic Bomb Disaster at the Nagasaki University. This paper presents the basic data in handling the data base. The present data base consists of the following 6 items: (1) 'fundamental data' for approximately 120,000 A-bomb survivors having an A-bomb survivors' handbook who have been living in Nagasaki City; (2) 'Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital's data', covering admission medical records in the ward of internal medicine; (3) 'pathological data', covering autopsy records in Nagasaki City; (4) 'household data reconstructed by the survey data'; (5) 'second generation A-bomb survivors data', including the results of mass screening since 1979, and (6) 'address data'. Based on the data, the number of A-bomb survivors, diagnosis records at the time of death, the number of A-bomb survivors' participants in health examination, tumor registration, records of admission to the internal ward in Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Hospital, autopsy records, and household records are tabulated in relation to annual changes, age at the time of A-bombing, distance from the hypocenter, or sex. (N.K.).

  17. Unconditional Surrender, Demobilization, and the Atomic Bomb (United States)


    quoted in Pogue, Marshall, 3:663; Ernest King and Walter Muir Whitehill , Fleet Admiral King: A Naval Record (New York: Norton, 1992), 621; Marshall to Dean...USACGSC departments in integrating military history into their instruction. " Publish works in a variety of formats for the Active Army and Reserve

  18. No blackhole and no atomic bomb (United States)

    Shin, Philip


    Title: c=c(1+1=2) The light speed 1+1=2. So we count the number by step by step for one point. When we count the number by one point, we use the number written on the paper. This means this is not number, but the graph and line. The light speed is the truth in physics. I can prove it by number. 10%=0.1 As %=kg So 10kg=0.1 kg=1/10 x 1/10 kg=1/100 And 100%=1 So kg=100%/100 kg=% So 1kg=1%=1/100 E=mc^2 So cx kgx m^2/sec^2= 1kgx cx m^2/sec^2 cx 1/100x m^2/sec^2= 1/100x cx m^2/sec^2 So c/100=c/100 So c=c And c is the truth never changed. Title: By faith, no blackhole As to be, we glory to God and that is basic theology for christian. And I want to say that BE means just thinking. There is no clue of nature and no proposition to prove it. I just believe by feeling and emotion. I trust that it can be the physic really. There are only human beings and there is no idol that is different existence from human beings, that is true to be. So the nature we see is zero and we, human beings make the zero nature as from no start and no ending. No alpha and omega mean we are idol and that there is no blackhole. Blackhole means the block is existing in the nothing(as we are no alpha and no omega). So the block cannot be existence. So if there is blackhole, then there must be the wall to block me and never walk again. The big bang and evolution mean they are no alpha and no omega and existing by themselves. So they could be existence, but big bang and evolution are just logical fact to be. We need faith as God give us the direction into our spirit.

  19. Ellerman bombs: fallacies, fads, usage (United States)

    Rutten, Robert J.; Vissers, Gregal J. M.; Rouppe van der Voort, Luc H. M.; Sütterlin, Peter; Vitas, Nikola


    Ellerman bombs are short-lived brightenings of the outer wings of Hα that occur in active regions with much flux emergence. We point out fads and fallacies in the extensive Ellerman bomb literature, discuss their appearance in various spectral diagnostics, and advocate their use as indicators of field reconfiguration in active-region topography using AIA 1700 Å images.

  20. Dirty Bomb Risk and Impact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connell, Leonard W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    We examined the relative risk and impact of a dirty bomb employing Co-60 and Cs-137, the two most common high activity source materials. We found that the risk of an area denial dirty bomb attack is greater for Cs-137 due to the form and chemistry of CsCl, the soft, powdery salt form currently in use for high activity Cs-137 sources, found in blood and research irradiators.

  1. Shifting the Paradigm of Trauma Medicine to Positively Influence Critical Mortality Rates Following a Mass Casualty Event (United States)


    what other countries who deal with bombings more frequently have put into place. In one 18 article, researcher Shimon Glick “defined ethical...principles” valued by the U.S., Great Britain, Israel and Sweden ( Glick , 2001, pp. 118-119). Israel and Sweden have listed mutual assistance and...Knuth, T.E., Thomas , E., Richart, C.M., et al. (2004). A survey assessment of the level of preparedness for domestic terrorism and mass casualty

  2. [The Main Gate Syndrome: a new format in mass-casualty victim "surge" management?]. (United States)

    Sockeel, P; De Saint Roman, C; Massoure, M-P; Nadaud, J; Cinquetti, G; Chatelain, E


    Recent suicide bombings pose the novel problem for Trauma Centers of the massive simultaneous arrival of many gravely wounded patients. We report the experience of the French-German Military Trauma Group, a Level 2 Trauma Center, in Afghanistan during the wave of suicide bombings in February 2007. Fourteen casualties were received. A first triage was carried out by the U S Army Level I group prior to evacuation. A second surgical triage was carried out with systematic ultrasound exam. Four cases (ISS>25) were re-categorized and underwent emergency surgical procedures. Suicide bombing in crowded locations near an evacuation hospital may overwhelm the medical resources of the receiving center. It has been referred to as "The Main Gate Syndrome." We introduced the novel concept of a semi-evacuation hospital or receiving center where a second surgical triage was carried out. These exceptional circumstances require open-minded flexibility, a tailored approach, and close cooperation between surgeons and anesthetists to share experience, opinions, and ideas. In the setting of mass casualties, emergency ultrasound exam was shown to be a valuable and effective tool by virtue of its mobility, reproducibility, and immediate results.

  3. 33 CFR 146.40 - Diving casualties. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Diving casualties. 146.40 Section 146.40 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF ACTIVITIES OPERATIONS OCS Facilities § 146.40 Diving casualties. Diving related casualties...

  4. Bomb pulse biology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falso, Miranda J. Sarachine [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Buchholz, Bruce A., E-mail: [Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry, Mail Stop L-397, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)


    The past decade has seen an explosion in use of the {sup 14}C bomb pulse to do fundamental cell biology. Studies in the 1960s used decay counting to measure tissue turnover when the atmospheric {sup 14}C/C concentration was changing rapidly. Today bulk tissue measurements are of marginal interest since most of the carbon in the tissue resides in proteins, lipids and carbohydrates that turn over rapidly. Specific cell types with specialized functions are the focus of cell turnover investigations. Tissue samples need to be fresh or frozen. Fixed or preserved samples contain petroleum-derived carbon that has not been successfully removed. Cell or nuclear surface markers are used to sort specific cell types, typically by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Specific biomolecules need to be isolated with high purity and accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) measurements must accommodate samples that generally contain less than 40 {mu}g of carbon. Furthermore, all separations must not add carbon to the sample. Independent means such as UV absorbance must be used to confirm molecule purity. Approaches for separating specific proteins and DNA and combating contamination of undesired molecules are described.

  5. Triage in mass casualty situations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Recent disasters, such as the Haiti earthquake and the tsunami in. Japan, are examples. This imbalance – between the large number of casualties and the limited medical resources that may be available to treat them during the acute phase – calls for an extraordinary response. It could be in the form of adequate planning, ...

  6. Dr. Lytle Adams' incendiary "bat bomb" of World War II. (United States)

    Christen, Arden G; Christen, Joan A


    On December 7, 1941, a 60-year old dentist from Irwin, Pennsylvania, Dr. Lytle S. Adams, was driving home from a vacation at Carlsbad Caverns in New Mexico. Hours earlier, he had been gripped with amazement as he witnessed millions of bats exiting the caves of Carlsbad. Listening to his car radio on his return trip, he was shocked to hear that Japan had just attacked Pearl Harbor. Dr. Adams, outraged over this travesty, began to mentally construct a plan for U.S. retaliation. As his thoughts returned to the countless bats that had awed him, he formed a tentative plan: millions of these small, flying mammals could be connected to tiny, time-fused incendiary bombs, and then released to land on the flimsily constructed structures which dotted the cities of Japan. Within a few minutes, the bombs would explode and enflame the entire urban areas. He postulated that these immeasurable numbers of fires, spreading their devastation over such vast areas within Japanese cities would result in the enemy's speedy surrender. This article documents the futile efforts of Dr. Adams, his team and the U.S. government to develop and employ an effective, incendiary bat bomb. The recently developed atom bomb, a far more deadly weapon was used in its place.

  7. Eye casualty services in London (United States)

    Smith, H B; Daniel, C S; Verma, S


    The combined pressures of the European Working Time Directive, 4 h waiting time target, and growing rates of unplanned hospital attendances have forced a major consolidation of eye casualty departments across the country, with the remaining units seeing a rapid increase in demand. We examine the effect of these changes on the provision of emergency eye care in Central London, and see what wider lessons can be learned. We surveyed the managers responsible for each of London's 8 out-of-hours eye casualty services, analysed data on attendance numbers, and conducted detailed interviews with lead clinicians. At London's two largest units, Moorfields Eye Hospital and the Western Eye Hospital, annual attendance numbers have been rising at 7.9% per year (to 76 034 patients in 2010/11) and 9.6% per year (to 31 128 patients in 2010/11), respectively. Using Moorfields as a case study, we discuss methods to increase capacity and efficiency in response to this demand, and also examine some of the unintended consequences of service consolidation including patients travelling long distances to geographically inappropriate units, and confusion over responsibility for out-of-hours inpatient cover. We describe a novel ‘referral pathway' developed to minimise unnecessary travelling and delay for patients, and propose a forum for the strategic planning of London's eye casualty services in the future. PMID:23370420

  8. The Casualty Network System Capstone Project (United States)


    External Defibrillator AF – Assault Force ARS – Acute Radiation Sickness CBRN – Chemical, Biological, Radiological and Nuclear CNS – Casualty...elements and their roles. ................... 28   xiv THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK xv LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AED – Automatic ...that the casualty is automatically placed one degree further than the medic from the network. This occurs because even if the casualty is the most

  9. Mass Casualties in Combat: Lessons Learned

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Beekley, Alex C


    .... Analysis of multiple and mass casualty events from current conflicts can provide critical lessons learned regarding triage and resource utilization that can potentially be applied to other conflicts...

  10. Genius in the shadows a biography of Leo Szilard, the man behind the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Lanouette, William


    Well-known names such as Albert Einstein, Enrico Fermi, J. Robert Oppenheimer, and Edward Teller are usually those that surround the creation of the atom bomb. One name that is rarely mentioned is Leo Szilard, known in scientific circles as "father of the atom bomb." The man who first developed the idea of harnessing energy from nuclear chain reactions, he is curiously buried with barely a trace in the history of this well-known and controversial topic.Born in Hungary and educated in Berlin, he escaped Hitler's Germany in 1933 and that first year developed his concept of nucle

  11. Boston bombings: response to disaster. (United States)

    Hemingway, Maureen; Ferguson, Joanne


    Disasters disrupt everyone's lives, and they can disrupt the flow and function of an OR as well as affect personnel on a professional and personal level even though perioperative departments and their personnel are used to caring for trauma patients and coping with surprises. The Boston Marathon bombing was a new experience for personnel at Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston. This article discusses the incidents surrounding the bombing and how personnel at this hospital met the challenge of caring for patients and the changes we made after the experience to be better prepared in the event a response to a similar incident is needed. Copyright © 2014 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Pure Nuclear Fusion Bomb Propulsion


    Winterberg, F.


    Recent progress towards the non-fission ignition of thermonuclear micro-explosions raises the prospect for a revival of the nuclear bomb propulsion idea, both for the fast transport of large payloads within the solar system and the launch into earth orbit without the release of fission products into the atmosphere. To reach this goal three areas of research are of importance: 1)Compact thermonuclear ignition drivers. 2)Fast ignition and deuterium burn. 3)Space-craft architecture involving mag...

  13. Population and energy elasticity of tornado casualties (United States)

    Fricker, Tyler; Elsner, James B.; Jagger, Thomas H.


    Tornadoes are capable of catastrophic destruction and mass casualties, but there are yet no estimates of how sensitive the number of casualties are to changes in the number of people in harm's way or to changes in tornado energy. Here the relationship between tornado casualties (deaths and injuries), population, and energy dissipation is quantified using the economic concept of "elasticity." Records of casualties from individual tornadoes over the period 2007-2015 are fit to a regression model. The coefficient on the population term (population elasticity) indicates that a doubling in population increases the casualty rate by 21% [(17, 24)%, 95% credible interval]. The coefficient on the energy term (energy elasticity) indicates that a doubling in energy dissipation leads to a 33% [(30, 35)%, 95% credible interval] increase in the casualty rate. The difference in elasticity values show that on average, changes in energy dissipation have been relatively more important in explaining tornado casualties than changes in population. Assuming no changes in warning effectiveness or mitigation efforts, these elasticity estimates can be used to project changes in casualties given the known population trends and possible trends in tornado activity.

  14. 7 Mass casualty incidents: a review of triage severity planning assumptions. (United States)

    Hunt, Paul


    Recent events involving a significant number of casualties have emphasised the importance of appropriate preparation for receiving hospitals, especially Emergency Departments, during the initial response phase of a major incident. Development of a mass casualty resilience and response framework in the Northern Trauma Network included a review of existing planning assumptions in order to ensure effective resource allocation, both in local receiving hospitals and system-wide.Existing planning assumptions regarding categorisation by triage level are generally stated as a ratio for P1:P2:P3 of 25%:25%:50% of the total number of injured survivors. This may significantly over-, or underestimate, the number in each level of severity in the case of a large-scale incident. A pilot literature review was conducted of the available evidence from historical incidents in order to gather data regarding the confirmed number of overall casualties, 'critical' cases, admitted cases, and non-urgent or discharged cases. This data was collated and grouped by mechanism in order to calculate an appropriate severity ratio for each incident type. 12 articles regarding mass casualty incidents from the last two decades were identified covering three main incident types: (1) Mass transportation crash, (2) Building fire, and (3) Bomb and related terrorist attacks and involving a total of 3615 injured casualties. The overall mortality rate was calculated as 12.3%. Table 1 summarises the available patient casualty data from each of the specific incidents reported and calculated proportions of critical ('P1'), admitted ('P2'), and non-urgent or ambulatory cases ('P3'). Despite the heterogeneity of data and range of incident type there is sufficient evidence to suggest that current planning assumptions are incorrect and a more refined model is required. An important finding is the variation in proportion of critical cases depending upon the mechanism. For example, a greater than expected proportion

  15. Patenting the bomb: nuclear weapons, intellectual property, and technological control. (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex


    During the course of the Manhattan Project, the U.S. government secretly attempted to acquire a monopoly on the patent rights for inventions used in the production of nuclear weapons and nuclear energy. The use of patents as a system of control, while common for more mundane technologies, would seem at first glance to conflict with the regimes of secrecy that have traditionally been associated with nuclear weapons. In explaining the origins and operations of the Manhattan Project patent system, though, this essay argues that the utilization of patents was an ad hoc attempt at legal control of the atomic bomb by Manhattan Project administrators, focused on the monopolistic aspects of the patent system and preexisting patent secrecy legislation. From the present perspective, using patents as a method of control for such weapons seems inadequate, if not unnecessary; but at the time, when the bomb was a new and essentially unregulated technology, patents played an important role in the thinking of project administrators concerned with meaningful postwar control of the bomb.

  16. Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Beginnings. (United States)

    Butler, Frank K


    Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) is a set of evidence-based, best-practice prehospital trauma care guidelines customized for use on the battlefield. The origins of TCCC were nontraditional. The TCCC program began as a Naval Special Warfare biomedical research effort launched after the realization that extremity hemorrhage, a leading cause of preventable death on the battlefield, was not being treated with a readily available and highly effective intervention: the tourniquet. This insight prompted a systematic reevaluation of all aspects of battlefield trauma care that was conducted from 1993 to 1996 as a joint effort by special operations medical personnel and the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. The product of that 3-year research project was TCCC, the first-ever set of battlefield trauma care guidelines designed to combine good medicine with good small-unit tactics. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Real-time sample entropy predicts life-saving interventions after the Boston Marathon bombing. (United States)

    Peev, Miroslav P; Naraghi, Leily; Chang, Yuchiao; Demoya, Marc; Fagenholz, Peter; Yeh, Daniel; Velmahos, George; King, David R


    Identifying patients in need of a life-saving intervention (LSI) during a mass casualty event is a priority. We hypothesized that real-time, instantaneous sample entropy (SampEn) could predict the need for LSI in the Boston Marathon bombing victims. Severely injured Boston Marathon bombing victims (n = 10) had sample entropy (SampEn) recorded upon presentation using a continuous 200-beat rolling average in real time. Treating clinicians were blinded to real-time results. The correlation between SampEn, injury severity, number, and type of LSI was examined. Victims were males (60%) with a mean age of 39.1 years. Injuries involved lower extremities (50.0%), head and neck (24.2%), or upper extremities (9.7%). Sample entropy negatively correlated with Injury Severity Score (r = -0.70; P = .023), number of injuries (r = -0.70; P = .026), and the number and need for LSI (r = -0.82; P = .004). Sample entropy was reduced under a variety of conditions. (Table see text). Sample entropy strongly correlates with injury severity and predicts LSI after blast injuries sustained in the Boston Marathon bombings. Sample entropy may be a useful triage tool after blast injury. © 2013.

  18. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cancio, Leopoldo C; Pruitt, Basil A


    Mass casualty burn disasters are potentially challenging, in part because the majority of health care providers are inexperienced in the care of thermally injured patients and in part because of the...

  19. Atomic arias (United States)

    Crease, Robert P.


    The American composer John Adams uses opera to dramatize controversial current events. His 1987 work Nixon in China was about the landmark meeting in 1972 between US President Richard Nixon and Chairman Mao Zedong of China; The Death of Klinghoffer (1991) was a musical re-enactment of an incident in 1985 when Palestinian terrorists kidnapped and murdered a wheelchair-bound Jewish tourist on a cruise ship. Adams's latest opera, Doctor Atomic, is also tied to a controversial event: the first atomic-bomb test in Alamogordo, New Mexico, on 16 June 1945. The opera premièred in San Francisco in 2005, had a highly publicized debut at the Metropolitan Opera in New York in 2008, and will have another debut on 25 February - with essentially the same cast - at the English National Opera in London.

  20. The secret of the Soviet hydrogen bomb (United States)

    Wellerstein, Alex; Geist, Edward


    Was the first Soviet thermonuclear device really a step in the wrong direction? No bomb design has been as much maligned or otherwise disparaged as the first Soviet thermonuclear weapon. Detonated in August 1953, the bomb, officially tested under the name RDS-6s but usually known as Sloika or "layer cake" (the name Andrei Sakharov coined for it), was nothing to sneeze at. Shown in Figure 1 and able to be dropped from aircraft, it released the explosive equivalent, or yield, of almost half a megaton of TNT. The result was a blazing fireball with 20 times the power of the bomb that leveled Nagasaki, Japan.



    Brahmaji Master; Chandra Sekhar; Rangaiah


    Bomb blast cause injury on large groups of people by multiple mechanisms. Bomb blast injuries differ from the conventional description of trauma complexity. Primary injuries are caused by blast wave and over pressure. Secondary injuries are caused by flyin g debris and cause shrapnel wounds. Tertiary injuries are caused by blast wind due to forceful impact and quaternary injuries are caused by other vectors like heat, radiation etc. Combined injuries, especially blast and...

  2. Ship Engine Room Casualty Analysis by Using Decision Tree Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ömür Yaşar SAATÇİOĞLU


    Full Text Available Ships may encounter undesirable conditions during operations. In consequence of a casualty, fire, explosion, flooding, grounding, injury even death may occur. Besides, these results can be avoidable with precautions and preventive operating processes. In maritime transportation, casualties depend on various factors. These were listed as misuse of the engine equipment and tools, defective machinery or equipment, inadequacy of operational procedure and measure of safety and force majeure effects. Casualty reports which were published in Australia, New Zealand, United Kingdom, Canada and United States until 2015 were examined and the probable causes and consequences of casualties were determined with their occurrence percentages. In this study, 89 marine investigation reports regarding engine room casualties were analyzed. Casualty factors were analyzed with their frequency percentages and also their main causes were constructed. This study aims to investigate engine room based casualties, frequency of each casualty type and main causes by using decision tree method.

  3. Photometric analysis of Ellerman bombs . (United States)

    Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, P.; Avrett, E. H.

    Observations of Ellerman bombs (EBs) show them as short-lived, compact, and spatially localized emissions that are well observable in the wings of the Halpha hydrogen line. The Halpha line profiles of EBs are characterized by deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the wings with maximum around ± 1 Å from the line center, fading beyond ± 5 Å. EBs may also be observed in the chromospheric Ca II lines and in the UV as bright points often located within active regions. Previous work suggests that EBs may be considered as micro-flares and may contribute significantly to the heating of the lower chromosphere in newly emerging magnetic flux regions. However, it is still not clear at what height in the solar atmosphere the emission of EBs originates. In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the Halpha line with the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT) and in the UV range with the TRACE 1600 Å channel. These one-hour long simultaneous sequences obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution were used to analyze the relation between the emission in the Halpha line and at 1600 Å. The observations show fast variations of EB emission in both channels. Comparison between the observed emission in Halpha and at 1600 Å and theoretical calculations allowed us to draw conclusions about the vertical structure of EBs.

  4. Plastic surgeons and the management of trauma: from the JFK assassination to the Boston Marathon bombing. (United States)

    Luce, Edward A; Hollier, Larry H; Lin, Samuel J


    The fiftieth anniversary of the death by assassination of President John Kennedy is an opportunity to pay homage to his memory and also reflect on the important role plastic surgeons have played in the management of trauma. That reflection included a hypothetical scenario, a discussion of the surgical treatment of Kennedy (if he survived) and Governor Connally. The scenario describes the management of cranioplasty in the presence of scalp soft-tissue contracture, reconstruction of the proximal trachea, reconstitution of the abdominal wall, and restoration of a combined radius and soft-tissue defect. The development of diagnostic and therapeutic advances over the past 50 years in the care of maxillofacial trauma is described, including the evolution of imaging, timing of surgery, and operative techniques. Finally, contemporary measures of triage in situations involving mass casualties, as in the Boston Marathon bombings, complete the dedication to President Kennedy.

  5. Shaken but prepared: Analysis of disaster response at an academic medical centre following the Boston Marathon bombings. (United States)

    Osgood, Robert; Scanlon, Courtney; Jotwani, Rohan; Rodkey, Daniel; Arshanskiy, Maria; Salem, Deeb

    Over the last decade, there has been a rise in the number of mass casualty incidences (MCIs) and their subsequent effect on hospital systems. While there has been much discussion over improving procedures to treat victims of MCIs, there has not been a thorough, systems-based analysis concerning the costs incurred by hospitals during such events. Here the authors examine the history of the Hospital Incident Command Center and how its evolution at Tufts Medical Center helped mitigate the damage following the Boston Marathon Bombings. Tufts' unique variations to the Hospital Incident Command Center include strategic communication hierarchies and a 'zero cost centre' financial system which both provided for a quick and adaptive response. Operating in collaboration with the Conference of Boston Teaching Hospitals encouraged coordination and preparation during emergency situations such as mass casualty events. The direct and indirect effects on Tufts Medical Center stemming from the Boston Marathon Bombings were analysed. Tufts MC treated 36 victims immediately following the MCI. The estimated total cost during the week of April 15 to April 19, 2013 was $776,051. The cost was primarily comprised of lost revenue from cancelled outpatient and inpatient hospital services, as well as expenses incurred due to overtime pay, salary expenses, PPE kits and hospitality services. Finally, the authors examine ways to reduce the future costs during emergency situations through increasing communication with employees, understanding the source of all direct expenses, and mitigating excess risk by developing partnerships with other hospital systems.

  6. Mass casualty management: Jos University Teaching Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    West African Journal of Medicine ... The classification recognises a category called “regional disaster” and attempts to enunciate a principle of initiation, mobilisation and co-ordination of management of such disasters among ... Keywords: Mass casualty, Classification, Regional disaster, Emergency services, Mobilisation.

  7. Pharmacy Response to the Boston Marathon Bombings at a Tertiary Academic Medical Center. (United States)

    Sylvester, Katelyn W; Rocchio, Megan A; Belisle, Caryn; Matta, Lina; Goralnick, Eric


    Effective crisis response requires multidisciplinary communication and rapid action. Our goals are to highlight the experience of a pharmacy department's response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombing, to discuss the role of the pharmacist in a crisis response, and to identify potential learning opportunities for a future mass casualty event. Our initial response targeted 3 general areas: staffing, supplies, and communication. Pharmacist and technician staffing was increased throughout the hospital, with a 6-fold increase of pharmacists to the emergency department (ED). To ensure adequate supplies were available, inventory on the ED automatic dispensing cabinets (ADC) was assessed for vaccines, antibiotics, and vasoactive medications. ED pharmacists prepared emergent intravenous medications in the ED while the sterile products room bolstered our supply of intravenous medications for patients in the ED and operating room. Overall, there was a 33% increase in the number of ADC transactions, with pharmacists representing 28% of all ADC transactions. To optimize communication, we formulated a comprehensive plan for the timely dissemination of information to the entire pharmacy staff. A mass casualty event is a rare occasion, and it is vital for the pharmacy department to respond rapidly with little notification. The role of a pharmacist is unique and can most effectively triage drug information and medication distribution, especially during times of high demand and high stress. © The Author(s) 2014.

  8. The Initial Response to the Boston Marathon Bombing (United States)

    Gates, Jonathan D.; Arabian, Sandra; Biddinger, Paul; Blansfield, Joe; Burke, Peter; Chung, Sarita; Fischer, Jonathan; Friedman, Franklin; Gervasini, Alice; Goralnick, Eric; Gupta, Alok; Larentzakis, Andreas; McMahon, Maria; Mella, Juan; Michaud, Yvonne; Mooney, David; Rabinovici, Reuven; Sweet, Darlene; Ulrich, Andrew; Velmahos, George; Weber, Cheryl; Yaffe, Michael B.


    Objective We discuss the strengths of the medical response to the Boston Marathon bombings that led to the excellent outcomes. Potential shortcomings were recognized, and lessons learned will provide a foundation for further improvements applicable to all institutions. Background Multiple casualty incidents from natural or man-made incidents remain a constant global threat. Adequate preparation and the appropriate alignment of resources with immediate needs remain the key to optimal outcomes. Methods A collaborative effort among Boston’s trauma centers (2 level I adult, 3 combined level I adult/pediatric, 1 freestanding level I pediatric) examined the details and outcomes of the initial response. Each center entered its respective data into a central database (REDCap), and the data were analyzed to determine various prehospital and early in-hospital clinical and logistical parameters that collectively define the citywide medical response to the terrorist attack. Results A total of 281 people were injured, and 127 patients received care at the participating trauma centers on that day. There were 3 (1%) immediate fatalities at the scene and no in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients admitted (66.6%) suffered lower extremity soft tissue and bony injuries, and 31 had evidence for exsanguinating hemorrhage, with field tourniquets in place in 26 patients. Of the 75 patients admitted, 54 underwent urgent surgical intervention and 12 (22%) underwent amputation of a lower extremity. Conclusions Adequate preparation, rapid logistical response, short transport times, immediate access to operating rooms, methodical multidisciplinary care delivery, and good fortune contributed to excellent outcomes. PMID:25386862

  9. AFSC/REFM: Bomb-produced age validation study (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Fish age validation with bomb-produced radiocarbon (14C) requires a known-age Delta14C reference chronology spanning the era of a marine increase in bomb-produced...

  10. Retained transorbital foreign body with intracranial extension after pipe bomb explosion (United States)

    Kasper, Ekkehard M.; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Rubin, Peter A.D.; Chen, Clark


    Background Penetrating brain injuries caused by explosions are survived in extremely rare cases only. However, potential casualties of such cases may be encountered by regular physicians even outside a war zone, e.g., due to an assault or terror blast. There is very limited literature to this end; therefore, we report the successful neurosurgical management of a penetrating head injury due to a pipe bomb explosion. Case Description A 19-year-old man was brought to the ER with a swollen, bleeding right orbit, and a severely injured left hand after having sustained an unwitnessed explosion from a self-made pipe bomb. He presented with a GCS (Glasgow Coma Scale) of 15 at time of admission, work-up revealed an intracranial retained metal fragment measuring 5 × 1 × 0.2 cm lodged retro-orbitally and in the skull base. The patient underwent emergent right temporal craniotomy and temporal lobectomy and simultaneous right enucleation before the petrous bone and sphenoid wing lodged metal fragment was successfully removed. Conclusion This case underscores the importance of having a high suspicion for the presence of an intracranial injury and a retained foreign body in the setting of a penetrating head injury. Aggressive and timely workup as well as expeditious surgical management are crucial in these settings and can generate exceptionally good outcomes despite a major trauma. PMID:21246061

  11. Obituary Professor Victor Weisskopf - atom-bomb and CERN physicist

    CERN Multimedia

    Dalyell, T


    The rise of Nazism brought horror, humiliation, death and torture to so many free-thinking people - Jews, and other minorities. There were some lucky ones, like the Weisskopf family, who were able to escape. Victor Weisskopf was born and brought up in Austria in the spirit of German culture and said that he considered his transfer from Europe to the USA an invaluable source of intellectual enrichment (2 pages).

  12. Atomic Bomb: Memory and its Power on Japanese Pacifism (United States)


    Japanese economy prior to World War II during the Edo and Meiji periods His real expertise was in quality control. It was in this role that he, as the...worldwide. This worldwide broadcast of the Olympics in color, via satellite was the first of its kind and had great impact on changing the Japan’s...commercial agencies owned the satellite assets that were responsible for broadcasting. Much of the supporting technical expertise and equipment on the

  13. Forensic Seismology: constraints on terrorist bombings (United States)

    Wallace, T. C.; Koper, K. D.


    Seismology has long been used as a tool to monitor and investigate explosions, both accidental and intentional. Seismic records can be used to provide a precise chronology of events, estimate the energy release in explosions and produce constraints to test various scenarios for the explosions. Truck bombs are a popular tool of terrorists, and at least two such attacks have been recorded seismically. On August 7, 1998 a truck bomb was detonated near the US embassy in Nairobi, Kenya. The bomb seriously damaging a dozen buildings, injuring more than 4000 people and causing 220 fatalities. The explosion was recorded on a short-period seismometer located north of the blast site; the blast seismogram contained body waves, Rayleigh waves and vibrations associated with the air blast. Modeling of the body and surfaces wave allowed an estimate of the origin time of the bombing, which it turn could be used as a constraint the timing of the air blasts. The speed of the air waves from an explosion depend on the air temperature and the size, or yield, of the explosion. In an effort to fully utilize the seismic recordings from such attacks, we analyzed the seismic records from a series of controlled truck bomb explosions carried out at White Sand Missile Range in New Mexico. We developed a new set of scaling laws that relate seismic and acoustic observations directly to the explosive mass (yield). These relationships give a yield of approximately 3000 kg of TNT equivalent for the Nairobi bomb. The terrorist bombing of the Murrah Federal Building in Oklahoma City in 1995 was also recorded on seismometers. One of these records showed 2 discrete surface wavetrains separated by approximately 10 seconds. Some groups seized on the seismic recordings as evidence that there were 2 explosions, and that the US government was actually behind the bombing. However, the USGS monitored the demolition of the remainder of the Murrah Building and showed that the collapse also produced 2 surface

  14. The Radium Terrors. Science Fiction and Radioactivity before the Bomb. (United States)

    Candela, Andrea


    At the beginning of the 20th century the collective imagination was fascinated and terrified by the discovery of radium. A scientific imagery sprang up around radioactivity and was disseminated by public lectures and newspaper articles discussing the ambiguous power of this strange substance. It was claimed that radium could be used to treat cholera, typhus and tuberculosis, but at the same time there were warnings that it could be used for military purposes. The media and the scientists themselves employed a rich vocabulary influenced by religion, alchemy and magic. The ambivalent power of radioactive elements exerted a great influence on science fiction novelists. This paper will examine some significant works published in Europe, America and Russia during the first decades of the 20th century and their role in the creation of the complex imagery of radioactivity that seized the public imagination long before the invention of the atomic bomb.

  15. 49 CFR 1546.301 - Bomb or air piracy threats. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1546.301 Section 1546... Threat Response § 1546.301 Bomb or air piracy threats. No foreign air carrier may land or take off an airplane in the United States after receiving a bomb or air piracy threat against that airplane, unless the...

  16. V L Ginzburg and the Atomic Project (United States)

    Ritus, V. I.


    This paper is an expanded version of the author's talk presented at a session of the Physical Sciences Division of the Russian Academy of Sciences celebrating the 100th anniversary of V L Ginzburg's birth. Tamm's Special group was organized in June 1948 with the task to clarify the feasibility of constructing a hydrogen bomb. Having verified and confirmed the calculated results by Ya B Zel'dovich's group, the Tamm group proposed an original hydrogen bomb design, which, following A D Sakharov's idea, consisted of an atomic bomb surrounded spherically by nested uranium and heavy water layers: the heavy water, on V L Ginzburg's suggestion, was replaced by higher-calorie solid lithium-6 deuteride. The ionization implosion of deuterium by uranium, both heated by the atomic bomb's explosion, greatly accelerates nuclear reactions in deuterium and uranium and increases the total energy release. Upon their approval by the KB-11 top researchers, the Atomic project leadership, and the government, the proposals were implemented in the RDS-6s bomb, which was successfully tested on 12 August 1953. Lithium-6 deuteride turned out to be a convenient multipurpose nuclear fuel. The paper highlights the recognition by the leaders of the country and of the Atomic project that fundamental science plays a crucial role in promoting scientists' ideas and proposals.


    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Martyrs or Terrorists: Suicide Bombing in Islamic. Kilani & Suberu. Defining Jihad, Martyrdom and Terrorism. The twin institutions of Jihad and Shahid (martyrdom) had existed in Islam from the nascent period of Islamic history and civilization. The word Jihad is derived from the verbal root Jahada which means struggle.

  18. Terror, tortur og den tikkende bombe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dige, Morten


    The so-called "war on terror" has renewed the interest in torture in practice as well as in theory. The philosophical debate about possible justifications for torture has to a large extent revolved about the ticking bomb scenario: would it be justified to torture a terrorist in order to prevent...

  19. William Hayes and His Pallanza Bomb Shell

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 16; Issue 10. William Hayes and His Pallanza Bomb Shell. R Jayaraman. General Article Volume 16 Issue 10 October 2011 pp 911-921. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  20. Management of Mass Casualty Burn Disasters (United States)


    leading out of the town were clogged by refugees, preventing the rescue of patients. Response to this disaster was aided by the activation of the...surgeon. These authors commented that in order to prevent the burn centre from becoming overloaded, patients with non-survivable injuries as well as those...Triage As in other types of mass casualty events, triage is an essential component of burn disastermanagement : ‘for the surgeon facing 30 victims of urban

  1. Treatment effectiveness of complex casualty amputee patients


    Farrar, Elizabeth D.


    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited This study analyzes data from 182 Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care (C5) amputee patients with the goal to better understand the factors that influence their care. The data was provided from the Navy Bureau of Medicine and Surgery while visiting the Naval Medical Center at San Diego. The analysis examines two response variables, opiate drug usage and duration in the C5 program, as a function of a number of exploratory vari...

  2. The Economic Status of American Casualties of the Vietnam War (United States)


    for casualties from wealthy towns, is examined in order to test the hypothesis that casualty patterns reflect great economic disparity. Various...or conventional wisdom. This paper examines data about the 58,152 casualties of the Vietnam conflict in an effort to test the belief that the 1966, hardship, fatherhood , and marital deferments, deferments rarely associated with wealth, outnumbered student deferments by two to one. It is

  3. Work of the Tamm-Sakharov group on the first hydrogen bomb (United States)

    Ritus, V. I.


    This review is an extended version of a report delivered at a session of the Department of Physical Sciences, the Department of Energetics, Mechanical Engineering, Mechanics, and Control Processes, and the Coordination Council on Technical Sciences of the RAS devoted to the 60th anniversary of the first hydrogen bomb test. The significant physical ideas suggested by A D Sakharov and V L Ginzburg underlying our first hydrogen bomb, RDS-6s, and numerous concrete problems and difficulties that had to be solved and overcome in designing thermonuclear weapons are presented. The understanding of the country's leaders and the Atomic Project managers of the exceptional role of fundamental science in the appearance and implementation of our scientists' concrete ideas and suggestions is emphasized.

  4. Suicide bomb attack causing penetrating craniocerebral injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hussain Manzar


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Penetrating cerebral injuries caused by foreign bodies are rare in civilian neurosurgical trauma, al-though there are various reports of blast or gunshot inju-ries in warfare due to multiple foreign bodies like pellets and nails. In our case, a 30-year-old man presented to neurosur-gery clinic with signs and symptoms of right-sided weak-ness after suicide bomb attack. The skull X-ray showed a single intracranial nail. Small craniotomy was done and the nail was removed with caution to avoid injury to surround-ing normal brain tissue. At 6 months’ follow-up his right-sided power improved to against gravity. Key words: Head injury, penetrating; Bombs; Nails

  5. Should We Let the Bomb Spread (United States)


    major shocks in the price of oil ) to safely explode tiny thermonuclear bombs in under- ground caverns to generate steam that could produce 88 energy...India, Pakistan , and North Korea have all acquired nuclear weapons. In addition, South Korea, Sweden, Taiwan, Iraq, Bra- zil, Argentina, Australia...Arabia, Turkey, Algeria, Egypt, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan). Meanwhile, support for nuclear use is on the rise. Russia and Pakistan now favor

  6. The Bali bombing: civilian aeromedical evacuation. (United States)

    Tran, Minh D; Garner, Alan A; Morrison, Ion; Sharley, Peter H; Griggs, William M; Xavier, Colin


    After the Bali bombing on 12 October 2002, many injured Australians required evacuation to Darwin, and then to burns units around Australia. Many patients were evacuated from Denpasar by Qantas, with assistance from staff of civilian medical retrieval services. The transport of patients from Darwin to specialist burns units involved a coordinated response of civilian and military services. Some issues in responding to such disasters were identified, and a national coordinating network could improve future responses.

  7. Meteorological Fractionation of Nuclear Bomb Debris


    Storebö, Per B.


    Radioactive particles are produced by nuclear bomb explosions which are widely different in size and nature. Systematic differences in properties are expected for particles formed under different conditions. Differences in particle properties may cause sorting during deposition because of systematic differences in weather trends at different geographical locations and thus bring to light information about the particles. Deposits at a mountain station in Norway appear to have contained more s...

  8. Bomb strike experiment for mine clearance operations


    Ray, Gregory P.


    The Bomb Strike Experiment for Mine Countermeasure Operations, currently sponsored through the Office of Naval Research mine impact burial prediction project, is part of a multi-year, comprehensive effort aimed at enhancing the Navyâ s fleet naval mine clearance capability and success. The investigation discussed in this paper examines the experimental and theoretical characteristics of a rigid body falling through the air, water, and sediment column at high speed. Several experiments were ...

  9. Mass casualty triage after an airplane crash near Amsterdam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J.; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S.; Bloemers, Frank W.; Goslings, J. Carel


    Triage is an important aspect of the management of mass casualty incidents. This study describes the triage after the Turkish Airlines Crash near Amsterdam in 2009. The results of the triage and the injuries of P3 casualties were evaluated. In addition, the role of the trauma mechanism and its

  10. Experience in the management of the mass casualty from the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: On the 17 of January 2010, a sectarian crisis broke out in Jos the capital of Plateau state, Nigeria. It created a mass casualty situation in the Jos University Teaching Hospital. We present the result of the hospital management of that mass casualty incident. Objective: To share our experience in the management ...

  11. 33 CFR 146.35 - Written report of casualty. (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Written report of casualty. 146.35 Section 146.35 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... postmarked within 5 days of the casualty, the written report required by paragraph (a) of this section serves...

  12. The bomb black market - Inquiry about nuclear proliferation; Le marche noir de la bombe - Enquete sur la proliferation nucleaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tertrais, B


    Nuclear weapons remain for a long time in the hands of the five big powers: USA, Soviet Union, Great Britain, France and China. Things started to change when Israel, and then India acquired the atomic bomb as well. Pakistan took up the race too but Abdul Qadeer Khan, one of the nuclear program maker of the country, took profit of the situation to set up a huge international proliferation network for the spreading of the technologies, tools and materials necessary for weapons fabrication. He offered his services not only to Iran and North Korea, but to Iraq and Libya as well and probably to some other countries. Today, the Iranian nuclear program generates both envy and fear in the Middle East. Who is going to be the next domino of the nuclear game? Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Algeria and Turkey are potential candidates. But while Pakistan sinks into crisis, the terrorists are taking interest in nukes. The author of this book has worked for more than 10 years on this dossier. He has had access to the most sensible documents and to essential testimonies. He now lifts the curtain on the secrets of nuclear proliferation. In this book, where reality sometimes surpasses fiction, he explains how the CIA finally succeeded in infiltrating the 'Khan ring' after having closed its eyes on his deals for a long time. He describes the branches of the Pakistani atomic complex and analyses with lucidity the nuclear terrorism risk.

  13. Report on the atom what you should know about atomic energy

    CERN Document Server

    Dean, Gordon


    The American approach to the atom ; Uranium is where you find it ; the production line: ore to bombs ; the expanding programme ; the headaches ; the pay-off: weapons ; the military and the atoms ; power: the peaceful goals, first phase ; power: the peaceful goals, second goals ; radioisotopes: servants of man ; the quest for knowledge ; secrecy, security and spies ; the international atom ; behind the Iron Curtain ; the way ahead.

  14. Suicide bombing of the Mineralnye Vody Train: case study in using open-source information for open-source health intelligence. (United States)

    Lee, Catherine Y; Davis, Timothy E; Noji, Eric K


    Open-source information consists of a range of publicly available material, including various periodicals, news reports, journal publications, photographs, and maps. Although intelligence agencies regularly use open-source information in developing strategically important intelligence, the disaster community has yet to evaluate its use for planning or research purposes. This study examines how open-source information, in the form of Internet news reports and public access disaster databases, can be used to develop a rapid, 72-hour case report. Open-source information was extrapolated from several news reports on a terrorist bombing that occurred in Russia on 05 December 2003, using a self-devised "data" collection sheet, and background information collected on the nature of similar disasters using three public access databases. The bulk of health-related information was collected in the first 13 hours after the event, including casualty demographics, immediate dead, total dead, admitted, and treated-and-released. The complex and prolonged rescue of casualties was identified, as well as the presence of unexploded ordnance. This incident also was identified as the first publicly reported suicide terrorist bombing of a commuter train. Open-source information has the potential to be a helpful tool in reconstructing a chain of events and response. However, its use must be validated further and used appropriately. Standards for collection and analysis also must be developed.

