WorldWideScience

Sample records for atom probe methods

  1. Encapsulation method for atom probe tomography analysis of nanoparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larson, D.J.; Giddings, A.D.; Wub, Y.; Verheijen, M.A.; Prosa, T.J.; Roozeboom, F.; Rice, K.P.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Geiser, B.P.; Kelly, T.F.

    2015-01-01

    Open-space nanomaterials are a widespread class of technologically important materials that are generally incompatible with analysis by atom probe tomography (APT) due to issues with specimen preparation, field evaporation and data reconstruction. The feasibility of encapsulating such non-compact

  2. A Filtering Method to Reveal Crystalline Patterns from Atom Probe Microscopy Desorption Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-26

    reveal crystalline patterns from atom probe microscopy desorption maps Lan Yao Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Michigan, Ann...reveal the crystallographic information present in Atom Probe Microscopy (APM) data is presented. Themethod filters atoms based on the time difference...between their evaporation and the evaporation of the previous atom . Since this time difference correlates with the location and the local structure of

  3. Probe for an atomic force microscope and method for making such a probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bos, A.G.; Abelmann, Leon; Lodder, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    De uitvinding heeft betrekking op een probe voor een magnetische kracht-microscoop, omvattende een in een wafervlak geplaatste beweegbare cantilever en een in hoofdzaak loodrecht op de cantilever geplaatste tip, waarbij de cantilever beweegbaar is en een trillingsrichting heeft in het wafervlak, en

  4. Atom Probe Tomography of Geomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parman, S. W.; Diercks, D.; Gorman, B.; Cooper, R. F.

    2013-12-01

    From the electron microprobe to the secondary ion microprobe to laser-ablation ICP-MS, steady improvements in the spatial resolution and detection limits of geochemical micro-analysis have been central to generating new discoveries. Atom probe tomography (APT) is a relatively new technology that promises nm-scale spatial resolution (in three dimensions) with ppm level detection limits. The method is substantially different from traditional beam-based (electron, ion, laser) methods. In APT, the sample is shaped (usually with a dual-beam FIB) into a needle with typical dimensions of 1-2 μm height and 100-200 nm diameter. Within the atom probe, the needle is evaporated one atom (ideally) at a time by a high electric field (ten's of V per square nm at the needle tip). A femtosecond laser (12 ps pulse width) is used to assist in evaporating non-conducting samples. The two-dimensional detector locates where the atom was released from the needle's surface and so can reconstruct the positions of all detected atoms in three dimensions. It also records the time of flight of the ion, which is used to calculate the mass/charge ratio of the ion. We will discuss our results analyzing a range of geologic materials. In one case, naturally occurring platinum group alloys (PGA) from the Josephine Ophiolite have been imaged. Such alloys are of interest as recorders of the Os heterogeneity of the mantle [1,2]. Optimal ablation was achieved with a laser power of 120-240 pJ and laser pulse rates 500 kHz. Runs were stopped after 10 million atoms were imaged. An example analysis is: Pt 61(1), Fe 26.1(9), Rh 1.20(4), Ir 7.0(7), Ni 2.65(8), Ru 0.20(9), Cu 1.22(8), Co 0.00029(5). Values are in atomic %; values in parentheses are one-sigma standard deviations on five separate needles from the same FIB lift-out, which was 30 μm long. Assuming the sample is homogenous over the 30 μm from which the needle was extracted, the analyses suggest relative errors for major elements below 5% and for

  5. Modeling Atom Probe Tomography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vurpillot, F., E-mail: francois.vurpillot@univ-rouen.fr [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, UMR CNRS 6634, Université de Rouen, Saint Etienne du Rouvray 76801 (France); Oberdorfer, C. [Institut für Materialwissenschaft, Lehrstuhl für Materialphysik, Universität Stuttgart, Heisenbergstr. 3, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Improving both the precision and the accuracy of Atom Probe Tomography reconstruction requires a correct understanding of the imaging process. In this aim, numerical modeling approaches have been developed for 15 years. The injected ingredients of these modeling tools are related to the basic physic of the field evaporation mechanism. The interplay between the sample nature and structure of the analyzed sample and the reconstructed image artefacts have pushed to gradually improve and make the model more and more sophisticated. This paper reviews the evolution of the modeling approach in Atom Probe Tomography and presents some future potential directions in order to improve the method. - Highlights: • The basics of field evaporation. • The main aspects of Atom Probe Tomography modeling. • The intrinsic limitations of the current method and future potential directions to improve the understanding of tip to image ion projection.

  6. The extended wedge method: Atomic force microscope friction calibration for improved tolerance to instrument misalignments, tip offset, and blunt probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khare, H. S.; Burris, D. L.

    2013-05-01

    One of the major challenges in understanding and controlling friction is the difficulty in bridging the length and time scales of macroscale contacts and those of the single asperity interactions they comprise. While the atomic force microscope (AFM) offers a unique ability to probe tribological surfaces in a wear-free single-asperity contact, instrument calibration challenges have limited the usefulness of this technique for quantitative nanotribological studies. A number of lateral force calibration techniques have been proposed and used, but none has gained universal acceptance due to practical considerations, configuration limitations, or sensitivities to unknowable error sources. This paper describes a simple extension of the classic wedge method of AFM lateral force calibration which: (1) allows simultaneous calibration and measurement on any substrate, thus eliminating prior tip damage and confounding effects of instrument setup adjustments; (2) is insensitive to adhesion, PSD cross-talk, transducer/piezo-tube axis misalignment, and shear-center offset; (3) is applicable to integrated tips and colloidal probes; and (4) is generally applicable to any reciprocating friction coefficient measurement. The method was applied to AFM measurements of polished carbon (99.999% graphite) and single crystal MoS2 to demonstrate the technique. Carbon and single crystal MoS2 had friction coefficients of μ = 0.20 ± 0.04 and μ = 0.006 ± 0.001, respectively, against an integrated Si probe. Against a glass colloidal sphere, MoS2 had a friction coefficient of μ = 0.005 ± 0.001. Generally, the measurement uncertainties ranged from 10%-20% and were driven by the effect of actual frictional variation on the calibration rather than calibration error itself (i.e., due to misalignment, tip-offset, or probe radius).

  7. Mining information from atom probe data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cairney, Julie M., E-mail: julie.cairney@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Rajan, Krishna [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Haley, Daniel [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Max Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Gault, Baptiste; Bagot, Paul A.J. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Choi, Pyuck-Pa [Max Planck Institut für Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck Straße 1, 40237 Düsseldorf (Germany); Felfer, Peter J.; Ringer, Simon P. [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Marceau, Ross K.W. [Institute for Frontier Materials, Deakin University, Geelong Technology Precinct, 75 Pigdons Road, Waurn Ponds, Victoria 3216 (Australia); Moody, Michael P. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-12-15

    Whilst atom probe tomography (APT) is a powerful technique with the capacity to gather information containing hundreds of millions of atoms from a single specimen, the ability to effectively use this information creates significant challenges. The main technological bottleneck lies in handling the extremely large amounts of data on spatial–chemical correlations, as well as developing new quantitative computational foundations for image reconstruction that target critical and transformative problems in materials science. The power to explore materials at the atomic scale with the extraordinary level of sensitivity of detection offered by atom probe tomography has not been not fully harnessed due to the challenges of dealing with missing, sparse and often noisy data. Hence there is a profound need to couple the analytical tools to deal with the data challenges with the experimental issues associated with this instrument. In this paper we provide a summary of some key issues associated with the challenges, and solutions to extract or “mine” fundamental materials science information from that data. - Highlights: • Overview of the newest developments in techniques to extract information from atom probe data. • As well as reviewing existing approaches, improvements and new approaches are presented. • Techniques covered include tests for randomness, short range order and crystallography. • Methods for interfacial excess mapping and spectral decomposition are also covered.

  8. Study of modification methods of probes for critical-dimension atomic-force microscopy by the deposition of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ageev, O. A., E-mail: ageev@sfedu.ru [Southern Federal University, Institute for Nanotechnologies, Electronics, and Electronic Equipment Engineering (Russian Federation); Bykov, Al. V. [NT-MDT (Russian Federation); Kolomiitsev, A. S.; Konoplev, B. G.; Rubashkina, M. V.; Smirnov, V. A.; Tsukanova, O. G. [Southern Federal University, Institute for Nanotechnologies, Electronics, and Electronic Equipment Engineering (Russian Federation)

    2015-12-15

    The results of an experimental study of the modification of probes for critical-dimension atomicforce microscopy (CD-AFM) by the deposition of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to improve the accuracy with which the surface roughness of vertical walls is determined in submicrometer structures are presented. Methods of the deposition of an individual CNT onto the tip of an AFM probe via mechanical and electrostatic interaction between the probe and an array of vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs) are studied. It is shown that, when the distance between the AFM tip and a VACNT array is 1 nm and the applied voltage is within the range 20–30 V, an individual carbon nanotube is deposited onto the tip. On the basis of the results obtained in the study, a probe with a carbon nanotube on its tip (CNT probe) with a radius of 7 nm and an aspect ratio of 1:15 is formed. Analysis of the CNT probe demonstrates that its use improves the resolution and accuracy of AFM measurements, compared with the commercial probe, and also makes it possible to determine the roughness of the vertical walls of high-aspect structures by CD-AFM. The results obtained can be used to develop technological processes for the fabrication and reconditioning of special AFM probes, including those for CD-AFM, and procedures for the interoperational express monitoring of technological process parameters in the manufacturing of elements for micro- and nanoelectronics and micro- and nanosystem engineering.

  9. Fabrication of an all-metal atomic force microscope probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jan Pihl; Tang, Peter Torben; Hansen, Ole

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for fabrication of an all-metal atomic force microscope probe (tip, cantilever and support) for optical read-out, using a combination of silicon micro-machining and electroforming. The paper describes the entire fabrication process for a nickel AFM-probe. In addition...

  10. Atom-probe tomography the local electrode atom probe

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Michael K

    2014-01-01

    In this comprehensive introduction to the use of APT in nanocharacterization, readers will find everything they need to get up to speed on the technique, from the core physics to state-of-the-art instrumentation and revised methods of data analysis.

  11. Data mining for isotope discrimination in atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broderick, Scott R. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States); Bryden, Aaron [Ames National Laboratory, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States); Suram, Santosh K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States); Rajan, Krishna, E-mail: krajan@iastate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    Ions with similar time-of-flights (TOF) can be discriminated by mapping their kinetic energy. While current generation position-sensitive detectors have been considered insufficient for capturing the isotope kinetic energy, we demonstrate in this paper that statistical learning methodologies can be used to capture the kinetic energy from all of the parameters currently measured by mathematically transforming the signal. This approach works because the kinetic energy is sufficiently described by the descriptors on the potential, the material, and the evaporation process within atom probe tomography (APT). We discriminate the isotopes for Mg and Al by capturing the kinetic energy, and then decompose the TOF spectrum into its isotope components and identify the isotope for each individual atom measured. This work demonstrates the value of advanced data mining methods to help enhance the information resolution of the atom probe. - Highlights: ► Atom probe tomography and statistical learning were combined for data enhancement. ► Multiple eigenvalue decompositions decomposed a spectrum with overlapping peaks. ► The isotope of each atom was determined by kinetic energy discrimination. ► Eigenspectra were identified and new chemical information was identified.

  12. In Situ Atom Probe Deintercalation of Lithium-Manganese-Oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeiffer, Björn; Maier, Johannes; Arlt, Jonas; Nowak, Carsten

    2017-04-01

    Atom probe tomography is routinely used for the characterization of materials microstructures, usually assuming that the microstructure is unaltered by the analysis. When analyzing ionic conductors, however, gradients in the chemical potential and the electric field penetrating dielectric atom probe specimens can cause significant ionic mobility. Although ionic mobility is undesirable when aiming for materials characterization, it offers a strategy to manipulate materials directly in situ in the atom probe. Here, we present experimental results on the analysis of the ionic conductor lithium-manganese-oxide with different atom probe techniques. We demonstrate that, at a temperature of 30 K, characterization of the materials microstructure is possible without measurable Li mobility. Also, we show that at 298 K the material can be deintercalated, in situ in the atom probe, without changing the manganese-oxide host structure. Combining in situ atom probe deintercalation and subsequent conventional characterization, we demonstrate a new methodological approach to study ionic conductors even in early stages of deintercalation.

  13. Design of cantilever probes for Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Leergaard

    2000-01-01

    A cantilever beam used in an Atomic Force Microscope is optimized with respect to two different objectives. The first goal is to maximize the first eigenfrequency while keeping the stiffness of the probe constant. The second goal is to maximize the tip angle of the first eigenmode while again kee...... beam finite elements and the optimizations are carried through with either SLP (Sequential Linear Programming) or MMA (Method of Moving Asymptotes) and similar results are obtained....

  14. Atom Probe Tomography and Its Application to Refractory Metal Nuggets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, L.; Bland, P. A.; Forman, L. V.; Reddy, S. M.; Rickard, W. D. A.; Saxey, D. W.; La Fontaine, A.; Yang, L.; Trimby, P. W.; Cairney, J.; Ringer, S.; Schaefer, B. F.

    2016-08-01

    Atom probe tomography is capable of achieving atomic resolution. This allows us to accurately measure the chemistry of refractory metal nuggets in situ, revealing nanometre scale variations in their chemistry and the presence of sulphur in the alloy.

  15. Probing stem cell differentiation using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiaobin [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Shi, Xuetao, E-mail: mrshixuetao@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); Ostrovidov, Serge [WPI-Advanced Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Wu, Hongkai, E-mail: chhkwu@ust.hk [Department of Chemistry & Division of Biomedical Engineering, The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Nakajima, Ken [Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Ookayama 2-12-1, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan)

    2016-03-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation. • The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. • AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring stem cell differentiation in a non-invasive manner. - Abstract: A real-time method using atomic force microscopy (AFM) was developed to probe stem cell differentiation by measuring the mechanical properties of cells and the extracellular matrix (ECM). The mechanical properties of stem cells and their ECMs can be used to clearly distinguish specific stem cell-differentiated lineages. It is clear that AFM is a facile and useful tool for monitoring the differentiation of stem cells in a non-invasive manner.

  16. HAADF-STEM atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens: Towards quantitative correlative microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefebvre, W; Hernandez-Maldonado, D; Moyon, F; Cuvilly, F; Vaudolon, C; Shinde, D; Vurpillot, F

    2015-12-01

    The geometry of atom probe tomography tips strongly differs from standard scanning transmission electron microscopy foils. Whereas the later are rather flat and thin (atom probe tomography specimens. Based on simulations (electron probe propagation and image simulations), the possibility to apply quantitative high angle annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy to of atom probe tomography specimens has been tested. The influence of electron probe convergence and the benefice of deconvolution of electron probe point spread function electron have been established. Atom counting in atom probe tomography specimens is for the first time reported in this present work. It is demonstrated that, based on single projections of high angle annular dark field imaging, significant quantitative information can be used as additional input for refining the data obtained by correlative analysis of the specimen in APT, therefore opening new perspectives in the field of atomic scale tomography. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Materials applications of an advanced 3-dimensional atom probe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cerezo, A; Gibuoin, D; Sijbrandij, SJ; Venker, FM; Warren, PJ; Wilde, J; Smith, GDW

    An advanced 3-dimensional atom probe system has been constructed, based on an optical position-sensitive atom probe (OPoSAP) detector with energy compensation using a reflectron lens. The multi-hit detection capability of the OPoSAP lends to significant improvements in the efficiency of the

  18. Dynamics of trapped atoms around an optical nanofiber probed through polarimetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Pablo; Fatemi, Fredrik K; Orozco, Luis A; Rolston, S L

    2017-06-15

    The evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber (ONF) can create optical traps for neutral atoms. We present a non-destructive method to characterize such trapping potentials. An off-resonance linearly polarized probe beam that propagates through the ONF experiences a slow axis of polarization produced by trapped atoms on opposite sides along the ONF. The transverse atomic motion is imprinted onto the probe polarization through the changing atomic index of refraction. By applying a transient impulse, we measure a time-dependent polarization rotation of the probe beam that provides both a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the optical trapping frequencies.

  19. Dynamics of trapped atoms around an optical nanofiber probed through polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solano, Pablo; Fatemi, Fredrik K.; Orozco, Luis A.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-06-01

    The evanescent field outside an optical nanofiber (ONF) can create optical traps for neutral atoms. We present a non-destructive method to characterize such trapping potentials. An off-resonance linearly polarized probe beam that propagates through the ONF experiences a slow axis of polarization produced by trapped atoms on opposite sides along the ONF. The transverse atomic motion is imprinted onto the probe polarization through the changing atomic index of of refraction. By applying a transient impulse, we measure a time-dependent polarization rotation of the probe beam that provides both a rapid and non-destructive measurement of the optical trapping frequencies.

  20. Comparison of the quantitative analysis performance between pulsed voltage atom probe and pulsed laser atom probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, J; Kawakami, K; Raabe, D

    2017-04-01

    The difference in quantitative analysis performance between the voltage-mode and laser-mode of a local electrode atom probe (LEAP3000X HR) was investigated using a Fe-Cu binary model alloy. Solute copper atoms in ferritic iron preferentially field evaporate because of their significantly lower evaporation field than the matrix iron, and thus, the apparent concentration of solute copper tends to be lower than the actual concentration. However, in voltage-mode, the apparent concentration was higher than the actual concentration at 40K or less due to a detection loss of matrix iron, and the concentration decreased with increasing specimen temperature due to the preferential evaporation of solute copper. On the other hand, in laser-mode, the apparent concentration never exceeded the actual concentration, even at lower temperatures (20K), and this mode showed better quantitative performance over a wide range of specimen temperatures. These results indicate that the pulsed laser atom probe prevents both detection loss and preferential evaporation under a wide range of measurement conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Two-probe STM experiments at the atomic level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, Marek; Olszowski, Piotr; Zuzak, Rafal; Godlewski, Szymon; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek

    2017-11-08

    Direct characterization of planar atomic or molecular scale devices and circuits on a supporting surface by multi-probe measurements requires unprecedented stability of single atom contacts and manipulation of scanning probes over large, nanometer scale area with atomic precision. In this work, we describe the full methodology behind atomically defined two-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments performed on a model system: dangling bond dimer wire supported on a hydrogenated germanium (0 0 1) surface. We show that 70 nm long atomic wire can be simultaneously approached by two independent STM scanners with exact probe to probe distance reaching down to 30 nm. This allows direct wire characterization by two-probe I-V characteristics at distances below 50 nm. Our technical results presented in this work open a new area for multi-probe research, which can be now performed with precision so far accessible only by single-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments.

  2. Two-probe STM experiments at the atomic level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolmer, Marek; Olszowski, Piotr; Zuzak, Rafal; Godlewski, Szymon; Joachim, Christian; Szymonski, Marek

    2017-11-01

    Direct characterization of planar atomic or molecular scale devices and circuits on a supporting surface by multi-probe measurements requires unprecedented stability of single atom contacts and manipulation of scanning probes over large, nanometer scale area with atomic precision. In this work, we describe the full methodology behind atomically defined two-probe scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) experiments performed on a model system: dangling bond dimer wire supported on a hydrogenated germanium (0 0 1) surface. We show that 70 nm long atomic wire can be simultaneously approached by two independent STM scanners with exact probe to probe distance reaching down to 30 nm. This allows direct wire characterization by two-probe I-V characteristics at distances below 50 nm. Our technical results presented in this work open a new area for multi-probe research, which can be now performed with precision so far accessible only by single-probe scanning probe microscopy (SPM) experiments.

  3. Novel dual-probes atomic force microscope for line width measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hequn; Gao, Sitian; Li, Wei; Shi, Yushu; Li, Qi; Li, Shi

    2017-11-01

    Dual-probe Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) can effectively eliminate the influence of the probe size on measurement of the line width, and realize true three-dimensional measurement. Novel dual-probe AFM consists of probe system, scanning system, alignment system and displacement measurement system. As displacement measurement system, the interferometers are added to the novel dual-probes AFM. In order to simplify the dual-probe AFM structure, self-sensing tuning fork probe is used. Measurement method has two steps: the first step is to align two probes and obtain the reference point; the second step is to scan two sides of measured line by two probes separately, and calculate the line width value according to the reference point. In the alignment of two probes, the alignment method is improved by using the edge alignment and the feedback scanning alignment.

  4. Manipulating collective quantum states of ultracold atoms by probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wade, Andrew Christopher James

    2015-01-01

    nature of the measurement interaction and backaction is yet to be realised. This dissertation is concerned with ultracold atoms and their control via fully quantum mechanical probes. Nonclassical, squeezed and entangled states of matter and single photon sources are important for fundamental studies...... and quantum technologies. By probing, the production of squeezed and entangled states of collective variables in a Bose-Einstein condensate is investigated. Thereafter, an atomic probe using the strong interactions between highly excited atomic states, manipulates the light-matter dynamics of an ultracold gas...

  5. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perea, Daniel E; Gerstl, Stephan S A; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James E

    2017-01-01

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for samples sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes prior to analysis. Atom probe tomography is a rapidly expanding technique for three-dimensional structural and chemical analysis, but commercial instruments remain limited to loading specimens under ambient conditions. In this study, we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic or room-temperature transfer of specimens under atmospheric or vacuum pressure conditions between an atom probe and other instruments or reaction chambers. The utility of the environmental transfer hub is demonstrated through the acquisition of previously unavailable mass spectral analysis of an intact organic molecule made possible via controlled cryogenic transfer into the atom probe using the hub. The ability to prepare and transfer specimens in precise environments promises a means to access new science across many disciplines from untainted samples and allow downstream time-resolved in situ atom probe studies.

  6. An environmental transfer hub for multimodal atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perea, Daniel E.; Gerstl, Stephan S. A.; Chin, Jackson; Hirschi, Blake; Evans, James. E.

    2017-05-02

    Environmental control during transfer between instruments is required for specimens sensitive to air or thermal exposure to prevent morphological or chemical changes. Atom Probe Tomography is an expanding technique but commercial instruments remain limited to loading under ambient conditions. Here we describe a multifunctional environmental transfer hub allowing controlled cryogenic, atmospheric and vacuum transfer between an Atom Probe and other instruments containing separate chambers to allow downstream time-resolved in-situ studies.

  7. Examination of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes by atomic force, Kelvin probe force and electron microscopy methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sukhanova, T. E., E-mail: tat-sukhanova@mail.ru; Vylegzhanina, M. E.; Valueva, S. V.; Volkov, A. Ya.; Kutin, A. A. [Institute of Macromolecular Compounds RAS, 199004 Bolshoy Pr., 31, St.-Petersburg (Russian Federation); Temiryazeva, M. P.; Temiryazev, A. G. [Kotel’nikov Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics (Fryazino Branch) Russian Academy of Sciences, Fryazino, Moscow region, 141190 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The morphology and electrical properties of biogenic selenium-containing nanosystems based on polyelectrolyte complexes (PECs) were examined using AFM, Kelvin Probe Force and electron microscopy methods. It has been found, that prepared nanostructures significantly differed in their morphological types and parameters. In particular, multilayers capsules can be produced via varying synthesis conditions, especially, the selenium–PEC mass ratio ν. At the “special point” (ν = 0.1), filled and hollow nano- and microcapsules are formed in the system. The multilayer character of the capsules walls is visible in the phase images. Kelvin Probe Force images showed the inhomogeneity of potential distribution in capsules and outside them.

  8. C12/C13-ratio determination in nanodiamonds by atom-probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Josiah B; Isheim, Dieter; Floss, Christine; Seidman, David N

    2015-12-01

    The astrophysical origins of ∼ 3 nm-diameter meteoritic nanodiamonds can be inferred from the ratio of C12/C13. It is essential to achieve high spatial and mass resolving power and minimize all sources of signal loss in order to obtain statistically significant measurements. We conducted atom-probe tomography on meteoritic nanodiamonds embedded between layers of Pt. We describe sample preparation, atom-probe tomography analysis, 3D reconstruction, and bias correction. We present new data from meteoritic nanodiamonds and terrestrial standards and discuss methods to correct isotopic measurements made with the atom-probe tomograph. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Improvements in three-dimensional atom probe design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo, A.; Godfrey, T. J.; Hyde, J. M.; Sijbrandij, S. J.; Smith, G. D. W.

    1994-03-01

    An improved position-sensitive atom probe has been designed which uses a combination of a parallel timing system and a silicon photodiode array camera. The use of two separate data acquisition systems allows the two functions of accurate positioning and flight time determination to be divorced, thus removing the compromises which must be made when these functions are carried out with only a single detector. The resulting instrument is able to determine flight times and positions of impacts straightforwardly, even when multiple ions are evaporated on a single pulse, and should be capable of operating at evaporation rates close to that of a conventional probe-hole atom probe.

  10. Quantum metrology to probe atomic parity violation

    OpenAIRE

    Mukherjee, M.

    2009-01-01

    An entangled state prepared in the decoherence free sub-space together with a Ramsey type measurement can probe parity violation in heavy alkali ions like Ba+ or Ra+. Here we propose an experiment with Ba+ ions as an example to measure the small parity violating effect in this system.

  11. Probing dark energy with atom interferometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrage, Clare; Copeland, Edmund J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Hinds, E.A., E-mail: Clare.Burrage@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Edmund.Copeland@nottingham.ac.uk, E-mail: Ed.Hinds@imperial.ac.uk [Centre for Cold Matter, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-01

    Theories of dark energy require a screening mechanism to explain why the associated scalar fields do not mediate observable long range fifth forces. The archetype of this is the chameleon field. Here we show that individual atoms are too small to screen the chameleon field inside a large high-vacuum chamber, and therefore can detect the field with high sensitivity. We derive new limits on the chameleon parameters from existing experiments, and show that most of the remaining chameleon parameter space is readily accessible using atom interferometry.

  12. Multivariate statistical analysis of atom probe tomography data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parish, Chad M; Miller, Michael K

    2010-10-01

    The application of spectrum imaging multivariate statistical analysis methods, specifically principal component analysis (PCA), to atom probe tomography (APT) data has been investigated. The mathematical method of analysis is described and the results for two example datasets are analyzed and presented. The first dataset is from the analysis of a PM 2000 Fe-Cr-Al-Ti steel containing two different ultrafine precipitate populations. PCA properly describes the matrix and precipitate phases in a simple and intuitive manner. A second APT example is from the analysis of an irradiated reactor pressure vessel steel. Fine, nm-scale Cu-enriched precipitates having a core-shell structure were identified and qualitatively described by PCA. Advantages, disadvantages, and future prospects for implementing these data analysis methodologies for APT datasets, particularly with regard to quantitative analysis, are also discussed. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. RADMAP: Simple probes for rapid assessment of complex reactivity: A method and case studies on the reaction of hydrogen atoms with unsaturated organic molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Andrew K; Fawcett, Jason A; Clyburne, Jason A C; Pye, Cory C

    2016-03-01

    RADMAP, an open source program, allows for rapid analysis and visualization of the earliest stages of reactions between any molecule and a monoatomic probe (i.e., H*, H(+), H(-), Br*, or any other monoatomic species) using ab initio methods. This program creates non-planar potential energy surfaces of the initial interaction between a molecule of interest and the monoatomic probe. These surfaces can be used to both predict the site of addition as well as provide a qualitative estimate for the relative proportion of the formation of adducts; therefore, it gives insight into both the reactivity and the kinetic stability of a molecule. The program presents a way to quickly predict the number of signals anticipated in transverse field muon spin resonance spectra as well as their relative intensities. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Surface Plasmon Polaritons Probed with Cold Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawalec, Tomasz; Sierant, Aleksandra; Panas, Roman

    2017-01-01

    We report on an optical mirror for cold rubidium atoms based on a repulsive dipole potential created by means of a modified recordable digital versatile disc. Using the mirror, we have determined the absolute value of the surface plasmon polariton (SPP) intensity, reaching 90 times the intensity...

  15. Correlating Atom Probe Crystallographic Measurements with Transmission Kikuchi Diffraction Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Andrew J; Babinsky, Katharina; Day, Alec C; Eder, K; Oakman, Connor J; Trimby, Patrick W; Primig, Sophie; Cairney, Julie M; Ringer, Simon P

    2017-04-01

    Correlative microscopy approaches offer synergistic solutions to many research problems. One such combination, that has been studied in limited detail, is the use of atom probe tomography (APT) and transmission Kikuchi diffraction (TKD) on the same tip specimen. By combining these two powerful microscopy techniques, the microstructure of important engineering alloys can be studied in greater detail. For the first time, the accuracy of crystallographic measurements made using APT will be independently verified using TKD. Experimental data from two atom probe tips, one a nanocrystalline Al-0.5Ag alloy specimen collected on a straight flight-path atom probe and the other a high purity Mo specimen collected on a reflectron-fitted instrument, will be compared. We find that the average minimum misorientation angle, calculated from calibrated atom probe reconstructions with two different pole combinations, deviate 0.7° and 1.4°, respectively, from the TKD results. The type of atom probe and experimental conditions appear to have some impact on this accuracy and the reconstruction and measurement procedures are likely to contribute further to degradation in angular resolution. The challenges and implications of this correlative approach will also be discussed.

  16. Cadherin interaction probed by atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Baumgartner, W.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Ness, W.; Raab, A.; Vestweber, D; Schindler, H; Drenckhahn, D

    2000-01-01

    Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. In physiological buffer, the external domain of VE-cadherin dimers is a ≈20-nm-long rod-shaped molecule that collapses and dissociates into monomers (V-shaped structures) i...

  17. Cadherin interaction probed by atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumgartner, W.; Hinterdorfer, P.; Ness, W.; Raab, A.; Vestweber, D.; Schindler, H.; Drenckhahn, D.

    2000-04-01

    Single molecule atomic force microscopy was used to characterize structure, binding strength (unbinding force), and binding kinetics of a classical cadherin, vascular endothelial (VE)-cadherin, secreted by transfected Chinese hamster ovary cells as cis-dimerized full-length external domain fused to Fc-portion of human IgG. In physiological buffer, the external domain of VE-cadherin dimers is a 20-nm-long rod-shaped molecule that collapses and dissociates into monomers (V-shaped structures) in the absence of Ca2+. Trans-interaction of dimers is a low-affinity reaction (KD = 10-3-10-5 M, koff = 1.8 s-1, kon = 103-105 M-1·s-1) with relatively low unbinding force (35-55 pN at retrace velocities of 200-4,000 nm·s-1). Higher order unbinding forces, that increase with interaction time, indicate association of cadherins into complexes with cumulative binding strength. These observations favor a model by which the inherently weak unit binding strength and affinity of cadherin trans-interaction requires clustering and cytoskeletal immobilization for amplification. Binding is regulated by low-affinity Ca2+ binding sites (KD = 1.15 mM) with high cooperativity (Hill coefficient of 5.04). Local changes of free extracellular Ca2+ in the narrow intercellular space may be of physiological importance to facilitate rapid remodeling of intercellular adhesion and communication.

  18. Note: Production of stable colloidal probes for high-temperature atomic force microscopy applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditscherlein, L; Peuker, U A

    2017-04-01

    For the application of colloidal probe atomic force microscopy at high temperatures (>500 K), stable colloidal probe cantilevers are essential. In this study, two new methods for gluing alumina particles onto temperature stable cantilevers are presented and compared with an existing method for borosilicate particles at elevated temperatures as well as with cp-cantilevers prepared with epoxy resin at room temperature. The durability of the fixing of the particle is quantified with a test method applying high shear forces. The force is calculated with a mechanical model considering both the bending as well as the torsion on the colloidal probe.

  19. Development of atomic beam probe for tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berta, M., E-mail: bertam@sze.hu [Széchenyi István University, EURATOM Association, Győr (Hungary); Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Anda, G.; Aradi, M.; Bencze, A.; Buday, Cs.; Kiss, I.G.; Tulipán, Sz.; Veres, G.; Zoletnik, S. [Wigner – RCP, HAS, EURATOM Association, Budapest (Hungary); Havlícek, J.; Háček, P. [Institute of Plasma Physics AS CR, v.v.i., Prague (Czech Republic); Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics (Czech Republic)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • ABP is newly developed diagnostic. • Unique measurement method for the determination of plasma edge current variations caused by different transient events such as ELMs. • The design process has been fruitfully supported by the physically motivated computer simulations. • Li-BES system has been modified accordingly to the needs of the ABP. -- Abstract: The concept and development of a new detection method for light alkali ions stemming from diagnostic beams installed on medium size tokamak is described. The method allows us the simultaneous measurement of plasma density fluctuations and fast variations in poloidal magnetic field, therefore one can infer the fast changes in edge plasma current. The concept has been worked out and the whole design process has been done at Wigner RCP. The test detector with appropriate mechanics and electronics is already installed on COMPASS tokamak. General ion trajectory calculation code (ABPIons) has also been developed. Detailed calculations show the possibility of reconstruction of edge plasma current density profile changes with high temporal resolution, and the possibility of density profile reconstruction with better spatial resolution compared to standard Li-BES measurement, this is important for pedestal studies.

  20. A computational geometry framework for the optimisation of atom probe reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felfer, Peter [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Institute for General Materials Properties, Department of Materials Science, Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen-Nürnberg, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Cairney, Julie [Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2016-10-15

    In this paper, we present pathways for improving the reconstruction of atom probe data on a coarse (>10 nm) scale, based on computational geometry. We introduce a way to iteratively improve an atom probe reconstruction by adjusting it, so that certain known shape criteria are fulfilled. This is achieved by creating an implicit approximation of the reconstruction through a barycentric coordinate transform. We demonstrate the application of these techniques to the compensation of trajectory aberrations and the iterative improvement of the reconstruction of a dataset containing a grain boundary. We also present a method for obtaining a hull of the dataset in both detector and reconstruction space. This maximises data utilisation, and can be used to compensate for ion trajectory aberrations caused by residual fields in the ion flight path through a ‘master curve’ and correct for overall shape deviations in the data. - Highlights: • An atom probe reconstruction can be iteratively improved by using shape constraints. • An atom probe reconstruction can be inverted using barycentric coordinate transforms. • Hulls for atom probe datasets can be obtained from 2D detector outlines that are co-reconstructed with the data. • Ion trajectory compressions caused by instrument-specific residual fields in the drift tube can be corrected.

  1. Visualization of deuterium dead layer by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2012-12-01

    The first direct observation, by atom probe tomography, of a deuterium dead layer is reported for Fe/V multilayered film loaded with D solute atoms. The thickness of the dead layers was measured to be 0.4-0.5 nm. The dead layers could be distinguished from chemically intermixed layers. The results suggest that the dead layer effect occurs even near the interface of the mixing layers, supporting an interpretation that the dead layer effect cannot be explained solely by electronic charge transfer but also involves a modulation of rigidity. © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Toward the Atomic-Level Mass Analysis of Biomolecules by the Scanning Atom Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Osamu; Taniguchi, Masahiro

    2017-04-01

    In 1994, a new type of atom probe instrument, named the scanning atom probe (SAP), was proposed. The unique feature of the SAP is the introduction of a small extraction electrode, which scans over a specimen surface and confines the high field, required for field evaporation of surface atoms in a small space, between the specimen and the electrode. Thus, the SAP does not require a sharp specimen tip. This indicates that the SAP can mass analyze the specimens which are difficult to form in a sharp tip, such as organic materials and biomolecules. Clean single wall carbon nanotubes (CNT), made by high-pressure carbon monoxide process are found to be the best substrates for biomolecules. Various amino acids and dipeptide biomolecules were successfully mass analyzed, revealing characteristic clusters formed by strongly bound atoms in the specimens. The mass analysis indicates that SAP analysis of biomolecules is not only qualitative, but also quantitative.

  3. Control of the millisecond spin lifetime of an electrically probed atom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, William; Yang, Kai; Baumann, Susanne; Romming, Niklas; Choi, Taeyoung; Lutz, Christopher P.; Heinrich, Andreas J.

    2017-04-01

    Electrical control and readout of magnetic states is an important goal in spintronics. But electrical access to quantum spin systems comes at the cost of coupling to electrodes, which reduces the spin lifetimes through relaxation to electron-hole pairs. Here we report an electrically probed single-atom spin that is long-lived thanks to engineering the coupling of individual iron atoms to the nearby metallic electrodes. Using spin-polarized scanning tunnelling microscopy, we show that the excited spin state of these atoms persists for more than ten milliseconds. The lifetime can be tuned by varying the distance to the microscope probe tip--acting as one electrode--and by changing the thickness of the insulating film which separates the atom from the underlying electrode. The cross-section for spin-flip scattering is so small that many thousands of electrons can probe the spin state projectively before it relaxes. Using all-electrical pump-probe spectroscopy, we measure the lifetime of the atom for different tip-atom distances and determine the intrinsic lifetime as a function of the insulator thickness. We explain the tuning of the spin lifetime in terms of the conductance to each of the electrodes, which provides a method to maximize the electrical readout signal for a given lifetime.

  4. Atomic force microscopy probing in the measurement of cell mechanics

    OpenAIRE

    Kirmizis, Dimitrios

    2010-01-01

    Dimitrios Kirmizis, Stergios LogothetidisDepartment of Physics, Laboratory for Thin Films-Nanosystems and Nanometrology, Aristotle University, Thessaloniki, GreeceAbstract: Atomic force microscope (AFM) has been used incrementally over the last decade in cell biology. Beyond its usefulness in high resolution imaging, AFM also has unique capabilities for probing the viscoelastic properties of living cells in culture and, even more, mapping the spatial distribution of cell mechanical properties...

  5. Nanoscale photoconductive switching effect applied to atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, L.; Normand, A.; Houard, J.; Blum, I.; Delaroche, F.; Vurpillot, F.

    2016-10-01

    By combining a laser pulse and a high-voltage (HV) pulse on the same sample, field evaporation of materials with poor electrical conductivity using ultra-short HV pulses is reported. Using a pump-probe setup, the shape of HV pulses experienced by surface atoms of the sample apex is experimentally observed. These results are in good agreement with classical models considering the temperature and free carriers produced by a laser pulse giving rise to local photoconduction.

  6. Probing dimensionality using a simplified 4-probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldby, Snorre B; Evenstad, Otto M; Cooil, Simon P; Wells, Justin W

    2017-10-04

    4-probe electrical measurements have been in existence for many decades. One of the most useful aspects of the 4-probe method is that it is not only possible to find the resistivity of a sample (independently of the contact resistances), but that it is also possible to probe the dimensionality of the sample. In theory, this is straightforward to achieve by measuring the 4-probe resistance as a function of probe separation. In practice, it is challenging to move all four probes with sufficient precision over the necessary range. Here, we present an alternative approach. We demonstrate that the dimensionality of the conductive path within a sample can be directly probed using a modified 4-probe method in which an unconventional geometry is exploited; three of the probes are rigidly fixed, and the position of only one probe is changed. This allows 2D and 3D (and other) contributions the to resistivity to be readily disentangled. The required experimental instrumentation can be vastly simplified relative to traditional variable spacing 4-probe instruments.

  7. Modern Focused-Ion-Beam-Based Site-Specific Specimen Preparation for Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosa, Ty J; Larson, David J

    2017-04-01

    Approximately 30 years after the first use of focused ion beam (FIB) instruments to prepare atom probe tomography specimens, this technique has grown to be used by hundreds of researchers around the world. This past decade has seen tremendous advances in atom probe applications, enabled by the continued development of FIB-based specimen preparation methodologies. In this work, we provide a short review of the origin of the FIB method and the standard methods used today for lift-out and sharpening, using the annular milling method as applied to atom probe tomography specimens. Key steps for enabling correlative analysis with transmission electron-beam backscatter diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and atom probe tomography are presented, and strategies for preparing specimens for modern microelectronic device structures are reviewed and discussed in detail. Examples are used for discussion of the steps for each of these methods. We conclude with examples of the challenges presented by complex topologies such as nanowires, nanoparticles, and organic materials.

  8. Large-Scale Fabrication of Carbon Nanotube Probe Tips For Atomic Force Microscopy Critical Dimension Imaging Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qi Laura; Cassell, Alan M.; Stevens, Ramsey M.; Meyyappan, Meyya; Li, Jun; Han, Jie; Liu, Hongbing; Chao, Gordon

    2004-01-01

    Carbon nanotube (CNT) probe tips for atomic force microscopy (AFM) offer several advantages over Si/Si3N4 probe tips, including improved resolution, shape, and mechanical properties. This viewgraph presentation discusses these advantages, and the drawbacks of existing methods for fabricating CNT probe tips for AFM. The presentation introduces a bottom up wafer scale fabrication method for CNT probe tips which integrates catalyst nanopatterning and nanomaterials synthesis with traditional silicon cantilever microfabrication technology. This method makes mass production of CNT AFM probe tips feasible, and can be applied to the fabrication of other nanodevices with CNT elements.

  9. Gold-coated conducting-atomic force microscopy probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, Neena Susan; Kulkarni, G U

    2005-04-01

    Some aspects of the performance of gold-coated conductive probes used in conducting atomic force microscopy (C-AFM) technique are discussed. The resistance of the nanocontact between the gold-coated AFM tip and the graphite substrate has been monitored at various applied forces. For small forces (forces in the range 100-150 nN, beyond which the tip seems to undergo plastic deformation. The resistance of the nanocontact increased when current on the order of 100 microA was allowed to pass through, finally resulting in melting of the gold coating.

  10. Interpreting atom probe data from chromium oxide scales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Fontaine, Alexandre [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Gault, Baptiste [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Breen, Andrew; Stephenson, Leigh; Ceguerra, Anna V.; Yang, Limei [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Dinh Nguyen, Thuan; Zhang, Jianqiang; Young, David J. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia); Cairney, Julie M., E-mail: julie.cairney@sydney.edu.au [School of Aerospace, Mechanical, Mechatronic Engineering, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Australian Centre for Microscopy and Microanalysis, The University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia)

    2015-12-15

    Picosecond-pulsed ultraviolet-laser (UV-355 nm) assisted atom probe tomography (APT) was used to analyze protective, thermally grown chromium oxides formed on stainless steel. The influence of analysis parameters on the thermal tail observed in the mass spectra and the chemical composition is investigated. A new parameter termed “laser sensitivity factor” is introduced in order to quantify the effect of laser energy on the extent of the thermal tail. This parameter is used to compare the effect of increasing laser energy on thermal tails in chromia and chromite samples. Also explored is the effect of increasing laser energy on the measured oxygen content and the effect of specimen base temperature and laser pulse frequency on the mass spectrum. Finally, we report a preliminary analysis of molecular ion dissociations in chromia. - Highlights: • Chromium oxide scales are analyzed by picosecond-pulsed ultraviolet-laser assisted atom probe tomography. • The influence of laser energy, pulse frequency and temperature on thermal tail and composition is reported. • “Laser sensitivity factor”, a new thermal tail quantification parameter was introduced. • Ions dissociations in chromia during the analysis are discussed.

  11. Probing double Rydberg wave packets in a helium atom with fast single-cycle pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiao; Robicheaux, F.

    2017-10-01

    Fully quantum and classical calculations on a helium atom with two excited, radially localized Rydberg wave packets are performed. The differences between classical and quantum methods are compared for a wide range of principal quantum numbers to study the validity of the classical method for low-lying states. The effects of fast terahertz single-cycle pulses on an atomic system with one or two Rydberg wave packets are also studied using classical equations of motion. These results suggest that single-cycle pulses can be used as time-resolved probes to detect motion of the wave packets and to investigate autoionization properties.

  12. Atomic force microscopy analysis of IgG films at hydrophobic surfaces: a promising method to probe IgG orientations and optimize ELISA tests performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Thier, Pierre; Bacharouche, Jalal; Duval, Jérôme F L; Skali-Lami, Salaheddine; Francius, Grégory

    2015-02-01

    IgG films are widely used in the field of immunoassays, especially in (double) antibody-sandwich ELISA tests where capture antibodies are coated on surfaces like polystyrene or hydrophobic self-assembled monolayers (h-SAMs). It is critical to analyze-at a molecular scale and under liquid conditions-the structure of the deposited IgG film in order to quantitatively address the efficiency of the ELISA test in terms of antigen detection. In this communication, we report an atomic force microscopy (AFM) analysis evidencing a strong relationship between immunological activities of mouse monoclonal anti-human interleukin-2 (IL-2) and 6 (IL-6) antibodies, thickness and roughness of the IgG monolayer adsorbed onto h-SAMs, and surface concentration of IgG molecules. Indirect information may be further obtained on antibody orientation. Collating the results obtained by AFM and those from ELISA tests leads us to conclude that antibodies like anti-IL-6 forming flat monolayers should be more efficient under ELISA detection conditions. In addition, the concentration of IgG in the coating suspension should be optimized to obtain a monolayer heavily populated by "end-on" adsorbed molecules, an orientation that is desirable for enhancing ELISA tests performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Probing an atomic gas confined in a nanocell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurin, I; Todorov, P; Hamdi, I; Yarovitski, A; Dutier, G; Sarkisyan, D; Saltiel, S; Gorza, M-P; Fichet, M; Bloch, D; Ducloy, M [Laboratoire de Physique des Lasers, UMR 7538 du CNRS et de l' Universite Paris 13, 99 Av JB Clement, F-93430 Villetaneuse (France)

    2005-01-01

    Since the recent realization of extremely thin vapour cells (local thickness: 20-1000 nm), we investigate the optical properties of these 1-D confined vapours. Aside from their interest for Doppler-free spectroscopy, nanocells offer a new tool to evaluate collisional shift and broadening, yielding an access to the open problem of collisions under confinement. It also allows probing of the atom-surface interaction in a range of unusual short distances. The experimental exploration of the distance dependence, normally evolving according to the z{sup -3} van der Waals (vW) dependence (z : the atom-surface distance), is worth doing because it could be affected by imperfections of the real surface, such as roughness, adsorbed impurities or charges. A detailed lineshape analysis is now under progress, with tight constraints imposed to the fitting by the twin information brought by simultaneous reflection and transmission spectra. Another issue is a possible resonant enhancement, susceptible to induce a repulsive vW, due to the coupling between atom excitation and a surface mode.

  14. Dynamics of hollow atom formation in intense x-ray pulses probed by partial covariance mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frasinski, L J; Zhaunerchyk, V; Mucke, M; Squibb, R J; Siano, M; Eland, J H D; Linusson, P; v d Meulen, P; Salén, P; Thomas, R D; Larsson, M; Foucar, L; Ullrich, J; Motomura, K; Mondal, S; Ueda, K; Osipov, T; Fang, L; Murphy, B F; Berrah, N; Bostedt, C; Bozek, J D; Schorb, S; Messerschmidt, M; Glownia, J M; Cryan, J P; Coffee, R N; Takahashi, O; Wada, S; Piancastelli, M N; Richter, R; Prince, K C; Feifel, R

    2013-08-16

    When exposed to ultraintense x-radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) the innermost electronic shell can efficiently be emptied, creating a transient hollow atom or molecule. Understanding the femtosecond dynamics of such systems is fundamental to achieving atomic resolution in flash diffraction imaging of noncrystallized complex biological samples. We demonstrate the capacity of a correlation method called "partial covariance mapping" to probe the electron dynamics of neon atoms exposed to intense 8 fs pulses of 1062 eV photons. A complete picture of ionization processes competing in hollow atom formation and decay is visualized with unprecedented ease and the map reveals hitherto unobserved nonlinear sequences of photoionization and Auger events. The technique is particularly well suited to the high counting rate inherent in FEL experiments.

  15. Implementing Transmission Electron Backscatter Diffraction for Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Katherine P; Chen, Yimeng; Prosa, Ty J; Larson, David J

    2016-06-01

    There are advantages to performing transmission electron backscattering diffraction (tEBSD) in conjunction with focused ion beam-based specimen preparation for atom probe tomography (APT). Although tEBSD allows users to identify the position and character of grain boundaries, which can then be combined with APT to provide full chemical and orientation characterization of grain boundaries, tEBSD can also provide imaging information that improves the APT specimen preparation process by insuring proper placement of the targeted grain boundary within an APT specimen. In this report we discuss sample tilt angles, ion beam milling energies, and other considerations to optimize Kikuchi diffraction pattern quality for the APT specimen geometry. Coordinated specimen preparation and analysis of a grain boundary in a Ni-based Inconel 600 alloy is used to illustrate the approach revealing a 50° misorientation and trace element segregation to the grain boundary.

  16. Application of atomic force microscopy in morphological observation of antisense probe labeled with magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Ming; Bai, Wei; Yang, Xueheng

    2008-01-01

    Purpose To explore the possibility of the c-erbB2 oncogene antisense probe labeled with superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) nanoparticles as a target contrast agent for magnetic resonance (MR) imaging whose morphology was observed with atomic force microscopy (AFM), and its efficiency was examined by MR imaging. Methods The c-erbB2 oncogene antisense probe labeled with SPIO was synthesized by a chemical cross-linking approach. Its morphology was observed with AFM. Results The chemical constitution of c-erbB2 oncogene antisense probes can be observed with AFM. The molecular structure of probes is easily visualized under AFM. Probes with diameters of 25–40 nm are in order, follow uniformity and the arrangement rule, can be separated from each other, and appear as cubes with a rugged surface morphology. Strong, low signals of the probes in transfected cells were observed by MR cellular imaging. Conclusions AFM is ideal for morphological observation and for analyzing the molecular structure of synthesized c-erbB2 oncogene antisense probes. PMID:18253092

  17. Probing atomic Higgs-like forces at the precision frontier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Cédric; Ozeri, Roee; Perez, Gilad; Soreq, Yotam

    2017-11-01

    We propose a novel approach to probe new fundamental interactions using isotope shift spectroscopy in atomic clock transitions. As a concrete toy example we focus on the Higgs boson couplings to the building blocks of matter: the electron and the up and down quarks. We show that the attractive Higgs force between nuclei and their bound electrons, which is poorly constrained, might induce effects that are larger than the current experimental sensitivities. More generically, we discuss how new interactions between the electron and the neutrons, mediated via light new degrees of freedom, may lead to measurable nonlinearities in a King plot comparison between isotope shifts of two different transitions. Given state-of-the-art accuracy in frequency comparison, isotope shifts have the potential to be measured with sub-Hz accuracy, thus potentially enabling the improvement of current limits on new fundamental interactions. A candidate atomic system for this measurement requires two different clock transitions and four zero nuclear spin isotopes. We identify several systems that satisfy this requirement and also briefly discuss existing measurements. We consider the size of the effect related to the Higgs force and the requirements for it to produce an observable signal.

  18. Train of high-power femtosecond pulses: Probe wave in a gas of prepared atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradyan, Gevorg; Muradyan, Atom Zh.

    2009-09-01

    We present a method for generating a regular train of ultrashort optical pulses in a prepared two-level medium. The train develops from incident monochromatic probe radiation traveling in a medium of atoms, which are in a quantum mechanical superposition of dressed internal states. In the frame of linear theory for the probe radiation, the energy of individual pulses is an exponentially growing function of atom density and of interaction cross section. Pulse repetition rate is determined by the pump field’s generalized Rabi frequency and can be around 1 THz and greater. We also show that the terms, extra to the dipole approximation, endow the gas by a new property: nonsaturating dependence of refractive index on dressing monochromatic field intensity. Contribution of these nonsaturating terms can be compatible with the main dipole approximation term contribution in the wavelength region of about ten micrometers (the range of CO2 laser) or larger.

  19. Time-of-flight atom probe measurements on Ni3Al and Co3W

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soer, W.A.; Bronsveld, P.M.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2003-01-01

    In this study, a VG FIM100 was taken into operation, consisting of a field-ion microscope (FIM), a time-of-flight atom probe (TOFAP) and an imaging atom probe. A tungsten specimen was used to calibrate the conversion of flight times to m/n values. The resulting relative mass resolution of the TOFAP

  20. Atomic Force Microscope nanolithography on chromosomes to generate single-cell genetic probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valle Francesco

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal dissection provides a direct advance for isolating DNA from cytogenetically recognizable region to generate genetic probes for fluorescence in situ hybridization, a technique that became very common in cyto and molecular genetics research and diagnostics. Several reports describing microdissection methods (glass needle or a laser beam to obtain specific probes from metaphase chromosomes are available. Several limitations are imposed by the traditional methods of dissection as the need for a large number of chromosomes for the production of a probe. In addition, the conventional methods are not suitable for single chromosome analysis, because of the relatively big size of the microneedles. Consequently new dissection techniques are essential for advanced research on chromosomes at the nanoscale level. Results We report the use of Atomic Force Microscope (AFM as a tool for nanomanipulation of single chromosomes to generate individual cell specific genetic probes. Besides new methods towards a better nanodissection, this work is focused on the combination of molecular and nanomanipulation techniques which enable both nanodissection and amplification of chromosomal and chromatidic DNA. Cross-sectional analysis of the dissected chromosomes reveals 20 nm and 40 nm deep cuts. Isolated single chromosomal regions can be directly amplified and labeled by the Degenerate Oligonucleotide-Primed Polymerase Chain Reaction (DOP-PCR and subsequently hybridized to chromosomes and interphasic nuclei. Conclusions Atomic force microscope can be easily used to visualize and to manipulate biological material with high resolution and accuracy. The fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH performed with the DOP-PCR products as test probes has been tested succesfully in avian microchromosomes and interphasic nuclei. Chromosome nanolithography, with a resolution beyond the resolution limit of light microscopy, could be useful to the

  1. Polarisation response of delay dependent absorption modulation in strong field dressed helium atoms probed near threshold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, E. R.; Sanchez-Gonzalez, A.; Austin, D. R.; Diveki, Z.; Hutchinson, S. E. E.; Siegel, T.; Ruberti, M.; Averbukh, V.; Miseikis, L.; Strüber, C. S.; Chipperfield, L.; Marangos, J. P.

    2016-08-01

    We present the first measurement of the vectorial response of strongly dressed helium atoms probed by an attosecond pulse train (APT) polarised either parallel or perpendicular to the dressing field polarisation. The transient absorption is probed as a function of delay between the APT and the linearly polarised 800 nm field of peak intensity 1.3× {10}14 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. The APT spans the photon energy range 16-42 eV, covering the first ionisation energy of helium (24.59 eV). With parallel polarised dressing and probing fields, we observe modulations with periods of one half and one quarter of the dressing field period. When the polarisation of the dressing field is altered from parallel to perpendicular with respect to the APT polarisation we observe a large suppression in the modulation depth of the above ionisation threshold absorption. In addition to this we present the intensity dependence of the harmonic modulation depth as a function of delay between the dressing and probe fields, with dressing field peak intensities ranging from 2 × 1012 to 2 × 1014 {{W}} {{cm}}-2. We compare our experimental results with a full-dimensional solution of the single-atom time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation obtained using the recently developed abinitio TD B-spline ADC method and find good qualitative agreement for the above threshold harmonics.

  2. Probe Knots and Hopf Insulators with Ultracold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Dong-Ling; Wang, Sheng-Tao; Sun, Kai; Duan, L.-M.

    2018-01-01

    Knots and links are fascinating and intricate topological objects. Their influence spans from DNA and molecular chemistry to vortices in superfluid helium, defects in liquid crystals and cosmic strings in the early universe. Here we find that knotted structures also exist in a peculiar class of three-dimensional topological insulators—the Hopf insulators. In particular, we demonstrate that the momentum-space spin textures of Hopf insulators are twisted in a nontrivial way, which implies the presence of various knot and link structures. We further illustrate that the knots and nontrivial spin textures can be probed via standard time-of-flight images in cold atoms as preimage contours of spin orientations in stereographic coordinates. The extracted Hopf invariants, knots, and links are validated to be robust to typical experimental imperfections. Our work establishes the existence of knotted structures in Hopf insulators, which may have potential applications in spintronics and quantum information processing. D.L.D., S.T.W. and L.M.D. are supported by the ARL, the IARPA LogiQ program, and the AFOSR MURI program, and supported by Tsinghua University for their visits. K.S. acknowledges the support from NSF under Grant No. PHY1402971. D.L.D. is also supported by JQI-NSF-PFC and LPS-MPO-CMTC at the final stage of this paper.

  3. Conductive-probe atomic force microscopy characterization of silicon nanowire

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Linwei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The electrical conduction properties of lateral and vertical silicon nanowires (SiNWs were investigated using a conductive-probe atomic force microscopy (AFM. Horizontal SiNWs, which were synthesized by the in-plane solid-liquid-solid technique, are randomly deployed into an undoped hydrogenated amorphous silicon layer. Local current mapping shows that the wires have internal microstructures. The local current-voltage measurements on these horizontal wires reveal a power law behavior indicating several transport regimes based on space-charge limited conduction which can be assisted by traps in the high-bias regime (> 1 V. Vertical phosphorus-doped SiNWs were grown by chemical vapor deposition using a gold catalyst-driving vapor-liquid-solid process on higly n-type silicon substrates. The effect of phosphorus doping on the local contact resistance between the AFM tip and the SiNW was put in evidence, and the SiNWs resistivity was estimated.

  4. Improved in situ spring constant calibration for colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Sean P.; Law, Bruce M.

    2010-11-01

    In colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface forces cannot be measured without an accurate determination of the cantilever spring constant. The effective spring constant k depends upon the cantilever geometry and therefore should be measured in situ; additionally, k may be coupled to other measurement parameters. For example, colloidal probe AFM is frequently used to measure the slip length b at solid/liquid boundaries by comparing the measured hydrodynamic force with Vinogradova slip theory (V-theory). However, in this measurement k and b are coupled, hence, b cannot be accurately determined without knowing k to high precision. In this paper, a new in situ spring constant calibration method based upon the residuals, namely, the difference between experimental force-distance data and V-theory is presented and contrasted with two other popular spring constant determination methods. In this residuals calibration method, V-theory is fitted to the experimental force-distance data for a range of systematically varied spring constants where the only adjustable parameter in V-theory is the slip length b. The optimal spring constant k is that value where the residuals are symmetrically displaced about zero for all colloidal probe separations. This residual spring constant calibration method is demonstrated by studying three different liquids (n-decanol, n-hexadecane, and n-octane) and two different silane coated colloidal probe-silicon wafer systems (n-hexadecyltrichlorosilane and n-dodecyltrichlorosilane).

  5. Improved in situ spring constant calibration for colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBride, Sean P.; Law, Bruce M. [Department of Physics, Cardwell Hall, Kansas State University, Manhattan, Kansas 66506-2601 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    In colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM) surface forces cannot be measured without an accurate determination of the cantilever spring constant. The effective spring constant k depends upon the cantilever geometry and therefore should be measured in situ; additionally, k may be coupled to other measurement parameters. For example, colloidal probe AFM is frequently used to measure the slip length b at solid/liquid boundaries by comparing the measured hydrodynamic force with Vinogradova slip theory (V-theory). However, in this measurement k and b are coupled, hence, b cannot be accurately determined without knowing k to high precision. In this paper, a new in situ spring constant calibration method based upon the residuals, namely, the difference between experimental force-distance data and V-theory is presented and contrasted with two other popular spring constant determination methods. In this residuals calibration method, V-theory is fitted to the experimental force-distance data for a range of systematically varied spring constants where the only adjustable parameter in V-theory is the slip length b. The optimal spring constant k is that value where the residuals are symmetrically displaced about zero for all colloidal probe separations. This residual spring constant calibration method is demonstrated by studying three different liquids (n-decanol, n-hexadecane, and n-octane) and two different silane coated colloidal probe-silicon wafer systems (n-hexadecyltrichlorosilane and n-dodecyltrichlorosilane).

  6. Nanometer-scale isotope analysis of bulk diamond by atom probe tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirhagl, R.; Raatz, N.; Meijer, J.; Markham, M.; Gerstl, S. S. A.; Degen, C. L.

    2015-01-01

    Atom-probe tomography (APT) combines field emission of atoms with mass spectrometry to reconstruct three-dimensional tomograms of materials with atomic resolution and isotope specificity. Despite significant recent progress in APT technology, application to wide-bandgap materials with strong

  7. Analytic treatment of charge cloud overlaps: an improvement of the tomographic atom probe efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bas, P.; Bostel, A.; Grancher, G.; Deconihout, B.; Blavette, D.

    1996-03-01

    Although reliable position and composition data are obtained with the Tomographic Atom Probe, the procedure of position calculation by charge centroiding fails when the detector receives two or more ions with close spaced positions and the same mass-to-charge ratio. As the charge clouds of the ions overlap, they form a unique charge pattern on the multianode detector. Only one atom is represented and its position is biased. In order to estimate real positions, we have developed a correction method. The spatial distribution of charges inside a cloud issued from one impact is modelled by a Gaussian law. The particular properties of the Gaussian enable the calculation of exact positions of the two impacts of the overlapped charge patterns and charges of corresponding clouds. The calculation may be generalized for more than two overlapped clouds. The method was tested on a plane-by-plane analysis of a fully ordered Cu 3Au alloy performed on a (100) pole.