  15. Lessons From the Boston Marathon Bombing: An Orthopaedic Perspective on Preparing for High-Volume Trauma in an Urban Academic Center. (United States)

    Tobert, Daniel; von Keudell, Arvind; Rodriguez, Edward K


    The 2013 Boston Marathon bombing resulted in a mass casualty event that tested the limits of Boston-area trauma centers. The explosions, 12 seconds apart, led to the rapid influx of 124 patients with primarily lower extremity injuries in 5 different adult level 1 trauma centers. This study aimed to examine the existing hospital systems in place for disaster scenarios at the time of the event and identify areas for improvement. Preparation before the Boston Marathon bombing included coordinating the delivery of patients to area facilities and creating a framework for response at an institutional level. These simulations, coupled with the fact that the explosions occurred at a nexus of medical facilities, helped provide impactful care preventing any fatalities in patients who arrived at a Boston hospital that day. The experience at our institution led to the implementation of a more robust communication infrastructure and reinforced the value of preparatory drills. Within the Orthopaedic Surgery Department, we developed a more robust organizational hierarchy for mass casualty events and implemented a multitrauma follow-up clinic. We believe that it is the responsibility of every hospital to have systems in place to handle the rapid arrival of patients with multiple-trauma, and we hope that others can learn from our experience.

  16. Predetonation probability of a fission-bomb core (United States)

    Reed, B. Cameron


    An undergraduate-level derivation of the probability that a uranium or plutonium fission bomb will suffer an uncontrolled predetonation due to neutrons liberated in spontaneous fissions in the fissile material is developed. Consistent with what was learned by Los Alamos bomb designers during World War II, it is shown why uncontrolled predetonation was not a problem for a U-235 bomb of the Little Boy "gun" design but necessitated development of implosion engineering for the Pu-239 Trinity and Fat Man bombs where the cores were contaminated with highly spontaneously fissile Pu-240.

  17. The marshal's baton: There is no bomb, there was no bomb, they were not looking for a bomb


    Christensen, Svend Aage


    In a letter dated 6 January 2009, the Danish foreign minister, Per Stig Møller, asked DIIS to draw up a report based on the documentary evidence concerning the 1968 crash of a B-52 bomber on the sea ice a few miles from Thule Air Base in Northwestern Greenland. The B-52 had four hydrogen bombs on board. For more than four decades, the official American and Danish explanations have consistently stated that all four nuclear weapons were destroyed in the accident. The foreign minister's initiati...

  18. Finding the signal in the noise: Could social media be utilized for early hospital notification of multiple casualty events?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachael A Callcut

    Full Text Available Delayed notification and lack of early information hinder timely hospital based activations in large scale multiple casualty events. We hypothesized that Twitter real-time data would produce a unique and reproducible signal within minutes of multiple casualty events and we investigated the timing of the signal compared with other hospital disaster notification mechanisms.Using disaster specific search terms, all relevant tweets from the event to 7 days post-event were analyzed for 5 recent US based multiple casualty events (Boston Bombing [BB], SF Plane Crash [SF], Napa Earthquake [NE], Sandy Hook [SH], and Marysville Shooting [MV]. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of tweet utilization were compared across events.Over 3.8 million tweets were analyzed (SH 1.8 m, BB 1.1m, SF 430k, MV 250k, NE 205k. Peak tweets per min ranged from 209-3326. The mean followers per tweeter ranged from 3382-9992 across events. Retweets were tweeted a mean of 82-564 times per event. Tweets occurred very rapidly for all events (<2 mins and represented 1% of the total event specific tweets in a median of 13 minutes of the first 911 calls. A 200 tweets/min threshold was reached fastest with NE (2 min, BB (7 min, and SF (18 mins. If this threshold was utilized as a signaling mechanism to place local hospitals on standby for possible large scale events, in all case studies, this signal would have preceded patient arrival. Importantly, this threshold for signaling would also have preceded traditional disaster notification mechanisms in SF, NE, and simultaneous with BB and MV.Social media data has demonstrated that this mechanism is a powerful, predictable, and potentially important resource for optimizing disaster response. Further investigated is warranted to assess the utility of prospective signally thresholds for hospital based activation.

  19. Finding the signal in the noise: Could social media be utilized for early hospital notification of multiple casualty events? (United States)

    Callcut, Rachael A; Moore, Sara; Wakam, Glenn; Hubbard, Alan E; Cohen, Mitchell J


    Delayed notification and lack of early information hinder timely hospital based activations in large scale multiple casualty events. We hypothesized that Twitter real-time data would produce a unique and reproducible signal within minutes of multiple casualty events and we investigated the timing of the signal compared with other hospital disaster notification mechanisms. Using disaster specific search terms, all relevant tweets from the event to 7 days post-event were analyzed for 5 recent US based multiple casualty events (Boston Bombing [BB], SF Plane Crash [SF], Napa Earthquake [NE], Sandy Hook [SH], and Marysville Shooting [MV]). Quantitative and qualitative analysis of tweet utilization were compared across events. Over 3.8 million tweets were analyzed (SH 1.8 m, BB 1.1m, SF 430k, MV 250k, NE 205k). Peak tweets per min ranged from 209-3326. The mean followers per tweeter ranged from 3382-9992 across events. Retweets were tweeted a mean of 82-564 times per event. Tweets occurred very rapidly for all events (tweets in a median of 13 minutes of the first 911 calls. A 200 tweets/min threshold was reached fastest with NE (2 min), BB (7 min), and SF (18 mins). If this threshold was utilized as a signaling mechanism to place local hospitals on standby for possible large scale events, in all case studies, this signal would have preceded patient arrival. Importantly, this threshold for signaling would also have preceded traditional disaster notification mechanisms in SF, NE, and simultaneous with BB and MV. Social media data has demonstrated that this mechanism is a powerful, predictable, and potentially important resource for optimizing disaster response. Further investigated is warranted to assess the utility of prospective signally thresholds for hospital based activation.

  20. Determination of calorific values of forest waste biomass by static bomb calorimetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nunez-Regueira, L.; Rodriguez-Anon, J.A.; Proupin-Castineiras, J.; Vilanova-Diz, A.; Montero-Santovena, N. [Department of Applied Physics, Research Group TERBIPROMAT, University of Santiago, 15706 Santiago (Spain)


    Calorific values of forest waste originating from forestry works such as woodland cleaning, reaforestation and, all other silviculture tasks, were measured by static bomb calorimetry. These waste materials, heretofore considered as useless refuse, are beginning to be used as alternative fuels in wide social sectors all over the world. Two of the main forest species, eucalyptus (E. globulus Labill) and pine (P. pinaster Aiton) existing in Galicia (NW Spain), are included in this study. The experimental procedure was based on that proposed by Hubbard et al. [Experimental Thermochemistry, Interscience, New York, 1956, p. 5]. Simultaneously, some other parameters such as elementary chemical composition and heavy metal contents, moisture, density, and ash percentage after combustion in the bomb, were also determined. The experimental results, with calorific values exceeding 20000kJkg{sup -1}, make it advisable to use these materials as alternative fuels. The different parameters were measured using, as main equipment, a bomb calorimeter with an oxygen atmosphere, an elementary analysis equipment, and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer.

  1. Redefining Technical Rescue and Casualty Care for SOF: Part 1. (United States)

    McKay, S D; Johnston, J; Callaway, D W


    Trauma care in the tactical environment is complex; it requires a unique blend of situational awareness, foresight, medical skill, multitasking, and physical strength. Rescue is a critical, but often over-looked, component of nearly all tactical trauma casualty management. Successful full spectrum casualty management requires proficiency in four areas: casualty access, assessment, stabilization, and extraction. When complex rescue situations arise (casualty removal from roof tops, mountain terrain, collapsed structures, wells, or a karez), casualty care often becomes further complicated. Special Operations units have historically looked to civilian technical rescue techniques and equipment to fill this ?rescue gap.? Similar to the evolution of pre-hospital military medicine from civilian guidelines (e.g. Advanced Trauma Life Support) (ATLS)) to an evidence-based, tactical-specific guideline (Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC)), an evolution is required within the rescue paradigm. This shift from civilian-based technical rescue guidelines towards an Operational Rescue? capability allows tactical variables such as minimal equipment, low light/night vision goggles (NVG) considerations, enemy threats, and variable evacuation times to permeate through the individual rescue skill set. Just as with TCCC, in which the principles of casualty care remain consistent, the practices must be adapted to end-users environment, so it is with rescue. 2012.

  2. The Omagh bombing--a medical perspective. (United States)

    Potter, S J; Carter, G E


    The bomb in Omagh on the 15th August 1998 was responsible for the largest loss of life of any single terrorist incident in the whole of the "Troubles" in Northern Ireland. However, the medical response to this tragedy provided an excellent opportunity for the civilian and military agencies to work together. As a consequence of this a number of lessons were drawn which are presented in the paper. Whatever the outcome of the peace process these lessons will have an important role in the future, since history would suggest that there is little possibility of the terrorist threat ever completely.

  3. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs


    Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Heinzel, Petr


    Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived and compact structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen H-alpha line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua. H-alpha line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 ang. It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmo...

  4. Amputations in natural disasters and mass casualties: staged approach. (United States)

    Wolfson, Nikolaj


    Amputation is a commonly performed procedure during natural disasters and mass casualties related to industrial accidents and military conflicts where large civilian populations are subjected to severe musculoskeletal trauma. Crush injuries and crush syndrome, an often-overwhelming number of casualties, delayed presentations, regional cultural and other factors, all can mandate a surgical approach to amputation that is different than that typically used under non-disaster conditions. The following article will review the subject of amputation during natural disasters and mass casualties with emphasis on a staged approach to minimise post-surgical complications, especially infection.

  5. 49 CFR 1544.303 - Bomb or air piracy threats. (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Bomb or air piracy threats. 1544.303 Section 1544... AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Threat and Threat Response § 1544.303 Bomb or air piracy threats. (a) Flight... upon receiving information that an act or suspected act of air piracy has been committed, the aircraft...

  6. Quality improvement program for the B83 bomb hand truck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loll, M.B.; Buck, S.A.


    This report describes the problems, issues, and history of the H1347 bomb hand truck for the B83 bomb after the bomb was put into stockpile in the mid-1980s. Major issues that were reported in Unsatisfactory Reports (URs) were cracking problems on stacking fixture welds, cracked welds on the caster bracket receptacles on the cradle, cracked caster mounting brackets, casters unlocking from the swivel lock position, and caster tires rubbing and binding on the stacking frame. Resolution of these and other problems is described. The introduction of the H695B storage-only bomb hand truck to alleviate a shortage of bomb hand trucks in the mid-1990s is described. The development and qualification of the H1347A bomb hand truck as a replacement for the H695 B is covered. The results from load test evaluations on the stacking fixture, cradle, and casters for the H1347 are described along with towing results on one and two-high stack configurations of B83 bombs in bomb hand trucks. New towing and truck/trailer transport procedures are described. Development, evaluation, and production recommendations for a stronger caster mounting bracket are described.

  7. Did Divorces Decline after the Oklahoma City Bombing? (United States)

    Nakonezny, Paul A.; Reddick, Rebecca; Rodgers, Joseph Lee


    The Oklahoma City bombing in April 1995 was an act of terrorism that had many potential influences on the city and state, including influences on families. We analyzed divorce data from 1985 to 2000 for all 77 counties in Oklahoma to assess the divorce response to the Oklahoma City bombing. Our prediction was that divorce rates in Oklahoma would…

  8. Meteorological and intelligence evidence of long-distance transit of chemical weapons fallout from bombing early in the 1991 Persian Gulf War. (United States)

    Tuite, James J; Haley, Robert W


    Coalition bombings on the night of 18-19 January 1991, early in the Gulf War, targeted the Iraqi chemical weapons infrastructure. On 19 January 1991, nerve agent alarms sounded within Coalition positions hundreds of kilometers to the south, and the trace presence of sarin vapor was identified by multiple technologies. Considering only surface dispersion of plumes from explosions, officials concluded that the absence of casualties around bombed sites precluded long-distance transit of debris to US troop positions to explain the alarms and detections. Consequently, they were discounted as false positives, and low-level nerve agent exposure early in the air war was disregarded in epidemiologic investigations of chronic illnesses. Newly assembled evidence indicates that plumes from those nighttime bombings of Iraqi chemical facilities would have traversed the stable nocturnal boundary layer and penetrated the residual layer where they would be susceptible to rapid transit by supergeostrophic winds. This explanation is supported by plume height predictions, available weather charts, weather satellite images showing transit of a hot air mass, effects of solar mixing of atmospheric layers, and observations of a stationary weather front and thermal inversion in the region. Current evidence supports long-distance transit. Epidemiologic studies of chronic postwar illness should be reassessed using veterans' reports of hearing nerve agent alarms as the measure of exposure. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Hα features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs (United States)

    Rutten, R. J.


    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacities for these diverse diagnostics, even and especially for Hα, and employ such estimates to gauge the visibilities of Ellerman bomb onsets in all of them. They constrain Ellerman bomb formation to temperatures 10 000-20 000 K and hydrogen densities around 1015 cm-3. Similar arguments likely hold for Hα visibility in other transient phenomena with hot and dense onsets.

  10. Indicators of the need for ICU admission following suicide bombing attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bala Miklosh


    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Critical hospital resources, especially the demand for ICU beds, are usually limited following mass casualty incidents such as suicide bombing attacks (SBA. Our primary objective was to identify easily diagnosed external signs of injury that will serve as indicators of the need for ICU admission. Our secondary objective was to analyze under- and over-triage following suicidal bombing attacks. Methods A database was collected prospectively from patients who were admitted to Hadassah University Hospital Level I Trauma Centre, Jerusalem, Israel from August 2001-August 2005 following a SBA. One hundred and sixty four victims of 17 suicide bombing attacks were divided into two groups according to ICU and non-ICU admission. Results There were 86 patients in the ICU group (52.4% and 78 patients in the non-ICU group (47.6%. Patients in the ICU group required significantly more operating room time compared with patients in the non-ICU group (59.3% vs. 25.6%, respectively, p = 0.0003. For the ICU group, median ICU stay was 4 days (IQR 2 to 8.25 days. On multivariable analysis only the presence of facial fractures (p = 0.014, peripheral vascular injury (p = 0.015, injury ≥ 4 body areas (p = 0.002 and skull fractures (p = 0.017 were found to be independent predictors of the need for ICU admission. Sixteen survivors (19.5% in the ICU group were admitted to the ICU for one day only (ICU-LOS = 1 and were defined as over-triaged. Median ISS for this group was significantly lower compared with patients who were admitted to the ICU for > 1 day (ICU-LOS > 1. This group of over-triaged patients could not be distinguished from the other ICU patients based on external signs of trauma. None of the patients in the non-ICU group were subsequently transferred to the ICU. Conclusions Our results show that following SBA, injury to ≥ 4 areas, and certain types of injuries such as facial and skull fractures, and peripheral vascular injury, can serve

  11. Amputations in natural disasters and mass casualties: staged approach


    Wolfson, Nikolaj


    Amputation is a commonly performed procedure during natural disasters and mass casualties related to industrial accidents and military conflicts where large civilian populations are subjected to severe musculoskeletal trauma. Crush injuries and crush syndrome, an often-overwhelming number of casualties, delayed presentations, regional cultural and other factors, all can mandate a surgical approach to amputation that is different than that typically used under non-disaster conditions. The foll...

  12. Alcohol-related road casualties in official crash statistics.


    Vissers, L. Houwing, S. & Wegman, F.C.M. (prep.)


    This study examines how improving insights regarding the real number of alcohol-related road casualties worldwide can help to save lives. Every year 1.25 million people die in road crashes according to the World Health Organization. It is widely recognised that drink driving is an important risk-increasing factor and contributes to many road deaths. With great certainty, the real number of alcohol-related road casualties is higher than reported in the official statistics. Better insights into...

  13. The initial response to the Boston marathon bombing: lessons learned to prepare for the next disaster. (United States)

    Gates, Jonathan D; Arabian, Sandra; Biddinger, Paul; Blansfield, Joe; Burke, Peter; Chung, Sarita; Fischer, Jonathan; Friedman, Franklin; Gervasini, Alice; Goralnick, Eric; Gupta, Alok; Larentzakis, Andreas; McMahon, Maria; Mella, Juan; Michaud, Yvonne; Mooney, David; Rabinovici, Reuven; Sweet, Darlene; Ulrich, Andrew; Velmahos, George; Weber, Cheryl; Yaffe, Michael B


    We discuss the strengths of the medical response to the Boston Marathon bombings that led to the excellent outcomes. Potential shortcomings were recognized, and lessons learned will provide a foundation for further improvements applicable to all institutions. Multiple casualty incidents from natural or man-made incidents remain a constant global threat. Adequate preparation and the appropriate alignment of resources with immediate needs remain the key to optimal outcomes. A collaborative effort among Boston's trauma centers (2 level I adult, 3 combined level I adult/pediatric, 1 freestanding level I pediatric) examined the details and outcomes of the initial response. Each center entered its respective data into a central database (REDCap), and the data were analyzed to determine various prehospital and early in-hospital clinical and logistical parameters that collectively define the citywide medical response to the terrorist attack. A total of 281 people were injured, and 127 patients received care at the participating trauma centers on that day. There were 3 (1%) immediate fatalities at the scene and no in-hospital mortality. A majority of the patients admitted (66.6%) suffered lower extremity soft tissue and bony injuries, and 31 had evidence for exsanguinating hemorrhage, with field tourniquets in place in 26 patients. Of the 75 patients admitted, 54 underwent urgent surgical intervention and 12 (22%) underwent amputation of a lower extremity. Adequate preparation, rapid logistical response, short transport times, immediate access to operating rooms, methodical multidisciplinary care delivery, and good fortune contributed to excellent outcomes.

  14. Lessons in disaster: the Boston Marathon bombing. (United States)

    Bergeron, Kelly


    The events of a disaster and its aftermath often focus on what the doctors and nurses did to treat the victims. The ancillary departments, such as radiology, also play a very important role. Staff participate in drills routinely to prepare for such events, and had just recently participated in one with mass casualties, but the sheer volume was beyond the scope of comprehension. Everyone worked as quickly as possible in getting quality images for the physician staff. For future disasters, counselors need to be available to the staff quicker, and a debriefing session specific to radiology is necessary right away. Any disaster has a beginning and an end for the event itself, but the reverberations continue long after and staff need to be prepared for that.

  15. Health examination for A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Chikako [Hiroshima Atomic Bomb Casualty Council Health Management Center (Japan)


    The health examination for A-bomb survivors by national, prefectural and city administrations was described and discussed on its general concept, history, time change of examinee number, improvement of examination, prevalence of individual diseases, significance of cancer examinations, examinees` point of view and future problems. Subjects were the survivors living in Hiroshima city: in 1994, their number was 100,188, whose ages were 63 y in average for males consisting of 39.5% and 67 y for females of 60.5%. The examination was begun in 1957 on the law for medical care for the survivors firstly and then systematically in 1961. From 1965, it was performed 4 times a year, and in 1988, one examination in the four was made for cancer. Authors` Center examined previously 90% but recently 70% of the examinees. The remainder underwent the examination in other medical facilities. Tests are blood analysis, electrocardiography and computed radiography of chest with imaging plate, of which data have been accumulated either in photodisc or in host computer. From 1973 to 1993, the cardiovascular diseases increased from 6.1% to 26.9%, metabolic and endocrinic ones like diabetes, 3.6% to 19.7%, and bowel ones, 0.9% to 12.3%. Correlations of these diseases with A-bomb irradiation are not elucidated and possibly poor. Five classes of cancer examinations are performed but the examinee rate in the survivors is as low as 7.6-21.8% (1993). The cancer of the large intestine is increasing. The overall examinee rates in the survivors were 70.6% in 1965-1967, 69.5% in 1976-1977 and 58.2% in 1990. In conclusion, how to examine the survivors, who are getting older, as many as possible is the future problem. (H.O.)

  16. Childhood casualties during civil war: Syrian experience. (United States)

    Çelikel, Adnan; Karbeyaz, Kenan; Kararslan, Bekir; Arslan, M Mustafa; Zeren, Cem


    In war areas a lot of children die as well as adults. According to UNICEF, almost 2 million children have died in the wars took place in the last 10 years. In this study, we aimed to evaluate demographical data and injury characteristics of Syrian children who were wounded in Syria Civil War and died while being treated in Turkey. Postmortem examination and autopsy reports of 985 forensic deaths from Hatay -a Syrian neighborhood city of Turkey-between January 2012 and August 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. Among 763 Syrian people who were wounded in the war and died while being treated in Turkey, 140 cases (18.3%) who were younger than 18 years of age were taken into the scope of this study. Among those cases 77.9% (n = 109) were male and 22.1% were female. Median ages of female cases are 14 (min-max: 2-18) and median age of female cases are 9 (min-max: 1-18). Frequency distribution is highest between 13 and 18 years of age (n: 71, 50.7%). In 70% (n: 98) of cases, cause of death is bombing and shrapnel injuries, 13.6% (19) of them were killed by gunshot wounds. According to injury sites most of the injuries were reported to be on multiple body parts (54.3%, n: 76) and only head and neck injuries (%30). Cause of death was intracranial bleeding and cerebral parenchymal injury in most of the cases (n: 66, %47.1) followed by vascular damage with external bleeding (n: 15, %10.7) and internal organ damage with internal bleeding (n: 15, %10.7). The cases had very high level Abbreviated Injury Scales and Injury Severity Sores. In conclusion, a lot of children have died in the Civil War of Syria. Their average abbreviated injury scale and injury severity score values reported very high. Children that we evaluated were mostly died of head and neck injuries predominantly caused by bombing attacks and Autopsies of them revealed fatal intracranial hemorrhages and parenchymal injuries. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and Faculty of Forensic and Legal Medicine. All rights

  17. H-alpha features with hot onsets. I. Ellerman bombs


    Rutten, R. J.


    Ellerman bombs are transient brightenings of the wings of the Balmer lines that uniquely mark reconnection in the solar photosphere. They are also bright in strong Ca II and ultraviolet lines and in ultraviolet continua, but they are not visible in the optical continuum and the Na I D and Mg I b lines. These discordant visibilities invalidate all published Ellerman bomb modeling. I argue that the assumption of Saha-Boltzmann lower-level populations is informative to estimate bomb-onset opacit...

  18. Medical management of toxicological mass casualty events. (United States)

    Markel, Gal; Krivoy, Amir; Rotman, Eran; Schein, Ophir; Shrot, Shai; Brosh-Nissimov, Tal; Dushnitsky, Tsvika; Eisenkraft, Arik


    The relative accessibility to various chemical agents, including chemical warfare agents and toxic industrial compounds, places a toxicological mass casualty event, including chemical terrorism, among the major threats to homeland security. TMCE represents a medical and logistic challenge with potential hazardous exposure of first-response teams. In addition, TMCE poses substantial psychological and economic impact. We have created a simple response algorithm that provides practical guidelines for participating forces in TMCE. Emphasis is placed on the role of first responders, highlighting the importance of early recognition of the event as a TMCE, informing the command and control centers, and application of appropriate self-protection. The medical identification of the toxidrome is of utmost importance as it may dictate radically different approaches and life-saving modalities. Our proposed emergency management of TMCE values the "Scoop & Run" approach orchestrated by an organized evacuation plan rather than on-site decontamination. Finally, continuous preparedness of health systems - exemplified by periodic CBRN (Chemical, Biological, Radio-Nuclear) medical training of both first responders and hospital staff, mandatory placement of antidotal auto-injectors in all ambulances and CBRN emergency kits in the emergency departments - would considerably improve the emergency medical response to TMCE.

  19. Perfection and the Bomb: Nuclear Weapons, Teleology, and Motives. (United States)

    Brummett, Barry


    Uses Kenneth Burke's theory of perfection to explore the vocabularies of nuclear weapons in United States public discourse and how "the Bomb" as a God term has gained imbalanced ascendancy in centers of power. (MS)

  20. Characterising argon-bomb balloons for high-speed photography

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M


    Full Text Available -1 SABO 2013 TME Workshop Alkantpan Characterising Argon-bomb balloons for High-speed Photography M Olivier and FJ Mostert Landward Sciences, Defence Peace Safety and Security, CSIR, Meiring Naude Road, Pretoria, RSA. Abstract A...

  1. Labor Market Conditions, Political Events and Palestinian Suicide Bombings


    Edward A. Sayre


    Objectives. This paper analyzes the relationship between Palestinian suicide bombings and economic and political conditions from 1993 to 2001. Labor market conditions could affect the number of terror attacks because when the economy worsens, the opportunity cost of engaging in suicide terrorism decreases. An alternative explanation is that suicide bombings are responses to changes in the political environment. Methods. Count data regression models are employed to explore the relative importa...

  2. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Amlôt


    Full Text Available In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS. The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit.

  3. Modelling Mass Casualty Decontamination Systems Informed by Field Exercise Data (United States)

    Egan, Joseph R.; Amlôt, Richard


    In the event of a large-scale chemical release in the UK decontamination of ambulant casualties would be undertaken by the Fire and Rescue Service (FRS). The aim of this study was to track the movement of volunteer casualties at two mass decontamination field exercises using passive Radio Frequency Identification tags and detection mats that were placed at pre-defined locations. The exercise data were then used to inform a computer model of the FRS component of the mass decontamination process. Having removed all clothing and having showered, the re-dressing (termed re-robing) of casualties was found to be a bottleneck in the mass decontamination process during both exercises. Computer simulations showed that increasing the capacity of each lane of the re-robe section to accommodate 10 rather than five casualties would be optimal in general, but that a capacity of 15 might be required to accommodate vulnerable individuals. If the duration of the shower was decreased from three minutes to one minute then a per lane re-robe capacity of 20 might be necessary to maximise the throughput of casualties. In conclusion, one practical enhancement to the FRS response may be to provide at least one additional re-robe section per mass decontamination unit. PMID:23202768

  4. Implications for modeling casualty sustainment during peacekeeping operations. (United States)

    Blood, Christopher G; Zhang, Jinjin; Walker, G Jay


    Projections of the casualties expected during peacekeeping operations allow medical planners to assess in advance the medical resources needed to support such operations. Data detailing fatalities incurred in previous peacekeeping operations were extracted from several U.N. sources. From these data, rates of killed-in-action were computed for the deployed forces. One hundred eighty-eight peacekeeping incidents in which casualties were sustained were also examined to derive wounded-in-action rates. The estimated mean wounded-in-action rate for these operations was 3.16 per 1,000 strength per year; the estimated wounded-in-action rate for individual operations ranged from 0.49 to 12.50. There were an average of 3.8 wounded and 0.86 killed in the 188 casualty incidents examined. Thirty-eight percent of the wounds were described as serious. The casualty incidence derived in this study can provide a basis for estimating the casualties likely in future peacekeeping operations.

  5. Mental health for elder A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mine, Mariko; Honda, Sumihisa; Hata, Tomoko [Nagasaki Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine] [and others


    A pilot study was made, based on an interview survey, to improve mental hygiene in A-bomb survivors. The study consisted of General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 12 items, Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI), Social Disabilities Schedule (SDS), and General Health Questionnaire (GHQ) 30 items. A majority of the subjects were those aged in their fifties, sixties, and seventies. Eighty A-bomb survivors answered GHQ 12 items, consisting of 7, 17, and 41 who were exposed at <2.0 km, 2.0-2.9 km, and {>=}3.0 km from the hypocenter, respectively, and 15 who entered the city early after A-bombing. Thirty-three A-bomb survivors answered CIDI. According to the distance from the hypocenter, the corresponding figures were 2, 10, 15, and 6 A-bomb survivors. The survey for GHQ 12 items revealed that more A-bomb survivors exposed nearer the hypocenter suffered from mental problems. In the survey for CIDI, the most common complaints were found to be physical expression disorder (n=9) and chronic pain (n=8), followed by hypochondria (n=4), panic disorder (n=2), and anxiery (n=one). According to the SDS survey, 85% were judged as having no mental disorder, and the remaining 15% as having merely mild or moderate disorder. (N.K.).

  6. 'Wellbeing': a collateral casualty of modernity? (United States)

    Carlisle, Sandra; Henderson, Gregor; Hanlon, Phil W


    In the now vast empirical and theoretical literature on wellbeing knowledge of the subject is provided mainly by psychology and economics, where understanding of the concept are framed in very different ways. We briefly rehearse these, before turning to some important critical points which can be made about this burgeoning research industry, including the tight connections between the meanings of the concept with the moral value systems of particular 'modern' societies. We then argue that both the 'science' of wellbeing and its critique are, despite their diversity, re-connected by and subsumed within the emerging environmental critique of modern consumer society. This places concerns for individual and social wellbeing within the broader context of global human problems and planetary wellbeing. A growing number of thinkers now suggest that Western society and culture are dominated by materialistic and individualistic values, made manifest at the political and social levels through the unending pursuit of economic growth, and at the individual level by the seemingly endless quest for consumer goods, regardless of global implications such as broader environmental harms. The escalating growth of such values is associated with a growing sense of individual alienation, social fragmentation and civic disengagement and with the decline of more spiritual, moral and ethical aspects of life. Taken together, these multiple discourses suggest that wellbeing can be understood as a collateral casualty of the economic, social and cultural changes associated with late modernity. However, increasing concerns for the environment have the potential to counter some of these trends, and in so doing could also contribute to our wellbeing as individuals and as social beings in a finite world.

  7. Mass Casualty Chemical Incident Operational Framework, Assessment and Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwalt, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hibbard, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)


    Emergency response agencies in most US communities are organized, sized, and equipped to manage those emergencies normally expected. Hospitals in particular do not typically have significant excess capacity to handle massive numbers of casualties, as hospital space is an expensive luxury if not needed. Unfortunately this means that in the event of a mass casualty chemical incident the emergency response system will be overwhelmed. This document provides a self-assessment means for emergency managers to examine their response system and identify shortfalls. It also includes lessons from a detailed analysis of five communities: Baltimore, Boise, Houston, Nassau County, and New Orleans. These lessons provide a list of potential critical decisions to allow for pre-planning and a library of best practices that may be helpful in reducing casualties in the event of an incident.

  8. Leadership and a casualty response system for eliminating preventable death. (United States)

    Kotwal, Russ S; Montgomery, Harold R; Miles, Ethan A; Conklin, Curtis C; Hall, Michael T; McChrystal, Stanley A


    Combat casualties who die from their injuries do so primarily in the prehospital setting. Although most of these deaths result from injuries that are nonsurvivable, some are potentially survivable. Of injuries that are potentially survivable, most are from hemorrhage. Thus, military organizations should direct efforts toward prehospital care, particularly through early hemorrhage control and remote damage control resuscitation, to eliminate preventable death on the battlefield. A systems-based approach and priority of effort for institutionalizing such care was developed and maintained by medical personnel and command-directed by nonmedical combatant leaders within the 75th Ranger Regiment, U.S. Army Special Operations Command. The objective of this article is to describe the key components of this prehospital casualty response system, emphasize the importance of leadership, underscore the synergy achieved through collaboration between medical and nonmedical leaders, and provide an example to other organizations and communities striving to achieve success in trauma as measured through improved casualty survival.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reid, A.; Mathioudakis, M. [Astrophysics Research Centre, School of Mathematics and Physics, Queen’s University Belfast, BT7 1NN, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Scullion, E.; Gallagher, P. [School of Physics, Trinity College Dublin, Dublin 2 (Ireland); Doyle, J. G. [Armagh Observatory, College Hill, Armagh, BT61 9DG (United Kingdom); Shelyag, S., E-mail: [Monash Centre for Astrophysics, School of Mathematical Sciences, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria, 3800 (Australia)


    Ellerman Bombs (EBs) are thought to arise as a result of photospheric magnetic reconnection. We use data from the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope to study EB events on the solar disk and at the limb. Both data sets show that EBs are connected to the foot points of forming chromospheric jets. The limb observations show that a bright structure in the Hα blue wing connects to the EB initially fueling it, leading to the ejection of material upwards. The material moves along a loop structure where a newly formed jet is subsequently observed in the red wing of Hα. In the disk data set, an EB initiates a jet which propagates away from the apparent reconnection site within the EB flame. The EB then splits into two, with associated brightenings in the inter-granular lanes. Micro-jets are then observed, extending to 500 km with a lifetime of a few minutes. Observed velocities of the micro-jets are approximately 5–10 km s{sup −1}, while their chromospheric counterparts range from 50 to 80 km s{sup −1}. MURaM simulations of quiet Sun reconnection show that micro-jets with properties similar to those of the observations follow the line of reconnection in the photosphere, with associated Hα brightening at the location of increased temperature.

  10. Mass casualty triage after an airplane crash near Amsterdam. (United States)

    Postma, Ingri L E; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S; Bloemers, Frank W; Goslings, J Carel


    Triage is an important aspect of the management of mass casualty incidents. This study describes the triage after the Turkish Airlines Crash near Amsterdam in 2009. The results of the triage and the injuries of P3 casualties were evaluated. In addition, the role of the trauma mechanism and its effect on spinal immobilisation during transport was analysed. Retrospective analysis of investigational reports, ambulance forms, and medical charts of survivors of the crash. Outcomes were triage classification, type of injury, AIS, ISS, emergency interventions and the spinal immobilisation during transport. A minimal documentation of prehospital triage was found, and no exact numbers could be recollected. During inhospital triage 28% was triaged as P1, 10% had an ISS ≥ 16 and 3% met the modified Baxt criteria for emergency intervention. 40% was triaged P3, 72% had an ISS ≤ 8 and 63% was discharged from the Emergency Department after evaluation. In hospital over-triage was up to 89%. Critical mortality rate was 0%. Nine per cent of P3 casualties and 17% of 'walking' casualties had serious injuries. Twenty-two per cent of all casualties was transported with spinal immobilisation. Of the casualties diagnosed with spinal injury 22% was not transported with spinal immobilisation. After the Turkish Airlines Crash documentation of prehospital triage was minimal. According to the Baxt criteria the overtriage was high. Injuries sustained by plane crash survivors that seem minimally harmed must not be underestimated. Considering the high energy trauma mechanism, too little consideration was given to spinal immobilisation during transport. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Children and terror casualties receive preference in ICU admissions. (United States)

    Peleg, Kobi; Rozenfeld, Michael; Dolev, Eran


    Trauma casualties caused by terror-related events and children injured as a result of trauma may be given preference in hospital emergency departments (EDs) due to their perceived importance. We investigated whether there are differences in the treatment and hospitalization of terror-related casualties compared to other types of injury events and between children and adults injured in terror-related events. Retrospective study of 121 608 trauma patients from the Israel Trauma Registry during the period of October 2000-December 2005. Of the 10 hospitals included in the registry, 6 were level I trauma centers and 4 were regional trauma centers. Patients who were hospitalized or died in the ED or were transferred between hospitals were included in the registry. All analyses were controlled for Injury Severity Score (ISS). All patients with ISS 1-24 terror casualties had the highest frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions when compared with patients after road traffic accidents (RTA) and other trauma. Among patients with terror-related casualties, children were admitted to ICU disproportionally to the severity of their injury. Logistic regression adjusted for injury severity and trauma type showed that both terror casualties and children have a higher probability of being admitted to the ICU. Injured children are admitted to ICU more often than other age groups. Also, terror-related casualties are more frequently admitted to the ICU compared to those from other types of injury events. These differences were not directly related to a higher proportion of severe injuries among the preferred groups.

  12. Age at exposure and attained age variations of cancer risk in the Japanese A-bomb and radiotherapy cohorts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, Uwe, E-mail: [Institute of Physics, Science Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich 8057, Switzerland and Radiotherapy Hirslanden, Uwe Schneider Institute of Radiotherapy, Witellikerstr. 40, Zürich 8032 (Switzerland); Walsh, Linda [Institute of Physics, Science Faculty, University of Zürich, Zürich 8057, Switzerland and BfS - Federal Office for Radiation Protection, Radiation Protection and Health, Neuherberg 85764 (Germany)


    Purpose: Phenomenological risk models for radiation-induced cancer are frequently applied to estimate the risk of radiation-induced cancers at radiotherapy doses. Such models often include the effect modification, of the main risk to radiation dose response, by age at exposure and attained age. The aim of this paper is to compare the patterns in risk effect modification by age, between models obtained from the Japanese atomic-bomb (A-bomb) survivor data and models for cancer risks previously reported for radiotherapy patients. Patterns in risk effect modification by age from the epidemiological studies of radiotherapy patients were also used to refine and extend the risk effect modification by age obtained from the A-bomb survivor data, so that more universal models can be presented here. Methods: Simple log-linear and power functions of age for the risk effect modification applied in models of the A-bomb survivor data are compared to risks from epidemiological studies of second cancers after radiotherapy. These functions of age were also refined and fitted to radiotherapy risks. The resulting age models provide a refined and extended functional dependence of risk with age at exposure and attained age especially beyond 40 and 65 yr, respectively, and provide a better representation than the currently available simple age functions. Results: It was found that the A-bomb models predict risk similarly to the outcomes of testicular cancer survivors. The survivors of Hodgkin’s disease show steeper variations of risk with both age at exposure and attained age. The extended models predict solid cancer risk increase as a function of age at exposure beyond 40 yr and the risk decrease as a function of attained age beyond 65 yr better than the simple models. Conclusions: The standard functions for risk effect modification by age, based on the A-bomb survivor data, predict second cancer risk in radiotherapy patients for ages at exposure prior to 40 yr and attained ages

  13. Iraqi Civilian: Police, and Security Forces Casualty Estimates (United States)


    2006.1 These figures combine two counts: one from the Iraq Ministry of Health, which records deaths reported by hospitals; and one from the Medico ...casualties as well using an IBC-like method of posting media reports of deaths. ICCC, like IBC, is prone to the kind of errors likely when using media

  14. Pharmacy mass casualty disaster plan implemented after the train wreck. (United States)

    Bethea, S


    The involvement of a hospital pharmacy department in a mass casualty disaster revealed strengths and weaknesses of the department's disaster response plan. Effective communication and notification within the pharmacy department and the need to plan to have pharmacists in the triage area to determine patients' lost medications are important areas that the department had not practiced in disaster drills.

  15. Triage in mass casualty situations | Smith | Continuing Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuing Medical Education. Journal Home · ABOUT · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 30, No 11 (2012) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register. Triage in mass casualty situations. W Smith. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text:.

  16. Alcohol-related road casualties in official crash statistics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, L. Houwing, S. & Wegman, F.C.M. (prep.)


    This study examines how improving insights regarding the real number of alcohol-related road casualties worldwide can help to save lives. Every year 1.25 million people die in road crashes according to the World Health Organization. It is widely recognised that drink driving is an important

  17. The expected number of road traffic casualties using stratified data.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesemann, P. Stipdonk, H. & Ale, B.


    Road safety policy plans often require robust calculation of the expected number of road casualties in a certain target year. The relevance of such estimations should be measured by their power to influence and support safety policy makers. Thus, techniques to evaluate the safety developments and

  18. Adjustment among area youth after the Boston Marathon bombing and subsequent manhunt. (United States)

    Comer, Jonathan S; Dantowitz, Annie; Chou, Tommy; Edson, Aubrey L; Elkins, R Meredith; Kerns, Caroline; Brown, Bonnie; Green, Jennifer Greif


    The majority of research on terrorism-exposed youth has examined large-scale terrorism with mass casualties. Limited research has examined children's reactions to terrorism of the scope of the Boston Marathon bombing. Furthermore, the extraordinary postattack interagency manhunt and shelter-in-place warning made for a truly unprecedented experience in its own right for families. Understanding the psychological adjustment of Boston-area youth in the aftermath of these events is critical for informing clinical efforts. Survey of Boston-area parents/caretakers (N = 460) reporting on their child's experiences during the attack week, as well as psychosocial functioning in the first 6 attack months. There was heterogeneity across youth in attack- and manhunt-related experiences and clinical outcomes. The proportion of youth with likely attack/manhunt-related posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was roughly 6 times higher among Boston Marathon-attending youth than nonattending youth. Attack and manhunt experiences each uniquely predicted 9% of PTSD symptom variance, with manhunt exposures more robustly associated than attack-related exposures with a range of psychosocial outcomes, including emotional symptoms, conduct problems, hyperactivity/inattention, and peer problems. One-fifth of youth watched >3 hours of televised coverage on the attack day, which was linked to PTSD symptoms, conduct problems, and total difficulties. Prosocial behavior and positive peer functioning buffered the impact of exposure. Clinical efforts must maintain a broadened focus beyond simply youth present at the blasts and must also include youth highly exposed to the intense interagency pursuit and manhunt. Continued research is needed to understand the adjustment of youth after mass traumas and large-scale manhunts in residential communities. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  19. Reassessing the Bunbury Bombing: Juxtaposition of Political and Media Narratives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate O’Donnell


    Full Text Available This paper examines an Australian newspaper’s coverage of the bombing of an export port terminal in Bunbury, Western Australia on 19 July, 1976. We wanted to see how The West Australian newspaper framed the story, its precursor events, and the events that followed. We were particularly interested in whether the bombing was reported as an act of terrorism because the then Premier of Western Australia, Sir Charles Court, immediately decried it as “a gross act of terrorism.” We find the newspaper resisted the lure to apply this label, and couched the story in terms of serious criminality. However, it did so before the 1978 Hilton Hotel bombing; an event the news media heralded as the “arrival” of terrorism in Australia. Also, this occurred before what could be argued the sensationalist and politicised reporting of terror-related events became normalised.

  20. Forensic applications of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoppi, U. E-mail:; Skopec, Z.; Skopec, J.; Jones, G.; Fink, D.; Hua, Q.; Jacobsen, G.; Tuniz, C.; Williams, A


    After a brief review of the basics of {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating, this paper presents two unique forensic applications. Particular attention is dedicated to the use of the {sup 14}C bomb-pulse to establish the time of harvest of illicit drugs such as heroin and opium. Preliminary measurements of {sup 14}C concentrations in milligram samples taken from seized drugs are presented. {sup 14}C bomb-pulse dating can determine whether drug distribution originates from stockpiles or recent manufacture, and support the action of law enforcement authorities against criminal organisations involved in drug trafficking. In addition, we describe the dating of wine vintages for a number of authenticated single label vintage red wines from the Barossa Valley - South Australia. Our results show that radiocarbon dating can be used to accurately determine wine vintages and therefore reveal the addition of unrelated materials of natural and synthetic origin.

  1. Einstein on politics his private thoughts and public stands on nationalism, zionism, war, peace, and the bomb

    CERN Document Server

    Rowe, David E; Schulmann, Robert


    The most famous scientist of the twentieth century, Albert Einstein was also one of the century's most outspoken political activists. Deeply engaged with the events of his tumultuous times, from the two world wars and the Holocaust, to the atomic bomb and the Cold War, to the effort to establish a Jewish homeland, Einstein was a remarkably prolific political writer, someone who took courageous and often unpopular stands against nationalism, militarism, anti-Semitism, racism, and McCarthyism. In Einstein on Politics, leading Einstein scholars David Rowe and Robert Schulmann gather Einstein's m

  2. Lack of tissue renewal in human adult Achilles tendon is revealed by nuclear bomb C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinemeier, Katja Maria; Schjerling, Peter; Heinemeier, J.


    the 14C bomb-pulse method. This method takes advantage of the dramatic increase in atmospheric levels of 14C, produced by nuclear bomb tests in 1955-1963, which is reflected in all living organisms. Levels of 14C were measured in 28 forensic samples of Achilles tendon core and 4 skeletal muscle samples...... is revealed by nuclear bomb 14C....

  3. Triage and first care of casualties after radiological incidents; Triage en eerste opvang van slachtoffers na radiologische incidenten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Groot, R.; Van Zoelen, G.A.; Van Riel, A.J.H.P.; Leenders, M.E.C.


    The RIVM has prepared an overview of the necessary measures for the first care of casualties of incidents with radiological material, starting at the location of the incident until the hospital. Different groups of casualties are discerned, for which specific measures are necessary to minimise health risk. Subsequently flowcharts are set up for the evaluation, selection and first care of these casualties with concomitant measures. The flowcharts indicate which persons should be directly transported to the hospital and which persons can be sent home after monitoring and, if necessary, removal of radioactive material, for example contaminated clothing (decontamination). Furthermore, there is attention for the persons that are not exposed, but are worried. In time of an incident the flowcharts can be adapted and refined according to the specific nature of the incident. The report is written on request of the 'Medical Planning and Preparedness Office (GHOR)', by order of the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport. The report describes the consequences of incidents with a 'dirty bomb' and a hidden radioactive source. A 'dirty bomb' is a conventional explosive that will spread radioactive material after detonation. People in the direct surroundings of the explosion can be perilously injured. They can also become contaminated by scattered shards and radioactive material. During an incident with a hidden (intact) radioactive source, the radioactive material will not spread, because it is located at a specific site. The report also presents a flowchart for these incidents. The report supplies information to explain the flowcharts. The appendices give background information on radioactivity and ionising radiation and the health risks after exposure. Also references are provided to relevant national and international guidelines and handbooks. [Dutch] Het RIVM heeft in kaart gebracht welke maatregelen nodig zijn om slachtoffers op te vangen van

  4. Life atomic a history of radioisotopes in science and medicine

    CERN Document Server

    Creager, Angela N H


    After World War II, the US Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) began mass-producing radioisotopes, sending out nearly 64,000 shipments of radioactive materials to scientists and physicians by 1955. Even as the atomic bomb became the focus of Cold War anxiety, radioisotopes represented the government's efforts to harness the power of the atom for peace-advancing medicine, domestic energy, and foreign relations.             In Life Atomic, Angela N. H. Creager tells the story of how these radioisotopes, which were simultaneously scientific tools and political icons, transformed biomedicine and ecolog

  5. Rapid intercontinental air pollution transport associated with a meteorological bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Stohl


    Full Text Available Intercontinental transport (ICT of trace substances normally occurs on timescales ranging from a few days to several weeks. In this paper an extraordinary episode in November 2001 is presented, where pollution transport across the North Atlantic took only about one day. The transport mechanism, termed here an intercontinental pollution express highway because of the high wind speeds, was exceptional, as it involved an explosively generated cyclone, a so-called meteorological "bomb''. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study describing pollution transport in a bomb. The discovery of this event was based on tracer transport model calculations and satellite measurements of NO2, a species with a relatively short lifetime in the atmosphere, which could be transported that far only because of the high wind speeds produced by the bomb. A 15-year transport climatology shows that intercontinental express highways are about four times more frequent in winter than in summer, in agreement with bomb climatologies. The climatology furthermore suggests that intercontinental express highways may be important for the budget of short-lived substances in the remote troposphere. For instance, for a substance with a lifetime of 1 day, express highways may be responsible for about two thirds of the total ICT. We roughly estimate that express highways connecting North America with Europe enhance the average NOx mixing ratios over Europe, due to North American emissions, by about 2-3 pptv in winter.

  6. Alabama University Professor's View of the Birmingham Bombing Trial. (United States)

    Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, 2001


    Presents the views of Alabama university scholars regarding the historical significance of the 2001 trial of Thomas Blanton for his role in the Ku Klux Klan bombing of the Sixteenth Street Baptist church in Birmingham, Alabama thet killed four girls. Their discussions note the need to examine the American judicial system, the weak case against Mr.…

  7. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G

    CONTEXT: Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. OBJECTIVE: We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due

  8. Observations and NLTE modeling of Ellerman bombs (United States)

    Berlicki, A.; Heinzel, P.


    Context. Ellerman bombs (EBs) are short-lived, compact, and spatially well localized emission structures that are observed well in the wings of the hydrogen Hα line. EBs are also observed in the chromospheric CaII lines and in UV continua as bright points located within active regions. Hα line profiles of EBs show a deep absorption at the line center and enhanced emission in the line wings with maxima around ±1 Å from the line center. Similar shapes of the line profiles are observed for the CaII IR line at 8542 Å. In CaII H and K lines the emission peaks are much stronger, and EBs emission is also enhanced in the line center. Aims: It is generally accepted that EBs may be considered as compact microflares located in lower solar atmosphere that contribute to the heating of these low-lying regions, close to the temperature minimum of the atmosphere. However, it is still not clear where exactly the emission of EBs is formed in the solar atmosphere. High-resolution spectrophotometric observations of EBs were used for determining of their physical parameters and construction of semi-empirical models. Obtained models allow us to determine the position of EBs in the solar atmosphere, as well as the vertical structure of the activated EB atmosphere Methods: In our analysis we used observations of EBs obtained in the Hα and CaII H lines with the Dutch Open Telescope (DOT). These one-hour long simultaneous sequences obtained with high temporal and spatial resolution were used to determine the line emissions. To analyze them, we used NLTE numerical codes for the construction of grids of 243 semi-empirical models simulating EBs structures. In this way, the observed emission could be compared with the synthetic line spectra calculated for all such models. Results: For a specific model we found reasonable agreement between the observed and theoretical emission and thus we consider such model as a good approximation to EBs atmospheres. This model is characterized by an

  9. Preliminary quantitative assessment of earthquake casualties and damages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badal, J.; Vázquez-Prada, M.; González, Á.


    Prognostic estimations of the expected number of killed or injured people and about the approximate cost associated with the damages caused by earthquakes are made following a suitable methodology of wide-ranging application. For the preliminary assessment of human life losses due to the occurrence...... of a relatively strong earthquake we use a quantitative model consisting of a correlation between the number of casualties and the earthquake magnitude as a function of population density. The macroseismic intensity field is determined in accordance with an updated anelastic attenuation law, and the number...... the local social wealth as a function of the gross domestic product of the country. This last step is performed on the basis of the relationship of the macroseismic intensity to the earthquake economic loss in percentage of the wealth. Such an approach to the human casualty and damage levels is carried out...

  10. Automatic behavior sensing for a bomb-detecting dog (United States)

    Nguyen, Hoa G.; Nans, Adam; Talke, Kurt; Candela, Paul; Everett, H. R.


    Bomb-detecting dogs are trained to detect explosives through their sense of smell and often perform a specific behavior to indicate a possible bomb detection. This behavior is noticed by the dog handler, who confirms the probable explosives, determines the location, and forwards the information to an explosive ordnance disposal (EOD) team. To improve the speed and accuracy of this process and better integrate it with the EOD team's robotic explosive disposal operation, SPAWAR Systems Center Pacific has designed and prototyped an electronic dog collar that automatically tracks the dog's location and attitude, detects the indicative behavior, and records the data. To account for the differences between dogs, a 5-minute training routine can be executed before the mission to establish initial values for the k-mean clustering algorithm that classifies a specific dog's behavior. The recorded data include GPS location of the suspected bomb, the path the dog took to approach this location, and a video clip covering the detection event. The dog handler reviews and confirms the data before it is packaged up and forwarded on to the EOD team. The EOD team uses the video clip to better identify the type of bomb and for awareness of the surrounding environment before they arrive at the scene. Before the robotic neutralization operation commences at the site, the location and path data (which are supplied in a format understandable by the next-generation EOD robots—the Advanced EOD Robotic System) can be loaded into the robotic controller to automatically guide the robot to the bomb site. This paper describes the project with emphasis on the dog-collar hardware, behavior-classification software, and feasibility testing.

  11. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan; Volume 4. Section 8. Pathology (United States)


    con- * k , - ++Abstracted, i n pnrt , fron "Report of a Case of Monocytric Leucemia Occurring Following the ’Atonic Bonb Diseasetf1 by * om edema and swelling of the c e l l s l i n ing the alveol i . o l i . X 125. (Photo F i l e # IHM 135; A.M.M. Accession #158930-76

  12. Tactical Combat Casualty Care 2007: Evolving Concepts and Battlefield Experience (United States)


    torso trauma and respiratory distress Sucking chest wounds should be treated by applying a petroleum gauze during expiration, covering it with treated with a petroleum gauze applied during expiration, covering it with tape or a field dressing, placing the casualty In the sitting...nonsteroidals primarily because it did not inter- fere with platelet function, as aspirin and cyclooxygenase 1 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

  13. Meeting the Chemical Threat Psychiatric Casualties in a Chemical Environment (United States)


    and Nonsense in the Army Drug Prevention Program P004 089 The Psychologist Retention Study - Updated P004 090 Job Satisfaction between Two Groups a graph which is limiitedtO psychiatric casualties in two dimen- sions--those adverse drug reactions produced by NA, those produced by 148...of anticholinergics would best be classified as simple delirium, rather than as "psychotomimetic" or " psychedelic " syndromes. The term delirium was

  14. The role of human fatigue factor towards maritime casualties


    Xhelilaj Ermal; Lapa Kristofor


    The international studies on maritime accidents has shown that fatigue is continuing to be either the main cause or a contributory factor in a considerable number of casualties at sea resulting in the loss of life and damage to the environment and property. In fact, fatigue??s detrimental role toward performance at work is leading to errors being made and consequently resulting in fatalities. In light of these considerations, fatigue issue is of great importance to seafarers, the shipping ind...

  15. Strategies for casualty mitigation programs by using advanced tsunami computation (United States)

    IMAI, K.; Imamura, F.


    1. Purpose of the study In this study, based on the scenario of great earthquakes along the Nankai trough, we aim on the estimation of the run up and high accuracy inundation process of tsunami in coastal areas including rivers. Here, using a practical method of tsunami analytical model, and taking into account characteristics of detail topography, land use and climate change in a realistic present and expected future environment, we examined the run up and tsunami inundation process. Using these results we estimated the damage due to tsunami and obtained information for the mitigation of human casualties. Considering the time series from the occurrence of the earthquake and the risk of tsunami damage, in order to mitigate casualties we provide contents of disaster risk information displayed in a tsunami hazard and risk map. 2. Creating a tsunami hazard and risk map From the analytical and practical tsunami model (a long wave approximated model) and the high resolution topography (5 m) including detailed data of shoreline, rivers, building and houses, we present a advanced analysis of tsunami inundation considering the land use. Based on the results of tsunami inundation and its analysis; it is possible to draw a tsunami hazard and risk map with information of human casualty, building damage estimation, drift of vehicles, etc. 3. Contents of disaster prevention information To improve the hazard, risk and evacuation information distribution, it is necessary to follow three steps. (1) Provide basic information such as tsunami attack info, areas and routes for evacuation and location of tsunami evacuation facilities. (2) Provide as additional information the time when inundation starts, the actual results of inundation, location of facilities with hazard materials, presence or absence of public facilities and areas underground that required evacuation. (3) Provide information to support disaster response such as infrastructure and traffic network damage prediction

  16. Types of radiation mass casualties and their management. (United States)

    Jaworska, Alicja


    Management of radiation mass casualty exposure that may occur as a result of nuclear or radiation accident will depend on the type of accident, and of the knowledge about the actual radiation exposure situation for those who might be involved. Management of the public after an accident in a nuclear or radiation installation will follow existing specific emergency plans, and will take advantage of existing radiation monitoring systems. In other radiation mass casualty exposures, whenever accidental or malevolent use of radiation, there will be a requirement to employ screening programs for indentifying and sorting out exposed people (radiological triage), who will need medical treatment and/or other assistance like decontamination and individual dose assessment. In the later stage after the accident the monitoring for dose assessment purposes for those who will need medical or public health assistance will be required. Demand for dose assessment for large groups of individuals may create the need for international assistance. Prompt and credible public information is vital in all radiation emergencies, and it would be even more important in situations when radiation mass casualties result from exposures to nuclear or radiological material out of regulatory control. In such situations unpredictability of the event creates increase in the risk perception and public communication activities of the authorities will be the key element to prevent unnecessary fear and panic, and the measure to reassure the populace.

  17. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaji Ali


    Full Text Available 【Abstract】Objective: To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Methods: Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. Results: During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile. Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile. During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24% were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8% were male and 142 (44.2% were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years±19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded ar-eas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The pres-ence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. Conclusion: The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile at-tacks are necessary. Key words: Mortality; War; Mass casualty incidents; Wounds and injuries

  18. Flood risk assessment of potential casualties in a global scale (United States)

    Diaz Loaiza, Andres; Englhardt, Johanna; Boekhorst, Ellen; Ward, Philip; Aerts, Jeroen


    Flood risk assessment of potential casualties in a global scale. M. Andres Diaz-Loaiza (1), Johanna Englhardt (1), Ellen de Boekhorst (1), Philip J. Ward (1) and Jeroen Aerts (1) (1) Institute for Environmental Studies, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Floods are one of the most dangerous natural disasters for humanity, affecting many people every year. Quantitative risk models on a global scale are nowadays available tools for institutions and actors in charge of risk management in order to plan possible mitigation measures in case of flood risk events. Many of these models have been focus on potential economic damage, population and GDP exposure, but the potential casualties assessment has been left aside. This is partially due to the complexity of the problem itself, in which several variables like the age of a pedestrian (drag/exposed to a flood event), or his weight and swimming experience can be decisive for the complete understanding of the problem. In the present work is presented the advances for the development of a methodology in order to include in the GLOFRIS model a new indicator in case of flood risk events. Preliminary analysis relating the GDP with the potential casualties shows that undeveloped countries have more susceptibility to loss of life in case of flood events. This because the GDP indicator evidences as well the protection measures available in a country.

  19. Investigation of work zone crash casualty patterns using association rules. (United States)

    Weng, Jinxian; Zhu, Jia-Zheng; Yan, Xuedong; Liu, Zhiyuan


    Investigation of the casualty crash characteristics and contributory factors is one of the high-priority issues in traffic safety analysis. In this paper, we propose a method based on association rules to analyze the characteristics and contributory factors of work zone crash casualties. A case study is conducted using the Michigan M-94/I-94/I-94BL/I-94BR work zone crash data from 2004 to 2008. The obtained association rules are divided into two parts including rules with high-lift, and rules with high-support for the further analysis. The results show that almost all the high-lift rules contain either environmental or occupant characteristics. The majority of association rules are centered on specific characteristics, such as drinking driving, the highway with more than 4 lanes, speed-limit over 40mph and not use of traffic control devices. It should be pointed out that some stronger associated rules were found in the high-support part. With the network visualization, the association rule method can provide more understandable results for investigating the patterns of work zone crash casualties. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The reality of multiple casualty triage: putting triage theory into practice at the scene of multiple casualty vehicular accidents. (United States)

    Arbon, P; Zeitz, K; Ranse, J; Wren, H; Elliott, R; Driscoll, K


    The project investigated the experiences of ambulance paramedics in applying the principles and protocols of prehospital multiple casualty triage at the scene of motor vehicle accidents. Key objectives included investigation of the situational cues and other contextual factors influencing triage practice and the development of recommendations for the future education of ambulance paramedics. A triangulated approach was used incorporating demographic data, the use of focus groups and in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis was undertaken following the well established practices of human science research. The research describes an extended and broadened triage process returning to a more authentic definition of triage as the practice of sorting of casualties to determine priority. The findings highlight the need to consider triage as an extended and complex process that incorporates evidence based physiological cues to assist decision making and the management of the process of triage from call out to conclusion including assessment of contextual and situational variables.

  1. Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy Improves Survival in Severely Burned Military Casualties With Acute Kidney Injury

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chung, Kevin K; Juncos, , Luis A; Wolf, Steven E; Mann, Elizabeth E; Renz, Evan M; White, Christopher E; Barillo, David J; Clark, Richard A; Jones, John A; Edgecombe, Harcourt P


    .... We wondered whether early use of continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT) changes outcomes in severely burned military casualties with predetermined criteria for acute kidney injury. Methods...

  2. Transfusion for shock in US military war casualties with and without tourniquet use. (United States)

    Kragh, John F; Nam, Jason J; Berry, Keith A; Mase, Vincent J; Aden, James K; Walters, Thomas J; Dubick, Michael A; Baer, David G; Wade, Charles E; Blackbourne, Lorne H


    We assess whether emergency tourniquet use for transfused war casualties admitted to military hospitals is associated with survival. A retrospective review of trauma registry data was made of US casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. Patients with major limb trauma, transfusion, and tourniquet use were compared with similar patients who did not receive tourniquet use. A propensity-matching analysis was performed by stratifying for injury type and severity by tourniquet-use status. Additionally, direct comparison without propensity matching was made between tourniquet use and no-tourniquet use groups. There were 720 casualties in the tourniquet use and 693 in the no-tourniquet use groups. Of the 1,413 casualties, 66% (928) also had nonextremity injury. Casualties with tourniquet use had worse signs of hemorrhagic shock (admission base deficit, admission hemoglobin, admission pulse, and transfusion units required) than those without. Survival rates were similar between the 2 groups (1% difference; 95% confidence interval -2.5% to 4.2%), but casualties who received tourniquets had worse shock and received more blood products. In propensity-matched casualties, survival rates were not different (2% difference; 95% confidence interval -6.7% to 2.7%) between the 2 groups. Tourniquet use was associated with worse shock and more transfusion requirements among hospital-admitted casualties, yet those who received tourniquets had survival rates similar to those of comparable, transfused casualties who did not receive tourniquets. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Low dose radiation risks for women surviving the a-bombs in Japan: generalized additive model. (United States)

    Dropkin, Greg


    Analyses of cancer mortality and incidence in Japanese A-bomb survivors have been used to estimate radiation risks, which are generally higher for women. Relative Risk (RR) is usually modelled as a linear function of dose. Extrapolation from data including high doses predicts small risks at low doses. Generalized Additive Models (GAMs) are flexible methods for modelling non-linear behaviour. GAMs are applied to cancer incidence in female low dose subcohorts, using anonymous public data for the 1958 - 1998 Life Span Study, to test for linearity, explore interactions, adjust for the skewed dose distribution, examine significance below 100 mGy, and estimate risks at 10 mGy. For all solid cancer incidence, RR estimated from 0 - 100 mGy and 0 - 20 mGy subcohorts is significantly raised. The response tapers above 150 mGy. At low doses, RR increases with age-at-exposure and decreases with time-since-exposure, the preferred covariate. Using the empirical cumulative distribution of dose improves model fit, and capacity to detect non-linear responses. RR is elevated over wide ranges of covariate values. Results are stable under simulation, or when removing exceptional data cells, or adjusting neutron RBE. Estimates of Excess RR at 10 mGy using the cumulative dose distribution are 10 - 45 times higher than extrapolations from a linear model fitted to the full cohort. Below 100 mGy, quasipoisson models find significant effects for all solid, squamous, uterus, corpus, and thyroid cancers, and for respiratory cancers when age-at-exposure > 35 yrs. Results for the thyroid are compatible with studies of children treated for tinea capitis, and Chernobyl survivors. Results for the uterus are compatible with studies of UK nuclear workers and the Techa River cohort. Non-linear models find large, significant cancer risks for Japanese women exposed to low dose radiation from the atomic bombings. The risks should be reflected in protection standards.

  4. Bombing beyond Democracy. Remembering the Ruins of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Birthe


    World War II is often seen as a victory for democracy, but at the same time represents the final bankruptcy of those humanistic ideas that seemed so deeply rooted in European tradition. This affected not only the self-perception of the Germans, as obvious, but also that of the winning democracies...... involves questions as: Was the British bombing campaign legitimate to the very end of the war? Do the Germans have any right to commemorate their being victim to the allied air raids, considering the Holocaust and the German conduct towards other countries? How can experiences like this even be remembered......? And which lesson is to be learnt by this – does it affect the European conduct in international conflicts? In order to provide some background information to understand this debate, the paper will give an outline of the background and the extent of the bombings, including the development of the concept...

  5. Micronucleus in A-bomb survivors and in thorotrast patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, K.; Kawakami, M.; Izumi, T.; Shigeta, C.; Takahashi, H.; Ohkita, T. (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)


    Micronucleus and Howell-Jolly (H-J) bodies in bone marrow and in peripheral blood were investigated for 31 a-bomb survivors, and 21 thorotrast injected patients with 7 controls. The rate of micronucleus in myeloerythroblast was 0.263% for a-bomb survivors and 0.288% for thorotrast patients, which were higher than the controls, 0.050%. Correlations of micronucleus appearance with the incidence of chromosome aberrations and with estimated exposure dose were observed, suggesting that the micronucleus appearance could be an indicator of radiation damage. Also the micronucleus appearance in routine examinations could suggest the presence of chromosome aberrations. In the case of thorotrast patients H-J bodies appeared in high rate.

  6. The pregnant motor vehicle accident casualty: adherence to basic workup and admission guidelines. (United States)

    Sela, Hen Y; Weiniger, Carolyn F; Hersch, Moshe; Smueloff, Arnon; Laufer, Neri; Einav, Sharon


    To investigate the workup/treatment provided to pregnant motor vehicle accident (MVA) casualties in a mature trauma system. Adherence to recommendations was used to measure quality of care. MVAs affect approximately 3% of pregnant women. Trauma casualty outcome improves after implementation of guidelines. A 5-year audit of clinical practice in 2 university hospitals with a trauma call system where the general surgeon is the primary care physician. Trauma guidelines (general/specific to treatment of pregnant MVA casualties) were used to examine adherence. Pregnant casualties aged >18 years, injured in a private vehicle were identified via computerized hospital databases. Data relevant to the study were extracted from ED/admission files. Among the 236 casualties included there were no maternal deaths. Six casualties (2.5%) had significant injuries and 3 (1.2%) required surgery (all within 24-hours of admission). Contrary to established procedure, maternal vital signs were often not documented. In contrast, fetal viability was usually documented; most casualties underwent ultrasound fetal evaluation (233 of 236, 98.7%) and those with viable pregnancies underwent fetal heart rate monitoring (162 of 169, 96%). A sixth of the MVA casualties (16%) were examined only by an obstetrician. All casualties were admitted but only 15 (6.4%) were admitted in accordance with guidelines. Readmission rates (1.3%) were similar to those observed in nonpregnant casualties. Pregnant MVA casualties are underexamined and overadmitted. Concerns regarding potential obstetrical complications distract medical attention away from basic trauma guidelines. Education programs should emphasize prioritizing the mother and adhering to the basic rules of trauma care despite the presence of the fetus.

  7. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation


    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; G?mez-Tato, Antonio; ?lvarez-Dios, Jos?; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Bri?n, Mar?a; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, ?ngel; Lareu, Mar?a Victoria


    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a...

  8. Suicide in paradise: aftermath of the Bali bombings. (United States)

    Suryani, L K; Page, A; Lesmana, C B J; Jennaway, M; Basudewa, I D G; Taylor, R


    The relationship between the Bali (Indonesia) bombings of October 2002 and suicide has not previously been investigated, despite anecdotal evidence of the economic and psychological consequences of these attacks. Suicide rates were calculated over the period 1994-2006 in three Bali regencies to determine whether suicide increased in the period following the first Bali bombings. Poisson regression and time-series models were used to assess the change in suicide rates by sex, age and area in the periods before and after October 2002. Suicide rates (age-adjusted) increased in males from an average of 2.84 (per 100 000) in the period pre-2002 to 8.10 in the period post-2002, and for females from 1.51 to 3.68. The greatest increases in suicide in the post-2002 period were in the age groups 20-29 and 60 years, for both males and females. Tourist arrivals fell significantly after the bombings, and addition of tourism to models reduced relative risk estimates of suicide, suggesting that some of the increase may be attributable to the socio-economic effects of declines in tourism. There was an almost fourfold increase in male suicide risk and a threefold increase in female suicide risk in the period following the 2002 bombings in Bali. Trends in tourism did not account for most of the observed increases. Other factors such as indirect socio-economic effects and Balinese notions of collective guilt and anxieties relating to ritual neglect are important in understanding the rise in suicide in the post-2002 period.

  9. Forensic Medicine: Age Written in Teeth by Nuclear Bomb Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory


    Establishing the age of individuals is an important step in identification and a frequent challenge in forensic medicine. This can be done with high precision up to adolescence by analysis of dentition, but establishing the age of adults has remained difficult. Here we show that measuring {sup 14}C from nuclear bomb tests in tooth enamel provides a sensitive way to establish when a person was born.

  10. The toxicology of zinc chloride smoke producing bombs and screens. (United States)

    El Idrissi, Ayman; van Berkel, Lisanne; Bonekamp, Nadia E; Dalemans, Diana J Z; van der Heyden, Marcel A G


    Zinc chloride (ZnCl2)-based smoke bombs and screens are in use since the Second World War (1939-1945). Many case descriptions on ZnCl2 smoke inhalation incidents appeared since 1945. We provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical symptoms and underlying pathophysiology due to exposure to fumes from ZnCl2 smoke producing bombs. In addition, we give a historical overview of treatment regimens and their outcomes. We performed a literature search on Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar databases using combinations of the following search terms "smoke bomb", "smoke screen", "ZnCl2", "intoxication", "poisoning", "case report", "HE smoke", "hexachloroethane smoke", "smoke inhalation" and "white smoke". We retrieved additional reports based on the primary hits. We collected 30 case reports from the last seven decades encompassing 376 patients, 23 of whom died. Of all the patient descriptions, 31 were of sufficient detail for prudent analysis. Intoxication with clinical signs mainly took place in war situations and in military and fire emergency training sessions in enclosed spaces. Symptoms follow a biphasic course mainly characterised by dyspnoea, coughing and lacrimation, related to irritation of the airways in the first six hours, followed by reappearance of early signs complemented with inflammation related signs and tachycardia from 24 h onwards. Acute respiratory stress syndrome developed in severely affected individuals. Chest radiographs did not always correspond with clinical symptoms. Common therapy comprises corticosteroids, antibiotics and supplemental oxygen or positive pressure ventilation in 64% of the cases. Of the 31 patients included, eight died, three had permanent lung damage and 15 showed complete recovery, whereas in five patients outcome was not reported. Early signs likely relate to caustic reactions in the airway lining, whereas inhaled ZnCl2 particles may trigger an inflammatory response and associated delayed fibrotic lung damage. Smoke bomb

  11. European survey on decontamination in mass casualty incidents. (United States)

    Domres, Bernd D; Rashid, AlBadi; Grundgeiger, Jan; Gromer, Stefan; Kees, Tobias; Hecker, Norman; Peter, Hanno


    The goal of this study is to assess the European status in the case of mass casualties regarding legislation, responsibilities of ministries and organizations, education and training, material and equipment, and bottlenecks. A questionnaire answered by 22 of 27 European Union member states and Croatia, Norway, and Switzerland. Results and recommendations of a European expert's workshop on decontamination of victims of mass casualties. Ministries and responsible organizations of 22 European Union member states Croatia, Norway, and Switzerland. Hazardous chemical agents are a global realistic risk. Therefore it is an important obligation to direct education, service activities and research towards priority concerns of prevention and response in case of an accidental or criminal liberation of toxic chemicals. The most effective procedures to save the life and health of contaminated persons are: (1) The decontamination of chemically contaminated casualties as soon as possible reduces both morbidity and mortality. (2) The removal of clothing as the first stage of the decontamination process reduces the amount of contamination by 75-85 percent. The decontamination in case of a mass casualty incident needs a high number of personnel, personal protection equipment (PPE), a decontamination unit, education and permanent training, and a management of command, communication, and coordination; all these in the shortest time of preparedness, reaction, and cross border nationally and internationally. During the German EU Council Presidency in the first 6 months of 2007 the Federal Ministry of the Interior held a 3 days seminar (Ahrweiler, February 22-24, 2007) on the "Decontamination of Casualties Involved in Incidents with Hazardous Chemical Materials--European Inventory and Perspectives." The aim was to arrange an exchange of information and experience on the various systems in place in Europe which would be beneficial to all parties concerned. The seminar was organized by the

  12. Mass casualty incident training in a resource-limited environment. (United States)

    Leow, J J; Brundage, S I; Kushner, A L; Kamara, T B; Hanciles, E; Muana, A; Kamara, M M; Daoh, K S; Kingham, T P


    A mass casualty incident (MCI) occurs when a disaster involves a large number of injured people, overwhelming the capacity of local emergency medical services. This article describes the planning and execution of a MCI workshop created for use in Sierra Leone, a low-income country. Surgeons OverSeas (SOS), an international non-governmental organization, partnered with the Sierra Leone Office of National Security and Connaught Hospital to develop a 2-day MCI workshop designed to meet needs specific to their resource-limited environment. Pre- and post-course questionnaires were completed. Day 1 consisted of didactic teaching focused on triage principles, resource deployment, communication/operations and tabletop drills. On day 2 a mock MCI with performance assessments by independent observers was staged, followed by post-event debriefing. Pre-course questionnaires identified the following deficits: lack of triage training (29 per cent), and transportation (19 per cent) and communication (17 per cent) shortfalls. Only 11 per cent could define MCI. During the drill, on-scene and hospital triage was accurate in 28 (93 per cent) and 23 (77 per cent) of 30 casualties respectively. Systematic deficiencies identified included: transport issues, no accurate system for tracking victims, and undersized triage areas. Participants identified interagency coordination (63 of 136 responses; 46·3 per cent) and triage (32 of 136; 23·5 per cent) as the most valuable lessons learned. Pre-existing MCI programmes based on first-world logistics do not account for challenges encountered when caring for casualties in resource-constrained settings. Logistical training, rather than medical skills or knowledge, was identified as the educational priority. Copyright © 2011 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Rural hospital mass casualty response to a terrorist shooting spree. (United States)

    Waage, S; Poole, J C; Thorgersen, E B


    Civilian mass casualty incidents may occur infrequently and suddenly, and are caused by accidents, natural disasters or human terrorist incidents. Most reports deal with trauma centre management in large cities, and data from small local hospitals are scarce. A rural hospital response to a mass casualty incident caused by a terrorist shooting spree was evaluated. An observational study was undertaken to evaluate the triage, diagnosis and management of all casualties received from the Utøya youth camp in Norway on 22 July 2011 by a local hospital, using data from the hospital's electronic records. Descriptive data are presented for patient demographics, injuries and patient flow. The shooting on Utøya youth camp left 69 people dead and 60 wounded. A rural hospital (Ringerike Hospital) triaged 35 patients, of whom 18 were admitted. During the main surge, the hospital triaged and treated 22 patients within 1 h, of whom 13 fulfilled the criteria for activating the hospital trauma team, including five with critical injuries (defined as an Injury Severity Score above 15). Ten computed tomography scans, two focused assessment with sonography for trauma (FAST) scans and 25 conventional X-rays were performed. During the first 24 h, ten surgical procedures were performed and four chest drains inserted. No patient died. Critical deviation from the major incident plan was needed, and future need for revision is deemed necessary based on the experience. Communication systems and the organization of radiological services proved to be most vulnerable. © 2013 British Journal of Surgery Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Casualty data analysis of the world merchant fleet for reported fire and explosion incidents resulting in marine pollution (United States)


    World wide merchant vessel fire and explosion data were analyzed to determine the contribution of these casualties to the marine pollution problem. The source of information is the Lloyd's Casualty Information System Data Base. The major findings of ...

  15. Marine Information for Safety and Law Enforcement (MISLE) Casualty and Pollution Incidents, Guam, 2015, US Coast Guard (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Marine Casualty and Pollution Data files provide details about marine casualty and pollution incidents investigated by Coast Guard Offices throughout the United...

  16. Comparative Test of the Effectiveness of Large Bombs against Reinforced Concrete Structures (Anglo-American Bomb Tests-Project RUBY). (United States)


    above. d. The explosive filler with the greatest explosive power , selected from one of the types teste4, be used in concrete piercing bombs. For a...with 0.10 second delay fuses)* e. The Submarine Assembly Plant at Fargo makes an ideal target for penetration and case strengh tests of inert loaded...Inolosure Mo. 4). However, its location close to the village of Fargeo with houses within the 500 yard danger area and an electric power plant just

  17. Tourniquet use at the Boston Marathon bombing: Lost in translation. (United States)

    King, David Richard; Larentzakis, Andreas; Ramly, Elie P


    The Boston Marathon bombing was the first major, modern US terrorist event with multiple, severe lower extremity injuries. First responders, including trained professionals and civilian bystanders, rushed to aid the injured. The purpose of this review was to determine how severely bleeding extremity injuries were treated in the prehospital setting in the aftermath of the Boston Marathon bombing. A database was created and populated by all the Boston Level I trauma centers following the Boston Marathon bombing. Data regarding specific injuries, extremities affected, demographics, prehospital interventions (including tourniquet types), and outcomes were extracted. Of 243 injured, 152 patients presented to the emergency department within 24 hours. Of these 152 patients, there were 66 (63.6% female) experiencing at least one extremity injury, with age ranging from younger than 15 years to 71 years, and with a median Injury Severity Score (ISS) of 10 (range, 1-38). Of the 66 injured patients, 4 had upper limbs affected, 56 had injuries on the lower limbs only, and 6 had combined upper and lower limbs affected. The extremity Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) scores had a median of 3 (range, 1-4). There were 17 lower extremity traumatic amputations in 15 patients. In addition, there were 10 patients with 12 lower extremities experiencing major vascular injuries. Of 66 injured patients, 29 patients had recognized extremity exsanguination at the scene. In total, 27 tourniquets were applied: 16 of 17 traumatic amputations, 5 of 12 lower extremities with major vascular injuries, and 6 additional limbs with major soft tissue injury. All tourniquets were improvised, and no commercial, purpose-designed tourniquets were identified. Among all 243 patients, mortality was 0%. After the Boston Marathon bombings, extremity exsanguination at the point of injury was either left untreated or treated with an improvised tourniquet in the prehospital environment. An effective, prehospital

  18. Age validation of quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) using bomb radiocarbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, L A; Andrews, A H; Munk, K; Coale, K H; Frantz, B R; Cailliet, G M; Brown, T A


    Rockfishes (Sebastes spp.) support one of the most economically important fisheries of the Pacific Northwest and it is essential for sustainable management that age estimation procedures be validated for these species. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices during the 1950s and 1960s created a global radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) signal in the ocean environment that scientists have identified as a useful tracer and chronological marker in natural systems. In this study, we first demonstrated that fewer samples are necessary for age validation using the bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal by emphasizing the utility of the time-specific marker created by the initial rise of bomb-{sup 14}C. Second, the bomb-generated {sup 14}C signal retained in fish otoliths was used to validate the age and age estimation methodology of the quillback rockfish (Sebastes maliger) in the waters of southeast Alaska. Radiocarbon values from the first year's growth of quillback rockfish otoliths were plotted against estimated birth year producing a {sup 14}C time series spanning 1950 to 1985. The initial rise of bomb-{sup 14}C from pre-bomb levels ({approx} -90 {per_thousand}) occurred in 1959 {+-} 1 year and {sup 14}C levels rose relatively rapidly to peak {Delta}{sup 14}C values in 1967 (+105.4 {per_thousand}), with a subsequent declining trend through the end of the record in 1985 (+15.4 {per_thousand}). The agreement between the year of initial rise of {sup 14}C levels from the quillback rockfish record and the chronometer determined for the waters of southeast Alaska from yelloweye rockfish (S. ruberrimus) otoliths validated the ageing methodology for the quillback rockfish. The concordance of the entire quillback rockfish {sup 14}C record with the yelloweye rockfish time series demonstrated the effectiveness of this age validation technique, confirmed the longevity of the quillback rockfish up to a minimum of 43 years, and strongly supports higher age estimates of up to 90 years.

  19. Mass casualty drill in a local hospital | Ardill | Nigerian Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    METHOD: In order to address the need for improved performance in mass casualty situations and provide an educational opportunity for the resident doctors, nurses ... The Consultant staff drafted a mass casualty plan with the senior staff and then began an organized review with each cadre of staff in the hospital of their ...

  20. 75 FR 60865 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-Allegheny Casualty Company (United States)


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Amendment-- Allegheny Casualty Company... INFORMATION: The underwriting limitation for Allegheny Casualty Company (NAIC 13285), which was listed in the...

  1. 77 FR 8956 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (United States)


    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Grange Mutual Casualty Company AGENCY.... 9305 to the following company: Grange Mutual Casualty Company (NAIC 14060). Business Address: 671 South... long as the companies remain qualified (see 31 CFR part 223). A list of qualified companies is...

  2. Patient distribution in a mass casualty event of an airplane crash. (United States)

    Postma, Ingri L E; Weel, Hanneke; Heetveld, Martin J; van der Zande, Ineke; Bijlsma, Taco S; Bloemers, Frank W; Goslings, J Carel


    Difficulties have been reported in the patient distribution during Mass Casualty Incidents. In this study we analysed the regional patient distribution protocol (PDP) and the actual patient distribution after the 2009 Turkish Airlines crash near Amsterdam. Analysis of the patient distribution of 126 surviving casualties of the crash by collecting data on medical treatment capacity, number of patients received per hospital, triage classification, Injury Severity Score (ISS), secondary transfers, distance from the crash site, and the critical mortality rate. The PDP holds ambiguous definitions of medical treatment capacity and was not followed. There were 14 receiving hospitals (distance from crash: 5.8-53.5 km); four hospitals received 133-213% of their treatment capacity, and 5 hospitals received 1 patient. Three hospitals within 20 km of the crash did not receive any casualties. Level I trauma centres received 89% of the 'critical' casualties and 92% of the casualties with ISS ≥ 16. Only 3 casualties were secondarily transferred, and no casualties died in, or on the way to hospital (critical mortality rate=0%). Patient distribution worked out well after the crash as secondary transfers were low and critical mortality rate was zero. However, the regional PDP was not followed in this MCI and casualties were unevenly distributed among hospitals. The PDP is indistinctive, and should be updated in cooperation between Emergency Services, surrounding hospitals, and Schiphol International Airport as a high risk area. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. 33 CFR 150.812 - What is the purpose of reporting casualties on deepwater ports? (United States)


    ... casualties on deepwater ports? 150.812 Section 150.812 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) DEEPWATER PORTS DEEPWATER PORTS: OPERATIONS Reports and Records Reports § 150.812 What is the purpose of reporting casualties on deepwater ports? The Coast Guard, upon...

  4. Atom Wavelike Nature Solved Mathematically (United States)

    Sven, Charles


    Like N/S poles of a magnet the strong force field surrounding, confining the nucleus exerts an equal force [noted by this author] driving electrons away from the attraction of positively charged protons force fields in nucleus -- the mechanics for wavelike nature of electron. Powerful forces corral closely packed protons within atomic nucleus with a force that is at least a million times stronger than proton's electrical attraction that binds electrons. This then accounts for the ease of electron manipulation in that electron is already pushed away by the very strong atomic N/S force field; allowing electrons to drive photons when I strike a match. Ageless atom's electron requirements, used to drive light/photons or atom bomb, without batteries, must be supplied from a huge, external, super high frequency, super-cooled source, undetected by current technology, one that could exist 14+ billion years without degradation -- filling a limitless space prior to Big Bang. Using only replicable physics, I show how our Universe emanated from that event.

  5. Five years after the accident, whiplash casualties still have poorer quality of life in the physical domain than other mildly injured casualties: analysis of the ESPARR cohort

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tournier, Charlène; Hours, Martine; Charnay, Pierrette; Chossegros, Laetitia; Tardy, Hélène


    This study aims to compare health status and quality of life five years after a road accident between casualties with whiplash versus other mild injuries, to compare evolution of quality of life at 1...

  6. Research on Semi-automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Jun


    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  7. Research on Semi-Automatic Bomb Fetching for an EOD Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeng Jian-Jun


    Full Text Available An EOD robot system, SUPER-PLUS, which has a novel semi-automatic bomb fetching function is presented in this paper. With limited support of human, SUPER-PLUS scans the cluttered environment with a wrist-mounted laser distance sensor and plans the manipulator a collision free path to fetch the bomb. The model construction of manipulator, bomb and environment, C-space map, path planning and the operation procedure are introduced in detail. The semi-automatic bomb fetching function has greatly improved the operation performance of EOD robot.

  8. The casualties from electric bike and motorized scooter road accidents. (United States)

    Siman-Tov, Maya; Radomislensky, Irina; Israel Trauma Group; Peleg, Kobi


    The objective of this study was to describe demographic and injury characteristics of hospitalized injured patients involved in e-bike and motorized scooter accidents at a national level in Israel divided by different road user groups: riders and pedestrians. This was a retrospective study based on data from the National Trauma Registry, between January 1, 2013, and December 31, 2015. All hospitalized casualties due to the involvement of an e-bike or motorized scooter were included. The type of hospitalized road user was further categorized and described by different variables. During the study period, the Israel Trauma Registry identified 795 hospitalized patients due to an e-bike or motorized scooter accident, with a dramatic 6-fold increase from 2013 to 2015. Although the majority of the injured patients were riders, 8% were pedestrians. Among the total casualties, 33% were children aged 0-14 years and among pedestrians 42% were children and 33% were seniors (ages 60+). Five persons died in hospital, 3 riders and 2 pedestrians. E-bike and motorized scooter riders represent the majority of patients hospitalized due to related traffic incident. This finding questions the social and economic advantages of electric-powered 2-wheeled vehicles.

  9. Management of Mass Casualties Using Doctor Helicopters and Doctor Cars. (United States)

    Ohsaka, Hiromichi; Ishikawa, Kouhei; Omori, Kazuhiko; Jitsuiki, Kei; Yoshizawa, Toshihiko; Yanagawa, Youichi

    At approximately 10 o'clock in September 2015, a minibus carrying 18 people accidentally slid backwards because of a malfunctioning brake system while climbing a steep incline on Togasayama Mountain, colliding with a van (Toyota HiAce wagon) carrying 11 people that was situated behind the minibus. Togasayama Mountain is located 1 hour by car and 10 minutes by helicopter from our hospital. The minibus slid off a roadside cliff at a height of 0.5 m and rolled over after colliding with the van. There were 7 victims with yellow tags and 22 with green tags. Two Doctor Helicopters and 1 Doctor Car cooperated with the fire departments by providing medical treatments, selection of medical facilities, and dispersion transportation. In this mass casualty event, there were no mortalities, and all of the victims recovered without sequelae. The coordinated and combined use of Doctor Helicopters and Doctor Cars in addition to the activities of the fire department in response to a mass casualty event resulted in appropriate triage, medical treatments, selection of medical facilities, and dispersion transportation. Copyright © 2017 Air Medical Journal Associates. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era


    Yuka Tsuchiya


    In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS) Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of at...