  8. Blind deconvolution of time-of-flight mass spectra from atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, L.J.S., E-mail: larsj@ifm.liu.se [Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden); Thuvander, M.; Stiller, K. [Chalmers University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Gothenburg, SE-412 96 (Sweden); Odén, M.; Hultman, L. [Linköping University, Department of Physics, Chemistry, and Biology (IFM), Linköping SE-581 83 (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    A major source of uncertainty in compositional measurements in atom probe tomography stems from the uncertainties of assigning peaks or parts of peaks in the mass spectrum to their correct identities. In particular, peak overlap is a limiting factor, whereas an ideal mass spectrum would have peaks at their correct positions with zero broadening. Here, we report a method to deconvolute the experimental mass spectrum into such an ideal spectrum and a system function describing the peak broadening introduced by the field evaporation and detection of each ion. By making the assumption of a linear and time-invariant behavior, a system of equations is derived that describes the peak shape and peak intensities. The model is fitted to the observed spectrum by minimizing the squared residuals, regularized by the maximum entropy method. For synthetic data perfectly obeying the assumptions, the method recovered peak intensities to within ±0.33at%. The application of this model to experimental APT data is exemplified with Fe–Cr data. Knowledge of the peak shape opens up several new possibilities, not just for better overall compositional determination, but, e.g., for the estimation of errors of ranging due to peak overlap or peak separation constrained by isotope abundances. - Highlights: • A method for the deconvolution of atom probe mass spectra is proposed. • Applied to synthetic randomly generated spectra the accuracy was ±0.33 at. • Application of the method to an experimental Fe–Cr spectrum is demonstrated.

  9. Point-by-point compositional analysis for atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Leigh T; Ceguerra, Anna V; Li, Tong; Rojhirunsakool, Tanaporn; Nag, Soumya; Banerjee, Rajarshi; Cairney, Julie M; Ringer, Simon P

    2014-01-01

    This new alternate approach to data processing for analyses that traditionally employed grid-based counting methods is necessary because it removes a user-imposed coordinate system that not only limits an analysis but also may introduce errors. We have modified the widely used "binomial" analysis for APT data by replacing grid-based counting with coordinate-independent nearest neighbour identification, improving the measurements and the statistics obtained, allowing quantitative analysis of smaller datasets, and datasets from non-dilute solid solutions. It also allows better visualisation of compositional fluctuations in the data. Our modifications include:.•using spherical k-atom blocks identified by each detected atom's first k nearest neighbours.•3D data visualisation of block composition and nearest neighbour anisotropy.•using z-statistics to directly compare experimental and expected composition curves. Similar modifications may be made to other grid-based counting analyses (contingency table, Langer-Bar-on-Miller, sinusoidal model) and could be instrumental in developing novel data visualisation options.

  10. The mystery of missing species in atom probe tomography of composite materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karahka, M.; Xia, Y.; Kreuzer, H. J. [Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia B3H 3J5 (Canada)

    2015-08-10

    There is a serious problem in atom probe tomography of composite materials such as oxides that even from stoichiometric samples one observes non-stoichiometric ion yields. We present a quantitative model that explains the non-stoichiometry allowing a fit to experimental data of ion yields as a function of applied field to extract activation barriers and prefactors. The numbers are confirmed by density functional theory. We also show that for oxides the missing oxygen is thermally desorbed as neutral O{sub 2}, either directly or associatively. Finally, we suggest methods to improve the experimental setup.

  11. The Model Analysis of a Complex Tuning Fork Probe and Its Application in Bimodal Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhichao Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A new electromechanical coupling model was built to quantitatively analyze the tuning fork probes, especially the complex ones. A special feature of a novel, soft tuning fork probe, that the second eigenfrequency of the probe was insensitive to the effective force gradient, was found and used in a homemade bimodal atomic force microscopy to measure power dissipation quantitatively. By transforming the mechanical parameters to the electrical parameters, a monotonous and concise method without using phase to calculate the power dissipation was proposed.

  12. Innovation and optimization of a method of pump-probe polarimetry with pulsed laser beams in view of a precise measurement of parity violation in atomic cesium; Innovation et optimisation d'une methode de polarimetrie pompe-sonde avec des faisceaux laser impulsionnels en vue d'une mesure precise de violation de la parite dans l'atome de cesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauvat, D

    1997-10-15

    While Parity Violation (PV) experiments on highly forbidden transitions have been using detection of fluorescence signals; our experiment uses a pump-probe scheme to detect the PV signal directly on a transmitted probe beam. A pulsed laser beam of linear polarisation {epsilon}{sub 1} excites the atoms on the 6S-7S cesium transition in a colinear electric field E || k(ex). The probe beam (k(pr) || k(ex)) of linear polarisation {epsilon}{sub 2} tuned to the transition 7S-6P(3/2) is amplified. The small asymmetry ({approx} 10{sup -6}) in the gain that depends on the handedness of the tri-hedron (E, {epsilon}{sub 1}, {epsilon}{sub 2}) is the manifestation of the PV effect. This is measured as an E-odd apparent rotation of the plane of polarization of the probe beam; using balanced mode polarimetry. New criteria of selection have been devised, that allow us to distinguish the true PV-signal against fake rotations due to electromagnetic interferences, geometrical effects, polarization imperfections, or stray transverse electric and magnetic fields. These selection criteria exploit the symmetry of the PV-rotation - linear dichroism - and the revolution symmetry of the experiment. Using these criteria it is not only possible to reject fake signals, but also to elucidate the underlying physical mechanisms and to measure the relevant defects of the apparatus. The present signal-to-noise ratio allows embarking in PV measurements to reach the 10% statistical accuracy. A 1% measurement still requires improvements. Two methods have been demonstrated. The first one exploits the amplification of the asymmetry at high gain - one major advantage provided by our detection method based on stimulated emission. The second method uses both a much higher incident intensity and a special dichroic component which magnifies tiny polarization rotations. (author)

  13. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russell, K.F.; Miller, M.K.

    1993-01-01

    This report contains a bibliography for 1991 on the following topics: Atom probe field ion microscopy; field desorption mass spectrometry; field emission; field ion microscopy; and field emission theory.

  14. Laser-Assisted Atom Probe Tomography of Deformed Minerals: A Zircon Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Fontaine, Alexandre; Piazolo, Sandra; Trimby, Patrick; Yang, Limei; Cairney, Julie M

    2017-04-01

    The application of atom probe tomography to the study of minerals is a rapidly growing area. Picosecond-pulsed, ultraviolet laser (UV-355 nm) assisted atom probe tomography has been used to analyze trace element mobility within dislocations and low-angle boundaries in plastically deformed specimens of the nonconductive mineral zircon (ZrSiO4), a key material to date the earth's geological events. Here we discuss important experimental aspects inherent in the atom probe tomography investigation of this important mineral, providing insights into the challenges in atom probe tomography characterization of minerals as a whole. We studied the influence of atom probe tomography analysis parameters on features of the mass spectra, such as the thermal tail, as well as the overall data quality. Three zircon samples with different uranium and lead content were analyzed, and particular attention was paid to ion identification in the mass spectra and detection limits of the key trace elements, lead and uranium. We also discuss the correlative use of electron backscattered diffraction in a scanning electron microscope to map the deformation in the zircon grains, and the combined use of transmission Kikuchi diffraction and focused ion beam sample preparation to assist preparation of the final atom probe tip.

  15. Preparation of nanowire specimens for laser-assisted atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumtritt, H; Isheim, D; Senz, S; Seidman, D N; Moutanabbir, O

    2014-10-31

    The availability of reliable and well-engineered commercial instruments and data analysis software has led to development in recent years of robust and ergonomic atom-probe tomographs. Indeed, atom-probe tomography (APT) is now being applied to a broader range of materials classes that involve highly important scientific and technological problems in materials science and engineering. Dual-beam focused-ion beam microscopy and its application to the fabrication of APT microtip specimens have dramatically improved the ability to probe a variety of systems. However, the sample preparation is still challenging especially for emerging nanomaterials such as epitaxial nanowires which typically grow vertically on a substrate through metal-catalyzed vapor phase epitaxy. The size, morphology, density, and sensitivity to radiation damage are the most influential parameters in the preparation of nanowire specimens for APT. In this paper, we describe a step-by-step process methodology to allow a precisely controlled, damage-free transfer of individual, short silicon nanowires onto atom probe microposts. Starting with a dense array of tiny nanowires and using focused ion beam, we employed a sequence of protective layers and markers to identify the nanowire to be transferred and probed while protecting it against Ga ions during lift-off processing and tip sharpening. Based on this approach, high-quality three-dimensional atom-by-atom maps of single aluminum-catalyzed silicon nanowires are obtained using a highly focused ultraviolet laser-assisted local electrode atom probe tomograph.

  16. Atomic quantum superposition state generation via optical probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Ersbak Bang; Poulsen, Uffe Vestergaard; Negretti, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    We analyze the performance of a protocol to prepare an atomic ensemble in a superposition of two macroscopically distinguishable states. The protocol relies on conditional measurements performed on a light field, which interacts with the atoms inside an optical cavity prior to detection, and we...

  17. Gain and Absorption of a Probe Light in an Open Tripod Atomic System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zheng-Feng; Lin, Jin-Da; Deng, Jian-Liao; He, Hui-Juan; Wang, Yu-Zhu

    2012-05-01

    We theoretically investigate an open four-level atomic system interacting with control, probe and microwave fields. When there is no repumping light and a microwave field is applied, the probe light can be absorbed or amplified, which has different features than those of a system whose populations are pumped into only one ground state. In this system the microwave field and the population distributions of the ground states can be used as switches to control the propagation of the probe light.

  18. Fast-ion-beam laser probing of ion-source energy distributions and atomic structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Richard A., E-mail: rholt@uwo.ca; Rosner, S. David [University of Western Ontario, Physics and Astronomy Department (Canada)

    2013-04-15

    Collinear fast-ion-beam laser spectroscopy is a very high resolution probe for measuring ion-beam energy distributions and atomic structure parameters of interest in nuclear physics, atomic physics, and astrophysics. We have used offline 10-keV beams of atomic ions and a CW laser system to study the behavior of a Penning ion source and to measure hyperfine structure, isotope shifts, atomic lifetimes, spontaneous-emission branching fractions, oscillator strengths, and absolute wavelengths of a variety of atomic species from the lanthanide and transition-metal groups.

  19. Dopant distributions in n-MOSFET structure observed by atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, K; Yano, F; Nishida, A; Takamizawa, H; Tsunomura, T; Nagai, Y; Hasegawa, M

    2009-11-01

    The dopant distributions in an n-type metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistor (MOSFET) structure were analyzed by atom probe tomography. The dopant distributions of As, P, and B atoms in a MOSFET structure (gate, gate oxide, channel, source/drain extension, and halo) were obtained. P atoms were segregated at the interface between the poly-Si gate and the gate oxide, and on the grain boundaries of the poly-Si gate, which had an elongated grain structure along the gate height direction. The concentration of B atoms was enriched near the edge of the source/drain extension where the As atoms were implanted.

  20. Probing the conformal Calabrese-Cardy scaling with cold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Unmuth-Yockey, J; Preiss, P M; Yang, Li-Ping; Tsai, S -W; Meurice, Y

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate that current experiments using cold bosonic atoms trapped in one-dimensional optical lattices and designed to measure the second-order Renyi entanglement entropy S_2, can be used to verify detailed predictions of conformal field theory (CFT) and estimate the central charge c. We discuss the adiabatic preparation of the ground state at half-filling where we expect a CFT with c=1. This can be accomplished with a very small hoping parameter J, in contrast to existing studies with density one where a much larger J is needed. We provide two complementary methods to estimate and subtract the classical entropy generated by the experimental preparation and imaging processes. We compare numerical calculations for the classical O(2) model with a chemical potential on a 1+1 dimensional lattice, and the quantum Bose-Hubbard Hamiltonian implemented in the experiments. S_2 is very similar for the two models and follows closely the Calabrese-Cardy scaling, (c/8)\\ln(N_s), for N_s sites with open boundary condi...

  1. Boosting the local anodic oxidation of silicon through carbon nanofiber atomic force microscopy probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gemma Rius

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many nanofabrication methods based on scanning probe microscopy have been developed during the last decades. Local anodic oxidation (LAO is one of such methods: Upon application of an electric field between tip and surface under ambient conditions, oxide patterning with nanometer-scale resolution can be performed with good control of dimensions and placement. LAO through the non-contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM has proven to yield a better resolution and tip preservation than the contact mode and it can be effectively performed in the dynamic mode of AFM. The tip plays a crucial role for the LAO-AFM, because it regulates the minimum feature size and the electric field. For instance, the feasibility of carbon nanotube (CNT-functionalized tips showed great promise for LAO-AFM, yet, the fabrication of CNT tips presents difficulties. Here, we explore the use of a carbon nanofiber (CNF as the tip apex of AFM probes for the application of LAO on silicon substrates in the AFM amplitude modulation dynamic mode of operation. We show the good performance of CNF-AFM probes in terms of resolution and reproducibility, as well as demonstration that the CNF apex provides enhanced conditions in terms of field-induced, chemical process efficiency.

  2. Understanding the Atomic-Scale Contrast in Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Nony, Laurent; Foster, Adam; Bocquet, Franck; Loppacher, Christian

    2009-01-01

    A numerical analysis of the origin of the atomic-scale contrast in Kelvin probe force microscopy is presented. Atomistic simulations of the tip-sample interaction force field have been combined with a noncontact atomic force microscope simulator including a Kelvin module. The implementation mimics recent experimental results on the (001) surface of a bulk alkali halide crystal for which simultaneous atomic-scale topographical and contact potential difference contrasts were reported. The local...

  3. Atom Probe Analysis of Ex Situ Gas-Charged Stable Hydrides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haley, Daniel; Bagot, Paul A J; Moody, Michael P

    2017-04-01

    In this work, we report on the atom probe tomography analysis of two metallic hydrides formed by pressurized charging using an ex situ hydrogen charging cell, in the pressure range of 200-500 kPa (2-5 bar). Specifically we report on the deuterium charging of Pd/Rh and V systems. Using this ex situ system, we demonstrate the successful loading and subsequent atom probe analysis of deuterium within a Pd/Rh alloy, and demonstrate that deuterium is likely present within the oxide-metal interface of a native oxide formed on vanadium. Through these experiments, we demonstrate the feasibility of ex situ hydrogen analysis for hydrides via atom probe tomography, and thus a practical route to three-dimensional imaging of hydrogen in hydrides at the atomic scale.

  4. Restoring the lattice of Si-based atom probe reconstructions for enhanced information on dopant positioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Andrew J; Moody, Michael P; Ceguerra, Anna V; Gault, Baptiste; Araullo-Peters, Vicente J; Ringer, Simon P

    2015-12-01

    The following manuscript presents a novel approach for creating lattice based models of Sb-doped Si directly from atom probe reconstructions for the purposes of improving information on dopant positioning and directly informing quantum mechanics based materials modeling approaches. Sophisticated crystallographic analysis techniques are used to detect latent crystal structure within the atom probe reconstructions with unprecedented accuracy. A distortion correction algorithm is then developed to precisely calibrate the detected crystal structure to the theoretically known diamond cubic lattice. The reconstructed atoms are then positioned on their most likely lattice positions. Simulations are then used to determine the accuracy of such an approach and show that improvements to short-range order measurements are possible for noise levels and detector efficiencies comparable with experimentally collected atom probe data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Atomic Resolution Imaging with a sub-50 pm Electron Probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erni, Rolf P.; Rossell, Marta D.; Kisielowski, Christian; Dahmen, Ulrich

    2009-03-02

    Using a highly coherent focused electron probe in a 5th order aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, we report on resolving a crystal spacing less than 50 pm. Based on the geometrical source size and residual coherent and incoherent axial lens aberrations, an electron probe is calculated, which is theoretically capable of resolving an ideal 47 pm spacing with 29percent contrast. Our experimental data show the 47 pm spacing of a Ge 114 crystal imaged with 11-18percent contrast at a 60-95percent confidence level, providing the first direct evidence for sub 50-pm resolution in ADF STEM imaging.

  6. Customized atomic force microscopy probe by focused-ion-beam-assisted tip transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Andrew; Butte, Manish J., E-mail: manish.butte@stanford.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, Allergy and Rheumatology, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2014-08-04

    We present a technique for transferring separately fabricated tips onto tipless atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers, performed using focused ion beam-assisted nanomanipulation. This method addresses the need in scanning probe microscopy for certain tip geometries that cannot be achieved by conventional lithography. For example, in probing complex layered materials or tall biological cells using AFM, a tall tip with a high-aspect-ratio is required to avoid artifacts caused by collisions of the tip's sides with the material being probed. We show experimentally that tall (18 μm) cantilever tips fabricated by this approach reduce squeeze-film damping, which fits predictions from hydrodynamic theory, and results in an increased quality factor (Q) of the fundamental flexural mode. We demonstrate that a customized tip's well-defined geometry, tall tip height, and aspect ratio enable improved measurement of elastic moduli by allowing access to low-laying portions of tall cells (T lymphocytes). This technique can be generally used to attach tips to any micromechanical device when conventional lithography of tips cannot be accomplished.

  7. Two-probe atomic-force microscope manipulator and its applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, A A; Stolyarov, V S; Kononenko, O V

    2017-06-01

    We report on a manipulator based on a two-probe atomic force microscope (AFM) with an individual feedback system for each probe. This manipulator works under an upright optical microscope with 3 mm focal distance. The design of the microscope helps us tomanipulate nanowires using the microscope probes as a two-prong fork. The AFM feedback is realized based on the dynamic full-time contact mode. The applications of the manipulator and advantages of its two-probe design are presented.

  8. Probing resonant energy transfer in collisions of ammonia with Rydberg helium atoms by microwave spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhelyazkova, V.; Hogan, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    We present the results of experiments demonstrating the spectroscopic detection of Förster resonance energy transfer from NH3 in the X1A1 ground electronic state to helium atoms in 1sns 3S1 Rydberg levels, where n = 37 and n = 40. For these values of n, the 1sns 3S1 → 1snp 3PJ transitions in helium lie close to resonance with the ground-state inversion transitions in NH3 and can be tuned through resonance using electric fields of less than 10 V/cm. In the experiments, energy transfer was detected by direct state-selective electric field ionization of the 3S1 and 3PJ Rydberg levels and by monitoring the population of the 3DJ levels following pulsed microwave transfer from the 3PJ levels. Detection by microwave spectroscopic methods represents a highly state selective, low-background approach to probing the collisional energy transfer process and the environment in which the atom-molecule interactions occur. The experimentally observed electric-field dependence of the resonant energy transfer process, probed both by direct electric field ionization and by microwave transfer, agrees well with the results of calculations performed using a simple theoretical model of the energy transfer process. For measurements performed in zero electric field with atoms prepared in the 1s40s 3S1 level, the transition from a regime in which a single energy transfer channel can be isolated for detection to one in which multiple collision channels begin to play a role has been identified as the NH3 density was increased.

  9. A method optimization study for atomic absorption ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A sensitive, reliable and relative fast method has been developed for the determination of total zinc in insulin by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. This designed study was used to optimize the procedures for the existing methods. Spectrograms of both standard and sample solutions of zinc were recorded by measuring ...

  10. Optical method of atomic ordering estimation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prutskij, T. [Instituto de Ciencias, BUAP, Privada 17 Norte, No 3417, col. San Miguel Huyeotlipan, Puebla, Pue. (Mexico); Attolini, G. [IMEM/CNR, Parco Area delle Scienze 37/A - 43010, Parma (Italy); Lantratov, V.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021, Russian Federation (Russian Federation)

    2013-12-04

    It is well known that within metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy (MOVPE) grown semiconductor III-V ternary alloys atomically ordered regions are spontaneously formed during the epitaxial growth. This ordering leads to bandgap reduction and to valence bands splitting, and therefore to anisotropy of the photoluminescence (PL) emission polarization. The same phenomenon occurs within quaternary semiconductor alloys. While the ordering in ternary alloys is widely studied, for quaternaries there have been only a few detailed experimental studies of it, probably because of the absence of appropriate methods of its detection. Here we propose an optical method to reveal atomic ordering within quaternary alloys by measuring the PL emission polarization.

  11. Gamma camera based method for 131I capsule counting: an alternate method to Uptake probe method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Biju K; Uday, Awasare S; Singh, Baghel N

    2017-11-10

    The main objective of this study was to check the validity of using gamma camera as an alternate method to thyroid uptake probe, for counting 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules before administration to thyroid patients. Methods: - 10 sets each of 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules received from Board Of Radiation and Isotope Technology, Department Of Atomic Energy, India (BRIT, DAE) have been counted individually using thyroid uptake probe for 10 seconds following institutional protocol and also by keeping individual capsule of a set with 8cm gap between each of them .These capsules were also scanned by Scintillation gamma camera for 100 seconds. Capsules having counts within the range of mean ±2 Standard Deviation (SD) were accepted for patient administration. After analysing both the data, correlation coefficient between these two methods has been evaluated. Results: Scanned images were analysed by drawing Identical ROI around each set of 25uCi (0.925 MBq) and 50uCi (1.85 MBq) 131I capsules. Capsules with counts within 2 Standard Deviation from mean were accepted for patient administration. Good correlation coefficient (r >0.95) was observed between these two counts set. Conclusion: Gamma camera based 131I -capsule counting method is an easy and time saving method compared to probe based capsule counting method as we can scan a set of capsules in a single acquisition. It can provide uniformity information for a batch of 131I -capsules and avoid the time consuming method of individual capsule counting with the thyroid uptake probe. Copyright © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  12. Atomic-scale investigations of grain boundary segregation in astrology with a three dimensional atom-probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blavette, D. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut Universitaire de France (France); Letellier, L. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Duval, P. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique; Guttmann, M. [Rouen Univ., 76 - Mont-Saint-Aignan (France). Lab. de Microscopie Electronique]|[Institut de Recherches de la Siderurgie Francaise (IRSID), 57 - Maizieres-les-Metz (France)

    1996-08-01

    Both conventional and 3D atom-probes were applied to the investigation of grain-boundary (GB) segregation phenomena in two-phase nickel base superalloys Astroloy. 3D images as provided by the tomographic atom-probe reveal the presence of a strong segregation of both boron and molybdenum at grain-boundaries. Slight carbon enrichment is also detected. Considerable chromium segregation is exhibited at {gamma}`-{gamma}` grain-boundaries. All these segregants are distributed in a continuous manner along the boundary over a width close to 0.5 nm. Experiments show that segregation occurs during cooling and more probably between 1000 C and 800 C. Boron and molybdenum GB enrichments are interpreted as due to an equilibrium type-segregation while chromium segregation is thought to be induced by {gamma}` precipitation at GB`s and stabilised by the presence of boron. No segregation of zirconium is detected. (orig.)

  13. Single molecule probing of SNARE proteins by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Parpura, Vladimir

    2009-01-01

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) in force spectroscopy mode has recently emerged as a technique of choice for studying mechanical interactions between the proteins of the core Soluble N-ethylmalmeimide-sensitive fusion protein Attachment protein REceptor (SNARE) complex. In these experiments, the rupture force, extension, spontaneous dissociation times and interaction energy for SNARE protein-protein interactions can be obtained at the single molecule level. These measurements, which are complementary to results and conclusions drawn from other techniques, improve our understanding of the role of the SNARE complex in exocytosis. PMID:19161382

  14. Cyanine-based probe\\tag-peptide pair fluorescence protein imaging and fluorescence protein imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Cumblidge, M. Uljana; Cao, Haishi

    2013-01-15

    A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety. A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl.sub.3. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

  15. Adhesive properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis probed by atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Yifan; Ulstrup, Jens; Zhang, Jingdong

    2011-01-01

    Mapping of the surface properties of Staphylococcus epidermidis and of biofilm forming bacteria in general is a key to understand their functions, particularly their adhesive properties. To gain a comprehensive view of the structural and chemical properties of S. epidermidis, four different strains...... (biofilm positive and biofilm negative strains) were analyzed using in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). Force measurements performed using bare hydrophilic silicon nitride tips disclosed similar adhesive properties for each strain. However, use of hydrophobic tips showed that hydrophobic forces...... are not the driving forces for adhesion of the four strains. Rather, the observation of sawtooth force–distance patterns on the surface of biofilm positive strains documents the presence of modular proteins such as Aap that may mediate cell adhesion. Treatment of two biofilm positive strains with two chemical...

  16. Spiral scanning method for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Shao-Kang

    2010-07-01

    A spiral scanning method is proposed for atomic force microscopy with thoroughgoing analysis and implementation. Comparing with the traditional line-by-line scanning method, the spiral scanning method demonstrates higher imaging speed, minor image distortion, and lower acceleration, which can damage the piezoelectric scanner. Employing the spiral scanning method to replace the line-by-line scanning method, the experiment shows that the time to complete an imaging cycle can be reduced from 800 s to 314 s without sacrificing the image resolution.

  17. Design and optimization of a harmonic probe with step cross section in multifrequency atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Jiandong; Wang, Michael Yu; Zhang, Li

    2015-12-01

    In multifrequency atomic force microscopy (AFM), probe's characteristic of assigning resonance frequencies to integer harmonics results in a remarkable improvement of detection sensitivity at specific harmonic components. The selection criterion of harmonic order is based on its amplitude's sensitivity on material properties, e.g., elasticity. Previous studies on designing harmonic probe are unable to provide a large design capability along with maintaining the structural integrity. Herein, we propose a harmonic probe with step cross section, in which it has variable width in top and bottom steps, while the middle step in cross section is kept constant. Higher order resonance frequencies are tailored to be integer times of fundamental resonance frequency. The probe design is implemented within a structural optimization framework. The optimally designed probe is micromachined using focused ion beam milling technique, and then measured with an AFM. The measurement results agree well with our resonance frequency assignment requirement.

  18. Probing dark excitons in atomically thin semiconductors via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, You; Scuri, Giovanni; Wild, Dominik S.; High, Alexander A.; Dibos, Alan; Jauregui, Luis A.; Shu, Chi; de Greve, Kristiaan; Pistunova, Kateryna; Joe, Andrew Y.; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Kim, Philip; Lukin, Mikhail D.; Park, Hongkun

    2017-09-01

    Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) monolayers with a direct bandgap feature tightly bound excitons, strong spin-orbit coupling and spin-valley degrees of freedom. Depending on the spin configuration of the electron-hole pairs, intra-valley excitons of TMD monolayers can be either optically bright or dark. Dark excitons involve nominally spin-forbidden optical transitions with a zero in-plane transition dipole moment, making their detection with conventional far-field optical techniques challenging. Here, we introduce a method for probing the optical properties of two-dimensional materials via near-field coupling to surface plasmon polaritons (SPPs). This coupling selectively enhances optical transitions with dipole moments normal to the two-dimensional plane, enabling direct detection of dark excitons in TMD monolayers. When a WSe2 monolayer is placed on top of a single-crystal silver film, its emission into near-field-coupled SPPs displays new spectral features whose energies and dipole orientations are consistent with dark neutral and charged excitons. The SPP-based near-field spectroscopy significantly improves experimental capabilities for probing and manipulating exciton dynamics of atomically thin materials, thus opening up new avenues for realizing active metasurfaces and robust optoelectronic systems, with potential applications in information processing and communication.

  19. Probing atomic structure and Majorana wavefunctions in mono-atomic Fe chains on superconducting Pb surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlak, Rémy; Kisiel, Marcin; Klinovaja, Jelena; Meier, Tobias; Kawai, Shigeki; Glatzel, Thilo; Loss, Daniel; Meyer, Ernst

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the striking promise of quantum computation, Majorana bound states (MBSs) in solid-state systems have attracted wide attention in recent years. In particular, the wavefunction localisation of MBSs is a key feature and is crucial for their future implementation as qubits. Here we investigate the spatial and electronic characteristics of topological superconducting chains of iron atoms on the surface of Pb(110) by combining scanning tunnelling microscopy and atomic force microscopy. We demonstrate that the Fe chains are mono-atomic, structured in a linear manner and exhibit zero-bias conductance peaks at their ends, which we interpret as signature for a MBS. Spatially resolved conductance maps of the atomic chains reveal that the MBSs are well localised at the chain ends (≲25 nm), with two localisation lengths as predicted by theory. Our observation lends strong support to use MBSs in Fe chains as qubits for quantum-computing devices.

  20. Probing electronic state at atomic scale on the surface of SrVO3 film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yoshinori; Shimizu, Ryota; Shiraki, Susumu; Hitosugi, Taro

    2014-03-01

    Probing electronic structure of atomically well controlled surface of Perovskite-type 3d transition-metal oxides have been attracting much interest because of their intriguing emergent physical properties by heterostructure engineering. In this study, we have especially focused on SrVO3, where importance of correlation effects has been considered. We successfully obtained atomically flat surfaces of SrVO3, which gave us the great opportunity to visualize correlated electronic state at atomic scale by means of spectroscopic imaging scanning tunneling spectroscopy. Based on the experimental data, we discuss spectroscopic signature of many body effects on the surface of SrVO3 system.

  1. Probing Single Membrane Proteins by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheuring, S.; Sapra, K. Tanuj; Müller, Daniel J.

    In this book chapter, we describe the working principle of the atomic force microscope (AFM), followed by the applications of AFM in high-resolution imaging and single-molecule force spectroscopy of membrane proteins. In the imaging mode, AFM allows observing the assembly of membrane proteins directly in native membranes approaching a resolution of ~0.5 nm with an outstanding signal-to-noise ratio. Conformational deviations of individual membrane proteins can be observed and their functional states directly imaged. Time-lapse AFM can image membrane proteins at work. In conjunction with high- resolution imaging, the use of the AFM as a single-molecule force spectroscope (SMFS) has gained tremendous importance in recent years. This combination allows to locate the inter- and intramolecular interactions of single membrane proteins. SMFS allows characterization of interactions that guide the folding of proteins and describe the parameters that lead to their destabilization, malfunction and misfolding. Moreover, it enables to measure the interactions established by ligand- and inhibitor-binding and in membrane protein assemblies. Because of its practical use in characterizing various parameters of membrane proteins in their native environment, AFM can be aptly described as a `lab on a tip' device.

  2. Noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment with quartz tuning fork and carbon nanotube probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kageshima, M.; Jensenius, Henriette; Dienwiebel, M.

    2002-01-01

    A force sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy in liquid environment was developed by combining a multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWNT) probe with a quartz tuning fork. Solvation shells of octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane surface were detected both in the frequency shift and dissipation. Due...

  3. Probing parity nonconservation effects with laser cooled and trapped francium atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalita, Mukut; Aubin, Seth; Behr, John; Collister, Robert; Dehart, Austin; Gorelov, Alexandre; Garcia, Eduardo; Gwinner, Gerald; Kossin, Michael; Livermore, David; Orozco, Luis; Pearson, Matt; FrPNC Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Measurements of parity nonconservation (PNC) effects in atomic systems test the Standard Model at low energies. We are developing an experiment to probe PNC effect in neutral francium atoms. Francium ions produced at the ISAC radioactive beam facility at TRIUMF are neutralized using a zirconium foil. The foil is momentarily heated and the released atoms are first trapped in a capture magneto optical trap (MOT). Then, the atoms are transported with about 50% efficiency to another MOT in a science chamber. In this chamber, in one experiment the 7S to 8S atomic transition will be probed using a laser beam, and in another experiment the ground state hyperfine transition will be probed using a microwave beam. In this talk I will report on recent developments towards the measurements. TRIUMF receives federal funding via a contribution agreement with the National Research Council of Canada. This work is also supported by NSERC from Canada, the DOE and NSF from the USA and CONACYT from Mexico.

  4. Probing the accuracy and precision of Hirshfeld atom refinement withHARtinterfaced withOlex2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugel, Malte; Jayatilaka, Dylan; Hupf, Emanuel; Overgaard, Jacob; Hathwar, Venkatesha R; Macchi, Piero; Turner, Michael J; Howard, Judith A K; Dolomanov, Oleg V; Puschmann, Horst; Iversen, Bo B; Bürgi, Hans-Beat; Grabowsky, Simon

    2018-01-01

    Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR) is a novel X-ray structure refinement technique that employs aspherical atomic scattering factors obtained from stockholder partitioning of a theoretically determined tailor-made static electron density. HAR overcomes many of the known limitations of independent atom modelling (IAM), such as too short element-hydrogen distances, r ( X -H), or too large atomic displacement parameters (ADPs). This study probes the accuracy and precision of anisotropic hydrogen and non-hydrogen ADPs and of r ( X -H) values obtained from HAR. These quantities are compared and found to agree with those obtained from (i) accurate neutron diffraction data measured at the same temperatures as the X-ray data and (ii) multipole modelling (MM), an established alternative method for interpreting X-ray diffraction data with the help of aspherical atomic scattering factors. Results are presented for three chemically different systems: the aromatic hydro-carbon rubrene (orthorhombic 5,6,11,12-tetra-phenyl-tetracene), a co-crystal of zwitterionic betaine, imidazolium cations and picrate anions (BIPa), and the salt potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHOx). The non-hydrogen HAR-ADPs are as accurate and precise as the MM-ADPs. Both show excellent agreement with the neutron-based values and are superior to IAM-ADPs. The anisotropic hydrogen HAR-ADPs show a somewhat larger deviation from neutron-based values than the hydrogen SHADE-ADPs used in MM. Element-hydrogen bond lengths from HAR are in excellent agreement with those obtained from neutron diffraction experiments, although they are somewhat less precise. The residual density contour maps after HAR show fewer features than those after MM. Calculating the static electron density with the def2-TZVP basis set instead of the simpler def2-SVP one does not improve the refinement results significantly. All HARs were performed within the recently introduced HARt option implemented in the Olex2 program. They are easily launched

  5. Probing the accuracy and precision of Hirshfeld atom refinement with HARt interfaced with Olex2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malte Fugel

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Hirshfeld atom refinement (HAR is a novel X-ray structure refinement technique that employs aspherical atomic scattering factors obtained from stockholder partitioning of a theoretically determined tailor-made static electron density. HAR overcomes many of the known limitations of independent atom modelling (IAM, such as too short element–hydrogen distances, r(X—H, or too large atomic displacement parameters (ADPs. This study probes the accuracy and precision of anisotropic hydrogen and non-hydrogen ADPs and of r(X—H values obtained from HAR. These quantities are compared and found to agree with those obtained from (i accurate neutron diffraction data measured at the same temperatures as the X-ray data and (ii multipole modelling (MM, an established alternative method for interpreting X-ray diffraction data with the help of aspherical atomic scattering factors. Results are presented for three chemically different systems: the aromatic hydrocarbon rubrene (orthorhombic 5,6,11,12-tetraphenyltetracene, a co-crystal of zwitterionic betaine, imidazolium cations and picrate anions (BIPa, and the salt potassium hydrogen oxalate (KHOx. The non-hydrogen HAR-ADPs are as accurate and precise as the MM-ADPs. Both show excellent agreement with the neutron-based values and are superior to IAM-ADPs. The anisotropic hydrogen HAR-ADPs show a somewhat larger deviation from neutron-based values than the hydrogen SHADE-ADPs used in MM. Element–hydrogen bond lengths from HAR are in excellent agreement with those obtained from neutron diffraction experiments, although they are somewhat less precise. The residual density contour maps after HAR show fewer features than those after MM. Calculating the static electron density with the def2-TZVP basis set instead of the simpler def2-SVP one does not improve the refinement results significantly. All HARs were performed within the recently introduced HARt option implemented in the Olex2 program. They are easily

  6. High sensitivity detection of protein molecules picked up on a probe of atomic force microscope based on the fluorescence detection by a total internal reflection fluorescence microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takafumi; Afrin, Rehana; Arakawa, Hideo; Ikai, Atsushi

    2004-07-02

    We developed a method to detect and identify proteins on a probe of the atomic force microscope (AFM) with a high sensitivity. Due to a low background noise of the total internal reflection fluorescence microscope employed as a detecting system, we were able to achieve a high enough sensitivity to detect zeptomole orders of protein molecules immobilized on the tip. Several different methods to immobilize protein molecules to AFM-probes were tested, meant for a wide range of applications of this method. Furthermore, we demonstrated that different proteins were clearly distinguished by immunofluorescence microscopy on the probe using their specific antibodies.

  7. Local electrode atom probe tomography a user's guide

    CERN Document Server

    Larson, David J; Ulfig, Robert M; Geiser, Brian P; Kelly, Thomas F; Humphreys, Professor Sir Colin J

    2014-01-01

    The first single-source reference to all the major features of LEAP tomography, this volume includes a wealth of practical tips and covers all four core aspects of a LEAP tomography experiment from start to finish, as well as the software methods employed.

  8. Specialized probes based on hydroxyapatite calcium for heart tissues research by atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhukov, Mikhail, E-mail: cloudjyk@yandex.ru; Golubok, Alexander [St. Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University), Kronverkskii pr. 49, St. Petersburg, 197101 (Russian Federation); Institute for Analytical Instrumentation, Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), Rizhskii pr. 26, St. Petersburg, 190103 (Russian Federation); Gulyaev, Nikolai [Military Medical Academy named after S.M. Kirov, Academic Lebedev str. 6, St. Petersburg, 194044 (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-17

    The new specialized AFM-probes with hydroxyapatite structures for atomic force microscopy of heart tissues calcification were created and studied. A process of probe fabrication is demonstrated. The adhesive forces between specialized hydroxyapatite probe and endothelium/subendothelial layers were investigated. It was found that the adhesion forces are significantly higher for the subendothelial layers. We consider that it is connected with the formation and localization of hydroxyapatite in the area of subendothelial layers of heart tissues. In addition, the roughness analysis and structure visualization of the endothelial surface of the heart tissue were carried out. The results show high efficiency of created specialized probes at study a calcinations process of the aortic heart tissues.

  9. Variational methods in electron-atom scattering theory

    CERN Document Server

    Nesbet, Robert K

    1980-01-01

    The investigation of scattering phenomena is a major theme of modern physics. A scattered particle provides a dynamical probe of the target system. The practical problem of interest here is the scattering of a low­ energy electron by an N-electron atom. It has been difficult in this area of study to achieve theoretical results that are even qualitatively correct, yet quantitative accuracy is often needed as an adjunct to experiment. The present book describes a quantitative theoretical method, or class of methods, that has been applied effectively to this problem. Quantum mechanical theory relevant to the scattering of an electron by an N-electron atom, which may gain or lose energy in the process, is summarized in Chapter 1. The variational theory itself is presented in Chapter 2, both as currently used and in forms that may facilitate future applications. The theory of multichannel resonance and threshold effects, which provide a rich structure to observed electron-atom scattering data, is presented in Cha...

  10. Atom probe tomography simulations and density functional theory calculations of bonding energies in Cu3Au

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben

    2012-10-01

    In this article the Cu-Au binding energy in Cu3Au is determined by comparing experimental atom probe tomography (APT) results to simulations. The resulting bonding energy is supported by density functional theory calculations. The APT simulations are based on the Müller-Schottky equation, which is modified to include different atomic neighborhoods and their characteristic bonds. The local environment is considered up to the fifth next nearest neighbors. To compare the experimental with simulated APT data, the AtomVicinity algorithm, which provides statistical information about the positions of the neighboring atoms, is applied. The quality of this information is influenced by the field evaporation behavior of the different species, which is connected to the bonding energies. © Microscopy Society of America 2012.

  11. Proposal for efficient two-dimensional atom localization using probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding Chunling; Li Jiahua; Yang Xiaoxue; Xiong Hao [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhang Duo [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics and School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Department of Mathematics and Physics, Wuhan Polytechnic University, Wuhan 430023 (China)

    2011-10-15

    The behavior of two-dimensional (2D) atom localization is explored by monitoring the probe absorption in a microwave-driven four-level atomic medium under the action of two orthogonal standing-wave fields. Because of the position-dependent atom-field interaction, the information about the position of the atom can be obtained via the absorption measurement of the weak probe field. It is found that the localization behavior is significantly improved due to the joint quantum interference induced by the standing-wave and microwave-driven fields. Most importantly, the atom can be localized at a particular position and the maximal probability of finding the atom in one period of the standing-wave fields reaches unity by properly adjusting the system parameters. The proposed scheme may provide a promising way to achieve high-precision and high-resolution 2D atom localization.

  12. Phase decomposition and ordering in Ni-11.3 at.% Ti studied with atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Al-Kassab, Talaat

    2014-09-01

    The decomposition behavior of Ni-rich Ni-Ti was reassessed using Tomographic Atom Probe (TAP) and Laser Assisted Wide Angle Tomographic Atom Probe. Single crystalline specimens of Ni-11.3at.% Ti were investigated, the states selected from the decomposition path were the metastable γ″ and γ\\' states introduced on the basis of small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and the two-phase model for evaluation. The composition values of the precipitates in these states could not be confirmed by APT data as the interface of the ordered precipitates may not be neglected. The present results rather suggest to apply a three-phase model for the interpretation of SANS measurements, in which the width of the interface remains nearly unchanged and the L12 structure close to 3:1 stoichiometry is maintained in the core of the precipitates from the γ″ to the γ\\' state. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Atom probe microscopy of zinc isotopic enrichment in ZnO nanorods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. N. Ironside

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available We report on atomic probe microscopy (APM of isotopically enriched ZnO nanorods that measures the spatial distribution of zinc isotopes in sections of ZnO nanorods for natural abundance natZnO and 64Zn and 66Zn enriched ZnO nanorods. The results demonstrate that APM can accurately quantify isotopic abundances within these nanoscale structures. Therefore the atom probe microscope is a useful tool for characterizing Zn isotopic heterostructures in ZnO. Isotopic heterostructures have been proposed for controlling thermal conductivity and also, combined with neutron transmutation doping, they could be key to a novel technology for producing p-n junctions in ZnO thin films and nanorods.

  14. Analysis of atomic distribution in as-fabricated Zircaloy-2 claddings by atom probe tomography under high-energy pulsed laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawabe, T., E-mail: sawabe@criepi.denken.or.jp [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Iwado Kita 2-11-1, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Sonoda, T.; Kitajima, S. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Iwado Kita 2-11-1, Komae, Tokyo 201-8511 (Japan); Kameyama, T. [Tokai University, Department of Nuclear Engineering, Kitakaname 4-1-1, Hiratsuka, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2013-11-15

    The properties of second-phase particles (SPPs) in Zircaloy-2 claddings are key factors influencing the corrosion resistance of the alloy. The chemical compositions of Zr (Fe, Cr){sub 2} and Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Ni) SPPs were investigated by means of pulsed laser atom probe tomography. In order to prevent specimen fracture and to analyse wide regions of the specimen, the pulsed laser energy was increased to 2.0 nJ. This gave a high yield of average of 3 × 10{sup 7} ions per specimen. The Zr (Fe, Cr){sub 2} SPPs contained small amounts of Ni and Si atoms, while in Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Ni) SPPs almost all the Si was concentrated and the ratio of Zr: (Fe + Ni + Si) was 2:1. Atomic concentrations of the Zr-matrix and the SPPs were identified by two approaches: the first by using all the visible peaks of the mass spectrum and the second using the representative peaks with the natural abundance of the corresponding atoms. It was found that the change in the concentration between the Zr-matrix and the SPPs can be estimated more accurately by the second method, although Sn concentration in the Zr{sub 2}(Fe, Ni) SPPs is slightly overestimated.

  15. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.; Russell, K.F.

    1990-12-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field ion spectroscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), liquid metal ion sources (LMIS), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), and theory. Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. This bibliography covers the period 1989. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications.

  16. Atom-probe tomography of tribological boundary films resulting from boron-based oil additives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yoon-Jun; Baik, Sung-Il; Bertolucci-Coelho, Leonardo; Mazzaferro, Lucca; Ramirez, Giovanni; Erdemir, Ali; Seidman, D K

    2016-01-15

    Correlative characterization using atom-probe tomography (APT) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was performed on a tribofilm formed during sliding frictional testing with a fully formulated engine oil, which also contains a boron-based additive. The tribofilm formed is ~15 nm thick and consists of oxides of iron and compounds of B, Ca, P, and S, which are present in the additive. This study provides strong evidence for boron being embedded in the tribofilm, which effectively reduces friction and wear losses.

  17. Atom probe field-ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography, 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, M.K.; Hawkins, A.R.

    1989-10-01

    This bibliography includes references related to the following topics: field-ion microscopy (FIM), field emission microscopy (FEM), atom probe field-ion microscopy (APFIM), and liquid metal ion sources (LMIS). Technique-orientated studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles.

  18. Pulsed-laser atom probe studies of a precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrieva, O., E-mail: o.dmitrieva@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Choi, P., E-mail: p.choi@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Gerstl, S.S.A. [Imago Scientific Instruments, Madison, WI 53711 (United States); Ponge, D.; Raabe, D. [Max-Planck-Institute for Iron Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-05-15

    A precipitation hardened maraging TRIP steel was analyzed using a pulsed laser atom probe. The laser pulse energy was varied from 0.3 to 1.9 nJ to study its effect on the measured chemical compositions and spatial resolution. Compositional analyses using proximity histograms did not show any significant variations in the average matrix and precipitate compositions. The only remarkable change in the atom probe data was a decrease in the ++/+ charge state ratios of the elements. The values of the evaporation field used for the reconstructions exhibit a linear dependence on the laser pulse energy. The adjustment of the evaporation fields used in the reconstructions for different laser pulse energies was based on the correlation of the obtained cluster shapes to the TEM observations. No influence of laser pulse energy on chemical composition of the precipitates and on the chemical sharpness of their interfaces was detected. -- Research highlights: {yields} Changing the laser pulse energy in pulsed-laser atom probe could induce some changes in the analysis results of complex steels. {yields} Decreases in the evaporation fields and the ++/+ charge state ratios were detected with raising laser energy. {yields} Chemical composition of the intermetallic precipitates and the interface sharpness were not influenced by changing the laser energy.

  19. Controlling residual hydrogen gas in mass spectra during pulsed laser atom probe tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolli, R Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Residual hydrogen (H2) gas in the analysis chamber of an atom probe instrument limits the ability to measure H concentration in metals and alloys. Measuring H concentration would permit quantification of important physical phenomena, such as hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, hydrogen trapping, and grain boundary segregation. Increased insight into the behavior of residual H2 gas on the specimen tip surface in atom probe instruments could help reduce these limitations. The influence of user-selected experimental parameters on the field adsorption and desorption of residual H2 gas on nominally pure copper (Cu) was studied during ultraviolet pulsed laser atom probe tomography. The results indicate that the total residual hydrogen concentration, HTOT, in the mass spectra exhibits a generally decreasing trend with increasing laser pulse energy and increasing laser pulse frequency. Second-order interaction effects are also important. The pulse energy has the greatest influence on the quantity HTOT, which is consistently less than 0.1 at.% at a value of 80 pJ.

  20. Effects of Optical Dopants and Laser Wavelength on Atom Probe Tomography Analyses of Borosilicate Glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Xiaonan; Schreiber, Daniel K.; Neeway, James J.; Ryan, Joseph V.; Du, Jincheng

    2017-10-02

    Atom probe tomography (APT) is a novel analytical microscopy method that provides three dimensional elemental mapping with sub-nanometer spatial resolution and has only recently been applied to insulating glass and ceramic samples. In this paper, we have studied the influence of the optical absorption in glass samples on APT characterization by introducing different transition metal optical dopants to a model borosilicate nuclear waste glass (international simple glass). A systematic comparison is presented of the glass optical properties and the resulting APT data quality in terms of compositional accuracy and the mass spectra quality for two APT systems: one with a green laser (532 nm, LEAP 3000X HR) and one with a UV laser (355 nm, LEAP 4000X HR). These data were also compared to the study of a more complex borosilicate glass (SON68). The results show that the analysis data quality such as compositional accuracy and total ions collected, was clearly linked to optical absorption when using a green laser, while for the UV laser optical doping aided in improving data yield but did not have a significant effect on compositional accuracy. Comparisons of data between the LEAP systems suggest that the smaller laser spot size of the LEAP 4000X HR played a more critical role for optimum performance than the optical dopants themselves. The smaller spot size resulted in more accurate composition measurements due to a reduced background level independent of the material’s optical properties.

  1. Effects of methotrexate on the viscoelastic properties of single cells probed by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mi; Liu, Lianqing; Xiao, Xiubin; Xi, Ning; Wang, Yuechao

    2016-10-01

    Methotrexate is a commonly used anti-cancer chemotherapy drug. Cellular mechanical properties are fundamental parameters that reflect the physiological state of a cell. However, so far the role of cellular mechanical properties in the actions of methotrexate is still unclear. In recent years, probing the behaviors of single cells with the use of atomic force microscopy (AFM) has contributed much to the field of cell biomechanics. In this work, with the use of AFM, the effects of methotrexate on the viscoelastic properties of four types of cells were quantitatively investigated. The inhibitory and cytotoxic effects of methotrexate on the proliferation of cells were observed by optical and fluorescence microscopy. AFM indenting was used to measure the changes of cellular viscoelastic properties (Young's modulus and relaxation time) by using both conical tip and spherical tip, quantitatively showing that the stimulation of methotrexate resulted in a significant decrease of both cellular Young's modulus and relaxation times. The morphological changes of cells induced by methotrexate were visualized by AFM imaging. The study improves our understanding of methotrexate action and offers a novel way to quantify drug actions at the single-cell level by measuring cellular viscoelastic properties, which may have potential impacts on developing label-free methods for drug evaluation.

  2. Monochromated STEM with a 30 meV-wide, atom-sized electron probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivanek, Ondrej L; Lovejoy, Tracy C; Dellby, Niklas; Carpenter, R W

    2013-02-01

    The origins and the recent accomplishments of aberration correction in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) are reviewed. It is remembered that the successful correction of imaging aberrations of round lenses owes much to the successful correction of spectrum aberrations achieved in electron energy loss spectrometers 2-3 decades earlier. Two noteworthy examples of the types of STEM investigation that aberration correction has made possible are shown: imaging of single-atom impurities in graphene and analyzing atomic bonding of single atoms by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). Looking towards the future, a new all-magnetic monochromator is described. The monochromator uses several of the principles pioneered in round lens aberration correction, and it employs stabilization schemes that make it immune to variations in the high voltage of the microscope and in the monochromator main prism current. Tests of the monochromator carried out at 60 keV have demonstrated energy resolution as good as 12 meV and monochromated probe size of ∼1.2 Å. These results were obtained in separate experiments, but they indicate that the instrument can perform imaging and EELS with an atom-sized probe <30 meV wide in energy, and that an improvement in energy resolution to 10 meV and beyond should be possible in the future.

  3. Understanding the atomic-scale contrast in Kelvin probe force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nony, Laurent; Foster, Adam S; Bocquet, Franck; Loppacher, Christian

    2009-07-17

    A numerical analysis of the origin of the atomic-scale contrast in Kelvin probe force microscopy is presented. Atomistic simulations of the tip-sample interaction force field have been combined with a noncontact atomic force microscope simulator including a Kelvin module. The implementation mimics recent experimental results on the (001) surface of a bulk alkali halide crystal for which simultaneous atomic-scale topographical and contact potential difference contrasts were reported. The local contact potential difference does reflect the periodicity of the ionic crystal, but not the magnitude of its Madelung surface potential. The imaging mechanism relies on the induced polarization of the ions at the tip-surface interface owing to the modulation of the applied bias voltage. Our findings are in excellent agreement with previous theoretical expectations and experimental observations.

  4. Role of geometry on the frequency spectra of U-shaped atomic force microscope probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, E.; Turner, J. A.

    2017-02-01

    Contact resonance atomic force microscopy (CR-AFM) is a specific technique that is used to determine elastic or viscoelastic properties of materials. The success of this technique is highly dependent on the accuracy of frequency spectra that must be measured for both noncontact and the case in which the tip is in contact with the sample of interest. Thus, choosing the right probe is crucial for accurate experiments. U-shaped probes also offer new opportunities for CR-AFM measurements because of certain specific modes that have tip motion parallel to the sample surface such that these resonances can access in-plane sample properties. However, analysis of the spectra from U-shaped probes is much more challenging due to these modes. The geometry of these probes is the main driver for the spectral response. Here, this influence on the resonance frequencies of the commercially fabricated U-shaped probe AN2-300 is evaluated with respect to geometry in terms of leg width, crossbeam width, and crossbeam length. Both noncontact and contact cases are examined with respect to variations of the nominal geometry. An energy distribution approach is also presented to assist with the identification of modes that have close resonances. Finally, this analysis allows recommendations to be made in order to minimize the convergence of multiple resonances for a specific range of measurement parameters.

  5. Resistivity Measurement by Dual-Configuration Four-Probe Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Nishii, Toshifumi; Mizutani, Hiroya

    2003-02-01

    The American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Committee has published a new technique for the measurement of resistivity which is termed the dual-configuration four-probe method. The resistivity correction factor is the function of only the data which are obtained from two different electrical configurations of the four probes. The measurement of resistivity and sheet resistance are performed for graphite rectangular plates and indium tin oxide (ITO) films by the conventional four-probe method and the dual-configuration four-probe method. It is demonstrated that the dual-configuration four-probe method which includes a probe array with equal separations of 10 mm can be applied to specimens having thicknesses up to 3.7 mm if a relative resistivity difference up to 5% is allowed.

  6. Atomic hydrogen storage method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woollam, J. A. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    Atomic hydrogen, for use as a fuel or as an explosive, is stored in the presence of a strong magnetic field in exfoliated layered compounds such as molybdenum disulfide or an elemental layer material such as graphite. The compounds maintained at liquid helium temperatures and the atomic hydrogen is collected on the surfaces of the layered compound which are exposed during delamination (exfoliation). The strong magnetic field and the low temperature combine to prevent the atoms of hydrogen from recombining to form molecules.

  7. Atom probe tomography studies of Al₂O₃ gate dielectrics on GaN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazumder, Baishakhi, E-mail: bmazumder@engineering.ucsb.edu; Wu, Feng; Speck, James S. [Materials Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States); Liu, Xiang; Yeluri, Ramya; Mishra, Umesh K. [Electrical and Computer Engineering Department, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2014-10-07

    Atom probe tomography was used to achieve three-dimensional characterization of in situ Al₂O₃/GaN structures grown by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Al₂O₃ dielectrics grown at three different temperatures of 700, 900, and 1000 °C were analyzed and compared. A low temperature GaN cap layer grown atop Al₂O₃ enabled a high success rate in the atom probe experiments. The Al₂O₃/GaN interfaces were found to be intermixed with Ga, N, and O over the distance of a few nm. Impurity measurements data showed that the 1000 °C sample contains higher amounts of C (4 × 10¹⁹/cm³) and lower amounts of H (7 × 10¹⁹/cm³), whereas the 700 °C sample exhibits lower C impurities (<10¹⁷/cm³) and higher H incorporation (2.2 × 10²⁰/cm³). On comparing with Al₂O₃ grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD), it was found that the MOCVD Al₂O₃/GaN interface is comparatively abrupt. Scanning transmission electron microscopy data showed that the 900 °C and 1000 °C MOCVD films exhibit polycrystalline nature, while the ALD films were found to be amorphous.

  8. Influence of supersaturated carbon on the diffusion of Ni in ferrite determined by atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Kresse, T.

    2013-09-01

    In patented and cold-drawn pearlitic steel wires dissociation of cementite occurs during mechanical deformation. In this study the influence of the carbon decomposition on the diffusion of nickel in ferrite is investigated by means of atom probe tomography. In the temperature range 423-523 K we observed a much smaller activation energy of Ni diffusion than for self-diffusion in body-centered cubic iron, indicating an increased vacancy density owing to enhanced formation of vacancy-carbon complexes. © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atom probe field ion microscopy and related topics: A bibliography 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfrey, R.D.; Miller, M.K.; Russell, K.F.

    1994-10-01

    This bibliography, covering the period 1993, includes references related to the following topics: atom probe field ion microscopy (APFIM), field emission (FE), and field ion microscopy (FIM). Technique-oriented studies and applications are included. The references contained in this document were compiled from a variety of sources including computer searches and personal lists of publications. To reduce the length of this document, the references have been reduced to the minimum necessary to locate the articles. The references are listed alphabetically by authors, an Addendum of references missed in previous bibliographies is included.

  10. Probing the atomic structure of amorphous Ta2O5 coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, R.; Borisenko, K. B.; Cockayne, D. J. H.; Hough, J.; MacLaren, I.; Rowan, S.

    2011-01-01

    Low optical and mechanical loss Ta2O5 amorphous coatings have a growing number of applications in precision optical measurements systems. Transmission electron microscopy is a promising way to probe the atomic structure of these coatings in an effort to better understand the causes of the observed mechanical and optical losses. Analysis of the experimental reduced density functions using a combination of reverse Monte Carlo refinements and density functional theory molecular dynamics simulations reveals that the structure of amorphous Ta2O5 consists of clusters with increased contribution from a Ta2O2 ring fragment.

  11. Mapping energetics of atom probe evaporation events through first principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peralta, Joaquín, E-mail: jperaltac@gmail.com [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, 2220 Hoover Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States); Broderick, Scott R., E-mail: sbroderick@iastate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, 2220 Hoover Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States); Rajan, Krishna, E-mail: krajan@iastate.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Institute for Combinatorial Discovery, Iowa State University, 2220 Hoover Hall, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-2230 (United States)

    2013-09-15

    The purpose of this work is to use atomistic modeling to determine accurate inputs into the atom probe tomography (APT) reconstruction process. One of these inputs is evaporation field; however, a challenge occurs because single ions and dimers have different evaporation fields. We have calculated the evaporation field of Al and Sc ions and Al–Al and Al–Sc dimers from an L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}Sc surface using ab initio calculations and with a high electric field applied to the surface. The evaporation field is defined as the electric field at which the energy barrier size is calculated as zero, corresponding to the minimum field that atoms from the surface can break their bonds and evaporate from the surface. The evaporation field of the surface atoms are ranked from least to greatest as: Al–Al dimer, Al ion, Sc ion, and Al–Sc dimer. The first principles results were compared with experimental data in the form of an ion evaporation map, which maps multi-ion evaporations. From the ion evaporation map of L1{sub 2}-Al{sub 3}Sc, we extract relative evaporation fields and identify that an Al–Al dimer has a lower evaporation field than an Al–Sc dimer. Additionally, comparatively an Al–Al surface dimer is more likely to evaporate as a dimer, while an Al–Sc surface dimer is more likely to evaporate as single ions. These conclusions from the experiment agree with the ab initio calculations, validating the use of this approach for modeling APT energetics. - Highlights: ► Calculated evaporation field of monomer and dimer atom probe evaporations. ► Determined relative evaporation fields using ion evaporation maps. ► Compared the experimental and calculated results and found that they agreed.

  12. Cyanine-based probe\\tag-peptide pair for fluorescence protein imaging and fluorescence protein imaging methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer-Cumblidge, M Uljana [Richland, WA; Cao, Haishi [Richland, WA

    2010-08-17

    A molecular probe comprises two arsenic atoms and at least one cyanine based moiety. A method of producing a molecular probe includes providing a molecule having a first formula, treating the molecule with HgOAc, and subsequently transmetallizing with AsCl.sub.3. The As is liganded to ethanedithiol to produce a probe having a second formula. A method of labeling a peptide includes providing a peptide comprising a tag sequence and contacting the peptide with a biarsenical molecular probe. A complex is formed comprising the tag sequence and the molecular probe. A method of studying a peptide includes providing a mixture containing a peptide comprising a peptide tag sequence, adding a biarsenical probe to the mixture, and monitoring the fluorescence of the mixture.

  13. Probing poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate)/cell interactions by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natalia, Becerra; Henry, Andrade; Betty, López; Marina, Restrepo Luz; Roberto, Raiteri

    2015-01-01

    Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) based hydrogels have been proposed as cell culture supports in cell sheet engineering. Toward this goal, we characterized the poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate) copolymer thermo-sensitivity and the cell/copolymer interactions above and below the copolymer lower critical solution temperature. We did that by direct force measurements at different temperatures using an atomic force microscope with either a polystyrene or a glass microbead as probes. We used a copolymer-coated microbead to measure adhesion after a short contact time with a single fibroblast in culture. Statistical analysis of the maximum adhesion force and the mechanical work necessary to separate the probe from the cell surface confirmed the hydrophilic/hydrophobic behavior of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate) as a function of temperature in the range 20-37°C and, consequently, a reversible increase/decrease in cell adhesion with the copolymer. As control experiments we measured interactions between uncoated microbeads with the copolymer hydrogel or cells as well as interaction of the Poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) homopolymer with cells. These results show the potential of an assay based on atomic force microscopy for an in situ and quantitative assessment of cell/substrate interactions and support the use of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-co-butylacrylate) copolymer as an efficient culture substrate in cell sheet engineering. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Atom probe field ion microscope study of the range and diffusivity of helium in tungsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagner, A.