  11. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)


    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  12. Atomic Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Foot, Christopher J


    This text will thoroughly update the existing literature on atomic physics. Intended to accompany an advanced undergraduate course in atomic physics, the book will lead the students up to the latest advances and the applications to Bose-Einstein Condensation of atoms, matter-wave inter-ferometry and quantum computing with trapped ions. The elementary atomic physics covered in the early chapters should be accessible to undergraduates when they are first introduced to the subject. To complement. the usual quantum mechanical treatment of atomic structure the book strongly emphasizes the experimen

  13. The Early Soviet Studies on Radiation Effects and the Data on the Casualties in Hiroshima, Nagasaki and Bikini : Anna Vasil’evna Kozlova(1906-1980)


    Ichikawa, Hiroshi


    The “Bikini Incident,” a large scale radiation exposure event caused by a US H-bomb test conducted in the Pacific Ocean, March 1954, shocked the world and, eventually, brought a serious debate on the risk assessment of effects of radiation on living bodies to the international arena, like the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation in the second half of 1950s. As one of the reaction to the “Bikini Incident,” a scientific conference, “International Scientific Rou...

  14. 360° Film Brings Bombed Church to Life (United States)

    Kwiatek, K.


    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site) from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video). Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Kwiatek


    Full Text Available This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and has never been rebuilt. The generation of a 3D model of the bombed church started from the creation of five spherical panoramas and through the use of Autodesk ImageModeler software. The processed files were imported and merged together in Autodesk 3ds Max where a visualisation of the ruin was produced. A number of historical images were found and this collection enabled the process of a virtual reconstruction of the site. The aspect of merging two still or two video panoramas (one from 3D modelling software, the other one recorded on the site from the same locations or with the same trajectories is also discussed. The prototype of 360º non-linear film tells a narrative of a wartime wedding that occurred in this church. The film was presented on two 360º screens where members of the audience could make decisions on whether to continue the ceremony or whether to run away when the bombing of the church starts. 3D modelling software made this possible to render a number of different alternati ves (360º images and 360º video. Immersive environments empower the visitor to imagine the building before it was destroyed.

  16. Ultracold atoms on atom chips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krüger, Peter; Hofferberth, S.; Haller, E.


    Miniaturized potentials near the surface of atom chips can be used as flexible and versatile tools for the manipulation of ultracold atoms on a microscale. The full scope of possibilities is only accessible if atom-surface distances can be reduced to microns. We discuss experiments in this regime...

  17. Theory development for situational awareness in multi-casualty incidents. (United States)

    Busby, Steven; Witucki-Brown, Janet


    Nurses and other field-level providers will be increasingly called on to respond to both natural and manmade situations that involve multiple casualties. Situational Awareness (SA) is necessary for managing these complicated incidents. The purpose of the study was to create new knowledge by discovering the process of SA in multi-casualty incidents (MCI) and develop substantive theory with regard to field-level SA for use by emergency response nurses and other providers. A qualitative, grounded theory approach was used to develop the first substantive theory of SA for MCI. The sample included 15 emergency response providers from the Southeastern United States. One pilot interview was conducted to trial and refine the semi-structured interview questions. Following Institutional Review Board approval, data collection and analysis occurred from September 2008 through January 2009. The grounded theory methods of Corbin and Strauss (2008) and Charmaz (2006) informed this study. Transcribed participant interviews constituted the bulk of the data with additional data provided by field notes and extensive memos. Multiple levels of coding, theoretical sampling, and theoretical sensitivity were used to develop and relate concepts resulting in emerging theory. Multiple methods were used for maintaining the rigor of the study. The process of SA in MCI involves emergency responders establishing and maintaining control of dynamic, contextually-based situations. Against the backdrop of experience and other preparatory interval actions, responders handle various types of information and manage resources, roles, relationships and human emotion. The goal is to provide an environment of relative safety in which patient care is provided. SA in MCI is an on-going and iterative process with each piece of information informing new actions. Analysis culminated in the development of the Busby Theory of Situational Awareness in Multi-casualty Incidents. SA in MCI is a growing need at local

  18. A numerical simulation strategy on occupant evacuation behaviors and casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes (United States)

    Li, Shuang; Yu, Xiaohui; Zhang, Yanjuan; Zhai, Changhai


    Casualty prediction in a building during earthquakes benefits to implement the economic loss estimation in the performance-based earthquake engineering methodology. Although after-earthquake observations reveal that the evacuation has effects on the quantity of occupant casualties during earthquakes, few current studies consider occupant movements in the building in casualty prediction procedures. To bridge this knowledge gap, a numerical simulation method using refined cellular automata model is presented, which can describe various occupant dynamic behaviors and building dimensions. The simulation on the occupant evacuation is verified by a recorded evacuation process from a school classroom in real-life 2013 Ya'an earthquake in China. The occupant casualties in the building under earthquakes are evaluated by coupling the building collapse process simulation by finite element method, the occupant evacuation simulation, and the casualty occurrence criteria with time and space synchronization. A case study of casualty prediction in a building during an earthquake is provided to demonstrate the effect of occupant movements on casualty prediction.

  19. Paper leads to enhanced public safety decision making for bomb detection


    Center for Homeland Defense and Security


    Center for Homeland Defense and Security, OUT OF THE CLASSROOM Download the paper: Bomb Detection Technology Solutions” Former fire captain, Douglas Weeks, chose the emerging field of explosives detection for his course paper, titled Bomb Detection Technology Solutions.” I was...

  20. Historical Report Atomic Bomb Tests Able and Baker (Operation Crossroads). Volume 2 (United States)


    exposure, as well as various vaccines and sera,- with a special representative to supervise their tests. ►„ .•;<•...<•■, •V\\->.v ,-.v-v£< ’_r ’ -"^_K...Lt. (jg) KIRMSER, P. G., Lt. (jg) LEEDOM, E. C, Lt. (jg) REYNOLDS, J. T., Lt. (jg) SCHWARTZ, J. A., Lt. (jg) TOME, J. M., Lt. (jg) WAKEFIELD , M

  1. Science and Security before the Atomic Bomb: The Loyalty Case of Harald U. Sverdrup (United States)

    Oreskes, Naomi; Rainger, Ronald

    In the summer of 1941, Harald Sverdrup, the Norwegian-born Director of the Scripps Institution of Oceanography (SIO) in La Jolla, California, was denied security clearance to work on Navy-sponsored research in underwater acoustics applied to anti-submarine warfare. The clearance denial embarrassed the world renown oceanographer and Arctic explorer, who repeatedly offered his services to the U.S. government only to see scientists of far lesser reputation called upon to aid the war effort. The official story of Sverdrup's denial was the risk of blackmail over relatives in occupied Norway. Declassified documents tell a different story. Although Sverdrup's integrity was defended on the highest levels of U.S. science, doubt was cast upon him by members of his own institution, who accused him of being a Nazi sympathiser. Personal distrust, rooted in scientific and intellectual disagreement, spilled over into questions about Sverdrup's loyalty and judgement. These doubts were considered sufficient grounds for withholding clearance, until Roger Revelle, a former student of Sverdrup now working within the Navy, was able to obtain a limited clearance for Sverdrup to develop techniques to forecast surf conditions during amphibious assaults. After the war, this work was credited with saving many lives, but at the time it placed Sverdrup out of the mainstream of Navy-sponsored oceanographic research. In being denied access to major areas of scientific work, Sverdrup's position as a leader of American oceanography was undermined. The loyalty case of Harald Sverdrup illustrates the emergence of an institutional apparatus through which the U.S. military began to control and shape the organisation of American science in the twentieth century. Military sponsorship of scientific research, begun during the open conflicts of World War II and continuing into the simmering tensions of the Cold War, involved explicit control by the U.S. military of who had access to critical information. This in turn meant who could do science in conjunction with the military. As the U.S. Navy became the principal sponsor of oceanography in the post-war years, clearance to do military work became to a great extent clearance to do oceanography. Choices about who could be trusted were also choices about who would do science, and what kind of science they would do.

  2. Cancer risk at low doses of ionizing radiation: artificial neural networks inference from atomic bomb survivors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sasaki, Masao S; Tachibana, Akira; Takeda, Shunichi


    .... To deal with these difficulties, a novel nonparametric statistics based on the ‘integrate-and-fire’ algorithm of artificial neural networks was developed and tested in cancer databases established by the Radiation Effects Research Foundation...

  3. Game of thrown bombs in 3D: using high speed cameras and photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct bomb trajectories at Stromboli (Italy) (United States)

    Gaudin, D.; Taddeucci, J.; Scarlato, P.; Del Bello, E.; Houghton, B. F.; Orr, T. R.; Andronico, D.; Kueppers, U.


    Large juvenile bombs and lithic clasts, produced and ejected during explosive volcanic eruptions, follow ballistic trajectories. Of particular interest are: 1) the determination of ejection velocity and launch angle, which give insights into shallow conduit conditions and geometry; 2) particle trajectories, with an eye on trajectory evolution caused by collisions between bombs, as well as the interaction between bombs and ash/gas plumes; and 3) the computation of the final emplacement of bomb-sized clasts, which is important for hazard assessment and risk management. Ground-based imagery from a single camera only allows the reconstruction of bomb trajectories in a plan perpendicular to the line of sight, which may lead to underestimation of bomb velocities and does not allow the directionality of the ejections to be studied. To overcome this limitation, we adapted photogrammetry techniques to reconstruct 3D bomb trajectories from two or three synchronized high-speed video cameras. In particular, we modified existing algorithms to consider the errors that may arise from the very high velocity of the particles and the impossibility of measuring tie points close to the scene. Our method was tested during two field campaigns at Stromboli. In 2014, two high-speed cameras with a 500 Hz frame rate and a ~2 cm resolution were set up ~350m from the crater, 10° apart and synchronized. The experiment was repeated with similar parameters in 2015, but using three high-speed cameras in order to significantly reduce uncertainties and allow their estimation. Trajectory analyses for tens of bombs at various times allowed for the identification of shifts in the mean directivity and dispersal angle of the jets during the explosions. These time evolutions are also visible on the permanent video-camera monitoring system, demonstrating the applicability of our method to all kinds of explosive volcanoes.

  4. A Casualty in the Class War: Canada's Medicare. (United States)

    Evans, Robert G


    "There's class warfare, all right, but it's my class, the rich class, that's making war, and we're winning." (Warren Buffett, five years ago.) Last year's Occupy Wall Street movement suggested that people are finally catching on. Note, making war: Buffett meant that there was deliberate intent and agency behind the huge transfer of wealth, since 1980, from the 99% to the 1%. Nor is the war metaphorical. There are real casualties, even if no body bags. Sadly, much Canadian commentary on inequality is pitiably naïve or deliberately obfuscatory. The 1% have captured national governments. The astronomical cost of American elections excludes the 99%. In Canada, parliamentary government permits one man to rule as a de facto dictator. The 1% don't like medicare.

  5. Fluid Resuscitation in Tactical Combat Casualty Care: Yesterday and Today. (United States)

    Butler, Frank K


    The prevailing wisdom for the prehospital fluid resuscitation of trauma victims in hemorrhagic shock in 1992 was to administer 2 L of crystalloid solution as rapidly as possible. A review of the fluid resuscitation literature found that this recommendation was not well supported by the evidence at the time. Prehospital fluid resuscitation strategies were reevaluated in the 1993-1996 Tactical Combat Casualty Care (TCCC) research program. This article reviews the advances in prehospital fluid resuscitation as recommended by the original TCCC Guidelines and modified over the following 2 decades. These advances include hypotensive resuscitation, use of prehospital whole blood or blood components when feasible, and use of Hextend or selected crystalloids when logistical considerations make blood or blood component use not feasible. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Mass Casualty Incident Primary Triage Methods in China (United States)

    Chen, Jin-Hong; Yang, Jun; Yang, Yu; Zheng, Jing-Chen


    Objective: To evaluate the technical characteristics and application of mass casualty incident (MCI) primary triage (PT) methods applied in China. Data Sources: Chinese literature was searched by Chinese Academic Journal Network Publishing Database (founded in June 2014). The English literature was searched by PubMed (MEDLINE) (1950 to June 2014). We also searched Official Websites of Chinese Central Government's (, National Health and Family Planning Commission of China (, and China Earthquake Information ( Study Selection: We included studies associated with mass casualty events related to China, the PT applied in China, guidelines and standards, and application and development of the carding PT method in China. Results: From 3976 potentially relevant articles, 22 met the inclusion criteria, 20 Chinese, and 2 English. These articles included 13 case reports, 3 retrospective analyses of MCI, two methods introductions, three national or sectoral criteria, and one simulated field testing and validation. There were a total of 19 kinds of MCI PT methods that have been reported in China from 1950 to 2014. In addition, there were 15 kinds of PT methods reported in the literature from the instance of the application. Conclusions: The national and sectoral current triage criteria are developed mainly for earthquake relief. Classification is not clear. Vague criteria (especially between moderate and severe injuries) operability are not practical. There are no triage methods and research for children and special populations. There is no data and evidence supported triage method. We should revise our existing classification and criteria so it is clearer and easier to be grasped in order to build a real, practical, and efficient PT method. PMID:26415807

  7. Bomb-spike dating of a mummified baboon in Ludwig Cave, Namibia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hodgins Greg


    Full Text Available In 1982 a mummified adult female baboon was discovered on a ledge in Ludwig Cave in Namibia. A toe bone was removed for dating in July 1995. AMS radiocarbon dating of bone collagen, tendon, and skin indicates a post-modern age. Application of the atomic bomb-spike calibration curve suggests death in late 1977 and an age at death of around 19 years. Baboons roost in the cave and the mummified female, along with a mummified juvenile male discovered in 2002 and three rotting corpses discovered in 1995, were probably chased by other baboons or by leopards down a ca. 6 m drop during the rainy season, and were unable to climb the steep and very slippery slope to escape. The large number of baboons trapped in the cave in less than 20 years, and mummification of two individuals on dry, dusty ledges in the cave, may explain why large numbers of baboon skeletons have been discovered in ancient bone breccias (up to 4 Ma old in a number of caves throughout Southern Africa.

  8. Atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Born, Max


    The Nobel Laureate's brilliant exposition of the kinetic theory of gases, elementary particles, the nuclear atom, wave-corpuscles, atomic structure and spectral lines, electron spin and Pauli's principle, quantum statistics, molecular structure and nuclear physics. Over 40 appendices, a bibliography, numerous figures and graphs.

  9. Early Atomism

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India) Keywords. Atomic theory; Avogadro's hypothesis; atomic weights; periodic table; valence; molecular weights; molecular formula; isomerism. Author Affiliations. S Ramasesha1. Solid State and Structural Chemistry Unit, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560 012, ...

  10. War casualties and US presidential popularity: a comparison of the Korean, Vietnam and Iraq war


    Geys, Benny


    "Conventional wisdom holds that war casualties depress incumbent popularity. We argue that the strength and even the direction of these effects is inherently context-dependent because the perception of casualties varies over time and space, affected by historical developments. While intuitive, this proposition has as yet not been directly addressed due to a lack of explicitly comparative analyses. Investigating US presidential popularity over the period 1948-2006, the present paper illustrate...

  11. Self-care Decontamination within a Chemical Exposure Mass-casualty Incident. (United States)

    Monteith, Raymond G; Pearce, Laurie D R


    Growing awareness and concern for the increasing frequency of incidents involving hazardous materials (HazMat) across a broad spectrum of contaminants from chemical, biological, radiological, and nuclear (CBRN) sources indicates a clear need to refine the capability to respond successfully to mass-casualty contamination incidents. Best results for decontamination from a chemical agent will be achieved if done within minutes following exposure, and delays in decontamination will increase the length of time a casualty is in contact with the contaminate. The findings presented in this report indicate that casualties involved in a HazMat/CBRN mass-casualty incident (MCI) in a typical community would not receive sufficient on-scene care because of operational delays that are integral to a standard HazMat/CBRN first response. This delay in response will mean that casualty care will shift away from the incident scene into already over-tasked health care facilities as casualties seek aid on their own. The self-care decontamination protocols recommended here present a viable option to ensure decontamination is completed in the field, at the incident scene, and that casualties are cared for more quickly and less traumatically than they would be otherwise. Introducing self-care decontamination procedures as a standard first response within the response community will improve the level of care significantly and provide essential, self-care decontamination to casualties. The process involves three distinct stages which should not be delayed; these are summarized by the acronym MADE: Move/Assist, Disrobe/Decontaminate, Evaluate/Evacuate.

  12. Popliteal Artery Repair in Massively Transfused Military Trauma Casualties: A Pursuit to Save Life and Limb (United States)


    system failure; CVA, cerebrovascular accident ; HIT, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia; SVG, saphenous vein graft; POD, postoperative day. TABLE the combat support hospital at Ibn Sina Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between 2003 and 2007. US military casualties requiring a massive transfusion...performed on all trauma casualties admitted to a single combat support hospital (CSH) located at Ibn Sina Hospital in Baghdad, Iraq, between January 2004

  13. Nuclear terrorism: triage and medical management of radiation and combined-injury casualties. (United States)

    Flynn, Daniel F; Goans, Ronald E


    This article addresses the medical effects of nuclear explosions and other forms of radiation exposure, assessment of radiation dose, triage of victims, definitive treatment of radiation and combined-injury casualties, and planning for emergency services after a terrorist attack involving a nuclear device. It reviews historical events of mass radiation-induced casualties and fatalities at Hiroshima, Chernobyl, and Goiania, and discusses various scenarios for nuclear terrorism.

  14. Load index model: An advanced tool to support decision making during mass-casualty incidents. (United States)

    Adini, Bruria; Aharonson-Daniel, Limor; Israeli, Avi


    In mass-casualty events, accessing information concerning hospital congestion levels is crucial to improving patient distribution and optimizing care. The study aimed to develop a decision support tool for distributing casualties to hospitals in an emergency scenario involving multiple casualties. A comprehensive literature review and structured interviews with 20 content experts produced a shortlist of relevant criteria for inclusion in the model. A "load index model" was prepared, incorporating results of a modified Delphi survey of 100 emergency response experts. The model was tested in three simulation exercises in which an emergency scenario was presented to six groups of senior emergency managers. Information was provided regarding capacities of 11 simulated admitting hospitals in the region, and evacuation destinations were requested for 600 simulated casualties. Of the three simulation rounds, two were performed without the model and one after its presentation. Following simulation experiments and implementation during a real-life security threat, the efficacy of the model was assessed. Variability between experts concerning casualties' evacuation destinations decreased significantly following the model's introduction. Most responders (92%) supported the need for standardized data, and 85% found that the model improved policy setting regarding casualty evacuation in an emergency situation. These findings were reaffirmed in a real-life emergency scenario. The proposed model improved capacity to ensure evacuation of patients to less congested medical facilities in emergency situations, thereby enhancing lifesaving medical services. The model supported decision-making processes in both simulation exercises and an actual emergency situation.

  15. Mass Casualty Decontamination in the United States: An Online Survey of Current Practice. (United States)

    Power, Sarah; Symons, Charles; Carter, Holly; Jones, Emma; Amlôt, Richard; Larner, Joanne; Matar, Hazem; Chilcott, Robert P


    Mass casualty decontamination is a public health intervention that would be employed by emergency responders following a chemical, biological, or radiological incident. The decontamination of large numbers of casualties is currently most often performed with water to remove contaminants from the skin surface. An online survey was conducted to explore US fire departments' decontamination practices and their preparedness for responding to incidents involving mass casualty decontamination. Survey respondents were asked to provide details of various aspects of their decontamination procedures, including expected response times to reach casualties, disrobing procedures, approaches to decontamination, characteristics of the decontamination showering process, provision for special populations, and any actions taken following decontamination. The aim of the survey was to identify any differences in the way in which decontamination guidance is implemented across US states. Results revealed that, in line with current guidance, many US fire departments routinely use the "ladder-pipe system" for conducting rapid, gross decontamination of casualties. The survey revealed significant variability in ladder-pipe construction, such as the position and number of fire hoses used. There was also variability in decontamination characteristics, such as water temperature and water pressure, detergent use, and shower duration. The results presented here provide important insights into the ways in which implementation of decontamination guidance can vary between US states. These inconsistencies are thought to reflect established perceived best practices and local adaptation of response plans to address practical and logistical constraints. These outcomes highlight the need for evidence-based national guidelines for conducting mass casualty decontamination.

  16. Activation of cobalt by neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, G.D.; Dyer, F.F.; Emery, J.F.; Pace, J.V. III (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (USA)); Brodzinski, R.L. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA)); Marcum, J. (R and D Associates, Marina del Rey, CA (USA))


    A study has been completed of cobalt activation in samples from two new locations in Hiroshima. The samples consisted of a piece of steel from a bridge located at a distance of about 1300 m from the hypocenter and pieces of both steel and concrete from a building located at approximately 700 m. The concrete was analyzed to obtain information needed to calculate the cobalt activation in the two steel samples. Close agreement was found between calculated and measured values for cobalt activation of the steel sample from the building at 700 m. It was found, however, that the measured values for the bridge sample at 1300 m were approximately twice the calculated values. Thus, the new results confirm the existence of a systematic error in the transport calculations for neutrons from the Hiroshima bomb. 52 refs., 32 figs., 16 tabs.

  17. Suicidal terrorist bombings in Israel--identification of human remains. (United States)

    Kahana, T; Freund, M; Hiss, J


    Positive identification of human remains is one of the most important tasks in mass disaster investigations. Religious and jurisdictional demands in Israel, require the identification process to be completed in the shortest possible time. In the 18 suicidal terrorist bombings that took place in Israel between the years 1993-1996, 127 victims and 19 perpetrators were killed, and their severely fragmented bodies were identified within 24 h. The efficient completion of the identification endeavor was enabled by the implementation of a variety of techniques and the close collaboration in the investigation between the different emergency and forensic agencies. This paper presents the mass disaster identification policy and techniques currently used in Israel. The importance of an interdisciplinary approach for the identification of extremely fragmented human remains from mass disasters and the creation of a central data bank of fingerprints and genetic markers is emphasized.

  18. [Mass casualty incidents : preparedness of German soccer arenas]. (United States)

    Luiz, T; Preisegger, T; Madler, C


    Each weekend soccer arenas attract hundreds of thousands of spectators with the German Bundesliga being one of the most attractive sport series worldwide. In 2006 when the FIFA soccer World Cup™ took place in Germany, the precautions in the participating arenas against mass casualty incidents (MCI) reached a level formerly unknown in Germany. However, it is unknown how soccer arenas are prepared to deal with such incidents in everyday life. In 2011 all German major soccer league clubs were questioned about medical precautions in case of MCIs occurring in the stadium. The questionnaire included the following items: stadium capacity, the number of paramedic personnel, emergency physicians and ambulance vehicles, the command and communication structures, the availability of MCI plans, recent MCI drills and the frequency of MCI. Out of 39, 15 (38.4 %) participated, 50 % from the first league and 20.8 % from the second league. The mean stadium capacity was 41,800 spectators (minimum 10,600, maximum 80,700). Depending on the number of spectators and the individual risk score of the match the following resources were available within the stadiums (average, minimum, maximum,): emergency medical technicians 61-67 (15, 120), emergency physicians 2.3-2.5 (1, 5) and transport capacity 5.3-5.8 patients (1, 15). In 14 arenas (93.3 %) the medical personnel were trained in mass casualty care and had prepared MCI operation schedules. All stadiums had mission control centers equipped with a variety of wired and wireless communication tools, although only eight (52.3 %) arenas used a joint command structure and five (33.3 %) arenas reported MCIs (defined as a scenario involving more than 10 patients) within the past 10 years. In 40 % of the participants the last MCI-related exercise was conducted more than 36 months ago. Most of the participating arenas were adequately staffed to manage the first phase of MCIs but in contrast command structures and transport capacities often

  19. Detecting body cavity bombs with nuclear quadrupole resonance (United States)

    Collins, Michael London

    Nuclear Quadrupole Resonance (NQR) is a technology with great potential for detecting hidden explosives. Past NQR research has studied the detection of land mines and bombs concealed within luggage and packages. This thesis focuses on an NQR application that has received less attention and little or no publicly available research: detecting body cavity bombs (BCBs). BCBs include explosives that have been ingested, inserted into orifices, or surgically implanted. BCBs present a threat to aviation and secure facilities. They are extremely difficult to detect with the technology currently employed at security checkpoints. To evaluate whether or not NQR can be used to detect BCBs, a computational model is developed to assess how the dielectric properties of biological tissue affect the radio frequency magnetic field employed in NQR (0.5-5MHz). The relative permittivity of some biological tissue is very high (over 1,000 at 1MHz), making it conceivable that there is a significant effect on the electromagnetic field. To study this effect, the low-frequency approximation known as the Darwin model is employed. First, the electromagnetic field of a coil is calculated in free space. Second, a dielectric object or set of objects is introduced, and the free-space electric field is modified to accommodate the dielectric object ensuring that the relevant boundary conditions are obeyed. Finally, the magnetic field associated with the corrected electric field is calculated. This corrected magnetic field is evaluated with an NQR simulation to estimate the impact of dielectric tissue on NQR measurements. The effect of dielectric tissue is shown to be small, thus obviating a potential barrier to BCB detection. The NQR model presented may assist those designing excitation and detection coils for NQR. Some general coil design considerations and strategies are discussed.

  20. Penetrating Cardiac and Hepatic Injury; Polytrauma of a Child After Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baris Akca


    Full Text Available After a bombing attack, patients were brought into hospital suffering from a combination of injuries caused by the blast, penetrating injuries and burns which as a case of polytrauma. In penetrating thoracoabdominal injuries due to bombing possibility of cardiac injury should be kept in mind. Penetrating cardiac injuries in children are rare but has a high mortality and morbidity. In some cases there may be difficulty in diagnosis of penetrating cardiac injury. In this case we want to share the diagnosis, treatment and follow-up processes of penetrating cardiac and hepatic injury with burns of a politrauma child due to bombing.

  1. Drones at the service for training on mass casualty incident (United States)

    Fernandez-Pacheco, Antonio Nieto; Rodriguez, Laura Juguera; Price, Mariana Ferrandini; Perez, Ana Belen Garcia; Alonso, Nuria Perez; Rios, Manuel Pardo


    Abstract Mass casualty incidents (MCI) are characterized by a large number of victims with respect to the resources available. In this study, we aimed to analyze the changes produced in the self-perception of students who were able to visualize aerial views of a simulation of a MCI. A simulation study, mixed method, was performed to compare the results from an ad hoc questionnaire. The 35 students from the Emergency Nursing Master from the UCAM completed a questionnaire before and after watching an MCI video with 40 victims in which they had participated. The main variable measured was the change in self-perception (CSP). The CSP occurred in 80% (28/35) of the students (P = .001). Students improved their individual (P = .001) and group (P = .006) scores. They also described that their personal performance had better results than the group performance (P = .047). The main conclusion of this study is that drones could lead to CSP and appraisal of the MCI simulation participants. PMID:28658106

  2. Mass Casualty Incident Response and Aeromedical Evacuation in Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills, Christopher N


    Full Text Available Antarctica is one of the most remote regions on Earth. Mass casualty incident (MCI responses in Antarctica are prone to complications from multiple environmental and operational challenges. This review of the current status of MCI risks and response strategies for Antarctica focuses on aeromedical evacuation, a critical component of many possible MCI scenarios. Extreme cold and weather, a lack of medical resources and a multitude of disparate international bases all exert unique demands on MCI response planning. Increasing cruise ship traffic is also escalating the risk of MCI occurrence. To be successful, MCI response must be well coordinated and undertaken by trained rescuers, especially in the setting of Antarctica. Helicopter rescue or aeromedical evacuation of victims to off-continent facilities may be necessary. Currently, military forces have the greatest capacity for mass air evacuation. Specific risks that are likely to occur include structure collapses, vehicle incapacitations, vehicle crashes and fires. All of these events pose concomitant risks of hypothermia among both victims and rescuers. Antarctica’s unique environment requires flexible yet robust MCI response planning among the many entities in operation on the continent. [West J Emerg Med. 2011;12(1:37-42.

  3. [Mass casualty incident - special features of "threatening situations"]. (United States)

    Hossfeld, Björn; Wurmb, Thomas; Josse, Florent; Helm, Matthias


    Terrorist attacks or amok runs may cause "threatening situations" for emergency medical services (EMS), fire fighters and physicians. Cooperation with the police is of paramount importance. In order to minimize the risk to rescue personnel and affected persons, emergency medical care has to follow tactical principles. So, the strategy in such "threatening situations" is "Stop the bleeding and clear the scene". The police define three areas of danger: unsafe, partly safe and secure. Medical care in these areas follows the concept of Tactical Combat Casualty Care. While only police should act in the unsafe area, the EMS can operate in the partly safe area after appropriate arrangements. Safety may only be achieved in emergency departments, which have to be made to secure areas by certain measures.The task force "Tactical Medicine" of the Scientific Working Group Emergency Medicine of the German Association for Anesthesiology and Intensive Care describes in this article essential criteria for a coordinated approach in "threatening situations". Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  4. Infrared imaging-based combat casualty care system (United States)

    Davidson, James E., Sr.


    A Small Business Innovative Research (SBIR) contract was recently awarded to a start up company for the development of an infrared (IR) image based combat casualty care system. The company, Medical Thermal Diagnostics, or MTD, is developing a light weight, hands free, energy efficient uncooled IR imaging system based upon a Texas Instruments design which will allow emergency medical treatment of wounded soldiers in complete darkness without any type of light enhancement equipment. The principal investigator for this effort, Dr. Gene Luther, DVM, Ph.D., Professor Emeritus, LSU School of Veterinary Medicine, will conduct the development and testing of this system with support from Thermalscan, Inc., a nondestructive testing company experienced in IR thermography applications. Initial research has been done with surgery on a cat for feasibility of the concept as well as forensic research on pigs as a close representation of human physiology to determine time of death. Further such studies will be done later as well as trauma studies. IR images of trauma injuries will be acquired by imaging emergency room patients to create an archive of emergency medical situations seen with an infrared imaging camera. This archived data will then be used to develop training material for medical personnel using the system. This system has potential beyond military applications. Firefighters and emergency medical technicians could directly benefit from the capability to triage and administer medical care to trauma victims in low or no light conditions.

  5. RFID based patient registration in mass casualty incidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nestler, Simon


    Full Text Available In MCIs (mass casualty incidents the EMC (emergency medical chief has to gain an overview on all patients at the scene. When using paper based patient tags the patient-related information remains at the patients themselves and the information relay is complex. We propose a mobile, RFID based solution, which makes the local patient-related information available to all relief workers at the scene. As a consequence all processes in an MCI are more transparent and the resulting medication and transport of the injured is more efficient. The introduction of RFID enhanced patient tags leads to various usability challenges which are discussed in this paper. Furthermore, three different implementations show, how these challenges can be solved in the future. These solutions have been evaluated in a disaster control exercise in order to get an impression of the practical suitability of the proposed solutions. The future introduction of RFID tags in rescue and emergency services can be based on this work.

  6. Leo Szilard Lectureship Award Lecture: North Korea: Reactors, bombs and people (United States)

    Hecker, Siegfried


    In November 2010, during my seventh trip to North Korea, Pyongyang produced a big surprise--it decided to build its own light-water reactor and uranium enrichment plant. During my first visit I was shown plutonium produced in its Yongbyon nuclear complex to convince me they have the bomb. For nearly 40 years, Pyongyang has moved along parallel paths of nuclear energy and nuclear weapons, opting to chose bombs over electricity. I will discuss how North Korea got the bomb, why it got it, and the prospects of whether or not it will give up the bomb. Finally, I will try to show with photos and stories of how North Korea is not such a hermit kingdom after all.

  7. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    E. Alison Holman; Dana Rose Garfin; Roxane Cohen Silver


    .... We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941...

  8. Threat perception after the Boston Marathon bombings: The effects of personal relevance and conceptual framing. (United States)

    Wormwood, Jolie Baumann; Lynn, Spencer K; Feldman Barrett, Lisa; Quigley, Karen S


    We examined how the Boston Marathon bombings affected threat perception in the Boston community. In a threat perception task, participants attempted to "shoot" armed targets and avoid shooting unarmed targets. Participants viewing images of the bombings accompanied by affectively negative music and text (e.g., "Terror Strikes Boston") made more false alarms (i.e., more errors "shooting" unarmed targets) compared to participants viewing the same images accompanied by affectively positive music and text (e.g., "Boston Strong") and participants who did not view bombing images. This difference appears to be driven by decreased sensitivity (i.e., decreased ability to distinguish guns from non-guns) as opposed to a more liberal bias (i.e., favouring the "shoot" response). Additionally, the more strongly affected the participant was by the bombings, the more their sensitivity was reduced in the negatively framed condition, suggesting that this framing was particularly detrimental to the most vulnerable individuals in the affected community.

  9. Radiologic features of injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at three hospitals

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Singh, Ajay K; Goralnick, Eric; Velmahos, George; Biddinger, Paul D; Gates, Jonathan; Sodickson, Aaron


    The aim of this study is to describe the radiologic imaging findings of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries in patients injured in the Boston Marathon bombing on April 15, 2013...

  10. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša


    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  11. Personality and Major Depression among Directly Exposed Survivors of the Oklahoma City Bombing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol S. North


    Full Text Available Background. Few disaster studies have specifically examined personality and resilience in association with disaster exposure, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD, and major depression. Methods. 151 directly-exposed survivors of the Oklahoma City bombing randomly selected from a bombing survivor registry completed PTSD, major depression, and personality assessments using the Diagnostic Interview Schedule for DSM-IV and the Temperament and Character Inventory, respectively. Results. The most prevalent postdisaster psychiatric disorder was bombing-related PTSD (32%; major depression was second in prevalence (21%. Bombing-related PTSD was associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness and also with high self-transcendence and high harm avoidance in most configurations. Postdisaster major depression was significantly more prevalent among those with (56% than without (5% bombing-related PTSD (P<.001 and those with (72% than without (14% predisaster major depression (P<.001. Incident major depression was not associated with the combination of low self-directedness and low cooperativeness. Conclusions. Personality features can distinguish resilience to a specific life-threatening stressor from general indicators of well-being. Unlike bombing-related PTSD, major depression was not a robust marker of low resilience. Development and validation of measures of resilience should utilize well-defined diagnoses whenever possible, rather than relying on nonspecific measures of psychological distress.

  12. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guirimand Grégory


    strictosidine vacuolar pool upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae.

  13. Strictosidine activation in Apocynaceae: towards a "nuclear time bomb"? (United States)


    upon enzyme-substrate reunion occurring during potential herbivore feeding constituting a so-called "nuclear time bomb" in reference to the "mustard oil bomb" commonly used to describe the myrosinase-glucosinolate defence system in Brassicaceae. PMID:20723215

  14. Atomic theories

    CERN Document Server

    Loring, FH


    Summarising the most novel facts and theories which were coming into prominence at the time, particularly those which had not yet been incorporated into standard textbooks, this important work was first published in 1921. The subjects treated cover a wide range of research that was being conducted into the atom, and include Quantum Theory, the Bohr Theory, the Sommerfield extension of Bohr's work, the Octet Theory and Isotopes, as well as Ionisation Potentials and Solar Phenomena. Because much of the material of Atomic Theories lies on the boundary between experimentally verified fact and spec

  15. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic Power. By Denis Taylor: Dr. Taylor was formerly Chief UNESCO Advisor at the University. College, Nairobi, Kenya and is now Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Uni- versity of ... method of producing radioactive isotopes, which are materials .... the sealing and the pressure balancing, all can be carried out ...

  16. Imaging of lower extremity trauma from Boston Marathon bombing. (United States)

    Konwinski, Ryan R; Singh, Ajay; Soto, Jorge


    The goal of this study is to describe the imaging features of lower extremity blast injuries in patients encountered in the radiology departments from the Boston Marathon bombings. A total of 115 patients presented to four acute care hospitals on April 15, 2013, 43 of whom presented with lower extremity injuries and were included in this study. The imaging findings of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries were evaluated. Forty-one of 43 patients sustained secondary blast injuries to the lower extremities with 31 patients (70 %) having retained shrapnel, seven patients (16 %) having soft tissue lacerations without retained shrapnel, and ten patients (23 %) having lower extremity amputation (7 % double amputees). Eight of these patients (20 %) had lower extremity fractures, and five patients (12 %) had vascular injuries. Two of the 43 patients (5 %) had only tertiary injuries, and five of 43 patients (12 %) were noted to have lower extremity burns, consistent with quaternary blast injury. No primary blast injury occurred in the lower extremities. A vast majority of lower extremity injuries were from secondary blast injury, most commonly from retained shrapnel in 70 % of patients and 23 % of patients sustaining lower extremity amputation. Retained shrapnel in the lower extremity was most commonly ball bearings and pressure cooker fragments, and most injuries affected the leg, followed by the thigh and foot.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. V. Maksimuk


    Full Text Available The high-usage measurement equipment for heat of combustion of organic fuels are bomb isoperibol calorimeters with a water thermostat. The stability of work of calorimeters at real conditions is important for maintenance of reliability of measurement results. The article purpose – the analysis of stability for parameters of calorimeters to environment changes. In this work influence room temperature (Тк and heat exchange conditions on metrological characteristics of two models of calorimeters is considered with different degree of thermal protection: V-08МА and BIC 100. For calorimeters V-08МА the increase in a effective heat capacity (W on 0,1 % by growth of Tк on everyone 5 °С is established. To use value W in all interval laboratory temperatures Tк = 14–28 °С it is necessary to correct W on 2,8 J/°C on everyone 1 °С changes of Tк. Updating W is required, if the correction exceeds error in determination W. For calorimeter BIC 100 it is not revealed dependences W from Tк. BIC 100 have constant-temperature cap, high stability a temperature in thermostat and stabilized heat exchange. It is established that an standard deviation of cooling constant for all calorimeters in direct proportional to standard deviation W. 

  18. Application of Bomb Radiocarbon Chronologies to Shortfin Mako (Isurus oxyrinchus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardizzone, D; Cailliet, G M; Natanson, L J; Andrews, A H; Kerr, L A; Brown, T A


    and the number of samples for MIA analysis was insufficient for some months. Hence, unequivocal validation of shortfin mako age estimates has yet to be accomplished. Atmospheric testing of thermonuclear devices in the 1950s and 1960s effectively doubled the natural atmospheric radiocarbon ({sup 14}C). The elevated {sup 14}C levels were first recorded in 1957-58, with a peak around 1963. As a consequence, {sup 14}C entered the ocean through gas exchange with the atmosphere at the ocean surface and in terrestrial runoff. Despite variable oceanographic conditions, a worldwide rise of the bomb {sup 14}C signal entered the ocean mixed layer as dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in 1957-58. The large amounts of {sup 14}C released from the bomb tests produced a signature that can be followed through time, throughout the marine food web, and into deeper waters. The marked increase of radiocarbon levels was first measured in the DIC of seawater and in biogenic marine carbonates of hermatypic corals in Florida. Subsequently, this record was documented in corals from other regions and in the thallus of rhodoliths. The accumulation of radiocarbon in the hard parts of most marine organisms in the mixed layer (such as fish otoliths and bivalves) was synchronous with the coral time-series. This technique has been used to validate age estimates and longevity of numerous bony fishes to date, as well as to establish bomb radiocarbon chronologies from different oceans. In the first application of this technique to lamnoid sharks, validated annual band-pair deposition in vertebral growth bands for the porbeagle (Lamna nasus) aged up to 26 years. Radiocarbon values from samples obtained from 15 porbeagle caught in the western North Atlantic Ocean (some of which were known-age) produced a chronology similar in magnitude to the reference carbonate chronology for that region. The observed phase shift of about 3 years was attributed to different sources of carbon between vertebrae and those for

  19. The emotional and psychological impact of mass casualty incidents on forensic odontologists. (United States)

    Webb, D A; Sweet, D; Pretty, A


    Motivated by the findings of a previous research project, 38 forensic odontologists with known occupational experience of mass casualty incidents completed a questionnaire designed to elicit both quantitative and qualitative data. The questionnaire sought to provide an insight into the psychological and emotional impact of conducting work of this nature. Two psychometric scales were included in the questionnaire, The Positive and Negative Affect scale (PANAS) and the Impact of Events Scale (IOE). In addition, a number of open-ended questions relating to the personal experiences of the respondent during the mass casualty incident were also included. Quantitative findings indicate that on the whole mass casualty incidents resulted in a positive experience for the respondents, although over a third reported being distressed, upset or irritable at some time during the event. Sense of achievement and camaraderie were among the qualitative themes elicited that help explain the positive reactions. Working conditions, politics and the ictims were cited as sources of negativity.

  20. Benefits of multidisciplinary collaboration for earthquake casualty estimation models: recent case studies (United States)

    So, E.


    Earthquake casualty loss estimation, which depends primarily on building-specific casualty rates, has long suffered from a lack of cross-disciplinary collaboration in post-earthquake data gathering. An increase in our understanding of what contributes to casualties in earthquakes involve coordinated data-gathering efforts amongst disciplines; these are essential for improved global casualty estimation models. It is evident from examining past casualty loss models and reviewing field data collected from recent events, that generalized casualty rates cannot be applied globally for different building types, even within individual countries. For a particular structure type, regional and topographic building design effects, combined with variable material and workmanship quality all contribute to this multi-variant outcome. In addition, social factors affect building-specific casualty rates, including social status and education levels, and human behaviors in general, in that they modify egress and survivability rates. Without considering complex physical pathways, loss models purely based on historic casualty data, or even worse, rates derived from other countries, will be of very limited value. What’s more, as the world’s population, housing stock, and living and cultural environments change, methods of loss modeling must accommodate these variables, especially when considering casualties. To truly take advantage of observed earthquake losses, not only do damage surveys need better coordination of international and national reconnaissance teams, but these teams must integrate difference areas of expertise including engineering, public health and medicine. Research is needed to find methods to achieve consistent and practical ways of collecting and modeling casualties in earthquakes. International collaboration will also be necessary to transfer such expertise and resources to the communities in the cities which most need it. Coupling the theories and findings from

  1. Role of Selective Management of Penetrating Injuries in Mass Casualty Incidents. (United States)

    Talving, Peep; DuBose, Joseph; Barmparas, Galinos; Inaba, Kenji; Demetriades, Demetrios


    Terrorist violence has emerged as an increasingly common cause of mass casualty incidents (MCI) due to the sequelae of explosive devices and shooting massacres. A proper emergency medical system disaster plan for dealing with an MCI is of paramount importance to salvage lives. Because the number of casualties following a MCI is likely to exceed the medical resources of the receiving health care facilities, patients must be appropriately sorted to establish treatment priorities. By necessity, clinical signs are likely to prove cornerstones of triage during MCI. An appropriate and effective application of experiences learned from the use of selective nonoperative management (SNOM) techniques may prove essential in this triage process. The present appraisal of the available literature strongly supports that the appropriate utilization of these clinical indicators to identify patients appropriate for SNOM is essential, critical, and readily applicable. We also review the initial emergent triage priorities for penetrating injuries to the head, neck, torso, and extremities in a mass casualty setting.