    1978-08-01

    A time-of-flight (TOF) atom-probe field-ion microscope (FIM) specifically designed for the study of defects in metals is described. With this automated system 600 TOF min/sup -1/ can be recorded and analyzed. Performance tests of the instrument demonstrated that (1) the seven isotopes of molybdenum and the five isotopes of tungsten can be clearly resolved; and (2) the concentration and spatial distribution of all constitutents present at levels greater than 0.05 at. % in a W--25 at. % Re, Mo--1.0 at. % Ti, Mo--1.0 at. % Ti--0.08 at. % Zr (TZM), a low swelling stainless steel (LS1A) and a metallic glass (Metglas 2826) can be measured. The effect of the rate of field evaporation on the quantitative atom probe analysis of a Mo--1.0 at. % Ti alloy and a Mo--1.0 at. % Ti--0.08 at. % Zr alloy was investigated. As the field evaporation rate increased the measured Ti concentration was found to also increase. A simple qualitative model was proposed to explain the observation. The spatial distribution of titanium in a fast neutron irradiated Mo--1.0 at. % Ti alloy has been investigated. No evidence of Ti segregation to the voids was detected nor has any evidence of significant resolution of Ti from the TiC precipitates been detected. A small amount of segregation of carbon to a void was detected.

  15. The limit of time resolution in frequency modulation atomic force microscopy by a pump-probe approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Zeno; Spielhofer, Andreas; Miyahara, Yoichi; Grutter, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) routinely achieves structural information in the sub-nm length scale. Measuring time resolved properties on this length scale to understand kinetics at the nm scale remains an elusive goal. We present a general analysis of the lower limit for time resolution in AFM. Our finding suggests that the time resolution in AFM is ultimately limited by the well-known thermal limit of AFM and not as often proposed by the mechanical response time of the force sensing cantilever. We demonstrate a general pump-probe approach using the cantilever as a detector responding to the averaged signal. This method can be applied to any excitation signal such as electrical, thermal, magnetic or optical. Experimental implementation of this method allows us to measure a photocarrier decay time of ˜1 ps in low temperature grown GaAs using a cantilever with a resonant frequency of 280 kHz.

  16. Investigation of olivine and orthopyroxene grain boundaries by atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawczynski, M.; Skemer, P. A.; Bachhav, M.; Dong, Y.; Marquis, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    Accurate chemical analysis at grain boundaries is challenging by traditional microscopic techniques, especially for poor conducting geological samples. Atom probe tomography (APT) is a unique technique that can elucidate chemistry and 3-D distribution of elements within a sample volume at the sub-nanometer length scale. With advances in laser and sample preparation techniques in the last decade, APT is now successfully applied to a wide range of poor conducting materials like metal oxides, ceramics, and biological minerals. In this study, we apply the APT technique to investigate the grain boundary chemistry of orthopyroxene (opx) and olivine. These minerals are the most abundant in the upper mantle and their grain boundaries may be important geochemical reservoirs in Earth. Moreover, physical properties such as grain boundary diffusivity, conductivity, and mobility, are likely influenced by the presence or absence of impurities. Single crystals of opx and olivine grains, separated from a San Carlos xenolith, were deformed at 1 GPa and 1500 K. Plastic deformation promoted dynamic recrystallization, creating new grain boundaries within a chemically homogeneous medium. Needle shaped specimens of opx-opx and olivine-olivine grain boundaries were prepared using standard lift out techniques and a dual beam focused ion beam (FIB). APT analyses were performed in laser mode with laser energy of 50 pJ/pulse, repetition rate of 200 kHz, and detection rate of 1%. A 3-D distribution of elements was reconstructed and 1-D profiles across the grain boundary have been calculated. Fe, Al, and Ca show enrichments at the grain boundaries for both phases, consistent with previous studies that used STEM/EDX or EPMA techniques. Although qualitatively similar, the spatial resolution of the APT method is significantly better than other methods, and our data show that the grain-boundary enrichment of minor elements in both olivine and pyroxene compositions is limited to a region no greater

  17. Micro-four-point Probe Hall effect Measurement method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    contributions may be separated using dual configuration measurements. The method differs from conventional van der Pauw measurements since the probe pins are placed in the interior of the sample region, not just on the perimeter. We experimentally verify the method by micro-four-point probe measurements...... on ultrashallow junctions in silicon and germanium. On a cleaved silicon ultrashallow junction sample we determine carrier mobility, sheet carrier density, and sheet resistance from micro-four-point probe measurements under various experimental conditions, and show with these conditions reproducibility within...

  18. Gold-decorated highly ordered self-organized grating-like nanostructures on Ge surface: Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollick, Safiul Alam; Kumar, Mohit; Singh, Ranveer; Satpati, Biswarup; Ghose, Debabrata; Som, Tapobrata

    2016-10-28

    Nanoarchitecture by atomic manipulation is considered to be one of the emerging trends in advanced functional materials. It has a gamut of applications to offer in nanoelectronics, chemical sensing, and nanobiological science. In particular, highly ordered one-dimensional semiconductor nanostructures fabricated by self-organization methods are in high demand for their high aspect ratios and large number of applications. An efficient way of fabricating semiconductor nanostructures is by molecular beam epitaxy, where atoms are added to a crystalline surface at an elevated temperature during growth, yielding the desired structures in a self-assembled manner. In this article, we offer a room temperature process, in which atoms are sputtered away by ion impacts. Using gold ion implantation, the present study reports on the formation of highly ordered self-organized long grating-like nanostructures, with grooves between them, on a germanium surface. The ridges of the patterns are shown to have flower-like protruding nanostructures, which are mostly decorated by gold atoms. By employing local probe microscopic techniques like Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy, we observe a spatial variation in the work function and different nanoscale electrical conductivity on the ridges of the patterns and the grooves between them, which can be attributed to gold atom decorated ridges. Thus, the architecture  presented offers the advantage of using the patterned germanium substrates as periodic arrays of conducting ridges and poorly conducting grooves between them.

  19. A highly selective and ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide by rationally altering the susceptible H-atom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yuanqiang; Nguyen, Khac Hong; Zhang, Yintang; Zhang, Guan; Fan, Shengnan; Li, Fen; Guo, Chao; Lu, Yuanyuan; Song, Xiaoqing; Qu, Peng; Liu, You-Nian; Xu, Maotian

    2018-01-01

    A highly selective and ratiometric fluorescent probe for cyanide was rationally designed and synthesized. The probe comprises a fluorophore unit of naphthalimide and a CN- acceptor of methylated trifluoroacetamide group. For these previous reported trifluoroacetamide derivative-based cyanide chemosensors, the H-atom of amide adjacent to trifluoroacetyl group is susceptible to be attacked by various anions (CN- itself, F-, AcO-, et al.) and even the solvent molecule, which resulted in the bewildered reaction mechanism and poor selectivity of the assay. In this work, the susceptible H-atom of trifluoroacetamide was artfully substituted by alkyl group. Thus a highly specific fluorescent probe was developed for cyanide sensing. Upon the nucleophilic addition of cyanide anion to the carbonyl of trifluoroacetamide moiety of the probe, the ICT process of the probe was significantly enhanced and leading to a remarkable red shift in both absorption and emission spectra of the probe. This fluorescent assay showed a linear range of 1.0-80.0µM and a LOD (limit of detection) of 0.23µM. All the investigated interference have no influence on the sensing behavior of the probe toward cyanide. Moreover, by coating on TLC plate, the probe can be utilized for practical detection of trace cyanide in water samples. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Evaporation mechanisms of MgO in laser assisted atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Mazumder, Baishakhi

    2011-05-01

    In this paper the field evaporation properties of bulk MgO and sandwiched MgO layers in Fe are compared using laser assisted Atom Probe Tomography. The comparison of flight time spectra gives an estimate of the evaporation times as a function of the wavelength and the laser energy. It is shown that the evaporation takes place in two steps on two different time scales in MgO. It is also shown that as long as the MgO layer is buried in Fe, the evaporation is dominated by the photon absorption in Fe layer at the tip apex. Eventually the evaporation process of MgO is discussed based on the difference between the bulk materials and the multilayer samples. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  1. Atomic scale properties of magnetic Mn-based alloys probed by emission Mössbauer spectroscopy

    CERN Multimedia

    Mn-based alloys are characterized by a wealth of properties, which are of interest both from fundamental physics point of view and particularly attractive for different applications in modern technology: from magnetic storage to sensing and spin-based electronics. The possibility to tune their magnetic properties through post-growth thermal processes and/or stoichiometry engineering is highly important in order to target different applications (i.e. Mn$_{x}$Ga) or to increase their Curie temperature above room temperature (i.e. off-stoichiometric MnSi). In this project, the Mössbauer effect will be applied at $^{57}$Fe sites following implantation of radioactive $^{57}$Mn, to probe the micro-structure and magnetism of Mn-based alloys on the atomic-scale. The proposed experimental plan is devoted to establish a direct correlation between the local structure and bulk magnetism (and other physical properties) of Mn-based alloys.

  2. Analysis of deuterium in V-Fe5at.% film by atom probe tomography (APT)

    KAUST Repository

    Gemma, Ryota

    2011-09-01

    V-Fe5at.% 2 and 10-nm thick single layered films were prepared by ion beam sputtering on W substrate. They were loaded with D from gas phase at 0.2 Pa and at 1 Pa, respectively. Both lateral and depth D distribution of these films was investigated in detail by atom probe tomography. The results of analysis are in good agreement between the average deuterium concentration and the value, expected from electromotive force measurement on a similar flat film. An enrichment of deuterium at the V/W interface was observed for both films. The origin of this D-accumulation was discussed in respect to electron transfer, mechanical stress and misfit dislocations. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Implementation and characterization of a quartz tuning fork based probe consisted of discrete resonators for dynamic mode atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyama, Terunobu; de Rooij, Nicolaas F; Staufer, Urs; Detterbeck, Manfred; Braendlin, Dominik; Waldmeier, Simon; Scheidiger, Martin

    2010-06-01

    The quartz tuning fork based probe {e.g., Akiyama et al. [Appl. Surf. Sci. 210, 18 (2003)]}, termed "A-Probe," is a self-sensing and self-actuating (exciting) probe for dynamic mode atomic force microscope (AFM) operation. It is an oscillatory force sensor consisting of the two discrete resonators. This paper presents the investigations on an improved A-Probe: its batch fabrication and assembly, mounting on an AFM head, electrical setup, characterization, and AFM imaging. The fundamental features of the A-Probe are electrically and optically characterized in "approach-withdraw" experiments. Further investigations include the frequency response of an A-Probe to small mechanical vibrations externally applied to the tip and the effective loading force yielding between the tip and the sample during the periodic contact. Imaging of an electronic chip, a compact disk stamper, carbon nanotubes, and Si beads is demonstrated with this probe at ambient conditions in the so-called frequency modulation mode. A special probe substrate, which can snap on a receptacle fixed on an AFM head, and a special holder including a preamplifier electronic are introduced. We hope that the implementation and characterization of the A-Probe described in this paper will provide hints for new scanning probe techniques.

  4. Measurement and deposition of nanometer-scale Cu dot using an atomic force microscope with a nanopipette probe in liquid condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, So; Yamazaki, Koji; Iwata, Futoshi

    2011-12-01

    In this study, we developed novel techniques of nanometer-scale measurement and deposition using an atomic force microscope (AFM) with a nanopipette in liquid condition. The nanopipette, filled with CuSO4 electrolyte solution, was employed as the AFM probe. Observation and deposition of nanometer-scale Cu dots were carried out using the nanopipette probe. In order to avoid drying of the nanopipette solution and clogging of the probe-edge aperture, Cu dots were deposited and measured in liquid condition. As for the measurement of the surface, the nanopipette probe was glued on a tuning fork quartz crystal resonator (TF-QCR) to detect a probe oscillation and vertically oscillated to use a method of frequency modulation in tapping-mode AFM. With regard to the deposition of nanometer-scale Cu dot, an electrode wire inside the electrolyte-filled nanopipette and conductive surface of Au coated glass slide were employed as the anode and cathode, respectively. By utilizing the probe-surface distance control during the deposition, nanometerscale Cu dot were successfully deposited on Au surface without the diffusion. Then, the deposited dots were observed by using the nanopipette probe. This technique of the local deposition in the liquid would be applicable for various fields such as fabrication of micro/nanometer-scale devices and arrangement of biological samples.

  5. Nanogeochronology of discordant zircon measured by atom probe microscopy of Pb-enriched dislocation loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterman, Emily M.; Reddy, Steven M.; Saxey, David W.; Snoeyenbos, David R.; Rickard, William D. A.; Fougerouse, Denis; Kylander-Clark, Andrew R. C.

    2016-01-01

    Isotopic discordance is a common feature in zircon that can lead to an erroneous age determination, and it is attributed to the mobilization and escape of radiogenic Pb during its post-crystallization geological evolution. The degree of isotopic discordance measured at analytical scales of ~10 μm often differs among adjacent analysis locations, indicating heterogeneous distributions of Pb at shorter length scales. We use atom probe microscopy to establish the nature of these sites and the mechanisms by which they form. We show that the nanoscale distribution of Pb in a ~2.1 billion year old discordant zircon that was metamorphosed c. 150 million years ago is defined by two distinct Pb reservoirs. Despite overall Pb loss during peak metamorphic conditions, the atom probe data indicate that a component of radiogenic Pb was trapped in 10-nm dislocation loops that formed during the annealing of radiation damage associated with the metamorphic event. A second Pb component, found outside the dislocation loops, represents homogeneous accumulation of radiogenic Pb in the zircon matrix after metamorphism. The 207Pb/206Pb ratios measured from eight dislocation loops are equivalent within uncertainty and yield an age consistent with the original crystallization age of the zircon, as determined by laser ablation spot analysis. Our results provide a specific mechanism for the trapping and retention of radiogenic Pb during metamorphism and confirm that isotopic discordance in this zircon is characterized by discrete nanoscale reservoirs of Pb that record different isotopic compositions and yield age data consistent with distinct geological events. These data may provide a framework for interpreting discordance in zircon as the heterogeneous distribution of discrete radiogenic Pb populations, each yielding geologically meaningful ages. PMID:27617295

  6. Atom probe tomography of thermally grown oxide scale on FeCrAl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang, E-mail: fang.liu@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Stiller, Krystyna [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Thermally grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales formed on a FeCrAl alloy were successfully analyzed using pulsed green laser atom probe tomography. Two types of atom probe tomography specimens, the “thin oxide” type: a thin Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer (<100 nm) with underlying metal (1 μm), and the “thick oxide” type: only with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (1 μm), were prepared and analyzed. It was found that the thin oxide type yields poorer mass resolution due to a combined effect of laser absorption and thermal conduction effects. Application of a relatively low laser energy yields a better mass resolution and increased multiple events, however, more accurate quantification results. Although no other oxide phase than Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} is expected to form, some iron–oxygen and chromium–oxygen molecular ions were recorded at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/metal interface due to the large change in evaporation field over this zone. - Highlights: ► Thermally grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} scales formed on a FeCrAl alloy were successfully analyzed. ► Specimens with a thin oxide and underlying metal yield poorer mass resolution. ► Low laser energy yields a better mass resolution. ► Fe–O, Cr–O molecular ions were found at Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/metal interface; this is an ion evaporation effect.

  7. Quantitative imaging of electrospun fibers by PeakForce Quantitative NanoMechanics atomic force microscopy using etched scanning probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlanda, Adrian; Rebis, Janusz; Kijeńska, Ewa; Wozniak, Michal J; Rozniatowski, Krzysztof; Swieszkowski, Wojciech; Kurzydlowski, Krzysztof J

    2015-05-01

    Electrospun polymeric submicron and nanofibers can be used as tissue engineering scaffolds in regenerative medicine. In physiological conditions fibers are subjected to stresses and strains from the surrounding biological environment. Such stresses can cause permanent deformation or even failure to their structure. Therefore, there is a growing necessity to characterize their mechanical properties, especially at the nanoscale. Atomic force microscopy is a powerful tool for the visualization and probing of selected mechanical properties of materials in biomedical sciences. Image resolution of atomic force microscopy techniques depends on the equipment quality and shape of the scanning probe. The probe radius and aspect ratio has huge impact on the quality of measurement. In the presented work the nanomechanical properties of four different polymer based electrospun fibers were tested using PeakForce Quantitative NanoMechanics atomic force microscopy, with standard and modified scanning probes. Standard, commercially available probes have been modified by etching using focused ion beam (FIB). Results have shown that modified probes can be used for mechanical properties mapping of biomaterial in the nanoscale, and generate nanomechanical information where conventional tips fail. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Probing the interaction between air bubble and sphalerite mineral surface using atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Lei; Shi, Chen; Wang, Jingyi; Huang, Jun; Lu, Qiuyi; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2015-03-03

    The interaction between air bubbles and solid surfaces plays important roles in many engineering processes, such as mineral froth flotation. In this work, an atomic force microscope (AFM) bubble probe technique was employed, for the first time, to directly measure the interaction forces between an air bubble and sphalerite mineral surfaces of different hydrophobicity (i.e., sphalerite before/after conditioning treatment) under various hydrodynamic conditions. The direct force measurements demonstrate the critical role of the hydrodynamic force and surface forces in bubble-mineral interaction and attachment, which agree well with the theoretical calculations based on Reynolds lubrication theory and augmented Young-Laplace equation by including the effect of disjoining pressure. The hydrophobic disjoining pressure was found to be stronger for the bubble-water-conditioned sphalerite interaction with a larger hydrophobic decay length, which enables the bubble attachment on conditioned sphalerite at relatively higher bubble approaching velocities than that of unconditioned sphalerite. Increasing the salt concentration (i.e., NaCl, CaCl2) leads to weakened electrical double layer force and thereby facilitates the bubble-mineral attachment, which follows the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory by including the effects of hydrophobic interaction. The results provide insights into the basic understanding of the interaction mechanism between bubbles and minerals at nanoscale in froth flotation processes, and the methodology on probing the interaction forces of air bubble and sphalerite surfaces in this work can be extended to many other mineral and particle systems.

  9. Nanomechanical and topographical imaging of living cells by atomic force microscopy with colloidal probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puricelli, Luca; Galluzzi, Massimiliano; Schulte, Carsten; Podestà, Alessandro, E-mail: alessandro.podesta@mi.infn.it; Milani, Paolo [CIMaINa and Department of Physics, Università degli Studi di Milano, Via Celoria 16, 20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-03-15

    Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) has a great potential as a tool to characterize mechanical and morphological properties of living cells; these properties have been shown to correlate with cells’ fate and patho-physiological state in view of the development of novel early-diagnostic strategies. Although several reports have described experimental and technical approaches for the characterization of cellular elasticity by means of AFM, a robust and commonly accepted methodology is still lacking. Here, we show that micrometric spherical probes (also known as colloidal probes) are well suited for performing a combined topographic and mechanical analysis of living cells, with spatial resolution suitable for a complete and accurate mapping of cell morphological and elastic properties, and superior reliability and accuracy in the mechanical measurements with respect to conventional and widely used sharp AFM tips. We address a number of issues concerning the nanomechanical analysis, including the applicability of contact mechanical models and the impact of a constrained contact geometry on the measured Young’s modulus (the finite-thickness effect). We have tested our protocol by imaging living PC12 and MDA-MB-231 cells, in order to demonstrate the importance of the correction of the finite-thickness effect and the change in Young’s modulus induced by the action of a cytoskeleton-targeting drug.

  10. Probing new spin-independent interactions through precision spectroscopy in atoms with few electrons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delaunay, Cédric; Frugiuele, Claudia; Fuchs, Elina; Soreq, Yotam

    2017-12-01

    The very high precision of current measurements and theory predictions of spectral lines in few-electron atoms allows us to efficiently probe the existence of exotic forces between electrons, neutrons and protons. We investigate the sensitivity to new spin-independent interactions in transition frequencies (and their isotopic shifts) of hydrogen, helium and some heliumlike ions. We find that present data probe new regions of the force-carrier couplings to electrons and neutrons around the MeV mass range. We also find that, below few keV, the sensitivity to the electron coupling in precision spectroscopy of helium and positronium is comparable to that of the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron. Finally, we interpret our results in the dark-photon model where a new gauge boson is kinetically mixed with the photon. There, we show that helium transitions, combined with the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron, provide the strongest indirect bound from laboratory experiments above 100 keV.

  11. 3D Atom Probe Tomography Analysis of Neutron-irradiated SA508 Gr.4N

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Sang Yeob; Kwon, Jun Hyun; Lee, Gyeong Geun; Jin, Hyung Ha; Chang, Kun Ok [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Chan Sun [Myongi University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The embrittlement is induced by the formation of radiation defects (so-called 'matrix damage') and/or of radiation induced precipitates. Cu-rich precipitates (CRP) have been observed in Cu-bearing RPV steels. In case of Cu free, high Mn (and Ni and Si) containing RPV steels such as SA508 Gr.3 (1.4Mn-0.9Ni-0.15Cr-0.2C-0.002P in wt.%), Mn-Ni-rich precipitates (MNP) are reported to form at low temperature and high neutron fluence. These MNPs are believed to have long incubation time. But once nucleated, they rapidly grow to large volume fractions and mechanical properties deteriorate abruptly, e.g., increase in ductile-to-brittle transition temperature. For such reasons, MNPs are denoted as late blooming phases (LBP). MNPs are often observed in RPV steels with Mn content of -1 wt.% and similar or lower Ni content. Atom probe experiments of neutron irradiated SA508 Gr.3, which has a composition of, showed Mn, Ni, Si, and P atoms are formed MNPs and segregated at dislocation lines.

  12. Probing the interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides using atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jingyu; Qian, Yong, E-mail: qianyong86@163.com; Deng, Yonghong; Liu, Di; Li, Hao; Qiu, Xueqing, E-mail: xueqingqiu66@163.com

    2016-12-30

    Graphical abstract: The interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides are quantitatively probed by atomic force microscopy, which is fundamental but beneficial for understanding and optimizing the absorption-dispersion and catalytic degradation processes of lignin. - Highlights: • The interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides are measured using AFM. • The adhesion forces between lignin and metal oxides are larger than that in nonmetal systems. • Hydrogen bond plays an important role in lignin-inorganic oxides system. - Abstract: Understanding the interactions between lignin and inorganic oxides has both fundamental and practical importance in industrial and energy fields. In this work, the specific interactions between alkali lignin (AL) and three inorganic oxide substrates in aqueous environment are quantitatively measured using atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that the average adhesion force between AL and metal oxide such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} or MgO is nearly two times bigger than that between AL and nonmetal oxide such as SiO{sub 2} due to the electrostatic difference and cation-π interaction. When 83% hydroxyl groups of AL is blocked by acetylation, the adhesion forces between AL and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, MgO and SiO{sub 2} decrease 43, 35 and 75% respectively, which indicate hydrogen bonds play an important role between AL and inorganic oxides, especially in AL-silica system.

  13. Band excitation method applicable to scanning probe microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jesse, Stephen [Knoxville, TN; Kalinin, Sergei V [Knoxville, TN

    2010-08-17

    Methods and apparatus are described for scanning probe microscopy. A method includes generating a band excitation (BE) signal having finite and predefined amplitude and phase spectrum in at least a first predefined frequency band; exciting a probe using the band excitation signal; obtaining data by measuring a response of the probe in at least a second predefined frequency band; and extracting at least one relevant dynamic parameter of the response of the probe in a predefined range including analyzing the obtained data. The BE signal can be synthesized prior to imaging (static band excitation), or adjusted at each pixel or spectroscopy step to accommodate changes in sample properties (adaptive band excitation). An apparatus includes a band excitation signal generator; a probe coupled to the band excitation signal generator; a detector coupled to the probe; and a relevant dynamic parameter extractor component coupled to the detector, the relevant dynamic parameter extractor including a processor that performs a mathematical transform selected from the group consisting of an integral transform and a discrete transform.

  14. Atom probe tomography study of alloying element distributions in Zr alloys and their oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Motta, Arthur T.; Marquis, Emmanuelle A.

    2013-11-01

    A detailed study of alloying element distributions in the metal and oxygen rich regions of corroded Zr alloys and of the phases formed ahead of the oxide front was conducted using atom probe tomography (APT). A consistent sequence of sub-oxide phases is observed ahead of the ZrO2 oxide front, consisting of (i) a thin layer of equiatomic ZrO (occasionally slightly over and under stoichiometric) (ii) saturated solid solution Zr(O)sat, and (iii) a slowly decreasing oxygen profile into the metal. The results also show that the distribution of the alloying elements in the metal is more inhomogeneous than previously thought and that in the oxygen-rich phases enhanced segregation is observed, compared to the metal. the stable oxide ZrO2 (which is in contact with water), the equiatomic suboxide ZrO (both slightly sub and superstoichiometric, denoted here ZrO1+x and ZrO1-x), a saturated solution of constant oxygen content at about 30% O, denoted Zr(O)sat, and an undersaturated solid solution of O in Zr, denoted Zr(O), the oxygen content of which decreases with distance from the oxide-metal interface. As stated above, the field evaporation behavior of these phases is drastically different, resulting in characteristic ions being evaporated from each phase. As a result, the phases can be identified both by atomic concentrations and by the nature of the ionic species evaporating from each phase. The latter method was also used to visualize the distribution of phases within needles. For example, it was found in the present study that oxygen was evaporated as O+, O2+, ZrO2+, ZrO3+, ZrO2+,ZrO22+,ZrO3+ with occasional instances of ZrO23+ and ZrO33+ observed. Zr ions (Zr2+, Zr3+) become significant in the Zr(O)sat phase. O2+ is only observed in the oxide (ZrO2) phase, so it is considered a marker for that phase. ZrO2+ and ZrO22+ are present both in the ZrO2 and ZrO1+x phases but absent in the ZrO1-x, Zr(O)sat and Zr(O) phase. the equiatomic ZrO phase (observed as both ZrO1+x and Zr

  15. Coke Formation in a Zeolite Crystal During the Methanol-to- Hydrocarbons Reaction as Studied with Atom Probe Tomography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Joel E; Poplawsky, Jonathan D; Mazumder, Baishakhi; Attila, Özgün; Fu, Donglong; Winter, D A Matthijs De; Meirer, Florian; Bare, Simon R; Weckhuysen, Bert M

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the formation of carbon deposits in zeolites is vital to developing new,superior materials for various applications,including oil and gas conversion pro- cesses.Herein, atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to spatially resolve the 3D compositional changes at the sub- nm length

  16. Atomic XAFS as a Tool To Probe the Reactivity of Metal Oxide Catalysts: Quantifying Metal Oxide Support Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, D.E.; Airaksinen, S.M.K.; Krause, A.O.I.; Weckhuysen, B.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/285484397; Koningsberger, D.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073704342

    2007-01-01

    The potential of atomic XAFS (AXAFS) to directly probe the catalytic performances of a set of supported metal oxide catalysts has been explored for the first time. For this purpose, a series of 1 wt % supported vanadium oxide catalysts have been prepared differing in their oxidic support material

  17. Ordering and site occupancy of D03 ordered Fe3Al-5 at%Cr evaluated by means of atom probe tomography

    KAUST Repository

    Rademacher, Thomas W.

    2011-05-01

    Addition of ternary elements to the D03 ordered Fe3Al intermetallic phase is a general approach to optimise its mechanical properties. To understand the physical influences of such additions the determination of the probability of site occupancies of these additions on the lattice site and ordering parameters is of high interest. Some common experimental techniques such as X-ray diffraction or Atom Location by Channelling Enhanced Microanalysis (ALCHEMI) are usually applied to explore this interplay. Unfortunately, certain published results are partly inconsistent, imprecise or even contradictory. In this study, these aspects are evaluated systematically by atom probe tomography (APT) and a special data analysis method. Additionally, to account for possible field evaporation effects that can falsify the estimation of site occupancy and induce misinterpretations, APT evaporation sequences were also simulated. As a result, chromium occupies most frequently the next nearest neighbour sites of Al atoms and local ordering parameters could be achieved. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  18. Probing an Excited-State Atomic Transition Using Hyperfine Quantum Beat Spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Wade, Christopher G; Keaveney, James; Adams, Charles S; Weatherill, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    We describe a method to observe the dynamics of an excited-state transition in a room temperature atomic vapor using hyperfine quantum beats. Our experiment using cesium atoms consists of a pulsed excitation of the D2 transition, and continuous-wave driving of an excited-state transition from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state to the 7S$_{1/2}$ state. We observe quantum beats in the fluorescence from the 6P$_{3/2}$ state which are modified by the driving of the excited-state transition. The Fourier spectrum of the beat signal yields evidence of Autler-Townes splitting of the 6P$_{3/2}$, F = 5 hyperfine level and Rabi oscillations on the excited-state transition. A detailed model provides qualitative agreement with the data, giving insight to the physical processes involved.

  19. Compact metal probes: a solution for atomic force microscopy based tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, R D; Sheremet, E; Müller, S; Gordan, O D; Villabona, A; Schulze, S; Hietschold, M; Zahn, D R T

    2012-12-01

    There are many challenges in accomplishing tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) and obtaining a proper tip is probably the greatest one. Since tip size, composition, and geometry are the ultimate parameters that determine enhancement of intensity and lateral resolution, the tip becomes the most critical component in a TERS experiment. However, since the discovery of TERS the cantilevers used in atomic force microscopy (AFM) have remained basically the same: commercial silicon (or silicon nitride) tips covered by a metallic coating. The main issues of using metal-coated silicon cantilevers, such as wearing off of the metal layer or increased tip radius, can be completely overcome by using all-metal cantilevers. Until now in TERS experiments such probes have only been used in a scanning tunneling microscope or in a tuning fork-based shear force microscope but not in AFM. In this work for the first time, we show the use of compact silver cantilevers that are fully compatible with contact and tapping modes in AFM demonstrating their superb performance in TERS experiments.

  20. Probing the local structure of doped manganites using the atomic pair distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proffen, T.; Billinge, S. J. L.

    We have used atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis based on neutron powder diffraction data to investigate the local structure of the colossal magnetoresistant manganite La0.75Ca0.25MnO3 as a function of temperature. In the doping range 0.17materials show a metal-to-insulator transition, transforming from a ferromagnetic metal (FM) at low temperature to a paramagnetic insulator (PI). We can probe the charge distribution of the sample using the PDF by searching for evidence of Jahn-Teller (JT) distorted octahedra, implying the presence of Mn3+ ions. A two-phase model based on the local structures of the FM and PI phases was used to refine the experimental PDFs quantitatively. We observe the co-existence of both phases over a wide temperature range: approximately 10% of the localized JT phase (PI) is present even at the lowest temperature (T=20K), whereas at room temperature nearly half of the sample remains in the delocalized (FM) phase.

  1. Atom Probe Tomography Examination of Carbon Redistribution in Quenched and Tempered 4340 Steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clarke, Amy J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Miller, Michael K. [ORNL; Alexander, David J. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Field, Robert D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Clarke, Kester D. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-08-07

    Quenching and tempering produces a wide range of mechanical properties in medium carbon, low alloyed steels - Study fragmentation behavior as a function of heat-treatment. Subtle microstructural changes accompany the mechanical property changes that result from quenching and tempering - Characterize the location and distribution of carbon and alloying elements in the microstructure using atom probe tomography (APT). Perform complementary transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Tempering influences the mechanical properties and fragmentation of quenched 4340 (hemi-shaped samples). APT revealed carbon-enriched features that contain a maximum of {approx}12-14 at.% carbon after quenching to RT (the level of carbon is perhaps associated with the extent of autotempering). TEM confirmed the presence of twinned martensite and indicates {var_epsilon} ({eta}) transition carbides after oil quenching to RT. Tempering at 325 C resulted in carbon-enriched plates (> 25 at.% C) with no significant element partitioning (transition carbides?). Tempering at 450 C and 575 C resulted in cementite ({approx} 25 at.% C) during late stage tempering; Cr, Mn, Mo partitioned to cementite and Si partitioned to ferrite. Tempering at 575 C resulted in P segregation at cementite interfaces and the formation of Cottrell atmospheres.

  2. Isotopic analysis of individual refractory metal nuggets using atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, L.; Bland, P.; Schaefer, B. F.; Saxey, D. W.; Reddy, S.; Fougerouse, D.; William, R. D. A.; Forman, L. V.; Trimby, P.; La Fontaine, A.; Yang, L.; Cairney, J.; Ringer, S.

    2016-12-01

    Sub-micrometre metallic alloys of the highly siderophile elements, known as refractory metal nuggets (RMNs), can be found in primitive carbonaceous chondrites. There has been some suggestion that these grains may have a pre-solar origin, however their <1 µm size has meant that isotopic analysis of individual grains has not previously been possible. Atom probe microscopy has sufficient spatial resolution to quantify the isotopic compositions, across the entire mass range, of small sample volumes (<0.02 µm3) with high sensitivity and precision. We present analyses of four individual RMNs from the same refractory inclusion within the ALH 77307 meteorite. The results indicate that these RMNs have significant isotopic deviations from solar relative isotope abundances and therefore preserve a pre-solar isotopic signature. All RMNs exhibit large p-process enrichments in 98Ru and depletions in s-process 186Os. Two RMNs have a similar isotopic signature, suggesting formation in the same stellar environment. This similarity between two RMNs indicates that there may be a significant contribution of material to our solar system from a single source. The other two RMNs are isotopically dissimilar. Finally, three of the RMNs plot on a 187Re -187Os isochron from which we can derive a galactic age of 12.5 Ga ±1.8. To the best of our knowledge this is the first direct determination of the age of the Milky Way through physical analysis of non-solar material.

  3. Nanoscale Stoichiometric Analysis of a High-Temperature Superconductor by Atom Probe Tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedrazzini, Stella; London, Andrew J; Gault, Baptiste; Saxey, David; Speller, Susannah; Grovenor, Chris R M; Danaie, Mohsen; Moody, Michael P; Edmondson, Philip D; Bagot, Paul A J

    2017-04-01

    The functional properties of the high-temperature superconductor Y1Ba2Cu3O7-δ (Y-123) are closely correlated to the exact stoichiometry and oxygen content. Exceeding the critical value of 1 oxygen vacancy for every five unit cells (δ>0.2, which translates to a 1.5 at% deviation from the nominal oxygen stoichiometry of Y7.7Ba15.3Cu23O54-δ ) is sufficient to alter the superconducting properties. Stoichiometry at the nanometer scale, particularly of oxygen and other lighter elements, is extremely difficult to quantify in complex functional ceramics by most currently available analytical techniques. The present study is an analysis and optimization of the experimental conditions required to quantify the local nanoscale stoichiometry of single crystal yttrium barium copper oxide (YBCO) samples in three dimensions by atom probe tomography (APT). APT analysis required systematic exploration of a wide range of data acquisition and processing conditions to calibrate the measurements. Laser pulse energy, ion identification, and the choice of range widths were all found to influence composition measurements. The final composition obtained from melt-grown crystals with optimized superconducting properties was Y7.9Ba10.4Cu24.4O57.2.

  4. Roles of Atomic Injection Rate and External Magnetic Field on Optical Properties of Elliptical Polarized Probe Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, R.; Asadpour, S. H.; Batebi, S.; Rahimpour Soleimani, H.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the optical properties of an open four-level tripod atomic system driven by an elliptically polarized probe field in the presence of the external magnetic field and compare its properties with the corresponding closed system. Our result reveals that absorption, dispersion and group velocity of probe field can be manipulated by adjusting the phase difference between the two circularly polarized components of a single coherent field, magnetic field and cavity parameters i.e. the atomic exit rate from cavity and atomic injection rates. We show that the system can exhibit multiple electromagnetically induced transparency windows in the presence of the external magnetic field. The numerical result shows that the probe field in the open system can be amplified by appropriate choice of cavity parameters, while in the closed system with introduce appropriate phase difference between fields the probe field can be enhanced. Also it is shown that the group velocity of light pulse can be controlled by external magnetic field, relative phase of applied fields and cavity parameters. By changing the parameters the group velocity of light pulse changes from subluminal to superluminal light propagation and vice versa.

  5. Interpretation of atom probe tomography data for the intermetallic TiAl+Nb by means of field evaporation simulation

    KAUST Repository

    Boll, Torben

    2013-01-01

    In this paper simulations of the field evaporation process during field ion microscopy (FIM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are presented and compared with experimental data. The Müller-Schottky-model [1] was extended to include the local atomic arrangement on the evaporation process of atoms. This arrangement was described by the sum of the next-neighbor-binding-energies, which differ for an atom of type A, depending on how many A-A, B-B or A-B bonds are present. Thus simulations of APT-data of intermetallic phases become feasible. In this study simulations of L10-TiAl with additions of Nb are compared with experimental data. Certain artifacts, which appear for experimental data are treated as well. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Interpretation of atom probe tomography data for the intermetallic TiAl+Nb by means of field evaporation simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boll, T; Al-Kassab, T

    2013-01-01

    In this paper simulations of the field evaporation process during field ion microscopy (FIM) and atom probe tomography (APT) are presented and compared with experimental data. The Müller-Schottky-model was extended to include the local atomic arrangement on the evaporation process of atoms. This arrangement was described by the sum of the next-neighbor-binding-energies, which differ for an atom of type A, depending on how many A-A, B-B or A-B bonds are present. Thus simulations of APT-data of intermetallic phases become feasible. In this study simulations of L1(0)-TiAl with additions of Nb are compared with experimental data. Certain artifacts, which appear for experimental data are treated as well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Development of Two-Photon Pump Polarization Spectroscopy Probe Technique Tpp-Psp for Measurements of Atomic Hydrogen .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satija, Aman; Lucht, Robert P.

    2015-06-01

    Atomic hydrogen (H) is a key radical in combustion and plasmas. Accurate knowledge of its concentration can be used to better understand transient phenomenon such as ignition and extinction in combustion environments. Laser induced polarization spectroscopy is a spatially resolved absorption technique which we have adapted for quantitative measurements of H atom. This adaptation is called two-photon pump, polarization spectroscopy probe technique (TPP-PSP) and it has been implemented using two different laser excitation schemes. The first scheme involves the two-photon excitation of 1S-2S transitions using a linearly polarized 243-nm beam. An anisotropy is created amongst Zeeman states in 2S-3P levels using a circularly polarized 656-nm pump beam. This anisotropy rotates the polarization of a weak, linearly polarized probe beam at 656 nm. As a result, the weak probe beam "leaks" past an analyzer in the detection channel and is measured using a PMT. This signal can be related to H atom density in the probe volume. The laser beams were created by optical parametric generation followed by multiple pulse dye amplification stages. This resulted in narrow linewidth beams which could be scanned in frequency domain and varied in energy. This allowed us to systematically investigate saturation and Stark effect in 2S-3P transitions with the goal of developing a quantitative H atom measurement technique. The second scheme involves the two-photon excitation of 1S-2S transitions using a linearly polarized 243-nm beam. An anisotropy is created amongst Zeeman states in 2S-4P transitions using a circularly polarized 486-nm pump beam. This anisotropy rotates the polarization of a weak, linearly polarized probe beam at 486 nm. As a result the weak probe beam "leaks" past an analyzer in the detection channel and is measured using a PMT. This signal can be related to H atom density in the probe volume. A dye laser was pumped by third harmonic of a Nd:YAG laser to create a laser beam

  8. Probes for multidimensional nanospectroscopic imaging and methods of fabrication thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Cabrini, Stefano; Bao, Wei; Melli, Mauro; Yablonovitch, Eli; Schuck, Peter J

    2015-03-17

    This disclosure provides systems, methods, and apparatus related to probes for multidimensional nanospectroscopic imaging. In one aspect, a method includes providing a transparent tip comprising a dielectric material. A four-sided pyramidal-shaped structure is formed at an apex of the transparent tip using a focused ion beam. Metal layers are deposited over two opposing sides of the four-sided pyramidal-shaped structure.

  9. A new laser cooling method for lithium atom interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Geena

    An atom interferometer offers means to measure physical constants and physical quantities with a high precision, with relatively low cost and convenience as a table-top experiment. A precision measurement of a gravitational acceleration can test fundamental physics concepts such as Einstein equivalence principle (EEP). We identified that the two lithium isotopes (7Li and 6Li) have an advantage for the test of EEP, according to the standard model extension (SME). We aim to build the world's first lithium atom interferometer and test the Einstein equivalence principle. We demonstrate a new laser cooling method suitable for a lithium atom interferometer. Although lithium is often used in ultra-cold atom experiments for its interesting physical properties and measurement feasibility, it is more difficult to laser cool lithium than other alkali atoms due to its unresolved hyperfine states, light mass (large recoil velocity) and high temperature from the oven. Typically, standard laser cooling techniques such as Zeeman slowers and magneto-optical traps are used to cool lithium atoms to about 1 mK, and the evaporative cooling method is used to cool lithium atoms to a few muK for Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) experiments. However, for the atom interferometry purpose, the evaporative cooling method is not ideal for several reasons: First, its cooling efficiency is so low (0.01 % or less) that typically only 104-105 atoms are left after cooling when one begins with 10. 9 atoms. More atoms in anatom interferometer are needed to have a better signal to noise ratio. Second, an evaporative cooling is used to make a BEC, but we do not need a BEC to make an atom interferometer. In an atom interferometer, a high density of atoms as in a BEC should be avoided since it causes a phase shift due to atom interactions. Third, a setup for an evaporative cooling requires intricate RF generating coils or a high power laser. With a simple optical lattice and a moderate laser power (100 m

  10. A Mnemonic Method for Assigning the Electronic Configurations of Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iza, Nerea; Gil, Manuel

    1995-11-01

    A simple mnemonic method for predicting electronic configurations of the majority of the elements of the Periodic Table is shown. With this device it is necessary only to draw a linear diagram for "building up" the electronic configurations of atoms. The advantages and limitations of the method are considered.

  11. Method and system for continuous atomic layer deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elam, Jeffrey W.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Libera, Joseph A.

    2017-03-21

    A system and method for continuous atomic layer deposition. The system and method includes a housing, a moving bed which passes through the housing, a plurality of precursor gases and associated input ports and the amount of precursor gases, position of the input ports, and relative velocity of the moving bed and carrier gases enabling exhaustion of the precursor gases at available reaction sites.

  12. Hidden Markov Model of atomic quantum jump dynamics in an optically probed cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, S.; Molmer, K.; Alt, W.

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the quantum jumps of an atom interacting with a cavity field. The strong atom- field interaction makes the cavity transmission depend on the time dependent atomic state, and we present a Hidden Markov Model description of the atomic state dynamics which is conditioned in a Bayesian......, the atomic state is determined in a Bayesian manner from the measurement data, and we present an iterative protocol, which determines both the atomic state and the model parameters. As a new element in the treatment of observed quantum systems, we employ a Bayesian approach that conditions the atomic state...... manner on the detected signal. We suggest that small variations in the observed signal may be due to spatial motion of the atom within the cavity, and we represent the atomic system by a number of hidden states to account for both the small variations and the internal state jump dynamics. In our theory...

  13. Probing many-body dynamics on a 51-atom quantum simulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernien, Hannes; Schwartz, Sylvain; Keesling, Alexander; Levine, Harry; Omran, Ahmed; Pichler, Hannes; Choi, Soonwon; Zibrov, Alexander S; Endres, Manuel; Greiner, Markus; Vuletić, Vladan; Lukin, Mikhail D

    2017-11-29

    Controllable, coherent many-body systems can provide insights into the fundamental properties of quantum matter, enable the realization of new quantum phases and could ultimately lead to computational systems that outperform existing computers based on classical approaches. Here we demonstrate a method for creating controlled many-body quantum matter that combines deterministically prepared, reconfigurable arrays of individually trapped cold atoms with strong, coherent interactions enabled by excitation to Rydberg states. We realize a programmable Ising-type quantum spin model with tunable interactions and system sizes of up to 51 qubits. Within this model, we observe phase transitions into spatially ordered states that break various discrete symmetries, verify the high-fidelity preparation of these states and investigate the dynamics across the phase transition in large arrays of atoms. In particular, we observe robust many-body dynamics corresponding to persistent oscillations of the order after a rapid quantum quench that results from a sudden transition across the phase boundary. Our method provides a way of exploring many-body phenomena on a programmable quantum simulator and could enable realizations of new quantum algorithms.

  14. Characterization of nano-sized precipitates in a Mn-based lean maraging steel by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millan, J.; Ponge, D.; Raabe, D.; Choi, P.; Dmitrieva, O. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-02-15

    We present atom probe tomography results of a precipitation-hardened Mn-based maraging steel (9 Mn, 1.9 Ni, 0.6 Mo, 1.1 Ti, 0.33 Al; in at.%). The alloy is characterized by the surprising effect that both, strength and total elongation increase upon aging. The material reveals a high ultimate tensile strength (UTS) up to 1 GPa and good ductility (total elongation (TE) of up to 15% in a tensile test) depending on aging conditions. We map the evolution of the precipitates after 450 C aging treatment using atom probe tomography in terms of chemical composition and size distribution. (Copyright copyright 2011 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  15. Probing Deviations From Traditional Colloid Filtration Theory by Atomic Force Microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, R. S.; Reno, M. D.; Altman, S. J.

    2006-12-01

    Understanding colloid transport through saturated media is an integral component of predicting the fate and transport of groundwater contaminants. Developing sound predictive capabilities and establishing effective methodologies for remediation relies heavily on our ability to understand the physical and chemical mechanisms controlling colloid attachment and detachment. Colloid filtration theory (CFT) has been ubiquitously employed to describe particle advection, dispersion, and deposition in saturated media and predicts an exponential decrease in colloid concentration with travel distance from the source. Colloid depositional behavior can be further understood through consideration of Derjaguin Landau Verwey Overbeek (DLVO) interactions. Recent studies give evidence for significant deviations from traditional CFT in the presence of repulsive DLVO interactions. Deposition in the secondary energy minimum has been suggested as a mechanism to explain the observed deviations. This work reports on attempts to quantify the secondary energy minimum as predicted by DLVO theory using direct measurements obtained by atomic force microscopy. The colloid probe technique is used to directly measure the force of interaction between a single carboxylate modified polystyrene latex microsphere and a model collector surface in electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength. Systematic variations in the size of the microsphere and the ionic strength of the electrolyte solutions yield force measurements that are compared to theoretical predictions and the experimental results of others. The importance of proper sample characterization and cleaning in obtaining meaningful measurements is emphasized. Sandia is a multiprogram laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract DE-AC04- 94AL85000.

  16. Atom probe tomography investigation of lath boundary segregation and precipitation in a maraging stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thuvander, Mattias, E-mail: mattias.thuvander@chalmers.se [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Andersson, Marcus [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); R and D Centre, Sandvik Materials Technology, SE-811 81 Sandviken (Sweden); Stiller, Krystyna [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-412 96 Göteborg (Sweden)

    2013-09-15

    Lath boundaries in a maraging stainless steel of composition 13Cr–8Ni–2Mo–2Cu–1Ti–0.7Al–0.3Mn–0.2Si–0.03C (at%) have been investigated using atom probe tomography following aging at 475 °C for up to 100 h. Segregation of Mo, Si and P to the lath boundaries was observed already after 5 min of aging, and the amount of segregation increases with aging time. At lath boundaries also precipitation of η-Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Al) and Cu-rich 9R, in contact with each other, takes place. These co-precipitates grow with time and because of coarsening the area number density decreases. After 100 h of aging a ∼5 nm thick film-like precipitation of a Mo-rich phase was observed at the lath boundaries. From the composition of the film it is suggested that the phase in question is the quasicrystalline R′ phase. The film is perforated with Cu-rich 9R and η-Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Al) co-precipitates. Not all precipitate types present in the matrix do precipitate at the lath boundaries; the Si-containing G phase and γ′-Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Al, Si) and the Cr-rich α′ phase were not observed at the lath boundaries. - Highlights: ► Lath boundaries in a maraging steel were analyzed by APT. ► Segregation of Mo, Si and P was measured. ► Precipitation of η-Ni{sub 3}(Ti, Al) and Cu-rich 9R was observed. ► After 100 h of aging a quasicrystalline Mo-rich film was observed.

  17. Determination of Gamma-Prime Site Occupancies in Nickel Superalloys Using Atom Probe Tomography and X-Ray Diffraction (Preprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    atom probe results from the same alloy that indicate that chromium prefers the aluminum sublattice sites. Modeling studies indicate cobalt has no...sublattice sites while cobalt is likely to occupy both the aluminum and nickel sublattice sites. The x-ray results on the chromium occupancy disagree with...experimental results also indicate that chromium prefers the nickel sublattice sites while cobalt is likely to occupy both the aluminum and nickel

  18. Power-Law Stress and Creep Relaxations of Single Cells Measured by Colloidal Probe Atomic Force Microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hiratsuka, Shinichiro; Mizutani, Yusuke; Toda, Akitoshi; Fukushima, Norichika; Kawahara, Koichi; Tokumoto, Hiroshi; Okajima, Takaharu

    2009-01-01

    We measured stress and creep relaxations of mouse fibroblast cells arranged and cultured on a microarray, by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy (AFM). A hydrophobic monolayer coating of perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) on the surface of colloidal silica beads significantly reduced the adhesion force of live cells, compared with untreated beads. The rheological behaviors of cells were estimated by averaging several relaxation curves of cells measured by the AFM. Longer-time tailing of...

  19. Fundamental insights into the radium uptake into barite by atom probe tomography and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Juliane

    2017-10-01

    -of-the-art high-resolution microscopy techniques was used to answer the questions regarding (1) the internal microstructure of the initial barite (2) the role of this internal microstructure during the Ra uptake and (3) t he changes in the Ra distribution within the barite. This study comprises the first characterization of barite by atom probe tomography (APT). By combining APT and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) methods, pores covering the size range from a few nanometers to a few micrometers were identified in the SL barite. The pores were organized in layers parallel to the outer crystal faces. High resolution chemical analysis indicated that the pores contain a solution of water and sodium chloride. By focused ion beam (FIB) tomography, it was revealed that open macropores of several micrometers size are present as well within the SL barite. These partially connected macropores are distributed within the complete barite particles. Therefore, the macropores provide a direct pathway for Ra-containing aqueous fluid to enter the SL barite particles by diffusion within the aqueous solution. In addition, pores were also identified in the AL barite by TEM characterization. The entrapment of solution during mineral precipitation is known for several minerals at high supersaturation. As barite only precipitates at high supersaturation, nanoscale fluid inclusions as well as macropores probably were entrapped during the particle growth by precipitation. A microstructure similar to the one of the barite type used in this study was previously reported for other barites. In Ra-free reference experiment, no microstructural changes were noted over recrystallization times of up to 898 days. In prior studies, three different stages of Ra uptake were described based on macroscopic results. Ra-containing barite samples from all three stages were characterized to understand the role of the internal barite microstructure. At the beginning, the nano-scale fluid inclusions disappeared

  20. Atomic structure and surface defects at mineral-water interfaces probed by in situ atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sîretanu, Igor; van den Ende, Henricus T.M.; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther

    2016-01-01

    Atomic scale details of surface structure play a crucial role for solid–liquid interfaces. While macroscopic characterization techniques provide averaged information about bulk and interfaces, high resolution real space imaging reveals unique insights into the role of defects that are believed to

  1. Piezoelectric tuning fork probe for atomic force microscopy imaging and specific recognition force spectroscopy of an enzyme and its ligand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makky, Ali; Viel, Pascal; Chen, Shu-wen Wendy; Berthelot, Thomas; Pellequer, Jean-Luc; Polesel-Maris, Jérôme

    2013-11-01

    Piezoelectric quartz tuning fork has drawn the attention of many researchers for the development of new atomic force microscopy (AFM) self-sensing probes. However, only few works have been done for soft biological materials imaging in air or aqueous conditions. The aim of this work was to demonstrate the efficiency of the AFM tuning fork probe to perform high-resolution imaging of proteins and to study the specific interaction between a ligand and its receptor in aqueous media. Thus, a new kind of self-sensing AFM sensor was introduced to realize imaging and biochemical specific recognition spectroscopy of glucose oxidase enzyme using a new chemical functionalization procedure of the metallic tips based on the electrochemical reduction of diazonium salt. This scanning probe as well as the functionalization strategy proved to be efficient respectively for the topography and force spectroscopy of soft biological materials in buffer conditions. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Probing the properties of quantum matter; an experimental study in three parts using ultracold atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bons, P.C.

    2015-01-01

    The three experiments described in this thesis investigate fundamental properties of ultracold atoms. Using laser cooling and evaporative cooling, a dilute gas of sodium atoms is cooled to ~100 nK. Under these circumstances a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) forms, where millions of atoms collapse

  3. Diamond-modified AFM probes: from diamond nanowires to atomic force microscopy-integrated boron-doped diamond electrodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, Waldemar; Kriele, Armin; Hoffmann, René; Sillero, Eugenio; Hees, Jakob; Williams, Oliver A; Yang, Nianjun; Kranz, Christine; Nebel, Christoph E

    2011-06-15

    In atomic force microscopy (AFM), sharp and wear-resistant tips are a critical issue. Regarding scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM), electrodes are required to be mechanically and chemically stable. Diamond is the perfect candidate for both AFM probes as well as for electrode materials if doped, due to diamond's unrivaled mechanical, chemical, and electrochemical properties. In this study, standard AFM tips were overgrown with typically 300 nm thick nanocrystalline diamond (NCD) layers and modified to obtain ultra sharp diamond nanowire-based AFM probes and probes that were used for combined AFM-SECM measurements based on integrated boron-doped conductive diamond electrodes. Analysis of the resonance properties of the diamond overgrown AFM cantilevers showed increasing resonance frequencies with increasing diamond coating thicknesses (i.e., from 160 to 260 kHz). The measured data were compared to performed simulations and show excellent correlation. A strong enhancement of the quality factor upon overgrowth was also observed (120 to 710). AFM tips with integrated diamond nanowires are shown to have apex radii as small as 5 nm and where fabricated by selectively etching diamond in a plasma etching process using self-organized metal nanomasks. These scanning tips showed superior imaging performance as compared to standard Si-tips or commercially available diamond-coated tips. The high imaging resolution and low tip wear are demonstrated using tapping and contact mode AFM measurements by imaging ultra hard substrates and DNA. Furthermore, AFM probes were coated with conductive boron-doped and insulating diamond layers to achieve bifunctional AFM-SECM probes. For this, focused ion beam (FIB) technology was used to expose the boron-doped diamond as a recessed electrode near the apex of the scanning tip. Such a modified probe was used to perform proof-of-concept AFM-SECM measurements. The results show that high-quality diamond probes can be fabricated, which are

  4. Experimental Investigation Of Segregation Of Carbon Atoms Due To Sub-Zero Cryogenic Treatment In Cold Work Tool Steel By Mechanical Spectroscopy And Atom Probe Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min N.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we present mechanical spectroscopy of cold work tool steel subjected to sub-zero cryogenic soaking treatment to reveal the carbon segregation and the subsequent carbides refinement. The maximum of Snoek-Köster (SK peak height was obtained in the sample subjected to soaking 1h at −130°C cryogenic treatment. The SK peak height is reduced with prolonging the soaking time. The results indicate that an increase in the height of SK peak is connected with an increase in dislocation density and the number of segregated carbon atoms in the vicinity of dislocations or twin planes after martensite transformation at −130°C which is confirmed by corresponding TEM and atom probe tomography measurement. Hence, it is suggested that the isothermal martensite, formed during the cryogenic soaking treatment decreases (APT the height of SK peak.

  5. Method for determining a spring constant for a deformable scanning probe microscope element, and scanning probe microscope and calibration device arranged for determining a spring constant for a probe element

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sadeghian, H.; Yang, C.K.; Bossche, A.; French, P.J.; Goosen, J.F.L.; Van Keulen, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method for determining a spring constant k for a deformable probe element (102) of a scanning probe microscope SPM (100). The probe (102) has an outer surface area consisting of a tip area (112) on a first probe side (108) and a tip-less area (113). The probe (102) also has a probe electrode (114)

  6. The all-too-flexible abductive method : ATOM's normative status

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romeijn, J.W.

    The author discusses the abductive theory of method (ATOM) by Brian Haig from a philosophical perspective, connecting his theory with a number of issues and trends in contemporary philosophy of science. It is argued that as it stands, the methodology presented by Haig is too permissive. Both the use

  7. Embedded atom method for materials with a negative Cauchy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... embedded –atom method (EAM) for materials with a negative Cauchy discrepancy. To be able to do this it was found necessary to drop the usual assumptions that the curvature of the embedding function must be positive definite, while its slope must be negative. Concrete results are provided for the material strontium (Sr) ...

  8. The effect orientation of features in reconstructed atom probe data on the resolution and measured composition of T1 plates in an A2198 aluminium alloy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullin, Maria A; Araullo-Peters, Vicente J; Gault, Baptiste; Cairney, Julie M

    2015-12-01

    Artefacts in atom probe tomography can impact the compositional analysis of microstructure in atom probe studies. To determine the integrity of information obtained, it is essential to understand how the positioning of features influences compositional analysis. By investigating the influence of feature orientation within atom probe data on measured composition in microstructural features within an AA2198 Al alloy, this study shows differences in the composition of T1 (Al2CuLi) plates that indicates imperfections in atom probe reconstructions. The data fits a model of an exponentially-modified Gaussian that scales with the difference in evaporation field between solutes and matrix. This information provides a guide for obtaining the most accurate information possible. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Characterization of local hydrophobicity on sapphire (0001) surfaces in aqueous environment by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wada, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Kenji; Isono, Toshinari; Ogino, Toshio, E-mail: ogino-toshio-rx@ynu.ac.jp

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Local hydrophobicity of phase-separated sapphire (0001) surfaces was investigated. • These surfaces are featured by coexistence of hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. • Each domain was characterized by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy in water. • Both domains can be distinguished by adhesive forces of the probe to the surfaces. • Characterization in aqueous environment is important in bio-applications of sapphire. - Abstract: Sapphire (0001) surfaces exhibit a phase-separation into hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains upon high-temperature annealing, which were previously distinguished by the thickness of adsorbed water layers in air using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To characterize their local surface hydrophobicity in aqueous environment, we used AFM equipped with a colloidal probe and measured the local adhesive force between each sapphire domain and a hydrophilic SiO{sub 2} probe surface, or a hydrophobic polystyrene one. Two data acquisition modes for statistical analyses were used: one is force measurements at different positions of the surface and the other repeated measurement at a fixed position. We found that adhesive force measurements using the polystyrene probe allow us to distinctly separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. The dispersion in the force measurement data at different positions of the surface is larger than that in the repeated measurements at a fixed position. It indicates that the adhesive force measurement is repeatable although their data dispersion for the measurement positions is relatively large. From these results, we can conclude that the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on the sapphire (0001) surfaces are distinguished by a difference in their hydration degrees.

  10. Gingival Biotype Assessment in a Healthy Periodontium: Transgingival Probing Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunath, R G Shiva; Rana, Anju; Sarkar, Arijit

    2015-05-01

    Gingival biotype is the thickness of the gingiva in the faciopalatal dimension. It has a significant impact on the outcome of the restorative, regenerative and implant therapy. It has been suggested that a direct co-relation exists with the susceptibility of gingival recession followed by any surgical procedure. So, the study was aimed to assess gingival biotype in different age groups of males and females using transgingival probing method. Gingival thickness (GT) was evaluated in 336 patients including males and females of different age groups. The latter was based on the transparency of the periodontal probe through the gingival margin while probing the buccal sulcus. Final data collected was then used for statistical analysis. A significant difference was found between males and females with males showing thick biotype. Out of the total samples 76.9% of males showed thick biotype compared to 13.3 % of females which was statistically significant. This was probably one of the few attempts to correlate gingival biotype with different age groups in males and females. A clear thick gingiva was found in more than two-third of the male subjects whereas majority of female subjects showed thin biotype. Also, it was seen that in females, the gingival biotype varies with age unlike in male.

  11. Application of colloid probe atomic force microscopy to the adhesion of thin films of viscous and viscoelastic silicone fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowen, James; Cheneler, David; Andrews, James W; Avery, Andrew R; Zhang, Zhibing; Ward, Michael C L; Adams, Michael J

    2011-09-20

    The adhesive characteristics of thin films (0.2-2 μm) of linear poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) liquids with a wide range of molecular weights have been measured using an atomic force microscope with a colloid probe (diameters 5 and 12 μm) for different separation velocities. The data were consistent with a residual film in the contact region having a thickness of ∼6 nm following an extended dwell time before separation of the probe. It was possible to estimate the maximum adhesive force as a function of the capillary number, Ca, by applying existing theoretical models based on capillary interactions and viscous flow except at large values of Ca in the case of viscoelastic fluids, for which it was necessary to develop a nonlinear viscoelastic model. The compliance of the atomic force microscope colloid beam was an important factor in governing the retraction velocity of the probe and therefore the value of the adhesive force, but the inertia of the beam and viscoelastic stress overshoot effects were not significant in the range of separation velocities investigated. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  12. Rigid spine reinforced polymer microelectrode array probe and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabada, Phillipe; Pannu, Satinderpall S

    2014-05-27

    A rigid spine-reinforced microelectrode array probe and fabrication method. The probe includes a flexible elongated probe body with conductive lines enclosed within a polymeric material. The conductive lines connect microelectrodes found near an insertion end of the probe to respective leads at a connector end of the probe. The probe also includes a rigid spine, such as made from titanium, fixedly attached to the probe body to structurally reinforce the probe body and enable the typically flexible probe body to penetrate and be inserted into tissue, such as neural tissue. By attaching or otherwise fabricating the rigid spine to connect to only an insertion section of the probe body, an integrally connected cable section of the probe body may remain flexible.

  13. Effect of the tip state during qPlus noncontact atomic force microscopy of Si(100) at 5 K: Probing the probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweetman, Adam; Jarvis, Sam; Danza, Rosanna; Moriarty, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM) now regularly produces atomic-resolution images on a wide range of surfaces, and has demonstrated the capability for atomic manipulation solely using chemical forces. Nonetheless, the role of the tip apex in both imaging and manipulation remains poorly understood and is an active area of research both experimentally and theoretically. Recent work employing specially functionalised tips has provided additional impetus to elucidating the role of the tip apex in the observed contrast. We present an analysis of the influence of the tip apex during imaging of the Si(100) substrate in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) at 5 K using a qPlus sensor for noncontact atomic force microscopy (NC-AFM). Data demonstrating stable imaging with a range of tip apexes, each with a characteristic imaging signature, have been acquired. By imaging at close to zero applied bias we eliminate the influence of tunnel current on the force between tip and surface, and also the tunnel-current-induced excitation of silicon dimers, which is a key issue in scanning probe studies of Si(100). A wide range of novel imaging mechanisms are demonstrated on the Si(100) surface, which can only be explained by variations in the precise structural configuration at the apex of the tip. Such images provide a valuable resource for theoreticians working on the development of realistic tip structures for NC-AFM simulations. Force spectroscopy measurements show that the tip termination critically affects both the short-range force and dissipated energy.

  14. Plasma-deposited fluorocarbon films: insulation material for microelectrodes and combined atomic force microscopy-scanning electrochemical microscopy probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedemair, Justyna; Balu, Balamurali; Moon, Jong-Seok; Hess, Dennis W; Mizaikoff, Boris; Kranz, Christine

    2008-07-01

    Pinhole-free insulation of micro- and nanoelectrodes is the key to successful microelectrochemical experiments performed in vivo or in combination with scanning probe experiments. A novel insulation technique based on fluorocarbon insulation layers deposited from pentafluoroethane (PFE, CF3CHF2) plasmas is presented as a promising electrical insulation approach for microelectrodes and combined atomic force microscopy-scanning electrochemical microscopy (AFM-SECM) probes. The deposition allows reproducible and uniform coating, which is essential for many analytical applications of micro- and nanoelectrodes such as, e.g., in vivo experiments and SECM experiments. Disk-shaped microelectrodes and frame-shaped AFM tip-integrated electrodes have been fabricated by postinsulation focused ion beam (FIB) milling. The thin insulation layer for combined AFM-SECM probes renders this fabrication technique particularly useful for submicro insulation providing radius ratios of the outer insulation versus the disk electrode (RG values) suitable for SECM experiments. Characterization of PFE-insulated AFM-SECM probes will be presented along with combined AFM-SECM approach curves and imaging.

  15. A constructive model potential method for atomic interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, C.; Dalgarno, A.

    1974-01-01

    A model potential method is presented that can be applied to many electron single centre and two centre systems. The development leads to a Hamiltonian with terms arising from core polarization that depend parametrically upon the positions of the valence electrons. Some of the terms have been introduced empirically in previous studies. Their significance is clarified by an analysis of a similar model in classical electrostatics. The explicit forms of the expectation values of operators at large separations of two atoms given by the model potential method are shown to be equivalent to the exact forms when the assumption is made that the energy level differences of one atom are negligible compared to those of the other.

  16. Atom probe tomography study on Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} hetero-epitaxial film on Ge substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamiyama, Eiji, E-mail: ejkamiyama@aol.com [Technology, GlobalWafers Japan Corp. Ltd., 6-861-5 Higashiko, Seiro, Niigata 957-0197 (Japan); Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan); Sueoka, Koji [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja-shi, Okayama-ken 719-1197 (Japan); Terasawa, Kengo; Yamaha, Takashi; Nakatsuka, Osamu [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Zaima, Shigeaki [Department of Crystalline Materials Science, Graduate School of Engineering, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Izunome, Koji; Kashima, Kazuhiko [Technology, GlobalWafers Japan Corp. Ltd., 6-861-5 Higashiko, Seiro, Niigata 957-0197 (Japan); Uchida, Hiroshi [Physical Analysis Technology Center, Toshiba Nanoanalysis Corporation, 8 Shinsugita-cho, Isogo-ku, Yokohama 235-8522 (Japan)

    2015-10-01

    We analyzed the incorporation of C atoms into a ternary alloy Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} epitaxial film on Ge substrates on a sub-nanometer scale by using atom probe tomography. Periodic atom distributions from individual (111) atomic planes were observed both in the Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} film and at the Ge substrates. Sn/C atoms had non-uniform distributions in the film. They also demonstrated a clear positive correlation in their distributions. Substitutional C atoms were only incorporated into the film when an Sn atom beam was applied onto the substrates under film growth conditions. - Highlights: • Incorporation of C atoms into epitaxial Ge{sub 1−x−y}Sn{sub x}C{sub y} film was studied. • Individual (111) atomic planes were observed by atom probe tomography. • Sn/C atoms had non-uniform distributions in the film. • Clear positive correlation in Sn/C atoms distributions was obtained.

  17. Probing tethered targets of a single biomolecular complex with atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Na; Wang, Qi; Zhou, Xingfei; Jia, Si Si; Fan, Youjie; Hu, Jun; Li, Bin

    2013-12-01

    DNA origami shows tremendous promise as templates for the assembly of nano-components and detection of molecular recognition events. So far, the method of choice for evaluating these structures has been atomic force microscopy (AFM), a powerful tool for imaging nanoscale objects. In most cases, tethered targets on DNA origami have proven to be highly effective samples for investigation. Still, while maximal assembly of the nanostructures might benefit from the greatest flexibility in the tether, AFM imaging requires a sufficient stability of the adsorbed components. The balance between the tether flexibility and sample stability is a major, poorly understood, concern in such studies. Here, we investigated the dependence of the tethering length on molecular capture events monitored by AFM. In our experiments, single biotin molecules were attached to DNA origami templates with various linker lengths of thymidine nucleotides, and their interaction with streptavidin was observed with AFM. Our results show that the streptavidin-biotin complexes are easily detected with short tethered lengths, and that their morphological features clearly change with the tethering length. We identify the functionally useful tether lengths for these investigations, which are also expected to prove useful in the construction and further application of DNA origami in bio-nanotechnology studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. Mg I as a probe of the solar chromosphere - The atomic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauas, Pablo J.; Avrett, Eugene H.; Loeser, Rudolf

    1988-01-01

    This paper presents a complete atomic model for Mg I line synthesis, where all the atomic parameters are based on recent experimental and theoretical data. It is shown how the computed profiles at 4571 A and 5173 A are influenced by the choice of these parameters and the number of levels included in the model atom. In addition, observed profiles of the 5173 A b2 line and theoretical profiles for comparison (based on a recent atmospheric model for the average quiet sun) are presented.

  19. Sodium distribution in solar-grade Cu2ZnSnS4 layers using atom-probe tomographic technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajima, Shin; Asahi, Ryoji; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Itoh, Tadayoshi; Ohishi, Kei-ichiro

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the effect of alkali doping on Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) photovoltaic cells, we studied compositional distributions in CZTS layers using three-dimensional atom-probe tomography. The segregation of Na at a concentration of approximately 1 at. % was observed predominantly at CZTS grain boundaries. The concentration of Na in the interior of the CZTS grains was below the detection limit (approximately 40 ppm). Na ions may exist as sulfide compounds at CZTS grain boundaries, independent of the presence of oxygen.

  20. Long-term thermal stability of nanoclusters in ODS-Eurofer steel: An atom probe tomography study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilnyk, K. D.; Pradeep, K. G.; Choi, P.; Sandim, H. R. Z.; Raabe, D.

    2017-08-01

    Oxide-dispersion strengthened materials are important candidates for several high-temperature structural applications in advanced nuclear power plants. Most of the desirable mechanical properties presented by these materials are due to the dispersion of stable nanoparticles in the matrix. Samples of ODS-Eurofer steel were annealed for 4320 h (6 months) at 800 °C. The material was characterized using atom probe tomography in both conditions (prior and after heat treatment). The particles number density, size distribution, and chemical compositions were determined. No significant changes were observed between the two conditions indicating a high thermal stability of the Y-rich nanoparticles at 800 °C.

  1. Nanofabrication technique based on localized photocatalytic reactions using a TiO2-coated atomic force microscopy probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takayuki; Iio, Naohiro; Furukawa, Hiromi; Nagai, Moeto

    2017-02-01

    We performed a fundamental study on the photocatalytic degradation of fluorescently labeled DNA molecules immobilized on titanium dioxide (TiO2) thin films under ultraviolet irradiation. The films were prepared by the electrochemical anodization of Ti thin films sputtered on silicon substrates. We also confirmed that the photocurrent arising from the photocatalytic oxidation of DNA molecules can be detected during this process. We then demonstrated an atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based nanofabrication technique by employing TiO2-coated AFM probes to penetrate living cell membranes under near-physiological conditions for minimally invasive intracellular delivery.

  2. Pressure/temperature fluid cell apparatus for the neutron powder diffractometer instrument: probing atomic structure in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsiu-Wen; Fanelli, Victor R; Reiche, Helmut M; Larson, Eric; Taylor, Mark A; Xu, Hongwu; Zhu, Jinlong; Siewenie, Joan; Page, Katharine

    2014-12-01

    This contribution describes a new local structure compatible gas/liquid cell apparatus for probing disordered materials at high pressures and variable temperatures in the Neutron Powder Diffraction instrument at the Lujan Neutron Scattering Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory. The new sample environment offers choices for sample canister thickness and canister material type. Finite element modeling is utilized to establish maximum allowable working pressures of 414 MPa at 15 K and 121 MPa at 600 K. High quality atomic pair distribution function data extraction and modeling have been demonstrated for a calibration standard (Si powder) and for supercritical and subcritical CO2 measurements. The new sample environment was designed to specifically target experimental studies of the local atomic structures involved in geologic CO2 sequestration, but will be equally applicable to a wide variety of energy applications, including sorption of fluids on nano/meso-porous solids, clathrate hydrate formation, catalysis, carbon capture, and H2 and natural gas uptake/storage.

  3. Complementary use of transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for the examination of plastic accommodation in nanocrystalline bainitic steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caballero, F.G., E-mail: fgc@cenim.csic.es [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain); Yen, Hung-Wei [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Miller, M.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6136 (United States); Yang, Jer-Ren [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, National Taiwan University, 1 Roosevelt Rd., Sec. 4, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Cornide, J.; Garcia-Mateo, C. [Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Metalurgicas (CENIM-CSIC), Avda Gregorio del Amo 8, Madrid E-28040 (Spain)

    2011-09-15

    A displacive transformation involves the motion of a glissile interface. As in work hardening, its motion can be halted by defects such as dislocations, stacking faults or twins in the austenite. The defects are created when the shape deformation accompanying bainite growth is accommodated by plastic relaxation of the surrounding austenite. The growing plate stops when it collides with the austenite grain boundary. Because transformation from strong austenite leads to fine plates, alloys can be designed such that the bainite transformation is suppressed to low temperatures (125-350 deg. C), leading to a nanoscale bainitic microstructure. Complementary high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography have provided new experimental evidence on the accommodation of transformation strain, a subject critically relevant to understanding the atomic mechanisms controlling bainitic ferrite growth.

  4. Atomic probe microscopy of 3C SiC films grown on 6H SiC substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckl, A. J.; Roth, M. D.; Powell, J. A.; Larkin, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The surface of 3C SiC films grown on 6H SiC substrates has been studied by atomic probe microscopy in air. Atomic-scale images of the 3C SiC surface have been obtained by STM which confirm the 111 line type orientation of the cubic 3C layer grown on the 0001 plane type surface of the hexagonal 6H substrate. The nearest-neighbor atomic spacing for the 3C layer has been measured to be 3.29 +/- 0.2 A, which is within 7 percent of the bulk value. Shallow terraces in the 3C layer have been observed by STM to separate regions of very smooth growth in the vicinity of the 3C nucleation point from considerably rougher 3C surface regions. These terraces are oriented at right angles to the growth direction. Atomic force microscopy has been used to study etch pits present on the 6H substrate due to high temperature HCl cleaning prior to CVD growth of the 3C layer. The etch pits have hexagonal symmetry and vary in depth from 50 nm to 1 micron.

  5. An su(1, 1) algebraic method for the hydrogen atom

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MartInez-y-Romero, R P [Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 50-542, Mexico City 04510 DF (Mexico); Nunez-Yepez, H N [Departamento de FIsica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Iztapalapa, Apartado Postal 55-534, CP 09340, Iztapalapa DF (Germany); Salas-Brito, A L [Laboratorio de Sistemas Dinamicos, Departamento de Ciencias Basicas, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Unidad Azcapotzalco, Apartado Postal 21-267, CP 04000, Coyoacan DF (Mexico)

    2005-10-07

    An algebraic solution for the hydrogen atom analogous to the one recently proposed to solve the relativistic version of the system is presented. We add to the usual radial description of the problem an additional angular variable and an associated operator which can be considered as part of an su(1, 1) Lie algebra. The operators of the algebra define radial ladder operator relating the eigenfunctions of the system in unit steps of the principal quantum number. We conclude that the radial bound states of the hydrogen atom in our extended configuration space can be regarded as spanning the minimal M representation of the su(1, 1) Lie algebra. The method can also be extended to solve the s-wave Morse problem and the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator.

  6. Atomic force microscopy in biomedical research - Methods and protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CarloAlberto Redi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Pier Carlo Braga and Davide Ricci are old friends not only for those researchers familiar with Atomic force microscopy (AFM but also for those beginners (like the undersigned that already enthusiastically welcomed their 2004 edition (for the same Humana press printing types of Atomic force microscopy: Biomedical methods and applications, eventhough I never had used the AFM. That book was much intended to overview the possible AFM applications for a wide range of readers so that they can be in some way stimulated toward the AFM use. In fact, the great majority of scientists is afraid both of the technology behind AFM (that is naturally thought highly demanding in term of concepts not so familiar to biologists and physicians and of the financial costs: both these two factors are conceived unapproachable by the medium range granted scientist usually not educated in terms of biophysics and electronic background....

  7. [Connection of magnetic antisense probe with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide detected by high resolution atomic force microscope].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Shude; Ouyang, Yu; Li, Xinyou; Wen, Ming; Li, Shaolin

    2011-06-01

    The present paper is aimed to detect superparamagnetic iron oxide labeled c-erbB2 oncogene antisense oligonucleotide probe (magnetic antisense probe) connected with SK-Br-3 oncocyte mRNA nucleotide by high resolution atomic force microscope (AFM). We transfected SK-Br-3 oncocyte with magnetic antisense probe, then observed the cells by AFM with high resolution and detected protein expression and magnetic resonance imagine (MRI). The high resolution AFM clearly showed the connection of the oligonucleotide remote end of magnetic antisense probe with the mRNA nucleotide of oncocyte. The expression of e-erbB2 protein in SK-Br3 cells were highly inhibited by using magnetic antisense probe. We then obtained the lowest signal to noise ratio (SNR) of SK-Br-3 oncocyte transfected with magnetic antisense probe by MRI (Pmagnetic antisense probe and SK-Br-3 mRNA of tumor cell nuclear.

  8. Probing the Quantum States of a Single Atom Transistor at Microwave Frequencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tettamanzi, Giuseppe Carlo; Hile, Samuel James; House, Matthew Gregory; Fuechsle, Martin; Rogge, Sven; Simmons, Michelle Y

    2017-03-28

    The ability to apply gigahertz frequencies to control the quantum state of a single P atom is an essential requirement for the fast gate pulsing needed for qubit control in donor-based silicon quantum computation. Here, we demonstrate this with nanosecond accuracy in an all epitaxial single atom transistor by applying excitation signals at frequencies up to ≈13 GHz to heavily phosphorus-doped silicon leads. These measurements allow the differentiation between the excited states of the single atom and the density of states in the one-dimensional leads. Our pulse spectroscopy experiments confirm the presence of an excited state at an energy ≈9 meV, consistent with the first excited state of a single P donor in silicon. The relaxation rate of this first excited state to the ground state is estimated to be larger than 2.5 GHz, consistent with theoretical predictions. These results represent a systematic investigation of how an atomically precise single atom transistor device behaves under radio frequency excitations.

  9. Probing Magnetism in 2D Molecular Networks after in Situ Metalation by Transition Metal Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schouteden, K; Ivanova, Ts; Li, Z; Iancu, V; Janssens, E; Van Haesendonck, C

    2015-03-19

    Metalated molecules are the ideal building blocks for the bottom-up fabrication of, e.g., two-dimensional arrays of magnetic particles for spintronics applications. Compared to chemical synthesis, metalation after network formation by an atom beam can yield a higher degree of control and flexibility and allows for mixing of different types of magnetic atoms. We report on successful metalation of tetrapyridyl-porphyrins (TPyP) by Co and Cr atoms, as demonstrated by scanning tunneling microscopy experiments. For the metalation, large periodic networks formed by the TPyP molecules on a Ag(111) substrate are exposed in situ to an atom beam. Voltage-induced dehydrogenation experiments support the conclusion that the porphyrin macrocycle of the TPyP molecule incorporates one transition metal atom. The newly synthesized Co-TPyP and Cr-TPyP complexes exhibit striking differences in their electronic behavior, leading to a magnetic character for Cr-TPyP only as evidenced by Kondo resonance measurements.

  10. Characterization of local hydrophobicity on sapphire (0001) surfaces in aqueous environment by colloidal probe atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoya; Yamazaki, Kenji; Isono, Toshinari; Ogino, Toshio

    2017-02-01

    Sapphire (0001) surfaces exhibit a phase-separation into hydrophobic and hydrophilic domains upon high-temperature annealing, which were previously distinguished by the thickness of adsorbed water layers in air using atomic force microscopy (AFM). To characterize their local surface hydrophobicity in aqueous environment, we used AFM equipped with a colloidal probe and measured the local adhesive force between each sapphire domain and a hydrophilic SiO2 probe surface, or a hydrophobic polystyrene one. Two data acquisition modes for statistical analyses were used: one is force measurements at different positions of the surface and the other repeated measurement at a fixed position. We found that adhesive force measurements using the polystyrene probe allow us to distinctly separate the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains. The dispersion in the force measurement data at different positions of the surface is larger than that in the repeated measurements at a fixed position. It indicates that the adhesive force measurement is repeatable although their data dispersion for the measurement positions is relatively large. From these results, we can conclude that the hydrophilic and hydrophobic domains on the sapphire (0001) surfaces are distinguished by a difference in their hydration degrees.

  11. Probing buried carbon nanotubes within polymer-nanotube composite matrices by Atomic Force Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phang, In Yee; Liu, Tianxi; Zhang, Wei-De; Schönherr, Holger; Vancso, Gyula J.

    2007-01-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNT) inside a polyamide-6 (PA6)–MW-CNT composite were visualized by atomic force microscopy (i) in a field-assisted intermittent contact and (ii) in the tunneling (TUNA) mode. Individual buried MW-CNTs were clearly discerned within the PA6 matrix. An average

  12. Shot noise as a probe of spin-polarized transport through single atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burtzlaff, Andreas; Weismann, Alexander; Brandbyge, Mads

    2015-01-01

    Single atoms on Au(111) surfaces have been contacted with the Au tip of a low temperature scanning tunneling microscope. The shot noise of the current through these contacts has been measured up to frequencies of 120 kHz and Fano factors have been determined to characterize the transport channels...

  13. Atomic and Electronic Structure of Quantum Dots Measured with Scanning Probe Techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Z.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314075674

    2012-01-01

    This thesis deals with low temperature scanning tunneling microscopy/spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (LT-STM/STS and AFM) studies on colloidal semiconductor and graphene quantum dots (g-QDs). These nanostructures are interesting because they show tunable electrical and optical properties

  14. Quantitative analysis of hydrogen in SiO2/SiN/SiO2 stacks using atom probe tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yorinobu Kunimune

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available We have demonstrated that it is possible to reproducibly quantify hydrogen concentration in the SiN layer of a SiO2/SiN/SiO2 (ONO stack structure using ultraviolet laser-assisted atom probe tomography (APT. The concentration of hydrogen atoms detected using APT increased gradually during the analysis, which could be explained by the effect of hydrogen adsorption from residual gas in the vacuum chamber onto the specimen surface. The amount of adsorbed hydrogen in the SiN layer was estimated by analyzing another SiN layer with an extremely low hydrogen concentration (<0.2 at. %. Thus, by subtracting the concentration of adsorbed hydrogen, the actual hydrogen concentration in the SiN layer was quantified as approximately 1.0 at. %. This result was consistent with that obtained by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA, which confirmed the accuracy of the APT quantification. The present results indicate that APT enables the imaging of the three-dimensional distribution of hydrogen atoms in actual devices at a sub-nanometer scale.

  15. Method And Apparatus For Atomizing And Vaporizing Liquid

    KAUST Repository

    Lal, Amit

    2014-09-18

    A method and apparatus for atomizing and vaporizing liquid is described. An apparatus having an ejector configured to eject one or more droplets of liquid may be inserted into a reservoir containing liquid. The ejector may have a vibrating device that vibrates the ejector and causes liquid to move from the reservoir up through the ejector and out through an orifice located on the top of the ejector. The one or more droplets of liquid ejected from the ejector may be heated and vaporized into the air.

  16. Nonlocal Response of Metallic Nanospheres Probed by Light, Electrons, and Atoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas; Yan, Wei; Raza, Søren

    2014-01-01

    Inspired by recent measurements on individual metallic nanospheres that cannot be explained with traditional classical electrodynamics, we theoretically investigate the effects of nonlocal response by metallic nanospheres in three distinct settings: atomic spontaneous emission, electron energy loss...... spectroscopy, and light scattering. These constitute two near-field and one far-field measurements, with zero-, one-, and two-dimensional excitation sources, respectively. We search for the clearest signatures of hydrodynamic pressure waves in nanospheres. We employ a linearized hydrodynamic model, and Mie...

  17. Characterization of ion-irradiation-induced nanodot structures on InP surfaces by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnaser, Hubert, E-mail: gnaser@rhrk.uni-kl.de [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Institut für Oberflächen- und Schichtanalytik GmbH (IFOS), Trippstadter Strasse 120, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany); Radny, Tobias [Fachbereich Physik and Forschungszentrum OPTIMAS, Technische Universität Kaiserslautern, D-67663 Kaiserslautern (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    Surfaces of InP were bombarded by 1.9 keV Ar{sup +} ions under normal incidence. The total accumulated ion fluence the samples were exposed to was varied from 1×10{sup 17} cm{sup −2} to 3×10{sup 18} cm{sup −2} and ion flux densities f of (0.4−2)×10{sup 14} cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} were used. Nanodot structures were found to evolve on the surface from these ion irradiations, their dimensions however, depend on the specific bombardment conditions. The resulting surface morphology was examined by atomic force microscopy (AFM). As a function of ion fluence, the mean radius, height, and spacing of the dots can be fitted by power-law dependences. In order to determine possible local compositional changes in these nanostructures induced by ion impact, selected samples were prepared for atom probe tomography (APT). The results indicate that by APT the composition of individual InP nanodots evolving under ion bombardment could be examined with atomic spatial resolution. At the InP surface, the values of the In/P concentration ratio are distinctly higher over a distance of ~1 nm and amount to 1.3–1.8. However, several aspects critical for the analyses were identified: (i) because of the small dimensions of these nanostructures a successful tip preparation proved very challenging. (ii) The elemental compositions obtained from APT were found to be influenced pronouncedly by the laser pulse energy; typically, low energies result in the correct stoichiometry whereas high ones lead to an inhomogeneous evaporation from the tips and deviations from the nominal composition. (iii) Depending again on the laser energy, a prolific emission of P{sub n} cluster ions was observed, with n≤11. - Highlights: • Nanodot formation on InP surfaces under Ar{sup +} ion irradiation. • Atom probe tomography of InP: influence of laser pulse energy. • Compositional analysis of individual nanodots with nm spatial resolution. • Abundant emission of P{sub n} cluster ions (n≤11).

  18. Graphene Coatings: Probing the Limits of the One Atom Thick Protection Layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Louis; Andersen, Mie; Balog, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The limitations of graphene as an effective corrosion-inhibiting coating on metal surfaces, here exemplified by the hex-reconstructed Pt(100) surface, are probed by scanning tunneling microscopy measurements and density functional theory calculations. While exposure of small molecules directly onto...... the Pt(100) surface will lift the reconstruction, a single graphene layer is observed to act as an effective coating, protecting the reactive surface from O2 exposure and thus preserving the reconstruction underneath the graphene layer in O2 pressures as high as 104 mbar. A similar protective effect...

  19. Characterization of electrical properties in axial Si-Ge nanowire heterojunctions using off-axis electron holography and atom-probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gan, Zhaofeng [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA; Perea, Daniel E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Yoo, Jinkyoung [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; He, Yang [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA; Colby, Robert J. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Barker, Josh E. [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Gu, Meng [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Mao, Scott X. [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15261, USA; Wang, Chongmin [Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, Washington 99352, USA; Picraux, S. T. [Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545, USA; Smith, David J. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA; McCartney, Martha R. [Department of Physics, Arizona State University, Tempe, Arizona 85287, USA

    2016-09-13

    Doped Si-Ge nanowire (NW) heterojunctions were grown using the vapor-liquid-solid method with AuGa and Au catalyst particles. Transmission electron microscopy and off-axis electron holography (EH) were used to characterize the nanostructure and to measure the electrostatic potential profile across the junction resulting from electrically active dopants, while atom-probe tomography (APT) was used to determine the Si, Ge and total (active and inactive) dopant concentration profiles. A comparison of the measured potential profile with simulations indicated that Ga dopants unintentionally introduced during AuGa catalyst growth were electronically inactive despite APT results that showed considerable amounts of Ga in the Si region. 10% P in Ge and 100% B in Si were estimated to be activated, which was corroborated by in situ electron-holography biasing experiments. This combination of EH, APT, in situ biasing and simulations allows a better knowledge and understanding of the electrically active dopant distributions in NWs.

  20. Structure and orbital ordering of ultrathin LaVO{sub 3} probed by atomic resolution electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindfors-Vrejoiu, Ionela; Engelmayer, Johannes; Loosdrecht, Paul H.M. van [II. Physikalisches Institut, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Jin, Lei; Jia, Chun-Lin [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-5) and Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany); Himcinschi, Cameliu [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, TU Bergakademie Freiberg (Germany); Hensling, Felix; Waser, Rainer; Dittmann, Regina [Peter Gruenberg Institut (PGI-7), Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Orbital ordering has been less investigated in epitaxial thin films, due to the difficulty to evidence directly the occurrence of this phenomenon in thin film samples. Atomic resolution electron microscopy enabled us to observe the structural details of the ultrathin LaVO{sub 3} films. The transition to orbital ordering of epitaxial layers as thin as ∼4 nm was probed by temperature-dependent Raman scattering spectroscopy of multilayer samples. From the occurrence and temperature dependence of the 700 cm{sup -1} Raman active mode it can be inferred that the structural phase transition associated with orbital ordering takes place in ultrathin LaVO{sub 3} films at about 130 K. (copyright 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  1. Chemical gradients across phase boundaries between martensite and austenite in steel studied by atom probe tomography and simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dmitrieva, O.; Ponge, D.; Inden, G.; Millan, J.; Choi, P. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Sietsma, J. [Delft University of Technology, Faculty 3mE, Dept. MSE, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Raabe, D., E-mail: d.raabe@mpie.de [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2011-01-15

    Partitioning at phase boundaries of complex steels is important for their properties. We present atom probe tomography results across martensite/austenite interfaces in a precipitation-hardened maraging-TRIP steel (12.2 Mn, 1.9 Ni, 0.6 Mo, 1.2 Ti, 0.3 Al; at.%). The system reveals compositional changes at the phase boundaries: Mn and Ni are enriched while Ti, Al, Mo and Fe are depleted. More specific, we observe up to 27 at.% Mn in a 20 nm layer at the phase boundary. This is explained by the large difference in diffusivity between martensite and austenite. The high diffusivity in martensite leads to a Mn flux towards the retained austenite. The low diffusivity in the austenite does not allow accommodation of this flux. Consequently, the austenite grows with a Mn composition given by local equilibrium. The interpretation is based on DICTRA and mixed-mode diffusion calculations (using a finite interface mobility).

  2. nuclear and atomic methods applied in the determination of some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    free atoms in vapour state and a beam of electromagnetic radiation emitted from excited lead atoms is passed through the vaporized sample. Some of the radiation is absorbed by the lead atoms in the sample. Sample Collection and Preparation. Soil samples were collected from Bompai, Kofar Ruwa, Challawa and.

  3. Indirect modulation of nonmagnetic probes for force modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jie-Ren; Garno, Jayne C

    2009-02-15

    Frequency-dependent changes for phase and amplitude images are demonstrated with test platforms of organosilane ring patterns, using force modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) with an alternate instrument configuration. The imaging setup using indirect magnetic modulation (IMM) is based on indirect oscillation of soft, nonmagnetic cantilevers, with spring constants coating is not required to drive the periodic oscillation of the tip. The instrument configuration for IMM may not be practical for intermittent imaging modes, which often work best with stiff cantilevers. However, indirect actuation provides an effective approach for imaging with low force setpoints and is well-suited for dynamic AFM modes using continuous contact imaging.

  4. Quantum Monte Carlo methods and lithium cluster properties. [Atomic clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owen, R.K.

    1990-12-01

    Properties of small lithium clusters with sizes ranging from n = 1 to 5 atoms were investigated using quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) methods. Cluster geometries were found from complete active space self consistent field (CASSCF) calculations. A detailed development of the QMC method leading to the variational QMC (V-QMC) and diffusion QMC (D-QMC) methods is shown. The many-body aspect of electron correlation is introduced into the QMC importance sampling electron-electron correlation functions by using density dependent parameters, and are shown to increase the amount of correlation energy obtained in V-QMC calculations. A detailed analysis of D-QMC time-step bias is made and is found to be at least linear with respect to the time-step. The D-QMC calculations determined the lithium cluster ionization potentials to be 0.1982(14) (0.1981), 0.1895(9) (0.1874(4)), 0.1530(34) (0.1599(73)), 0.1664(37) (0.1724(110)), 0.1613(43) (0.1675(110)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 1 through 5, respectively; in good agreement with experimental results shown in the brackets. Also, the binding energies per atom was computed to be 0.0177(8) (0.0203(12)), 0.0188(10) (0.0220(21)), 0.0247(8) (0.0310(12)), 0.0253(8) (0.0351(8)) Hartrees for lithium clusters n = 2 through 5, respectively. The lithium cluster one-electron density is shown to have charge concentrations corresponding to nonnuclear attractors. The overall shape of the electronic charge density also bears a remarkable similarity with the anisotropic harmonic oscillator model shape for the given number of valence electrons.

  5. Applications of a versatile modelling approach to 3D atom probe simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberdorfer, Christian; Eich, Sebastian Manuel; Lütkemeyer, Martin; Schmitz, Guido

    2015-12-01

    The article addresses application examples of a flexible simulation approach, which is based on an irregular mesh of Voronoi cells. The detailed atomic structure of APT field emitters is represented by Wigner-Seitz cells. In this way, arbitrary crystal structures can be modelled. The electric field results from the solution of the Poisson equation. The evaporation sequence of atoms from the emitter surface is enabled by calculation of the field-induced force, which acts on the surface cells. Presented examples show simulated field desorption maps of a cubic fcc structure in comparison to the close-packed hcp structure. Additionally, the desorption maps of the cubic sc, bcc, and fcc lattices in orientation are presented. The effect of inhomogeneous evaporation conditions on the emitter apex curvature is demonstrated. Reconstructions derived from the simulation of Σ5 GBs differently inclined with respect to the emitter axis are analyzed. Finally, the stress exerted on an embedded nano-particle during the simulated evaporation with inhomogeneous evaporation thresholds is estimated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Probing deviations from traditional colloid filtration theory by atomic forces microscopy.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reno, Marissa Devan

    2005-12-01

    Colloid transport through saturated media is an integral component of predicting the fate and transport of groundwater contaminants. Developing sound predictive capabilities and establishing effective methodologies for remediation relies heavily on our ability to understand the pertinent physical and chemical mechanisms. Traditionally, colloid transport through saturated media has been described by classical colloid filtration theory (CFT), which predicts an exponential decrease in colloid concentration with travel distance. Furthermore, colloid stability as determined by Derjaguin-Landau-Veney-Overbeek (DLVO) theory predicts permanent attachment of unstable particles in a primary energy minimum. However, recent studies show significant deviations from these traditional theories. Deposition in the secondary energy minimum has been suggested as a mechanism by which observed deviations can occur. This work investigates the existence of the secondary energy minimum as predicted by DLVO theory using direct force measurements obtained by Atomic Forces Microscopy. Interaction energy as a function of separation distance between a colloid and a quartz surface in electrolyte solutions of varying ionic strength are obtained. Preliminary force measurements show promise and necessary modifications to the current experimental methodology have been identified. Stringent surface cleaning procedures and the use of high-purity water for all injectant solutions is necessary for the most accurate and precise measurements. Comparisons between direct physical measurements by Atomic Forces Microscopy with theoretical calculations and existing experimental findings will allow the evaluation of the existence or absence of a secondary energy minimum.

  7. Pyrenyl Derivative with a Four-Atom Linker That Can Probe the Local Polarity of Pyrene-Labeled Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Shiva; Duhamel, Jean

    2016-02-04

    The fluorescent probe 1-pyrenemethoxyethanol (PyMeEGOH) was designed to replace commercially available 1-pyrenebutanol (PyButOH) as an alternative fluorescent label to probe the internal dynamics and interior polarity of macromolecules by steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence. While excimer formation and sensitivity to solvent polarity are two well-recognized properties of pyrene, much less known is that these properties are often mutually exclusive when a 1-pyrenebutyl derivative is used to prepare pyrene-labeled macromolecules (PyLMs). As the sensitivity of pyrene to solvent polarity is a result of its symmetry, attaching a butyl group to pyrene breaks the symmetry of pyrene, so that the 1-pyrenebutyl derivatives are much less sensitive to the polarity of their environment compared to unmodified pyrene. This report demonstrates that replacement of a methylene group in the β-position of PyButOH by an oxygen atom, such as in PyMeEGOH, restores the sensitivity of this pyrene derivative to the polarity of its local environment to the same level as that of molecular pyrene without impeding pyrene excimer formation upon incorporation into PyLMs.

  8. Influence of instrument conditions on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide with UV laser-assisted atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valderrama, B.; Henderson, H. B.; Gan, J.; Manuel, M. V.

    2015-04-01

    Atom probe tomography (APT) provides the ability to detect subnanometer chemical variations spatially, with high accuracy. However, it is known that compositional accuracy can be affected by experimental conditions. A study of the effect of laser energy, specimen base temperature, and detection rate is performed on the evaporation behavior of uranium dioxide (UO2). In laser-assisted mode, tip geometry and standing voltage also contribute to the evaporation behavior. In this investigation, it was determined that modifying the detection rate and temperature did not affect the evaporation behavior as significantly as laser energy. It was also determined that three laser evaporation regimes are present in UO2. Very low laser energy produces a behavior similar to DC-field evaporation, moderate laser energy produces the desired laser-assisted field evaporation characteristic and high laser energy induces thermal effects, negatively altering the evaporation behavior. The need for UO2 to be analyzed under moderate laser energies to produce accurate stoichiometry distinguishes it from other oxides. The following experimental conditions providing the best combination of mass resolving power, accurate stoichiometry, and uniform evaporation behavior: 50 K, 10 pJ laser energy, a detection rate of 0.003 atoms per pulse, and a 100 kHz repetition rate.

  9. Atom Probe Tomography Unveils Formation Mechanisms of Wear-Protective Tribofilms by ZDDP, Ionic Liquid, and Their Combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zhou, Yan; Sang, Xiahan; Leonard, Donovan N; Qu, Jun; Poplawsky, Jonathan D

    2017-07-12

    The development of advanced lubricant additives has been a critical component in paving the way for increasing energy efficiency and durability for numerous industry applications. However, the formation mechanisms of additive-induced protective tribofilms are not yet fully understood because of the complex chemomechanical interactions at the contact interface and the limited spatial resolution of many characterizing techniques currently used. Here, the tribofilms on a gray cast iron surface formed by three antiwear additives are systematically studied; a phosphonium-phosphate ionic liquid (IL), a zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP), and an IL+ZDDP combination. All three additives provide excellent wear protection, with the IL+ZDDP combination exhibiting a synergetic effect, resulting in further reduced friction and wear. Atom probe tomography (APT) and scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) imaging and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) were used to interrogate the subnm chemistry and bonding states for each of the tribofilms of interest. The IL tribofilm appeared amorphous and was Fe, P, and O rich. Wear debris particles having an Fe-rich core and an oxide shell were present in this tribofilm and a transitional oxide (Fe2O3)-containing layer was identified at the interface between the tribofilm and the cast iron substrate. The ZDDP+IL tribofilm shared some of the characteristics found in the IL and ZDDP tribofilms. Tribofilm formation mechanisms are proposed on the basis of the observations made at the atomic level.

  10. Indium clustering in a-plane InGaN quantum wells as evidenced by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, Fengzai; Zhu, Tongtong; Oehler, Fabrice; Fu, Wai Yuen; Griffiths, James T.; Massabuau, Fabien C.-P.; Kappers, Menno J.; Oliver, Rachel A., E-mail: rao28@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, 27 Charles Babbage Road, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Martin, Tomas L.; Bagot, Paul A. J.; Moody, Michael P., E-mail: michael.moody@materials.ox.ac.uk [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom)

    2015-02-16

    Atom probe tomography (APT) has been used to characterize the distribution of In atoms within non-polar a-plane InGaN quantum wells (QWs) grown on a GaN pseudo-substrate produced using epitaxial lateral overgrowth. Application of the focused ion beam microscope enabled APT needles to be prepared from the low defect density regions of the grown sample. A complementary analysis was also undertaken on QWs having comparable In contents grown on polar c-plane sample pseudo-substrates. Both frequency distribution and modified nearest neighbor analyses indicate a statistically non-randomized In distribution in the a-plane QWs, but a random distribution in the c-plane QWs. This work not only provides insights into the structure of non-polar a-plane QWs but also shows that APT is capable of detecting as-grown nanoscale clustering in InGaN and thus validates the reliability of earlier APT analyses of the In distribution in c-plane InGaN QWs which show no such clustering.

  11. Prospects for Using Atomic Power Microscopic Methods in Reanimatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Moroz

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to obtain an image of pores in the membrane of an erythrocyte after its electroporation, by using an atomic power microscope (APM, to evaluate the parameters of the obtained pores, and to discuss the prospects for using an APM in reanimatology. Human whole venous blood was exposed to a pulsed electric field, by inducing erythrocytic membrane elec-troporation. Blood smears were obtained by the standard method. Images of the form and surface of individual erythrocytes and their enlarged fragments were obtained by means of a Femto Scan APM. The diameters, depths, and configuration of some pores were analyzed. This example and others were used to show a wide field and prospects for using an APM in reanimatology.

  12. Prototyping method for Bragg-type atom interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benton, Brandon; Krygier, Michael; Heward, Jeffrey; Edwards, Mark [Department of Physics, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro, Georgia 30460-8031 (United States); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Insitute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    We present a method for rapid modeling of new Bragg ultracold atom-interferometer (AI) designs useful for assessing the performance of such interferometers. The method simulates the overall effect on the condensate wave function in a given AI design using two separate elements. These are (1) modeling the effect of a Bragg pulse on the wave function and (2) approximating the evolution of the wave function during the intervals between the pulses. The actual sequence of these pulses and intervals is then followed to determine the approximate final wave function from which the interference pattern can be calculated. The exact evolution between pulses is assumed to be governed by the Gross-Pitaevskii (GP) equation whose solution is approximated using a Lagrangian variational method to facilitate rapid estimation of performance. The method presented here is an extension of an earlier one that was used to analyze the results of an experiment [J. E. Simsarian et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 85, 2040 (2000)], where the phase of a Bose-Einstein condensate was measured using a Mach-Zehnder-type Bragg AI. We have developed both 1D and 3D versions of this method and we have determined their validity by comparing their predicted interference patterns with those obtained by numerical integration of the 1D GP equation and with the results of the above experiment. We find excellent agreement between the 1D interference patterns predicted by this method and those found by the GP equation. We show that we can reproduce all of the results of that experiment without recourse to an ad hoc velocity-kick correction needed by the earlier method, including some experimental results that the earlier model did not predict. We also found that this method provides estimates of 1D interference patterns at least four orders-of-magnitude faster than direct numerical solution of the 1D GP equation.

  13. Atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy to probe single membrane proteins in lipid bilayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapra, K Tanuj

    2013-01-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) has opened vast avenues hitherto inaccessible to the biological scientist. The high temporal (millisecond) and spatial (nanometer) resolutions of the AFM are suited for studying many biological processes in their native conditions. The AFM cantilever stylus is aptly termed as a "lab on a tip" owing to its versatility as an imaging tool as well as a handle to manipulate single bonds and proteins. Recent examples assert that the AFM can be used to study the mechanical properties and monitor processes of single proteins and single cells, thus affording insight into important mechanistic details. This chapter specifically focuses on practical and analytical protocols of single-molecule AFM methodologies related to high-resolution imaging and single-molecule force spectroscopy of membrane proteins. Both these techniques are operator oriented, and require specialized working knowledge of the instrument, theoretical, and practical skills.

  14. Probing nucleic acid-ion interactions with buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfeld, Max; Herschlag, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The ion atmosphere of nucleic acids directly affects measured biochemical and biophysical properties. However, study of the ion atmosphere is difficult due to its diffuse and dynamic nature. Standard techniques available have significant limitations in sensitivity, specificity, and directness of the assays. Buffer exchange-atomic emission spectroscopy (BE-AES) was developed to overcome many of the limitations of previously available techniques. This technique can provide a complete accounting of all ions constituting the ionic atmosphere of a nucleic acid at thermodynamic equilibrium. Although initially developed for the study of the ion atmosphere of nucleic acids, BE-AES has also been applied to study site-bound ions in RNA and protein. Copyright © 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Systematic approaches for targeting an atom-probe tomography sample fabricated in a thin TEM specimen: Correlative structural, chemical and 3-D reconstruction analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Sung-Il; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N

    2018-01-01

    Atom-probe tomography (APT) is a unique analysis tool that enables true three-dimensional (3-D) analyses with sub-nano scale spatial resolution. Recent implementations of the local-electrode atom-probe (LEAP) tomograph with ultraviolet laser pulsing have significantly expanded the research applications of APT. The small field-of-view of a needle-shaped specimen with a less than 100 nm diam. is, however, a major limitation for analyzing materials. The systematic approaches for site-specific targeting of an APT nanotip in a transmission electron microscope (TEM) of a thin sample are introduced to solve the geometrical limitations of a sharpened APT nanotip. In addition to "coupling APT to TEM", the technique presented here allows for targeting the preparation of an APT tip based on TEM observation of a much larger area than what is captured in the APT tip. The correlative methods have synergies for not only high-resolution structural analyses but also for obtaining chemical information. Chemical analyses in a TEM, both energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and electron energy-loss spectroscopy (EELS), are performed and compared with the APT chemical analyses of a carbide phase (M 7 C 3 ) precipitate at a grain boundary in a Ni-based alloy. Additionally, a TEM image of a sharpened APT nanotip is utilized for calculation of the detection area ratio of an APT nanotip by comparison with a TEM image for precise tomographic reconstructions. A grain-boundary/carbide precipitate triple junction is used to attain precise positioning of an APT nanotip in an analyzed TEM specimen. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Iterative methods for obtaining solvation structures on a solid plate: The methods for Surface Force Apparatus and Atomic Force Microscopy in Liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Amano, Ken-ich

    2013-01-01

    We propose iterative methods for obtaining solvation structures on a solid plate which use force distributions measured by surface force apparatus (SFA) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) as input data. Two model systems are considered here. In the model system for SFA, the same two solid plates are immersed in a solvent, and a probe tip and a solid plate are immersed in a solvent in the model system for AFM. Advantages of the iterative methods are as follows: The iterative method for SFA can obtain the solvation structure, for example, in a Lennard-Jones liquid; The iterative method for AFM can obtain the solvation structure without an input datum of solvation structure around the probe tip.

  17. Orbital dependent functionals: An atom projector augmented wave method implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiao

    This thesis explores the formulation and numerical implementation of orbital dependent exchange-correlation functionals within electronic structure calculations. These orbital-dependent exchange-correlation functionals have recently received renewed attention as a means to improve the physical representation of electron interactions within electronic structure calculations. In particular, electron self-interaction terms can be avoided. In this thesis, an orbital-dependent functional is considered in the context of Hartree-Fock (HF) theory as well as the Optimized Effective Potential (OEP) method and the approximate OEP method developed by Krieger, Li, and Iafrate, known as the KLI approximation. In this thesis, the Fock exchange term is used as a simple well-defined example of an orbital-dependent functional. The Projected Augmented Wave (PAW) method developed by P. E. Blochl has proven to be accurate and efficient for electronic structure calculations for local and semi-local functions because of its accurate evaluation of interaction integrals by controlling multiple moments. We have extended the PAW method to treat orbital-dependent functionals in Hartree-Fock theory and the Optimized Effective Potential method, particularly in the KLI approximation. In the course of study we develop a frozen-core orbital approximation that accurately treats the core electron contributions for above three methods. The main part of the thesis focuses on the treatment of spherical atoms. We have investigated the behavior of PAW-Hartree Fock and PAW-KLI basis, projector, and pseudopotential functions for several elements throughout the periodic table. We have also extended the formalism to the treatment of solids in a plane wave basis and implemented PWPAW-KLI code, which will appear in future publications.

  18. Morphology and current-voltage characteristics of nanostructured pentacene thin films probed by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zorba, S; Le, Q T; Watkins, N J; Yan, L; Gao, Y

    2001-09-01

    Atomic force microscopy was used to study the growth modes (on SiO2, MoS2, and Au substrates) and the current-voltage (I-V) characteristics of organic semiconductor pentacene. Pentacene films grow on SiO2 substrate in a layer-by-layer manner with full coverage at an average thickness of 20 A and have the highest degree of molecular ordering with large dendritic grains among the pentacene films deposited on the three different substrates. Films grown on MoS2 substrate reveal two different growth modes, snowflake-like growth and granular growth, both of which seem to compete with each other. On the other hand, films deposited on Au substrate show granular structure for thinner coverages (no crystal structure) and dendritic growth for higher coverages (crystal structure). I-V measurements were performed with a platinum tip on a pentacene film deposited on a Au substrate. The I-V curves on pentacene film reveal symmetric tunneling type character. The field dependence of the current indicates that the main transport mechanism at high field intensities is hopping (Poole-Frenkel effect). From these measurements, we have estimated a field lowering coefficient of 9.77 x 10(-6) V-1/2 m1/2 and an ideality factor of 18 for pentacene.

  19. Perfect/complete scattering experiments probing quantum mechanics on atomic and molecular collisions and coincidences

    CERN Document Server

    Kleinpoppen, Hans; Grum-Grzhimailo, Alexei N

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this book is to elucidate what kind of experiment must be performed in order to determine the full set of independent parameters which can be extracted and calculated from theory, where electrons, photons, atoms, ions, molecules, or molecular ions may serve as the interacting constituents of matter.  The feasibility of such perfect' and-or `complete' experiments, providing the complete quantum mechanical knowledge of the process, is associated with the enormous potential of modern research techniques, both, in experiment and theory.  It is even difficult to overestimate the role of theory in setting of the complete experiment, starting with the fact that an experiment can be complete only within a certain theoretical framework, and ending with the direct prescription of what, and in what conditions should be measured to make the experiment `complete'.  The language of the related theory is the language of quantum mechanical amplitudes and their relative phases.  This book captures the spi...

  20. Nanostructural evolution of Cr-rich precipitates in a Cu-Cr-Zr alloy during heat treatment studied by 3 dimensional atom probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hatakeyama, Masahiko; Toyama, Takeshi; Nagai, Yasuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    Nanostructural evolution of Cr (Cr-rich) precipitates in a Cu-0.78%Cr-0.13%Zr alloy has been studied after aging and overaging (reaging) by laser assisted local electrode 3 dimensional atom probe (Laser-LEAP). This material is a candidate for the first wall and divertor components of future fusion...

  1. Probing the nanoadhesion of Streptococcus sanguinis to titanium implant surfaces by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Sebastian; Donos, Nikolaos; Spratt, Dave; Bozec, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    As titanium (Ti) continues to be utilized in great extent for the fabrication of artificial implants, it is important to understand the crucial bacterium-Ti interaction occurring during the initial phases of biofilm formation. By employing a single-cell force spectroscopy technique, the nanoadhesive interactions between the early-colonizing Streptococcus sanguinis and a clinically analogous smooth Ti substrate were explored. Mean adhesion forces between S. sanguinis and Ti were found to be 0.32±0.00, 1.07±0.06, and 4.85±0.56 nN for 0, 1, and 60 seconds contact times, respectively; while adhesion work values were reported at 19.28±2.38, 104.60±7.02, and 1,317.26±197.69 aJ for 0, 1, and 60 seconds, respectively. At 60 seconds surface delays, minor-rupture events were modeled with the worm-like chain model yielding an average contour length of 668±12 nm. The mean force for S. sanguinis minor-detachment events was 1.84±0.64 nN, and Poisson analysis decoupled this value into a short-range force component of -1.60±0.34 nN and a long-range force component of -0.55±0.47 nN. Furthermore, a solution of 2 mg/mL chlorhexidine was found to increase adhesion between the bacterial probe and substrate. Overall, single-cell force spectroscopy of living S. sanguinis cells proved to be a reliable way to characterize early-bacterial adhesion onto machined Ti implant surfaces at the nanoscale.

  2. Probing anisotropic surface properties and interaction forces of chrysotile rods by atomic force microscopy and rheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dingzheng; Xie, Lei; Bobicki, Erin; Xu, Zhenghe; Liu, Qingxia; Zeng, Hongbo

    2014-09-16

    Understanding the surface properties and interactions of nonspherical particles is of both fundamental and practical importance in the rheology of complex fluids in various engineering applications. In this work, natural chrysotile, a phyllosilicate composed of 1:1 stacked silica and brucite layers which coil into cylindrical structure, was chosen as a model rod-shaped particle. The interactions of chrysotile brucite-like basal or bilayered edge planes and a silicon nitride tip were measured using an atomic force microscope (AFM). The force-distance profiles were fitted using the classical Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) theory, which demonstrates anisotropic and pH-dependent surface charge properties of brucite-like basal plane and bilayered edge surface. The points of zero charge (PZC) of the basal and edge planes were estimated to be around pH 10-11 and 6-7, respectively. Rheology measurements of 7 vol % chrysotile (with an aspect ratio of 14.5) in 10 mM NaCl solution showed pH-dependent yield stress with a local maximum around pH 7-9, which falls between the two PZC values of the edge and basal planes of the rod particles. On the basis of the surface potentials of the edge and basal planes obtained from AFM measurements, theoretical analysis of the surface interactions of edge-edge, basal-edge, and basal-basal planes of the chrysotile rods suggests the yield stress maximum observed could be mainly attributed to the basal-edge attractions. Our results indicate that the anisotropic surface properties (e.g., charges) of chrysotile rods play an important role in the particle-particle interaction and rheological behavior, which also provides insight into the basic understanding of the colloidal interactions and rheology of nonspherical particles.

  3. Evaluation of carbon nanotube probes in critical dimension atomic force microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jinho; Park, Byong Chon; Ahn, Sang Jung; Kim, Dal-Hyun; Lyou, Joon; Dixson, Ronald G.; Orji, Ndubuisi G.; Fu, Joseph; Vorburger, Theodore V.

    2016-07-01

    The decreasing size of semiconductor features and the increasing structural complexity of advanced devices have placed continuously greater demands on manufacturing metrology, arising both from the measurement challenges of smaller feature sizes and the growing requirement to characterize structures in more than just a single critical dimension. For scanning electron microscopy, this has resulted in increasing sophistication of imaging models. For critical dimension atomic force microscopes (CD-AFMs), this has resulted in the need for smaller and more complex tips. Carbon nanotube (CNT) tips have thus been the focus of much interest and effort by a number of researchers. However, there have been significant issues surrounding both the manufacture and use of CNT tips. Specifically, the growth or attachment of CNTs to AFM cantilevers has been a challenge to the fabrication of CNT tips, and the flexibility and resultant bending artifacts have presented challenges to using CNT tips. The Korea Research Institute for Standards and Science (KRISS) has invested considerable effort in the controlled fabrication of CNT tips and is collaborating with the National Institute of Standards and Technology on the application of CNT tips for CD-AFM. Progress by KRISS on the precise control of CNT orientation, length, and end modification, using manipulation and focused ion beam processes, has allowed us to implement ball-capped CNT tips and bent CNT tips for CD-AFM. Using two different generations of CD-AFM instruments, we have evaluated these tip types by imaging a line/space grating and a programmed line edge roughness specimen. We concluded that these CNTs are capable of scanning the profiles of these structures, including re-entrant sidewalls, but there remain important challenges to address. These challenges include tighter control of tip geometry and careful optimization of scan parameters and algorithms for using CNT tips.

  4. Probed adhesion force of living lung cells with a tip-modified atomic force microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Wei-En; Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Lin, Ying-Yi; Cheng, Kai-Hung; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yan, Jun-Jer; Yeh, Ming-Hong

    2016-12-19

    The mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix play an important role in bio-microenvironment activities. Herein, atomic force microscope (AFM) was used to measure the interaction between Au and Ag nanoparticle (NP) clusters on the surface of human fetal lung cells. Using (3-mercapto-propyl) triethoxysilane (MPTMS), NP clusters were grafted onto the apex of AFM tip, and then, the adhesion force between the tip and the cell was analyzed. The measured adhesion force increased from 92 pN for AFM tip to 332 pN for that modified with MPTMS. The increase is most probably contributed by the nonspecific interactions between the apex of the modified AFM tip and the surface of the cells. The adhesion forces between the surface of NPs clusters grafted AFM tip and that of lung cells were dramatically reduced as NPs clusters were replaced by MPTMS. For the former, as the Au NPs cluster was applied, the adhesion force reached to 122 pN, whereas it significantly augmented with the addition of the cluster's size and dimension on the AFM tip. For the case of Ag cluster grafted on AFM tip, its adhesion force with the surface of the cells significantly lowered and reduced to 56 pN. Presumably, the electrostatic or van der Waals force between the two surfaces results in the variation of measurements. It is also very likely that the cell-surface interactions are probably varied by the nature of the contact surfaces, like the force-distance of attraction. The result is significant for understanding the the nature of the interactions between the surface of NPs and the membrane of lung cells.

  5. Accessibility and coordinate measuring machine: A new method for probe definition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Depince, P.; Bennis, F. [Universite de Nantes (France)

    1996-12-31

    Accessibility of measured points to touch probes is crucial in planning dimensional inspection of mechanical parts by Co-ordinate Measuring Machines (CMM). This paper presents a new method to define the kind of touch probe needed to measure the various points of a mechanical part. The limits of the notion of visibility as it is usually defined for machining purposes are shown. We propose a new definition of visibility, dedicated to measurement. A method allowing the determination of the probe`s characteristics (maximum length of the stylus, sufficient number of styli) is described.

  6. Iterative methods for plasma sheath calculations: Application to spherical probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, L. W.; Sullivan, E. C.

    1973-01-01

    The computer cost of a Poisson-Vlasov iteration procedure for the numerical solution of a steady-state collisionless plasma-sheath problem depends on: (1) the nature of the chosen iterative algorithm, (2) the position of the outer boundary of the grid, and (3) the nature of the boundary condition applied to simulate a condition at infinity (as in three-dimensional probe or satellite-wake problems). Two iterative algorithms, in conjunction with three types of boundary conditions, are analyzed theoretically and applied to the computation of current-voltage characteristics of a spherical electrostatic probe. The first algorithm was commonly used by physicists, and its computer costs depend primarily on the boundary conditions and are only slightly affected by the mesh interval. The second algorithm is not commonly used, and its costs depend primarily on the mesh interval and slightly on the boundary conditions.

  7. Microscopic techniques bridging between nanoscale and microscale with an atomically sharpened tip - field ion microscopy/scanning probe microscopy/ scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomitori, Masahiko; Sasahara, Akira

    2014-11-01

    Over a hundred years an atomistic point of view has been indispensable to explore fascinating properties of various materials and to develop novel functional materials. High-resolution microscopies, rapidly developed during the period, have taken central roles in promoting materials science and related techniques to observe and analyze the materials. As microscopies with the capability of atom-imaging, field ion microscopy (FIM), scanning tunneling microscopy (STM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) can be cited, which have been highly evaluated as methods to ultimately bring forward the viewpoint of reductionism in materials science. On one hand, there have been difficulties to derive useful and practical information on large (micro) scale unique properties of materials using these excellent microscopies and to directly advance the engineering for practical materials. To make bridges over the gap between an atomic scale and an industrial engineering scale, we have to develop emergence science step-by-step as a discipline having hierarchical structures for future prospects by combining nanoscale and microscale techniques; as promising ways, the combined microscopic instruments covering the scale gap and the extremely sophisticated methods for sample preparation seem to be required. In addition, it is noted that spectroscopic and theoretical methods should implement the emergence science.Fundamentally, the function of microscope is to determine the spatial positions of a finite piece of material, that is, ultimately individual atoms, at an extremely high resolution with a high stability. To define and control the atomic positions, the STM and AFM as scanning probe microscopy (SPM) have successfully demonstrated their power; the technological heart of SPM lies in an atomically sharpened tip, which can be observed by FIM and TEM. For emergence science we would like to set sail using the tip as a base. Meanwhile, it is significant

  8. The Quality Assessment of Stored Red Blood Cells Probed Using Atomic-Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Lamzin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available At the moment the suitability of stored red blood cells (sRBC for transfusion is checked by routine methods such as haemoglobin estimation and the level of haemolysis. These methods cannot characterize directly the quality of the membranes of sRBC. The aim of this work is to assess the quality of sRBC based on such criteria as the membrane’s stiffness and the size and the form of sRBC. Materials and Methods. We have investigated 5 series of dry cytosmears of the sRBC which had been kept in blood bank in a period from 1 to 35 days. After AFM imaging, in every specimen, 5 RBC were chosen at random; the diameter, the height, and the stiffness were measured on each of them. Results. The present study shows high increase of the mean values of YM and height of RBC after 35 days of storage and decrease of the mean values of their diameter. Conclusion. Statistically significant high increase of the mean values of YM indicates the decrease of the elasticity of the cells in the course of storing of the RBC. This parameter along with the morphological characteristics can be used as criterion for assessment of applicability of the sRBC for blood transfusion.