  2. 49 CFR 1242.54 - Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00). (United States)


    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and 50-27-00). 1242.54 Section 1242.54 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation... RAILROADS 1 Operating Expenses-Equipment § 1242.54 Other and casualties and insurance (accounts XX-27-99 and...

  3. How Norwegian casualty clinics handle contacts related to mental illness: A prospective observational study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johansen Ingrid H


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-threshold and out-of-hours services play an important role in the emergency care for people with mental illness. In Norway casualty clinic doctors are responsible for a substantial share of acute referrals to psychiatric wards. This study’s aim was to identify patients contacting the casualty clinic for mental illness related problems and study interventions and diagnoses. Methods At four Norwegian casualty clinics information on treatment, diagnoses and referral were retrieved from the medical records of patients judged by doctors to present problems related to mental illness including substance misuse. Also, routine information and relation to mental illness were gathered for all consecutive contacts to the casualty clinics. Results In the initial contacts to the casualty clinics (n = 28527 a relation to mental illness was reported in 2.5% of contacts, whereas the corresponding proportion in the doctor registered consultations, home-visits and emergency call-outs (n = 9487 was 9.3%. Compared to other contacts, mental illness contacts were relatively more urgent and more frequent during night time. Common interventions were advice from a nurse, laboratory testing, prescriptions and minor surgical treatment. A third of patients in contact with doctors were referred to in-patient treatment, mostly non-psychiatric wards. Many patients were not given diagnoses signalling mental problems. When police was involved, they often presented the patient for examination. Conclusions Most mental illness related contacts are managed in Norwegian casualty clinics without referral to in-patient care. The patients benefit from a wide range of interventions, of which psychiatric admission is only one.

  4. Design, Development, and Innovation of an Interactive Multimedia Training Simulator for Responding to Air Transportation Bomb Threats (United States)

    Chung, Christopher A.; Marwaha, Shweta


    This paper describes an interactive multimedia simulator for air transportation bomb threat training. The objective of this project is to improve the air transportation sector s capability to respond to bomb threats received by commercial airports and aircraft. The simulator provides realistic training on receiving and responding to a variety of bomb threats that might not otherwise be possible due to time, cost, or operational constraints. Validation analysis indicates that the use of the simulator resulted in statistically significant increases in individual ability to respond to these types of bomb threats.

  5. Developing a Mass Casualty Surge Capacity Protocol for Emergency Medical Services to Use for Patient Distribution. (United States)

    Shartar, Samuel E; Moore, Brooks L; Wood, Lori M


    Metropolitan areas must be prepared to manage large numbers of casualties related to a major incident. Most US cities do not have adequate trauma center capacity to manage large-scale mass casualty incidents (MCIs). Creating surge capacity requires the distribution of casualties to hospitals that are not designated as trauma centers. Our objectives were to extrapolate MCI response research into operational objectives for MCI distribution plan development; formulate a patient distribution model based on research, hospital capacities, and resource availability; and design and disseminate a casualty distribution tool for use by emergency medical services (EMS) personnel to distribute patients to the appropriate level of care. Working with hospitals within the region, we refined emergency department surge capacity for MCIs and developed a prepopulated tool for EMS providers to use to distribute higher-acuity casualties to trauma centers and lower-acuity casualties to nontrauma hospitals. A mechanism to remove a hospital from the list of available resources, if it is overwhelmed with patients who self-transport to the location, also was put into place. The number of critically injured survivors from an MCI has proven to be consistent, averaging 7% to 10%. Moving critically injured patients to level 1 trauma centers can result in a 25% reduction in mortality, when compared with care at nontrauma hospitals. US cities face major gaps in the surge capacity needed to manage an MCI. Sixty percent of "walking wounded" casualties self-transport to the closest hospital(s) to the incident. Directing critically ill patients to designated trauma centers has the potential to reduce mortality associated with the event. When applied to MCI responses, damage-control principles reduce resource utilization and optimize surge capacity. A universal system for mass casualty triage was identified and incorporated into the region's EMS. Flagship regional coordinating hospitals were designated

  6. Casualties of peace: an analysis of casualties admitted to the intensive care unit during the negotiation of the comprehensive Colombian process of peace. (United States)

    Ordoñez, Carlos A; Manzano-Nunez, Ramiro; Naranjo, Maria Paula; Foianini, Esteban; Cevallos, Cecibel; Londoño, Maria Alejandra; Sanchez Ortiz, Alvaro I; García, Alberto F; Moore, Ernest E


    After 52 years of war in 2012, the Colombian government began the negotiation of a process of peace, and by November 2012, a truce was agreed. We sought to analyze casualties who were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) before and during the period of the negotiation of the comprehensive Colombian process of peace. Retrospective study of hostile casualties admitted to the ICU at a Level I trauma center from January 2011 to December 2016. Patients were subsequently divided into two groups: those seen before the declaration of the process of peace truce (November 2012) and those after (November 2012-December 2016). Patients were compared with respect to time periods. Four hundred forty-eight male patients were admitted to the emergency room. Of these, 94 required ICU care. Sixty-five casualties presented before the truce and 29 during the negotiation period. Median injury severity score was significantly higher before the truce. Furthermore, the odds of presenting with severe trauma (ISS > 15) were significantly higher before the truce (OR, 5.4; (95% CI, 2.0-14.2); p  peace negotiation. Despite our limitations, our study presents a decline in the occurrence, severity, and consequences of war injuries probably as a result in part of the negotiation of the process of peace. The hysteresis of these results should only be interpreted for their implications in the understanding of the peace-health relationship and must not be overinterpreted and used for any political end.

  7. [Triage protocols for mass casualty incidents : An overview 30 years after START]. (United States)

    Streckbein, S; Kohlmann, T; Luxen, J; Birkholz, T; Prückner, S


    Since the publication of the first mass casualty triage protocol approximately 30 years ago, numerous adaptions and alternatives have been introduced and are currently in use throughout the world. This variety may represent a challenge for the cooperation between emergency medical providers and the interoperability of emergency medical services often required during mass casualty incidents. To enhance cooperation and interoperability a standardization of triage protocols is required. This survey was carried out in order to identify and characterize published triage protocols on national and international levels. Furthermore, evidence for validation of the identified triage algorithms was discussed and recommendations for standardization of triage protocols are given. In a systematic literature search 59 relevant articles were identified and evaluated with respect to the given objectives. A total of 12 triage concepts were identified and characterized which are categorized according to the basic principle. The endpoints of the studies, the chosen observation units and the mode of data collection were discussed with respect to their impact on validation. Furthermore, the impact of the degree and dynamics of system capacity overload, which are pathognomonic for mass casualty incidents, were discussed. There is not sufficient evidence to declare one of the triage protocols superior in all aspects to the others and no triage protocol has been implemented on a comprehensive level in Germany. In order to initialize a national or regional convergence process towards an interoperability of emergency medical services, the model uniform core criteria for mass casualty triage approach has been identified as being appropriate.

  8. 77 FR 75263 - Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company (United States)


    ... Fiscal Service Surety Companies Acceptable on Federal Bonds: Termination; ULLICO Casualty Company AGENCY... Company (NAIC 37893) under 31 U.S.C. 9305 to qualify as an acceptable surety on Federal bonds is... bonds, including continuous bonds, currently in force with above listed Company, bond-approving officers...

  9. Radiological work-up after mass casualty incidents: are ATLS guidelines applicable?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Postma, Ingri L. E.; Beenen, L. F. M.; Bijlsma, T. S.; Berger, F. H.; Heetveld, M. J.; Bloemers, F. W.; Goslings, J. C.


    In mass casualty incidents (MCI) a large number of patients need to be evaluated and treated fast. Well-designed radiological guidelines can save lives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) radiological guidelines in the MCI of an aeroplane crash. Medical

  10. The Hartford Consensus to improve survivability in mass casualty events: Process to policy. (United States)

    Jacobs, Lenworth; Burns, Karyl J


    The Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events was formed to make recommendations to improve survival from intentional mass casualty incidents. This article describes the development of the Hartford Consensus and the process used to disseminate and implement its findings. Members of the Committee included individuals from select public safety organizations. The first meeting of the Committee was held on April 2, 2013, and a second meeting was held on July 11, 2013. Attendance at the second meeting was enlarged and included representatives from the Federal Emergency Management Agency and the National Security Staff of the Office of the President. The results of these meetings became known as the Hartford Consensus. The ideas generated at the meetings produced two documents, one from each meeting. These are referred to as Hartford Consensus I and II. Hartford Consensus I is a concept document and Hartford Consensus II is a call to action that no one should die from uncontrolled bleeding. The recommendations are being incorporated into training programs and have been endorsed by many organizations whose members are involved in the response to mass casualty incidents. The Joint Committee to Create a National Policy to Enhance Survivability from Mass Casualty Shooting Events was successful in stimulating policy to bring about change. Training and resources including tourniquets and hemostatic dressing are being directed to help ameliorate the unfortunate reality of intentional mass injury.

  11. 27 CFR 25.282 - Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Beer lost by fire, theft... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Refund or Adjustment of Tax or Relief From Liability § 25.282 Beer lost by fire, theft, casualty, or act of God. (a) General. The tax paid by...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. IWASE


    Full Text Available Road Traffic Law Article 17-3-4 of April 2000 specifies the compulsory requirement for child safety seats in Japan. The objectives of this preliminary evaluation were to measure the effectiveness, benefits and usage of safety seats for child passengers aged 0–5 years by analyzing the child casualty data for the period of 1991–2002. Two statistical methods were used to quantify time trends (interrupted time series analysis, population based casualty rates estimations of changes in child casualty incidence after implementation of compulsory child restraint seats law. Despite overall increases in the use of child restraint seats (as observed by different national surveys, casualties (fatalities and injuries among restrained children have increased. Given that exposure to crash environments is increasing, traffic safety advocates need to be aware of the importance of child restraints as a means of reducing the likelihood of injury. It is necessary to implement an extensive community-based child safety seat campaign to disseminate the information on appropriate restraint use. Further prevention of motor vehicle occupant injuries to children will require the combined approaches of education, incentives for safe human behavior, legislation/enforcement, and environmental changes.

  13. Unit Ministry Team Religious Support to Casualties on the Airland Battlefield (United States)


    obsessional, sociopathic /manipulative?-* casualty’s religious concerns superficial, profound/authentic, hostile/alienated, or Fifth, what religious... sociopathic behavior, breakdowns of symbolic connectedness with their environments, disillusionment, cynicism, and permission for collective...concerns? Are they superficial, compulsive/obsessional, profound/authentic, hostile/alienated, or sociopathic /manipulative? Fifth, what are the

  14. The physician and the law in cases of mass casualty/trauma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physician and the law in cases of mass casualty/trauma. M D Belgore. Abstract. No Abstract. Archives of Ibadan Medicine Vol. 7 (2) 2006: pp. 107-110. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics powered by PLOS ALM

  15. Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom (United States)


    958.3 Posttraum wound infection nec 71 997.62 Infection amputation stump 15 Urine 599 Urinary tract infection nos 40 788.3 Urinary incontinence nos 10...ORIGINAL ARTICLE Infections Complicating the Care of Combat Casualties During Operations Iraqi Freedom and Enduring Freedom Clinton K. Murray, MD

  16. Allocation of scarce resources during mass casualty events. (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Waxman, Daniel A; Pillemer, Francesca; Carey, Christine; Moore, Melinda; Karir, Veena; Johnson, Tiffani J; Iyer, Neema; Hu, Jianhui; Shanman, Roberta; Larkin, Jody Wozar; Timmer, Martha; Motala, Aneesa; Perry, Tanja R; Newberry, Sydne; Kellermann, Arthur L


    This systematic review sought to identify the best available evidence regarding strategies for allocating scarce resources during mass casualty events (MCEs). Specifically, the review addresses the following questions: (1) What strategies are available to policymakers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (2) What strategies are available to providers to optimize the allocation of scarce resources during MCEs? (3) What are the public's key perceptions and concerns regarding the implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? (4) What methods are available to engage providers in discussions regarding the development and implementation of strategies to allocate scarce resources during MCEs? We searched Medline, Scopus, Embase, CINAHL (Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature), Global Health, Web of Science®, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from 1990 through 2011. To identify relevant non-peer-reviewed reports, we searched the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report. We also reviewed relevant State and Federal plans, peer-reviewed reports and papers by nongovernmental organizations, and consensus statements published by professional societies. We included both English- and foreign-language studies. Our review included studies that evaluated tested strategies in real-world MCEs as well as strategies tested in drills, exercises, or computer simulations, all of which included a comparison group. We reviewed separately studies that lacked a comparison group but nonetheless evaluated promising strategies. We also identified consensus recommendations developed by professional societies or government panels. We reviewed existing State plans to examine the current state of planning for scarce resource allocation during MCEs. Two investigators independently reviewed each article, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. We considered 5,716 reports for this comparative effectiveness

  17. Mechanism of Formation of Volcanic Bombs and Achneliths: Insights From Anisotropy of Magnetic Susceptibility Measurements. (United States)

    Canon-Tapia, E.


    Volcanic bombs and achneliths are a special type of pyroclastic fragments formed by mildly explosive volcanic eruptions. The common explanation for the general shapes of these types of particles is that they are the result of the rush of air acting on a fluid clot during flight. A competing, less commonly quoted model, envisages the shapes of volcanic bombs as the result of forces acting at the moment of ejection of liquid from the magma pool in the conduit, experiencing an almost negligible modification through its travel on the air. Quantitative evidence supporting either of those two models is limited, or might not be directly applicable to all morphological types. In this work, anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) is used as a source of information that provides clues concerning the mechanism of formation of volcanic bombs and achneliths in general. AMS results indicate a fundamental difference between two of the most common morphological bomb types, and are used to constraint mechanisms of formation. It is shown that neither of the two most common mechanisms of formation of volcanic bombs seems acceptable on its current form. An alternative, two-step process is therefore outlined. The first step involves ejection of a small volume of magma dragged on top of large bubbles of gas that reach the surface of a magma pool. The second stage involves the disruption of the ejected magma either as the result of the bursting of the gas bubble, or as a consequence of currents of air that further destabilize already formed jets of liquid. This destabilization is not equivalent to the aerodynamic deformation invoked in current models. Finally, the evidence presented by the anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility indicates that some types of volcanic bombs are likely to preserve the initial deformation, whereas some others might loose it completely.

  18. Atom Skimmers and Atom Lasers Utilizing Them (United States)

    Hulet, Randall; Tollett, Jeff; Franke, Kurt; Moss, Steve; Sackett, Charles; Gerton, Jordan; Ghaffari, Bita; McAlexander, W.; Strecker, K.; Homan, D.


    Atom skimmers are devices that act as low-pass velocity filters for atoms in thermal atomic beams. An atom skimmer operating in conjunction with a suitable thermal atomic-beam source (e.g., an oven in which cesium is heated) can serve as a source of slow atoms for a magneto-optical trap or other apparatus in an atomic-physics experiment. Phenomena that are studied in such apparatuses include Bose-Einstein condensation of atomic gases, spectra of trapped atoms, and collisions of slowly moving atoms. An atom skimmer includes a curved, low-thermal-conduction tube that leads from the outlet of a thermal atomic-beam source to the inlet of a magneto-optical trap or other device in which the selected low-velocity atoms are to be used. Permanent rare-earth magnets are placed around the tube in a yoke of high-magnetic-permeability material to establish a quadrupole or octupole magnetic field leading from the source to the trap. The atoms are attracted to the locus of minimum magnetic-field intensity in the middle of the tube, and the gradient of the magnetic field provides centripetal force that guides the atoms around the curve along the axis of the tube. The threshold velocity for guiding is dictated by the gradient of the magnetic field and the radius of curvature of the tube. Atoms moving at lesser velocities are successfully guided; faster atoms strike the tube wall and are lost from the beam.

  19. Ancestry Analysis in the 11-M Madrid Bomb Attack Investigation (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Álvarez-Dios, José; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Brión, María; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, Ángel; Lareu, María Victoria


    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP) assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48). Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs) that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The results

  20. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Phillips

    Full Text Available The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48. Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The

  1. Ancestry analysis in the 11-M Madrid bomb attack investigation. (United States)

    Phillips, Christopher; Prieto, Lourdes; Fondevila, Manuel; Salas, Antonio; Gómez-Tato, Antonio; Alvarez-Dios, José; Alonso, Antonio; Blanco-Verea, Alejandro; Brión, María; Montesino, Marta; Carracedo, Angel; Lareu, María Victoria


    The 11-M Madrid commuter train bombings of 2004 constituted the second biggest terrorist attack to occur in Europe after Lockerbie, while the subsequent investigation became the most complex and wide-ranging forensic case in Spain. Standard short tandem repeat (STR) profiling of 600 exhibits left certain key incriminatory samples unmatched to any of the apprehended suspects. A judicial order to perform analyses of unmatched samples to differentiate European and North African ancestry became a critical part of the investigation and was instigated to help refine the search for further suspects. Although mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and Y-chromosome markers routinely demonstrate informative geographic differentiation, the populations compared in this analysis were known to show a proportion of shared mtDNA and Y haplotypes as a result of recent gene-flow across the western Mediterranean, while any two loci can be unrepresentative of the ancestry of an individual as a whole. We based our principal analysis on a validated 34plex autosomal ancestry-informative-marker single nucleotide polymorphism (AIM-SNP) assay to make an assignment of ancestry for DNA from seven unmatched case samples including a handprint from a bag containing undetonated explosives together with personal items recovered from various locations in Madrid associated with the suspects. To assess marker informativeness before genotyping, we predicted the probable classification success for the 34plex assay with standard error estimators for a naïve Bayesian classifier using Moroccan and Spanish training sets (each n = 48). Once misclassification error was found to be sufficiently low, genotyping yielded seven near-complete profiles (33 of 34 AIM-SNPs) that in four cases gave probabilities providing a clear assignment of ancestry. One of the suspects predicted to be North African by AIM-SNP analysis of DNA from a toothbrush was identified late in the investigation as Algerian in origin. The results achieved

  2. The Atoms for Peace USIS Films: Spreading the Gospel of the "Blessing" of Atomic Energy in the Early Cold War Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Tsuchiya


    Full Text Available In 1955, the U.S. Information Service (USIS Tokyo produced a thirty-minute documentary film Blessing of Atomic Energy in commemoration of the tenth anniversary of the Atomic bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The film introduced how the Japanese government, researchers, and companies were using radioisotopes offered by the U.S. Argonne National Laboratory for the “peaceful” purposes in agriculture, medicine, hygiene, industry, and disaster prevention. The film also showed the mechanism of atomic power generation, and explained that it was already put into practice in the U.S. and Europe. The images of Japanese people enjoying the “blessing” of the “peaceful” use of atomic energy, ten years after the traumatic experience of A-bombs, were not only shown all over Japan, but also translated into different languages and shown in many countries, including the UK, Finland, Indonesia, Sudan, and Venezuela. The film was part of some fifty educational and documentary films produced for President Eisenhower’s “Atoms for Peace” campaign – a global information dissemination programs on the U.S. leadership in the civilian use of nuclear energy. This paper will explore the roles USIS films played in disseminating information on the “peaceful” use of nuclear energy in the early Cold War era.

  3. An Assessment of the Condition of Coral Reefs off the Former Navy Bombing Ranges at Isla De Culebra and Isla De Vieques, Puerto Rico (United States)


    Tiburon, Cayo Ballena , Cayo Sombrerito, and the eastern shore of Cayo Norte. Area A was used from 1960 through 1970 for aerial bombing and rockets...two 227 kg (500 lb) bombs west of Cayos Geniqui, and one 227 kg (500 lb) bomb west of Cayo Ballena (USACE 1995). In 1985, the Puerto Rico Army

  4. Reclassification of leukemia among A-bomb survivors in Nagasaki using French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuo, Tatsuki; Tomonaga, Masao; Bennett, J.M. and others


    The concordance rate for diagnoses of atomic bomb-related cases of leukemia in Nagasaki was determined using the French-American-British (FAB) classification for acute leukemias and myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). Two Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) hematologists and one of the members (JMB) of the FAB cooperative group reviewed independently the peripheral blood and/or bone marrow smears from 193 people with leukemia or a related disorder. There was 85 % agreement in the identification of types and subtypes of acute leukemia. There was almost complete agreement for the diagnoses of non-FAB disorders (chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), adult T-cell leukemia (ATL) and others) resulting in overall concordance of 88.2 %. The present study suggest that the previously established leukemia types for about a quarter of the cases of acute leukemia and related disorders except CML should be changed. Considerable numbers of cases of ATL and MDS were involved in this series. The frequency of the former disease was not high in the high-dose irradiated group, but that of the latter was considerably high. All subtypes of AML except M3 and M6 were present in the high-dose group. The striking difference in CML incidence between Nagasaki and Hiroshima may continue to be a problem in relation to biological response to radiation exposure.

  5. NeoBOMB1, a GRPR-Antagonist for Breast Cancer Theragnostics: First Results of a Preclinical Study with [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 in T-47D Cells and Tumor-Bearing Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Kaloudi


    Full Text Available Background: The GRPR-antagonist-based radioligands [67/68Ga/111In/177Lu]NeoBOMB1 have shown excellent theragnostic profiles in preclinical prostate cancer models, while [68Ga]NeoBOMB1 effectively visualized prostate cancer lesions in patients. We were further interested to explore the theragnostic potential of NeoBOMB1 in GRPR-positive mammary carcinoma, by first studying [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 in breast cancer models; Methods: We investigated the profile of [67Ga]NeoBOMB1, a [68Ga]NeoBOMB1 surrogate, in GRPR-expressing T-47D cells and animal models; Results: NeoBOMB1 (IC50s of 2.2 ± 0.2 nM and [natGa]NeoBOMB1 (IC50s of 2.5 ± 0.2 nM exhibited high affinity for the GRPR. At 37 °C [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 strongly bound to the T-47D cell-membrane (45.8 ± 0.4% at 2 h, internalizing poorly, as was expected for a radioantagonist. [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 was detected >90% intact in peripheral mouse blood at 30 min pi. In mice bearing T-47D xenografts, [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 specifically localized in the tumor (8.68 ± 2.9% ID/g vs. 0.6 ± 0.1% ID/g during GRPR-blockade at 4 h pi. The unfavorably high pancreatic uptake could be considerably reduced (206.29 ± 17.35% ID/g to 42.46 ± 1.31% ID/g at 4 h pi by increasing the NeoBOMB1 dose from 10 pmol to 200 pmol, whereas tumor uptake remained unaffected. Notably, tumor values did not decline from 1 to 24 h pi; Conclusions: [67Ga]NeoBOMB1 can successfully target GRPR-positive breast cancer in animals with excellent prospects for clinical translation.

  6. High Atom Number in Microsized Atom Traps (United States)


    Final Performance Report on ONR Grant N00014-12-1-0608 High atom number in microsized atom traps for the period 15 May 2012 through 14 September...TYPE Final Technical Report 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 05/15/2012-09/14/2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE High atom number in microsized atom traps...forces for implementing a small-footprint, large-number atom -chip instrument. Bichromatic forces rely on absorption and stimulated emission to produce

  7. Transfusion: -80°C Frozen Blood Products Are Safe and Effective in Military Casualty Care.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke Noorman

    Full Text Available The Netherlands Armed Forces use -80°C frozen red blood cells (RBCs, plasma and platelets combined with regular liquid stored RBCs, for the treatment of (military casualties in Medical Treatment Facilities abroad. Our objective was to assess and compare the use of -80°C frozen blood products in combination with the different transfusion protocols and their effect on the outcome of trauma casualties.Hemovigilance and combat casualties data from Afghanistan 2006-2010 for 272 (military trauma casualties with or without massive transfusions (MT: ≥6 RBC/24hr, N = 82 and non-MT: 1-5 RBC/24hr, N = 190 were analyzed retrospectively. In November 2007, a massive transfusion protocol (MTP; 4:3:1 RBC:Plasma:Platelets for ATLS® class III/IV hemorrhage was introduced in military theatre. Blood product use, injury severity and mortality were assessed pre- and post-introduction of the MTP. Data were compared to civilian and military trauma studies to assess effectiveness of the frozen blood products and MTP.No ABO incompatible blood products were transfused and only 1 mild transfusion reaction was observed with 3,060 transfused products. In hospital mortality decreased post-MTP for MT patients from 44% to 14% (P = 0.005 and for non-MT patients from 12.7% to 5.9% (P = 0.139. Average 24-hour RBC, plasma and platelet ratios were comparable and accompanying 24-hour mortality rates were low compared to studies that used similar numbers of liquid stored (and on site donated blood products.This report describes for the first time that the combination of -80°C frozen platelets, plasma and red cells is safe and at least as effective as standard blood products in the treatment of (military trauma casualties. Frozen blood can save the lives of casualties of armed conflict without the need for in-theatre blood collection. These results may also contribute to solutions for logistic problems in civilian blood supply in remote areas.

  8. Transfusion: -80°C Frozen Blood Products Are Safe and Effective in Military Casualty Care (United States)

    Plat, Marie-Christine J.; Badloe, John F.; Hess, John R.; Hoencamp, Rigo


    Introduction The Netherlands Armed Forces use -80°C frozen red blood cells (RBCs), plasma and platelets combined with regular liquid stored RBCs, for the treatment of (military) casualties in Medical Treatment Facilities abroad. Our objective was to assess and compare the use of -80°C frozen blood products in combination with the different transfusion protocols and their effect on the outcome of trauma casualties. Materials and Methods Hemovigilance and combat casualties data from Afghanistan 2006–2010 for 272 (military) trauma casualties with or without massive transfusions (MT: ≥6 RBC/24hr, N = 82 and non-MT: 1–5 RBC/24hr, N = 190) were analyzed retrospectively. In November 2007, a massive transfusion protocol (MTP; 4:3:1 RBC:Plasma:Platelets) for ATLS® class III/IV hemorrhage was introduced in military theatre. Blood product use, injury severity and mortality were assessed pre- and post-introduction of the MTP. Data were compared to civilian and military trauma studies to assess effectiveness of the frozen blood products and MTP. Results No ABO incompatible blood products were transfused and only 1 mild transfusion reaction was observed with 3,060 transfused products. In hospital mortality decreased post-MTP for MT patients from 44% to 14% (P = 0.005) and for non-MT patients from 12.7% to 5.9% (P = 0.139). Average 24-hour RBC, plasma and platelet ratios were comparable and accompanying 24-hour mortality rates were low compared to studies that used similar numbers of liquid stored (and on site donated) blood products. Conclusion This report describes for the first time that the combination of -80°C frozen platelets, plasma and red cells is safe and at least as effective as standard blood products in the treatment of (military) trauma casualties. Frozen blood can save the lives of casualties of armed conflict without the need for in-theatre blood collection. These results may also contribute to solutions for logistic problems in civilian blood supply in

  9. Casualty Aversion in the Post-Cold War Era: Defined and Analyzed Through the Logic of Clausewitz

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wendel, Robert


    .... This paper defines casualty aversion as: An unwillingness by the political and military leadership to place the American military in a position of danger, even to the exclusion of accomplishing policy aims...

  10. The Strategic Bombing of German Cities during World War II and its Impact for Germany

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, S.; Garretsen, H; Schramm, M.


    We construct a unique data set in order to analyze whether or not a large temporary shock has an impact on city growth. Following recent work by Davis and Weinstein (2002) on Japan, we take the strategic bombing of German cities during WWII as an example of such a shock, and analyze its impact on

  11. The strategic bombing of German cities during WWI and its impact on city growth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brakman, Steven; Garretsen, H.; Schramm, M.


    We construct a unique data set in order to analyze whether or not a large temporary shock has an impact on city growth. Following recent work by Davis and Weinstein (2002) on Japan, we take the strategic bombing of German cities during WWII as an example of such a shock, and analyze its impact on

  12. How Do Low-Literacy Populations Perceive "Dirty Bombs"? Implications for Preparedness Messages. (United States)

    Bass, Sarah Bauerle; Gordon, Thomas F; Maurer, Laurie; Greener, Judith; Mora, Gabriella; Ruggieri, Dominique; Wolak, Caitlin; Parvanta, Claudia


    Potential terror events such as "dirty bombs" could have significant public health effects, but little is known about how low-literacy populations perceive dirty bombs, their trust in public health or government officials to provide credible information, and their willingness to comply with recommended actions. We surveyed 50 low-literacy adults from a large urban center; they were mostly members of ethnic minority groups. We used unique social marketing methods-perceptual mapping and vector message modeling-to create 3-dimensional models that reflected respondents' knowledge of what a dirty bomb is, their intended behaviors should one occur, and their concerns about complying with "shelter in place" recommendations. To further understand individual variations in this at-risk group, a k-means cluster analysis was used to identify 3 distinct segments, differing on trust of local authorities and their emergency response, willingness to comply with emergency directives, and trust of information sources. Message strategies targeting each segment were developed to focus on concepts important to moving the groups toward a "shelter in place" behavior, revealing key differences in how best to communicate with risk communication. We discuss how these methods helped elucidate specific differences in each segment's understanding of and likely response during the event of a "dirty bomb" and how these techniques can be used to create more effective message strategies targeted to these groups.

  13. Teaching the Very Recent Past: "Miriam's Vision" and the London Bombings (United States)

    Kitson, Alison; Thompson, Sarah


    "Miriam's Vision" is an educational project developed by the Miriam Hyman Memorial Trust, an organisation set up in memory of Miriam Hyman, one of the 52 victims of the London bombings of 2005. The project has developed a number of subject-based modules, including history, which are provided free to schools through the website…

  14. Books, Not Bombs: Teaching Peace since the Dawn of the Republic. Peace Education (United States)

    Howlett, Charles; Harris, Ian,


    "Books Not Bombs: Teaching Peace Since the Dawn of the Republic" is an important work relevant to peace scholars, practitioners, and students. This incisive book offers an exciting and comprehensive historical analysis of the origins and development of peace education from the creation of the New Republic at the end of the Eighteenth Century to…

  15. Governing in the space of the "Seam" : Airport security after the liquid bomb plot

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoijtink, M.

    This paper provides a detailed study of the liquid bomb plot from 2006, focusing on the ways in which the plot was constituted as “an event unlike others” (Adey, Anderson, and Lobo Guerrero 2011, 340). Engaging with a critical body of scholarship that examines how events are assembled and governed

  16. Bombs Away: Visual Thinking and Students' Engagement in Design Studios Contexts (United States)

    Chamorro-Koc, Marianella; Scott, Andrew; Coombs, Gretchen


    In design studio, sketching or visual thinking is part of processes that assist students to achieve final design solutions. At Queensland University of Technology's (QUT's) First and Third Year industrial design studio classes we engage in a variety of teaching pedagogies from which we identify "Concept Bombs" as instrumental in the…

  17. Characterising the light output from Argon bombs by two simultaneous diagnostic techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Olivier, M


    Full Text Available The light output from Argon-bombs was investigated by means of ultra high speed photography (Cordin Model 550-32 camera) and locally developed photodiode sensors. Tubes of various sizes were inflated with Argon gas, and were detonated on one side...

  18. Mind bomb 1 is required for pancreatic ß-cell formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horn, Signe; Kobberup, Sune; Jørgensen, Mette C


    the insulin producing ß-cells. However, signals that regulate proximodistal (P-D) patterning and thus formation of ß-cell progenitors are unknown. Here we show that Mind bomb 1 (Mib1) is required for correct P-D patterning of the developing pancreas and ß-cell formation. We found that endoderm...

  19. "The Progressive," the Bomb and the Papers. Journalism Monographs Number Seventy-Six. (United States)

    Swain, Bruce M.

    In the "United States v. the 'Progressive'," the United States government took a small left-wing magazine to court to prevent publication of an article on how a hydrogen bomb works. Amidst great controversy over what the article described and what data were secret and what were not, a federal judge granted an injunction against the…

  20. Future use of tritium in mapping pre-bomb groundwater volumes. (United States)

    Eastoe, C J; Watts, C J; Ploughe, M; Wright, W E


    The tritium input to groundwater, represented as volume-weighted mean tritium concentrations in precipitation, has been close to constant in Tucson and Albuquerque since 1992, and the decrease in tritium concentrations at the tail end of the bomb tritium pulse has ceased. To determine the future usefulness of tritium measurements in southwestern North America, volume-weighted mean tritium levels in seasonal aggregate precipitation samples have been gathered from 26 sites. The averages range from 2 to 9 tritium units (TU). Tritium concentrations increase with site latitude, and possibly with distance from the coast and with site altitude, reflecting local ratios of combination of low-tritium moisture advected from the oceans with high-tritium moisture originating near the tropopause. Tritium used alone as a tool for mapping aquifer volumes containing only pre-bomb recharge to groundwater will become ambiguous when the tritium in precipitation at the end of the bomb tritium pulse decays to levels close to the analytical detection limit. At such a time, tritium in precipitation from the last one to two decades of the bomb pulse will become indistinguishable from pre-bomb recharge. The threshold of ambiguity has already arrived in coastal areas with a mean of 2 TU in precipitation and will follow in the next three decades throughout the study region. Where the mean tritium level is near 5 TU, the threshold will occur between 2025 and 2030, given a detection limit of 0.6 TU. Similar thresholds of ambiguity, with different local timing possible, apply globally. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  1. Radiation effect on non-cancer diseases among a-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, G.; Akahoshi, M.; Fujiwara, S.; Neriishi, K.; Yamada, M.; Hakoda, M. [Radiation Effect Research Foundation, Hiroshima (Japan)


    It has been well documented in the literature that radiation induces DNA damages and increases cancer risk. Besides cancer risk, the Life Span Study (LSS) on A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki that has been conducted since 1950 by RERF demonstrated an increase in non-cancer death by cardiovascular diseases and chronic liver diseases (1). Since LSS analysis depends on death certificate, a physiological mechanism has not been elucidated how radiation increases the incidence of non-cancer diseases. In order to elucidate radiation effect on non-fatal disorders, RERF has conducted the Adult Health Study (AHS) since 1958 where 23,000 A-bomb survivors have been examined every other year. This study suggested that radiation exposure about 55 years before reduced the immune response to pathogens such as HB virus and Chlamydia pneumoniae, increased the levels of serum inflammatory markers, the prevalence of chronic hepatitis/liver cirrhosis and senile cataract, and the incidence of cardiovascular diseases. Our colleagues reported a dose-dependent decrease in the CD4 T cell number among A-bomb survivors (2,3). Since chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are causative of atherogenic cardiovascular diseases or cataract, we speculate a decrease in the immune response to pathogens, at least in part, is one of the mechanisms that A-bomb exposure increased non-cancer diseases. When the levels of inflammatory marker, C-reactive protein (CRP), were analyzed among subjects with evidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae infection, significantly higher levels of CRP were associated with antibodies to Chlamydia pneumoniae in those subjects receiving >1Gy than those receiving <5mGy. It is well known that high CRP is one of the risk factors of arteriosclerosis (4,5). Thus, A-bomb exposure seems to augment inflammatory response to pathogens, though of which mechanisms are not clear now.

  2. Media's role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings. (United States)

    Holman, E Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen


    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), -2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = -2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, -4.31, -0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities.

  3. Media’s role in broadcasting acute stress following the Boston Marathon bombings (United States)

    Holman, E. Alison; Garfin, Dana Rose; Silver, Roxane Cohen


    We compared the impact of media vs. direct exposure on acute stress response to collective trauma. We conducted an Internet-based survey following the Boston Marathon bombings between April 29 and May 13, 2013, with representative samples of residents from Boston (n = 846), New York City (n = 941), and the remainder of the United States (n = 2,888). Acute stress symptom scores were comparable in Boston and New York [regression coefficient (b) = 0.43; SE = 1.42; 95% confidence interval (CI), −2.36, 3.23], but lower nationwide when compared with Boston (b = −2.21; SE = 1.07; 95% CI, −4.31, −0.12). Adjusting for prebombing mental health (collected prospectively), demographics, and prior collective stress exposure, six or more daily hours of bombing-related media exposure in the week after the bombings was associated with higher acute stress than direct exposure to the bombings (continuous acute stress symptom total: media exposure b = 15.61 vs. direct exposure b = 5.69). Controlling for prospectively collected prebombing television-watching habits did not change the findings. In adjusted models, direct exposure to the 9/11 terrorist attacks and the Sandy Hook School shootings were both significantly associated with bombing-related acute stress; Superstorm Sandy exposure wasn't. Prior exposure to similar and/or violent events may render some individuals vulnerable to the negative effects of collective traumas. Repeatedly engaging with trauma-related media content for several hours daily shortly after collective trauma may prolong acute stress experiences and promote substantial stress-related symptomatology. Mass media may become a conduit that spreads negative consequences of community trauma beyond directly affected communities. PMID:24324161

  4. Estimation of groundwater residence time using the 36Cl bomb pulse. (United States)

    Tosaki, Yuki; Tase, Norio; Sasa, Kimikazu; Takahashi, Tsutomu; Nagashima, Yasuo


    We propose a methodology for estimating the residence time of groundwater based on bomb-produced (36)Cl. Water samples were collected from 28 springs and 2 flowing wells located around Mt. Fuji, Central Japan. (36)Cl/Cl ratios in the water samples, determined by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), were between 43 × 10(-15) and 412 × 10(-15). A reference time series of the above-background (i.e., bomb-derived) (36)Cl concentration was constructed by linearly scaling the background-corrected Dye-3 data according to the estimated total bomb-produced (36)Cl fallout in the Mt. Fuji area. Assuming piston flow transport, estimates of residence time were obtained by comparing the measured bomb-derived (36)Cl concentrations in spring water with the reference curve. The distribution of (36)Cl-based residence times is basically consistent with that of tritium-based estimates calculated from data presented in previous studies, although the estimated residence times differ between the two tracers. This discrepancy may reflect chlorine recycling via vegetation or the relatively small change in fallout rate, approximately since 1975, which would give rise to large uncertainties in (36)Cl-based estimates of recharge for the period, approximately since 1975. Given the estimated ages for groundwater from flowing wells, dating based on a (36)Cl bomb pulse may be more reliable and sensitive for groundwater recharged before 1975, back as far as the mid-1950s. © 2011, The Author(s). Ground Water © 2011, National Ground Water Association.

  5. Heisenberg in the atomic age science and the public sphere

    CERN Document Server

    Carson, Cathryn


    The end of the Second World War opened a new era for science in public life. Heisenberg in the Atomic Age explores the transformations of science's public presence in the postwar Federal Republic of Germany. It shows how Heisenberg's philosophical commentaries, circulating in the mass media, secured his role as science's public philosopher, and it reflects on his policy engagements and public political stands, which helped redefine the relationship between science and the state. With deep archival grounding, the book tracks Heisenberg's interactions with intellectuals from Heidegger to Habermas and political leaders from Adenauer to Brandt. It also traces his evolving statements about his wartime research on nuclear fission for the National Socialist regime. Working between the history of science and German history, the book's central theme is the place of scientific rationality in public life - after the atomic bomb, in the wake of the Third Reich.

  6. Internet-accessible radiographic database of Vietnam War casualties for medical student education. (United States)

    Critchley, Eric P; Smirniotopoulos, James G


    The purpose of this study was to determine the feasibility of archiving radiographic images from Vietnam era conflict casualties into a personal computer-based electronic database of text and images and displaying the data using an Internet-accessible database for preservation and educational purposes. Thirty-two patient cases were selected at random from a pool of 1,000 autopsy reports in which radiographs were available. A total of 74 radiographs from these cases were digitized using a commercial image scanner and then uploaded into an Internet accessible database. The quality of the digitized images was assessed by administering an image-based test to a group of 12 medical students. No statistically significant (p > 0.05) differences were found between test scores when using the original radiographs versus using the digitized radiographs on the Internet-accessible database. An Internet-accessible database is capable of effectively archiving Vietnam era casualty radiographs for educational purposes.

  7. Cognitive Training Can Reduce Civilian Casualties in a Simulated Shooting Environment. (United States)

    Biggs, Adam T; Cain, Matthew S; Mitroff, Stephen R


    Shooting a firearm involves a complex series of cognitive abilities. For example, locating an item or a person of interest requires visual search, and firing the weapon (or withholding a trigger squeeze) involves response execution (or inhibition). The present study used a simulated shooting environment to establish a relationship between a particular cognitive ability and a critical shooting error-response inhibition and firing on civilians, respectively. Individual-difference measures demonstrated, perhaps counterintuitively, that simulated civilian casualties were not related to motor impulsivity (i.e., an itchy trigger finger) but rather to an individual's cognitive ability to withhold an already initiated response (i.e., an itchy brain). Furthermore, active-response-inhibition training reduced simulated civilian casualties, which revealed a causal relationship. This study therefore illustrates the potential of using cognitive training to possibly improve shooting performance, which might ultimately provide insight for military and law-enforcement personnel. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. Role of radiology in the study and identification of casualty victims

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenstein, J.E.; Madewell, J.E.


    Radiology is assuming an increasingly important role in the investigation of casualty victims. Radiographic screening for foreign bodies, personal effects, dental and surgical artifacts and occult skeletal injury has long been an established technique in forensic medicine. Positive radiographic identification of the victims by comparison with antemortem films and records in a more recent, important development. Large scale radiographic investigations may require improvised facilities posing unaccustomed technical and logistical problems. Radiologic experience gained from aviation accident investigation is found to apply in other casualty situations as well as in individual fatality investigations. Radiologic data may aid determination of the cause of incidents, resulting in improved safety procedures and design, as well as serving humanitarian and forensic functions.

  9. "Bohr's Atomic Model." (United States)

    Willden, Jeff


    "Bohr's Atomic Model" is a small interactive multimedia program that introduces the viewer to a simplified model of the atom. This interactive simulation lets students build an atom using an atomic construction set. The underlying design methodology for "Bohr's Atomic Model" is model-centered instruction, which means the central model of the…

  10. An epidemiological approach to mass casualty incidents in the principality of asturias (spain)


    Castro Delgado, Rafael; Naves Gómez, Cecilia; Cuartas Álvarez, Tatiana; Arcos González, Pedro Ignacio


    Background Mass Casualty Incidents (MCI) have been rarely studied from epidemiological approaches. The objective of this study is to establish the epidemiological profile of MCI in the autonomous region of the Principality of Asturias (Spain) and analyse ambulance deployment and severity of patients. Methods This is a population-based prospective study run in 2014. Inclusion criteria for MCI is ?every incident with four or more people affected that requires ambulance mobilisation?. Results Th...