  9. Characterization of Precipitation in Al-Li Alloy AA2195 by means of Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna

    2015-05-19

    The microstructure of the commercial alloy AA2195 was investigated on the nanoscale after conducting T8 tempering. This particular thermomechanical treatment of the specimen resulted in the formation of platelet-shaped T 1 Al 2 CuLi / θ ′ Al 2 Cu precipitates within the Al matrix. The electrochemically prepared samples were analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for chemical mapping. The θ ′ platelets, which are less than 2 nm thick, have the stoichiometric composition consistent with the expected Al 2 Cu equilibrium composition. Additionally, the Li distribution inside the θ ′ platelets was found to equal the same value as in the matrix. The equally thin T 1 platelet deviates from the formula (Al 2 CuLi) in its stoichiometry and shows Mg enrichment inside the platelet without any indication of a higher segregation level at the precipitate/matrix interface. The deviation from the (Al 2 CuLi) stoichiometry cannot be simply interpreted as a consequence of artifacts when measuring the Cu and Li concentrations inside the T 1 platelet. The results show rather a strong hint for a true lower Li and Cu contents, hence supporting reasonably the hypothesis that the real chemical composition for the thin T 1 platelet in the T8 tempering condition differs from the equilibrium composition of the thermodynamic stable bulk phase.

  10. A model for oxidation-driven surface segregation and transport on Pt-alloys studied by atom probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagot, P. A. J.; Kreuzer, H. J.; Cerezo, A.; Smith, G. D. W.

    2011-08-01

    Using a purpose-built 3D atom probe, we have previously shown that exposure to oxidising gases (NO, N2O, O2) induces Rh surface segregation in Pt-Rh alloys, the extent of which is strongly dependent on treatment temperature, crystallographic plane and the presence of ternary alloy additions. In this paper, the segregation trends identified on three different crystallographic surfaces of Pt-Rh are analysed using thermodynamic and kinetic arguments. The segregation model we present is generic for diffusion on alloy surfaces in the presence of active gases. From it we obtain activation energies and diffusion coefficients for the processes of metal-oxide species diffusion both perpendicular to and laterally across the surface. Using these we propose a simple model for the interaction of chemically active gases with the surfaces of such alloys. Applying this understanding to sequential oxidation/reduction treatments would in principle allow improved control of the surface composition of alloy catalysts. Related applications of this model include optimisation of core-shell catalyst nanoparticles.

  11. An Atom Probe Study of κ-carbide Precipitation in Austenitic Lightweight Steel and the Effect of Phosphorus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, L. N.; Van Aken, D. C.; Medvedeva, J.; Isheim, D.; Medvedeva, N.; Song, K.

    2017-11-01

    The influence of phosphorus on κ-carbide precipitation and alloy partitioning in an austenitic Fe-30Mn-9Al-1Si-0.9C-0.5Mo cast steel was studied utilizing a combination of transmission electron microscopy, 3D atom probe tomography, X-ray diffraction, and first-principles atomistic modeling. Increasing the amount of phosphorus from 0.006 to 0.043 wt pct P increased the kinetics of the initial ordering reaction. Specimens from the high-phosphorus steel showed some degree of short-range ordering of Fe-Al-C that took place during the quench. It was shown that phosphorus increases both the size and volume fraction of κ-carbide during aging. However, the distribution of phosphorus appears to be homogeneous, and thus long-range diffusion of phosphorus was not responsible for the observed increase in hardening. It is shown that phosphorus encourages the initial short-range ordering into the E21 structure of κ-carbide and also accelerates spinodal decomposition associated with carbon and aluminum diffusions.

  12. Characterization of Precipitation in Al-Li Alloy AA2195 by means of Atom Probe Tomography and Transmission Electron Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Khushaim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructure of the commercial alloy AA2195 was investigated on the nanoscale after conducting T8 tempering. This particular thermomechanical treatment of the specimen resulted in the formation of platelet-shaped T1Al2CuLi/θ′Al2Cu precipitates within the Al matrix. The electrochemically prepared samples were analyzed by scanning transmission electron microscopy and atom probe tomography for chemical mapping. The θ′ platelets, which are less than 2 nm thick, have the stoichiometric composition consistent with the expected Al2Cu equilibrium composition. Additionally, the Li distribution inside the θ′ platelets was found to equal the same value as in the matrix. The equally thin T1 platelet deviates from the formula (Al2CuLi in its stoichiometry and shows Mg enrichment inside the platelet without any indication of a higher segregation level at the precipitate/matrix interface. The deviation from the (Al2CuLi stoichiometry cannot be simply interpreted as a consequence of artifacts when measuring the Cu and Li concentrations inside the T1 platelet. The results show rather a strong hint for a true lower Li and Cu contents, hence supporting reasonably the hypothesis that the real chemical composition for the thin T1 platelet in the T8 tempering condition differs from the equilibrium composition of the thermodynamic stable bulk phase.

  13. A Novel Method for Imaging Apoptosis Using a Caspase-1 Near-Infrared Fluorescent Probe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanta M. Messerli

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we describe a novel method for imaging apoptosis in cells using a near-infrared fluorescent (NIRF probe selective for caspase-1 (interleukin β-converting enzyme, ICE. This biocompatible, optically quenched ICE-NIRF probe incorporates a peptide substrate, which can be selectively cleaved by caspase-1, resulting in the release of fluorescence signal. The specificity of this probe for caspase-1 is supported by various lines of evidence: 1 activation by purified caspase-1, but not another caspase in vitro; 2 activation of the probe by infection of cells with a herpes simplex virus amplicon vector (HGC-ICE-IacZ expressing a catalytically active caspase-1-IacZ fusion protein; 3 inhibition of HGC-ICE-IacZ vector-induced activation of the probe by coincubation with the caspase-1 inhibitor YVAD-cmk, but not with a caspase-3 inhibitor; and 4 activation of the probe following standard methods of inducing apoptosis with staurosporine, ganciclovir, or ionizing radiation in culture. These results indicate that this novel ICE-NIRF probe can be used in monitoring endogenous and vector-expressed caspase-1 activity in cells. Furthermore, tumor implant experiments indicate that this ICE-NIRF probe can be used to detect caspase-1 activity in living animals. This novel ICE-NIRF probe should prove useful in monitoring endogenous and vector-expressed caspase-1 activity, and potentially apoptosis in cell culture and in vivo.

  14. Study on probe field propagation in the presence of control and coupling fields through a four-level N-type atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, Khairul; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Ghosh, Arindam; Biswas, Debasish; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava

    2017-11-01

    The absorption features of a probe field propagating through a four-level N-type atomic system in the presence of two coherent radiation fields is studied analytically by using a density matrix formulation. The system has two ground levels and two excited levels. A weak probe laser couples the upper ground level to the lower excited level whereas a strong control field connects the lower ground level to the lower excited level. The coupling field acts between the upper ground level and the upper excited level. The transition parameters of the 87Rb D1 line have been used to simulate the probe response. The simulated probe absorption shows a gain-like structure depending on the relative field intensities. The spectral features of the probe response exhibit substantial differences under thermal averaging as compared to a Doppler-free condition. The splitting of simulated probe absorption can be explained by the dressed state model. Electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) is observed in the simulated probe response curve when the spontaneous decay of the population from the uppermost excited state to the lower ground state is absent.

  15. A novel method of atomizing coal-water slurry fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, P.E.; Lefebvre, A.H.

    1990-05-01

    Despite the body of work describing the performance of effervescent atomizers, its potential for use with coal water slurries (CWS) had not been evaluated prior to this study. This program was therefore undertaken: to demonstrate that effervescent atomization can produce CWS sprays with mean drop sizes below 50{mu}m; to determine a lower size limit for effervescent atomizer produced CWS sprays; to determine the mechanism(s) responsible for the formation of effervescent atomizer produced sprays. An analysis of the effects of slurry rheological properties (as indicated by the consistency index and the flow behavior index) and formulation (in terms of loading and coal particle top size) on the spray formation process was performed. The experimental data reported were then analyzed to explain the physical processes responsible for spray formation. The analysis began by considering an energy balance across a control volume that extended from the nozzle exit plant to the line of spray measurement. The inlet conditions were calculated using two-phase flow techniques and the outlet conditions were calculated by using conservation of momentum and assuming that the final velocities of the air and liquid were equal. Entrainment was considered negligible and losses were accounted for by realizing that only a small fraction of the atomizing air participated in the spray formation process with the remainder passing through the control volume unperturbed. Results are discussed. 41 figs., 4 tabs.

  16. Studying nearest neighbor correlations by atom probe tomography (APT) in metallic glasses as exemplified for Fe40Ni40B20 glassy ribbons

    KAUST Repository

    Shariq, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    A next nearest neighbor evaluation procedure of atom probe tomography data provides distributions of the distances between atoms. The width of these distributions for metallic glasses studied so far is a few Angstrom reflecting the spatial resolution of the analytical technique. However, fitting Gaussian distributions to the distribution of atomic distances yields average distances with statistical uncertainties of 2 to 3 hundredth of an Angstrom. Fe 40Ni40B20 metallic glass ribbons are characterized this way in the as quenched state and for a state heat treated at 350 °C for 1 h revealing a change in the structure on the sub-nanometer scale. By applying the statistical tool of the χ2 test a slight deviation from a random distribution of B-atoms in the as quenched sample is perceived, whereas a pronounced elemental inhomogeneity of boron is detected for the annealed state. In addition, the distance distribution of the first fifteen atomic neighbors is determined by using this algorithm for both annealed and as quenched states. The next neighbor evaluation algorithm evinces a steric periodicity of the atoms when the next neighbor distances are normalized by the first next neighbor distance. A comparison of the nearest neighbor atomic distribution for as quenched and annealed state shows accumulation of Ni and B. Moreover, it also reveals the tendency of Fe and B to move slightly away from each other, an incipient step to Ni rich boride formation. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

  17. Study of borehole probing methods to improve the ground characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimipour, Ali

    Collecting geological information allows for optimizing ground control measures in underground structures. This includes understanding of the joints and discontinuities and rock strength to develop rock mass classifications. An ideal approach to collect such information is through correlating the drilling data from the roofbolters to assess rock strength and void location and properties. The current instrumented roofbolters are capable of providing some information on these properties but not fully developed for accurate ground characterization. To enhance existing systems additional instrumentation and testing was conducted in laboratory and field conditions. However, to define the geology along the boreholes, the use of probing was deemed to be most efficient approach for locating joints and structures in the ground and evaluation of rock strength. Therefore, this research focuses on selection and evaluation of proper borehole probes that can offer a reliable assessment of rock mass structure and rock strength. In particular, attention was paid to borehole televiewer to characterize rock mass structures and joints and development of mechanical rock scratcher for determination of rock strength. Rock bolt boreholes are commonly drilled in the ribs and the roof of underground environments. They are often small (about 1.5 inches) and short (mostly 2-3 meter). Most of them are oriented upward and thus, mostly dry or perhaps wet but not filled with water. No suitable system is available for probing in such conditions to identify the voids/joints and specifically to measure rock strength for evaluation of rock mass and related optimization of ground support design. A preliminary scan of available borehole probes proved that the best options for evaluation of rock structure is through analysis of borehole images, captured by optical televiewers. Laboratory and field trials with showed that these systems can be used to facilitate measurement of the location, frequency and

  18. Localized atomic basis set in the projector augmented wave method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Ask Hjorth; Vanin, Marco; Mortensen, Jens Jørgen

    2009-01-01

    is tested by calculating atomization energies and equilibrium bulk properties of a variety of molecules and solids, comparing to the grid results. Finally, it is demonstrated how a grid-quality structure optimization can be performed with significantly reduced computational effort by switching between...

  19. Method and apparatus for probing relative volume fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jandrasits, W.G.; Kikta, T.J.

    1996-12-31

    A relative volume fraction probe particularly for use in a multiphase fluid system includes two parallel conductive paths defining there between a sample zone within the system. A generating unit generates time varying electrical signals which are inserted into one of the two parallel conductive paths. A time domain reflectometer receives the time varying electrical signals returned by the second of the two parallel conductive paths and, responsive thereto, outputs a curve of impedance versus distance. An analysis unit then calculates the area under the curve, subtracts the calculated area from an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a first fluid phase, and divides this calculated difference by the difference between an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of the first fluid phase and an area produced when the sample zone consists entirely of material of a second fluid phase. The result is the volume fraction.

  20. Influence of the Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of CeO2 and UO2 for Characterization with UV-Laser Assisted Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billy Valderrama; H.B. Henderson; C. Yablinsky; J. Gan; T.R. Allen; M.V. Manuel

    2015-09-01

    Oxide materials are used in numerous applications such as thermal barrier coatings, nuclear fuels, and electrical conductors and sensors, all applications where nanometer-scale stoichiometric changes can affect functional properties. Atom probe tomography can be used to characterize the precise chemical distribution of individual species and spatially quantify the oxygen to metal ratio at the nanometer scale. However, atom probe analysis of oxides can be accompanied by measurement artifacts caused by laser-material interactions. In this investigation, two technologically relevant oxide materials with the same crystal structure and an anion to cation ratio of 2.00, pure cerium oxide (CeO2) and uranium oxide (UO2) are studied. It was determined that electronic structure, optical properties, heat transfer properties, and oxide stability strongly affect their evaporation behavior, thus altering their measured stoichiometry, with thermal conductance and thermodynamic stability being strong factors.

  1. Blinded Comparison between an In-Air Reverberation Method and an Electronic Probe Tester in the Detection of Ultrasound Probe Faults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Nicholas J; Woolley, Darren J

    2017-12-01

    The aim of this study was to perform a blinded trial, comparing the results of a visual inspection of the in-air reverberation pattern with the results of an electronic probe tester in detecting ultrasound probe faults. Sixty-two probes were tested. A total of 28 faults were found, 3 only by in-air reverberation assessment and 2 only by the electronic probe tester. The electronic probe tester provided additional information regarding the location of the fault in 74% of the cases in which both methods detected a fault. It is possible to detect the majority of probe faults by visual inspection and in-air reverberation assessment. The latter provides an excellent first-line test, easily performed on a daily basis by equipment users. An electronic probe tester is required if detailed evaluation of faults is necessary. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine and Biology. All rights reserved.

  2. Probing the atomic structure of amorphous Ta2O5 mirror coatings for advanced gravitational wave detectors using transmission electron microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, R.; Borisenko, K. B.; Cockayne, D. J. H.; Hough, J.; MacLaren, I.; Rowan, S.

    2010-07-01

    Advanced generations of ground-based gravitational wave detectors will use ultra-low-loss amorphous dielectric multilayer mirror coatings in order to minimise thermal noise, a limiting factor in detector sensitivity. Transmission electron microscopy is a promising way to probe the atomic structure of these coatings in an effort to better understand the causes of the observed mechanical loss (internal friction) and hence thermal noise.

  3. Pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography of low conductivity and insulator materials by application of ultrathin metallic coating on nanoscale specimen geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adineh, Vahid R; Marceau, Ross K W; Chen, Yu; Si, Kae J; Velkov, Tony; Cheng, Wenlong; Li, Jian; Fu, Jing

    2017-10-01

    We present a novel approach for analysis of low-conductivity and insulating materials with conventional pulsed-voltage atom probe tomography (APT), by incorporating an ultrathin metallic coating on focused ion beam prepared needle-shaped specimens. Finite element electrostatic simulations of coated atom probe specimens were performed, which suggest remarkable improvement in uniform voltage distribution and subsequent field evaporation of the insulated samples with a metallic coating of approximately 10nm thickness. Using design of experiment technique, an experimental investigation was performed to study physical vapor deposition coating of needle specimens with end tip radii less than 100nm. The final geometries of the coated APT specimens were characterized with high-resolution scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy, and an empirical model was proposed to determine the optimal coating thickness for a given specimen size. The optimal coating strategy was applied to APT specimens of resin embedded Au nanospheres. Results demonstrate that the optimal coating strategy allows unique pulsed-voltage atom probe analysis and 3D imaging of biological and insulated samples. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. EPA Method 245.1: Determination of Mercury in Water by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine mercuric chloride and methoxyethylmercuric acetate as total mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  5. Electron velocity distribution in a diffusion plasma system by resonance probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baykal, A.; Sezer, Z. (Cekmece Nuclear Research and Training Center, Istanbul (Turkey))

    1983-06-01

    In this study, electron-velocity distribution in low density plasma (nsub(e) = 8.9 x 10/sup 7/ cm/sup -3/, Tsub(e) = 2.8 x 10/sup 4/ /sup 0/K) has been measured by resonance probe method. The curves of the probe rectified current have been plotted when both direct and alternating potential were applied to the probe. The second derivation of electron current for each applied potential has been found experimentally. Using this result and Druyvesteyn Formula, electron-velocity distribution has been measured.

  6. Superradiant emission from a cascade atomic ensemble by positive-P phase space method simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Hsiang-Hua

    2012-06-01

    We numerically simulate the superradiant emission properties from an atomic ensemble with cascade level configuration. The correlated spontaneous emissions (signal then idler fields) are initiated by quantum fluctuations of the ensemble. We apply the positive-P phase space method to investigate the dynamics of the atoms and counter-propagating emissions in the four-wave mixing condition. The light field intensities are calculated, and the signal-idler correlation function is studied for different optical depths of the atomic ensemble. Shorter correlation time scale for a denser atomic ensemble implies a broader spectral window required to store or retrieve the idler pulse.

  7. Water quality: determination of dissolved oxygen : electrochemical probe method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    2012-01-01

    ISO 5814:2012 specifies an electrochemical method for the determination of dissolved oxygen in water by means of an electrochemical cell which is isolated from the sample by a gas permeable membrane...

  8. Absolute detection of metastable rare gas atoms by a cw laser photoionization method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schohl, S.; Klar, D.; Kraft, T.; Meijer, H.A.J.; Ruf, M.-W.; Schmitz, U.; Smith, S.J.; Hotop, H.

    1991-01-01

    A novel, accurate method for the absolute detection of metastable rare gas atoms is described and demonstrated. It involves a direct in situ determination of the electron emission coefficient γ for impact of the respective metastable atom on a conducting surface, γ is reliably obtained by a cw

  9. A single-probe heat pulse method for estimating sap velocity in trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Bernal, Álvaro; Testi, Luca; Villalobos, Francisco J

    2017-10-01

    Available sap flow methods are still far from being simple, cheap and reliable enough to be used beyond very specific research purposes. This study presents and tests a new single-probe heat pulse (SPHP) method for monitoring sap velocity in trees using a single-probe sensor, rather than the multi-probe arrangements used up to now. Based on the fundamental conduction-convection principles of heat transport in sapwood, convective velocity (Vh ) is estimated from the temperature increase in the heater after the application of a heat pulse (ΔT). The method was validated against measurements performed with the compensation heat pulse (CHP) technique in field trees of six different species. To do so, a dedicated three-probe sensor capable of simultaneously applying both methods was produced and used. Experimental measurements in the six species showed an excellent agreement between SPHP and CHP outputs for moderate to high flow rates, confirming the applicability of the method. In relation to other sap flow methods, SPHP presents several significant advantages: it requires low power inputs, it uses technically simpler and potentially cheaper instrumentation, the physical damage to the tree is minimal and artefacts caused by incorrect probe spacing and alignment are removed. © 2017 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2017 New Phytologist Trust.

  10. A New Method for Analyzing Near-Field Faraday Probe Data in Hall Thrusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wensheng; Shastry, Rohit; Herman, Daniel A.; Soulas, George C.; Kamhawi, Hani

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for analyzing near-field Faraday probe data obtained from Hall thrusters. Traditional methods spawned from far-field Faraday probe analysis rely on assumptions that are not applicable to near-field Faraday probe data. In particular, arbitrary choices for the point of origin and limits of integration have made interpretation of the results difficult. The new method, called iterative pathfinding, uses the evolution of the near-field plume with distance to provide feedback for determining the location of the point of origin. Although still susceptible to the choice of integration limits, this method presents a systematic approach to determining the origin point for calculating the divergence angle. The iterative pathfinding method is applied to near-field Faraday probe data taken in a previous study from the NASA-300M and NASA-457Mv2 Hall thrusters. Since these two thrusters use centrally mounted cathodes the current density associated with the cathode plume is removed before applying iterative pathfinding. A procedure is presented for removing the cathode plume. The results of the analysis are compared to far-field probe analysis results. This paper ends with checks on the validity of the new method and discussions on the implications of the results.

  11. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De wael, Annelies, E-mail: annelies.dewael@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); De Backer, Annick [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium); Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, OX1 3PH Oxford (United Kingdom); Van Aert, Sandra, E-mail: sandra.vanaert@uantwerpen.be [Electron Microscopy for Materials Science (EMAT), University of Antwerp, Groenenborgerlaan 171, 2020 Antwerp (Belgium)

    2017-06-15

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. - Highlights: • A hybrid method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images is introduced. • Image simulations are incorporated into a statistical framework in a reliable manner. • Limits of the existing methods for atom-counting are far exceeded. • Reliable counting results from an experimental low dose image are obtained. • Progress towards reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials is made.

  12. Precision X-ray spectroscopy of kaonic atoms as a probe of low-energy kaon-nucleus interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the exotic atoms where one atomic 1s electron is replaced by a K−, the strong interaction between the K− and the nucleus introduces an energy shift and broadening of the low-lying kaonic atomic levels which are determined by only the electromagnetic interaction. By performing X-ray spectroscopy for Z = 1,2 kaonic atoms, the SIDDHARTA experiment determined with high precision the shift and width for the 1s state of K− p and the 2p state of kaonic helium-3 and kaonic helium-4. These results provided unique information of the kaon-nucleus interaction in the low energy limit.

  13. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Nieddu, Thomas; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed ...

  14. Photoelectron imaging, probe of the dynamics: from atoms... to clusters; Imagerie de photoelectrons, sonde de la dynamique: des atomes... aux agregats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lepine, F

    2003-06-15

    This thesis concerns the study of the deexcitation of clusters and atoms by photoelectron imaging. The first part is dedicated to thermionic emission of a finite size system. A 3-dimensional imaging setup allows us to measure the time evolution of the kinetic energy spectrum of electrons emitted from different clusters (W{sub n}{sup -}, C{sub n}{sup -}, C{sub 60}). Then we have a direct access to the fundamental quantities which characterize this statistical emission: the temperature of the finite heat bath and the decay rate. The second part concerns the ionization of atomic Rydberg states placed in a static electric field. We performed the first experiment of photoionization microscopy which allows us to obtain a picture which is the macroscopic projection of the electronic wave function. Then we have access to the detail of the photoionization and particularly to the quantum properties of the electron usually confined at the atomic scale. (author)

  15. Evolution of Research Methods for Probing and Understanding Metacognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Nashon, Samson M.; Thomas, Gregory P.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on the development, self-critique and evolution of research methods for interpreting and understanding students' metacognition that were developed through the Metacognition and Reflective Inquiry (MRI) collaborative study. The MRI collaborative was a multi-year, multi-case, research study that investigated the elusive nature and…

  16. Multi-point probe for testing electrical properties and a method of producing a multi-point probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2011-01-01

    A multi-point probe for testing electrical properties of a number of specific locations of a test sample comprises a supporting body defining a first surface, a first multitude of conductive probe arms (101-101'''), each of the probe arms defining a proximal end and a distal end. The probe arms...... are connected to the supporting body (105) at the proximal ends, and the distal ends are freely extending from the supporting body, giving individually flexible motion to the probe arms. Each of the probe arms defines a maximum width perpendicular to its perpendicular bisector and parallel with its line...... of contact with the supporting body, and a maximum thickness perpendicular to its perpendicular bisector and its line of contact with the supporting body. Each of the probe arms has a specific area or point of contact (111-111''') at its distal end for contacting a specific location among the number...

  17. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1996-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy III provides a unique introduction to the theoretical foundations of scanning tunneling microscopy and related scanning probe methods. The different theoretical concepts developed in the past are outlined, and the implications of the theoretical results for the interpretation of experimental data are discussed in detail. Therefore, this book serves as a most useful guide for experimentalists as well as for theoreticians working in the filed of local probe methods. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  18. Validation of MR thermometry: method for temperature probe sensor registration accuracy in head and neck phantoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarasek, Matthew R; Pellicer, Ruben; Hofstetter, Lorne W; Numan, Wouter C M; Bakker, Jurriaan F; Kotek, Gyula; Togni, Paolo; Verhaart, René F; Fiveland, Eric W; Houston, Gavin C; van Rhoon, Gerard C; Paulides, Margarethus Marius; Yeo, Desmond Teck Beng

    2014-03-01

    Magnetic resonance thermometry (MRT) is an attractive means to non-invasively monitor in vivo temperature during head and neck hyperthermia treatments because it can provide multi-dimensional temperature information with high spatial resolution over large regions of interest. However, validation of MRT measurements in a head and neck clinical set-up is crucial to ensure the temperature maps are accurate. Here we demonstrate a unique approach for temperature probe sensor localisation in head and neck hyperthermia test phantoms. We characterise the proton resonance frequency shift temperature coefficient and validate MRT measurements in an oil-gel phantom by applying a combination of MR imaging and 3D spline fitting for accurate probe localisation. We also investigate how uncertainties in both the probe localisation and the proton resonance frequency shift (PRFS) thermal coefficient affect the registration of fibre-optic reference temperature probe and MRT readings. The method provides a two-fold advantage of sensor localisation and PRFS thermal coefficient calibration. We provide experimental data for two distinct head and neck phantoms showing the significance of this method as it mitigates temperature probe localisation errors and thereby increases accuracy of MRT validation results. The techniques presented here may be used to simplify calibration experiments that use an interstitial heating device, or any heating method that provides rapid and spatially localised heat distributions. Overall, the experimental verification of the data registration and PRFS thermal coefficient calibration technique provides a useful benchmarking method to maximise MRT accuracy in any similar context.

  19. Immobilisation of oligo-peptidic probes for microarray implementation: characterisation by FTIR, atomic force microscopy and 2D fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soultani-Vigneron, S; Dugas, V; Rouillat, M H; Fédollière, J; Duclos, M C; Vnuk, E; Phaner-Goutorbe, M; Bulone, V; Martin, J R; Wallach, J; Cloarec, J P

    2005-08-05

    Proteomic microarrays show a wide range of applications for the investigation of DNA-protein, enzyme-substrate as well as protein-protein interactions. Among many challenges to build a viable "protein microarray", the surface chemistry that will allow to immobilised various proteins to retain their biological activity is of paramount importance. Here we report a chemical functionalisation method allowing immobilisation of oligo-peptides onto silica surface (porous silica, glass, thermal silicon dioxide). Substrates were first derivatised with a monofunctional silane allowing the elaboration of dense and uniform monolayers in highly reproducible way. Prior to the oligo-peptides grafting, this organic layer was functionalised with an amino-polyethyleneglycol. The coupling step of oligo-peptides onto functionalised supports is achieved through activation of the C-terminal function of the oligo-peptides. Chemical surface modifications were followed by FTIR spectroscopy, AFM measurements and fluorescence scanning microscopy. A systematic study of the oligo-peptide grafting conditions (time, concentration, solvent) was carried out to optimise this step. The oligo-peptides grafting strategy implemented in this work ensure a covalent and oriented grafting of the oligo-peptides. This orientation is ensured through the use of fully protected peptide except the terminal primary amine. The immobilized peptides will be then deprotected before biological recognition. This strategy is crucial to retain the biological activity of thousands of oligo-probes assessed on a microarray.

  20. A cue-free method to probe human lighting biases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzilli, Giacomo; Schofield, Andrew J

    2013-01-01

    People readily perceive patterns of shading as 3-D shapes. Owing to the generalised bas-relief ambiguity when extracting shape from shading, people must simultaneously estimate the shape of the surface and the nature of the light source. In many cases cues in the image will be insufficient to resolve all of the ambiguities present, and in such cases the human visual system may employ one of a number of prior assumptions based on ecology and experience. One such assumption is the lighting-from-above prior. Here, in the absence of extrinsic cues to lighting direction, ambiguous shading patterns are interpreted as if lit by a light source that is above the observer's head. Studies of this prior typically use ambiguous stimuli and observe perceptual biases. A degree of cueing is inherent to such methods. Participants see the shaded stimuli repeatedly and are asked to make shape judgments about them regardless of whether or not they actually perceive any 3-D shape. We wanted to access people's lighting prior more directly by establishing the template they would employ to detect a shaded object in the absence of any visual cue to object shape. To this end, we adopted a classification image approach.

  1. Establishment of screening method for effective vaccination using radiolabelled probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nomaguchi, Hiroko; Yogi, Yasuko [National Inst. of Infectious Deseases, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Aiming to develop a screening method for effective vaccination, an investigation was made to establish basic techniques for evaluating cytokine producing abilities of host cells after immunization to mycobacterium leprae. In this study, proliferation of the bacterium was investigated with immunodeficient mice such as BALB/cA-nu/nu, CB-scid, aly/{sup +} and aly/aly and the respective normal mice. When the splenic cells from BALB/cA mouse sensitized with M. leprae (ip, 5 days) was challenged with its cell lysate, {gamma}-IFN was produced, whereas its production was not observed in those from sensitive mouse BALB/cA-nu/nu. In addition, it was suggested that cells which could induce {gamma}-IFN in response to IL-12 were extremely limited in the nude mouse. On the contray, for IL-18, {gamma}-IFN was inducible in the nude mouse when anti-CD3 was previously coated, indicating that it is difficult to evaluate the efficacy of vaccination only by measuring the productions of IL-12 and IL-18. Therefore, it seems better to determine the amount of {gamma}-IFN protein induced by resensitization with the antigen in the splenic cells. (M.N.)

  2. Electrochemically assisted localized etching of ZnO single crystals in water using a catalytically active Pt-coated atomic force microscopy probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibata, Takayuki; Yamamoto, Kota; Sasano, Junji; Nagai, Moeto

    2017-09-01

    This paper presents a nanofabrication technique based on the electrochemically assisted chemical dissolution of zinc oxide (ZnO) single crystals in water at room temperature using a catalytically active Pt-coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe. Fabricated grooves featured depths and widths of several tens and several hundreds of nanometers, respectively. The material removal rate of ZnO was dramatically improved by controlling the formation of hydrogen ions (H+) on the surface of the catalytic Pt-coated probe via oxidation of H2O molecules; this reaction can be enhanced by applying a cathodic potential to an additional Pt-wire working electrode in a three-electrode configuration. Consequently, ZnO can be dissolved chemically in water as a soluble Zn2+ species via a reaction with H+ species present in high concentrations in the immediate vicinity of the AFM tip apex.

  3. METHODS OF SAMPLE THERMAL MODIFICATION BY MEANS DOUBLE VAPORIZATION IN TWO STEP ATOMIZER FOR ATOMIC ABSORPTION ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Grinshtein, Ilia; Vilpan, Yuri; Saraev, Alexei; Vasilieva, Lubov

    2000-01-01

    After sample vaporization in two-step atomizer with a purged vaporizer sample vapors can be transferred into preheated or into non-heated atomizer. In the last case the atomizer walls trap the vapors and then the sample is second time vaporized and atomized by heating the atomizer. Thermal pre-treatment of a sample using this double vaporization makes possible the direct analysis of samples with strongly interfering matrices including solids. The technique was used for the direct determinatio...

  4. METHODS OF SOIL TESTING BY UNIVERSAL DYNAMIC PROBE OF LRN & TP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SEDIN V. L.

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement. Nowadays the survey organizations need in facilities of light type not being produced mass.But they are necessary for the accelerated testing of soil with the possibility of use in cramped conditions. Described below probe and test procedures is one of the possible solutions to this problem. Purpose. To acquaint with a description of the constructional features and testing methods of soil dynamic universal probe, developed in the laboratory of research of nuclear and thermal power plants (LRNTP of Pridneprovsk scientific and educational institution of innovative technologies in construction. Conclusion. The proposed probe intended to determine the mechanical properties of soils and allows to provide the express assessment of the soil properties of natural foundations to explore the changes of the properties of soil foundation under the operative objects in the process of their operation. Universal feature of the probe is the possibility to use disposable standard cones and of the composite construction of hammer (if it is necessary to reduce the weight of the hammer. As well as the possibility of carrying out tests on foreign standards, in particular on standard for the SPT (Standard Probe Test. Results of probing are drawn up as a standard continuous step schedule of change of depth value of conditional dynamic resistance of soils Pq, followed by averaging schedule and calculating of weighted index of probing for each layer land constructions. This probe and the following technique, fill a niche of the lack of manual small facilities and can contribute to the expansion of technical capabilities of survey organizations.

  5. Probing methane hydrate nucleation through the forward flux sampling method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Yuanfei; Li, Tianshu

    2014-11-26

    Understanding the nucleation of hydrate is the key to developing effective strategies for controlling methane hydrate formation. Here we present a computational study of methane hydrate nucleation, by combining the forward flux sampling (FFS) method and the coarse-grained water model mW. To facilitate the application of FFS in studying the formation of methane hydrate, we developed an effective order parameter λ on the basis of the topological analysis of the tetrahedral network. The order parameter capitalizes the signature of hydrate structure, i.e., polyhedral cages, and is capable of efficiently distinguishing hydrate from ice and liquid water while allowing the formation of different hydrate phases, i.e., sI, sII, and amorphous. Integration of the order parameter λ with FFS allows explicitly computing hydrate nucleation rates and obtaining an ensemble of nucleation trajectories under conditions where spontaneous hydrate nucleation becomes too slow to occur in direct simulation. The convergence of the obtained hydrate nucleation rate was found to depend crucially on the convergence of the spatial distribution for the spontaneously formed hydrate seeds obtained from the initial sampling of FFS. The validity of the approach is also verified by the agreement between the calculated nucleation rate and that inferred from the direct simulation. Analyzing the obtained large ensemble of hydrate nucleation trajectories, we show hydrate formation at 220 K and 500 bar is initiated by the nucleation events occurring in the vicinity of water-methane interface, and facilitated by a gradual transition from amorphous to crystalline structure. The latter provides the direct support to the proposed two-step nucleation mechanism of methane hydrate.

  6. Combined frequency modulated atomic force microscopy and scanning tunneling microscopy detection for multi-tip scanning probe microscopy applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morawski, Ireneusz; Spiegelberg, Richard; Korte, Stefan; Voigtländer, Bert

    2015-12-01

    A method which allows scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) tip biasing independent of the sample bias during frequency modulated atomic force microscopy (AFM) operation is presented. The AFM sensor is supplied by an electronic circuit combining both a frequency shift signal and a tunneling current signal by means of an inductive coupling. This solution enables a control of the tip potential independent of the sample potential. Individual tip biasing is specifically important in order to implement multi-tip STM/AFM applications. An extensional quartz sensor (needle sensor) with a conductive tip is applied to record simultaneously topography and conductivity of the sample. The high resonance frequency of the needle sensor (1 MHz) allows scanning of a large area of the surface being investigated in a reasonably short time. A recipe for the amplitude calibration which is based only on the frequency shift signal and does not require the tip being in contact is presented. Additionally, we show spectral measurements of the mechanical vibration noise of the scanning system used in the investigations.

  7. The Definition Method and Optimization of Atomic Strain Tensors for Nuclear Power Engineering Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangguo Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A common measure of deformation between atomic scale simulations and the continuum framework is provided and the strain tensors for multiscale simulations are defined in this paper. In order to compute the deformation gradient of any atom m, the weight function is proposed to eliminate the different contributions within the neighbor atoms which have different distances to atom m, and the weighted least squares error optimization model is established to seek the optimal coefficients of the weight function and the optimal local deformation gradient of each atom. The optimization model involves more than 9 parameters. To guarantee the reliability of subsequent parameters identification result and lighten the calculation workload of parameters identification, an overall analysis method of parameter sensitivity and an advanced genetic algorithm are also developed.

  8. Observation by conductive-probe atomic force microscopy of strongly inverted surface layers at the hydrogenated amorphous silicon/crystalline silicon heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslova, O. A.; Alvarez, J.; Gushina, E. V.; Favre, W.; Gueunier-Farret, M. E.; Gudovskikh, A. S.; Ankudinov, A. V.; Terukov, E. I.; Kleider, J. P.

    2010-12-01

    Heterojunctions made of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and crystalline silicon (c-Si) are examined by conducting probe atomic force microscopy. Conductive channels at both (n )a-Si:H/(p)c-Si and (p)a-Si:H/(n)c-Si interfaces are clearly revealed. These are attributed to two-dimension electron and hole gases due to strong inversion layers at the c-Si surface in agreement with previous planar conductance measurements. The presence of a hole gas in (p )a-Si:H/(n)c-Si structures implies a quite large valence band offset (EVc-Si-EVa-Si:H>0.25 eV).

  9. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff Mathiasen, Anne-Gitte

    2013-01-01

    Mobile probing is a method, developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time and space......). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings point...... to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face). The development...

  10. Mobile Probing and Probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Duvaa, Uffe; Ørngreen, Rikke; Weinkouff, Anne-Gitte

    2012-01-01

    and space). Mobile probing was inspired by the cultural probe method, and was influenced by qualitative interview and inquiry approaches. The method has been used in two subsequent projects, involving school children (young adults at 15-17 years old) and employees (adults) in a consultancy company. Findings......Mobile probing is a method, which has been developed for learning about digital work situations, as an approach to discover new grounds. The method can be used when there is a need to know more about users and their work with certain tasks, but where users at the same time are distributed (in time...... point to mobile probing being a flexible method for uncovering the unknowns, as a way of getting rich data to the analysis and design phases. On the other hand it is difficult to engage users to give in depth explanations, which seem easier in synchronous dialogs (whether online or face2face...

  11. Evaluation of quantification methods for real-time PCR minor groove binding hybridization probe assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durtschi, Jacob D; Stevenson, Jeffery; Hymas, Weston; Voelkerding, Karl V

    2007-02-01

    Real-time PCR data analysis for quantification has been the subject of many studies aimed at the identification of new and improved quantification methods. Several analysis methods have been proposed as superior alternatives to the common variations of the threshold crossing method. Notably, sigmoidal and exponential curve fit methods have been proposed. However, these studies have primarily analyzed real-time PCR with intercalating dyes such as SYBR Green. Clinical real-time PCR assays, in contrast, often employ fluorescent probes whose real-time amplification fluorescence curves differ from those of intercalating dyes. In the current study, we compared four analysis methods related to recent literature: two versions of the threshold crossing method, a second derivative maximum method, and a sigmoidal curve fit method. These methods were applied to a clinically relevant real-time human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) PCR assay that used a minor groove binding (MGB) Eclipse hybridization probe as well as an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) PCR assay that used an MGB Pleiades hybridization probe. We found that the crossing threshold method yielded more precise results when analyzing the HHV6 assay, which was characterized by lower signal/noise and less developed amplification curve plateaus. In contrast, the EBV assay, characterized by greater signal/noise and amplification curves with plateau regions similar to those observed with intercalating dyes, gave results with statistically similar precision by all four analysis methods.

  12. A Method for Measuring Fast Time Evolutions of the Plasma Potential by Means of a Simple Emissive Probe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iizuka, S.; Michelsen, Poul; Juul Rasmussen, Jens

    1981-01-01

    A method is presented for obtaining the temporal evolution of the plasma potential, which is assumed to be given by the floating potential of a simple emissive probe. The construction of the probe is also described. The method avoids the slow time response of the usual technique where the floating...... potential is measured across a high resistance. During each sweep of the probe voltage, the changing of the sign of the probe current, which is sampled at a specific time, gives rise to a negative pulse, driving the pen-lift of an X-Y recorder. Since the real floating potential is measured where the probe...

  13. XUV Transient Absorption Spectroscopy: Probing Laser-Perturbed Dipole Polarization in Single Atom, Macroscopic, and Molecular Regimes

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Ting Liao; Arvinder Sandhu

    2017-01-01

    We employ an extreme ultraviolet (XUV) pulse to impulsively excite dipole polarization in atoms or molecules, which corresponds to coherently prepared superposition of excited states. A delayed near infrared (NIR) pulse then perturbs the fast evolving polarization, and the resultant absorbance change is monitored in dilute helium, dense helium, and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) molecules. We observe and quantify the time-dependence of various transient phenomena in helium atoms,includinglaser-indu...

  14. Method of manufacture of atomically thin boron nitride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zettl, Alexander K

    2013-08-06

    The present invention provides a method of fabricating at least one single layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) suspending at least one multilayer boron nitride across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure. The present invention also provides a method of fabricating single layer hexagonal boron nitride. In an exemplary embodiment, the method includes (1) providing multilayer boron nitride suspended across a gap of a support structure and (2) performing a reactive ion etch upon the multilayer boron nitride to produce the single layer hexagonal boron nitride suspended across the gap of the support structure.

  15. Detection and Imaging of Superoxide in Roots by an Electron Spin Resonance Spin-Probe Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwar, Nasim; Mor, Avishai; Fluhr, Robert; Pandian, Ramasamy P.; Kuppusamy, Periannan; Blank, Aharon

    2011-01-01

    The detection, quantification, and imaging of short-lived reactive oxygen species, such as superoxide, in live biological specimens have always been challenging and controversial. Fluorescence-based methods are nonspecific, and electron spin resonance (ESR) spin-trapping methods require high probe concentrations and lack the capability for sufficient image resolution. In this work, a novel (to our knowledge), sensitive, small ESR imaging resonator was used together with a stable spin probe that specifically reacts with superoxide with a high reaction rate constant. This ESR spin-probe-based methodology was used to examine superoxide generated in a plant root as a result of an apical leaf injury. The results show that the spin probe rapidly permeated the plant's extracellular space. Upon injury of the plant tissue, superoxide was produced and the ESR signal decreased rapidly in the injured parts as well as in the distal part of the root. This is attributed to superoxide production and thus provides a means of quantifying the level of superoxide in the plant. The spin probe's narrow single-line ESR spectrum, together with the sensitive imaging resonator, facilitates the quantitative measurement of superoxide in small biological samples, such as the plant's root, as well as one-dimensional imaging along the length of the root. This type of methodology can be used to resolve many questions involving the production of apoplastic superoxide in plant biology. PMID:21943435

  16. Transient thermal dissipation method for xylem sap flow measurement: implementation with a single probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, F C; Isarangkool Na Ayutthaya, S; Rocheteau, A

    2011-04-01

    Comparisons of tree water relations between treatments, species and sites are facilitated by the use of simple and low-cost measurements of xylem sap flow rates. The transient thermal dissipation (TTD) method is a variant of the constant thermal dissipation (CTD) method of Granier. It has the advantages of limiting thermal interference and of saving electrical energy. Here, our concern was to test a new step towards simplicity and low cost: the applicability of the TTD method with a single probe, i.e., without a reference sensor, following a cycle of 10 min heating and 10 min cooling, and using the same thermal index and multi-species calibration previously assessed with a dual probe. First, the responses of the dual and single probes were compared in an artificial hydraulic column of sawdust in the laboratory over a complete range of flux densities, from 0.3 to 4.0 l dm⁻² h⁻¹. Second, diurnal kinetics were compared in a young tree with rapid changes in the sapwood reference temperature of up to 5 °C h⁻¹ for 5 consecutive days. With a relatively stable reference temperature, laboratory results showed that a single probe yielded the same temperature signal and thermal index as a dual probe for the full range of sap flux densities. Within the tree, the cooled temperature of the heated probe, linearly interpolated, proved to be an accurate indicator of the change in the reference temperature over time. Logically, the temperature signals and estimates of sap flux density with the single probe did not differ from the dual-sensor measurements when the cooled temperature was interpolated. Additionally, the responses of the thermal index, yielded in the hydraulic experiment with the sawdust column, fell within the variability of the multi-species calibration. This result supports the previous assessment of a non-species-specific calibration for the TTD method with diffuse porous media. In conclusion, our results showed that the TTD method can be directly applied

  17. Reaction Mechanism of Oxygen Atoms with Unsaturated Hydrocarbons by the Crossed-Molecular-Beams Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buss, R. J.; Baseman, R. J.; Guozhong, H.; Lee, Y. T.

    1982-04-01

    From a series of studies of the reaction of oxygen atoms with unsaturated hydrocarbons using the crossed molecular beam method, the dominant reaction mechanisms were found to be the simple substitution reactions with oxygen atoms replacing H, Cl, Br atom or alkyl groups. Complication due to secondary reaction was avoided by carrying out experiments under single collisions and observing primary products directly. Primary products were identified by measuring the angular and velocity distributions of products at all the mass numbers which could be detected by the mass spectrometer, and from comparison of these distributions, applying the requirement of energy and momentum conservation.

  18. The generalized sturmian method for calculating spectra of atoms and ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avery, James Emil; Avery, John Scales

    2003-01-01

    The properties of generalized Sturmian basis sets are reviewed, and functions of this type are used to perform direct configuration interaction calculations on the spectra of atoms and ions. Singlet excited states calculated in this way show good agreement with experimentally measured spectra. When...... the generalized Sturmian method is applied to atoms, the configurations are constructed from hydrogenlike atomic orbitals with an effective charge which is characteristic of the configuration. Thus, orthonormality between the orbitals of different configurations cannot be assumed, and the generalized Slater...

  19. Atomic and magnetic configurational energetics by the generalized perturbation method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruban, Andrei V.; Shallcross, Sam; Simak, S.I.

    2004-01-01

    It is shown that, using the generalized perturbation method (GPM) with screened Coulomb interactions that ensures its consistency with the force theorem, one is able to obtain effective interactions that yield an accurate and physically transparent description of configurational energetics...... can be used to obtain Heisenberg exchange interaction parameters, which, for instance, capture very well the magnetic configurational energy in bcc Fe....

  20. A COMPARISON OF A SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC (QUERCETIN) METHOD AND AN ATOMIC-ABSORPTION METHOD FOR DETERMINATION OF TIN IN FOOD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Å

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for the determination of tin in food, which involve a spectrophotometric method (with the quercetin-tin complex) and an atomic-absorption method, are described. The precision of the complete methods and of the individual analytical steps required is evaluated, and the parameters...

  1. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment I

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Enjoji, Hideo

    1988-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor (RCF) is presented. Resistivity and sheet resistance measurements by the four-probe method are made on three samples: isotropic graphite, ITO film and Au film. It is indicated that the RCF can correct the apparent variations of experimental data to yield reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances.

  2. Atomic fluorescence method for determination of concentration of alkali metal vapor using a laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budkin, L.A.; Okhotnikov, O.G.; Pak, G.T.; Pikhtelev, A.I.; Puzanov, S.L.

    1984-04-01

    An experimental investigation into the temperature dependence of the cesium vapor concentration has been carried out within the 20-80 deg C temperature range on the base of the atomic fluorescence method with the use of a semiconductor laser. The relation allowing one to study the alkali metal atomic concentration as a function of the vapor temperature and also the method sensitivity as a function of the laser intensity has been derived using the balance equations. A good agreement of the experimental results with estimated ones has been obtained. The method sensitivity has been found to grow with the laser intensity.

  3. z calibration of the atomic force microscope by means of a pyramidal tip

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Flemming

    1993-01-01

    A new method for imaging the probe tip of an atomic force microscope cantilever by the atomic force microscope itself (self-imaging) is presented. The self-imaging is accomplished by scanning the probe tip across a sharper tip on the surface. By using a pyramidal probe tip with a very well......-defined aspect ratio, this technique provides an excellent z-calibration standard for the atomic force microscope....

  4. A method for automatically extracting infectious disease-related primers and probes from the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pérez-Rey David

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primer and probe sequences are the main components of nucleic acid-based detection systems. Biologists use primers and probes for different tasks, some related to the diagnosis and prescription of infectious diseases. The biological literature is the main information source for empirically validated primer and probe sequences. Therefore, it is becoming increasingly important for researchers to navigate this important information. In this paper, we present a four-phase method for extracting and annotating primer/probe sequences from the literature. These phases are: (1 convert each document into a tree of paper sections, (2 detect the candidate sequences using a set of finite state machine-based recognizers, (3 refine problem sequences using a rule-based expert system, and (4 annotate the extracted sequences with their related organism/gene information. Results We tested our approach using a test set composed of 297 manuscripts. The extracted sequences and their organism/gene annotations were manually evaluated by a panel of molecular biologists. The results of the evaluation show that our approach is suitable for automatically extracting DNA sequences, achieving precision/recall rates of 97.98% and 95.77%, respectively. In addition, 76.66% of the detected sequences were correctly annotated with their organism name. The system also provided correct gene-related information for 46.18% of the sequences assigned a correct organism name. Conclusions We believe that the proposed method can facilitate routine tasks for biomedical researchers using molecular methods to diagnose and prescribe different infectious diseases. In addition, the proposed method can be expanded to detect and extract other biological sequences from the literature. The extracted information can also be used to readily update available primer/probe databases or to create new databases from scratch.

  5. Probing/Manipulating the Interfacial Atomic Bonding between High k Dielectrics and InGaAs for Ultimate CMOS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-24

    10.1039/C4CE00734D 2014 3. “III-V Compound Semiconductor Transistors – From Planar to Nanowire Structures”, H. Riel, L.-E. Wernersson, M. Hong, J...extract interface state densities at atomic-layer-deposited high-k dielectric/III-V heterostructures ”, Y. T. Fanchiang, Y. K. Su, K. S. Chen, Y. C

  6. Energetic analysis of conjugated hydrocarbons using the interacting quantum atoms method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Cortés, Jesús; Hernández-Trujillo, Jesús

    2017-10-26

    A number of aromatic, antiaromatic, and nonaromatic organic molecules was analyzed in terms of the contributions to the electronic energy defined in the quantum theory of atoms in molecules and the interacting quantum atoms method. Regularities were found in the exchange and electrostatic interatomic energies showing trends that are closely related to those of the delocalization indices defined in the theory. In particular, the CC interaction energies between bonded atoms allow to rationalize the energetic stabilization associated with the bond length alternation in conjugated polyenes. This approach also provides support to Clar's sextet rules devised for aromatic systems. In addition, the H⋯H bonding found in some of the aromatic molecules studied was of an attractive nature, according to the stabilizing exchange interaction between the bonded H atoms. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from ADF STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, Annelies; De Backer, Annick; Jones, Lewys; Nellist, Peter D; Van Aert, Sandra

    2017-06-01

    A hybrid statistics-simulations based method for atom-counting from annular dark field scanning transmission electron microscopy (ADF STEM) images of monotype crystalline nanostructures is presented. Different atom-counting methods already exist for model-like systems. However, the increasing relevance of radiation damage in the study of nanostructures demands a method that allows atom-counting from low dose images with a low signal-to-noise ratio. Therefore, the hybrid method directly includes prior knowledge from image simulations into the existing statistics-based method for atom-counting, and accounts in this manner for possible discrepancies between actual and simulated experimental conditions. It is shown by means of simulations and experiments that this hybrid method outperforms the statistics-based method, especially for low electron doses and small nanoparticles. The analysis of a simulated low dose image of a small nanoparticle suggests that this method allows for far more reliable quantitative analysis of beam-sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of medication methods after simple and effective probing of lacrimal passage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Lu

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the effect of reducing the use of antibiotics in the treatment of infant bacterial dacryocystitis after probing of the lacrimal duct.METHODS: A total of 542 cases of children under one year old and accepting nasolacrimal duct probing treatment were divided into two groups, which were treated with topical and oral antibiotics, respectively. Conjunctival sac secretions were used as a control index of bacterial infection, whereas the disappearance of epiphora symptoms and lacrimal passage patency were used as cure indexes. The χ2 test was used to compare enumeration and measurement data, and a statistical significance was set at P<0.05. The therapeutic effect on the two groups of postoperative patients was investigated.RESULTS:In the two study groups, no significant differences in gender, age and postoperative control of lacrimal sac infection were observed. The cure rates after three probing operations also showed no significant difference.CONCLUSION:After probing of the lacrimal passage, results of this study confirmed that postoperative medication without oral antibiotics but an ophthalmic dosage of antibiotics was a simple and effective treatment method.

  9. Comparison of Atomic Force Microscopy interaction forces between bacteria and silicon nitride substrata for three commonly used immobilization methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vadillo-Rodriguez, V.; Busscher, H.J.; Norde, W.; Vries, de J.; Dijkstra, R.J.B.; Stokroos, I.; Mei, van der H.C.

    2004-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for mapping the surface morphology of biological specimens, including bacterial cells. Besides creating topographic images, AFM enables us to probe both physicochemical and mechanical properties of bacterial cell surfaces on a

  10. Comparision of atomic force microscopy interaction forces between bacteria and silicon nitride substrata for three commonly used immobilization methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vadillo-Rodríguez, Virginia; Busscher, Henk J; Norde, Willem; de Vries, Joop; Dijkstra, René JB; Stokroos, Ietse; van der Mei, Henderina

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has emerged as a powerful technique for mapping the surface morphology of biological specimens, including bacterial cells. Besides creating topographic images, AFM enables us to probe both physicochemical and mechanical properties of bacterial cell surfaces on a

  11. Methods and apparatus of spatially resolved electroluminescence of operating organic light-emitting diodes using conductive atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersam, Mark C. (Inventor); Pingree, Liam S. C. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    A conductive atomic force microscopy (cAFM) technique which can concurrently monitor topography, charge transport, and electroluminescence with nanometer spatial resolution. This cAFM approach is particularly well suited for probing the electroluminescent response characteristics of operating organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) over short length scales.

  12. Atom-to-continuum methods for gaining a fundamental understanding of fracture.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, David Lynn (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Reedy, Earl David, Jr.; Templeton, Jeremy Alan; Jones, Reese E.; Moody, Neville Reid; Zimmerman, Jonathan A.; Belytschko, Ted. (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Zhou, Xiao Wang; Lloyd, Jeffrey T. (Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA); Oswald, Jay (Northwestern University, Evanston, IL); Delph, Terry J. (Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA); Kimmer, Christopher J. (Indiana University Southeast, New Albany, IN)

    2011-08-01

    This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. Under this aegis we developed new theory and a number of novel techniques to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. These developments ranged from a material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics to an atomic level J integral. Each of the developments build upon each other and culminated in a cohesive zone model derived from atomic information and verified at the continuum scale. This report describes an Engineering Sciences Research Foundation (ESRF) project to characterize and understand fracture processes via molecular dynamics modeling and atom-to-continuum methods. The effort is predicated on the idea that processes and information at the atomic level are missing in engineering scale simulations of fracture, and, moreover, are necessary for these simulations to be predictive. In this project we developed considerable new theory and a number of novel techniques in order to describe the fracture process at the atomic scale. Chapter 2 gives a detailed account of the material-frame connection between molecular dynamics and continuum mechanics we constructed in order to best use atomic information from solid systems. With this framework, in Chapter 3, we were able to make a direct and elegant extension of the classical J down to simulations on the scale of nanometers with a discrete atomic lattice. The technique was applied to cracks and dislocations with equal success and displayed high fidelity with expectations from continuum theory. Then, as a prelude to extension of the atomic J to finite temperatures, we explored the quasi-harmonic models as efficient and accurate surrogates of atomic lattices undergoing thermo-elastic processes (Chapter 4). With this in hand, in Chapter 5 we provide evidence that, by using the appropriate

  13. Vibrational properties of TaW alloy using modified embedded atom method potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chand, Manesh, E-mail: maneshchand@gmail.com; Uniyal, Shweta; Joshi, Subodh; Semalty, P. D., E-mail: semalty@rediffmail.com [Department of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal University Campus, Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Garhwal – 249 199 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Force-constants up to second neighbours of pure transition metal Ta and TaW alloy are determined using the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) potential. The obtained force-constants are used to calculate the phonon dispersion of pure Ta and TaW alloy. As a further application of MEAM potential, the force-constants are used to calculate the local vibrational density of states and mean square thermal displacements of pure Ta and W impurity atoms with Green’s function method. The calculated results are found to be in agreement with the experimental measurements.

  14. Determination of serum lithium: comparison between atomic emission and absorption spectrometry methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Elielton do Espírito Santo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The therapeutic monitoring of lithium, through concentration measurements, is important for individual dose adjustment, as a marker of treatment adherence and to prevent poisoning and side effects. Objectives: Validate and compare two methods - atomic emission and atomic absorption - for the determination of lithium in serum samples. Methodology: Parameters such as specificity, precision, accuracy, limit of detection (LOD and linearity were considered. The atomic absorption spectrometer was used, operating in either emission or absorption mode. For the quantitative comparison of 30 serum samples from patients with mood disorder treated with lithium, the results were submitted to Student's t-test, F-test and Pearson's correlation. Results: The limit of quantification (LOQ was established as 0.05 mEq/l of lithium, and calibration curves were constructed in the range of 0.05-2 mEq/l of lithium, using aqueous standards. Sample preparation time was reduced, what is important in medical laboratory. Conclusion: Both methods were considered satisfactory, precise and accurate and can be adopted for lithium quantification. In the comparison of quantitative results in lithium-treated patients through statistical tests, no significant differences were observed. Therefore the methods for lithium quantification by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS and flame atomic emission spectrometry (FAES may be considered similar.

  15. XUV Transient Absorption Spectroscopy: Probing Laser-Perturbed Dipole Polarization in Single Atom, Macroscopic, and Molecular Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Ting Liao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We employ an extreme ultraviolet (XUV pulse to impulsively excite dipole polarization in atoms or molecules, which corresponds to coherently prepared superposition of excited states. A delayed near infrared (NIR pulse then perturbs the fast evolving polarization, and the resultant absorbance change is monitored in dilute helium, dense helium, and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 molecules. We observe and quantify the time-dependence of various transient phenomena in helium atoms,includinglaser-inducedphase(LIP,time-varying(ACStarkshift,quantumpathinterference, and laser-induced continuum structure. In the case of dense helium targets, we discuss nonlinear macroscopic propagation effects pertaining to LIP and resonant pulse propagation, which accoun tfor the appearance of new spectral features in transient lineshapes. We then use tunable NIR photons to demonstrate the wavelength dependence of the transient laser induced effects. In the case of molecular polarization experiment in SF6, we show suppression of XUV photoabsorption corresponding to inter-valence transitions in the presence of a strong NIR field. In each case, the temporal evolution of transient absorption spectra allows us to observe and understand the transient laser induced modifications of the electronic structure of atoms and molecules.

  16. Method for the determination of cobalt from biological products with graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamfir, Oana-Liliana; Ionicǎ, Mihai; Caragea, Genica; Radu, Simona; Vlǎdescu, Marian

    2016-12-01

    Cobalt is a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27 and atomic weight 58.93. 59 Co is the only stable cobalt isotope and the only isotope to exist naturally on Earth. Cobalt is the active center of coenzymes called cobalamin or cyanocobalamin the most common example of which is vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 deficiency can potentially cause severe and irreversible damage, especially to the brain and nervous system in the form of fatigue, depression and poor memory or even mania and psychosis. In order to study the degree of deficiency of the population with Co or the correctness of treatment with vitamin B12, a modern optoelectronic method for the determination of metals and metalloids from biological samples has been developed, Graphite Furnace - Atomic Absorption Spectrometer (GF- AAS) method is recommended. The technique is based on the fact that free atoms will absorb light at wavelengths characteristic of the element of interest. Free atoms of the chemical element can be produced from samples by the application of high temperatures. The system GF-AAS Varian used as biological samples, blood or urine that followed the digest of the organic matrix. For the investigations was used a high - performance GF-AAS with D2 - background correction system and a transversely heated graphite atomizer. As result of the use of the method are presented the concentration of Co in the blood or urine of a group of patient in Bucharest. The method is sensitive, reproducible relatively easy to apply, with a moderately costs.

  17. Application of an isotopic contrast method for the investigation of atomic dynamics of polyatomic compounds

    CERN Document Server

    Parshin, P P

    2002-01-01

    The method of isotopic contrast in inelastic neutron scattering is described. The analysis of capabilities of the method for researches of atomic dynamics of condensed matter is carried out. For an example of a binary oxide CuO the experimental implementation of this method is demonstrated. The researches of dynamic behavior of some chemical elements in HTSC cuprates and related compounds are discussed. (orig.)

  18. On modified finite difference method to obtain the electron energy distribution functions in Langmuir probes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Choi, Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Se-Hun; Yoo, Tae-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2016-06-01

    A modified central difference method (MCDM) is proposed to obtain the electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in single Langmuir probes. Numerical calculation of the EEDF with MCDM is simple and has less noise. This method provides the second derivatives at a given point as the weighted average of second order central difference derivatives calculated at different voltage intervals, weighting each by the square of the interval. In this paper, the EEDFs obtained from MCDM are compared to those calculated via the averaged central difference method. It is found that MCDM effectively suppresses the noises in the EEDF, while the same number of points are used to calculate of the second derivative.