  11. Review of On-Scene Management of Mass-Casualty Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annelie Holgersson


    Full Text Available Background: The scene of a mass-casualty attack (MCA entails a crime scene, a hazardous space, and a great number of people needing medical assistance. Public transportation has been the target of such attacks and involves a high probability of generating mass casualties. The review aimed to investigate challenges for on-scene responses to MCAs and suggestions made to counter these challenges, with special attention given to attacks on public transportation and associated terminals. Methods: Articles were found through PubMed and Scopus, “relevant articles” as defined by the databases, and a manual search of references. Inclusion criteria were that the article referred to attack(s and/or a public transportation-related incident and issues concerning formal on-scene response. An appraisal of the articles’ scientific quality was conducted based on an evidence hierarchy model developed for the study. Results: One hundred and five articles were reviewed. Challenges for command and coordination on scene included establishing leadership, inter-agency collaboration, multiple incident sites, and logistics. Safety issues entailed knowledge and use of personal protective equipment, risk awareness and expectations, cordons, dynamic risk assessment, defensive versus offensive approaches, and joining forces. Communication concerns were equipment shortfalls, dialoguing, and providing information. Assessment problems were scene layout and interpreting environmental indicators as well as understanding setting-driven needs for specialist skills and resources. Triage and treatment difficulties included differing triage systems, directing casualties, uncommon injuries, field hospitals, level of care, providing psychological and pediatric care. Transportation hardships included scene access, distance to hospitals, and distribution of casualties. Conclusion: Commonly encountered challenges during unintentional incidents were added to during MCAs, implying

  12. Intraosseous Erythropoietin for Acute Tissue Protection in Battlefield Casualties Suffering Hypovolemic Shock (United States)


    Reserve University, Cleveland, OH. 2002 Acute Complications of Pericardial Disease or Injury. February 19th. Acute Complications of Diabetes Mellitus...Chile. [Arterial and venous prostagladin E2 levels in patients with valvular disease ]. Guarda E, Zamorano B, Gazmuri RJ, Escobar E. 1988 Best...AD Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0019 TITLE: “Intraosseous Erythropoietin for Acute Tissue Protection in Battlefield Casualties

  13. The Impacts of Air Temperature on Accidental Casualties in Beijing, China. (United States)

    Ma, Pan; Wang, Shigong; Fan, Xingang; Li, Tanshi


    Emergency room (ER) visits for accidental casualties, according to the International Classification of Deceases 10th Revision Chapters 19 and 20, include injury, poisoning, and external causes (IPEC). Annual distribution of 187,008 ER visits that took place between 2009 and 2011 in Beijing, China displayed regularity rather than random characteristics. The annual cycle from the Fourier series fitting of the number of ER visits was found to explain 63.2% of its total variance. In this study, the possible effect and regulation of meteorological conditions on these ER visits are investigated through the use of correlation analysis, as well as statistical modeling by using the Distributed Lag Non-linear Model and Generalized Additive Model. Correlation analysis indicated that meteorological variables that positively correlated with temperature have a positive relationship with the number of ER visits, and vice versa. The temperature metrics of maximum, minimum, and mean temperatures were found to have similar overall impacts, including both the direct impact on human mental/physical conditions and indirect impact on human behavior. The lag analysis indicated that the overall impacts of temperatures higher than the 50th percentile on ER visits occur immediately, whereas low temperatures show protective effects in the first few days. Accidental casualties happen more frequently on warm days when the mean temperature is higher than 14 °C than on cold days. Mean temperatures of around 26 °C result in the greatest possibility of ER visits for accidental casualties. In addition, males were found to face a higher risk of accidental casualties than females at high temperatures. Therefore, the IPEC-classified ER visits are not pure accidents; instead, they are associated closely with meteorological conditions, especially temperature.

  14. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event (United States)

    Welzel, Tyson B.; Koenig, Kristi L.; Bey, Tareg; Visser, Errol


    Objectives: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering. Methods: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident. Results: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population) and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000). The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000), consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%), basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%), advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%), pharmacy assistants (42.6%), and pharmacists (33.1%). Conclusion: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. PMID:20823971

  15. High Reliability Organization and Applicability to the Battlefield to Reduce Errors Associated with Combat Casualty Care (United States)


    father , a sister, a brother, America’s daughters and sons that could possibly be alive today participating in the great joys of life. Of course...Maricris, all this life and the next lives. To our four daughters , Jenna, Makayla, Maria, and Jaya, I love each of you and thank you for putting up with me...difference in decreasing preventable error in combat casualty care. This shift will help us keep our coveted promise to America’s daughters and sons

  16. Effect of Hospital Staff Surge Capacity on Preparedness for a Conventional Mass Casualty Event

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welzel, Tyson B MD


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To assess current medical staffing levels within the Hospital Referral System in the City of Cape Town Metropolitan Municipality, South Africa, and analyze the surge capacity needs to prepare for the potential of a conventional mass casualty incident during a planned mass gathering.METHODS: Query of all available medical databases of both state employees and private medical personnel within the greater Cape Town area to determine current staffing levels and distribution of personnel across public and private domains. Analysis of the adequacy of available staff to manage a mass casualty incident.RESULTS: There are 594 advanced pre-hospital personnel in Cape Town (17/100,000 population and 142 basic pre-hospital personnel (4.6/100,000. The total number of hospital and clinic-based medical practitioners is 3097 (88.6/100,000, consisting of 1914 general physicians; 54.7/100,000 and 1183 specialist physicians; 33.8/100,000. Vacancy rates for all medical practitioners range from 23.5% to 25.5%. This includes: nursing post vacancies (26%, basic emergency care practitioners (39.3%, advanced emergency care personnel (66.8%, pharmacy assistants (42.6%, and pharmacists (33.1%.CONCLUSION: There are sufficient numbers and types of personnel to provide the expected ordinary healthcare needs at mass gathering sites in Cape Town; however, qualified staff are likely insufficient to manage a concurrent mass casualty event. Considering that adequate correctly skilled and trained staff form the backbone of disaster surge capacity, it appears that Cape Town is currently under resourced to manage a mass casualty event. With the increasing size and frequency of mass gathering events worldwide, adequate disaster surge capacity is an issue of global relevance. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:189-196.

  17. The Internet?s effect on personality traits: An important casualty of the ?Internet addiction? paradigm


    Aboujaoude, Elias


    Background and aims The ?Internet addiction? paradigm has been criticized for several shortcomings, including inattention to specific online behaviors, not distinguishing the Internet from other media, insufficient focus on comorbidities, and definitions that do not take into account the constant access now possible. The paradigm?s biggest casualty, however, may be that it has diverted attention away from subtle personality changes that seem to occur online, including in users who cannot be c...

  18. Died of Wounds on the Battlefield: Causation and Implications for Improving Combat Casualty Care (United States)


    treatment facility from October 2001 to June 2009 were evaluated by reviewing autopsy and other postmortem records at the Office of the Armed Forces...consultation with an OAFME forensic pathol- ogist. Data including demographics, mechanism of injury, physiologic and laboratory variables, and cause of death...casualty deaths from theater are recovered and trans- ported to Dover, DE, where complete identification and forensic examination are performed by the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Željko Zagorac


    Full Text Available An old abandoned building was examined in order to perform a restoration project. Due to the presence of a round opening in the roof and the fact that Slavonski Brod was heavely bombed in the last war, it was assumed that there might be a bomb left. Geomagnetic measurements using a proton magnetometer were performed. A magnetic anomaly was obtained indicating an iron object of more than 100 kilograms weight Position and depth was determined. The excavation is now expected to get the final solution is the object a bomb or not.

  20. Earthquake casualty models within the USGS Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system (United States)

    Jaiswal, Kishor; Wald, David J.; Earle, Paul S.; Porter, Keith A.; Hearne, Mike


    Since the launch of the USGS’s Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response (PAGER) system in fall of 2007, the time needed for the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to determine and comprehend the scope of any major earthquake disaster anywhere in the world has been dramatically reduced to less than 30 min. PAGER alerts consist of estimated shaking hazard from the ShakeMap system, estimates of population exposure at various shaking intensities, and a list of the most severely shaken cities in the epicentral area. These estimates help government, scientific, and relief agencies to guide their responses in the immediate aftermath of a significant earthquake. To account for wide variability and uncertainty associated with inventory, structural vulnerability and casualty data, PAGER employs three different global earthquake fatality/loss computation models. This article describes the development of the models and demonstrates the loss estimation capability for earthquakes that have occurred since 2007. The empirical model relies on country-specific earthquake loss data from past earthquakes and makes use of calibrated casualty rates for future prediction. The semi-empirical and analytical models are engineering-based and rely on complex datasets including building inventories, time-dependent population distributions within different occupancies, the vulnerability of regional building stocks, and casualty rates given structural collapse.

  1. Operationalizing Civilian Protection in Mali: The Case for a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell

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    Marla B. Keenan


    Full Text Available This practice note details an emerging best practice of civilian harm mitigation in armed conflict: namely, the creation of civilian casualty tracking, analysis and response processes by a warring party or peace operation force. It asserts that in Iraq, Afghanistan and soon Somalia, these processes to better understand civilian harm and address consequences have positively shaped mission tactics, training, and overall operations. In both Iraq and Afghanistan, tracking and analysis has lead to a marked decrease in civilian casualties and facilitated the making of amends for any civilian losses. The paper argues that for warring parties to achieve their mission—particularly one with a protection of civilians mandate as with the United Nations Multidimensional Integrated Stabilization Mission in Mali (MINUSMA—they must fully understand the impact of their actions on the civilian population, positive or negative. For this reason, a Civilian Casualty Tracking, Analysis, and Response Cell should be created for MINUSMA to improve its ability mitigate risk to civilians as required by its Security Council mandate.

  2. Investigating the Relationship Between Drone Warfare and Civilian Casualties in Gaza

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    Dr. Ann Rogers


    Full Text Available Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs, better known as drones, are increasingly touted as ‘humanitarian’ weapons that contribute positively to fighting just wars and saving innocent lives. At the same time, civilian casualties have become the most visible and criticized aspect of drone warfare. It is argued here that drones contribute to civilian casualties not in spite of, but because of, their unique attributes. They greatly extend war across time and space, pulling more potential threats and targets into play over long periods, and because they are low-risk and highly accurate, they are more likely to be used. The assumption that drones save lives obscures a new turn in strategic thinking that sees states such as Israel and the US rely on large numbers of small, highly discriminating attacks applied over time to achieve their objectives. This examination of Israel’s 2014 war in Gaza argues that civilian casualties are not an unexpected or unintended consequence of drone warfare, but an entirely predictable outcome.

  3. Resource planning for ambulance services in mass casualty incidents: a DES-based policy model. (United States)

    Rauner, Marion S; Schaffhauser-Linzatti, Michaela M; Niessner, Helmut


    Due to an increasing number of mass casualty incidents, which are generally complex and unique in nature, we suggest that decision makers consider operations research-based policy models to help prepare emergency staff for improved planning and scheduling at the emergency site. We thus develop a discrete-event simulation policy model, which is currently being applied by disaster-responsive ambulance services in Austria. By evaluating realistic scenarios, our policy model is shown to enhance the scheduling and outcomes at operative and online levels. The proposed scenarios range from small, simple, and urban to rather large, complex, remote mass casualty emergencies. Furthermore, the organization of an advanced medical post can be improved on a strategic level to increase rescue quality, including enhanced survival of injured victims. In particular, we consider a realistic mass casualty incident at a brewery relative to other exemplary disasters. Based on a variety of such situations, we derive general policy implications at both the macro (e.g., strategic rescue policy) and micro (e.g., operative and online scheduling strategies at the emergency site) levels.

  4. Medical Effects of Atomic Bombs. The Report of the Joint Commission for the Investigation of the Effects of the Atomic Bomb in Japan. Volume 3. Section 6. Hematology. Section 7. Studies on Bone Marrow Obtained by Biopsy (United States)


    autopsy se r i e s from - (1) Shonse, Warren & Whipple , loc, c i t , each city. (2) Severe Cases, Extreme thromboc-fiopenia was one of tho s t r...abnormal lymphocyte. These c e l l s have more azurophile granules than usual, but it w i l l be seen tha t ’ t hey tend t o co l lec t at the

  5. Teach us atom structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Suh Yeon


    This book is written to teach atom structure in very easy way. It is divided into nine chapters, which indicates what is the components of matter? when we divide matter continuously, it becomes atom, what did atom look like? particles comprised of matter is not only atom, discover of particles comprised of atom, symbol of element, various radiation, form alchemy to nuclear transmutation, shape of atom is evolving. It also has various pictures in each chapters to explain easily.

  6. Playing pinball with atoms. (United States)

    Saedi, Amirmehdi; van Houselt, Arie; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Harold J W


    We demonstrate the feasibility of controlling an atomic scale mechanical device by an external electrical signal. On a germanium substrate, a switching motion of pairs of atoms is induced by electrons that are directly injected into the atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. By precisely controlling the tip current and distance we make two atom pairs behave like the flippers of an atomic-sized pinball machine. This atomic scale mechanical device exhibits six different configurations.

  7. Civilian casualties of terror-related explosions: The impact of vascular trauma on treatment and prognosis. (United States)

    Heldenberg, Eitan; Givon, Adi; Simon, Daniel; Bass, Arie; Almogy, Gidon; Peleg, Kobi


    A high prevalence (10%) of vascular trauma (VT) was previously described in terror-related trauma as compared with non-terror-related trauma (1%), in a civilian setting. No data regarding outcome of VT casualties of improvised explosive device (IED) explosions, in civilian settings, are available. The aim of the current study is to present the prognosis of civilian casualties of IED explosions with and without VT. A retrospective analysis of the Israeli National Trauma Registry was performed. All patients in the registry from September 2000 to December 2005 who were victims of explosions were included. These patients were subdivided into patients with VT (n = 109) and non-VT (NVT) (n = 1,152). Both groups were analyzed according to mechanism of trauma, type and severity of injury, and treatment. Of 1,261 explosion casualties, there were 109 VT victims (8.6%). Patients with VT tended to be more complex, with a higher injury severity score (ISS): 17.4% with ISS 16 to 24 as compared with only 10.5%. In the group of critically injured patients (ISS, 25-75), 51.4% had VT compared with only 15.5% of the NVT patients. As such, a heavy share of hospitals' resources were used-trauma bay admission (62.4%), operating rooms (91.7%), and intensive care unit beds (55.1%). The percentage of VT patients who were admitted for more than 15 days was 2.3 times higher than that observed among the NVT patients. Lower-extremity VT injuries were the most prevalent. Although many resources are being invested in treating this group of patients, their mortality rate is approximately five times more than NVT (22.9% vs. 4.9%). Vascular trauma casualties of IED explosions are more complex and have poorer prognosis. Their higher ISS markedly increases the hospital's resource utilization, and as such, it should be taken into consideration either upon the primary evacuation from the scene or when secondary modulation is needed in order to reduce the burden of the hospitals receiving the casualties

  8. Challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland: 3. emergency and casualty slaughter certification. (United States)

    Magalhães-Sant'Ana, Manuel; More, Simon J; Morton, David B; Hanlon, Alison J


    Veterinarians are faced with significant conflicts of interest when issuing certificates for the transport and slaughter of acutely injured and casualty livestock. In a recent Policy Delphi study, emergency and casualty slaughter certification was a key concern identified by veterinary professionals in Ireland. In this case study (the third in a series of three resulting from a research workshop exploring challenges facing the veterinary profession in Ireland; the other two case studies investigate clinical veterinary services and the on-farm use of veterinary antimicrobials), we aim to provide a value-based reflection on the constraints and opportunities for best practice in emergency and casualty slaughter certification in Ireland. Using a qualitative focus group approach, this study gathered evidence from relevant stakeholders, namely a representative from the regulatory body, local authority veterinarians with research experience in emergency slaughter, an animal welfare research scientist, official veterinarians from the competent authority, a private veterinary practitioner, and a member of a farming organisation. Results revealed a conflict between the responsibility of private veterinary practitioners (PVPs) to safeguard the welfare of acutely injured bovines on-farm and the client's commercial concerns. As a consequence, some PVPs may feel under pressure to certify, for example, an acutely injured animal for casualty slaughter instead of recommending either on-farm emergency slaughter or disposal by the knackery service. Among Official Veterinarians, there are concerns about the pressure within processing plants to accept acutely injured livestock as casualty animals. Confusion pertaining to legislation and definition of fitness to travel also contribute to these dilemmas. Conflicts of interest arise due to the gap between governance and provision to facilitate on-farm emergency slaughter of livestock. Increased availability and acceptance of on

  9. Cigarette smoking in Serbia. Impact of the 78-day NATO bombing campaign. (United States)

    Sokolova-Djokic, L; Zizic-Borjanovic, S; Igic, R


    To estimate short-term and long-term influence of protracted stress caused by the NATO bombing of Serbia on self-reported cigarette smoking, we performed and analyzed smoking survey data. The survey included 320 adult citizens from Sombor, Novi Sad, and Belgrade, three cities that were bombed during the NATO campaign along with other Serbian target cities. We queried participants about their smoking habits before, during, and 8 years after the military intervention. We recorded smoking prevalence rates, intentions to stop smoking, and the age at which smoking began. We also recorded smoking history and cessation attempts. Prior to bombing, 48% of the women and 63% of the men were smokers. During the bombing period, smoking prevalence in male smokers increased significantly. During this period, 32% of the women and 36% of the men increased their smoking by as much as two packs of cigarettes per week. A month after the bombing, the rate of consumption returned to the prewar levels. At present, 44% of the women, and 59% of the men smoke. The average age of current smokers is 43 years (standard deviation /SD/, 14.4) for women and 45 (SD, 16.3) years for men. Female smokers expressed greater interest in quitting smoking than their male counterparts, and they were slightly more successful than men at maintaining abstinence (20 vs. 18%). The participants in our study acknowledged that a compounding factor for successful abstinence was information on depleted uranium (DU) and other pollutants introduced into the environment by the war. Prolonged stress imposed by war causes a short-term increase in smoking prevalence in male smokers and higher cigarette consumption both in male and female smokers. Even though these increases dissipated after the war was over, the prevalence of smoking within the population of urban Serbia remains very high. Counseling and pharmacological support for abstinence relapse in Serbia ere insufficient to sustain smoking cessation during the 8

  10. Penetrating injury of the lungs and multiple injuries of lower extremities caused by aircraft bombs splinters

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    Golubović Zoran


    Full Text Available Introduction. Injuries caused by aircraft bombs cause severe damages to the human body. They are characterized by massive destruction of injured tissues and organs, primary contamination by polymorph bacterial flora and modified reactivity of the body. Upon being wounded by aircraft bombs projectiles a victim simultaneously sustains severe damages of many organs and organ systems due to the fact that a large number of projectiles at the same time injure the chest, stomach, head and extremities. Case report. We presented a patient, 41 years of age, injured by aircraft bomb with hemo-pneumothorax and destruction of the bone and soft tissue structures of the foot, as well as the treatment result of such heavy injuries. After receiving thoracocentesis and short reanimation, the patient underwent surgical procedure. The team performed thoracotomy, primary treatment of the wound and atypical resection of the left lung. Thoracic drains were placed. The wounds on the lower leg and feet were treated primarily. Due to massive destruction of bone tissue of the right foot by cluster bomb splinters, and impossibility of reconstruction of the foot, guillotine amputation of the right lower leg was performed. Twelve days after the wounding caused by cluster bomb splinters, soft tissue of the left lower leg was covered by Tirsch free transplantant and the defect in the area of the left foot was covered by dorsalis pedis flap. The transplant and flap were accepted and the donor sites were epithelized. Twenty-six days following the wounding reamputation was performed and amputation stump of the right lower leg was closed. The patient was given a lower leg prosthesis with which he could move. Conclusion. Upon being wounded by aircraft bomb splinters, the injured person sustains severe wounds of multiple organs and organ systems due to simultaneous injuries caused by a large number of projectiles. It is necessary to take care of the vital organs first because they

  11. Prevalence of alcohol among nonfatally injured road accident casualties in two level III trauma centers in northern Ghana. (United States)

    Damsere-Derry, James; Palk, Gavan; King, Mark


    Alcohol use is pervasive among motorists on the road in Ghana; however, we do not know the extent to which this behavior is implicated in road accidents in this country. The main objective of this research was to establish the prevalence of alcohol in the blood of nonfatally injured casualties in the emergency departments (EDs) in northern Ghana. Participants were injured road traffic crash victims, namely, pedestrians, cyclists, motorcyclists, and drivers seeking treatment at an ED. The study sites were 2 level III trauma centers located in Wa and Bolgatanga. Participants were screened for alcohol followed by breath tests for positive participants using breathalyzers. Two hundred and sixty-two accident victims visited EDs, 58% of whom were in Wa. Among the victims, 41% were hospitalized and 57% experienced slight injuries. The vast majority (76%) of the casualties were motorcyclists, 13% were pedestrians, 8% were cyclists, and 2% were drivers. Casualties who had detectable alcohol in their blood were predominantly vulnerable road users. In all, 34% of participants had detectable blood alcohol concentrations (BACs) and the mean BAC for all casualties who tested positive and could give definitive BACs was 0.2265 (226 mg/dl). The prevalence of alcohol use was 53% among cyclists, 34% among motorcyclists, 21% among pedestrians, and 17% among drivers. Male casualties were more likely to test positive for alcohol than females. In addition, the prevalence of alcohol was significantly higher among injured casualties in Bolgatanga compared to Wa. There was a high prevalence of alcohol use among nonfatally injured casualties in northern Ghana and injury severity increased with BAC. AUDIT screening in the hospital, alcohol consumption guideline, road safety education with an emphasis on minimizing or eliminating alcohol consumption, and enhanced enforcement of the BAC limit among motorists are recommended.

  12. Report on the results of the seventh medical examination of atomic bomb survivors in the South America

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishioka, Shinichi [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ohta, Nobuhiro; Taguchi, Atsushi; Okada, Fumio; Hara, Tokihiro; Ueno, Kouki


    The medical examination was carried out in Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia, Argentina and Peru on 80, 4, 7, 11 and 3 survivors, respectively, from Oct. 30 to Nov. 15, 1996. They (43 males and 62 females) were 66.5 years old in average. The examination involved physical measurements, blood and urine analyses, electrocardiography, health questionnaire and consultation with blood pressure measurement. Results were as follows: Anamnesis; hypertension (51.4%), heart diseases (23.8%), cancer (21.0%), diabetes (19.0%), hemorrhoids (19.0%), stroke (18.1%), stomach ulcer (12.4%) and others: Present major disease; hypertension (23.8%), diabetes (6.7%), heart diseases (6.7%), cancer (6.7%) and others. Loss of vigor (63.8%), complete exhaustion or fatigue (63.8%), heat intolerance (60.0%), numbness or tingling (43.8%), failure of memory (42.9%) and many others were recognized as subjective symptoms. Blood pressure measurement gave hypertensive findings in 31.4%. Normal ECG was found in 67.7%. Cases judged to be necessary for further examinations or for treatment were in 46.7%. This examination was concluded to be continued. (K.H.)

  13. Case Study: Iran, Islam, the NPT, and the Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, E .


    The goals of this case study are: (1) To examine the correlation between Iran's nuclear program and clerical statements; (2) To evaluate the importance of these statements; (3) To understand the relationship between policy and fatwas (Islamic decrees); (4) To address the issue of a 'nuclear fatwa'; and (5) To examine how, if at all, Sharia (Islamic law) has influenced Iran's actions or inactions with respect to the Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), and Iran's adherence to its IAEA Safeguards Agreements and the Additional Protocol. The Islamic Republic of Iran (hereinafter Iran) is one of two theocracies in the world, the second being Vatican City. Iran's government derives its constitutional, moral, and political legitimacy from Islam. As a result of this theocratic culture, rules are set and interpreted with a much different calibrator than that of the Western world. Islam affects all aspects of Iranian life. This is further complicated by the fact that Islam is not a nationalistic faith, in that many people all over the world believe in and adhere to Islamic principles. As a result, a political system that derives much of its fervor from being nationalistic is caught between two worlds, one within the land boundaries of Iran and the other within a faith that transcends boundaries. Thus, any understanding of Islamic law must first be understood within this delicate balance of nationalism and transcendence. Iran has found itself on the international stage concerning its nuclear program. Because Iran is a theocratic state, it is imperative to examine its political moves, speeches, rights, and obligations through the lens of Islam. This study will examine how Islam plays a role in Iran's dealing with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), its understanding of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT), including parties obligations under Safeguards Agreements and the Additional

  14. A patient with a traumatic brain injury due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bolatkale


    Full Text Available Preparing to manage weapons of mass destruction events challenges emergency services systems neighboring Syria every day. Understanding injury from explosives is essential for all providers of emergency care in both civilian and military settings. In this case, the authors present a 22-year-old man who was admitted to the emergency department with displaced skull fracture, epidural hemorrhage and cerebral contusion due to barrel bomb tertiary blast effect. A 22-year-old man who complained of pain in the right temporal head region after barrel bomb explosion was admitted in the emergency department. The patient could not remember the explosion and found himself on the ground. In his medical history, there was not a record of any diseases, operations or traumas. Examination of the head revealed scalp hematoma and slump in the skull on the right temporal region. Patients computed tomography (CT scan showed a displaced skull fracture, epidural hematoma and cerebral contusion.

  15. World War II Aerial Bombings of Germany: Fear as Subject of National Socialist Governmental Practices

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    Torben Möbius


    Full Text Available This paper highlights how the National Socialist regime in Germany created the so-called «Selbstschutz» («self protection» in civil air defense as an «apparatus of society» (Michel Foucault to educate the German population with regard to the new possibility of aerial bombing. Mechanisms, functions of emotional control and their relationship to concrete practices of the people involved are shown alongside a local example. Regarding the spread and development of fears, this article maintains that practices of «Selbstschutz» had to bridge the temporal gap between future expectations and actual experiences in crucial ways. Before the war, «Selbstschutz» followed its own logic of expectation of danger and risk, as exemplified in aerial-defense simulation exercises, which clashed with the reality of bombs falling on German cities later on.

  16. MSCT findings in a controlled bus bombing using a pig model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nikolaj Friis


    In terrorist acts such as car and bus bombings by a suicide bomber using home made or other explosives, there may be many fatalities and wounded. From a forensic pathological point of view this poses a challenge regarding identification of the fatalities, recording the injuries and identifying...... and recovering relevant foreign bodies that might have been used in the bomb to inflict more damages to bystanders. The author will present MSCT findings and the injuries found at autopsy in 10 dead pigs were positioned inside the bus in a controlled explosion. This will be done in correlation to the individual...... of the findings. 3D reconstructions of the MSCT studies using the Osirix Viewer were made to visualize injuries and foreign bodies. Results of these findings will be presented to demonstrate the advantages of MSCT to aid forensic pathologists and police investigators in understanding the injury types, patterns...

  17. Impact of the Boston Marathon Bombing and Its Aftermath on Refugees and Survivors of Torture. (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Linda; Rous, Dana; Mancuso, Anna; Flinton, Kathleen; Hastings, Erica; Forbush, Leigh; Shepherd, Amy


    On April 15, 2013, Boston residents and guests gathered for the Boston Marathon. Two explosives at the finish line killed three people and injured hundreds of others. As part of our clinical encounters, patients of the Boston Center for Refugee Health & Human Rights were asked about the marathon bombing. We were concerned about the high level of armed security as many of our patients had been detained in their countries of origin. Eighty patients seen between April 16 and July 7, 2013 were asked about their experience of the Boston Marathon bombing and its aftermath. A retrospective chart review was undertaken and data analyzed using Atlas.ti & SPSS. Approximately 86 % of those interviewed were reminded of their past trauma. The following themes emerged: triggering and trauma related symptoms, content specific cognitive schemas, recognition of the universality of violence, fears of discrimination, issues surrounding safety, and specific concerns of Muslims.

  18. The Cryptanalysis Of The Enigma Cipher. The Plugboard And The Cryptologic Bomb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Borowska


    Full Text Available We study the problem of decoding secret messages encrypted by the German Army with the M3 Enigma machine after September 15, 1938. We focused our attention on the algorithmization and programming of this problem. A completion and optimization of Zygalski’s sheets method were presented previously. We describe below the missing algorithm solving the problem of the plugboard settings with an algebraic justification. This method is the original idea of the authors, and we can use it for cryptanalysis together with both Zygalski’s sheets method and Rejewski’s bomb method. Next, we present a reconstruction of the cryptologic bomb. We enclose an implementation of both algorithms in Cpp language.

  19. Radiation dose, reproductive history, and breast cancer risk among Japanese A-bomb survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Land, C.E. [National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD (United States)


    Excess risk of female breast cancer is among the most comprehensively documented late effects of exposure to substantial doses of ionizing radiation, based on studies of medically irradiated populations and the survivors of the A-bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. This study looks at the interaction of dose with epidemiological factors like age at first full-term pregnancy and family history of breast cancer, most closely associated with risk in epidemiological studies of non-irradiatied populations. 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  20. Terrorism, governmentality and the simulated city: the Boston Marathon bombing and the search for suspect two


    Topinka, Robert


    This article examines the online circulation of a photograph of the immediate aftermath of the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings taken by David Green, a Boston Marathon runner. The photograph fortuitously captured an image of Dzhokhar Tsarnaev, the younger Tsarnaev brother, running from the scene. Initially, Tsarnaev went unnoticed by online message board users and FBI investigators – he was just another face in the urban crowd. However, after he was identified as suspect two, he emerged in the p...

  1. Increased pediatric functional neurological symptom disorders after the Boston marathon bombings: a case series. (United States)

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Pier, Danielle B; de Gusmão, Claudio M; Bernson-Leung, Miya E; Maski, Kiran P; Urion, David K; Waugh, Jeff L


    Functional neurological symptom disorders are frequently the basis for acute neurological consultation. In children, they are often precipitated by high-frequency everyday stressors. The extent to which a severe traumatic experience may also precipitate functional neurological abnormalities is unknown. For the 2-week period after the Boston Marathon bombings, we prospectively collected data on patients whose presentation suggested a functional neurological symptom disorder. We assessed clinical and demographic variables, duration of symptoms, extent of educational impact, and degree of connection to the Marathon bombing. We contacted all patients at 6 months after presentation to determine the outcome and accuracy of the diagnosis. In a parallel study, we reported a baseline of 2.6 functional neurological presentations per week in our emergency room. In the week after the Marathon bombings, this frequency tripled. Ninety-one percent of presentations were delayed by 1 week, with onset around the first school day after a city-wide lockdown. Seventy-three percent had a history of a prior psychiatric diagnosis. At the 6 months follow-up, no functional neurological symptom disorder diagnoses were overturned and no new organic diagnosis was made. Pediatric functional neurological symptom disorder may be precipitated by both casual and high-intensity stressors. The 3.4-fold increase in incidence after the Boston Marathon bombings and city-wide lockdown demonstrates the marked effect that a community-wide tragedy can have on the mental health of children. Care providers must be aware of functional neurological symptom disorders after stressful community events in vulnerable patient populations, particularly those with prior psychiatric diagnoses. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Conflictual Media Events, Eyewitness Images, and the Boston Marathon Bombing (2013)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette


    The proliferation of camera phones over the past decade has created an unprecedented landslide of visual information in the online public sphere, transforming the form and amount of communication in relation to crisis events. International research on this subject has primarily centered on the wa...... boundaries between experts and laymen and between professionals and non-professionals in relation to conflictual media events. The bombing of the Boston Marathon in April 2013 constitutes the empirical point of departure....

  3. Factors influencing injury severity score regarding Thai military personnel injured in mass casualty incident April 10, 2010: lessons learned from armed conflict casualties: a retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boonthep Nuttapong


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Political conflicts in Bangkok, Thailand have caused mass casualties, especially the latest event April 10, 2010, in which many military personnel were injured. Most of them were transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital, the largest military hospital in Thailand. The current study aimed to assess factors influencing Injury Severity Score (ISS regarding Thai military personnel injured in the mass casualty incident (MCI April 10, 2010. Methods A total of 728 injured soldiers transferred to Phramongkutklao Hospital were reviewed. Descriptive statistics was used to display characteristics of the injuries, relationship between mechanism of injury and injured body regions. Multiple logistic regressions were used to calculate the adjusted odds ratio (adjusted OR of ISS comparing injured body region categories. Results In all, 153 subjects defined as major data category were enrolled in this study. Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury (90.2%. These victims displayed 276 injured body regions. The most common injured body region was the extremities (48.5%. A total of 18 patients (11.7% had an ISS revealing more than 16 points. Three victims who died were expected to die due to high Trauma and Injury Severity Score (TRISS. However, one with high TRISS survived. Factors influencing ISS were age (p = 0.04, abdomen injury (adjusted OR = 29.9; 95% CI, 5.8-153.5; P P P Conclusions Blast injury was the most common mechanism of injury among Thai military personnel injured in the MCI April 10, 2010. Age and injured body region such as head & neck, chest and abdomen significantly influenced ISS. These factors should be investigated for effective medical treatment and preparing protective equipment to prevent such injuries in the future.

  4. Discussion: Reporting and calibration of post-bomb 14C data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reimer, P J; Brown, T A; Reimer, R W


    The definitive paper by Stuiver and Polach (1977) established the conventions for reporting of {sup 14}C data for chronological and geophysical studies based on the radioactive decay of {sup 14}C in the sample since the year of sample death or formation. Several ways of reporting {sup 14}C activity levels relative to a standard were also established, but no specific instructions were given for reporting nuclear weapons testing (post-bomb) {sup 14}C levels in samples. Because the use of post-bomb {sup 14}C is becoming more prevalent in forensics, biology, and geosciences, a convention needs to be adopted. We advocate the use of fraction modern with a new symbol F{sup 14}C to prevent confusion with the previously used Fm, which may or may not have been fractionation corrected. We also discuss the calibration of post-bomb {sup 14}C samples and the available datasets and compilations, but do not give a recommendation for a particular dataset.

  5. How training and experience affect the benefits of autonomy in a dirty-bomb experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David J. Bruemmer; Curtis W. Nielsen; David I. Gertman


    A dirty-bomb experiment conducted at the INL is used to evaluate the effectiveness and suitability of three different modes of robot control. The experiment uses three distinct user groups to understand how participants’ background and training affect the way in which they use and benefit from autonomy. The results show that the target mode, which involves automated mapping and plume tracing together with a point and click tasking tool, provides the best performance for each group. This is true for objective performance such as source detection and localization accuracy as well as subjective measures such as perceived workload, frustration and preference. The best overall performance is achieved by the Explosive Ordinance Disposal group which has experience in both robot teleoperation and dirty bomb response. The user group that benefits least from autonomy is the Nuclear Engineers that have no experience with either robot operation or dirty bomb response. The group that benefits most from autonomy is the Weapons of Mass Destruction Civil Response Team that has extensive experience related to the task, but no robot training.

  6. Boosting Belligerence: How the July 7, 2005, London Bombings Affected Liberals' Moral Foundations and Prejudice. (United States)

    Van de Vyver, Julie; Houston, Diane M; Abrams, Dominic; Vasiljevic, Milica


    Major terrorist events, such as the recent attacks in Ankara, Sinai, and Paris, can have profound effects on a nation's values, attitudes, and prejudices. Yet psychological evidence testing the impact of such events via data collected immediately before and after an attack is understandably rare. In the present research, we tested the independent and joint effects of threat (the July 7, 2005, London bombings) and political ideology on endorsement of moral foundations and prejudices among two nationally representative samples (combined N = 2,031) about 6 weeks before and 1 month after the London bombings. After the bombings, there was greater endorsement of the in-group foundation, lower endorsement of the fairness-reciprocity foundation, and stronger prejudices toward Muslims and immigrants. The differences in both the endorsement of the foundations and the prejudices were larger among people with a liberal orientation than among those with a conservative orientation. Furthermore, the changes in endorsement of moral foundations among liberals explained their increases in prejudice. The results highlight the value of psychological theory and research for understanding societal changes in attitudes and prejudices after major terrorist events. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Study of Rapid Self-triggering Extinguishing Bomb Fuze Based on the Forest Fire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Dongyang


    Full Text Available Sustained and stable development of forest resources has been focused on world attention, prevention and control of forest fires have also been widespread attention around the world. To extinguish the fire in the forest-fire spot quickly and effectively, a self-triggering fire-extinguishing bomb fuze sensor is designed, and which properties are simulation and analysis. Simulation results show that fire-extinguishing bomb is being placed in the fire, fusible link burn out quickly in high temperature conditions, compressed spring is released, the firing pin was ejected to impact percussion cap so as to detonate explosives, powder extinguishing agent is uniformly blasted, powder is coated on the combustion source to make it extinguished so that the quick and reliable long-range extinguishment is achieved. The abilities of extinguishing fire bombs are significantly improved, it is not only energy- efficient and environmental but also solving problems about the long-range out fire effectively. Therefore, it has good application value to protect the safety of life and property indeed.

  8. Psychiatric advanced practice nurses contributions to supporting survivors and caregivers affected by the Boston marathon bombings. (United States)

    Lakatos, Barbara E; Delisle, Leslie; Mitchell, Monique; Etheredge, Mary Lou


    The role of the psychiatric advanced practice nurse in promoting psychological health and resiliency for patients, their families and staff following the Boston Marathon bombings is reviewed. On April 15, 2013, 2 bombs exploded near the finish line at the Boston Marathon. Within minutes, 39 patients suffering from multiple injuries presented at a level I trauma center. The magnitude of this event and its effect on our hospital required a comprehensive response that would promote resiliency and healing. Lessons shared from responders to other tragedies were helpful in guiding our interprofessional efforts. The multiple layers of our response are reviewed to offer learnings that may inform others as they work to promote resiliency and healing following traumatic events. In response to this event, we utilized a trauma-informed care framework emphasizing physical, psychological, and emotional safety to assist staff, survivors, and families on their journey of healing. Emotional reactions were dramatic but were eased by the psychological care and education that our patients, their families, and staff received in the first days to weeks after the bombings. The psychiatric advanced practice nurse can influence positive outcomes by utilizing a trauma-informed care framework.

  9. Radiologic features of injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at three hospitals. (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Goralnick, Eric; Velmahos, George; Biddinger, Paul D; Gates, Jonathan; Sodickson, Aaron


    The aim of this study is to describe the radiologic imaging findings of primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries in patients injured in the Boston Marathon bombing on April 15, 2013. A total of 43 patients presenting to three acute care hospitals and undergoing radiologic investigation within 7 hours of the time of the bombing on April 15, 2013, were included in this study. The radiographic and CT features of these patients were evaluated for imaging findings consistent with primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injury. There were no pulmonary or gastrointestinal manifestations of the primary blast wave on imaging. Secondary blast injuries identified on imaging included a total of 189 shrapnel fragments identified in 32 of the 43 patients. The shrapnel was identified most often in the soft tissues of the leg (36.5%), thigh (31.2%), and pelvis (13.2%). Imaging identified 125 ball bearings, 10 nails, one screw, 44 metal fragments, and nine other (gravel, glass, etc.) foreign bodies. Injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing were predominantly from the secondary blast wave and resulted in traumatic injuries predominantly of the lower extremities. The most common shrapnel found on radiologic evaluation was the ball bearing.

  10. Head and neck injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing at four hospitals. (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Buch, Karen; Sung, Edward; Abujudeh, Hani; Sakai, Osamu; Aaron, Sodickson; Lev, Michael


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the imaging findings of head and neck injuries in patients from the Boston Marathon bombing. A total of 115 patients from the Boston Marathon bombing presenting to four hospitals who underwent imaging to evaluate for head and neck injuries were included in the study. Twelve patients with positive findings on radiography or cross-sectional imaging were included in the final analysis. The radiographic, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance (MR) imaging features of these patients were evaluated for the presence of shrapnel and morphological abnormality. Head and neck injuries were seen in 12 out of 115 patients presenting to the four hospitals. There were secondary blast injuries to the head and neck in eight patients, indicated by the presence of shrapnel on imaging. In the four patients without shrapnel, there were two with subgaleal hematomas, one with facial contusion and one with mastoid injury. There were two patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage, one with brain contusion, one with cerebral laceration, and one with globe rupture. There was frontal bone, nasal bone, and orbital wall fracture in one patient each. Imaging identified 26 shrapnel fragments, 21 of which were ball bearings. Injuries to the head and neck region identified on imaging from the Boston Marathon bombing were not common. The injuries seen were predominantly secondary blast injuries from shrapnel, and did not result in calvarial penetration of the shrapnel fragments.

  11. Psychological effects of the marathon bombing on Boston-area veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder. (United States)

    Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Hein, Christina; Prince, Lauren; Reardon, Annemarie F


    This study examined the psychological impact of the Boston Marathon bombing using data from an ongoing longitudinal study of Boston-area veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD; N = 71). Participants were assessed by telephone within 1 week of the end of the event; 42.3% of participants reported being personally affected by the bombings and/or the manhunt that followed. The majority of them reported that the bombing reminded them of their own traumas and/or caused other emotional distress. Examination of change in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms from a prebombing assessment an average of 2 months earlier to 1 week after the event revealed no significant change in symptoms across the sample as a whole. However, examination of patterns of change at the individual level revealed significant correlations (r = .33; p = .005) between distress at the time of the event and change in total PTSD symptom severity, with this effect accounted for primarily by increases in intrusion and avoidance symptoms (rs = .35 and .31, ps = .002 and .008, respectively). Findings of this study should raise awareness of the potential impact of terror attacks, mass shootings, and other events of this type on the well-being of individuals with histories of trauma and/or pre-existing PTSD. Published 2013. This article is a US Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Emotional intelligence in the operating room: analysis from the Boston Marathon bombing. (United States)

    Chang, Beverly P; Vacanti, Joshua C; Michaud, Yvonne; Flanagan, Hugh; Urman, Richard D


    The Boston Marathon terrorist bombing that occurred on April 15, 2013 illustrates the importance of a cohesive, efficient management for the operating room and perioperative services. Conceptually, emotional intelligence (EI) is a form of social intelligence used by individuals in leadership positions to monitor the feelings and emotions of their team while implementing a strategic plan. To describe the experience of caring for victims of the bombing at a large tertiary care center and provide examples demonstrating the importance of EI and its role in the management of patient flow and overall care. A retrospective review of trauma data was performed. Data regarding patient flow, treatment types, treatment times, and outcomes were gathered from the hospital's electronic tracking system and subsequently analyzed. Analyses were performed to aggregate the data, identify trends, and describe the medical care. Immediately following the bombing, a total of 35 patients were brought to the emergency department (ED) with injuries requiring immediate medical attention. 10 of these patients went directly to the operating room on arrival to the hospital. The first victim was in an operating room within 21 minutes after arrival to the ED. The application of EI in managerial decisions helped to ensure smooth transitions for victims throughout all stages of their perioperative care. EI provided the fundamental groundwork that allowed the operating room manager and nurse leaders to establish the calm and coordinated leadership that facilitated patient care and teamwork.

  13. Wartime scars or reservoirs of biodiversity? The value of bomb crater ponds in aquatic conservation. (United States)

    Vad, Csaba F; Péntek, Attila L; Cozma, Nastasia J; Földi, Angéla; Tóth, Adrienn; Tóth, Bence; Böde, NóraA; Móra, Arnold; Ptacnik, Robert; Ács, Éva; Zsuga, Katalin; Horváth, Zsófia


    Considering the ongoing loss of aquatic habitats, anthropogenic ponds are gaining importance as substitute habitats. It is therefore important to assess their functioning in comparison to their natural precursors. Here we assess the biodiversity value of sodic bomb crater ponds by comparing their gamma diversity to that of natural reference habitats, astatic soda pans, and assess their importance on the landscape level by studying alpha and beta diversity. We studied aquatic organisms ranging from algae to vertebrates in a dense cluster of 54 sodic bomb crater ponds in Central Europe. Despite the overall small area of the pond cluster, gamma diversity was comparable to that found in surveys of natural habitats that encompassed much wider spatial and temporal scales. We also found a considerable number of species shared with reference habitats, indicating that these anthropogenic habitats function as important refuge sites for several species that are associated with the endangered soda pans. Moreover, we found a number of regionally or worldwide rare species. Among the components of beta diversity, species replacement dominated community assembly. Individual ponds contributed similarly to beta diversity in terms of replacement, being equally important for maintaining high gamma diversity and emphasising the role of the pond network rather than individual ponds. This pattern was seen in all studied groups. Bomb crater ponds therefore acted as important contributors to aquatic biodiversity. Considering the tremendous losses of ponds throughout Europe, anthropogenic ponds should be taken into consideration in nature conservation, especially when occurring in pond networks.

  14. Proceedings of the 43rd Research Society for the Late Effects of the A-Bomb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    This issue is the collection of study papers presented in the meeting in the title, which including the special review lecture concerning the subjects and prospects in studies on the late health effects of A-bomb radiation; symposia concerning the significance and summary of health effects study of the children of A-bomb survivors at Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), the ethical issues on human genome and genetic analyses, and on materials of survivors and their biology in the archive, and the technology (genetic effects of radiation in human mini-satellite loci and microarray-based comparative genome hybridization as its efficient methodology); and 40 general presentations. The general presentations involve 19 clinical health examination studies of A-bomb survivors in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, related to cancer (4 presentations), immunology (4) and other general clinical observations; 7 clinical and basic studies on patients generated in the Tokai criticality accident (1), in Chernobyl (3), Belarus (1) and Nagasaki (2); 5 application studies of histological specimens; and 9 basic radiation biology studies related to carcinogenesis, p53, radio-sensitization or -sensitivity etc. (N.I.)

  15. Radiological work-up after mass casualty incidents: are ATLS guidelines applicable? (United States)

    Postma, Ingri L E; Beenen, L F M; Bijlsma, T S; Berger, F H; Heetveld, M J; Bloemers, F W; Goslings, J C


    In mass casualty incidents (MCI) a large number of patients need to be evaluated and treated fast. Well-designed radiological guidelines can save lives. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) radiological guidelines in the MCI of an aeroplane crash. Medical data of all 126 survivors of an aeroplane crash were analysed. Data included type and body region of the radiological studies performed on the survivors, Abbreviated Injury Score (AIS) and Injury Severity Score (ISS) codes and trauma care level of the hospitals. Ninety patients (72 %) underwent one or more imaging studies: in total 297 radiographs, 148 CTs and 18 ultrasounds were performed. Only 18 % received diagnostic imaging of all four body regions as recommended by ATLS. Compliance with ATLS was highest (73.3 %) in severely injured victims (ISS ≥16); this group underwent two thirds of the (near) total body CTs, all performed in level I trauma centres. Overall compliance with ATLS radiological guidelines was low, although high in severely injured patients. Level I trauma centres frequently used (near) total body CT. Deviation from ATLS guidelines in radiological work-up in less severely injured patients can be safe and did not result in delayed diagnosis of serious injury. • Radiological imaging protocols can assist the management of mass casualty incidents needs. • Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) radiological guidelines have been developed. • But radiological guidelines have not frequently been applied in aeroplane crashes. • Aircraft accidents are of high energy so ATLS guidelines should be applied. • Following mass casualty incidents total body CT seems appropriate within ATLS protocols.

  16. Psychological Effect of a Mass Casualty Event on General Surgery Residents. (United States)

    Havron, William S; Safcsak, Karen; Corsa, Joshua; Loudon, Andrew; Cheatham, Michael L

    To evaluate the psychological effect of a mass casualty shooting event on general surgery residents. Three and 7 months following the Pulse nightclub mass casualty shooting, the mental well-being of general surgery residents employed at the receiving institution was evaluated. A voluntary and anonymous screening questionnaire for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and major depression (MD) was administered. Responses were stratified into 2 groups; residents who worked (ON-CALL) and residents who did not work (OFF-CALL) the night of the event. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney U and Fisher's exact tests and are reported as median with interquartile range (IQR) or percentage. Level I trauma center. Thirty-one general surgery residents. Twenty-four residents (77%) returned the 3-month questionnaire: 10 ON-CALL and 14 OFF-CALL. There was no difference in PTSD and MD between the 2 groups (30% vs. 14%; p = 0.61) and (30% vs. 7%; p = 0.27), respectively. Twenty-three of the 24 residents responded to the 7-month questionnaire. Over time, the incidence of PTSD did not resolve in the ON-CALL group, but did resolve in the OFF-CALL group (30% vs. 0%; p = 0.07). There was no significant change in the incidence of MD in either group (30% vs. 8%; p = 0.28). At 7 months postevent, more residents in both groups stated that they had sought counseling (30% vs. 44%; p = 0.65) and (0% vs. 15%; p = 0.22). The emotional toll associated with this mass casualty event had a substantial effect upon the general surgery residents involved. With the incidence of PTSD and MD identified, we believe that all residents should be provided with counseling following such events. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Mass chemical casualties: treatment of 41 patients with burns by anhydrous ammonia. (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Zheng, Xing-Feng; Ma, Bing; Fan, Xiao-Ming; Wang, Guang-Yi; Xia, Zhao-Fan


    This article reports a chemical burn incident that occurred on 31 August 2013 in Shanghai. We describe situations at the scene, emergency management, triage, evacuation, and follow-up of the victims. The scene of the incident and information on the 41 victims of this industrial chemical incident were investigated. The emergency management, triage, evacuation, and hospitalization data of the patients were summarized. At the time of the incident, 58 employees were working in a closed refrigerator workshop, 41 of whom sustained burns following the leakage of anhydrous ammonia. Ten victims died of severe inhalation injury at the scene, and another five victims died during the process of evacuation to the nearest hospital. After receiving information on the incident, a contingency plan for the burn disaster was launched immediately, and a first-aid group and an emergency and triage group were dispatched by the Changhai Hospital to the scene to aid the medical organization, emergency management, triage, and evacuation. All casualties were first rushed to the nearest hospital by ambulance. The six most serious patients with inhalation injuries were evacuated to the Changhai Hospital and admitted to the burn intensive care unit (BICU) for further treatment, one of whom died of respiratory failure and pulmonary infection. This mass casualty incident of anhydrous ammonia leakage caused potential devastating effects to the society, especially to the victims and their families. Early first-aid organization, emergency management, triage, and evacuation were of paramount importance, especially rapid evaluation of the severity of inhalation injury, and subsequent corresponding medical treatment. The prognosis of ammonia burns was poor and the sequelae were severe. Management and treatment lessons were drawn from this mass casualty chemical burn incident. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  18. Analysis of DNA from post-blast pipe bomb fragments for identification and determination of ancestry. (United States)

    Tasker, Esiri; LaRue, Bobby; Beherec, Charity; Gangitano, David; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree


    Improvised explosive devices (IEDs) such as pipe bombs are weapons used to detrimentally affect people and communities. A readily accessible brand of exploding targets called Tannerite® has been identified as a potential material for abuse as an explosive in pipe bombs. The ability to recover and genotype DNA from such weapons may be vital in the effort to identify suspects associated with these devices. While it is possible to recover DNA from post-blast fragments using short tandem repeat markers (STRs), genotyping success can be negatively affected by low quantities of DNA, degradation, and/or PCR inhibitors. Alternative markers such as insertion/null (INNULs) and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are bi-allelic genetic markers that are shorter genomic targets than STRs for amplification, which are more likely to resist degradation. In this study, we constructed pipe bombs that were spiked with known amounts of biological material to: 1) recover "touch" DNA from the surface of the device, and 2) recover traces of blood from the ends of wires (simulated finger prick). The bombs were detonated with the binary explosive Tannerite® using double-base smokeless powder to initiate the reaction. DNA extracted from the post-blast fragments was quantified with the Quantifiler® Trio DNA Quantification Kit. STR analysis was conducted using the GlobalFiler® Amplification Kit, INNULs were amplified using an early-access version of the InnoTyper™ 21 Kit, and SNP analysis via massively parallel sequencing (MPS) was performed using the HID-Ion Ampliseq™ Identity and Ancestry panels using the Ion Chef and Ion PGM sequencing system. The results of this study showed that INNUL markers resulted in the most complete genetic profiles when compared to STR and SNP profiles. The random match probabilities calculated for samples using INNULs were lower than with STRs when less than 14 STR alleles were reported. These results suggest that INNUL analysis may be well suited for

  19. Critical issues in preparing for a mass casualty event: highlights from a new community planning guide. (United States)


    To assist community planners in allocating scarce resources in a mass casualty event, the Department of Health and Human Services' Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) and the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response collaborated with leading experts on a series of issue papers on preparedness and response. These papers were presented at an expert meeting in Washington, DC, in June 2006. The papers, revised based on meeting discussions, have been published by AHRQ as Mass Medical Care with Scarce Resources: A Community Planning Guide.

  20. Orthopaedic triage during natural disasters and mass casualties: do scoring systems matter? (United States)

    Wolfson, Nikolaj


    Mass casualty events, either natural disasters or man-made, are associated with extremities injuries. The treating surgeon often faces a challenging decision: can the affected extremity be saved or amputated? The following article will present the author's view on the subject of triage and the use of scoring systems in the decision-making process whether to salvage or amputate an affected extremity. The author will analyse the existing scoring systems and emphasise significance of the regional factors: geographical, cultural and level of health care, as factors playing roles in this process.

  1. Managing multiple-casualty incidents: a rural medical preparedness training assessment. (United States)

    Glow, Steven D; Colucci, Vincent J; Allington, Douglas R; Noonan, Curtis W; Hall, Earl C


    The objectives of this study were to develop a novel training model for using mass-casualty incident (MCI) scenarios that trained hospital and prehospital staff together using Microsoft Visio, images from Google Earth and icons representing first responders, equipment resources, local hospital emergency department bed capacity, and trauma victims. The authors also tested participants' knowledge in the areas of communications, incident command systems (ICS), and triage. Participants attended Managing Multiple-Casualty Incidents (MCIs), a one-day training which offered pre- and post-tests, two one-hour functional exercises, and four distinct, one-hour didactic instructional periods. Two MCI functional exercises were conducted. The one-hour trainings focused on communications, National Incident Management Systems/Incident Command Systems (NIMS/ICS) and professional roles and responsibilities in NIMS and triage. The trainings were offered throughout communities in western Montana. First response resource inventories and general manpower statistics for fire, police, Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and emergency department hospital bed capacity were determined prior to MCI scenario construction. A test was given prior to and after the training activities. A total of 175 firefighters, EMS, law enforcement, hospital personnel or other first-responders completed the pre- and post-test. Firefighters produced higher baseline scores than all other disciplines during pre-test analysis. At the end of the training all disciplines demonstrated significantly higher scores on the post-test when compared with their respective baseline averages. Improvements in post-test scores were noted for participants from all disciplines and in all didactic areas: communications, NIMS/ICS, and triage. Mass-casualty incidents offer significant challenges for prehospital and emergency room workers. Fire, Police and EMS personnel must secure the scene, establish communications, define individuals

  2. Spatial-temporal forensic analysis of mass casualty incidents using video sequences. (United States)

    Hao Dong; Juechen Yin; Schafer, James; Ganz, Aura


    In this paper we introduce DIORAMA based forensic analysis of mass casualty incidents (MCI) using video sequences. The video sequences captured on site are automatically annotated by metadata, which includes the capture time and the camera location and viewing direction. Using a visual interface the MCI investigators can easily understand the availability of video clips in specific areas of interest, and efficiently review them. The video-based forensic analysis system will enable the MCI investigators to better understand the rescue operations and subsequently improve training procedures.

  3. The effect of an out-of-hours reform on attendance at casualty wards. The Danish example

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedsted, Peter; Christensen, Morten Bondo


    of this out-of-hours reform on the number of contacts with the casualty wards. DESIGN: A register-based ecologic time-trend study of the mean number of annual contacts per inhabitant from 1988 to 1997. SETTING: The County of Aarhus. SUBJECTS: All 630000 inhabitants in the county. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Mean...... in the attendance rate with casualty wards after the reform was statistically insignificant. CONCLUSIONS: The decrease in the total number of contacts with the out-of-hours primary health care after the reform was not met by a corresponding increase in casualty ward contacts. A clear-cut significant increase......OBJECTIVE: A reorganisation of the out-of-hours general practice service in Denmark was launched in January 1992. The biggest changes were in a mandatory telephone triage staffed by GPs and the replacement of small rota systems with county-based health centres. We aimed to analyse the effect...

  4. 68Ga/177Lu-NeoBOMB1, a Novel Radiolabeled GRPR Antagonist for Theranostic Use in Oncology. (United States)

    Dalm, Simone U; Bakker, Ingrid L; de Blois, Erik; Doeswijk, Gabriela N; Konijnenberg, Mark W; Orlandi, Francesca; Barbato, Donato; Tedesco, Mattia; Maina, Theodosia; Nock, Berthold A; de Jong, Marion


    Because overexpression of the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPR) has been reported on various cancer types, for example, prostate cancer and breast cancer, targeting this receptor with radioligands might have a significant impact on staging and treatment of GRPR-expressing tumors. NeoBOMB1 is a novel DOTA-coupled GRPR antagonist with high affinity for GRPR and excellent in vivo stability. The purpose of this preclinical study was to further explore the use of NeoBOMB1 for theranostic application by determining the biodistribution of 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 and 177Lu-NeoBOMB1. PC-3 tumor-xenografted BALB/c nu/nu mice were injected with either approximately 13 MBq/250 pmol 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 or a low (∼1 MBq/200 pmol) versus high (∼1 MBq/10 pmol) peptide amount of 177Lu-NeoBOMB1, after which biodistribution and imaging studies were performed. At 6 time points (15, 30, 60, 120, 240, and 360 min for 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 and 1, 4, 24, 48, 96, and 168 h for 177Lu-NeoBOMB1) postinjection tumor and organ uptake was determined. To assess receptor specificity, additional groups of animals were coinjected with an excess of unlabeled NeoBOMB1. Results of the biodistribution studies were used to determine pharmacokinetics and dosimetry. Furthermore, PET/CT and SPECT/MRI were performed. Injection of approximately 250 pmol 68Ga-NeoBOMB1 resulted in a tumor and pancreas uptake of 12.4 ± 2.3 and 22.7 ± 3.3 percentage injected dose per gram (%ID/g) of tissue, respectively, at 120 min after injection. 177Lu-NeoBOMB1 biodistribution studies revealed a higher tumor uptake (17.9 ± 3.3 vs. 11.6 ± 1.3 %ID/g of tissue at 240 min after injection) and a lower pancreatic uptake (19.8 ± 6.9 vs. 105 ± 13 %ID/g of tissue at 240 min after injection) with the higher peptide amount injected, leading to a significant increase in the absorbed dose to the tumor versus the pancreas (200 pmol, 570 vs. 265 mGy/MBq; 10 pmol, 435 vs. 1393 mGy/MBq). Using these data to predict patient dosimetry, we found a

  5. The Vulnerability of People to Landslides: A Case Study on the Relationship between the Casualties and Volume of Landslides in China. (United States)

    Lin, Qigen; Wang, Ying; Liu, Tianxue; Zhu, Yingqi; Sui, Qi


    The lack of a detailed landslide inventory makes research on the vulnerability of people to landslides highly limited. In this paper, the authors collect information on the landslides that have caused casualties in China, and established the Landslides Casualties Inventory of China. 100 landslide cases from 2003 to 2012 were utilized to develop an empirical relationship between the volume of a landslide event and the casualties caused by the occurrence of the event. The error bars were used to describe the uncertainty of casualties resulting from landslides and to establish a threshold curve of casualties caused by landslides in China. The threshold curve was then applied to the landslide cases occurred in 2013 and 2014. The validation results show that the estimated casualties of the threshold curve were in good agreement with the real casualties with a small deviation. Therefore, the threshold curve can be used for estimating potential casualties and landslide vulnerability, which is meaningful for emergency rescue operations after landslides occurred and for risk assessment research.

  6. Microfabricated Waveguide Atom Traps.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A nanoscale , microfabricated waveguide structure can in - principle be used to trap atoms in well - defined locations and enable strong photon-atom interactions . A neutral - atom platform based on this microfabrication technology will be prealigned , which is especially important for quantum - control applications. At present, there is still no reported demonstration of evanescent - field atom trapping using a microfabricated waveguide structure. We described the capabilities established by our team for future development of the waveguide atom - trapping technology at SNL and report our studies to overcome the technical challenges of loading cold atoms into the waveguide atom traps, efficient and broadband optical coupling to a waveguide, and the waveguide material for high - power optical transmission. From the atomic - physics and the waveguide modeling, w e have shown that a square nano-waveguide can be utilized t o achieve better atomic spin squeezing than using a nanofiber for first time.

  7. Atomic and molecular manipulation

    CERN Document Server

    Mayne, Andrew J


    Work with individual atoms and molecules aims to demonstrate that miniaturized electronic, optical, magnetic, and mechanical devices can operate ultimately even at the level of a single atom or molecule. As such, atomic and molecular manipulation has played an emblematic role in the development of the field of nanoscience. New methods based on the use of the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) have been developed to characterize and manipulate all the degrees of freedom of individual atoms and molecules with an unprecedented precision. In the meantime, new concepts have emerged to design molecules and substrates having specific optical, mechanical and electronic functions, thus opening the way to the fabrication of real nano-machines. Manipulation of individual atoms and molecules has also opened up completely new areas of research and knowledge, raising fundamental questions of "Optics at the atomic scale", "Mechanics at the atomic scale", Electronics at the atomic scale", "Quantum physics at the atomic sca...

  8. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J


    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  9. A community initiative to increase use of seat belts in Northern British Columbia: impacts on casualty crashes. (United States)

    Wilson, R Jean; Wiggins, Sandi; Fang, Ming


    The study aimed to establish an association between seat belt ticketing by police, seat belt wearing rates, and decreases in casualty rates following the implementation of a community seat belt initiative in a northern region of British Columbia. Annual and monthly violation ticket rates and the percentage of casualties unbelted in collisions were computed for the North Central region and a comparison region, the Southern Interior. The trends in annual seat belt ticket rates, seat belt use among injured victims, and injury data from 2001 through 2007 were examined by descriptive/univariate methods and with intervention time series analysis. Use of a casualty rate measure controlled for changes in collision frequency over time. The primary outcome measure was injury claim incidents involving injuries other than to soft tissue. Injury claims involving only soft tissue were examined as a control series, because it was reasoned this subset of casualties would be less impacted by seat belt use. Seat belt tickets per capita increased in the North Central (NC) region over the study period, exceeding levels in all other regions. The percentage of unbelted occupants in casualty crashes fell by about 3 percent per year in the NC region after the initiative was introduced compared to about 1 percent per year in the SI region. The time series models revealed a significant reduction in non soft tissue casualties per 100 collisions per month. No significant reduction in the soft tissue only injury criterion was detected. A strong community initiative backed by support at the provincial level can be successful in a largely rural and sparsely populated northern region despite the challenges faced in such regions.

  10. Iran, the bomb and the pursuit of security. Structured conflict analyses; Iran, die Bombe und das Streben nach Sicherheit. Strukturierte Konfliktanalysen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bock, Andreas M. [Akkon-Hochschule fuer Humanwissenschaften, Berlin (Germany); Henneberg, Ingo (ed.) [Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Professur fuer Governance in Mehrebenensystemen


    This volume introduces readers to the structured conflict analysis as a tool of social science research and uses this instrument exemplarily to analyze systematically and on a broad basis the various conflicts that are associated with Iran both domestically and in foreign policy - beyond popular stereotypes such as the ''bomb''. The 13 contributions draw a complex picture of the conflicts with and in Iran and reflect the various aspects of these conflicts from different perspectives and at a high methodological and theoretical level. The nuclear program is examined, inter alia through the eyes of four major theories of International Relations. In addition, the analyses are concerned with the regional security dimension, the relationship USA-Iran, the role of national preferences, and the effect of national processes to the Iranian foreign policy.

  11. A behavioral ecology approach to traffic accidents: interspecific variation in causes of traffic casualties among birds. (United States)

    Møller, Anders Pape; Erritzøe, Helga; Erritzøe, Johannes


    Birds and other animals are frequently killed by cars, causing the death of many million individuals per year. Why some species are killed more often than others has never been investigated. In this work hypothesized that risk taking behavior may affect the probability of certain kinds of individuals being killed disproportionately often. Furthermore, behavior of individuals on roads, abundance, habitat preferences, breeding sociality, and health status may all potentially affect the risk of being killed on roads. We used information on the abundance of road kills and the abundance in the surrounding environment of 50 species of birds obtained during regular censuses in 2001-2006 in a rural site in Denmark to test these predictions. The frequency of road kills increased linearly with abundance, while the proportion of individuals sitting on the road or flying low across the road only explained little additional variation in frequency of road casualties. After having accounted for abundance, we found that species with a short flight distance and hence taking greater risks when approached by a potential cause of danger were killed disproportionately often. In addition, solitary species, species with a high prevalence of Plasmodium infection, and species with a large bursa of Fabricius for their body size had a high susceptibility to being killed by cars. These findings suggest that a range of different factors indicative of risk-taking behavior, visual acuity and health status cause certain bird species to be susceptible to casualties due to cars.

  12. Health care worker protection in mass casualty respiratory failure: infection control, decontamination, and personal protective equipment. (United States)

    Daugherty, Elizabeth L


    Maintenance of a safe and stable health care infrastructure is critical to an effective mass casualty disaster response. Both secondary contamination during chemical disasters and hospital-associated infections during epidemic illness can pose substantial threats to achieving this goal. Understanding basic principles of decontamination and infection control during responses to chemical and biologic disasters can help minimize the risks to patients and health care workers. Effective decontamination following toxic chemical exposure should include both removal of contaminated clothing and decontamination of the victim's skin. Wet decontamination is the most feasible strategy in a mass casualty situation and should be performed promptly by trained personnel. In the event of an epidemic, infection prevention and control measures are based on essential principles of hand hygiene and standard precautions. Expanded precautions should be instituted as needed to target contact, droplet, and airborne routes of infectious disease transmission. Specific equipment and measures for critical care delivery may serve to decrease risk to health care workers in the event of an epidemic. Their use should be considered in developing comprehensive disaster response plans.

  13. Using the Design for Demise Philosophy to Reduce Casualty Risk Due to Reentering Spacecraft (United States)

    Kelley, R. L.


    Recently the reentry of a number of vehicles has garnered public attention due to their risk of human casualty due to fragments surviving reentry. In order to minimize this risk for their vehicles, a number of NASA programs have actively sought to minimize the number of components likely to survive reentry at the end of their spacecraft's life in order to meet and/or exceed NASA safety standards for controlled and uncontrolled reentering vehicles. This philosophy, referred to as "Design for Demise" or D4D, has steadily been adopted, to at least some degree, by numerous programs. The result is that many programs are requesting evaluations of components at the early stages of vehicle design, as they strive to find ways to reduce the number surviving components while ensuring that the components meet the performance requirements of their mission. This paper will discuss some of the methods that have been employed to ensure that the consequences of the vehicle s end-of-life are considered at the beginning of the design process. In addition this paper will discuss the technical challenges overcome, as well as some of the more creative solutions which have been utilized to reduce casualty risk.

  14. Integrated musculoskeletal rehabilitation care at a comprehensive combat and complex casualty care program. (United States)

    Goldberg, Capt Kathy F; Green, Bart; Moore, Jacqueline; Wyatt, Marilynn; Boulanger, Lynn; Belnap, Brian; Harsch, Peter; Donaldson, David S


    The purpose of this study is to describe the musculoskeletal rehabilitation model used to care for combat and severely wounded or ill US military service members at an integrated Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care center located at Naval Medical Center San Diego. Through a collaborative and iterative process, providers from the various services included at the Comprehensive Combat and Complex Casualty Care program developed a description of the integration of services provided at this location. After construction of the facility in 2007, the program has provided services for approximately 2 years. Eighteen different health care providers from 10 different specialties provide integrated musculoskeletal services, which include primary care, physical therapy, occupational therapy, vestibular therapy, gait analysis, prosthetics, recreational therapy, and chiropractic care. At the time of this writing (early 2009), the program had provided musculoskeletal rehabilitation care to approximately 500 patients, 58 with amputations, from the operational theater, Veterans Affairs, other military treatment facilities, and local trauma centers. The complex nature of combat wounded and polytrauma patients requires an integrated and interdisciplinary team that is innovative, adaptable, and focused on the needs of the patient. This article presents a description of the model and the experiences of our musculoskeletal rehabilitation team; it is our hope that this article will assist other centers and add to the small but emerging literature on this topic.

  15. Civilian casualties of Iraqi ballistic missile attack to Tehran, capital of Iran. (United States)

    Khaji, Ali; Fallahdoost, Shoaodin; Soroush, Mohammad-Reza; Rahimi-Movaghar, Vafa


    To determine the pattern of causalities of Iraqi ballistic missile attacks on Tehran, the capital of Iran, during Iraq-Iran war. Data were extracted from the Army Staff Headquarters based on daily reports of Iranian army units during the war. During 52 days, Tehran was stroked by 118 Al-Hussein missiles (a modified version of Scud missile). Eighty-six missiles landed in populated areas. During Iraqi missile attacks, 422 civilians died and 1 579 injured (4.9 deaths and 18.3 injuries per missile). During 52 days, 8.1 of the civilians died and 30.4 injured daily. Of the cases that died, 101 persons (24%) were excluded due to the lack of information. Among the remainders, 179 (55.8%) were male and 142 (44.2%) were female. The mean age of the victims was 25.3 years+/-19.9 years. Our results show that the high accuracy of modified Scud missiles landed in crowded areas is the major cause of high mortality in Tehran. The presence of suitable warning system and shelters could reduce civilian casualties. The awareness and readiness of civilian defense forces, rescue services and all medical facilities for dealing with mass casualties caused by ballistic missile attacks are necessary.

  16. Therapeutic results of sciatic nerve repair in Iran-Iraq war casualties. (United States)

    Gousheh, Jamal; Arasteh, Ehsan; Beikpour, Hadi


    The sciatic nerve is composed of two independent divisions: tibial and peroneal. The results of the repair of these two nerves are not identical. This retrospective study was carried out with the aim of evaluating the results of different therapeutic procedures for sciatic nerve injuries and conducting a comparative evaluation of peroneal and tibial nerve recovery. A total of 648 Iranian casualties of the 1980 to 1988 Iran-Iraq war with sciatic nerve injury were treated with nerve grafting, direct end-to-end coaptation, and neurolysis. Patients were subdivided according to nerve injury site into three groups of upper, middle, and lower thirds of the thigh, and followed from 5 to 12 years. In 77.8 percent of patients, the tibial nerve was injured, and in 88.9 percent, the common peroneal nerve was injured. Protective sensation recovery of the sole was evaluated as good in 69.1 percent of those with upper third injuries, 74.4 percent of those with middle third injuries, and 89.3 percent of those with lower third repairs (p war casualties were generally satisfactory. Tibial nerve injury repair in the upper thigh has a higher priority than the peroneal nerve. Motor deficits of the common peroneal nerve can be overcome by tendon transfer or orthopedic devices.

  17. Eksperimentalno ispitivanje aerodinamičkih karakteristika modela laserski vođene bombe / Experimental investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of the laser guided bomb model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dijana Damljanović


    Full Text Available U radu su prikazani rezultati merenja aerodinamičkih sila i momenata, kao i vizualizacija strujanja u graničnom sloju na krilima i krmilima modela laserski vođene bombe. Ispitivanje je izvršeno u aerotunelu T-38. Analiziranje uticaj rastojanja vrha konusa tela, u odnosu na sekciju krmila, na aerodinamičke karakteristike modela za dva Mahova broja M∞ = 0,8 i 0,9 i otklon krmila δ=15°. Normalne sile koje se javljaju na modelu i krmilu merene su unutrašnjim aerovagama. Dobijeni rezultati merenja normalne sile na modelu i posebno na krmilu povezani su sa rezultatima vizualizacije strujanja metodom uljnih premaza. Priložene fotografije vizualizacije strujanja ilustruju promene strujanja oko modela i potvrđuju rezultate aerodinamičkih merenja. / Aerodynamic test results and boundary layer flow visualization on the wings and fins of laser guided bomb model are presented in this article. Test was performed in the T-38 wind tunnel. Influence of fin position relative to conic top of the model on aerodynamic characteristics was analyzed. Analysis was performed on aerodynamic characteristics of the model for two Mach numbers M∞ = 0,8 and 0,9 and fin deflection δ=15°. Normal forces present on the model and fin were measured by internal strain gauge balances. Obtained test results of normal force on the model and especially on the fin were associated with flow visualization results, which were performed by oil emulsion method. Presented images of flow visualization show changes of the flow around the model and confirm the results of the aerodynamic measurements.

  18. Atomic vapor density monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, N.; Harris, W.; Beeler, R.; Wooldridge, J.; Chen, H.L.


    This report presents information on the Atomic Vapor Density Monitor (AVDM) system that measures the density of a vapor by measuring the absorption of light from a swept-wavelength laser that passes through an atomic vapor stream.

  19. Systematic review of strategies to manage and allocate scarce resources during mass casualty events. (United States)

    Timbie, Justin W; Ringel, Jeanne S; Fox, D Steven; Pillemer, Francesca; Waxman, Daniel A; Moore, Melinda; Hansen, Cynthia K; Knebel, Ann R; Ricciardi, Richard; Kellermann, Arthur L


    Efficient management and allocation of scarce medical resources can improve outcomes for victims of mass casualty events. However, the effectiveness of specific strategies has never been systematically reviewed. We analyze published evidence on strategies to optimize the management and allocation of scarce resources across a wide range of mass casualty event contexts and study designs. Our literature search included MEDLINE, Scopus, EMBASE, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Global Health, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, from 1990 through late 2011. We also searched the gray literature, using the New York Academy of Medicine's Grey Literature Report and key Web sites. We included both English- and foreign-language articles. We included studies that evaluated strategies used in actual mass casualty events or tested through drills, exercises, or computer simulations. We excluded studies that lacked a comparison group or did not report quantitative outcomes. Data extraction, quality assessment, and strength of evidence ratings were conducted by a single researcher and reviewed by a second; discrepancies were reconciled by the 2 reviewers. Because of heterogeneity in outcome measures, we qualitatively synthesized findings within categories of strategies. From 5,716 potentially relevant citations, 74 studies met inclusion criteria. Strategies included reducing demand for health care services (18 studies), optimizing use of existing resources (50), augmenting existing resources (5), implementing crisis standards of care (5), and multiple categories (4). The evidence was sufficient to form conclusions on 2 strategies, although the strength of evidence was rated as low. First, as a strategy to reduce demand for health care services, points of dispensing can be used to efficiently distribute biological countermeasures after a bioterrorism attack or influenza pandemic, and their organization influences speed of

  20. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (United States)

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  1. Playing Pinball with Atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saedi, A.; van Houselt, Arie; van Gastel, Raoul; Poelsema, Bene; Zandvliet, Henricus J.W.


    We demonstrate the feasibility of controlling an atomic scale mechanical device by an external electrical signal. On a germanium substrate, a switching motion of pairs of atoms is induced by electrons that are directly injected into the atoms with a scanning tunneling microscope tip. By precisely

  2. The Boston marathon bombings: the early plastic surgery experience of one Boston hospital. (United States)

    Kim, Peter S; Malin, Edward; Kirkham, John C; Helliwell, Lydia A; Ibrahim, Ahmed M S; Tobias, Adam M; Upton, Joseph; Lee, Bernard T; Lin, Samuel J


    On April 15, 2013, at approximately 2:49 p.m. EDT, two improvised explosive devices detonated near the finish line of the 117th Boston Marathon. Patients were transported from the scene to several trauma centers, including the authors' institution. Plastic surgical assessment of patients began in the Emergency Department and then rapidly expanded as the scope of the incident became clear. Daily interdisciplinary meetings involving the acute care surgery, orthopedic surgery, plastic surgery, and nursing services were convened in order to coordinate operating room schedules and treatment plans. An interdisciplinary weekly clinic continued until all patient goals had been reached. Twenty-four patients were treated at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center within the first 24 hours of the Boston Marathon bombing. Seven were triaged directly to the operating room from the Emergency Department. The Division of Plastic Surgery was directly involved with the care of 11 patients, all of whom were treated surgically within 24 hours of the bombing. Patients were aged 23 to 50 years old. All 11 patients sustained lower extremity injuries with gross contamination. Four patients also sustained significant upper extremity trauma. Injuries included extremity amputations and fractures, soft-tissue loss, impaction of nails and other debris, burns, ocular injury, and ruptured tympanic membranes. Twenty-four patients received acute care at Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center following the Boston Marathon bombing. Institution of dedicated interdisciplinary daily rounds, protected operating room block time, and joint follow-up clinic allowed for efficient early diagnosis and treatment of patients' injuries.

  3. Research on the Optimization in the Continuous-fire Strategy of the HPM-Bomb

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng Hui


    Full Text Available The electronic damage feasibility and the operational characteristics of the high power electromagnetic pulse bomb shot by shipboard gun are analyzed. As the destruction of the electronic components caused by the high power electromagnetic pulse is hard to evaluate, the spatial distribution of the anti-ship missiles is analyzed, and the strategic model for the continuous fire is built. Aimed at the maximum damage effectiveness, the crux of the lasted shift shooting tactics is a TSP problem. The genetic algorithm is applied in the TSP problem. Simulation experiments demonstrate that the model and the algorithm are effective.

  4. Technical approaches to on-person bomb detection for counter-terrorism (United States)

    Alonso, Steve


    Western democracies can reasonably expect an increase in homicide bombings as a major terrorist weapon of choice causing fear and economic damage far in excess of the actual loss of life and property caused by the explosives. The terrorists will strike at public venues (transportation, shopping, sporting events, schools, and governmental facilities) greatly multiplying the complexity and cost of effective defense. The author argues for accelerated research in multiple electromagnetic and passive technologies and fielding single and multi-sensor fixed, mobile and manportable systems to attempt to stay one step ahead of the growing reality of global terrorism.

  5. The Impact of Terrorism on Well-being: Evidence from the Boston Marathon Bombing


    Clark, Andrew E.; Doyle, Orla; Stancanelli, Elena


    A growing literature concludes that terrorism impacts the economy, yet less is known about its impact on utility. This paper estimates the impact of the 2013 Boston Marathon Bombing on well-being, by exploiting representative U.S. daily data. Using both a regression discontinuity and an event study design, whereby the 2012 Boston marathon serves as a counterfactual, we find a sharp reduction in well-being, equivalent to a two percentage point rise in annual unemployment. The effect is stronge...



    K. Kwiatek


    This paper explores how a computer-generated reconstruction of a church can be adapted to create a panoramic film that is presented in a panoramic viewer and also on a wrap-around projection system. It focuses on the fundamental principles of creating 360º films, not only in 3D modelling software, but also presents how to record 360º video using panoramic cameras inside the heritage site. These issues are explored in a case study of Charles Church in Plymouth, UK that was bombed in 1941 and h...

  7. Atomization characteristics of a prefilming airblast atomizer (United States)

    Hayashi, Shigeru; Koito, Atsushi; Hishiki, Manabu


    The size distribution of water test sprays generated by a prefilming airblast atomizer used for aeroengines was measured in swirling and non-swirling flows with the well established laser scattering particle sizing technique. Atomizing air velocity (or pressure difference) was varied in a range wider than the conditions of actual engines. The Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) decreased at approximately a 1.5 power of the atomizing air velocity, being a higher velocity index than the previously reported values of 1 to 1.2. It was unexpectedly found that the effect of the liquid/air flow ratio was small. Since swirling flow increased the SMD at lower air velocities yet decreased it at higher ones, it is suggested that the reverse flow near the nozzle pintle adversely affects atomization.

  8. Single atom electrochemical and atomic analytics (United States)

    Vasudevan, Rama

    In the past decade, advances in electron and scanning-probe based microscopies have led to a wealth of imaging and spectroscopic data with atomic resolution, yielding substantial insight into local physics and chemistry in a diverse range of systems such as oxide catalysts, multiferroics, manganites, and 2D materials. However, typical analysis of atomically resolved images is limited, despite the fact that image intensities and distortions of the atoms from their idealized positions contain unique information on the physical and chemical properties inherent to the system. Here, we present approaches to data mine atomically resolved images in oxides, specifically in the hole-doped manganite La5/8Ca3/8MnO3, on epitaxial films studied by in-situ scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM). Through application of bias to the STM tip, atomic-scale electrochemistry is demonstrated on the manganite surface. STM images are then further analyzed through a suite of algorithms including 2D autocorrelations, sliding window Fourier transforms, and others, and can be combined with basic thermodynamic modelling to reveal relevant physical and chemical descriptors including segregation energies, existence and strength of atomic-scale diffusion barriers, surface energies and sub-surface chemical species identification. These approaches promise to provide tremendous insights from atomically resolved functional imaging, can provide relevant thermodynamic parameters, and auger well for use with first-principles calculations to yield quantitative atomic-level chemical identification and structure-property relations. This research was sponsored by the Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, BES, DOE. Research was conducted at the Center for Nanophase Materials Sciences, which also provided support and is a DOE Office of Science User Facility.

  9. Advanced Product Development for Combat Casualty Care at the U.S. Army Institute of Surgical Research (United States)


    landscapes of frigid tundra and frozen canyons are coupled with snowflakes, polar igloos and arctic animals designed to decrease the pain, anxiety and...hypovolemia in humans using broadband diffuse optical spectroscopy. J Biomed Opt 13: 064027, 2008. Advanced Product Development for Combat Casualty


    Ronen, Ohad; Assadi, Nidal; Sela, Eyal


    For two years the State of Israel has been treating casualties from the Syrian civil war. The Galilee Medical Center in Nahariya is the main hospital for this humanitarian mission. Objectives: To evaluate the demographic and clinical characteristics of the casualties that were treated in our department. Information from medical records of all Syrian casualties evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center were evaluated. Between March 2013 and December 2014, 450 casualties were evacuated to the Galilee Medical Center. Of those, 45 were treated in the Department of Otolaryngology - Head and Neck Surgery. Of the 45 cases, 43 were male (95.5%) and the mean age was 30.4 years (range 1-79 years). There was a significant difference in terms of gender (p Syrian injured treated in the ENT department, the vast majority were young men. The main cause of injury was gunshot wounds. It is likely that the lack of protective gear that exist in western armies is a factor in the complex injuries treated at the Galilee Medical Center.

  11. Virtual reality and live simulation: a comparison between two simulation tools for assessing mass casualty triage skills. (United States)

    Luigi Ingrassia, Pier; Ragazzoni, Luca; Carenzo, Luca; Colombo, Davide; Ripoll Gallardo, Alba; Della Corte, Francesco


    This study tested the hypothesis that virtual reality simulation is equivalent to live simulation for testing naive medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage using the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) algorithm in a simulated disaster scenario and to detect the improvement in these skills after a teaching session. Fifty-six students in their last year of medical school were randomized into two groups (A and B). The same scenario, a car accident, was developed identically on the two simulation methodologies: virtual reality and live simulation. On day 1, group A was exposed to the live scenario and group B was exposed to the virtual reality scenario, aiming to triage 10 victims. On day 2, all students attended a 2-h lecture on mass casualty triage, specifically the START triage method. On day 3, groups A and B were crossed over. The groups' abilities to perform mass casualty triage in terms of triage accuracy, intervention correctness, and speed in the scenarios were assessed. Triage and lifesaving treatment scores were assessed equally by virtual reality and live simulation on day 1 and on day 3. Both simulation methodologies detected an improvement in triage accuracy and treatment correctness from day 1 to day 3 (PVirtual reality simulation proved to be a valuable tool, equivalent to live simulation, to test medical students' abilities to perform mass casualty triage and to detect improvement in such skills.

  12. Multiple casualties in the Bastion UK Role 3 hospital: personal reflections on the positive evolution of deployed military hospital care. (United States)

    Ross, R A; Selwood, P


    In this article a snapshot of casualty presentations to the UK Role 3 hospital in Camp Bastion, Afghanistan, will be briefly described. The observations allow reflection on the advances and strength of clinical provision at the time of the incident, written from a medical command perspective.

  13. Daily variation in natural disaster casualties: information flows, safety, and opportunity costs in tornado versus hurricane strikes. (United States)

    Zahran, Sammy; Tavani, Daniele; Weiler, Stephan


    Casualties from natural disasters may depend on the day of the week they strike. With data from the Spatial Hazard Events and Losses Database for the United States (SHELDUS), daily variation in hurricane and tornado casualties from 5,043 tornado and 2,455 hurricane time/place events is analyzed. Hurricane forecasts provide at-risk populations with considerable lead time. Such lead time allows strategic behavior in choosing protective measures under hurricane threat; opportunity costs in terms of lost income are higher during weekdays than during weekends. On the other hand, the lead time provided by tornadoes is near zero; hence tornados generate no opportunity costs. Tornado casualties are related to risk information flows, which are higher during workdays than during leisure periods, and are related to sheltering-in-place opportunities, which are better in permanent buildings like businesses and schools. Consistent with theoretical expectations, random effects negative binomial regression results indicate that tornado events occurring on the workdays of Monday through Thursday are significantly less lethal than tornados that occur on weekends. In direct contrast, and also consistent with theory, the expected count of hurricane casualties increases significantly with weekday occurrences. The policy implications of observed daily variation in tornado and hurricane events are considered. © 2012 Society for Risk Analysis.

  14. 33 CFR 150.820 - When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? (United States)


    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When must a written report of casualty be submitted, and what must it contain? 150.820 Section 150.820 Navigation and Navigable Waters... this section serves as the notice required under § 150.815. (d) The operator will ensure that the...