  19. On modified finite difference method to obtain the electron energy distribution functions in Langmuir probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun-Ju; Chung, Chin-Wook, E-mail: joykang@hanyang.ac.kr [Department of Electrical Engineering, Hanyang University, 222, Wangsimni-ro, Seongdong-gu, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Hyeok; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Se-Hun; Yoo, Tae-Ho [Seoul Science High School, 63, Hyehwa-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 110-530 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    A modified central difference method (MCDM) is proposed to obtain the electron energy distribution functions (EEDFs) in single Langmuir probes. Numerical calculation of the EEDF with MCDM is simple and has less noise. This method provides the second derivatives at a given point as the weighted average of second order central difference derivatives calculated at different voltage intervals, weighting each by the square of the interval. In this paper, the EEDFs obtained from MCDM are compared to those calculated via the averaged central difference method. It is found that MCDM effectively suppresses the noises in the EEDF, while the same number of points are used to calculate of the second derivative.

  20. A touch probe method of operating an implantable RFID tag for orthopedic implant identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaoyu; Berger, J Lee; Ogirala, Ajay; Mickle, Marlin H

    2013-06-01

    The major problem in operating an implantable radio-frequency identification (RFID) tag embedded on an orthopedic implant is low efficiency because of metallic interference. To improve the efficiency, this paper proposes a method of operating an implantable passive RFID tag using a touch probe at 13.56 MHz. This technology relies on the electric field interaction between two pairs of electrodes, one being a part of the touch probe placed on the surface of tissue and the other being a part of the tag installed under the tissue. Compared with using a conventional RFID antenna such as a loop antenna, this method has a better performance in the near field operation range to reduce interference with the orthopedic implant. Properly matching the touch probe and the tag to the tissue and the implant reduces signal attenuation and increases the overall system efficiency. The experiments have shown that this method has a great performance in the near field transcutaneous operation and can be used for orthopedic implant identification.

  1. Noninvasive probing of the ocean surface using laser-based nonlinear optical methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korenowski, G.M.; Frysinger, G.S.; Asher, W.E. (Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry)

    1992-06-01

    The laser-based nonlinear optical methods of second-harmonic generation and sum-frequency generation have been developed to study the chemical composition and concentration of natural surfactant materials present as slicks on the ocean surface. These noninvasive second-harmonic and sum-frequency generation methods produce signals which originate from only the top few molecular layers of the ocean surface, thereby producing an accurate picture of the ocean surface condition without interference from the bulk ocean chemistry. Chemical specificity of the methods is achieved by tuning the incident laser frequency to coincide with optical absorptions in the surface absorbed materials. We show that laser-based second-order nonlinear optical processes of SHG and SFG provide highly surface selective, noninvasive, in situ probes of the ocean surface. Although only preliminary experiments are reported in this paper, the probes provide important information about the nature of surfactants at the ocean surface and their behavior in response to dynamic forces at the sea/air interface. The future of the probes lies in their further development and use as in situ interfacial spectroscopic techniques.

  2. Analysis and modification of defective surface aggregates on PCDTBT:PCBM solar cell blends using combined Kelvin probe, conductive and bimodal atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaul Noh

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Organic photovoltaic systems comprising donor polymers and acceptor fullerene derivatives are attractive for inexpensive energy harvesting. Extensive research on polymer solar cells has provided insight into the factors governing device-level efficiency and stability. However, the detailed investigation of nanoscale structures is still challenging. Here we demonstrate the analysis and modification of unidentified surface aggregates. The aggregates are characterized electrically by Kelvin probe force microscopy and conductive atomic force microscopy (C-AFM, whereby the correlation between local electrical potential and current confirms a defective charge transport. Bimodal AFM modification confirms that the aggregates exist on top of the solar cell structure, and is used to remove them and to reveal the underlying active layer. The systematic analysis of the surface aggregates suggests that the structure consists of PCBM molecules.

  3. Analysis of compositional uniformity in Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N thin films using atom probe tomography and electron microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Fang; Huang, Li; Porter, Lisa M.; Davis, Robert F., E-mail: rfd@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Schreiber, Daniel K. [Energy and Environment Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, P.O. Box 999, Richland, Washington 99352 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Calculated frequency distributions of atom probe tomography reconstructions (∼80 nm field of view) of very thin Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N (0.18 ≤ x ≤ 0.51) films grown via metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy on both (0001) GaN/AlN/SiC and (0001) GaN/sapphire heterostructures revealed homogeneous concentrations of Al and chemically abrupt Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}N/GaN interfaces. The results of scanning transmission electron microscopy and selected area diffraction corroborated these results and revealed that neither superlattice ordering nor phase separation was present at nanometer length scales.

  4. Observation of silicon carbide Schottky barrier diode under applied reverse bias using atomic force microscopy/Kelvin probe force microscopy/scanning capacitance force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uruma, Takeshi; Satoh, Nobuo; Yamamoto, Hidekazu

    2017-08-01

    We have observed a commercial silicon-carbide Schottky barrier diode (SiC-SBD) using our novel analysis system, in which atomic force microscopy (AFM) is combined with both Kelvin probe force microscopy (KFM; for surface-potential measurement) and scanning capacitance force microscopy (SCFM; for differential-capacitance measurement). The results obtained for the SiC-SBD under an applied reverse bias indicate both the scan area in the sample and a peak value of the SCFM signal in the region where the existence of trapped electrons is deduced from the KFM analysis. Thus, our measurement system can be used to examine commercial power devices; however, novel polishing procedures are required in order to investigate the Schottky contact region.

  5. Probing the elastic response of microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus in dry and aqueous environments through atomic force microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, K. M.; Mpagazehe, J. N.; LeDuc, P. R.; Higgs, C. F.

    2014-10-01

    With the re-emergence of microalgae as a replacement feedstock for petroleum-derived oils, researchers are working to understand its chemical and mechanical behavior. In this work, the mechanical properties of microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus, were investigated at the subcellular level to determine the elastic response of cells that were in an aqueous and dried state using nano-scale indentation through atomic force microscopy. The elastic modulus of single-celled S. dimorphus cells increased over tenfold from an aqueous state to a dried state, which allows us to better understand the biophysical response of microalgae to stress.

  6. Probing the elastic response of microalga Scenedesmus dimorphus in dry and aqueous environments through atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, K. M.; Mpagazehe, J. N.; Higgs, C. F., E-mail: prl@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: higgs@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); LeDuc, P. R., E-mail: prl@andrew.cmu.edu, E-mail: higgs@andrew.cmu.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States); Departments of Biomedical Engineering and Biological Sciences, Carnegie Mellon University, 5000 Forbes Ave., Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15213 (United States)

    2014-10-20

    With the re-emergence of microalgae as a replacement feedstock for petroleum-derived oils, researchers are working to understand its chemical and mechanical behavior. In this work, the mechanical properties of microalgae, Scenedesmus dimorphus, were investigated at the subcellular level to determine the elastic response of cells that were in an aqueous and dried state using nano-scale indentation through atomic force microscopy. The elastic modulus of single-celled S. dimorphus cells increased over tenfold from an aqueous state to a dried state, which allows us to better understand the biophysical response of microalgae to stress.

  7. Analyzing the effect of the forces exerted on cantilever probe tip of atomic force microscope with tapering-shaped geometry and double piezoelectric extended layers in the air and liquid environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korayem, Moharam Habibnejad; Nahavandi, Amir

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to assess the force vibrational performance of tapering-shaped cantilevers, using Euler-Bernoulli theory. Tapering-shaped cantilevers have plan-view geometry consisting of a rectangular section at the clamped end and a triangular section at the tip. Hamilton's principle is utilized to obtain the partial differential equations governing the nonlinear vibration of the system as well as the corresponding boundary conditions. In this model, a micro cantilever, which is covered by two piezoelectric layers at the top and the bottom, is modeled at angle α. Both of these layers are subjected to similar AC and DC voltages. This paper attempts to determine the effect of the capillary force exerted on the cantilever probe tip of an atomic force microscope. The capillary force emerges due to the contact between thin water films with a thickness of hc which have accumulated on the sample and the probe. In addition, an attempt is made to develop the capillary force between the tip and the sample surface with respect to the geometry obtained. The smoothness or the roughness of the surfaces as well as the geometry of the cantilever tip have significant effects on the modeling of forces applied to the probe tip. In this article, the Van der Waals and the repulsive forces are considered to be the same in all of the simulations, and only is the capillary force altered in order to evaluate the role of this force in the atomic force microscope based modeling. We also indicate that the tip shape and the radial distance of the meniscus greatly influence the capillary force. The other objective of our study is to draw a comparison between tapering-and rectangular-shaped cantilevers. Furthermore, the equation for converting the tip of a tapering-shaped cantilever into a rectangular cantilever is provided. Moreover, the modal analysis method is employed to solve the motion equation. The mode shape function for the two tapering-shaped sections of the first

  8. Primary Student Teachers' Ideas of Atoms and Molecules: Using Drawings as a Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozden, Mustafa

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the primary student teachers' basic knowledge and misconceptions about atoms and molecules by use of a drawing method. Data collected from drawings of 92 primary student teachers at the second term of 2007-2008 educational period in Faculty of Education in Adiyaman University. The analysis of their drawings…

  9. Hydrogen trapping by solute atoms in Nb-Mo alloys as observed by the channelling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yagi, Eiichi; Nakamura, Shiho; Kano, Fumihisa; Kobayashi, Takane (Institute of Physical and Chemical Research, Wako, Saitama (Japan)); Watanabe, Kenyi; Fukai, Yuh (Chuo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Physics); Matsumoto, Takehiko (National Research Inst. for Metals, Tokyo (Japan))

    1989-01-01

    The enhancement of the terminal solubility for hydrogen (TSH) in group Va metals (V, Nb and Ta) on alloying with metal solute atoms has been reported for various alloying elements. To elucidate the mechanism of this enhancement, in the present study the lattice location of hydrogen was investigated by the channeling method using a nuclear reaction {sup 1}H({sup 11}B,{alpha}){alpha}{alpha} on the Nb alloys containing undersized Mo atoms (Nb-3at%Mo alloys). (orig./MM).

  10. A radiation emission shielding method for high intensity focus ultrasound probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Shen, Guofeng; Chen, Yazhu

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic compatibility (EMC) is a key issue in the design and development of safe and effective medical instruments. The treatment probes of high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) systems not only receive and transmit electromagnetic waves, but also radiate ultrasound waves, resulting in electromagnetic coupling. In this paper, an electromagnetic shielding method involving the enclosure of the probe in a copper wire mesh was introduced. First, sound pressure distribution simulations and measurements were performed using a hydrophone in order to evaluate the effects of the wire mesh on the acoustic performance of the HIFU system. The results indicated that the wire mesh did not disturb the normalized sound pressure field. In addition, the attenuation of the maximum pressure in the focal plane was equal to 6.2%. Then, the electronic emission level was tested in a chamber. After the implementation of the wire mesh, the 10-100 MHz frequency band radiation was suppressed, and the HIFU system satisfied the national EMC standards.

  11. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-09-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  12. An EPR spin probe method for characterizing changes in the accessible regions of coal upon oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sady, W.; Kispert, L.D.; Spears, D.R.

    1992-01-01

    Eight Argonne Premium Coal Samples (APCS) were weathered in air and the structural and chemical changes that upon swelling with toluene and pyridine were, examined by an EPR spin probe method developed in this laboratory. Under mild oxidation conditions and swelling with toluene large structural changes were observed for lignite (Beulah-Zap) which suggested the collapse of the coal structure. This did not occur for higher rank coal. Upon oxidation and swelling with toluene and pyridine an increase occurred in the amino substituted spin probe concentration for coals with the carbon percent above 80%. A maximum was found for the creation of 5 {Angstrom} diameter pores upon swelling with pyridine at 85% C.

  13. Investigation of hydrogen-defect interaction in tungsten by the probe fluence method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusinov, A., E-mail: rusinov.aleksandr@gmail.com [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPHI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga 816-8580 (Japan); Gasparyan, Yu.; Trifonov, N.; Pisarev, A. [National Research Nuclear University ' MEPHI' , Kashirskoe sh. 31, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Lindig, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, EURATOM Association, Boltzmanstr. 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Sakamoto, M. [Advanced Fusion Research Institute for Applied Mechanics, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka 816-8580 (Japan)

    2011-08-01

    Deuterium trapping by defects in W polycrystalline foils during ion bombardment was investigated by thermal desorption spectroscopy using the low fluence probe method. Probe TDS spectra showed, that there are at least six peaks in the region 350-900 K: at 370 K, 450 K, 530 K, 580 K, 630 K, 750 K. Experiments with as received samples showed that D is trapped mainly in low energy traps in the region 390-650 K. These defects are attributed to technological defects such as dislocations and vacancies. The peak at 750 K easily disappears when annealing the sample at about 1300 K and can be attributed to vacancy clusters. The peak at 630 K irreversibly increases at high fluence, it also appears when annealing the sample above 1300 K. This peak can be attributed to voids. Voids of about 20 nm in diameter in the near surface region were observed by FIB/SEM in cases when 630 K peak was observed.

  14. Characterization of electrical properties in axial Si-Ge nanowire heterojunctions using off-axis electron holography and atom-probe tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Zhaofeng; Perea, Daniel E.; Yoo, Jinkyoung; He, Yang; Colby, Robert J.; Barker, Josh E.; Gu, Meng; Mao, Scott X.; Wang, Chongmin; Picraux, S. T.; Smith, David J.; McCartney, Martha R.

    2016-09-01

    Nanowires (NWs) consisting of P-doped Si/B-doped Ge axial heterojunctions were grown via vapor-liquid-solid synthesis using a combination of Au and AuGa catalyst particles. Off-axis electron holography (EH) was used to measure the electrostatic potential profile across the junction resulting from electrically active dopants, and atom-probe tomography (APT) was used to map total dopant concentration profiles. A comparison of the electrostatic potential profile measured from EH with simulations that were based on the APT results indicates that Ga atoms unintentionally introduced during AuGa catalyst growth were mostly electronically inactive. This finding was also corroborated by in situ electron-holography biasing experiments. Electronic band structure simulations guided by the experimental results helped to provide a much better explanation of the NW electrical behavior. Overall, this work demonstrates that the combination of EH, APT, in situ biasing, and simulations allows a more complete understanding of NW electrical properties to be developed.

  15. Method for Imaging Live-Cell RNA Using an RNA Aptamer and a Fluorescent Probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Shin-Ichi; Yatsuzuka, Kenji; Katsuda, Yousuke; Uesugi, Motonari

    2018-01-01

    Live-cell imaging of mRNA dynamics is increasingly important to understanding spatially restricted gene expression. We recently developed a convenient and versatile method that uses a gene-specific RNA aptamer and a fluorescent probe to enable spatiotemporal imaging of endogenous mRNAs in living cells. The method was validated by live-cell imaging of the endogenous mRNA of β-actin. The new RNA-imaging technology might be useful for live-cell imaging of any RNA molecules.

  16. A new method of probing mechanical losses of coatings at cryogenic temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galliou, Serge; Deléglise, Samuel; Goryachev, Maxim; Neuhaus, Leonhard; Cagnoli, Gianpietro; Zerkani, Salim; Dolique, Vincent; Bon, Jérémy; Vacheret, Xavier; Abbé, Philippe; Pinard, Laurent; Michel, Christophe; Karassouloff, Thibaut; Briant, Tristan; Cohadon, Pierre-François; Heidmann, Antoine; Tobar, Michael E.; Bourquin, Roger

    2016-12-01

    A new method of probing mechanical losses and comparing the corresponding deposition processes of metallic and dielectric coatings in 1-100 MHz frequency range and cryogenic temperatures is presented. The method is based on the use of high-quality quartz acoustic cavities whose internal losses are orders of magnitude lower than any available coating nowadays. The approach is demonstrated for chromium, chromium/gold, and multilayer tantala/silica coatings. The Ta2O5/SiO2 coating has been found to exhibit a loss angle lower than 1.6 × 10-5 near 30 MHz at 4 K. The results are compared to the previous measurements.

  17. Note: A silicon-on-insulator microelectromechanical systems probe scanner for on-chip atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Anthony G.; Maroufi, Mohammad; Moheimani, S. O. Reza, E-mail: Reza.Moheimani@newcastle.edu.au [School of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2015-04-15

    A new microelectromechanical systems-based 2-degree-of-freedom (DoF) scanner with an integrated cantilever for on-chip atomic force microscopy (AFM) is presented. The silicon cantilever features a layer of piezoelectric material to facilitate its use for tapping mode AFM and enable simultaneous deflection sensing. Electrostatic actuators and electrothermal sensors are used to accurately position the cantilever within the x-y plane. Experimental testing shows that the cantilever is able to be scanned over a 10 μm × 10 μm window and that the cantilever achieves a peak-to-peak deflection greater than 400 nm when excited at its resonance frequency of approximately 62 kHz.

  18. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2016-01-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE...

  19. A new digitized reverse correction method for hypoid gears based on a one-dimensional probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianxing; Li, Jubo; Deng, Xiaozhong; Yang, Jianjun; Li, Genggeng; Ma, Wensuo

    2017-12-01

    In order to improve the tooth surface geometric accuracy and transmission quality of hypoid gears, a new digitized reverse correction method is proposed based on the measurement data from a one-dimensional probe. The minimization of tooth surface geometrical deviations is realized from the perspective of mathematical analysis and reverse engineering. Combining the analysis of complex tooth surface generation principles and the measurement mechanism of one-dimensional probes, the mathematical relationship between the theoretical designed tooth surface, the actual machined tooth surface and the deviation tooth surface is established, the mapping relation between machine-tool settings and tooth surface deviations is derived, and the essential connection between the accurate calculation of tooth surface deviations and the reverse correction method of machine-tool settings is revealed. Furthermore, a reverse correction model of machine-tool settings is built, a reverse correction strategy is planned, and the minimization of tooth surface deviations is achieved by means of the method of numerical iterative reverse solution. On this basis, a digitized reverse correction system for hypoid gears is developed by the organic combination of numerical control generation, accurate measurement, computer numerical processing, and digitized correction. Finally, the correctness and practicability of the digitized reverse correction method are proved through a reverse correction experiment. The experimental results show that the tooth surface geometric deviations meet the engineering requirements after two trial cuts and one correction.

  20. Analysis of force-deconvolution methods in frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welker, Joachim; Illek, Esther; Giessibl, Franz J

    2012-01-01

    In frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy the direct observable is the frequency shift of an oscillating cantilever in a force field. This frequency shift is not a direct measure of the actual force, and thus, to obtain the force, deconvolution methods are necessary. Two prominent methods proposed by Sader and Jarvis (Sader-Jarvis method) and Giessibl (matrix method) are investigated with respect to the deconvolution quality. Both methods show a nontrivial dependence of the deconvolution quality on the oscillation amplitude. The matrix method exhibits spikelike features originating from a numerical artifact. By interpolation of the data, the spikelike features can be circumvented. The Sader-Jarvis method has a continuous amplitude dependence showing two minima and one maximum, which is an inherent property of the deconvolution algorithm. The optimal deconvolution depends on the ratio of the amplitude and the characteristic decay length of the force for the Sader-Jarvis method. However, the matrix method generally provides the higher deconvolution quality.

  1. Wide range local resistance imaging on fragile materials by conducting probe atomic force microscopy in intermittent contact mode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vecchiola, Aymeric [Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Concept Scientific Instruments, ZA de Courtaboeuf, 2 rue de la Terre de Feu, 91940 Les Ulis (France); Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Chrétien, Pascal; Schneegans, Olivier; Mencaraglia, Denis; Houzé, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.houze@geeps.centralesupelec.fr [Laboratoire de Génie électrique et électronique de Paris (GeePs), UMR 8507 CNRS-CentraleSupélec, Paris-Sud and UPMC Universities, 11 rue Joliot-Curie, Plateau de Moulon, 91192 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Delprat, Sophie [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); UPMC, Université Paris 06, 4 place Jussieu, 75005 Paris (France); Bouzehouane, Karim; Seneor, Pierre; Mattana, Richard [Unité Mixte de Physique CNRS-Thales UMR 137, 1 avenue Augustin Fresnel, 91767 Palaiseau (France); Tatay, Sergio [Molecular Science Institute, University of Valencia, 46980 Paterna (Spain); Geffroy, Bernard [Lab. Physique des Interfaces et Couches minces (PICM), UMR 7647 CNRS-École polytechnique, 91128 Palaiseau (France); Lab. d' Innovation en Chimie des Surfaces et Nanosciences (LICSEN), NIMBE UMR 3685 CNRS-CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); and others

    2016-06-13

    An imaging technique associating a slowly intermittent contact mode of atomic force microscopy (AFM) with a home-made multi-purpose resistance sensing device is presented. It aims at extending the widespread resistance measurements classically operated in contact mode AFM to broaden their application fields to soft materials (molecular electronics, biology) and fragile or weakly anchored nano-objects, for which nanoscale electrical characterization is highly demanded and often proves to be a challenging task in contact mode. Compared with the state of the art concerning less aggressive solutions for AFM electrical imaging, our technique brings a significantly wider range of resistance measurement (over 10 decades) without any manual switching, which is a major advantage for the characterization of materials with large on-sample resistance variations. After describing the basics of the set-up, we report on preliminary investigations focused on academic samples of self-assembled monolayers with various thicknesses as a demonstrator of the imaging capabilities of our instrument, from qualitative and semi-quantitative viewpoints. Then two application examples are presented, regarding an organic photovoltaic thin film and an array of individual vertical carbon nanotubes. Both attest the relevance of the technique for the control and optimization of technological processes.

  2. In-Situ Probing of Coupled Atomic Restructuring and Metallicity of Oxide Heterointerfaces Induced by Polar Adsorbates.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, S.; Zhou, H.; Paudel, T. R.; Irwin, J.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Bark, C. W.; Lee, D.; Kim, T. H.; Fong, D. D.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Tsymbal, E. Y.; Eom, C. B.

    2017-10-02

    Microscopic understanding of the surface-controlled conductivity of the two dimensional electron gas at complex oxide interfaces is crucial for developing functional interfaces. We observe conductivity and structural modification using in-situ synchrotron surface x-ray diffraction as the surface of a model LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (001) heterostructure is changed by polar adsorbates. We find that polar adsorbate-induced interfacial metallicity reduces polar distortions in the LaAlO3 layer. First-principles density functional theory calculations show that surface dipoles introduced by polar adsorbates lead to additional charge transfer and the reduction of polar displacements in the LaAlO3 layer, consistent with the experimental observations. Our study supports that internal structural deformations controlling functionalities can be driven without the application of direct electrical or thermal bias and offers a route to tuning interfacial properties. These results also highlight the important role of in-situ x-ray scattering with atomic resolution in capturing and exploring structural distortions and charge density changes caused by external perturbations such as chemical adsorption, redox reaction, and generation and/or annihilation of surface defects.

  3. Ultra-reduced phases in Apollo 16 regolith: Combined field emission electron probe microanalysis and atom probe tomography of submicron Fe-Si grains in Apollo 16 sample 61500

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopon, Phillip; Spicuzza, Michael J.; Kelly, Thomas F.; Reinhard, David; Prosa, Ty J.; Fournelle, John

    2017-09-01

    The lunar regolith contains a variety of chemically reduced phases of interest to planetary scientists and the most common, metallic iron, is generally ascribed to space weathering processes (Lucey et al. ). Reports of silicon metal and iron silicides, phases indicative of extremely reducing conditions, in lunar samples are rare (Anand et al. ; Spicuzza et al. ). Additional examples of Fe-silicides have been identified in a survey of particles from Apollo 16 sample 61501,22. Herein is demonstrated the utility of low keV electron probe microanalysis (EPMA), using the Fe Ll X-ray line, to analyze these submicron phases, and the necessity of accounting for carbon contamination. We document four Fe-Si and Si0 minerals in lunar regolith return material. The new Fe-Si samples have a composition close to (Fe,Ni)3Si, whereas those associated with Si0 are close to FeSi2 and Fe3Si7. Atom probe tomography of (Fe,Ni)3Si shows trace levels of C (60 ppma and nanodomains enriched in C, Ni, P, Cr, and Sr). These reduced minerals require orders of magnitude lower oxygen fugacity and more reducing conditions than required to form Fe0. Documenting the similarities and differences in these samples is important to constrain their formation processes. These phases potentially formed at high temperatures resulting from a meteorite impact. Whether carbon played a role in achieving the lower oxygen fugacities—and there is evidence of nearby carbonaceous chondritic material—it remains to be proven that carbon was the necessary component for the unique existence of these Si0 and iron silicide minerals.

  4. Construction of a magnetic bottle spectrometer and its application to pulse duration measurement of X-ray laser using a pump-probe method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Namba

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available To characterize the temporal evolution of ultrashort X-ray pulses emitted by laser plasmas using a pump-probe method, a magnetic bottle time-of-flight electron spectrometer is constructed. The design is determined by numerical calculations of a mirror magnetic field and of the electron trajectory in a flight tube. The performance of the spectrometer is characterized by measuring the electron spectra of xenon atoms irradiated with a laser-driven plasma X-ray pulse. In addition, two-color above-threshold ionization (ATI experiment is conducted for measurement of the X-ray laser pulse duration, in which xenon atoms are simultaneously irradiated with an X-ray laser pump and an IR laser probe. The correlation in the intensity of the sideband spectra of the 4d inner-shell photoelectrons and in the time delay of the two laser pulses yields an X-ray pulse width of 5.7 ps, in good agreement with the value obtained using an X-ray streak camera.

  5. Determination of Calcium in Cereal with Flame Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy: An Experiment for a Quantitative Methods of Analysis Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzi, Ali; Kreuz, Bette; Fischer, Jeffrey

    2004-01-01

    An experiment for determination of calcium in cereal using two-increment standard addition method in conjunction with flame atomic absorption spectroscopy (FAAS) is demonstrated. The experiment is intended to introduce students to the principles of atomic absorption spectroscopy giving them hands on experience using quantitative methods of…

  6. Apparatus and method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for shaping of damage free surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr,; Jeffrey, W [Livermore, CA

    2009-03-31

    Fabrication apparatus and methods are disclosed for shaping and finishing difficult materials with no subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use an atmospheric pressure mixed gas plasma discharge as a sub-aperture polisher of, for example, fused silica and single crystal silicon, silicon carbide and other materials. In one example, workpiece material is removed at the atomic level through reaction with fluorine atoms. In this example, these reactive species are produced by a noble gas plasma from trace constituent fluorocarbons or other fluorine containing gases added to the host argon matrix. The products of the reaction are gas phase compounds that flow from the surface of the workpiece, exposing fresh material to the etchant without condensation and redeposition on the newly created surface. The discharge provides a stable and predictable distribution of reactive species permitting the generation of a predetermined surface by translating the plasma across the workpiece along a calculated path.

  7. RAPID COMMUNICATION: A TALIF calibration method for quantitative oxygen atom density measurement in plasma jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilecce, G.; Vigliotti, M.; DeBenedictis, S.

    2000-03-01

    In this communication we propose a calibration method for two-photon absorption laser induced fluorescence (TALIF). It can be carried out without any addition or modification to the O atom TALIF set-up. It is based on the measurement of the collision quenching of the laser-excited state (3p3 P2 ) in a pure O2 system in which a high dissociation degree can be achieved. Since the collision rate constant by O is largely lower than that by O2 , the quenching rate can be correlated to the O density. The incertitude in this procedure is comparable to other calibration techniques. We have applied this method to the spatially resolved measurement of O atom density in an O2 rf plasma jet.

  8. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1998-01-01

    Smoke damage, as a result of a fire, can be difficult to remove from some types of painting media without causing swelling, leaching or pigment movement or removal. A non-contact technique has been developed which can remove soot from the surface of a painting by use of a gently flowing gas containing atomic oxygen. The atomic oxygen chemically reacts with the soot on the surface creating gasses such as carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide which can be removed through the use of an exhaust system. The reaction is limited to the surface so that the process can be timed to stop when the paint layer is reached. Atomic oxygen is a primary component of the low Earth orbital environment, but can be generated on Earth through various methods. This paper will discuss the results of atomic oxygen treatment of soot exposed acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and a varnished oil painting. Reflectance measurements were used to characterize the surfaces before and after treatment.

  9. Cultural probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jacob Østergaard

    The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation.......The aim of this study was thus to explore cultural probes (Gaver, Boucher et al. 2004), as a possible methodical approach, supporting knowledge production on situated and contextual aspects of occupation....

  10. Fe-implanted 6H-SiC: Direct evidence of Fe{sub 3}Si nanoparticles observed by atom probe tomography and {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diallo, M. L.; Fnidiki, A., E-mail: abdeslem.fnidiki@univ-rouen.fr; Lardé, R.; Cuvilly, F.; Blum, I. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen - UMR CNRS 6634 - Normandie Université. F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Lechevallier, L. [Groupe de Physique des Matériaux, Université et INSA de Rouen - UMR CNRS 6634 - Normandie Université. F-76801 Saint Etienne du Rouvray (France); Département de GEII, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, rue d' Eragny, Neuville sur Oise, 95031 Cergy-Pontoise (France); Debelle, A.; Thomé, L. [Centre de Spectrométrie Nucléaire et de Spectrométrie de Masse (CSNSM), CNRS-IN2P3-Univ. Paris-Sud 11, Bât. 108, 91405 Orsay (France); Viret, M. [Service de Physique de l' Etat Condensé (DSM/IRAMIS/SPEC), UMR 3680 CNRS, Bât. 772, Orme des Merisiers, CEA Saclay 91191 Gif sur Yvette (France); Marteau, M.; Eyidi, D.; Declémy, A. [Institut PPRIME, UPR 3346 CNRS, Université de Poitiers, ENSMA, SP2MI, téléport 2, 11 Bvd M. et P. Curie 86962 Futuroscope, Chasseneuil (France)

    2015-05-14

    In order to understand ferromagnetic ordering in SiC-based diluted magnetic semiconductors, Fe-implanted 6H-SiC subsequently annealed was studied by Atom Probe Tomography, {sup 57}Fe Mössbauer spectroscopy and SQUID magnetometry. Thanks to its 3D imaging capabilities at the atomic scale, Atom Probe Tomography appears as the most suitable technique to investigate the Fe distribution in the 6H-SiC host semiconductor and to evidence secondary phases. This study definitely evidences the formation of Fe{sub 3}Si nano-sized clusters after annealing. These clusters are unambiguously responsible for the main part of the magnetic properties observed in the annealed samples.

  11. Configurable memory system and method for providing atomic counting operations in a memory device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellofatto, Ralph E.; Gara, Alan G.; Giampapa, Mark E.; Ohmacht, Martin

    2010-09-14

    A memory system and method for providing atomic memory-based counter operations to operating systems and applications that make most efficient use of counter-backing memory and virtual and physical address space, while simplifying operating system memory management, and enabling the counter-backing memory to be used for purposes other than counter-backing storage when desired. The encoding and address decoding enabled by the invention provides all this functionality through a combination of software and hardware.

  12. Optically-detected spin-echo method for relaxation times measurements in a Rb atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gharavipour, M.; Affolderbach, C.; Gruet, F.; Radojičić, I. S.; Krmpot, A. J.; Jelenković, B. M.; Mileti, G.

    2017-06-01

    We introduce and demonstrate an experimental method, optically-detected spin-echo (ODSE), to measure ground-state relaxation times of a rubidium (Rb) atomic vapor held in a glass cell with buffer-gas. The work is motivated by our studies on high-performance Rb atomic clocks, where both population and coherence relaxation times (T 1 and T 2, respectively) of the ‘clock transition’ (52S1/2 | {F}g = 1,{m}F=0> ≤ftrightarrow | {F}g=2,{m}F=0> ) are relevant. Our ODSE method is inspired by classical nuclear magnetic resonance spin-echo method, combined with optical detection. In contrast to other existing methods, like continuous-wave double-resonance (CW-DR) and Ramsey-DR, principles of the ODSE method allow suppression of decoherence arising from the inhomogeneity of the static magnetic field across the vapor cell, thus enabling measurements of intrinsic relaxation rates, as properties of the cell alone. Our experimental result for the coherence relaxation time, specific for the clock transition, measured with the ODSE method is in good agreement with the theoretical prediction, and the ODSE results are validated by comparison to those obtained with Franzen, CW-DR and Ramsey-DR methods. The method is of interest for a wide variety of quantum optics experiments with optical signal readout.

  13. A robust method for estimating gene expression states using Affymetrix microarray probe level data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoh Kenichi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology is a high-throughput method for measuring the expression levels of thousand of genes simultaneously. The observed intensities combine a non-specific binding, which is a major disadvantage with microarray data. The Affymetrix GeneChip assigned a mismatch (MM probe with the intention of measuring non-specific binding, but various opinions exist regarding usefulness of MM measures. It should be noted that not all observed intensities are associated with expressed genes and many of those are associated with unexpressed genes, of which measured values express mere noise due to non-specific binding, cross-hybridization, or stray signals. The implicit assumption that all genes are expressed leads to poor performance of microarray data analyses. We assume two functional states of a gene - expressed or unexpressed - and propose a robust method to estimate gene expression states using an order relationship between PM and MM measures. Results An indicator 'probability of a gene being expressed' was obtained using the number of probe pairs within a probe set where the PM measure exceeds the MM measure. We examined the validity of the proposed indicator using Human Genome U95 data sets provided by Affymetrix. The usefulness of 'probability of a gene being expressed' is illustrated through an exploration of candidate genes involved in neuroblastoma prognosis. We identified the candidate genes for which expression states differed (un-expressed or expressed when compared between two outcomes. The validity of this result was subsequently confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR. Conclusion The proposed qualitative evaluation, 'probability of a gene being expressed', is a useful indicator for improving microarray data analysis. It is useful to reduce the number of false discoveries. Expression states - expressed or unexpressed - correspond to the most fundamental gene function 'On' and 'Off', which can lead to biologically

  14. A simple image based method for obtaining electron density and atomic number in dual energy CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczykutowicz, Timothy P.; Qi, Zhihua; Chen, Guang-Hong

    2011-03-01

    The extraction of electron density and atomic number information in computed tomography is possible when image values can be sampled using two different effective energies. The foundation for this extraction lies in the ability to express the linear attenuation coefficient using two basis functions that are dependent on electron density and atomic number over the diagnostic energy range used in CT. Material basis functions separate images into clinically familiar quantities such as 'bone' images and 'soft tissue' images. Physically, all basis function choices represent the expression of the linear attenuation coefficient in terms of a photoelectric and a Compton scattering term. The purpose of this work is to develop a simple dual energy decomposition method that requires no a priori knowledge about the energy characteristics of the imaging system. It is shown that the weighted sum of two basis images yields an electron density image where the weights for each basis image are the electron density of that basis image's basis material. Using the electron density image, effective atomic number information can also be obtained. These methods are performed solely in the image domain and require no spectrum or detector energy response information as required by some other dual energy decomposition methods.

  15. Novel atomic absorption spectrometric and rapid spectrophotometric methods for the quantitation of paracetamol in saliva: application to pharmacokinetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, M M; Nejem, R M; El-Abadla, N S; Al-Kholy, M; Saleh, Akila A

    2008-01-01

    A novel atomic absorption spectrometric method and two highly sensitive spectrophotometric methods were developed for the determination of paracetamol. These techniques based on the oxidation of paracetamol by iron (III) (method I); oxidation of p-aminophenol after the hydrolysis of paracetamol (method II). Iron (II) then reacts with potassium ferricyanide to form Prussian blue color with a maximum absorbance at 700 nm. The atomic absorption method was accomplished by extracting the excess iron (III) in method II and aspirates the aqueous layer into air-acetylene flame to measure the absorbance of iron (II) at 302.1 nm. The reactions have been spectrometrically evaluated to attain optimum experimental conditions. Linear responses were exhibited over the ranges 1.0-10, 0.2-2.0 and 0.1-1.0 mug/ml for method I, method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method, respectively. A high sensitivity is recorded for the proposed methods I and II and atomic absorption spectrometric method value indicate: 0.05, 0.022 and 0.012 mug/ml, respectively. The limit of quantitation of paracetamol by method II and atomic absorption spectrometric method were 0.20 and 0.10 mug/ml. Method II and the atomic absorption spectrometric method were applied to demonstrate a pharmacokinetic study by means of salivary samples in normal volunteers who received 1.0 g paracetamol. Intra and inter-day precision did not exceed 6.9%.

  16. Electromagnetic methods for measuring materials properties of cylindrical rods and array probes for rapid flaw inspection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Haiyan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2005-01-01

    The case-hardening process modifies the near-surface permeability and conductivity of steel, as can be observed through changes in alternating current potential drop (ACPD) along a rod. In order to evaluate case depth of case hardened steel rods, analytical expressions are derived for the alternating current potential drop on the surface of a homogeneous rod, a two-layered and a three-layered rod. The case-hardened rod is first modeled by a two-layer rod that has a homogeneous substrate with a single, uniformly thick, homogeneous surface layer, in which the conductivity and permeability values differ from those in the substrate. By fitting model results to multi-frequency ACPD experimental data, estimates of conductivity, permeability and case depth are found. Although the estimated case depth by the two-layer model is in reasonable agreement with the effective case depth from the hardness profile, it is consistently higher than the effective case depth. This led to the development of the three-layer model. It is anticipated that the new three-layered model will improve the results and thus makes the ACPD method a novel technique in nondestructive measurement of case depth. Another way to evaluate case depth of a case hardened steel rod is to use induction coils. Integral form solutions for an infinite rod encircled by a coaxial coil are well known, but for a finite length conductor, additional boundary conditions must be satisfied at the ends. In this work, calculations of eddy currents are performed for a two-layer conducting rod of finite length excited by a coaxial circular coil carrying an alternating current. The solution is found using the truncated region eigenfunction expansion (TREE) method. By truncating the solution region to a finite length in the axial direction, the magnetic vector potential can be expressed as a series expansion of orthogonal eigenfunctions instead of as a Fourier integral. Closed-form expressions are derived for the electromagnetic

  17. A mass conserving level set method for detailed numerical simulation of liquid atomization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luo, Kun; Shao, Changxiao [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Yang, Yue [State Key Laboratory of Turbulence and Complex Systems, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Fan, Jianren, E-mail: fanjr@zju.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Clean Energy Utilization, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-10-01

    An improved mass conserving level set method for detailed numerical simulations of liquid atomization is developed to address the issue of mass loss in the existing level set method. This method introduces a mass remedy procedure based on the local curvature at the interface, and in principle, can ensure the absolute mass conservation of the liquid phase in the computational domain. Three benchmark cases, including Zalesak's disk, a drop deforming in a vortex field, and the binary drop head-on collision, are simulated to validate the present method, and the excellent agreement with exact solutions or experimental results is achieved. It is shown that the present method is able to capture the complex interface with second-order accuracy and negligible additional computational cost. The present method is then applied to study more complex flows, such as a drop impacting on a liquid film and the swirling liquid sheet atomization, which again, demonstrates the advantages of mass conservation and the capability to represent the interface accurately.

  18. Application of the Finite Element Method in Atomic and Molecular Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, Janine

    2007-01-01

    The finite element method (FEM) is a numerical algorithm for solving second order differential equations. It has been successfully used to solve many problems in atomic and molecular physics, including bound state and scattering calculations. To illustrate the diversity of the method, we present here details of two applications. First, we calculate the non-adiabatic dipole polarizability of Hi by directly solving the first and second order equations of perturbation theory with FEM. In the second application, we calculate the scattering amplitude for e-H scattering (without partial wave analysis) by reducing the Schrodinger equation to set of integro-differential equations, which are then solved with FEM.

  19. Accurate evaluation of magnetic coupling between atoms with numerous open shells: An ab initio method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellé, A.; Varignon, J.; Lepetit, M.-B.

    2009-11-01

    We propose a new ab initio method designed for the accurate calculation of effective exchange integrals between atoms with numerous open shells. This method applies to ferromagnetic as well as antiferromagnetic exchange, direct or ligand-mediated exchange. Test calculations on high spin transition metal oxides such as KNiF3, Ba2CoS3 or YMnO3 exhibit a very good accuracy compared either to the best ab initio calculations —when those are feasible— and with experimental evaluations.

  20. Carbon Redistribution and Carbide Precipitation in a High-Strength Low-Carbon HSLA-115 Steel Studied on a Nanoscale by Atom Probe Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.

    2017-07-01

    HSLA-115 is a newly developed Cu-bearing high-strength low-carbon martensitic steel for use in Naval structural applications. This research provides, for the first time, a comprehensive compositional analysis of carbon redistribution and associated complex phase transformations in an isothermal aging study of HSLA-115 at 823 K (550 °C). Specifically, we characterize carbon segregation at lath boundaries, grain-refining niobium carbonitrides, cementite, and secondary hardening M2C carbides, in addition to copper precipitation, by 3D atom probe tomography (APT). Segregation of carbon (3 to 6 at. pct C) is observed at martensitic lath boundaries in the as-quenched and 0.12-hour aged microstructures. On further aging, carbon redistributes itself forming cementite and M2C carbides. Niobium carbonitride precipitates do not dissolve during the austenitizing treatment and are inherited in the as-quenched and aged microstructures; these are characterized along with cementite by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and APT. Sub-nanometer-sized M2C carbide precipitates are observed after the formation of Cu precipitates, co-located with the latter, indicating heterogeneous nucleation of M2C. The temporal evolution of the composition and morphology of M2C carbides at 823 K (550 °C) is described using APT; their precipitation kinetics is intertwined with Cu precipitates, affecting the bulk mechanical properties of HSLA-115. Phase compositions determined by APT are compared with computed compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium using ThermoCalc.

  1. Atomic Layer Deposition of Hafnium(IV) Oxide on Graphene Oxide: Probing Interfacial Chemistry and Nucleation by using X-ray Absorption and Photoelectron Spectroscopies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alivio, Theodore E G; De Jesus, Luis R; Dennis, Robert V; Jia, Ye; Jaye, Cherno; Fischer, Daniel A; Singisetti, Uttam; Banerjee, Sarbajit

    2015-07-27

    Interfacing graphene with metal oxides is of considerable technological importance for modulating carrier density through electrostatic gating as well as for the design of earth-abundant electrocatalysts. Herein, we probe the early stages of the atomic layer deposition (ALD) of HfO2 on graphene oxide using a combination of C and O K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopies and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Dosing with water is observed to promote defunctionalization of graphene oxide as a result of the reaction between water and hydroxyl/epoxide species, which yields carbonyl groups that further react with migratory epoxide species to release CO2 . The carboxylates formed by the reaction of carbonyl and epoxide species facilitate binding of Hf precursors to graphene oxide surfaces. The ALD process is accompanied by recovery of the π-conjugated framework of graphene. The delineation of binding modes provides a means to rationally assemble 2D heterostructures. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Model-independent measurement of the charge density distribution along an Fe atom probe needle using off-axis electron holography without mean inner potential effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migunov, V., E-mail: v.migunov@fz-juelich.de; Dunin-Borkowski, R. E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); London, A. [Department of Materials, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PH (United Kingdom); Farle, M. [Fakultät für Physik and Center of Nanointegration (CeNIDE), Universität Duisburg-Essen, D-47048 Duisburg (Germany)

    2015-04-07

    The one-dimensional charge density distribution along an electrically biased Fe atom probe needle is measured using a model-independent approach based on off-axis electron holography in the transmission electron microscope. Both the mean inner potential and the magnetic contribution to the phase shift are subtracted by taking differences between electron-optical phase images recorded with different voltages applied to the needle. The measured one-dimensional charge density distribution along the needle is compared with a similar result obtained using model-based fitting of the phase shift surrounding the needle. On the assumption of cylindrical symmetry, it is then used to infer the three-dimensional electric field and electrostatic potential around the needle with ∼10 nm spatial resolution, without needing to consider either the influence of the perturbed reference wave or the extension of the projected potential outside the field of view of the electron hologram. The present study illustrates how a model-independent approach can be used to measure local variations in charge density in a material using electron holography in the presence of additional contributions to the phase, such as those arising from changes in mean inner potential and specimen thickness.

  3. Laser-induced reversion of δ′ precipitates in an Al-Li alloy: Study on temperature rise in pulsed laser atom probe

    KAUST Repository

    Khushaim, Muna Saeed Amin

    2016-06-14

    The influence of tuning the laser pulse energy during the analyses on the resulting microstructure in a specimen utilizing an ultra-fast laser assisted atom probe was demonstrated by a case study of a binary Al-Li alloy. The decomposition parameters, such as the size, number density, volume fraction, and composition of δ\\' precipitates, were carefully monitored after each analysis. A simple model was employed to estimate the corresponding specimen temperature for each value of the laser energy. The results indicated that the corresponding temperatures for the laser pulse energy in the range of 10 to 80 pJ are located inside the miscibility gap of the binary Al-Li phase diagram and fall into the metastable equilibrium field. In addition, the corresponding temperature for a laser pulse energy of 100 pJ was in fairly good agreement with reported range of δ\\' solvus temperature, suggesting a result of reversion upon heating due to laser pulsing. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Investigation of modulus hardening of various co-clusters in aged Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy by atom probe tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Song [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Liu, Zhiyi, E-mail: liuzhiyi@csu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); Ying, Puyou; Wang, Jian; Li, Junlin [Key Laboratory of Nonferrous Metal Materials Science and Engineering, Ministry of Education, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China); School of Material Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083 (China)

    2016-06-21

    The modulus hardening capability of various co-clusters in a low Cu/Mg ratio Al-Cu-Mg-Ag alloy aged at 165 °C is investigated by quantitative atom probe tomography analysis. Prolonged aging from 5 min to 2 h leads to the simultaneous increase in the critical shear stress of both Mg-Ag and Cu-Mg co-clusters. Regardless of the higher shear modulus of Cu-Mg co-clusters, calculation results show that Mg-Ag co-clusters possess a greater modulus hardening capability than Cu-Mg co-clusters, suggesting its primary contribution to the rapid hardening at the early aging stage. As aging extends from 30 min to 2 h, the increment in the critical shear stress of Mg-Ag co-clusters is lower than that of Cu-Mg co-clusters due to the precipitation of high density Ω phase. In addition, the shear modulus of Mg-Ag co-clusters is generally independent on its size at each investigated condition.

  5. Using the atomic pair distribution function (PDF) to probe the local structural aspects of charge-density-wave (CDW) state in complex materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjeong; Bozin, Emil; Malliakas, Christos; Kanatzidis, Mercouri; Billinge, Simon; Dabrowski, Bogdan; Gutmann, Matthias

    2007-03-01

    The atomic pair distribution function (PDF) analysis [1], based on total scattering approach, is used to study the CDW state, one of the fundamental broken-symmetry ground-states of metals, commonly found in complex materials. Incommensurate CDW (IC-CDW) found in 2-D tellurium square-net in CeTe3 is a simple single-q CDW driven by Fermi-surface nesting. Our recent PDF study on local distortions in CeTe3 suggests that the IC-CDW in CeTe3 at 300K consists of commensurate CDW domains separated by discommensurations, rather than being a uniform incommensurate CDW as seen crystallographically [2]. Recent PDF results of a study of the local Peierls distortions in isostructural compounds SmTe3 and HoTe3 will be presented. The PDF analysis has also been extended to probe the CDW state in K doped BaBiO3, and a report on the current state of this study will be provided. [1] T. Egami & S. J. L. Billinge, Underneath the Bragg Peaks: Structural Analysis of Complex Materials, Pergamon Press Elsevier, Oxford, England, 2003 [2] H. J. Kim et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 226401 (2006)

  6. Carbon Redistribution and Carbide Precipitation in a High-Strength Low-Carbon HSLA-115 Steel Studied on a Nanoscale by Atom Probe Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, Divya; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N. (NWU)

    2017-05-09

    HSLA-115 is a newly developed Cu-bearing high-strength low-carbon martensitic steel for use in Naval structural applications. This research provides, for the first time, a comprehensive compositional analysis of carbon redistribution and associated complex phase transformations in an isothermal aging study of HSLA-115 at 823 K (550 °C). Specifically, we characterize carbon segregation at lath boundaries, grain-refining niobium carbonitrides, cementite, and secondary hardening M2C carbides, in addition to copper precipitation, by 3D atom probe tomography (APT). Segregation of carbon (3 to 6 at. pct C) is observed at martensitic lath boundaries in the as-quenched and 0.12-hour aged microstructures. On further aging, carbon redistributes itself forming cementite and M2C carbides. Niobium carbonitride precipitates do not dissolve during the austenitizing treatment and are inherited in the as-quenched and aged microstructures; these are characterized along with cementite by synchrotron X-ray diffraction and APT. Sub-nanometer-sized M2C carbide precipitates are observed after the formation of Cu precipitates, co-located with the latter, indicating heterogeneous nucleation of M2C. The temporal evolution of the composition and morphology of M2C carbides at 823 K (550 °C) is described using APT; their precipitation kinetics is intertwined with Cu precipitates, affecting the bulk mechanical properties of HSLA-115. Phase compositions determined by APT are compared with computed compositions at thermodynamic equilibrium using ThermoCalc.

  7. Direct measurement of surface-state conductance by microscopic four-point probe method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasegawa, S.; Shiraki, I.; Tanikawa, T.

    2002-01-01

    For in situ measurements of local electrical conductivity of well defined crystal surfaces in ultrahigh vacuum, we have developed microscopic four-point probes with a probe spacing of several micrometres, installed in a scanning-electron - microscope/electron-diffraction chamber. The probe...

  8. Toward Comprehensive Physical/Chemical Understanding of the Circumstellar Environments - Simultaneous Probing of Each of the Ionized/Atomic/Molecular Gas and Dust Components

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueta, Toshiya

    We propose to continue our successful investigations into simultaneous probing of each of the ionized/atomic/molecular gas and dust components in planetary nebulae using primarily far-IR broadband images and spatially-resolved spectroscopic data cubes obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory to enhance our understanding of the circumstellar environments. This research originally started as the Herschel Planetary Nebula Survey (HerPlaNS) - an open time 1 program of the Herschel Space Observatory - in which 11 high-excitation PNs were observed to study the nebular energetics that involves very hot X-ray emitting plasma to very cold dust grains, whose density ranges over 3 to 4 orders of magnitude and temperature ranges over 7 orders of magnitude. The HerPlaNS data include broadband maps, IFU spectral data cubes, and bolometer array spectral data cubes covering 50 to 670 microns. Because of the sheer volume and complexity of the data set, the original funding was exhausted almost exclusively to the initial data reduction and not much to the subsequent science analysis. However, we managed to perform a nearly full science analysis for one target, NGC 6781, for which the broadband maps confirm the nearly pole-on barrel structure of the amorphous carbonrich dust shell and the surrounding halo having temperatures of 26-40 K. We also demonstrated that spatially resolved far-IR line diagnostics would yield the (Te, ne) profiles, from which distributions of ionized, atomic, and molecular gases can be determined. Direct comparison of the dust and gas column mass maps constrained by the HerPlaNS data allowed to construct an empirical gas-to-dust mass ratio map, which shows a range of ratios with the median of 195 with a standard deviation of 110. The analysis also yielded estimates of the total mass of the shell to be 0.86 M_sun, consisting of 0.54 M_sun of ionized gas, 0.12 M_sun of atomic gas, 0.2 M_sun of molecular gas, and 0.004 M_sun of dust grains. These estimates

  9. EPA Method 3031 (SW-846): Acid Digestion of Oils for Metals Analysis by Atomic Absorption or ICP Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Procedures are described for analysis of water samples and may be adapted for assessment of solid, particulate and liquid samples. The method uses real-time PCR assay for detecting Toxoplasma gondii DNA using gene-specific primers and probe.

  10. Embedded-atom method potential for modeling hydrogen and hydrogen-defect interaction in tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Fang; Shu, Xiaolin; Lu, Guang-Hong; Gao, Fei

    2017-11-01

    An embedded-atom method potential has been developed for modeling hydrogen in body-centered-cubic (bcc) tungsten by fitting to an extensive database of density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Comprehensive evaluations of the new potential are conducted by comparing various hydrogen properties with DFT calculations and available experimental data, as well as all the other tungsten–hydrogen potentials. The new potential accurately reproduces the point defect properties of hydrogen, the interaction among hydrogen atoms, the interplay between hydrogen and a monovacancy, and the thermal diffusion of hydrogen in tungsten. The successful validation of the new potential confirms its good reliability and transferability, which enables large-scale atomistic simulations of tungsten–hydrogen system. The new potential is afterward employed to investigate the interplay between hydrogen and other defects, including [1 1 1] self-interstitial atoms (SIAs) and vacancy clusters in tungsten. It is found that both the [1 1 1] SIAs and the vacancy clusters exhibit considerable attraction for hydrogen. Hydrogen solution and diffusion in strained tungsten are also studied using the present potential, which demonstrates that tensile (compressive) stress facilitates (impedes) hydrogen solution, and isotropic tensile (compressive) stress impedes (facilitates) hydrogen diffusion while anisotropic tensile (compressive) stress facilitates (impedes) hydrogen diffusion.

  11. Towards 4-dimensional atomic force spectroscopy using the spectral inversion method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Jeffrey C; Solares, Santiago D

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a novel and potentially powerful, yet relatively simple extension of the spectral inversion method, which offers the possibility of carrying out 4-dimensional (4D) atomic force spectroscopy. With the extended spectral inversion method it is theoretically possible to measure the tip-sample forces as a function of the three Cartesian coordinates in the scanning volume (x, y and z) and the vertical velocity of the tip, through a single 2-dimensional (2D) surface scan. Although signal-to-noise ratio limitations can currently prevent the accurate experimental implementation of the 4D method, and the extraction of rate-dependent material properties from the force maps is a formidable challenge, the spectral inversion method is a promising approach due to its dynamic nature, robustness, relative simplicity and previous successes.

  12. Towards 4-dimensional atomic force spectroscopy using the spectral inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey C. Williams

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a novel and potentially powerful, yet relatively simple extension of the spectral inversion method, which offers the possibility of carrying out 4-dimensional (4D atomic force spectroscopy. With the extended spectral inversion method it is theoretically possible to measure the tip–sample forces as a function of the three Cartesian coordinates in the scanning volume (x, y and z and the vertical velocity of the tip, through a single 2-dimensional (2D surface scan. Although signal-to-noise ratio limitations can currently prevent the accurate experimental implementation of the 4D method, and the extraction of rate-dependent material properties from the force maps is a formidable challenge, the spectral inversion method is a promising approach due to its dynamic nature, robustness, relative simplicity and previous successes.

  13. Probe-based real-time PCR method for multilocus melt typing of Xylella fastidiosa strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Jeff A; Faske, Jennifer B; Ator, Rebecca A; Castañeda-Gill, Jessica M; Mitchell, Forrest L

    2012-04-01

    Epidemiological studies of Pierce's disease (PD) can be confounded by a lack of taxonomic detail on the bacterial causative agent, Xylella fastidiosa (Xf). PD in grape is caused by strains of Xylella fastidiosa subsp. fastidiosa, but is not caused by other subspecies of Xf that typically colonize plants other than grape. Detection assays using ELISA and qPCR are effective at detecting and quantifying Xf presence or absence, but offer no information on Xf subspecies or strain identity. Surveying insects or host plants for Xf by current ELISA or qPCR methods provides only presence/absence and quantity information for any and all Xf subspecies, potentially leading to false assessments of disease threat. This study uses a series of adjacent-hybridizing DNA melt analysis probes that are capable of efficiently discriminating Xf subspecies and strain relationships in rapid real-time PCR reactions. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Measurement of the photobleaching kinetics of semiconducting polymer films by the pump - probe method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozimova, A E; Bruevich, V V; Parashchuk, D Yu [International Laser Center, M. V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-12-31

    A phenomenological model of the laser photobleaching dynamics of a semiconducting polymer in a dual-beam scheme for different wavelengths of the burning and probe beams is developed. An experimental method is implemented based on this model, which allows one to investigate materials with significantly different photodegradation rates. The photodegradation quantum yield in mixtures of a semiconducting polymer belonging to polyparaphenylene vinylenes (MEH-PPV) with a low-molecular electron acceptor 2,4,7-trinitrofluorenone (TNF) is measured at burning wavelengths of 488 and 514 nm for different component ratios of MEHPPV : TNF. It is found that adding the acceptor decreases the polymer photodegradation quantum yield by at least four orders of magnitude in the MEH-PPV : TNF = 1 : 0.4 mixture; the photodegradation quantum yields are the same at both wavelengths. It is shown that the photodegradation rates of the MEH-PPV : TNF films measured by laser photobleaching and IR spectroscopy are in good agreement.

  15. Plasma measurement by optical visualization and triple probe method under high-speed impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T.; Umeda, K.; Kinoshita, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2017-02-01

    High-speed impact on spacecraft by space debris poses a threat. When a high-speed projectile collides with target, it is conceivable that the heat created by impact causes severe damage at impact point. Investigation of the temperature is necessary for elucidation of high-speed impact phenomena. However, it is very difficult to measure the temperature with standard methods for two main reasons. One reason is that a thermometer placed on the target is instantaneously destroyed upon impact. The other reason is that there is not enough time resolution to measure the transient temperature changes. In this study, the measurement of plasma induced by high-speed impact was investigated to estimate temperature changes near the impact point. High-speed impact experiments were performed with a vertical gas gun. The projectile speed was approximately 700 m/s, and the target material was A5052. The experimental data to calculate the plasma parameters of electron temperature and electron density were measured by triple probe method. In addition, the diffusion behavior of plasma was observed by optical visualization technique using high-speed camera. The frame rate and the exposure time were 260 kfps and 1.0 μs, respectively. These images are considered to be one proof to show the validity of plasma measurement. The experimental results showed that plasma signals were detected for around 70 μs, and the rising phase of the wave form was in good agreement with timing of optical visualization image when the plasma arrived at the tip of triple probe.

  16. An atom economical method for the direct synthesis of quinoline derivatives from substituted o-nitrotoluenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guiyan; Yi, Maocong; Liu, Lu; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Jianhui

    2015-02-18

    A highly efficient one-pot procedure for the preparation of substituted quinolines from substituted o-nitrotoluenes with electron-withdrawing groups and olefins (acrylic esters and acrylonitriles) using a cesium catalyst has been developed. A plausible [2+4] cycloaddition mechanism is proposed. This method uses nitroaromatic compounds as the starting materials to give quinoline derivatives in good to high yields under mild conditions with no transition metal catalysis. It provides an atom economical pathway for the synthesis of quinoline derivatives which could be used in industrial processes.

  17. Photocatalytic Mechanism Regulation of Bismuth Oxyhalogen via Changing Atomic Assembly Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yang; Shi, Xian; Wang, Ping-Quan; Xie, Haiquan; Ye, Liqun

    2017-09-13

    Exciton and carrier photocatalytic processes have been proved in bismuth oxyhalogen photocatalysts. But, there are no reports about how to regulate the different mechanisms to improve photocatalytic activity for different reaction. Here, we found that the photocatalytic mechanisms could be regulated by changing the assembly method of bismuth, oxygen, and halogen atoms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) experimentals results concluded that solid solution BiOBr0.5I0.5 showed enhanced exciton photocatalytic process, and coupling 0.5BiOBr/0.5BiOI displayed improved carrier photocatalytic proces. This work promoted the understanding about solid solution and coupling for bismuth oxyhalogen.

  18. Analysis of force-deconvolution methods in frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Welker

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In frequency-modulation atomic force microscopy the direct observable is the frequency shift of an oscillating cantilever in a force field. This frequency shift is not a direct measure of the actual force, and thus, to obtain the force, deconvolution methods are necessary. Two prominent methods proposed by Sader and Jarvis (Sader–Jarvis method and Giessibl (matrix method are investigated with respect to the deconvolution quality. Both methods show a nontrivial dependence of the deconvolution quality on the oscillation amplitude. The matrix method exhibits spikelike features originating from a numerical artifact. By interpolation of the data, the spikelike features can be circumvented. The Sader–Jarvis method has a continuous amplitude dependence showing two minima and one maximum, which is an inherent property of the deconvolution algorithm. The optimal deconvolution depends on the ratio of the amplitude and the characteristic decay length of the force for the Sader–Jarvis method. However, the matrix method generally provides the higher deconvolution quality.

  19. Characterization of single-crystal sapphire substrates by X-ray methods and atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prokhorov, I. A.; Zakharov, B. G., E-mail: zakharov@kaluga.rosmail.com [Russian Academy of Sciences, Research Center Space Materials Science, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Kaluga Branch) (Russian Federation); Asadchikov, V. E.; Butashin, A. V.; Roshchin, B. S.; Tolstikhina, A. L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation); Zanaveskin, M. L.; Grishchenko, Yu. V.; Muslimov, A. E. [Russian Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation); Yakimchuk, I. V.; Volkov, Yu. O.; Kanevskii, V. M.; Tikhonov, E. O. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Shubnikov Institute of Crystallography (Russian Federation)

    2011-05-15

    The possibility of characterizing a number of practically important parameters of sapphire substrates by X-ray methods is substantiated. These parameters include wafer bending, traces of an incompletely removed damaged layer that formed as a result of mechanical treatment (scratches and marks), surface roughness, damaged layer thickness, and the specific features of the substrate real structure. The features of the real structure of single-crystal sapphire substrates were investigated by nondestructive methods of double-crystal X-ray diffraction and plane-wave X-ray topography. The surface relief of the substrates was investigated by atomic force microscopy and X-ray scattering. The use of supplementing analytical methods yields the most complete information about the structural inhomogeneities and state of crystal surface, which is extremely important for optimizing the technology of substrate preparation for epitaxy.