  15. Complexities in the Use of Bomb-Curve Radiocarbon to Determine Time Since Death of Human Skeletal Remains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ubelaker, D H; Buchholz, B A


    Atmospheric testing of nuclear weapons during the 1950s and early 1960s doubled the level of radiocarbon ({sup 14}C) in the atmosphere. From the peak in 1963, the level of {sup 14}CO{sub 2} has decreased exponentially with a mean life of about 16 years, not due to radioactive decay, but due to mixing with large marine and terrestrial carbon reservoirs. Since radiocarbon is incorporated into all living things, the bomb-pulse is an isotopic chronometer of the past half century. The absence of bomb radiocarbon in skeletonized human remains generally indicates a date of death before 1950. Comparison of the radiocarbon values with the post 1950 bomb-curve may also help elucidate when in the post 1950 era, the individual was still alive. Such interpretation however, must consider the age at death of the individual and the type of tissue sampled.

  16. Multilevel Atomic Coherent States and Atomic Holomorphic Representation (United States)

    Cao, Chang-Qi; Haake, Fritz


    The notion of atomic coherent states is extended to the case of multilevel atom collective. Based on atomic coherent states, a holomorphic representation for atom collective states and operators is defined. An example is given to illustrate its application.

  17. Slope Failure Prediction and Early Warning Awareness Education for Reducing Landslides Casualty in Malaysia (United States)

    Koay, S. P.; Tay, L. T.; Fukuoka, H.; Koyama, T.; Sakai, N.; Jamaludin, S. B.; Lateh, H.


    Northeast monsoon causes heavy rain in east coast of Peninsular Malaysia from November to March, every year. During this monsoon period, besides the happening of flood along east coast, landslides also causes millions of Malaysian Ringgit economical losses. Hence, it is essential to study the prediction of slope failure to prevent the casualty of landslides happening. In our study, we introduce prediction method of the accumulated rainfall affecting the stability of the slope. If the curve, in the graph, which is presented by rainfall intensity versus accumulated rainfall, crosses over the critical line, the condition of the slope is considered in high risk where the data are calculated and sent from rain gauge in the site via internet. If the possibility of slope failure is going high, the alert message will be sent out to the authorities for decision making on road block or setting the warning light at the road side. Besides road block and warning light, we propose to disseminate short message, to pre-registered mobile phone user, to notify the public for easing the traffic jam and avoiding unnecessary public panic. Prediction is not enough to prevent the casualty. Early warning awareness of the public is very important to reduce the casualty of landslides happening. IT technology does not only play a main role in disseminating information, early warning awareness education, by using IT technology, should be conducted, in schools, to give early warning awareness on natural hazard since childhood. Knowing the pass history on landslides occurrence will gain experience on the landslides happening. Landslides historical events with coordinate information are stored in database. The public can browse these historical events via internet. By referring to such historical landslides events, the public may know where did landslides happen before and the possibility of slope failure occurrence again is considered high. Simulation of rainfall induced slope failure mechanism

  18. Mass Casualty Decontamination Guidance and Psychosocial Aspects of CBRN Incident Management: A Review and Synthesis (United States)

    Carter, Holly; Amlôt, Richard


    Introduction: Mass casualty decontamination is an intervention employed by first responders at the scene of an incident involving noxious contaminants.  Many countries have sought to address the challenge of decontaminating large numbers of affected casualties through the provision of rapidly deployable temporary showering structures, with accompanying decontamination protocols.  In this paper we review decontamination guidance for emergency responders and associated research evidence, in order to establish to what extent psychosocial aspects of casualty management have been considered within these documents. The review focuses on five psychosocial aspects of incident management: likely public behaviour; responder management style; communication strategy; privacy/ modesty concerns; and vulnerable groups. Methods: Two structured literature reviews were carried out; one to identify decontamination guidance documents for first responders, and another to identify evidence which is relevant to the understanding of the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination.  The guidance documents and relevant research were reviewed to identify whether the guidance documents contain information relating to psychosocial issues and where it exists, that the guidance is consistent with the existing evidence-base. Results: Psychosocial aspects of incident management receive limited attention in current decontamination guidance.  In addition, our review has identified a number of gaps and inconsistencies between guidance and research evidence.  For each of the five areas we identify: what is currently presented in guidance documents, to what extent this is consistent with the existing research evidence and where it diverges.  We present a series of evidence-based recommendations for updating decontamination guidance to address the psychosocial aspects of mass decontamination. Conclusions: Effective communication and respect for casualties’ needs are critical in ensuring

  19. Disaster metrics: quantitative benchmarking of hospital surge capacity in trauma-related multiple casualty events. (United States)

    Bayram, Jamil D; Zuabi, Shawki; Subbarao, Italo


    Hospital surge capacity in multiple casualty events (MCE) is the core of hospital medical response, and an integral part of the total medical capacity of the community affected. To date, however, there has been no consensus regarding the definition or quantification of hospital surge capacity. The first objective of this study was to quantitatively benchmark the various components of hospital surge capacity pertaining to the care of critically and moderately injured patients in trauma-related MCE. The second objective was to illustrate the applications of those quantitative parameters in local, regional, national, and international disaster planning; in the distribution of patients to various hospitals by prehospital medical services; and in the decision-making process for ambulance diversion. A 2-step approach was adopted in the methodology of this study. First, an extensive literature search was performed, followed by mathematical modeling. Quantitative studies on hospital surge capacity for trauma injuries were used as the framework for our model. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization triage categories (T1-T4) were used in the modeling process for simplicity purposes. Hospital Acute Care Surge Capacity (HACSC) was defined as the maximum number of critical (T1) and moderate (T2) casualties a hospital can adequately care for per hour, after recruiting all possible additional medical assets. HACSC was modeled to be equal to the number of emergency department beds (#EDB), divided by the emergency department time (EDT); HACSC = #EDB/EDT. In trauma-related MCE, the EDT was quantitatively benchmarked to be 2.5 (hours). Because most of the critical and moderate casualties arrive at hospitals within a 6-hour period requiring admission (by definition), the hospital bed surge capacity must match the HACSC at 6 hours to ensure coordinated care, and it was mathematically benchmarked to be 18% of the staffed hospital bed capacity. Defining and quantitatively benchmarking the

  20. A single, improvised "Kassam" rocket explosion can cause a mass casualty incident: a potential threat for future international terrorism? (United States)

    Schwartz, D; Ostfeld, I; Bar-Dayan, Y


    Over 2000 improvised rockets (called "Kassam" rockets) have been targeted at the south of Israel from the Gaza strip since 2001. Most of them have injured relatively few people. The first known case of a multicasualty incident (MCI) caused by the landing of a single, improvised rocket is described. The event is described according to the disastrous incidents systematic analysis through components, interactions and results methodology (DISAST-CIR). The rocket hit a military training tent camp in the south of Israel at 01:18 hours. At that time, all soldiers were in bed and were not using any protective gear. A total of 76 soldiers was injured (three severe, eight moderate and 65 mild). The most prevalent types of injuries were upper extremity (33%) and lower extremity (30%) trauma, tinnitus (30%) and acute stress reactions (32%). A total of 67 casualties was evacuated to the nearest level two hospital, Barzilai, in a two-phase distribution characterised by different patterns of injury severity and type. All urgent casualties arrived at hospitals within 1 h 24 minutes, whereas most stress casualties arrived in the later phase. Seven casualties were secondarily transported to level one trauma centres. 42 of the casualties were hospitalised and 17 needed urgent surgery. None has died. A single low-tech mortar with poor accuracy and small warhead (estimated weight of 10 kg only) can cause a large-scale MCI. As international terrorist organisations can easily gain access to improvised rockets, the latter may become a threat in many countries. Emergency systems should thus be prepared for that adverse possibility.

  1. Individual Well-Being and the Allocation of Time Before and After the Boston Marathon Terrorist Bombing


    Clark, Andrew E.; Stancanelli, Elena G. F.


    There is a small literature on the economic costs of terrorism. We consider the effects of the Boston marathon bombing on Americans’ well-being and time allocation. We exploit data from the American Time Use Survey and Well-Being Module in the days around the terrorist attack to implement a regression-discontinuity design. The bombing led to a significant and large drop of about 1.5 points in well-being, on a scale of one to six, for residents of the States close to Boston. The happiness of A...

  2. Determination of 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratio for a nuclear bomb particle using X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-particle spectrometry (United States)

    Pöllänen, R.; Ruotsalainen, K.; Toivonen, H.


    A nuclear bomb particle from Thule containing Pu and U was analyzed using X-ray spectrometry in combination with γ-ray spectrometry and non-destructive α-spectrometry. The main objective was to investigate the possibility to determine the 239Pu and 240Pu isotope ratios. Previously, X-ray spectrometry together with the above-mentioned methods has been successfully applied for radiochemically processed samples, but not for individual particles. In the present paper we demonstrate the power of non-destructive analysis. The 239Pu/( 239Pu+ 240Pu) atom ratio for the Thule particle was determined, using two different approaches, to be 0.93±0.07 and 0.91±0.05. These results are consistent with weapons-grade material and the results obtained by other investigators.

  3. Late effects of radiation: Neglected aspects of A-bomb data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, A.M.; Kneale, G.W. [Dept. of Public Health and Epidemiology, Birmingham Univ., Edgbaston (United Kingdom)


    Both from the Oxford Survey of Childhood Cancers, and from recent surveys of nuclear workers at Hanford and Oak Ridge, have come risk estimates for cancer effects of radiation that are much higher than the ones based on a life span study cohort of A-bomb survivors. Furthermore, relations between the age when exposed and the cancer risk were radically different for workers and survivors. Therefore, there was clearly a need to discover whether the LSS cohort was a normal homogeneous population or, alternatively, whether persons who had shown signs of acute radiation effects constituted a special, radiosensitive subgroup of survivors. Statistical tests of the alternative hypotheses revealed significant differences between 63,072 survivors who denied having any of the following injuries and 2,601 survivors who claimed two or more of them: radiation, burns, purpura, oropharyngeal lesions and epilation. The tests also showed that the group differences were largely the result of exposures before 10 or after 55 years of age being exceptionally dangerous; that cancer was not the only late effect of the A-bomb radiation, and that it was only among the survivors with multiple injuries that the leukaemia death rate was exceptionally high. (orig.)

  4. Before the bombing: High burden of traumatic injuries in Kunduz Trauma Center, Kunduz, Afghanistan. (United States)

    Hemat, Hamayoun; Shah, Safieh; Isaakidis, Petros; Das, Mrinalini; Kyaw, Nang Thu Thu; Zaheer, Sattar; Qasemy, Abdul Qayeum; Zakir, Mutallib; Mahama, Gbane; Van Overloop, Catherine; Dominguez, Lynette


    Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF) has been providing healthcare in Afghanistan since 1981 including specialized health services for trauma patients in Kunduz Trauma Center (KTC) from 2011. On October 3rd, 2015, a US airstrike hit the KTC, killing 42 people including 14 MSF staff. This study aims to demonstrate the impact on healthcare provision, after hospital destruction, by assessing the extent of care provided for trauma and injuries by the MSF KTC and to report on treatment outcomes from January 2014 to June 2015, three months prior to the bombing. This is a descriptive, retrospective review of hospital records. All patients with traumatic injuries registered in the Emergency Department (ED) or hospitalized in In-Patients Department (IPD) and/or Intensive Care Unit (ICU) of KTC between January 2014 and June 2015 were included in the study. A total of 35647 patients were registered in KTC during the study period. 3199 patients registered in the ED were children aged wound surgery followed by orthopedic surgery (27.0%). This study highlights the high burden of traumatic injuries in Kunduz province and MSF Trauma Center's contribution to saving lives, preventing disabilities and alleviating suffering among adults and children within the region. The bombing and destruction of KTC has resulted in a specific gap in critical healthcare services for the local communities in the health system of this war-ravaged region. This suggests the urgent need for reconstruction and re-opening of the center.

  5. Imaging of abdominal and pelvic injuries from the Boston Marathon bombing. (United States)

    Singh, Ajay K; Sodickson, Aaron; Abujudeh, Hani


    The aim of this study is to describe the imaging findings of abdominal and pelvic injuries in victims of the Boston Marathon bombing. A retrospective review of 87 patients following the Boston Marathon bombing was performed to evaluate for abdominal and pelvic injuries on plain radiography or CT scans of the abdomen and pelvis. Imaging exams were evaluated for shrapnel, soft tissue injury, visceral damage, vascular disruption, and fractures. The injuries were classified as primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary blast injuries. Eleven of the 87 patients had positive findings in the abdomen or pelvis (M:F = 7:4, average age 34.6 years). There were 22 ball bearings, two nails, one screw, and two irregular metal fragments in the 11 patients with secondary blast (shrapnel) injuries. There was no peritoneal penetration or visceral injury seen in any of the patients. One patient had multiple transverse process fractures, representing tertiary blast injury. All but one patient had superficial penetrating abdominal or pelvic injuries secondary to shrapnel. There were no cases of bowel or solid visceral organ injuries due to the lack of peritoneal violation from the relatively low-powered explosions. Absence of peritoneal penetration by shrapnel indicates no need for laparotomy following low-powered explosions.

  6. Cumulative exposure to prior collective trauma and acute stress responses to the Boston marathon bombings. (United States)

    Garfin, Dana Rose; Holman, E Alison; Silver, Roxane Cohen


    The role of repeated exposure to collective trauma in explaining response to subsequent community-wide trauma is poorly understood. We examined the relationship between acute stress response to the 2013 Boston Marathon bombings and prior direct and indirect media-based exposure to three collective traumatic events: the September 11, 2001 (9/11) terrorist attacks, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. Representative samples of residents of metropolitan Boston (n = 846) and New York City (n = 941) completed Internet-based surveys shortly after the Boston Marathon bombings. Cumulative direct exposure and indirect exposure to prior community trauma and acute stress symptoms were assessed. Acute stress levels did not differ between Boston and New York metropolitan residents. Cumulative direct and indirect, live-media-based exposure to 9/11, Superstorm Sandy, and the Sandy Hook shooting were positively associated with acute stress responses in the covariate-adjusted model. People who experience multiple community-based traumas may be sensitized to the negative impact of subsequent events, especially in communities previously exposed to similar disasters. © The Author(s) 2015.

  7. Age validation and growth of bluenose Hyperoglyphe antarctica using the bomb chronometer method of radiocarbon ageing. (United States)

    Horn, P L; Neil, H L; Paul, L J; Marriott, P


    Age validation of bluenose Hyperoglyphe antarctica was sought using the independent bomb chronometer procedure. Radiocarbon ((14) C) levels were measured in core micro-samples from 12 otoliths that had been aged using a zone count method. The core (14) C measurement for each fish was compared with the value on a surface water reference curve for the calculated birth year of the fish. There was good agreement, indicating that the line-count ageing method described here is not substantially biased. A second micro-sample was also taken near the edge of nine of the otolith cross-sections to help define a bomb-carbon curve for waters deeper than 200-300 m. There appears to be a 10 to 15 year lag in the time it takes the (14) C to reach the waters where adult H. antarctica are concentrated. The maximum estimated age of this species was 76 years, and females grow significantly larger than males. Von Bertalanffy growth curves were estimated, and although they fit the available data reasonably well, the lack of aged juvenile fish results in the K and t(0) parameters being biologically meaningless. Consequently, curves that are likely to better represent population growth were estimated by forcing t(0) to be -0·5. © 2010 NIWA. Journal of Fish Biology © 2010 The Fisheries Society of the British Isles.

  8. Long range intermolecular forces in triatomic systems: connecting the atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations


    Cvitas, Marko T.; Soldan, Pavel; Hutson, Jeremy M.


    The long-range forces that act between three atoms are analysed in both atom-diatom and atom-atom-atom representations. Expressions for atom-diatom dispersion coefficients are obtained in terms of 3-body nonadditive coefficients. The anisotropy of atom-diatom C_6 dispersion coefficients arises primarily from nonadditive triple-dipole and quadruple-dipole forces, while pairwise-additive forces and nonadditive triple-dipole and dipole-dipole-quadrupole forces contribute significantly to atom-di...

  9. Colonization of Libyan civil war casualties with multidrug-resistant bacteria. (United States)

    Koole, K; Ellerbroek, P M; Lagendijk, R; Leenen, L P H; Ekkelenkamp, M B


    In November 2011 51 Libyan war casualties were admitted to the Major Incident Hospital in Utrecht and from there were transferred to 26 other Dutch hospitals. Cultures and clinical data were collected to establish the prevalence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in this patient group and to identify the associated risk factors. The prevalence of MDR bacteria was 59% (30/51 patients); extended spectrum β-lactamase-producing enterobacteriaceae were most common (26/51 patients: 51%). The major risk factor for carriage of MDR bacteria was the presence of open wounds at admission to the Major Incident Hospital. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  10. An Interprofessional Approach to Continuing Education With Mass Casualty Simulation: Planning and Execution. (United States)

    Saber, Deborah A; Strout, Kelley; Caruso, Lisa Swanson; Ingwell-Spolan, Charlene; Koplovsky, Aiden


    Many natural and man-made disasters require the assistance from teams of health care professionals. Knowing that continuing education about disaster simulation training is essential to nursing students, nurses, and emergency first responders (e.g., emergency medical technicians, firefighters, police officers), a university in the northeastern United States planned and implemented an interprofessional mass casualty incident (MCI) disaster simulation using the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK) management framework. The school of nursing and University Volunteer Ambulance Corps (UVAC) worked together to simulate a bus crash with disaster victim actors to provide continued education for community first responders and train nursing students on the MCI process. This article explains the simulation activity, planning process, and achieved outcomes. J Contin Educ Nurs. 2017;48(10):447-453. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  11. Long-term disabilities associated with combat casualties: measuring disability and reintegration in combat veterans. (United States)

    Resnik, Linda; Reiber, Gayle


    Many physical and mental health problems associated with combat casualties affect the reintegration of service members into home and community life. Quantifying and measuring reintegration is important to answer questions about clinical, research, economic, and policy issues that directly affect combat veterans. Although the construct of participation presented in the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems and in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health provides a theoretical framework with which to understand and measure community reintegration in general, a measure was needed that specifically addressed the reintegration of combat veterans. To address this need, the Community Reintegration for Service Members global outcomes measure was developed. It consists of three scales, which measure extent of participation, perceived limitations, and satisfaction. The measure was validated in a general sample of veterans and in a sample of severely wounded service members. The computer-adapted test version shows good precision, reliability, construct validity, and predictive validity.

  12. Mass casualty incident surveillance and monitoring using identity aware video analytics. (United States)

    Yu, Xunyi; Ganz, Aura


    In this paper, we propose an identity aware video analytic system that can assist securing the perimeter of a mass casualty incident scene and generate identity annotated video records for forensics and training purposes. Establishing a secure incident scene perimeter and enforcing access control to different zones is a demanding task for current video surveillance systems which lack the ability to provide the identity of the target and its security clearance. Our system which combines active RFID sensors with video analytic tools recovers the identity of the target enabling the activation of suitable alert policies. The system also enables annotation of incident scene video with identity metadata, facilitating the incident response process reconstruction for forensics analysis and emergency response training.

  13. Victim identification and family support in mass casualties: the Massachusetts model. (United States)

    Wright, R J; Peters, C D; Flannery, R B


    The Aviation Disaster Family Assistance Act of 1996 requires the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB), air carriers, and the American Red Cross (ARC) to provide an integrated family assistance center to offer support to family survivors of mass casualties. A central component of post-incident response is the timely identification of victims and their personal belongings. This identification process occurs through antemortem interviews with family survivors. ARC of Massachusetts Bay determined that ARC volunteers would not play a major role in conducting antemortem interviews, and deferred primary responsibility for this task to the Massachusetts Office of the Chief Medical Examiner (OCMB). This paper presents the Massachusetts model for victim identification and family support at the local level. The structure and services of this model for on-site forensic processing, the fielding of antemortem interviewers, and a comprehensive training curriculum in psychological trauma and victim identification are presented. The implications are discussed.

  14. Balancing Fear: Why Counter-Terror Legislation was Blocked after the Oklahoma City and London Bombings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rubin


    Full Text Available Este artículo escruta las reacciones legislativas a los atentados en la ciudad de Oklahoma y los de Londres en 2005 para intentar descifrar como la legislación antiterrorista ha sustancialmente bloqueado estos ataques. Se intenta mostrar como la resistencia de los gobiernos y los ejecutivos aprueba índices críticos en las leyes antiterroristas. A la luz de una reciente encuesta sobre legislación antiterrorista mundial, los casos donde la legislación antiterrorista ha sido bloqueada ha llegado a ser verdaderamente crítica. A este fin, este artículo se pregunta por qué la legislación antiterrorista se bloquea cuando esto sucede. Para responder a esta cuestión, se han testado tres variables: la composición de los gobiernos, la opinión pública-basada en los niveles de terror en sus medios, y el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos. Para testar estas variables, se han evaluado dos casos: la evolución de la legislación antiterrorista antes de los ataques de la ciudad de Oklahoma en 1995 y antes de los atentados de Londres de 2005. En la evaluación de los casos, los debates legislativos y ejecutivos han ocurrido antes de los ataques terroristas examinados y luego se han comparado los dos casos con el Reino Unido en 1974 y los Estados Unidos en 2001 cuando la legislación antiterrorista inicia su camino. Este artículo concluye que el nivel de acuerdos ejecutivos y la composición de los gobiernos tiene el mayor poder de explicación en determinadas decisiones antiterroristas que llevarán a secundar la legislación antiterrorista o no.Palabras clave: ataques terroristas a Londres, legislación antiterrorista, Estados Unidos, Reino Unido___________________________ABSTRACT:This article scrutinizes the legislative reactions to the Oklahoma City Bombing and the 2005 London Bombings to try to decipher why counter-terror legislation was substantially blocked after these attacks.  It finds that the partisan composition of the government and

  15. Logistic regression analysis of pedestrian casualty risk in passenger vehicle collisions in China. (United States)

    Kong, Chunyu; Yang, Jikuang


    A large number of pedestrian fatalities were reported in China since the 1990s, however the exposure of pedestrians in public traffic has never been measured quantitatively using in-depth accident data. This study aimed to investigate the association between the impact speed and risk of pedestrian casualties in passenger vehicle collisions based on real-world accident cases in China. The cases were selected from a database of in-depth investigation of vehicle accidents in Changsha-IVAC. The sampling criteria were defined as (1) the accident was a frontal impact that occurred between 2003 and 2009; (2) the pedestrian age was above 14; (3) the injury according to the Abbreviated Injury Scale (AIS) was 1+; (4) the accident involved passenger cars, SUVs, or MPVs; and (5) the vehicle impact speed can be determined. The selected IVAC data set, which included 104 pedestrian accident cases, was weighted based on the national traffic accident data. The logistical regression models of the risks for pedestrian fatalities and AIS 3+ injuries were developed in terms of vehicle impact speed using the unweighted and weighted data sets. A multiple logistic regression model on the risk of pedestrian AIS 3+ injury was developed considering the age and impact speed as two variables. It was found that the risk of pedestrian fatality is 26% at 50 km/h, 50% at 58 km/h, and 82% at 70 km/h. At an impact speed of 80 km/h, the pedestrian rarely survives. The weighted risk curves indicated that the risks of pedestrian fatality and injury in China were higher than that in other high-income countries, whereas the risks of pedestrian casualty was lower than in these countries 30 years ago. The findings could have a contribution to better understanding of the exposures of pedestrians in urban traffic in China, and provide background knowledge for the development of strategies for pedestrian protection. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Pre-hospital management of mass casualty civilian shootings: a systematic literature review. (United States)

    Turner, Conor D A; Lockey, David J; Rehn, Marius


    Mass casualty civilian shootings present an uncommon but recurring challenge to emergency services around the world and produce unique management demands. On the background of a rising threat of transnational terrorism worldwide, emergency response strategies are of critical importance. This study aims to systematically identify, describe and appraise the quality of indexed and non-indexed literature on the pre-hospital management of modern civilian mass shootings to guide future practice. Systematic literature searches of PubMed, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Scopus were conducted in conjunction with simple searches of non-indexed databases; Web of Science, OpenDOAR and Evidence Search. The searches were last carried out on 20 April 2016 and only identified those papers published after the 1 January 1980. Included documents had to contain descriptions, discussions or experiences of the pre-hospital management of civilian mass shootings. From the 494 identified manuscripts, 73 were selected on abstract and title and after full text reading 47 were selected for inclusion in analysis. The search yielded reports of 17 mass shooting events, the majority from the USA with additions from France, Norway, the UK and Kenya. Between 1994 and 2015 the shooting of 1649 people with 578 deaths at 17 separate events are described. Quality appraisal demonstrated considerable heterogeneity in reporting and revealed limited data on mass shootings globally. Key themes were identified to improve future practice: tactical emergency medical support may harmonise inner cordon interventions, a need for inter-service education on effective haemorrhage control, the value of senior triage operators and the need for regular mass casualty incident simulation.

  17. A better START for low-acuity victims: data-driven refinement of mass casualty triage. (United States)

    Cross, Keith P; Petry, Michael J; Cicero, Mark X


    Methods currently used to triage patients from mass casualty events have a sparse evidence basis. The objective of this project was to assess gaps of the widely used Simple Triage and Rapid Transport (START) algorithm using a large database when it is used to triage low-acuity patients. Subsequently, we developed and tested evidenced-based improvements to START. Using the National Trauma Database (NTDB), a large set of trauma victims were assigned START triage levels, which were then compared to recorded patient mortality outcomes using area under the receiver-operator curve (AUC). Subjects assigned to the "Minor/Green" level who nevertheless died prior to hospital discharge were considered mistriaged. Recursive partitioning identified factors associated with of these mistriaged patients. These factors were then used to develop candidate START models of improved triage, whose overall performance was then re-evaluated using data from the NTDB. This process of evaluating performance, identifying errors, and further adjusting candidate models was repeated iteratively. The study included 322,162 subjects assigned to "Minor/Green" of which 2,046 died before hospital discharge. Age was the primary predictor of under-triage by START. Candidate models which re-assigned patients from the "Minor/Green" triage level to the "Delayed/Yellow" triage level based on age (either for patients >60 or >75), reduced mortality in the "Minor/Green" group from 0.6% to 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively. These candidate START models also showed net improvement in the AUC for predicting mortality overall and in select subgroups. In this research model using trauma registry data, most START under-triage errors occurred in elderly patients. Overall START accuracy was improved by placing elderly but otherwise minimally injured-mass casualty victims into a higher risk triage level. Alternatively, such patients would be candidates for closer monitoring at the scene or expedited transport ahead of other

  18. Oral and Enteral Resuscitation of Burn Shock The Historical Record and Implications for Mass Casualty Care (United States)

    Kramer, George C.; Michell, Michael W.; Oliveira, Hermes; Brown, Tim La H.; Herndon, David; Baker, R. David; Muller, Michael


    In the aftermath of a mass disaster, standard care methods for treatment of burn injury will often not be available for all victims. A method of fluid resuscitation for burns that has largely been forgotten by contemporary burn experts is enteral resuscitation. We identified 12 studies with over 700 patients treated with enteral resuscitation, defined as drinking or gastric infusion of salt solutions, from the literature. These studies suggest that enteral resuscitation can be an effective treatment for burn shock under conditions in which the standard IV therapy is unavailable or delayed, such as in mass disasters and combat casualties. Enteral resuscitation of burn shock was effective in patients with moderate (10–40% TBSA) and in some patients with more severe injuries. The data suggests that some hypovolemic burn and trauma patients can be treated exclusively with enteral resuscitation, and others might benefit from enteral resuscitation as an initial alternative and a supplement to IV therapy. A complication of enteral resuscitation was vomiting, which occurred less in children and much less when therapy was initiated within the first postburn hour. Enteral resuscitation is contra-indicated when the patient is in “peripheral circulatory collapse”. The optimal enteral solution and regimen has not yet been defined, nor has its efficacy been tested against modern IV resuscitation. The oldest studies used glucose-free solutions of buffered isotonic and hypotonic saline. Studies that are more recent show benefit of adding glucose to electrolyte solutions similar to those used in the treatment of cholera. If IV therapy for mass casualty care is delayed due to logistical constraints, enteral resuscitation should be considered. PMID:20827301

  19. Casualty Insurance Pure Premium Estimation Using Two-Stage Regression Tree (United States)

    Nishi, Kumiko; Takeuchi, Ichiro

    We study a regression tree algorithm tailored to casualty insurance pure premium estimation problems. Casualty insurance premium is mainly determined by the expected amount that the insurance companies have to pay for the contract. Therefore, casualy insurance companies have to estimate the expected insurance amount on the basis of insurance risk factors. This problem is formulated as a regression problem, i.e. estimation of conditional mean E[Y|x], where Y is insurance amounts and x is risk factors. In this paper, we aim to implement the regression problem in regression tree framework. The difficulty of the problem lies in the fact that the distribution of insurance amount P(Y|x) is highly skewed and exhibits a long-tail toward positive direction. Conventional least-square-error regression tree algorithm is notoriously unstable under such long-tailed error distribution. On the other hand, several types of robust regression trees, such as least-absolute-error regression tree, are neither appropriate in this situation because they yields significant bias to conditional mean E[Y|x]. In this paper, we propose a two-stage tree fitting algorithm. In the first stage, the algorithm constructs a quantile tree, a kind of robust regression tree, which is stable but biased to conditional mean E[Y|x]. In the second stage, the algorithm corrects the bias using least-square error regression tree. We discuss the theoretical background of the algorithm and empirically investigate the performances. We applied the proposed algorithm to a car insurance data set of 318,564 records provided from a north-american insurance company and obtained significantly better results than conventional regression tree algorithm.

  20. [Travel time and distances to Norwegian out-of-hours casualty clinics]. (United States)

    Raknes, Guttorm; Morken, Tone; Hunskår, Steinar


    Geographical factors have an impact on the utilisation of out-of-hours services. In this study we have investigated the travel distance to out-of-hours casualty clinics in Norwegian municipalities in 2011 and the number of municipalities covered by the proposed recommendations for secondary on-call arrangements due to long distances. We estimated the average maximum travel times and distances in Norwegian municipalities using a postcode-based method. Separate analyses were performed for municipalities with a single, permanently located casualty clinic. Altogether 417 out of 430 municipalities were included. We present the median value of the maximum travel times and distances for the included municipalities. The median maximum average travel distance for the municipalities was 19 km. The median maximum average travel time was 22 minutes. In 40 of the municipalities (10 %) the median maximum average travel time exceeded 60 minutes, and in 97 municipalities (23 %) the median maximum average travel time exceeded 40 minutes. The population of these groups comprised 2 % and 5 % of the country's total population respectively. For municipalities with permanent emergency facilities(N = 316), the median average flight time 16 minutes and median average distance 13 km.. In many municipalities, the inhabitants have a long average journey to out-of-hours emergency health services, but seen as a whole, the inhabitants of these municipalities account for a very small proportion of the Norwegian population. The results indicate that the proposed recommendations for secondary on-call duty based on long distances apply to only a small number of inhabitants. The recommendations should therefore be adjusted and reformulated to become more relevant.



    Baranov, M. I.


    Purpose. Preparation of short scientifically-historical essay about the prominent American scientist-chemist and physicist George Bogdan Kistiakowsky, having the Ukrainian «roots» and bringing in a considerable scientific and technical contribution to development and creation of the first atomic bombs in the USA. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information of world level in area of atomic and nuclear physi...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Baranov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Preparation of short scientifically-historical essay about the prominent American scientist-chemist and physicist George Bogdan Kistiakowsky, having the Ukrainian «roots» and bringing in a considerable scientific and technical contribution to development and creation of the first atomic bombs in the USA. Methodology. Scientific methods of collection, analysis and analytical treatment of the opened scientific and technical information of world level in area of atomic and nuclear physics, physics of hyperpessure, applied electrophysics, modern experimental physics, atomic science and technology. Results. The state-of-the-art review of the state of basic scientific and technical problems, arising up before scientists and engineers at development and creation within the framework of the «Manhattan» American atomic project of the first standards of atomic bombs of the USA is resulted. Two basic methods of receipt in the a-bomb of above critical mass of the divided nuclear material of military load are described: method of «cannon-shot» and method of «explosive implosion». Basic information is resulted about the declassified scheme and construction decisions, applied scientists and specialists in the first atomic bombs of the USA. Technical information is indicated about basic ordinary hard chemical explosive matters (EM, atomic bombs of the USA of implosend type utillized in the first. Originality. Systematization of the scientific and technical materials devoted the basic results of pioneer nuclear researches in the USA and USSR in the period of 1940-th on a capture above all things for soldiery aims by intranuclear energy and to the offensive on a planet Earth of nuclear era known from the opened sources is executed. The important role of the scientific ukrainian origin of G.B. Kistiakowsky in development and creation in the National nuclear center of the USA − Los-Alamos of laboratory of the first implosend atomic bombs of the

  3. Modern atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Natarajan, Vasant


    Much of our understanding of physics in the last 30-plus years has come from research on atoms, photons, and their interactions. Collecting information previously scattered throughout the literature, Modern Atomic Physics provides students with one unified guide to contemporary developments in the field. After reviewing metrology and preliminary material, the text explains core areas of atomic physics. Important topics discussed include the spontaneous emission of radiation, stimulated transitions and the properties of gas, the physics and applications of resonance fluorescence, coherence, cooling and trapping of charged and neutral particles, and atomic beam magnetic resonance experiments. Covering standards, a different way of looking at a photon, stimulated radiation, and frequency combs, the appendices avoid jargon and use historical notes and personal anecdotes to make the topics accessible to non-atomic physics students. Written by a leader in atomic and optical physics, this text gives a state-of-the...

  4. Single atom microscopy. (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos


    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  5. Solar Spectroscopy: Atomic Processes (United States)

    Mason, H.; Murdin, P.


    A Greek philosopher called DEMOCRITUS (c. 460-370 BC) first introduced the concept of atoms (which means indivisible). His atoms do not precisely correspond to our atoms of today, which are not indivisible, but made up of a nucleus (protons with positive charge and neutrons which have no charge) and orbiting electrons (with negative charge). Indeed, in the solar atmosphere, the temperature is suc...

  6. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J


    This series describes selected advances in the area of atomic spectroscopy. It is primarily intended for the reader who has a background in atmoic spectroscopy; suitable to the novice and expert. Although a widely used and accepted method for metal and non-metal analysis in a variety of complex samples, Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy covers a wide range of materials. Each Chapter will completely cover an area of atomic spectroscopy where rapid development has occurred.

  7. "We Are Not Terrorists," but More Likely Transnationals: Reframing Understandings about Immigrants in Light of the Boston Marathon Bombings (United States)

    Kasun, G. Sue


    The Boston Marathon bombings in April 2013 created a new kind of discomfort in the United States about "self-radicalized" terrorists, particularly related to Muslim immigrants. The two suspected bombers, brothers with Chechen backgrounds, had attended U.S. public schools. News media portrayed the brothers as "immigrants" and…

  8. Expanding What It Means to Make Evidence-Based Claims: Online Comments and the Boston Marathon Bombings (United States)

    Chandler-Olcott, Kelly


    This article argues that exploration of media coverage of a story like the Boston Marathon bombings, including online comments posted by readers, can support youth in reflecting on and thinking critically about a tragedy while offering opportunities for literacy pedagogy consistent with the goals of the Common Core State Standards for English…

  9. Clinically significant avoidance of public transport following the London bombings: Travel phobia or subthreshold posttraumatic stress disorder? (United States)

    Handley, Rachel V.; Salkovskis, Paul M.; Scragg, Peter; Ehlers, Anke


    Following the London bombings of 7 July 2005 a “screen and treat” program was set up with the aim of providing rapid treatment for psychological responses in individuals directly affected. The present study found that 45% of the 596 respondents to the screening program reported phobic fear of public transport in a screening questionnaire. The screening program identified 255 bombing survivors who needed treatment for a psychological disorder. Of these, 20 (8%) suffered from clinically significant travel phobia. However, many of these individuals also reported symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder [PTSD]. Comparisons between the travel phobia group and a sex-matched group of bombing survivors with PTSD showed that the travel phobic group reported fewer re-experiencing and arousal symptoms on the Trauma Screening Questionnaire (Brewin et al., 2002). The only PTSD symptoms that differentiated the groups were anger problems and feeling upset by reminders of the bombings. There was no difference between the groups in the reported severity of trauma or in presence of daily transport difficulties. Implications of these results for future trauma response are discussed. PMID:19765946

  10. A First Look on iMiner's Knowledge base and Detecting Hidden Hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Memon, Nasrullah


    of Investigative Data Mining (IDM). In addition, we present iMiner Information Harvesting System and describe how intelligence agencies could be benefited from detecting hierarchy in non-hierarchical terrorist networks.  In this paper we present results of detection of hidden hierarchy of Riyadh Bombing Terrorist...

  11. Experimental derivation of relative biological effectiveness of A-bomb neutrons in Hiroshima and Nagasaki and implications for risk assessment. (United States)

    Sasaki, M S; Nomura, T; Ejima, Y; Utsumi, H; Endo, S; Saito, I; Itoh, T; Hoshi, M


    Epidemiological data on the health effects of A-bomb radiation in Hiroshima and Nagasaki provide the framework for setting limits for radiation risk and radiological protection. However, uncertainty remains in the equivalent dose, because it is generally believed that direct derivation of the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of neutrons from the epidemiological data on the survivors is difficult. To solve this problem, an alternative approach has been taken. The RBE of polyenergetic neutrons was determined for chromosome aberration formation in human lymphocytes irradiated in vitro, compared with published data for tumor induction in experimental animals, and validated using epidemiological data from A-bomb survivors. The RBE of fission neutrons was dependent on dose but was independent of the energy spectrum. The same RBE regimen was observed for lymphocyte chromosome aberrations and tumors in mice and rats. Used as a weighting factor for A-bomb survivors, this RBE system was superior in eliminating the city difference in chromosome aberration frequencies and cancer mortality. The revision of the equivalent dose of A-bomb radiation using DS02 weighted by this RBE system reduces the cancer risk by a factor of 0.7 compared with the current estimates using DS86, with neutrons weighted by a constant RBE of 10.

  12. Projecte d’una instal•lació solar fotovoltaica per a un sistema de bombes de reg


    Batllori Alvarez, Eduard


    Instal.lació d’una explotació agrícola amb funcionament per energia solar fotovoltaica a Torregrossa (Tarragona). Disseny i definició de les parts necessàries que conformaran la instal•lació solar fotovoltaica que subministrarà energia elèctrica a les bombes de reg

  13. Atoms, Molecules, and Compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Manning, Phillip


    Explores the atoms that govern chemical processes. This book shows how the interactions between simple substances such as salt and water are crucial to life on Earth and how those interactions are predestined by the atoms that make up the molecules.

  14. Atoms, Molecules and Radiation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Refresher Course in Applications of Quantum Mechanics to 'Atoms, Molecules and Radiation' will be held at the Indian Academy of Sciences, Bangalore from December 8 to 20. 2014. The Course is primarily aimed at teachers teaching quantum mechanics and/ or atomic and molecular physics at the UG / PG level.

  15. When Atoms Want (United States)

    Talanquer, Vicente


    Chemistry students and teachers often explain the chemical reactivity of atoms, molecules, and chemical substances in terms of purposes or needs (e.g., atoms want or need to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to become more stable). These teleological explanations seem to have pedagogical value as they help students understand and use…

  16. Atomicity in Electronic Commerce, (United States)


    Atomicity in Electronic Commerce J. D. Tygar January 1996 CMU-CS-96-112 School of Computer Science Carnegie Mellon University Pittsburgh, PA 15213...other research sponsor. Keywords: electronic commerce , atomicity, NetBill, IBIP, cryptography, transaction pro- cessing, ACID, franking, electronic ...goods over networks. Electronic commerce has inspired a large variety of work. Unfortunately, much of that work ignores traditional transaction

  17. Theoretical atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Friedrich, Harald


    This expanded and updated well-established textbook contains an advanced presentation of quantum mechanics adapted to the requirements of modern atomic physics. It includes topics of current interest such as semiclassical theory, chaos, atom optics and Bose-Einstein condensation in atomic gases. In order to facilitate the consolidation of the material covered, various problems are included, together with complete solutions. The emphasis on theory enables the reader to appreciate the fundamental assumptions underlying standard theoretical constructs and to embark on independent research projects. The fourth edition of Theoretical Atomic Physics contains an updated treatment of the sections involving scattering theory and near-threshold phenomena manifest in the behaviour of cold atoms (and molecules). Special attention is given to the quantization of weakly bound states just below the continuum threshold and to low-energy scattering and quantum reflection just above. Particular emphasis is laid on the fundamen...

  18. Atomic diffusion in stars

    CERN Document Server

    Michaud, Georges; Richer, Jacques


    This book gives an overview of atomic diffusion, a fundamental physical process, as applied to all types of stars, from the main sequence to neutron stars. The superficial abundances of stars as well as their evolution can be significantly affected. The authors show where atomic diffusion plays an essential role and how it can be implemented in modelling.  In Part I, the authors describe the tools that are required to include atomic diffusion in models of stellar interiors and atmospheres. An important role is played by the gradient of partial radiative pressure, or radiative acceleration, which is usually neglected in stellar evolution. In Part II, the authors systematically review the contribution of atomic diffusion to each evolutionary step. The dominant effects of atomic diffusion are accompanied by more subtle effects on a large number of structural properties throughout evolution. One of the goals of this book is to provide the means for the astrophysicist or graduate student to evaluate the importanc...

  19. Maximally Atomic Languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Brzozowski


    Full Text Available The atoms of a regular language are non-empty intersections of complemented and uncomplemented quotients of the language. Tight upper bounds on the number of atoms of a language and on the quotient complexities of atoms are known. We introduce a new class of regular languages, called the maximally atomic languages, consisting of all languages meeting these bounds. We prove the following result: If L is a regular language of quotient complexity n and G is the subgroup of permutations in the transition semigroup T of the minimal DFA of L, then L is maximally atomic if and only if G is transitive on k-subsets of 1,...,n for 0 <= k <= n and T contains a transformation of rank n-1.

  20. The Chemical Time Bomb: How to Predict when it Will Go off

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bourg A. C. M.


    Full Text Available The Chemical Time Bomb Concept (CTB refers to “events resulting in the delayed occurrence of harmful effects due to the mobilization of chemicals stored in soils and sediments”. Why do some ecosystems accept contaminants with no (little impact? If soils and sediments are sinks for metallic contaminants it is because their hydrogeochemical environment is favorable. Why do they release them at some point? Oversaturation of the ecosystem is often suggested as the cause. We propose here a new approach to this now well accepted concept. The soil or sediment retains its metallic pollutants as long as the controlling parameters, i.e. mostly pH and Eh, are stable. The pH or Eh buffer capacity of the solid is therefore the controlling parameter to avoid the release of metallic contaminants to the hydrosphere. Examples of natural and contaminated systems will be presented.