  20. Matrix elimination method for the determination of precious metals in ores using electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salih, Bekir [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: bekir@hacettepe.edu.tr; Celikbicak, Omuer [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Doeker, Serhat [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey); Dogan, Mehmet [Hacettepe University, Department of Chemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2007-03-28

    Poly(N-(hydroxymethyl)methacrylamide)-1-allyl-2-thiourea) hydrogels, poly(NHMMA-ATU), were synthesized by gamma radiation using {sup 60}Co {gamma} source in the ternary mixture of NHMMA-ATU-H{sub 2}O. These hydrogels were used for the specific gold, silver, platinum and palladium recovery, pre-concentration and matrix elimination from the solutions containing trace amounts of precious metal ions. Elimination of inorganic matrices such as different transition and heavy metal ions, and anions was performed by adjusting the solution pH to 0.5 that was the selective adsorption pH of the precious metal ions. Desorption of the precious metal ions was performed by using 0.8 M thiourea in 3 M HCl as the most efficient desorbing agent with recovery values more than 95%. In the desorption medium, thiourea effect on the atomic signal was eliminated by selecting proper pyrolysis and atomization temperatures for all precious metal ions. Precision and the accuracy of the results were improved in the graphite furnace-atomic absorption spectrometer (GFAAS) measurements by applying the developed matrix elimination method performing the adsorption at pH 0.5. Pre-concentration factors of the studied precious metal ions were found to be at least 1000-fold. Detection limits of the precious metal ions were found to be less than 10 ng L{sup -1} of the all studied precious metal ions by using the proposed pre-concentration method. Determination of trace levels of the precious metals in the sea-water, anode slime, geological samples and photographic fixer solutions were performed using GFAAS clearly after applying the adsorption-desorption cycle onto the poly(NHMMA-UTU) hydrogels.

  1. Method 200.12 - Determination of Trace Elements in Marine Waters by StabilizedTemperature Graphite Furnace Atomic Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides procedures for the determination of total recoverable elements by graphite furnace atomic absorption (GFAA) in marine waters, including estuarine, ocean and brines with salinities of up to 35 ppt.

  2. Imaging DNA Structure by Atomic Force Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyne, Alice L B; Hoogenboom, Bart W

    2016-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a microscopy technique that uses a sharp probe to trace a sample surface at nanometre resolution. For biological applications, one of its key advantages is its ability to visualize substructure of single molecules and molecular complexes in an aqueous environment. Here, we describe the application of AFM to determine superstructure and secondary structure of surface-bound DNA. The method is also readily applicable to probe DNA-DNA interactions and DNA-protein complexes.

  3. Virtual interface substructure synthesis method for normal mode analysis of super-large molecular complexes at atomic resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xuehui; Sun, Yunxiang; An, Xiongbo; Ming, Dengming

    2011-10-14

    Normal mode analysis of large biomolecular complexes at atomic resolution remains challenging in computational structure biology due to the requirement of large amount of memory space and central processing unit time. In this paper, we present a method called virtual interface substructure synthesis method or VISSM to calculate approximate normal modes of large biomolecular complexes at atomic resolution. VISSM introduces the subunit interfaces as independent substructures that join contacting molecules so as to keep the integrity of the system. Compared with other approximate methods, VISSM delivers atomic modes with no need of a coarse-graining-then-projection procedure. The method was examined for 54 protein-complexes with the conventional all-atom normal mode analysis using CHARMM simulation program and the overlap of the first 100 low-frequency modes is greater than 0.7 for 49 complexes, indicating its accuracy and reliability. We then applied VISSM to the satellite panicum mosaic virus (SPMV, 78,300 atoms) and to F-actin filament structures of up to 39-mer, 228,813 atoms and found that VISSM calculations capture functionally important conformational changes accessible to these structures at atomic resolution. Our results support the idea that the dynamics of a large biomolecular complex might be understood based on the motions of its component subunits and the way in which subunits bind one another. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  4. Probing individal subcells of fully printed and coated polymer tandem solar cells using multichromatic opto-electronic characterization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen-Olsen, Thue Trofod; Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Dam, Henrik Friis

    2015-01-01

    In this study, a method to opto-electronically probe the individual junctions and carrier transport across interfaces in fully printed and coated tandem polymer solar cells is described, enabling the identification of efficiency limiting printing/coating defects. The methods used are light beam...

  5. Precipitates in Al-Cu alloys revisited: Atom-probe tomographic experiments and first-principles calculations of compositional evolution and interfacial segregation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, Aniruddha [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Materials Science Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085 (India); Siegel, Donald J., E-mail: djsiege@umich.edu [Mechanical Engineering Department, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States); Applied Physics Program, University of Michigan, 2350 Hayward St., Ann Arbor, MI 48109-2125 (United States); Wolverton, C. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Seidman, David N. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, 2220 Campus Drive, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States); Northwestern University Center for Atom-Probe Tomography, Northwestern University, Evanston, IL 60208 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Atom-probe tomography, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and first-principles calculations are employed to study: (i) compositional evolution of GPII zones and {theta}' precipitates; and (ii) solute segregation at {alpha}-Al/{theta}' interfaces in Al-1.7 at.% Cu (Al-4 wt.% Cu) alloys. GPII zones are observed after aging at 438 K for 8 h, whereas higher aging temperatures, 463 K for 8 h and 533 K for 4 h, reveal only {theta}' precipitates. Most GPII zones and {theta}' precipitates are demonstrated to be Cu-deficient at the lower two aging temperatures; only the 533 K treatment resulted in {theta}' stoichiometries consistent with the expected Al{sub 2}Cu equilibrium composition. For alloys containing {approx}200 at. ppm Si we find evidence of Si partitioning to GPII zones and {theta}' precipitates. Significant Si segregation is observed at the coherent {alpha}-Al/{theta}' interface for aging at 533 K, resulting in an interfacial Si concentration more than 11 times greater than in the {alpha}-Al matrix. Importantly, the Si interfacial concentration undergoes a transition from a non-equilibrium delocalized profile to an equilibrium localized profile as the aging temperature is increased from 463 to 533 K. Consistent with these measurements, first-principles calculations predict a strong thermodynamic driving force favoring Si partitioning to Cu sites in {theta}'. Silicon segregation at, and partitioning to, {theta}' precipitates results in a decrease in interfacial free energy, and concomitantly an increase in the nucleation current. Our results suggest that Si catalyzes the early stages of precipitation in these alloys, consistent with the higher precipitate number densities observed in commercial Al-Cu-Si alloys.

  6. Atom-Probe Tomographic Investigation of Austenite Stability and Carbide Precipitation in a TRIP-Assisted 10 Wt Pct Ni Steel and Its Weld Heat-Affected Zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Divya; Seidman, David N.; Barrick, Erin J.; DuPont, John N.

    2018-01-01

    Newly developed low-carbon 10 wt pct Ni-Mo-Cr-V martensitic steels rely on the Ni-enriched, thermally stable austenite [formed via multistep intercritical Quench-Lamellarization-Tempering (QLT)-treatment] for their superior mechanical properties, specifically ballistic resistance. Critical to the thermal stability of austenite is its composition, which can be severely affected in the weld heat-affected zones (HAZs) and thus needs investigations. This article represents the first study of the nanoscale redistributions of C, Ni, and Mn in single-pass HAZ microstructures of QLT-treated 10 wt pct Ni steels. Local compositions of Ni-rich regions (representative of austenite compositions) in the HAZs are determined using site-specific 3-D atom-probe tomography (APT). Martensite-start temperatures are then calculated for these compositions, employing the Ghosh-Olson thermodynamic and kinetics approach. These calculations predict that austenite (present at high temperatures) in the HAZs is susceptible to a martensitic transformation upon cooling to room temperature, unlike the austenite in the QLT-treated base-metal. While C in the QLT-treated base-metal is consumed primarily in MC and M2C-type carbide precipitates (M is Mo, Cr, V), its higher concentration in the Ni-rich regions in the HAZs indicates the dissolution of carbide precipitates, particularly M2C carbide precipitates. The role of M2C carbide precipitates and austenite stability is discussed in relation to the increase in microhardness values observed in the HAZs, relative to the QLT-treated base-metal. Insights gained from this research on austenite stability and carbide precipitation in the single-pass HAZ microstructures will assist in designing multiple weld cycles for these novel 10 wt pct Ni steels.

  7. Atomic polarizabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Safronova, M. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716 (United States); Mitroy, J. [School of Engineering, Charles Darwin University, Darwin NT 0909 (Australia); Clark, Charles W. [Joint Quantum Institute, National Institute of Standards and Technology and the University of Maryland, Gaithersburg, Maryland 20899-8410 (United States); Kozlov, M. G. [Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute, Gatchina 188300 (Russian Federation)

    2015-01-22

    The atomic dipole polarizability governs the first-order response of an atom to an applied electric field. Atomic polarization phenomena impinge upon a number of areas and processes in physics and have been the subject of considerable interest and heightened importance in recent years. In this paper, we will summarize some of the recent applications of atomic polarizability studies. A summary of results for polarizabilities of noble gases, monovalent, and divalent atoms is given. The development of the CI+all-order method that combines configuration interaction and linearized coupled-cluster approaches is discussed.

  8. Resonance Rayleigh scattering spectral method for the determination of raloxifene using gold nanoparticle as a probe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Shaopu; He Youqiu; Liu Zhongfang; Kong Ling; Lu Qunmin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest China University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2007-08-29

    When gold nanoparticles were being prepared by sodium citrate reduction method, citrate anions self-assembled on the surface of gold nanoparticles to form supermolecular complex anions with negative charges, and protonated raloxifene (Ralo) was positively charged and could bind with the complex anions to form larger aggregates through electrostatic force and hydrophobic effects, which could result in the remarkable enhancement of the resonance Rayleigh scattering intensity (RRS), and the appearance of new RRS spectra. At the same time, the second-order scattering (SOS) and frequency-doubling scattering (FDS) intensities were also enhanced. The maximum wavelengths were located near 370 nm for RRS, 520 nm for SOS, and 350 nm for FDS, respectively. Among them, the RRS method had the highest sensitivity and the detection limit was 5.60 ng mL{sup -1} for Ralo, and its linear range was 0.05-2.37 {mu}g mL{sup -1}. A new RRS method for the determination of trace Ralo using gold nanoparticles probe was developed. The optimum conditions of the reaction and influencing factors were investigated. In addition, the reaction mechanism and the reasons for the enhancement of RRS were discussed.

  9. Alternative methods for estimating common descriptors for QSAR studies of dyes and fluorescent probes using molecular modeling software. 2. Correlations between log P and the hydrophilic/lipophilic index, and new methods for estimating degrees of amphiphilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapson, Richard W; Horobin, Richard W

    2013-11-01

    The log P descriptor, despite its usefulness, can be difficult to use, especially for researchers lacking skills in physical chemistry. Moreover this classic measure has been determined in numerous ways, which can result in inconsistant estimates of log P values, especially for relatively complex molecules such as fluorescent probes. Novel measures of hydrophilicity/lipophilicity (the Hydrophilic/Lipophilic Index, HLI) and amphiphilicity (hydrophilic/lipophilic indices for the head group and tail, HLIT and HLIHG, respectively) therefore have been devised. We compare these descriptors with measures based on log P, the standard method for quantitative structure activity relationships (QSAR) studies. HLI can be determined using widely available molecular modeling software, coupled with simple arithmetic calculations. It is based on partial atomic charges and is intended to be a stand-alone measure of hydrophilicity/lipophilicity. Given the wide application of log P, however, we investigated the correlation between HLI and log P using a test set of 56 fluorescent probes of widely different physicochemical character. Overall correlation was poor; however, correlation of HLI and log P for probes of narrowly specified charge types, i.e., non-ionic compounds, anions, conjugated cations, or zwitterions, was excellent. Values for probes with additional nonconjugated quaternary cations, however, were less well correlated. The newly devised HLI can be divided into domain-specific descriptors, HLIT and HLIHG in amphiphilic probes. Determinations of amphiphilicity, made independently by the authors using their respective methods, showed excellent agreement. Quantifying amphiphilicity from partial log P values of the head group (head group hydrophilicity; HGH) and tail (amphiphilicity index; AI) has proved useful for understanding fluorescent probe action. The same limitations of log P apply to HGH and AI, however. The novel descriptors, HLIT and HLIHG, offer analogous advantages

  10. Nanobits - exchangable and customisable scanning probe tips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yildiz, Izzet

    Invention of atomic force microscopy (AFM) pioneered a novel aspect for the surface metrology concept. A range of scanning probe methods have been developed over the years based on different sorts of tip-surface interaction: electrical, optical, thermal, force. Reproducible and fast fabrication...

  11. [Preparation of a novel polymer monolith using atom transfer radical polymerization method for solid phase extraction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Ying; Qi, Li; Qiao, Juan; Mao, Lanqun; Chen, Yi

    2013-04-01

    In this study, a novel polymer monolith based solid phase extraction (SPE) material has been prepared by two-step atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) method. Firstly, employing ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EDMA) as a cross-linker, a polymer monolith filled in a filter head has been in-situ prepared quickly under mild conditions. Then, the activators generated by electron transfer ATRP (ARGET ATRP) was used for the modification of poly(2-(dimethylamino)ethyl-methacrylate) (PDMAEMA) on the monolithic surface. Finally, this synthesized monolith for SPE was successfully applied in the extraction and enrichment of steroids. The results revealed that ATRP can be developed as a facile and effective method with mild reaction conditions for monolith construction and has the potential for preparing monolith in diverse devices.

  12. Method for lateral force calibration in atomic force microscope using MEMS microforce sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziekoński, Cezary; Dera, Wojciech; Jarząbek, Dariusz M

    2017-11-01

    In this paper we present a simple and direct method for the lateral force calibration constant determination. Our procedure does not require any knowledge about material or geometrical parameters of an investigated cantilever. We apply a commercially available microforce sensor with advanced electronics for direct measurement of the friction force applied by the cantilever's tip to a flat surface of the microforce sensor measuring beam. Due to the third law of dynamics, the friction force of the equal value tilts the AFM cantilever. Therefore, torsional (lateral force) signal is compared with the signal from the microforce sensor and the lateral force calibration constant is determined. The method is easy to perform and could be widely used for the lateral force calibration constant determination in many types of atomic force microscopes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Assessment and Validation of Machine Learning Methods for Predicting Molecular Atomization Energies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Katja; Montavon, Grégoire; Biegler, Franziska; Fazli, Siamac; Rupp, Matthias; Scheffler, Matthias; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole; Tkatchenko, Alexandre; Müller, Klaus-Robert

    2013-08-13

    The accurate and reliable prediction of properties of molecules typically requires computationally intensive quantum-chemical calculations. Recently, machine learning techniques applied to ab initio calculations have been proposed as an efficient approach for describing the energies of molecules in their given ground-state structure throughout chemical compound space (Rupp et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 2012, 108, 058301). In this paper we outline a number of established machine learning techniques and investigate the influence of the molecular representation on the methods performance. The best methods achieve prediction errors of 3 kcal/mol for the atomization energies of a wide variety of molecules. Rationales for this performance improvement are given together with pitfalls and challenges when applying machine learning approaches to the prediction of quantum-mechanical observables.

  14. Analytical method for parameterizing the random profile components of nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Mirsaidov, Utkur; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Misurkin, Pavel I; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V

    2010-01-01

    The functional properties of many technological surfaces in biotechnology, electronics, and mechanical engineering depend to a large degree on the individual features of their nanoscale surface texture, which in turn are a function of the surface manufacturing process. Among these features, the surface irregularities and self-similarity structures at different spatial scales, especially in the range of 1 to 100 nm, are of high importance because they greatly affect the surface interaction forces acting at a nanoscale distance. An analytical method for parameterizing the surface irregularities and their correlations in nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is proposed. In this method, flicker noise spectroscopy - a statistical physics approach - is used to develop six nanometrological parameters characterizing the high-frequency contributions of jump- and spike-like irregularities into the surface texture. These contributions reflect the stochastic processes of anomalous diffusion and inertial e...

  15. A universal microarray detection method for identification of multiple Phytophthora spp. using padlock probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Katarzyna; Verstappen, Els; Mendes, Odette; Schoen, Cor; Ristaino, Jean; Bonants, Peter

    2012-06-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many species that cause important diseases in ornamental, agronomic, and forest ecosystems worldwide. Molecular methods have been developed for detection and identification of one or several species of Phytophthora in single or multiplex reactions. In this article, we describe a padlock probe (PLP)-based multiplex method of detection and identification for many Phytophthora spp. simultaneously. A generic TaqMan polymerase chain reaction assay, which detects all known Phytophthora spp., is conducted first, followed by a species-specific PLP ligation. A 96-well-based microarray platform with colorimetric readout is used to detect and identify the different Phytophthora spp. PLPs are long oligonucleotides containing target complementary sequence regions at both their 5' and 3' ends which can be ligated on the target into a circular molecule. The ligation is point mutation specific; therefore, closely related sequences can be differentiated. This circular molecule can then be detected on a microarray. We developed 23 PLPs to economically important Phytophthora spp. based upon internal transcribed spacer-1 sequence differences between individual Phytophthora spp. Tests on genomic DNA of many Phytophthora isolates and DNA from environmental samples showed the specificity and utility of PLPs for Phytophthora diagnostics.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy III theory of STM and related scanning probe methods

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1993-01-01

    While the first two volumes on Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM) and its related scanning probe (SXM) methods have mainly concentrated on intro­ ducing the experimental techniques, as well as their various applications in different research fields, this third volume is exclusively devoted to the theory of STM and related SXM methods. As the experimental techniques including the reproducibility of the experimental results have advanced, more and more theorists have become attracted to focus on issues related to STM and SXM. The increasing effort in the development of theoretical concepts for STM/SXM has led to considerable improvements in understanding the contrast mechanism as well as the experimental conditions necessary to obtain reliable data. Therefore, this third volume on STM/SXM is not written by theorists for theorists, but rather for every scientist who is not satisfied by just obtaining real­ space images of surface structures by STM/SXM. After a brief introduction (Chap. 1), N. D. Lang first co...

  17. Intelligent tuning method of PID parameters based on iterative learning control for atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui; Li, Yingzi; Zhang, Yingxu; Chen, Yifu; Song, Zihang; Wang, Zhenyu; Zhang, Suoxin; Qian, Jianqiang

    2018-01-01

    Proportional-integral-derivative (PID) parameters play a vital role in the imaging process of an atomic force microscope (AFM). Traditional parameter tuning methods require a lot of manpower and it is difficult to set PID parameters in unattended working environments. In this manuscript, an intelligent tuning method of PID parameters based on iterative learning control is proposed to self-adjust PID parameters of the AFM according to the sample topography. This method gets enough information about the output signals of PID controller and tracking error, which will be used to calculate the proper PID parameters, by repeated line scanning until convergence before normal scanning to learn the topography. Subsequently, the appropriate PID parameters are obtained by fitting method and then applied to the normal scanning process. The feasibility of the method is demonstrated by the convergence analysis. Simulations and experimental results indicate that the proposed method can intelligently tune PID parameters of the AFM for imaging different topographies and thus achieve good tracking performance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A beta-mixture quantile normalization method for correcting probe design bias in Illumina Infinium 450 k DNA methylation data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teschendorff, Andrew E; Marabita, Francesco; Lechner, Matthias; Bartlett, Thomas; Tegner, Jesper; Gomez-Cabrero, David; Beck, Stephan

    2013-01-15

    The Illumina Infinium 450 k DNA Methylation Beadchip is a prime candidate technology for Epigenome-Wide Association Studies (EWAS). However, a difficulty associated with these beadarrays is that probes come in two different designs, characterized by widely different DNA methylation distributions and dynamic range, which may bias downstream analyses. A key statistical issue is therefore how best to adjust for the two different probe designs. Here we propose a novel model-based intra-array normalization strategy for 450 k data, called BMIQ (Beta MIxture Quantile dilation), to adjust the beta-values of type2 design probes into a statistical distribution characteristic of type1 probes. The strategy involves application of a three-state beta-mixture model to assign probes to methylation states, subsequent transformation of probabilities into quantiles and finally a methylation-dependent dilation transformation to preserve the monotonicity and continuity of the data. We validate our method on cell-line data, fresh frozen and paraffin-embedded tumour tissue samples and demonstrate that BMIQ compares favourably with two competing methods. Specifically, we show that BMIQ improves the robustness of the normalization procedure, reduces the technical variation and bias of type2 probe values and successfully eliminates the type1 enrichment bias caused by the lower dynamic range of type2 probes. BMIQ will be useful as a preprocessing step for any study using the Illumina Infinium 450 k platform. BMIQ is freely available from http://code.google.com/p/bmiq/. a.teschendorff@ucl.ac.uk Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  19. A multi-state modified embedded atom method potential for titanium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, J. S.; Srinivasan, S. G.; Baskes, M. I.; Miller, R. E.; Wilson, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    The continuing search for broadly applicable, predictive, and unique potential functions led to the invention of the multi-state modified embedded atom method (MS-MEAM) (Baskes et al 2007 Phys. Rev. B 75 094113). MS-MEAM replaced almost all of the prior arbitrary choices of the MEAM electron densities, embedding energy, pair potential, and angular screening functions by using first-principles computations of energy/volume relationships for multiple reference crystal structures and transformation paths connecting those reference structures. This strategy reasonably captured diverse interactions between atoms with variable coordinations in a face-centered-cubic (fcc)-stable copper system. However, a straightforward application of the original MS-MEAM framework to model technologically useful hexagonal-close-packed (hcp) metals proved elusive. This work describes the development of an hcp-stable/fcc-metastable MS-MEAM to model titanium by introducing a new angular function within the background electron density description. This critical insight enables the titanium MS-MEAM potential to reproduce first principles computations of reference structures and transformation paths extremely well. Importantly, it predicts lattice and elastic constants, defect energetics, and dynamics of non-ideal hcp and liquid titanium in good agreement with first principles computations and corresponding experiments, and often better than the three well-known literature models used as a benchmark. The titanium MS-MEAM has been made available in the Knowledgebase of Interatomic Models (https://openkim.org/) (Tadmor et al 2011 JOM 63 17).

  20. A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob [Division of Diagnostic Imaging Physics and Webster Center for Advanced Research and Education in Radiation, Department of Radiology, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts 02114 (United States); Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George [Nuclear Engineering Program, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters “nanoDots” and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method—a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future.Methods: A standard ATOM phantom has densely located holes (in 3 × 3 cm or 1.5 × 1.5 cm grids), which are too small (5 mm in diameter) to host many types of dosimeters, including the nanoDots. The authors modified the conventional way in which nanoDots are used, by removing the OSL disks from the holders before inserting them inside a standard ATOM phantom for dose measurements. The authors solved three technical difficulties introduced by this modification: (1) energy dependent dose calibration for raw OSL readings; (2) influence of the brief background exposure of OSL disks to dimmed room light; (3) correct pairing between the dose readings and measurement locations. The authors acquired 100 dose measurements at various positions in the phantom, which was scanned using a clinical chest protocol with both angular and z-axis tube current modulations.Results: Dose calibration was performed according to the beam qualities inside the phantom as determined from an established Monte Carlo model of the scanner. The influence of the brief exposure to dimmed room light was evaluated and deemed negligible. Pairing between the OSL readings and measurement locations was ensured by the experimental design. The organ doses measured for a routine adult chest scan protocol ranged from 9.4 to 18.8 mGy, depending on the composition, location, and surrounding anatomy of the organs. The dose distribution across different slices of the phantom strongly depended on the z-axis mA modulation. In the same slice, doses to the soft tissues other than the spinal cord demonstrated

  1. Entropy in bimolecular simulations: A comprehensive review of atomic fluctuations-based methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kassem, Summer; Ahmed, Marawan; El-Sheikh, Salah; Barakat, Khaled H

    2015-11-01

    Entropy of binding constitutes a major, and in many cases a detrimental, component of the binding affinity in biomolecular interactions. While the enthalpic part of the binding free energy is easier to calculate, estimating the entropy of binding is further more complicated. A precise evaluation of entropy requires a comprehensive exploration of the complete phase space of the interacting entities. As this task is extremely hard to accomplish in the context of conventional molecular simulations, calculating entropy has involved many approximations. Most of these golden standard methods focused on developing a reliable estimation of the conformational part of the entropy. Here, we review these methods with a particular emphasis on the different techniques that extract entropy from atomic fluctuations. The theoretical formalisms behind each method is explained highlighting its strengths as well as its limitations, followed by a description of a number of case studies for each method. We hope that this brief, yet comprehensive, review provides a useful tool to understand these methods and realize the practical issues that may arise in such calculations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    A new smoothing method for the improvement on the identification and quantification of spectral functions based on the previous knowledge of the signals that are expected to be quantified, is presented. These signals are used as weighted coefficients in the smoothing algorithm. This smoothing method was conceived to be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies preferably to these techniques where net counts are proportional to acquisition time, such as particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and other X-ray fluorescence spectroscopic methods, etc. This algorithm, when properly applied, does not distort the form nor the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for all kind of spectroscopic techniques. This method is extremely effective at reducing high-frequency noise in the signal much more efficient than a single rectangular smooth of the same width. As all of smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but in this case we found also a systematic improvement on the accuracy of the results. We still have to evaluate the improvement on the quality of the results when this method is applied over real experimental results. We expect better characterization of the net area quantification of the peaks, and smaller Detection and Quantification Limits. We have applied this method to signals that obey Poisson statistics, but with the same ideas and criteria, it could be applied to time series. In a general case, when this algorithm is applied over experimental results, also it would be required that the sought characteristic functions, required for this weighted smoothing method, should be obtained from a system with strong stability. If the sought signals are not perfectly clean, this method should be carefully applied

  3. An ultrasensitive method for the determination of melamine using cadmium telluride quantum dots as fluorescence probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiafei; Li, Jin; Kuang, Huiyan; Feng, Lei; Yi, Shoujun; Xia, Xiaodong; Huang, Haowen [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Simulation of Ministry of Education of China, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Chen, Yong; Tang, Chunran [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Zeng, Yunlong, E-mail: yunlongzeng1955@126.com [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry and Molecular Simulation of Ministry of Education of China, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); State Key Laboratory for Chemo/Biosensing and Chemometrics, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2013-11-13

    Graphical abstract: Melamine takes place of the TGA on the surface of TGA-CdTe QDs with negative charge to form melamine coated QDs changing the surface charge of the QDs, resulting the fluorescence quenched as the QDs aggregation occurred by electrostatic attraction of the two opposite charged nanocrystals. -- Highlights: •An ultrasensitive and selective method for the determination of melamine was developed at pH 11.0. •The selectivity of the method was improved. •The sensitivity of the method enhanced obviously as the CdTe QDs have higher QYs at pH 11. •The sensitivity and linear range for the analysis are size dependent using QDs PL probes. •Melamine takes the place of TGA resulting fluorescence quenched of QDs. -- Abstract: An ultrasensitive and simple method for the determination of melamine was developed based on the fluorescence quenching of thioglycolic acid (TGA) capped CdTe quantum dots (QDs) at pH 11.0. In strong alkaline aqueous solution, the selectivity of the method has been greatly improved due to most heavy metal ions show no interference as they are in the precipitation form or in their anion form. Furthermore, CdTe quantum dots have higher quantum yields at higher pH. The method has a wider concentration range and lower detection limit. The influence factors on the determination of melamine were investigated and the optimum conditions were determined. Under optimum conditions, the fluorescence intensity change of TGA coated CdTe quantum dots was linearly proportional to melamine over a concentration range from 1.0 × 10{sup −11} to 1.0 × 10{sup −5} mol L{sup −1} with a correlation coefficient of 0.9943 and a detection limit of 5 × 10{sup −12} mol L{sup −1}. The mechanism of fluorescence quenching of the QDs has been proposed based on the infrared spectroscopy information and electrophoresis experiments in presence of melamine under alkaline condition. The proposed method was employed to detect trace melamine in milk powder

  4. Stochastic methods for light propagation and recurrent scattering in saturated and nonsaturated atomic ensembles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Mark D.; Jenkins, Stewart D.; Ruostekoski, Janne

    2016-06-01

    We derive equations for the strongly coupled system of light and dense atomic ensembles. The formalism includes an arbitrary internal-level structure for the atoms and is not restricted to weak excitation of atoms by light. In the low-light-intensity limit for atoms with a single electronic ground state, the full quantum field-theoretical representation of the model can be solved exactly by means of classical stochastic electrodynamics simulations for stationary atoms that represent cold atomic ensembles. Simulations for the optical response of atoms in a quantum degenerate regime require one to synthesize a stochastic ensemble of atomic positions that generates the corresponding quantum statistical position correlations between the atoms. In the case of multiple ground levels or at light intensities where saturation becomes important, the classical simulations require approximations that neglect quantum fluctuations between the levels. We show how the model is extended to incorporate corrections due to quantum fluctuations that result from virtual scattering processes. In the low-light-intensity limit, we illustrate the simulations in a system of atoms in a Mott-insulator state in a two-dimensional optical lattice, where recurrent scattering of light induces strong interatomic correlations. These correlations result in collective many-atom subradiant and superradiant states and a strong dependence of the response on the spatial confinement within the lattice sites.

  5. An electron spin resonance probe method for the understanding of petroleum asphaltene macrostructure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, G.K.; Yen, T.F. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Southern California, 3620 South Vermont Avenue 224A, 90089-2531 Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    2000-10-01

    Molecularly, petroleum asphaltenes are induced dipoles, which agglomerate into nanometer-sized colloids of different aggregation states. The electron spin resonance (ESR) vanadyl probe method is used to investigate the asphaltene macrostructures under different temperatures and microwave powers. Oxovanadium complexes native to an asphaltene isolated from Boscan crude oil, Venezuela, function as tracers to examine the behavior of micelle agglomerates when subjected to a microwave field. Both mobile and bounded oxovanadium compounds in colloidal asphaltene solution are in a state of equilibrium. It is noted that a greater amount of mobile vanadyl complexes can be stabilized in a dispersing medium (single-aromatic ring solvent series) with a higher-valued Hansen hydrogen bonding solubility parameter. We found that conversion of ESR vanadyl hyperfine lines occurs from anisotropic to isotropic as the temperature of a 4% Boscan asphaltene solution in o-xylene increased from 25C to 100C. Free tumbling of total vanadyl complexes in organic solvent signifies dissociation of micelles at packing imperfections prior to their release from aromatic hosts. Coupling of petroleum asphaltenes with microwave power can overcome charge transfer and charge balance interactions within micelle agglomerates. The relative content of mobile to bounded vanadyl complexes in 4% Boscan asphaltene solution of o-xylene was found to increase with microwave power at 45C. Microwave energy will enable effective dispersion of colloidal asphaltene in heavy oil refining and upgrading.

  6. DEVICE FOR MEASURING OF THERMAL LENS PARAMETERS IN LASER ACTIVE ELEMENTS WITH A PROBE BEAM METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Zakharova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a device for measuring of parameters of thermal lens (TL in laser active elements under longitudinal diode pumping. The measurements are based on the probe beam method. This device allows one to determine sign and optical power of the lens in the principal meridional planes, its sensitivity factor with respect to the absorbed pump power and astigmatism degree, fractional heat loading which make it possible to estimate integral impact of the photoelastic effect to the formation of TL in the laser element. The measurements are performed in a linearly polarized light at the wavelength of 532 nm. Pumping of the laser element is performed at 960 nm that makes it possible to study laser materials doped with Yb3+ and (Er3+, Yb3+ ions. The precision of measurements: for sensitivity factor of TL – 0,1 m-1/W, for astigmatism degree – 0,2 m-1/W, for fractional heat loading – 5 %, for the impact of the photoelastic effect – 0,5 × 10-6 K-1. This device is used for characterization of thermal lens in the laser active element from an yttrium vanadate crystal, Er3+,Yb3+:YVO .

  7. Method for atmospheric pressure reactive atom plasma processing for surface modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Jeffrey W [Livermore, CA

    2009-09-22

    Reactive atom plasma processing can be used to shape, polish, planarize and clean the surfaces of difficult materials with minimal subsurface damage. The apparatus and methods use a plasma torch, such as a conventional ICP torch. The workpiece and plasma torch are moved with respect to each other, whether by translating and/or rotating the workpiece, the plasma, or both. The plasma discharge from the torch can be used to shape, planarize, polish, and/or clean the surface of the workpiece, as well as to thin the workpiece. The processing may cause minimal or no damage to the workpiece underneath the surface, and may involve removing material from the surface of the workpiece.

  8. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentin, Jan B.; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter

    2014-01-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length...... scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy...... terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive...

  9. Determination of hydrogen sulfide and volatile thiols in air samples by mercury probe derivatization coupled with liquid chromatography-atomic fluorescence spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramanti, Emilia; D'Ulivo, Lucia; Lomonte, Cristina; Onor, Massimo; Zamboni, Roberto; Raspi, Giorgio; D'Ulivo, Alessandro

    2006-10-02

    A new procedure is proposed for the sampling and storage of hydrogen sulphide (H2S) and volatile thiols (methanethiol or methyl mercaptan, ethanethiol and propanethiol) for their determination by liquid chromatography. The sampling procedure is based on the trapping/pre-concentration of the analytes in alkaline aqueous solution containing an organic mercurial probe p-hydroxymercurybenzoate, HO-Hg-C6H4-COO- (PHMB), where they are derivatized to stable PHMB complexes based on mercury-sulfur covalent bonds. PHMB complexes are separated on a C18 reverse phase column, allowing their determination by liquid chromatography coupled with sequential non-selective UV-vis (DAD) and mercury specific (chemical vapor generation atomic fluorescence spectrometry, CVGAFS) on-line detectors. PHMB complexes, S(PHMB)2CH3S-PHMB, C2H5S-PHMB and C3H7S-PHMB, are stable alt least for 12 h at room temperature and for 3 months if stored frozen (-20 degrees C). The best analytical figures of merits in the optimized conditions were obtained by CVGAFS detection, with detection limits (LODc) of 9.7 microg L(-1) for H2S, 13.7 microg L(-1) for CH(3)SH, 17.7 microg L(-1) for C2H5SH and 21.7 microg L(-1) for C3H7SH in the trapping solution in form of RS-PHMB complexes, the relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) ranging between 1.0 and 1.5%, and a linear dynamic range (LDR) between 10 and 9700 microg L(-1). Conventional UV absorbance detectors tuned at 254 nm can be employed as well with comparable R.S.D. and LDR, but with LODc one order of magnitude higher than AFS detector and lower specificity. The sampling procedure followed by LC-DAD-CVGAFS analysis has been validated, as example, for H2S determination by a certified gas permeation tube as a source of 3.071+/-0.154 microg min(-1) of H2S, giving a recovery of 99.8+/-7% and it has been applied to the determination of sulfur compounds in real gas samples (biogas and the air of a plant for fractional distillation of crude oil).

  10. AN INTELLIGENT NEURO-FUZZY TERMINAL SLIDING MODE CONTROL METHOD WITH APPLICATION TO ATOMIC FORCE MICROSCOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seied Yasser Nikoo

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a neuro-fuzzy fast terminal sliding mode control method is proposed for controlling a class of nonlinear systems with bounded uncertainties and disturbances. In this method, a nonlinear terminal sliding surface is firstly designed. Then, this sliding surface is considered as input for an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system which is the main controller. A proportinal-integral-derivative controller is also used to asist the neuro-fuzzy controller in order to improve the performance of the system at the begining stage of control operation. In addition, bee algorithm is used in this paper to update the weights of neuro-fuzzy system as well as the parameters of the proportinal-integral-derivative controller. The proposed control scheme is simulated for vibration control in a model of atomic force microscope system and the results are compared with conventional sliding mode controllers. The simulation results show that the chattering effect in the proposed controller is decreased in comparison with the sliding mode and the terminal sliding mode controllers. Also, the method provides the advantages of fast convergence and low model dependency compared to the conventional methods.

  11. Gene probes : principles and protocols [Methods in molecular biology, v. 179

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapley, Ralph; Aquino de Muro, Marilena

    2002-01-01

    "Senior scientists Marilena Aquino de Muro and Ralph Rapley have brought together an outstanding collection of time-tested protocols for designing and using genes probes in a wide variety of applications...

  12. Probing Amorphous Components in High Temperature TE Materials by in situ Total Scattering and the Pair Distribution Function (PDF) Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reardon, Hazel; Iversen, Bo Brummerstedt; Blichfeld, Anders Bank

    to heating cycles, then we are closer to distinguishing how we may generate materials that do not undergo specific structure reorientation processes, and/or how we may mitigate them before they occur. Here, we will present a total scattering and PDF study that probes the local structure of the Type......-I clathrate Ba8Ga16Ge30. This suggests that local structure reorientations in the cage are likely to be the root cause of the degradation of the structure. This deepens our understanding of disordered clathrates, and provides evidence that the PDF technique is an effective method for probing local structure...

  13. The Expanded FindCore Method for Identification of a Core Atom Set for Assessment of Protein Structure Prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, David A.; Grullon, Jennifer; Huang, Yuanpeng J.; Tejero, Roberto; Montelione, Gaetano T.

    2014-01-01

    Maximizing the scientific impact of NMR-based structure determination requires robust and statistically sound methods for assessing the precision of NMR-derived structures. In particular, a method to define a core atom set for calculating superimpositions and validating structure predictions is critical to the use of NMR-derived structures as targets in the CASP competition. FindCore (D.A. Snyder and G.T. Montelione PROTEINS 2005;59:673–686) is a superimposition independent method for identifying a core atom set, and partitioning that set into domains. However, as FindCore optimizes superimposition by sensitively excluding not-well-defined atoms, the FindCore core may not comprise all atoms suitable for use in certain applications of NMR structures, including the CASP assessment process. Adapting the FindCore approach to assess predicted models against experimental NMR structures in CASP10 required modification of the FindCore method. This paper describes conventions and a standard protocol to calculate an “Expanded FindCore” atom set suitable for validation and application in biological and biophysical contexts. A key application of the Expanded FindCore method is to identify a core set of atoms in the experimental NMR structure for which it makes sense to validate predicted protein structure models. We demonstrate the application of this Expanded FindCore method in characterizing well-defined regions of 18 NMR-derived CASP10 target structures. The Expanded FindCore protocol defines “expanded core atom sets” that match an expert’s intuition of which parts of the structure are sufficiently well-defined to use in assessing CASP model predictions. We also illustrate the impact of this analysis on the CASP GDT assessment scores. PMID:24327305

  14. Modern methods for calculations of photoionization and electron impact ionization of two-electron atoms and molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Serov, Vladislav V; Sergeeva, Tatiana A; Vinitsky, Sergue I

    2012-01-01

    A review of some recently developed methods of calculating multiple differential cross-sections of photoionization and electron impactionization of atoms and molecules having two active electrons is presented. The methods imply original approaches to calculating three-particle Coulomb wave functions. The external complex scaling method and the formalism of the Schroedinger equation with a source in the right-hand side are considered. Efficiency of the time-dependent approaches to the scattering problem, such as the paraxial approximation and the time-dependent scaling, is demonstrated. An original numerical method elaborated by the authors for solving the 6D Schroedinger equation for an atom with two active electrons, based on the Chang-Fano transformation and the discrete variable representation, is formulated. Basing on numerical simulations, the threshold behavior of angular distributions of two-electron photoionization of the negative hydrogen ion and helium atom, and multiple differential cross-sections ...

  15. A Pragmatic Smoothing Method for Improving the Quality of the Results in Atomic Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennun, Leonardo

    2017-07-01

    A new smoothing method for improvement on the quantification of spectral signals, which requires the previous knowledge of the functions that should be quantified, is presented. These functions are used as weighted coefficients in the proposed smoothing algorithm. This method is extremely effective in reducing the scatter of signals obtained by the multichannel analyzer and it could be applied in atomic and nuclear spectroscopies, preferably to these techniques where net counts are a linear function of the acquisition time, like total reflection X-ray fluorescence, micro X-ray fluorescence, etc. If this algorithm is properly applied, it does not distort the form or the intensity of the signal, so it is well suited for use in all kinds of spectroscopic techniques. However, it should not be applied to data obtained from systems depending on time, e.g., control sciences, time series, sound analysis, etc. We applied this method over simulated data and real experimental measurements. As with all smoothing techniques, the proposed method improves the precision of the results, but when it was applied to computer-simulated spectra, we found a systematic enhancement on the accuracy of the results. We still do not have an answer for this apparent paradox. We also have to evaluate, in spectral analysis, the improvement produced by this smoothing procedure over detection and quantification limits. When this algorithm is applied over experimental results, it is mandatory that the sought characteristic functions, required for this weighted smoothing method, should be obtained from a system with strong stability. If the sought signals are not perfectly clean, this method should be applied with care.

  16. Formulation of probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail using the reference ratio method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentin, Jan B; Andreetta, Christian; Boomsma, Wouter; Bottaro, Sandro; Ferkinghoff-Borg, Jesper; Frellsen, Jes; Mardia, Kanti V; Tian, Pengfei; Hamelryck, Thomas

    2014-02-01

    We propose a method to formulate probabilistic models of protein structure in atomic detail, for a given amino acid sequence, based on Bayesian principles, while retaining a close link to physics. We start from two previously developed probabilistic models of protein structure on a local length scale, which concern the dihedral angles in main chain and side chains, respectively. Conceptually, this constitutes a probabilistic and continuous alternative to the use of discrete fragment and rotamer libraries. The local model is combined with a nonlocal model that involves a small number of energy terms according to a physical force field, and some information on the overall secondary structure content. In this initial study we focus on the formulation of the joint model and the evaluation of the use of an energy vector as a descriptor of a protein's nonlocal structure; hence, we derive the parameters of the nonlocal model from the native structure without loss of generality. The local and nonlocal models are combined using the reference ratio method, which is a well-justified probabilistic construction. For evaluation, we use the resulting joint models to predict the structure of four proteins. The results indicate that the proposed method and the probabilistic models show considerable promise for probabilistic protein structure prediction and related applications. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A New Method for Characterization of Natural Zeolites and Organic Nanostructure Using Atomic Force Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Fuoco

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study and develop an economical solution to environmental pollution in water, a wide variety of materials have been investigated. Natural zeolites emerge from that research as the best in class of this category. Zeolites are natural materials which are relatively abundant and non biodegradable, economical and serve to perform processes of environmental remediation. This paper contains a full description of a new method to characterize the superficial properties of natural zeolites of exotic provenience (Caribbean Islets with atomic force microscopy (AFM. AFM works with the simplicity of the optical microscope and the high resolution typical of a transmission electron microscope (TEM. If the sample is conductive, structural information of mesoporous material is obtained using scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM, otherwise the sample has to be processed through the grafitation technique, but this procedure induces errors of topography. Therefore, the existing AFM method, to observe zeolite powders, is made in a liquid cell-head scanner. This work confirms that it is possible to use an ambient air-head scanner to obtain a new kind of microtopography. Once optimized, this new method will allow investigation of organic micelles, a very soft nanostructure of cetyltriammonium bromide (CTAB, upon an inorganic surface such as natural zeolites. The data also demonstrated some correlation between SEM microphotographies and AFM 3D images.

  18. Multiplex PCR provides a low-cost alternative to DNA probe methods for rapid identification of Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare.

    OpenAIRE

    Cousins, D; Francis, B; Dawson, D

    1996-01-01

    A multiplex PCR designed to differentiate Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex organisms from M. avium and M. intracellulare was used to test 105 isolates identified by DNA probe methods as M. avium, M. intracellulare, or M. avium complex type X. The multiple PCR correctly identified 33 of 34 isolates identified by commercial probe methods as M. avium and all 51 isolates identified as M. intracellulare. The 20 isolates identified as M. avium complex type X by probe were identified as Mycobacter...

  19. Evidence for spatial tuning in informational masking using the probe-signal method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, T L; Kidd, G

    2000-10-01

    Auditory spatial attention is one mechanism that may contribute to the ability to identify one sound source in a multi-source environment. The role of auditory spatial attention in a multi-source environment was investigated using the probe-signal method. The experiment took place in a quiet room with seven speakers arranged in a semi-circle in front of the listener. The speakers were placed at 30-degree intervals at a distance of 5 ft from the listener. The signal was comprised of eight contiguous, 60-ms pure-tone bursts arranged in either a rising or falling frequency pattern. Masker components were also comprised of eight contiguous pure-tone bursts but with durations that varied randomly from 20 to 100 ms. The six maskers were played with the signal and were constructed in order to result in informational rather than energetic masking. The frequency of each masker component was chosen randomly on each burst from a narrow frequency band, independent from the signal frequency band. The task was 1I-2AFC fixed-level identification with response time measurement. The listener was instructed to focus attention on a specified speaker (expected location) for a block of trials. Accuracy and response time were compared across two conditions: (1) signal presented at the expected location and (2) signal presented at an unexpected location. Results indicate a significant increase in accuracy and faster response time when the signal was presented at the expected location as compared to an unexpected location. These results suggest that auditory spatial attention plays an important role in multi-source listening, especially when the listening environment is complex and uncertain.

  20. DNA-based stable isotope probing coupled with cultivation methods implicates Methylophaga in hydrocarbon degradation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara eMishamandani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Marine hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria perform a fundamental role in the oxidation and ultimate removal of crude oil and its petrochemical derivatives in coastal and open ocean environments. Those with an almost exclusive ability to utilize hydrocarbons as a sole carbon and energy source have been found confined to just a few genera. Here we used stable isotope probing (SIP, a valuable tool to link the phylogeny and function of targeted microbial groups, to investigate hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in coastal North Carolina sea water (Beaufort Inlet, USA with uniformly labeled [13C]n-hexadecane. The dominant sequences in clone libraries constructed from 13C-enriched bacterial DNA (from n-hexadecane enrichments were identified to belong to the genus Alcanivorax, with ≤98% sequence identity to the closest type strain – thus representing a putative novel phylogenetic taxon within this genus. Unexpectedly, we also identified 13C-enriched sequences in heavy DNA fractions that were affiliated to the genus Methylophaga. This is a contentious group since, though some of its members have been proposed to degrade hydrocarbons, substantive evidence has not previously confirmed this. We used quantitative PCR primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene of the SIP-identified Alcanivorax and Methylophaga to determine their abundance in incubations amended with unlabeled n-hexadecane. Both showed substantial increases in gene copy number during the experiments. Subsequently, we isolated a strain representing the SIP-identified Methylophaga sequences (99.9% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity and used it to show, for the first time, direct evidence of hydrocarbon degradation by a cultured Methylophaga sp. This study demonstrates the value of coupling SIP with cultivation methods to identify and expand on the known diversity of hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the marine environment.

  1. Fitness analysis method for magnesium in drinking water with atomic absorption using quadratic curve calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Pérez-López

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Because of the importance of quantitative chemical analysis in research, quality control, sales of services and other areas of interest , and the limiting of some instrumental analysis methods for quantification with linear calibration curve, sometimes because the short linear dynamic ranges of the analyte, and sometimes by limiting the technique itself, is that there is a need to investigate a little more about the convenience of using quadratic curves for analytical quantification, which seeks demonstrate that it is a valid calculation model for chemical analysis instruments. To this was taken as an analysis method based on the technique and atomic absorption spectroscopy in particular a determination of magnesium in a sample of drinking water Tacares sector Northern Grecia, employing a nonlinear calibration curve and a curve specific quadratic behavior, which was compared with the test results obtained for the same analysis with a linear calibration curve. The results show that the methodology is valid for the determination referred to, with all confidence, since the concentrations are very similar, and as used hypothesis testing can be considered equal.

  2. Analytical method for parameterizing the random profile components of nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirsaidov, Utkur; Timashev, Serge F; Polyakov, Yuriy S; Misurkin, Pavel I; Musaev, Ibrahim; Polyakov, Sergey V

    2011-02-07

    The functional properties of many technological surfaces in biotechnology, electronics, and mechanical engineering depend to a large degree on the individual features of their nanoscale surface texture, which in turn is a function of the surface manufacturing process. Among these features, the surface irregularities and self-similarity structures at different spatial scales, especially in the range of 1 to 100 nm, are of high importance because they greatly affect the surface interaction forces acting at a nanoscale distance. An analytical method for parameterizing the surface irregularities and their correlations in nanosurfaces imaged by atomic force microscopy (AFM) is proposed. In this method, flicker noise spectroscopy--a statistical physics approach--is used to develop six nanometrological parameters characterizing the high-frequency contributions of jump- and spike-like irregularities into the surface texture. These contributions reflect the stochastic processes of anomalous diffusion and inertial effects, respectively, in the process of surface manufacturing. The AFM images of the texture of corrosion-resistant magnetite coatings formed on low-carbon steel in hot nitrate solutions with coating growth promoters at different temperatures are analyzed. It is shown that the parameters characterizing surface spikiness are able to quantify the effect of process temperature on the corrosion resistance of the coatings. It is suggested that these parameters can be used for predicting and characterizing the corrosion-resistant properties of magnetite coatings.

  3. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Nishii, Toshifumi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Enjoji, Hideo; Iwata, Atsushi

    1990-04-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor F is presented. Factor F is applied to a system consisting of a rectangular parallelepiped sample and a square four-probe array. Resistivity and sheet resistance measurements are made on isotropic graphites and crystalline ITO films. Factor F corrects experimental data and leads to reasonable resistivity and sheet resistance.

  4. Rapid development of bromodomain probes using flow synthesis methods and frontal affinity chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Ingham, Richard; Guetzoyan, Lucie; Nikbin, Nikzad; Ley, Steven V.

    2014-01-01

    This poster illustrates aspects of a project involving the development of new probes for bromodomain 9 protein. Flow chemistry technologies and remote monitoring techniques were used for the synthesis, and Frontal Affinity Chromatography assays were used for analysis of the products.

  5. Improved method for Mica functionalization used in single molecule imaging of DNA with atomic force microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Zapletalová

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The modified procedure of 1-(3-aminopropylsilatrane (APS compound synthesis based on a new derivative (3‑aminopropyltrimethoxysilane for the purpose of DNA immobilization for AFM single imaging is described. New reaction pathway based on kinetically driven reaction approach is described. Necessity of two‑step purification process is proved; ability of purified APS to provide four times smoother surfaces in comparison with a crude product is demonstrated. Various analytical methods such mass spectroscopy and 1H NMR were used to show structure and enhanced purity of the APS product. APS mediates fixation of DNA molecules to mica substrates to be used for DNA imaging under Atomic Force Microscope. The use of an APS compound for simple and rapid silanization of mica surface is demonstrated. The advantages of APS‑based method are based mainly on low roughness of modified mica and homogeneous surface coverage by short sequence dsDNA (246 bp. The product obtained by the condensation reaction was purified in a two step process whose effectiveness was demonstrated not only by reduction of the silanized surface roughness, but also by mass spectroscopy (MS‑ESi, MALDI‑TOF method and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Experiments demonstrate that 1‑(3‑aminopropylsilatrane can be used to fix dsDNA molecules to a mica surface to be visualized by either the tapping mode or the force‑volume mode of AFM microscopy, as demonstrated by experiments. Moreover, necessity of advanced purification protocol is demonstrated by AFM based roughness measurements – pure vs crude APS product. The kinetics of APS‑layer aging, caused by silicon oxide growth on silanized layers, was studied by water contact angle measurements and is discussed.

  6. Fluorescence in situ hybridization method using a peptide nucleic acid probe for identification of Lactobacillus spp. in milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Antonio; Almeida, Carina; Carvalho, Ana; Boyen, Filip; Haesebrouck, Freddy; Rodrigues, Ligia; Cerca, Nuno; Azevedo, Nuno Filipe

    2013-03-01

    Lactobacillus species constitute one of the dominant and beneficial bacteria in our body and are used in developed countries as a microbial adjuvant. Identification of these probiotic bacteria is traditionally performed by culture-based techniques. However, such methods are very time-consuming and can give inaccurate results, especially when Lactobacillus is present in mixed bacterial complex communities. Our study aimed to accurately identify Lactobacillus spp. using a novel Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (FISH) probe. The probe (Lac663) was tested on 36 strains belonging to different Lactobacillus species and on 20 strains of other bacterial species. The sensitivity and specificity of the method were 100% (95% confidence interval (CI), 88.0 to 100.0%) and 95.0% (95% CI, 73.1 to 99.7%), respectively. Additionally, we tested the applicability of the method on milk samples added with Lactobacillus strains at probiotic range concentrations and other taxonomically related bacteria, as well as pathogenic bacteria. The Lac663 probe bound exclusively to Lactobacillus strains and the described PNA-FISH method was capable of directly quantifying Lactobacillus spp. in concentrations at which these potential probiotic bacteria are considered to have an effective benefit on human health. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atomistic modeling of metallic thin films by modified embedded atom method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Huali; Lau, Denvid

    2017-11-01

    Molecular dynamics simulation is applied to investigate the deposition process of metallic thin films. Eight metals, titanium, vanadium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, tungsten, and gold, are chosen to be deposited on the aluminum substrate. The second nearest-neighbor modified embedded atom method potential is adopted to predict their thermal and mechanical properties. When quantifying the screening parameters of the potential, the error for Young's modulus and coefficient of thermal expansion between the simulated results and the experimental measurements is less than 15%, demonstrating the reliability of the potential to predict metallic behaviors related to thermal and mechanical properties. A set of potential parameters which governs the interactions between aluminum and other metals in a binary system is also generated from ab initio calculation. The details of interfacial structures between the chosen films and substrate are successfully simulated with the help of these parameters. Our results indicate that the preferred orientation of film growth depends on the film crystal structure, and the inter-diffusion at the interface is correlated the cohesive energy parameter of potential for the binary system. Such finding provides an important basis to further understand the interfacial science, which contributes to the improvement of the mechanical properties, reliability and durability of films.

  8. Application of triangular atomic force microscopy cantilevers to friction measurement with the improved parallel scan method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu-Liang; Zhao, Xue-Zeng

    2009-02-01

    The atomic force microscopy (AFM) can provide tribological information in micro/nanoscale. However, the general measurement techniques require rigorous value of stiffness and relationship between AFM cantilever deformation and corresponding photodetector response. In this study, triangular AFM cantilevers with different dimensions are applied to quantitatively measure the coefficient of friction with the improved parallel scan method [Y. L. Wang, X. Z. Zhao, and F. Q. Zhou, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 78, 036107 (2007)]. An analytical model is first presented with the plan-view geometrical dimensions of cantilevers. Finite element analysis (FEA) models are set up to validate the analytical model. The results show good agreement between analytical calculation and FEA simulation. More importantly, the coefficient of friction obtained with different cantilevers on silicon surface shows a good consistency. At last, the factors which may affect measurement are discussed. The advantage of the model presented here is that the general uncertainties of thickness and Young's modulus are not necessary to be known for the friction force calibration in AFM application.

  9. A comparison of reconstruction methods for undersampled atomic force microscopy images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yufan; Andersson, Sean B.

    2015-12-01

    Non-raster scanning and undersampling of atomic force microscopy (AFM) images is a technique for improving imaging rate and reducing the amount of tip-sample interaction needed to produce an image. Generation of the final image can be done using a variety of image processing techniques based on interpolation or optimization. The choice of reconstruction method has a large impact on the quality of the recovered image and the proper choice depends on the sample under study. In this work we compare interpolation through the use of inpainting algorithms with reconstruction based on optimization through the use of the basis pursuit algorithm commonly used for signal recovery in compressive sensing. Using four different sampling patterns found in non-raster AFM, namely row subsampling, spiral scanning, Lissajous scanning, and random scanning, we subsample data from existing images and compare reconstruction performance against the original image. The results illustrate that inpainting generally produces superior results when the image contains primarily low frequency content while basis pursuit is better when the images have mixed, but sparse, frequency content. Using support vector machines, we then classify images based on their frequency content and sparsity and, from this classification, develop a fast decision strategy to select a reconstruction algorithm to be used on subsampled data. The performance of the classification and decision test are demonstrated on test AFM images.

  10. Two-probe versus van der Pauw method in studying the piezoresistivity of single-wall carbon nanotube thin films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yanbo; Duan, Xiaoshuang; Luo, Jiangjiang; Liu, Tao

    2017-11-01

    The use of the van der Pauw (VDP) method for characterizing and evaluating the piezoresistive behavior of carbon nanomaterial enabled piezoresistive sensors have not been systematically studied. By using single-wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) thin films as a model system, herein we report a coupled electrical-mechanical experimental study in conjunction with a multiphysics finite element simulation as well as an analytic analysis to compare the two-probe and VDP testing configuration in evaluating the piezoresistive behavior of carbon nanomaterial enabled piezoresistive sensors. The key features regarding the sample aspect ratio dependent piezoresistive sensitivity or gauge factor were identified for the VDP testing configuration. It was found that the VDP test configuration offers consistently higher piezoresistive sensitivity than the two-probe testing method.

  11. Local atomic structure of solid solutions with overlapping shells by EXAFS: The regularization method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanov, Yu.A., E-mail: babanov@imp.uran.ru [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Ponomarev, D.A.; Ustinov, V.V. [M.N. Miheev Institute of Metal Physics, Ural Branch, Russian Academy of Sciences, Ekaterinburg 620990 (Russian Federation); Baranov, A.N. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119991 (Russian Federation); Zubavichus, Ya.V. [Russian Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, 123182 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A method for determining bond lengths from combined EXAFS spectra for solid oxide solutions is proposed. • We have demonstrated a high resolution in r-space of close spacing atoms in the Periodical Table. • These results were obtained without any assumptions concerning interatomic distances for multi-component systems. • Coordinates ions for the solid solution with rock salt structure are determined. - Abstract: The regularization method of solving ill-posed problem is used to determine five partial interatomic distances on the basis of combined two EXAFS spectra. Mathematical algorithm and experimental results of the EXAFS analysis for Ni{sub c}Zn{sub 1−c}O (c = 0.0, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 1.0) solid solutions with the rock salt (rs) crystal structure are discussed. Samples were synthesized from the binary oxide powders at pressure of 7.7 GPa and temperatures 1450–1650 K. The measurements were performed using synchrotron facilities (Russian Research Centre “Kurchatov Institute”, Moscow). The Ni and Zn K absorption spectra were recorded in transmission mode under room temperature. It is shown, the ideal rock salt lattice is distorted and long-range order exists only in the average (Vegard law). In order to determine coordinates ions for the solid solution with rock salt structure, we used the Pauling model. The simulation is performed for 343,000 cluster of oxide ions. The distribution functions for ions (Ni−O, Ni−Ni, Ni−Zn, Zn−Zn, Zn−O, O−O) depending on the distance are obtained. The width of the Gaussian distribution function is determined by the difference of the radii of the metal ions. The results are consistent with the data both X-ray diffraction and the EXAFS spectroscopy.

  12. Calculation Of Change-Changing Cross Sections Of IONS Or Atoms Colliding With Fast IONS Using The Classical Trajectory Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaganovich, I. D., Shnidman, Ariel, Mebane, Harrison, Davidson, R.C.

    2008-10-10

    Evaluation of ion-atom charge-changing cross sections is needed for many accelerator applications. A classical trajectory Monte Carlo (CTMC) simulation has been used to calculate ionization and charge exchange cross sections. For benchmarking purposes, an extensive study has been performed for the simple case of hydrogen and helium targets in collisions with various ions. Despite the fact that the simulation only accounts for classical mechanics, the calculations are comparable to experimental results for projectile velocities in the region corresponding to the vicinity of the maximum cross section. Shortcomings of the CTMC method for multielectron target atoms are discussed.

  13. Resistivity Correction Factor for the Four-Probe Method: Experiment II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, Masato; Yamaguchi, Shoji; Nishii, Toshifumi; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Enjoji, Hideo

    1989-05-01

    Experimental verification of the theoretically derived resistivity correction factor F is presented. Factor F can be applied to a system consisting of a disk sample and a four-probe array. Measurements are made on isotropic graphite disks and crystalline ITO films. Factor F can correct the apparent variations of the data and lead to reasonable resistivities and sheet resistances. Here factor F is compared to other correction factors; i.e. FASTM and FJIS.

  14. Clinical Effects of the Probing Method with Depth Gauge for Determining the Screw Depth of Locking Proximal Humeral Plate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Jin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The use of locking plates has gained popularity to treat proximal humeral fractures. However, the complication rates remain high. Biomechanical study suggested that subchondral screw-tip abutment significantly increased the stability of plant. We present a simple method to obtain the proper screw length through the depth gauge in elderly patients and compared the clinical effects with traditional measuring method. Methods. 40 patients were separated into two groups according to the two surgical methods: the probing method with depth gauge and the traditional measuring method. The intraoperative indexes and postoperative complications were recorded. The Constant and Murley score was used for the functional assessment in the 12th month. Results. Operative time and intraoperative blood loss indicated no statistical differences. X-ray exposure time and the patients with screw path penetrating the articular cartilage significantly differed. Postoperative complications and Constant and Murley score showed no statistical differences. Conclusions. Probing method with depth gauge is an appropriate alternative to determine the screw length, which can make the screw-tip adjoin the subchondral bone and keep the articular surface of humeral head intact and at the same time effectively avoid frequent X-ray fluoroscopy and adjusting the screws.

  15. All-atom simulation study of protein PTH(1-34) by using the Wang-Landau sampling method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon; Kwak, Wooseop

    2014-12-01

    We perform simulations of the N-terminal 34-residue protein fragment PTH(1-34), consisting of 581 atoms, of the 84-residue human parathyroid hormone by using the all-atom ECEPP/3 force field and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Through a massive high-performance computation, the density of states and the partition function Z( T), as a continuous function of T, are obtained for PTH(1-34). From the continuous partition function Z( T), the partition function zeros of PTH(1-34) are evaluated for the first time. From both the specific heat and the partition function zeros, two characteristic transition temperatures are obtained for the all-atom protein PTH(1-34). The higher transition temperature T 1 and the lower transition temperature T 2 of PTH(1-34) can be interpreted as the collapse temperature T θ and the folding temperature T f , respectively.

  16. Preparation of Ultracold Atom Clouds at the Shot Noise Level

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gajdacz, M.; Hilliard, A. J.; Kristensen, Mick

    2016-01-01

    We prepare number stabilized ultracold atom clouds through the real-time analysis of nondestructive images and the application of feedback. In our experiments, the atom number N∼10^6 is determined by high precision Faraday imaging with uncertainty ΔN below the shot noise level, i.e., ΔN... on this measurement, feedback is applied to reduce the atom number to a user-defined target, whereupon a second imaging series probes the number stabilized cloud. By this method, we show that the atom number in ultracold clouds can be prepared below the shot noise level....

  17. Improved electroless plating method through ultrasonic spray atomization for depositing silver nanoparticles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Qi [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Xie, Ming [Kunming Institute of Precious Metals, Kunming 650106 (China); Liu, Yichun, E-mail: liuyichun@kmust.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China); Yi, Jianhong [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kunming University of Science and Technology, Kunming 650093 (China)

    2017-07-01

    Highlights: • Electroless plating method assisted by ultrasonic spray atomization was developed. • This method leads to much more uniform silver coatings on MWCNTs. • The plating parameters affect the layer morphologies a lot. - Abstract: A novel method was developed to deposit nanosized silver particles on multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). The electroless plating of silver on MWCNTs accomplished in small solution drops generated by ultrasonic spray atomization, which inhibited excessive growth of silver particles and led to much more uniform nanometer grain-sized coatings. The results showed that pretreatment was essential for silver particles to deposit on the MWCNTs, and the electrolyte concentration and reaction temperature were important parameters which had a great influence on the morphology and structure of the silver coatings. Possible mechanisms of this method are also discussed in the paper.

  18. Mobile probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørngreen, Rikke; Jørgensen, Anna Neustrup; Noesgaard, Signe Schack

    2016-01-01

    to in an interview. This method provided valuable insight into the contextual use, i.e. how did the online resource transfer to the work practice. However, the research team also found that mobile probes may provide the scaffolding necessary for individual and peer learning at a very local (intra-school) community...

  19. Multipartite entanglement detection with nonsymmetric probing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dellantonio, Luca; Das, Sumanta; Appel, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify th...... the degree of entanglement of a quantum state in the spin system. Finally, we apply our method for entanglement verification to existing experimental data, and use it to prove the existence of tripartite entanglement in a spin-squeezed atomic ensemble.......We show that spin-squeezing criteria commonly used for entanglement detection can be erroneous if the probe is not symmetric. We then derive a lower bound on squeezing for separable states in spin systems probed asymmetrically. Using this we further develop a procedure that allows us to verify...

  20. Formation of field induced absorption in the probe response signal of a four-level V type atomic system a theoretical study

    CERN Document Server

    Islam, Khairul; Bhattacharyya, Dipankar; Bandyopadhyay, Amitava

    2016-01-01

    A density matrix based analytical model is developed to study the coherent probe field propagation through a four-level V type system in presence of a coherent control field. The model allows coupling of the probe field from the upper ground level to both of the excited levels keeping the control field locked to a particular transition. The addition of an extra ground level to a conventional three-level V type system creates extra decay paths to the ground levels for the upper level population. A set of sixteen density matrix based equations are formed and then solved analytically under rotating wave approximation to study the probe response under steady state condition. The simulated probe absorption spectra shows absorption dip at the centre of a transparency window only under Doppler broadened condition although the conventional EIT window appears under Doppler free condition. The dependence of the field induced absorption signal on the Rabi frequency of the control field, population transfer rate among th...

  1. Measurement of sheath potential by three emissive-probe methods in DC filament plasmas near a biased grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, In-Je; Park, In-Sun; Wackerbarth, Eugene; Bae, Min-Keun; Hershkowitz, Noah; Severn, Greg; Chung, Kyu-Sun

    2017-10-01

    Plasma potential structures are measured with an emissive probe near a negatively biased grid ( - 100 V , 80mm diam., 40 lines/cm) immersed in a hot filament DC discharge in Kr. Three different methods of analysis are compared: inflection point (IP), floating potential (FP) and separation point (SE) methods. The plasma device at the University of San Diego (length = 64 cm, diameter = 32 cm, source = filament DC discharge) was operated with 5 ×108 Planning (2015M1A7A1A01002784), US DOE Grant No. DE-SC00114226, NSF Grant Nos. 1464741, 1464838.

  2. A ring graph method for approximating atomic short-range order in disordered multi-component systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, Zhun-Yong

    2007-03-01

    The atomic short-range order (ASRO) in an alloy provides valuable information on the atomic structure to which the disordered alloy is tending. Mean field models with Onsager corrections have been used to calculate the ASRO in lattice models of disordered multi-component alloys. The Onsager correction is composition and temperature dependent and corrects for the over-correlation inherent to mean-field methods so that ASRO calculated satisfies the sum rule. However, it is does not take into account the k-dependence of the corrections. We present an analytical method based on ring graphs which provides for a k-dependent correction to the mean field. The ASRO in a simple ternary Ising model in a FCC lattice with nearest neighbor interactions is calculated using our method and compared to the results obtained from a Monte Carlo simulation. We find that, above the transition temperature, the analytical results are in good agreement with those obtained from simulations.

  3. Deep atomic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnard, H.; Drake, B.; Randall, C.; Hansma, P. K. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, California 93106 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    The Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) possesses several desirable imaging features including the ability to produce height profiles as well as two-dimensional images, in fluid or air, at high resolution. AFM has been used to study a vast selection of samples on the scale of angstroms to micrometers. However, current AFMs cannot access samples with vertical topography of the order of 100 μm or greater. Research efforts have produced AFM scanners capable of vertical motion greater than 100 μm, but commercially available probe tip lengths are still typically less than 10 μm high. Even the longest probe tips are below 100 μm and even at this range are problematic. In this paper, we present a method to hand-fabricate “Deep AFM” probes with tips of the order of 100 μm and longer so that AFM can be used to image samples with large scale vertical topography, such as fractured bone samples.

  4. Fluorescence in situ Hybridization method using Peptide Nucleic Acid probes for rapid detection of Lactobacillus and Gardnerella spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is a common vaginal infection occurring in women of reproductive age. It is widely accepted that the microbial switch from normal microflora to BV is characterized by a decrease in vaginal colonization by Lactobacillus species together with an increase of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobes. Our goal was to develop and optimize a novel Peptide Nucleic Acid (PNA) Fluorescence in situ Hybridization assay (PNA FISH) for the detection of Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis in mixed samples. Results Therefore, we evaluated and validated two specific PNA probes by using 36 representative Lactobacillus strains, 22 representative G. vaginalis strains and 27 other taxonomically related or pathogenic bacterial strains commonly found in vaginal samples. The probes were also tested at different concentrations of G. vaginalis and Lactobacillus species in vitro, in the presence of a HeLa cell line. Specificity and sensitivity of the PNA probes were found to be 98.0% (95% confidence interval (CI), from 87.8 to 99.9%) and 100% (95% CI, from 88.0 to 100.0%), for Lactobacillus spp.; and 100% (95% CI, from 92.8 to 100%) and 100% (95% CI, from 81.5 to 100.0%) for G. vaginalis. Moreover, the probes were evaluated in mixed samples mimicking women with BV or normal vaginal microflora, demonstrating efficiency and applicability of our PNA FISH. Conclusions This quick method accurately detects Lactobacillus spp. and G. vaginalis species in mixed samples, thus enabling efficient evaluation of the two bacterial groups, most frequently encountered in the vagina. PMID:23586331

  5. Methods for Computing Accurate Atomic Spin Moments for Collinear and Noncollinear Magnetism in Periodic and Nonperiodic Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manz, Thomas A; Sholl, David S

    2011-12-13

    The partitioning of electron spin density among atoms in a material gives atomic spin moments (ASMs), which are important for understanding magnetic properties. We compare ASMs computed using different population analysis methods and introduce a method for computing density derived electrostatic and chemical (DDEC) ASMs. Bader and DDEC ASMs can be computed for periodic and nonperiodic materials with either collinear or noncollinear magnetism, while natural population analysis (NPA) ASMs can be computed for nonperiodic materials with collinear magnetism. Our results show Bader, DDEC, and (where applicable) NPA methods give similar ASMs, but different net atomic charges. Because they are optimized to reproduce both the magnetic field and the chemical states of atoms in a material, DDEC ASMs are especially suitable for constructing interaction potentials for atomistic simulations. We describe the computation of accurate ASMs for (a) a variety of systems using collinear and noncollinear spin DFT, (b) highly correlated materials (e.g., magnetite) using DFT+U, and (c) various spin states of ozone using coupled cluster expansions. The computed ASMs are in good agreement with available experimental results for a variety of periodic and nonperiodic materials. Examples considered include the antiferromagnetic metal organic framework Cu3(BTC)2, several ozone spin states, mono- and binuclear transition metal complexes, ferri- and ferro-magnetic solids (e.g., Fe3O4, Fe3Si), and simple molecular systems. We briefly discuss the theory of exchange-correlation functionals for studying noncollinear magnetism. A method for finding the ground state of systems with highly noncollinear magnetism is introduced. We use these methods to study the spin-orbit coupling potential energy surface of the single molecule magnet Fe4C40H52N4O12, which has highly noncollinear magnetism, and find that it contains unusual features that give a new interpretation to experimental data.

  6. Speciation and detection of arsenic in aqueous samples: A review of recent progress in non-atomic spectrometric methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Jian [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Sengupta, Mrinal K. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States); Thermo Fisher Scientific, Dionex Products, 445 Lakeside Drive, Sunnyvale, CA, 94085 (United States); Yuan, Dongxing [State Key Laboratory of Marine Environmental Science, College of the Environment and Ecology, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Dasgupta, Purnendu K., E-mail: Dasgupta@uta.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Texas, 700 Planetarium Place, Arlington, TX 76019 (United States)

    2014-06-01

    Highlights: • Compilation of principal official documents and major review articles, including the toxicology and chemistry of As. • Review of non-atomic spectrometric methods for speciation and detection of arsenic in aqueous samples (2005–2013) of the performance of field-usable methods. - Abstract: Inorganic arsenic (As) displays extreme toxicity and is a class A human carcinogen. It is of interest to both analytical chemists and environmental scientists. Facile and sensitive determination of As and knowledge of the speciation of forms of As in aqueous samples are vitally important. Nearly every nation has relevant official regulations on permissible limits of drinking water As content. The size of the literature on As is therefore formidable. The heart of this review consists of two tables: one is a compilation of principal official documents and major review articles, including the toxicology and chemistry of As. This includes comprehensive official compendia on As speciation, sample treatment, recommended procedures for the determination of As in specific sample matrices with specific analytical instrument(s), procedures for multi-element (including As) speciation and analysis, and prior comprehensive reviews on arsenic analysis. The second table focuses on the recent literature (2005–2013, the coverage for 2013 is incomplete) on As measurement in aqueous matrices. Recent As speciation and analysis methods based on spectrometric and electrochemical methods, inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, neutron activation analysis and biosensors are summarized. We have deliberately excluded atomic optical spectrometric techniques (atomic absorption, atomic fluorescence, inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry) not because they are not important (in fact the majority of arsenic determinations are possibly carried out by one of these techniques) but because these methods are sufficiently mature and little meaningful innovation has been

  7. An extended numerical calibration method for an electrochemical probe in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ki Yong; No, Hee Cheon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-12-31

    The calibrating method for an electrochemical probe, neglecting the effect of the normal velocity on the mass transport, can cause large errors when applied to the measurement of wall shear rates in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves. An extended calibrating method is developed to consider the contributions of the normal velocity. The inclusion of the turbulence-induced normal velocity term is found to have a negligible effect on the mass transfer coefficient. The contribution of the wave-induced normal velocity can be classified on the dimensionless parameter, V. If V is above a critical value of V, V{sub crit}, the effects of the wave-induced normal velocity become larger with an increase in V. While its effects negligible for inversely. The present inverse method can predict the unknown shear rate more accurately in thin wavy flow with large amplitude waves than the previous method. 18 refs., 8 figs. (Author)

  8. QMQSAR: utilization of a semiempirical probe potential in a field-based QSAR method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Steve; Merz, Kenneth M; Lauri, Giorgio; Ianni, James C

    2005-01-15

    A semiempirical quantum mechanical approach is described for the creation of molecular field-based QSAR models from a set of aligned ligand structures. Each ligand is characterized by a set of probe interaction energy (PIE) values computed at various grid points located near the surface of the ligand. Single-point PM3 calculations afford these PIE values, which represents a pool of independent variables from which multilinear regression models of activity are built. The best n-variable fit is determined by constructing an initial regression using standard forward stepwise selection, followed by refinement using a simulated annealing technique. The resulting fit provides an easily interpreted 3D physical model of ligand binding affinity. Validation against three literature datasets demonstrates the ability of the semiempirical potential to model critical binding interactions in diverse systems.

  9. Electron probe microanalysis of red blood cells. I. Methods and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, R G; Bronner, C; Barba, W; Tosteson, D C

    1978-11-01

    The concentrations of potassium, sodium, and iron in human and sheep red blood cells were measured with an electron probe. Cells were prepared for analysis by spraying them on pyrolytic graphite supports. The results obtained with this spray technique agreed well with values measured on similar cells that were prepared for analysis by freezing, sectioning, and freeze-drying. Higher Na concentrations and lower K concentrations were found to be associated with lower cell volumes in human and high-potassium sheep cells. In low-potassium sheep cells the reverse was found, lower Na and higher K concentrations were associated with lower cell volumes. However, the amounts of iron were found to remain relatively constant in all human cells.

  10. Is MOKE a Viable Method for Probing Spin Hall Effect in Metals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yudan; Wang, Hua; Li, Jie; Tian, Chuanshan; Wu, Ruqian; Jin, Xiaofeng; Shen, Y. R.

    In a recent publication, van`t Erve et al. reported observation of the magneto-optical Kerr effect (MOKE) from the spin Hall effect (SHE) in beta-tungsten (β-W) and platinum (Pt) films. This is most interesting, as it would provide an alternative means to probe SHE in metals. However, despite repeated attempts on different samples, we were unable to find a true SHE-induced MOKE signal from β-W and Pt. Both our theoretical estimate and experimental results indicate that the MOKE signal from SHE in metals ought to be very weak, below the detection limit of currently available MOKE setups. The false MOKE signal observed by van't Erve et al. likely came from the unbalanced ac heating effect.

  11. A Compact Microchip-Based Atomic Clock Based on Ultracold Trapped Rb Atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Farkas, Daniel M; Anderson, Dana Z

    2009-01-01

    We propose a compact atomic clock based on ultracold Rb atoms that are magnetically trapped near the surface of an atom microchip. An interrogation scheme that combines electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) with Ramsey's method of separated oscillatory fields can achieve atomic shot-noise level performance of 10^{-13}/sqrt(tau) for 10^6 atoms. The EIT signal can be detected with a heterodyne technique that provides noiseless gain; with this technique the optical phase shift of a 100 pW probe beam can be detected at the photon shot-noise level. Numerical calculations of the density matrix equations are used to identify realistic operating parameters at which AC Stark shifts are eliminated. By considering fluctuations in these parameters, we estimate that AC Stark shifts can be canceled to a level better than 2*10^{-14}. An overview of the apparatus is presented with estimates of duty cycle and power consumption.

  12. Time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field method for atoms: Application to high-harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Sato, Takeshi; Brezinova, Iva; Lackner, Fabian; Nagele, Stefan; Burgdorfer, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    We present the numerical implementation of the time-dependent complete-active-space self-consistent-field (TD-CASSCF) method [Phys. Rev. A, 88, 023402 (2013)] for atoms driven by a strong linearly polarized laser pulse. The present implementation treats the problem in its full dimensionality and introduces a gauge-invariant frozen-core approximation, an efficient evaluation of the Coulomb mean field scaling linearly with the number of basis functions, and a split-operator method specifically designed for stable propagation of stiff spatial derivative operators. We apply this method to high-harmonic generation in helium, beryllium, and neon and explore the role of electron correlations.

  13. Multi-level cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency in cold atoms using an optical nanofibre interface

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Ravi; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2015-01-01

    Ultrathin optical fibres integrated into cold atom setups are proving to be ideal building blocks for atom-photon hybrid quantum networks. Such optical nanofibres (ONF) can be used for the demonstration of nonlinear optics and quantum interference phenomena in atomic media. Here, we report on the observation of multilevel cascaded electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using an optical nanofibre to interface cold $^{87}$Rb atoms through the intense evanescent fields that can be achieved at ultralow probe and coupling powers. Both the probe (at 780 nm) and the coupling (at 776 nm) beams propagate through the nanofibre. The observed multipeak transparency spectra of the probe beam could offer a method for simultaneously slowing down multiple wavelengths in an optical nanofibre or for generating ONF-guided entangled beams, showing the potential of such an atom-nanofibre system for quantum information. We also demonstrate all-optical-switching in the all fibred system using the obtained EIT effect.

  14. Improved detection of deletions and duplications in the DMD gene using the multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansović, Ivona; Barišić, Ingeborg; Dumić, Katja

    2013-04-01

    The multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) assay is the most powerful tool in screening for deletions and duplications in the dystrophin gene in patients with Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy (DMD/BMD). The efficacy of the assay was validated by testing 20 unrelated male patients with DMD/BMD who had already been screened by multiplex PCR (mPCR). We detected two duplications that had been missed by mPCR. In one DMD patient showing an ambiguous MLPA result, a novel mutation (c.3808_3809insG) was identified. MLPA improved the mutation detection rate of mPCR by 15 %. The results of our study (1) confirmed MLPA to be the method of choice for detecting DMD gene rearrangements in DMD/BMD patients, (2) showed that ambiguous MLPA amplification products should be verified by other methods, and (3) indicated that the MLPA method could be used in screening even for small mutations located in the probe-binding regions.

  15. Comparison of photothermal and piezoacoustic excitation methods for frequency and phase modulation atomic force microscopy in liquid environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Labuda

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In attempting to perform frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM in liquids, a non-flat phase transfer function in the self-excitation system prevents proper tracking of the cantilever natural frequency. This results in frequency-and-phase modulation atomic force microscopy (FPM-AFM which lies in between phase modulation atomic force microscopy (PM-AFM and FM-AFM. We derive the theory necessary to recover the conservative force and damping in such a situation, where standard FM-AFM theory no longer applies. Although our recovery procedure applies to all cantilever excitation methods in principle, its practical implementation may be difficult, or even impossible, if the cantilever is driven piezoacoustically. Specifically, we contrast the piezoacoustic excitation method to the photothermal method in the context of force spectroscopy of hydration structures at the mica-water interface. The results clearly demonstrate that photothermal excitation is superior to piezoacoustic excitation, as it allows for accurate quantitative interpretation of the acquired data.

  16. Review of coal-water fuel pulverization technology and atomization quality registration methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zenkov Andrey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Possibilities of coal-water fuel application in industrial power engineering are considered and described. Two main problems and disadvantages of this fuel type are suggested. The paper presents information about liquid fuel atomization technologies and provides data on nozzle type for coal-water fuel pulverization. This article also mentions some of the existing technologies for coal-water slurry spraying quality determination.

  17. A faster method to detect norovirus in oysters using probe hybridization to isolate target RNA before RT-PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Xunyan; Ellender, Rudolph D; Wang, Shiao Y

    2013-04-01

    Human Noroviruses (HuNoVs) are the most frequent cause of outbreaks of acute gastroenteritis following the ingestion of raw or improperly cooked oysters. Although highly sensitive methods to detect HuNoV in oysters using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) are available, rapid methods to process samples for RT-PCR are still needed. The conventional approach is to concentrate the virus first before RNA purification to maximize assay sensitivity, but the procedures used are cumbersome. We developed a new hybridization method that is much faster and more effective compared to existing technology. The procedure includes an initial extraction of total RNA from the digestive diverticula of oysters using TRI Reagent, followed by HuNoV RNA purification using a capture probe and then HuNoV detection by real-time RT-PCR. The detection limit is approximately 100 PCR detection units of HuNoV per sample. Compared to published methods that require an initial virus concentration step before RNA extraction, the new method is much faster to complete. Approximately 3 h are needed to purify HuNoV RNA using the new method compared to at least 8 h using conventional methods. Coupled with real-time RT-PCR, the new method can detect HuNoV in contaminated oysters within 8 h. The effectiveness of the method was demonstrated using live artificially contaminated oysters and wild oysters.

  18. Method 200.7: Determination of Metals and Trace Elements in Water and Wastes by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine metal-containing compounds as the total metal (e.g., total arsenic), using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

  19. The numerical realization of the probe method for the inverse scattering problems from the near-field data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, J.; Liu, J. J.; Nakamura, G.

    2005-06-01

    In this paper, we present some results on the numerical realization of the probe method for the inverse scattering problem of determining an obstacle with impedance boundary condition from the near-field data. The keys are how to construct the Runge approximate function for the fundamental solutions and compute the indicator function for the boundary of an obstacle. We test the performance of the probe method for a 2D obstacle by taking the simulated Dirichlet-to-Neumann map as inversion input data. This work was partly supported by the China State Major Basic Research Project 2001CB309400). The first author is partially supported by NSF of China (nos. 10 271 032, 10 431 030), Shuguang Project and E-Institute of Shanghai Municipal Education Commission (N.E03004). The second author is partly supported by NSF of China (no. 10 371 018) and the third author is partially supported by Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) (2) (no. 14 340 038) of Japan Society of Promotion of Science.

  20. Semi-automatic 10/20 Identification Method for MRI-Free Probe Placement in Transcranial Brain Mapping Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiang; Zhu, Hao; Liu, Wei-Jie; Yu, Xiao-Ting; Duan, Lian; Li, Zheng; Zhu, Chao-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    The International 10/20 system is an important head-surface-based positioning system for transcranial brain mapping techniques, e.g., fNIRS and TMS. As guidance for probe placement, the 10/20 system permits both proper ROI coverage and spatial consistency among multiple subjects and experiments in a MRI-free context. However, the traditional manual approach to the identification of 10/20 landmarks faces problems in reliability and time cost. In this study, we propose a semi-automatic method to address these problems. First, a novel head surface reconstruction algorithm reconstructs head geometry from a set of points uniformly and sparsely sampled on the subject's head. Second, virtual 10/20 landmarks are determined on the reconstructed head surface in computational space. Finally, a visually-guided real-time navigation system guides the experimenter to each of the identified 10/20 landmarks on the physical head of the subject. Compared with the traditional manual approach, our proposed method provides a significant improvement both in reliability and time cost and thus could contribute to improving both the effectiveness and efficiency of 10/20-guided MRI-free probe placement.

  1. Accurate Gaussian basis sets for atomic and molecular calculations obtained from the generator coordinate method with polynomial discretization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, Ricardo; Maringolo, Milena P; Comar, Moacyr; Viana, Rommel B; Guimarães, Amanda R; Haiduke, Roberto L A; da Silva, Albérico B F

    2015-10-01

    Accurate Gaussian basis sets for atoms from H to Ba were obtained by means of the generator coordinate Hartree-Fock (GCHF) method based on a polynomial expansion to discretize the Griffin-Wheeler-Hartree-Fock equations (GWHF). The discretization of the GWHF equations in this procedure is based on a mesh of points not equally distributed in contrast with the original GCHF method. The results of atomic Hartree-Fock energies demonstrate the capability of these polynomial expansions in designing compact and accurate basis sets to be used in molecular calculations and the maximum error found when compared to numerical values is only 0.788 mHartree for indium. Some test calculations with the B3LYP exchange-correlation functional for N2, F2, CO, NO, HF, and HCN show that total energies within 1.0 to 2.4 mHartree compared to the cc-pV5Z basis sets are attained with our contracted bases with a much smaller number of polarization functions (2p1d and 2d1f for hydrogen and heavier atoms, respectively). Other molecular calculations performed here are also in very good accordance with experimental and cc-pV5Z results. The most important point to be mentioned here is that our generator coordinate basis sets required only a tiny fraction of the computational time when compared to B3LYP/cc-pV5Z calculations.

  2. A charge transfer ionic-embedded atom method potential for the O-Al-Ni-Co-Fe system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou Xiaowang; Wadley, Haydn N G [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, 116 Engineer' s Way, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4745 (United States)

    2005-06-15

    Magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) require the growth of a thin ({approx}20 A) dielectric metal oxide layer, such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, on a ferromagnetic metal layer, such as Co, CoFe, or CoNiFe. The atomic assembly mechanisms that combine to form a uniformly thin metal oxide layer on these metal surfaces are not well understood. The application of molecular dynamics simulations to the growth of metal and metal oxide multilayers that involve more than one metal element has not been possible using the conventional interatomic potentials. A recently proposed modified charge transfer ionic-embedded atom method potential appears to correctly enable the charge transfer between oxygen and numerous metal elements to be modelled in a format amenable for molecular dynamics studies. Here we parametrize this charge transfer ionic-embedded atom method potential for the quinternary O-Al-Ni-Co-Fe system so that a direct molecular dynamics simulation of the growth of the tunnelling magnetoresistive multilayers can be realized.

  3. Examination of Short- and Long-Range Atomic Order Nanocrystalline SiC and Diamond by Powder Diffraction Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palosz, B.; Grzanka, E.; Stelmakh, S.; Gierlotka, S.; Weber, H.-P.; Proffen, T.; Palosz, W.

    2002-01-01

    The real atomic structure of nanocrystals determines unique, key properties of the materials. Determination of the structure presents a challenge due to inherent limitations of standard powder diffraction techniques when applied to nanocrystals. Alternate methodology of the structural analysis of nanocrystals (several nanometers in size) based on Bragg-like scattering and called the "apparent lattice parameter" (alp) is proposed. Application of the alp methodology to examination of the core-shell model of nanocrystals will be presented. The results of application of the alp method to structural analysis of several nanopowders were complemented by those obtained by determination of the Atomic Pair Distribution Function, PDF. Based on synchrotron and neutron diffraction data measured in a large diffraction vector of up to Q = 25 Angstroms(exp -1), the surface stresses in nanocrystalline diamond and SiC were evaluated.

  4. Solid, liquid, and interfacial properties of TiAl alloys: parameterization of a new modified embedded atom method model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shoutian; Ramu Ramachandran, Bala; Wick, Collin D.

    2018-02-01

    New interatomic potentials for pure Ti and Al, and binary TiAl were developed utilizing the second nearest neighbour modified embedded-atom method (MEAM) formalism. The potentials were parameterized to reproduce multiple properties spanning bulk solids, solid surfaces, solid/liquid phase changes, and liquid interfacial properties. This was carried out using a newly developed optimization procedure that combined the simple minimization of a fitness function with a genetic algorithm to efficiently span the parameter space. The resulting MEAM potentials gave good agreement with experimental and DFT solid and liquid properties, and reproduced the melting points for Ti, Al, and TiAl. However, the surface tensions from the model consistently underestimated experimental values. Liquid TiAl’s surface was found to be mostly covered with Al atoms, showing that Al has a significant propensity for the liquid/air interface.

  5. A photon counting and a squeezing measurement method by the exact absorption and dispersion spectrum of Λ-type Atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naeimi, Ghasem; Alipour, Samira; Khademi, Siamak

    2016-01-01

    Recently, the master equations for the interaction of two-mode photons with a three-level Λ-type atom are exactly solved for the coherence terms. In this paper the exact absorption spectrum is applied for the presentation of a non-demolition photon counting method, for a few number of coupling photons, and its benefits are discussed. The exact scheme is also applied where the coupling photons are squeezed and the photon counting method is also developed for the measurement of the squeezing parameter of the coupling photons.

  6. Dependencies of photoelectric properties of SiC/Si structures grown by the method of atoms substitution on synthesis time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grashchenko, A. S.; Kukushkin, S. A.; Osipov, A. V.; Feoktistov, N. A.

    2017-07-01

    This paper is dedicated to an exploration of the photoelectric properties of Si-SiC structures grown by the substitution method on silicon substrates of (001) orientation. For the samples with the synthesis times of 40, 60, 90, 120 and 900 s, magnitudes of the saturation currents are determined and the coefficients of efficiency are calculated. The obtained dependencies of the photoelectric characteristics on the synthesis time are explained using the theory of formation of dilatation dipoles during the synthesis by the method of atoms substitution.

  7. Galerkin method for unsplit 3-D Dirac equation using atomically/kinetically balanced B-spline basis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fillion-Gourdeau, F., E-mail: filliong@CRM.UMontreal.ca [Université du Québec, INRS – Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, Varennes, J3X 1S2 (Canada); Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada); Lorin, E., E-mail: elorin@math.carleton.ca [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Carleton University, Ottawa, K1S 5B6 (Canada); Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada); Bandrauk, A.D., E-mail: andre.bandrauk@usherbrooke.ca [Laboratoire de Chimie Théorique, Faculté des Sciences, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, J1K 2R1 (Canada); Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Université de Montréal, Montréal, H3T 1J4 (Canada)

    2016-02-15

    A Galerkin method is developed to solve the time-dependent Dirac equation in prolate spheroidal coordinates for an electron–molecular two-center system. The initial state is evaluated from a variational principle using a kinetic/atomic balanced basis, which allows for an efficient and accurate determination of the Dirac spectrum and eigenfunctions. B-spline basis functions are used to obtain high accuracy. This numerical method is used to compute the energy spectrum of the two-center problem and then the evolution of eigenstate wavefunctions in an external electromagnetic field.

  8. Semi-in situ atomic force microscopy imaging of intracellular neurofilaments under physiological conditions through the 'sandwich' method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Fumiya; Asakawa, Hitoshi; Fukuma, Takeshi; Terada, Sumio

    2016-08-01

    Neurofilaments are intermediate filament proteins specific for neurons and characterized by formation of biochemically stable, obligate heteropolymers in vivo While purified or reassembled neurofilaments have been subjected to morphological analyses by electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy, there has been a need for direct imaging of cytoplasmic genuine intermediate filaments with minimal risk of artefactualization. In this study, we applied the modified 'cells on glass sandwich' method to exteriorize intracellular neurofilaments, reducing the risk of causing artefacts through sample preparation. SW13vim(-) cells were double transduced with neurofilament medium polypeptide (NF-M) and alpha-internexin (α-inx). Cultured cells were covered with a cationized coverslip after prestabilization with tannic acid to form a sandwich and then split into two. After confirming that neurofilaments could be deposited on ventral plasma membranes exposed via unroofing, we performed atomic force microscopy imaging semi-in situ in aqueous solution. The observed thin filaments, considered to retain native structures of the neurofilaments, exhibited an approximate periodicity of 50-60 nm along their length. Their structural property appeared to reflect the morphology formed by their constituents, i.e. NF-M and α-inx. The success of semi-in situ atomic force microscopy of exposed bona fide assembled neurofilaments through separating the sandwich suggests that it can be an effective and alternative method for investigating cytoplasmic intermediate filaments under physiological conditions by atomic force microscopy. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Japanese Society of Microscopy. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Atomic Oxygen Treatment as a Method of Recovering Smoke Damaged Paintings. Revised

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, Sharon K.; Banks, Bruce A.; Forkapa, Mark; Stueber, Thomas; Sechkar, Edward; Malinowski, Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A noncontact technique is described that uses atomic oxygen, generated under low pressure in the presence of nitrogen, to remove soot and charred varnish from the surface of a painting. The process, which involves surface oxidation, permits control of the amount of surface material removed. The effectiveness of the process was evaluated by reflectance measurements from selected areas made during the removal of soot from acrylic gesso, ink on paper, and varnished oil paint substrates. For the latter substrate, treatment also involved the removal of damaged varnish and paint binder from the surface.

  10. Reduced hydrophobic interaction of polystyrene surfaces by spontaneous segregation of block copolymers with oligo (ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate blocks: force measurements in water using atomic force microscope with hydrophobic probes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Seki, Akiko; Ishizone, Takashi; Yokoyama, Hideaki

    2008-05-20

    Reduction of hydrophobic interaction in water is important in biological interfaces. In our previous work, we have found that poly(styrene- b-triethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PS-PME3MA) segregates the PME3MA block to the surface in hydrophobic environment, such as in air or in a vacuum, and shows remarkable resistance against adsorption or adhesion of proteins, platelets, and cells in water. In this paper, we report that atomic force microscopy (AFM) with hydrophobic probes can directly monitor the reduced hydrophobic interaction of the PS surfaces modified by poly(styrene- b-origoethylene glycol methyl ether methacrylate) (PS-PME NMA), where N is the number of ethylene glycol units. The pull-off forces between the hydrophobic probes that are coated with octyltrichlorosilane (OLTS) and the PS-PME NMA modified polystyrene (PS) surfaces in water were measured. The absolute spring constants and tip-curvatures of the AFM cantilevers were measured to compute the work of adhesion by the Johnson, Kendall, and Roberts (JKR) theory, which relates the pull-off force at which the separation occurs between a hemisphere and a plane to the work of adhesion. The hydrophobic interactions between the hydrophobic tip and polymer surfaces in water were greatly reduced with the segregated PME NMA blocks. The hydrophobic interactions decrease with increasing N of the series of PS-PME NMA and show a correlation with the amount of protein adsorbed.

  11. High precision micro-scale Hall Effect characterization method using in-line micro four-point probes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Dirch Hjorth; Hansen, Ole; Lin, Rong

    2008-01-01

    Accurate characterization of ultra shallow junctions (USJ) is important in order to understand the principles of junction formation and to develop the appropriate implant and annealing technologies. We investigate the capabilities of a new micro-scale Hall effect measurement method where Hall...... effect is measured with collinear micro four-point probes (M4PP). We derive the sensitivity to electrode position errors and describe a position error suppression method to enable rapid reliable Hall effect measurements with just two measurement points. We show with both Monte Carlo simulations...... and experimental measurements, that the repeatability of a micro-scale Hall effect measurement is better than 1 %. We demonstrate the ability to spatially resolve Hall effect on micro-scale by characterization of an USJ with a single laser stripe anneal. The micro sheet resistance variations resulting from...

  12. Ultrafast Rabi oscillation of a Gaussian atom ensemble

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Han-gyeol; Ahn, Jaewook

    2014-01-01

    We investigate Rabi oscillation of an atom ensemble in Gaussian spatial distribution. By using the ultrafast laser interaction with the cold atomic rubidium vapor spatially confined in a magneto-optical trap, the oscillatory behavior of the atom excitation is probed as a function of the laser pulse power. Theoretical model calculation predicts that the oscillation peaks of the ensemble-atom Rabi flopping fall on the simple Rabi oscillation curve of a single atom and the experimental result shows good agreement with the prediction. We also test the the three-pulse composite interaction $R_x(\\pi/2)R_y(\\pi)R_x(\\pi/2)$ to develop a robust method to achieve a higher fidelity population inversion of the atom ensemble.

  13. Dynamic of cold-atom tips in anharmonic potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menold, Tobias; Federsel, Peter; Rogulj, Carola; Hölscher, Hendrik; Fortágh, József

    2016-01-01

    Background: Understanding the dynamics of ultracold quantum gases in an anharmonic potential is essential for applications in the new field of cold-atom scanning probe microscopy. Therein, cold atomic ensembles are used as sensitive probe tips to investigate nanostructured surfaces and surface-near potentials, which typically cause anharmonic tip motion. Results: Besides a theoretical description of this anharmonic tip motion, we introduce a novel method for detecting the cold-atom tip dynamics in situ and real time. In agreement with theory, the first measurements show that particle interactions and anharmonic motion have a significant impact on the tip dynamics. Conclusion: Our findings will be crucial for the realization of high-sensitivity force spectroscopy with cold-atom tips and could possibly allow for the development of advanced spectroscopic techniques such as Q-control. PMID:28144505

  14. Free-standing biomimetic polymer membrane imaged with atomic force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rein, Christian; Pszon-Bartosz, Kamila Justyna; Jensen, Karin Bagger Stibius

    2011-01-01

    Fluid polymeric biomimetic membranes are probed with atomic force microscopy (AFM) using probes with both normal tetrahedrally shaped tips and nanoneedle-shaped Ag2Ga rods. When using nanoneedle probes, the collected force volume data show three distinct membrane regions which match the expected...... membrane structure when spanning an aperture in a hydrophobic scaffold. The method used provides a general method for mapping attractive fluid surfaces. In particular, the nanoneedle probing allows for characterization of free-standing biomimetic membranes with thickness on the nanometer scale suspended...

  15. A novel method of multiple nucleic acid detection: Real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting curve analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yang; Hou, Shao-Yang; Ji, Shang-Zhi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Meng-Yue; He, Li-Juan; Ye, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Yi-Min; Zhang, Yi-Xuan

    2017-11-15

    A novel method, real-time reverse transcription PCR (real-time RT-PCR) coupled with probe-melting curve analysis, has been established to detect two kinds of samples within one fluorescence channel. Besides a conventional TaqMan probe, this method employs another specially designed melting-probe with a 5' terminus modification which meets the same label with the same fluorescent group. By using an asymmetric PCR method, the melting-probe is able to detect an extra sample in the melting stage effectively while it almost has little influence on the amplification detection. Thus, this method allows the availability of united employment of both amplification stage and melting stage for detecting samples in one reaction. The further demonstration by simultaneous detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in one channel as a model system is presented in this essay. The sensitivity of detection by real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis was proved to be equal to that detected by conventional real-time RT-PCR. Because real-time RT-PCR coupled with probe-melting analysis can double the detection throughputs within one fluorescence channel, it is expected to be a good solution for the problem of low-throughput in current real-time PCR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Scanning probe and micropatterning approaches for biomolecular screening applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wilde, L M

    2002-01-01

    Force mapping using atomic force microscopy (AFM) allows for the simultaneous acquisition of topography and probe-sample interaction data. For example, AFM probes functionalised with an antigen can be employed to map the spatial distribution of recognition events on a substrate functionalised with the complementary specific antibody. However, this technique is currently limited to the detection of a single receptor-ligand species. Were the detection of multiple receptor-ligand interactions possible, AFM force mapping would offer greater scope as a sensitive tool for bioassay and screening applications. This thesis outlines developments in probe and substrate immobilisation methods to facilitate this process. We have developed an immobilisation strategy, which allows two antigen species, human serum albumin (HSA) and the beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin (beta hCG) to be simultaneously present on an AFM probe. Single point force spectroscopy results have revealed the ability of such probes to discri...

  17. O-Alkylated heavy atom carbohydrate probes for protein X-ray crystallography: Studies towards the synthesis of methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roman Sommer

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Selenoglycosides are used as reactive glycosyl donors in the syntheses of oligosaccharides. In addition, such heavy atom analogs of natural glycosides are useful tools for structure determination of their lectin receptors using X-ray crystallography. Some lectins, e.g., members of the tectonin family, only bind to carbohydrate epitopes with O-alkylated ring hydroxy groups. In this context, we report the first synthesis of an O-methylated selenoglycoside, specifically methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside, a ligand of the lectin tectonin-2 from the mushroom Laccaria bicolor. The synthetic route required a strategic revision and further optimization due to the intrinsic lability of alkyl selenoglycosides, in particular for the labile fucose. Here, we describe a successful synthetic access to methyl 2-O-methyl-L-selenofucopyranoside in 9 linear steps and 26% overall yield starting from allyl L-fucopyranoside.

  18. Probing viscoelastic surfaces with bimodal tapping-mode atomic force microscopy: Underlying physics and observables for a standard linear solid model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solares, Santiago D

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents computational simulations of single-mode and bimodal atomic force microscopy (AFM) with particular focus on the viscoelastic interactions occurring during tip-sample impact. The surface is modeled by using a standard linear solid model, which is the simplest system that can reproduce creep compliance and stress relaxation, which are fundamental behaviors exhibited by viscoelastic surfaces. The relaxation of the surface in combination with the complexities of bimodal tip-sample impacts gives rise to unique dynamic behaviors that have important consequences with regards to the acquisition of quantitative relationships between the sample properties and the AFM observables. The physics of the tip-sample interactions and its effect on the observables are illustrated and discussed, and a brief research outlook on viscoelasticity measurement with intermittent-contact AFM is provided.

  19. All-atom simulation study of protein PTH(1-34) by using the Wang-Landau sampling method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung-Yeon [Korea National University of Transportation, Chungju (Korea, Republic of); Kwak, Woo-Seop [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    We perform simulations of the N-terminal 34-residue protein fragment PTH(1-34), consisting of 581 atoms, of the 84-residue human parathyroid hormone by using the all-atom ECEPP/3 force field and the Wang-Landau sampling method. Through a massive high-performance computation, the density of states and the partition function Z(T), as a continuous function of T, are obtained for PTH(1-34). From the continuous partition function Z(T), the partition function zeros of PTH(1-34) are evaluated for the first time. From both the specific heat and the partition function zeros, two characteristic transition temperatures are obtained for the all-atom protein PTH(1-34). The higher transition temperature T{sub 1} and the lower transition temperature T{sub 2} of PTH(1-34) can be interpreted as the collapse temperature T{sub θ} and the folding temperature T{sub f} , respectively.

  20. Single atom microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wu; Oxley, Mark P; Lupini, Andrew R; Krivanek, Ondrej L; Pennycook, Stephen J; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos

    2012-12-01

    We show that aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy operating at low accelerating voltages is able to analyze, simultaneously and with single atom resolution and sensitivity, the local atomic configuration, chemical identities, and optical response at point defect sites in monolayer graphene. Sequential fast-scan annular dark-field (ADF) imaging provides direct visualization of point defect diffusion within the graphene lattice, with all atoms clearly resolved and identified via quantitative image analysis. Summing multiple ADF frames of stationary defects produce images with minimized statistical noise and reduced distortions of atomic positions. Electron energy-loss spectrum imaging of single atoms allows the delocalization of inelastic scattering to be quantified, and full quantum mechanical calculations are able to describe the delocalization effect with good accuracy. These capabilities open new opportunities to probe the defect structure, defect dynamics, and local optical properties in 2D materials with single atom sensitivity.

  1. Atomic Power

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic Power. By Denis Taylor: Dr. Taylor was formerly Chief UNESCO Advisor at the University. College, Nairobi, Kenya and is now Professor of Electrical Engineering in the Uni- versity of ... method of producing radioactive isotopes, which are materials .... the sealing and the pressure balancing, all can be carried out ...

  2. Streaming Swarm of Nano Space Probes for Modern Analytical Methods Applied to Planetary Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizi, P. G.; Horvath, A. F.; Berczi, Sz.

    2017-11-01

    Streaming swarms gives possibilities to collect data from big fields in one time. The whole streaming fleet possible to behave like one big organization and can be realized as a planetary mission solution with stream type analytical methods.

  3. A method for atomic spectroscopy of highly charged ions in the Pm isoelectronic sequence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Oe.

    1995-08-01

    The aim was to search for alkali-like spectra in the Promethium isoelectronic sequence. Pb{sup 22+} ions were produced by means of an ECR-ion source and accelerated towards a target of He gas. Colliding with He atoms the Pb{sup 22+} ions are likely to capture an electron, thus forming an excited Pm-like ion (Pb{sup 21+}). A 2 m grazing-incidence spectrometer was used for recording the spectra arising as the accelerated ions impinge on the target. No lines were recorded throughout the wavelength region where the spectrometer is sensitive. Further experiments are needed to make clear if this is due to experimental errors or not. 14 refs, 8 figs.

  4. Tracking Unfolding and Refolding Reactions of Single Proteins using Atomic Force Microscopy Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujalowski, Paul J.; Oberhauser, Andres F.

    2013-01-01

    During the last two decades single-molecule manipulation techniques such as atomic force microscopy (AFM) has risen to prominence through their unique capacity to provide fundamental information on the structure and function of biomolecules. Here we describe the use of single-molecule AFM to track protein unfolding and refolding pathways, enzymatic catalysis and the effects of osmolytes and chaperones on protein stability and folding. We will outline the principles of operation for two different AFM pulling techniques: length clamp and force-clamp discuss prominent applications. We provide protocols for the construction of polyproteins which are amenable for AFM experiments, the preparation of different coverslips, choice and calibration of AFM cantilevers. We also discuss the selection criteria for AFM recordings, the calibration of AFM cantilevers, protein sample preparations and analysis of the obtained data. PMID:23523554

  5. Probing numerical Laplace inversion methods for two and three-site molecular exchange between interconnected pore structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silletta, Emilia V; Franzoni, María B; Monti, Gustavo A; Acosta, Rodolfo H

    2018-01-01

    Two-dimension (2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance relaxometry experiments are a powerful tool extensively used to probe the interaction among different pore structures, mostly in inorganic systems. The analysis of the collected experimental data generally consists of a 2D numerical inversion of time-domain data where T2-T2 maps are generated. Through the years, different algorithms for the numerical inversion have been proposed. In this paper, two different algorithms for numerical inversion are tested and compared under different conditions of exchange dynamics; the method based on Butler-Reeds-Dawson (BRD) algorithm and the fast-iterative shrinkage-thresholding algorithm (FISTA) method. By constructing a theoretical model, the algorithms were tested for a two- and three-site porous media, varying the exchange rates parameters, the pore sizes and the signal to noise ratio. In order to test the methods under realistic experimental conditions, a challenging organic system was chosen. The molecular exchange rates of water confined in hierarchical porous polymeric networks were obtained, for a two- and three-site porous media. Data processed with the BRD method was found to be accurate only under certain conditions of the exchange parameters, while data processed with the FISTA method is precise for all the studied parameters, except when SNR conditions are extreme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations of atoms and molecules determined by the dipole ( γ,γ) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Long-Quan; Liu, Ya-Wei; Xu, Xin; Ni, Dong-Dong; Yang, Ke; Zhu, Lin-Fan

    2017-07-01

    The dipole (γ,γ) method, which is the inelastic X-ray scattering operated at a negligibly small momentum transfer, has been developed to determine the absolute optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations of atoms and molecules. This new method is free from the line saturation effect, and its Bethe-Born conversion factor varies much more slowly with the excitation energy than that of the dipole (e, e) method. Thus the dipole (γ,γ) method provides a reliable approach to obtain the benchmark optical oscillator strengths of the valence-shell excitations for gaseous atoms and molecules. In this paper, we give a review of the dipole (γ,γ) method and some recent measurements of absolute optical oscillator strengths of gaseous atoms and molecules. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Atomic and Molecular Data and their Applications", edited by Gordon W.F. Drake, Jung-Sik Yoon, Daiji Kato, Grzegorz Karwasz.

  7. The effective atomic numbers of some biomolecules calculated by two methods: A comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manohara, S.R.; Hanagodimath, S.M.; Gerward, Leif

    2009-01-01

    sections (WinXCom). The results of the two methods are compared and discussed. It is shown that for all biomolecules the direct method gives larger values of Z(eff) than the interpolation method, in particular at low energies (1-100 keV) At medium energies (0.1-5 MeV), Z(eff) for both methods is about...

  8. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry--a novel method to quantify blood volume in experimental models of intracerebral hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashefiolasl, Sepide; Foerch, Christian; Pfeilschifter, Waltraud

    2013-02-15

    Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) accounts for 10% of all strokes and has a significantly higher mortality than cerebral ischemia. For decades, ICH has been neglected by experimental stroke researchers. Recently, however, clinical trials on acute blood pressure lowering or hyperacute supplementation of coagulation factors in ICH have spurred an interest to also design and improve translational animal models of spontaneous and anticoagulant-associated ICH. Hematoma volume is a substantial outcome parameter of most experimental ICH studies. We present graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometric analysis (AAS) as a suitable method to precisely quantify hematoma volumes in rodent models of ICH. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Atomic and Nuclear Analytical Methods XRF, Mössbauer, XPS, NAA and Ion-Beam Spectroscopic Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Verma, H R

    2007-01-01

    This book is a blend of analytical methods based on the phenomenon of atomic and nuclear physics. It comprises comprehensive presentations about X-ray Fluorescence (XRF), Mössbauer Spectroscopy (MS), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), Neutron- Activation Analysis (NAA), Particle Induced X-ray Emission Analysis (PIXE), Rutherford Backscattering Analysis (RBS), Elastic Recoil Detection (ERD), Nuclear Reaction Analysis (NRA), Particle Induced Gamma-ray Emission Analysis (PIGE), and Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS). These techniques are commonly applied in the fields of medicine, biology, environmental studies, archaeology or geology et al. and pursued in major international research laboratories.

  10. Revealing the Conformational Dynamics in a Single-Molecule Junction by Site- and Angle-Resolved Dynamic Probe Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Shoji; Taninaka, Atsushi; Sugita, Yoshihiro; Katayama, Tomoki; Takeuchi, Osamu; Shigekawa, Hidemi

    2016-12-27

    Single-molecule junctions have been extensively studied because of their high potential for future nanoscale device applications as well as their importance in basic studies for molecular science and technology. However, since the bonding sites at an electrode and the molecular tilt angles, for example, cannot be determined experimentally, analyses have been performed assuming the structures of such interactive key factors, with uncertainties and inconsistencies remaining in the proposed mechanisms. We have developed a methodology that enables the probing of conformational dynamics in single-molecule junctions simultaneously with the direct characterization of molecular bonding sites and tilt angles. This technique has revealed the elemental processes in single-molecule junctions, which have not been clarified using conventional methods. The mechanisms of the molecular dynamics in 1,4-benzenedithiol and 4,4'-bipyridine single-molecule junctions, which, for example, produce binary conductance switching of different types, were clearly discriminated and comprehensively explained.

  11. A new and simple resonance Rayleigh scattering method for human serum albumin using graphite oxide as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengmian; Xu, Lili; Wang, Lisheng; Liang, Aihui; Jiang, Zhiliang

    2013-01-01

    Graphite oxide (GO) was prepared by the Hummer procedure, and can be dispersed to stable colloid solution by ultrasonic wave. The GO exhibited an absorption peak at 313 nm, and a resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) peak at 490 nm. In pH 4.6 HAc-NaAc buffer solution, human serum albumin (HSA) combined with GO probe to form large HSA-GO particles that caused the RRS peak increasing at 490 nm. The increased RRS intensity was linear to HSA concentration in the range 0.50-200 µg/mL. Thus, a new and simple RRS method was proposed for the determination of HSA in samples, with a recovery of 98.1-104%. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. A Universal Microarray Detection Method for Identification of Multiple Phytophthora spp. Using Padlock Probes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikora, K.; Verstappen, E.C.P.; Mendes, O.; Schoen, C.D.; Ristaino, J.; Bonants, P.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    The genus Phytophthora consists of many species that cause important diseases in ornamental, agronomic, and forest ecosystems worldwide. Molecular methods have been developed for detection and identification of one or several species of Phytophthora in single or multiplex reactions. In this article,

  13. Resonance Rayleigh scattering method for determination of ethion using silver nanoparticles as probe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parham, Hooshang; Saeed, Sedighe

    2015-01-01

    A simple, novel and sensitive method was developed to determine ethion insecticide in water samples. This method was based on the interaction of ethion with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and quenching of the resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) intensity. The change in RRS intensity (ΔIRRS) was linearly correlated to the concentration of ethion over the range of 10.0-900.0 µg L(-1). Ethion can be measured in a short time (3 min) without any complicated or time-consuming sample pretreatment process. Parameters that affect the RRS intensities such as pH, concentration of AgNPs, standing time, electrolyte concentration, and coexisting substances were systematically investigated and optimized. Interference tests showed that the developed method has a very good selectivity and could be used conveniently for determination of ethion. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 3.7 and 11.0 µg L(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSD) for 15.0 and 60.0 µg L(-1) of ethion were 4.1 and 0.2, respectively. Possible mechanisms for the quenching of RRS of AgNPs were discussed and the method was successfully applied for the analysis of spiked real water samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Real-time growth study of plasma assisted atomic layer epitaxy of InN films by synchrotron x-ray methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nepal, Neeraj [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Anderson, Virginia R. [American Society for Engineering Education, 1818 N Street NW, Washington, DC 20036; Johnson, Scooter D. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Downey, Brian P. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; Meyer, David J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375; DeMasi, Alexander [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Robinson, Zachary R. [Department of Physics, SUNY College at Brockport, 350 New Campus Dr, Brockport, New York 14420; Ludwig, Karl F. [Physics Department, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215; Eddy, Charles R. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, 4555 Overlook Avenue SW, Washington, DC 20375

    2017-03-13

    The temporal evolution of high quality indium nitride (InN) growth by plasma-assisted atomic layer epitaxy (ALEp) on a-plane sapphire at 200 and 248 °C was probed by synchrotron x-ray methods. The growth was carried out in a thin film growth facility installed at beamline X21 of the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory and at beamline G3 of the Cornell High Energy Synchrotron Source, Cornell University. Measurements of grazing incidence small angle x-ray scattering (GISAXS) during the initial cycles of growth revealed a broadening and scattering near the diffuse specular rod and the development of scattering intensities due to half unit cell thick nucleation islands in the Yoneda wing with correlation length scale of 7.1 and 8.2 nm, at growth temperatures (Tg) of 200 and 248 °C, respectively. At about 1.1 nm (two unit cells) of growth thickness nucleation islands coarsen, grow, and the intensity of correlated scattering peak increased at the correlation length scale of 8.0 and 8.7 nm for Tg = 200 and 248 °C, respectively. The correlated peaks at both growth temperatures can be fitted with a single peak Lorentzian function, which support single mode growth. Post-growth in situ x-ray reflectivity measurements indicate a growth rate of ~0.36 Å/cycle consistent with the growth rate previously reported for self-limited InN growth in a commercial ALEp reactor. Consistent with the in situ GISAXS study, ex situ atomic force microscopy power spectral density measurements also indicate single mode growth. Electrical characterization of the resulting film revealed an electron mobility of 50 cm2/V s for a 5.6 nm thick InN film on a-plane sapphire, which is higher than the previously reported mobility of much thicker InN films grown at higher temperature by molecular beam epitaxy directly on sapphire. These early results indicated that in situ synchrotron x-ray study of the epitaxial growth kinetics of InN films is a very powerful method to

  15. Advances in atomic spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Sneddon, J

    2000-01-01

    This fifth volume of the successful series Advances in Atomic Spectroscopy continues to discuss and investigate the area of atomic spectroscopy.It begins with a description of the use of various atomic spectroscopic methods and applications of speciation studies in atomic spectroscopy. The emphasis is on combining atomic spectroscopy with gas and liquid chromatography. In chapter two the authors describe new developments in tunable lasers and the impact they will have on atomic spectroscopy. The traditional methods of detection, such as photography and the photomultiplier, and how they are being replaced by new detectors is discussed in chapter three. The very active area of glow discharge atomic spectrometry is presented in chapter four where, after a brief introduction and historical review, the use of glow discharge lamps for atomic spectroscopy and mass spectrometry are discussed. Included in this discussion is geometry and radiofrequency power. The future of this source in atomic spectroscopy is also dis...

  16. Surface topography acquisition method for double-sided near-right-angle structured surfaces based on dual-probe wavelength scanning interferometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Gao, Feng; Jiang, Xiangqian

    2017-10-02

    This paper proposes an approach to measure double-sided near-right-angle structured surfaces based on dual-probe wavelength scanning interferometry (DPWSI). The principle and mathematical model is discussed and the measurement system is calibrated with a combination of standard step-height samples for both probes vertical calibrations and a specially designed calibration artefact for building up the space coordinate relationship of the dual-probe measurement system. The topography of the specially designed artefact is acquired by combining the measurement results with white light scanning interferometer (WLSI) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) for reference. The relative location of the two probes is then determined with 3D registration algorithm. Experimental validation of the approach is provided and the results show that the method is able to measure double-sided near-right-angle structured surfaces with nanometer vertical resolution and micrometer lateral resolution.

  17. Investigation of RNA Structure by High-Throughput SHAPE-Based Probing Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Line Dahl

    of highthroughput SHAPE-based approaches to investigate RNA structure based on novel SHAPE reagents that permit selection of full-length cDNAs. The SHAPE Selection (SHAPES) method is applied to the foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) plus strand RNA genome, and the data is used to construct a genome-wide structural...... map of the virus. I have used the data to discover stable structures de novo, including previously characterized structural elements, such as the internal ribosome entry site (IRES), and I show that three of the novel structures have been conserved through evolution, indicating...... that they are functional. The SHAPES method is further applied to the hepatitis C virus (HCV), where the data is used to refine known and predicted structures. Over the past years, the interest of studying RNA structure in their native environment has been increased, and to allow studying RNA structure inside living cells...

  18. Evolution of the Probe Methods of Examination in Gastroenterology: Review and Own Researchs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu.M. Stepanov

    2014-01-01

    Progression of technical capabilities contributed to the development of techniques, the essence of which lies in the long-term recording of sensors located on the intracavitary catheters. Thus, the method of endocavitary pH-measurement facilitates the diagnosis of intragastric pH and, very importantly, intraesophageal. Until now, the method of intraesophageal pH-monitoring was considered the «gold standard» for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD. The results of own researches of intraesophageal pH-monitoring in patients with GERD are provided. But many hours of pH monitoring of the esophagus showed only acid reflux, but alkaline and slightly alkaline refluxes remain outside of this method of investigation, so for the final identification of the causes of GERD symptoms the technique of impedance-pH-monitoring is being proposed. Impedance-pH-monitoring was proposed in 1991 by J. Silny as a method based on the evaluation of the motion of fluid, gas in the esophageal lumen by multiple impedance measurement with simultaneous registration of the pH. Technical capabilities of the impedance-pH-monitoring enabled to broaden our understanding of the physiological processes in the esophageal lumen and to determine the role of mixed, alkaline reflux in the development of GERD symptoms. This article presents the results of several studies conducted in different groups of patients with pathology of the upper digestive tract, which showed the superiority of impedance pH-monitoring and its high level of sensitivity and specificity in terms of reflux detection. The widespread introduction of new techniques and technologies into clinical practice will improve the efficiency and timeliness of medical care, avoiding time consuming for the selection of therapy, evaluation of its effectiveness.

  19. A Sensitive Method for Cadmium Determination Using an On-line Polyurethane Foam Preconcentration System and Thermospray Flame Furnace Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    TARLEY, César Ricardo Teixeira; ARRUDA, Marco Aurélio Zezzi

    2004-01-01

    A new sensitive and low cost method for cadmium determination at µg l-1 levels that combines an on-line preconcentration system with the thermospray flame furnace atomic absorption spectrometry technique (TS-FF-AAS...

  20. Stress relaxation and creep experiments with the atomic force microscope: a unified method to calculate elastic moduli and viscosities of biomaterials (and cells)

    CERN Document Server

    Moreno-Flores, Susana; Vivanco, Maria dM; Toca-Herrera, Jose Luis

    2010-01-01

    We show that the atomic force microscope can perform stress relaxation and creep compliance measurements on living cells. We propose a method to obtain the mechanical properties of the studied biomaterial: the relaxation time, the elastic moduli and the viscosity.