WorldWideScience

Sample records for atolls

  1. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  2. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote atoll...

  3. The Fishes of Rose Atoll - Supplement I

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A previous paper titled THE FISHES OF ROSE ATOLL discusses the results of a fish survey conducted November 12-13, 1980 within the four lagoon habitats of Rose Atoll,...

  4. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  5. Biosecurity Plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; Fisher, Robert N.

    2010-01-01

    This Biosecurity Plan for Palmyra Atoll was developed for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. The Biosecurity Plan is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The Biosecurity Plan focuses on ecosystem security, and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to non-native and potentially invasive species. The Plan attempts to identify pathways of invasion and strategies for preventing or reducing new introductions. Overall, the Biosecurity Plan provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to non-native species on Palmyra Atoll. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. At present, Palmyra Atoll harbors various non-native or invasive species in the terrestrial and marine ecosystems. The most notable examples of terrestrial invasive species include coconut trees (Cocos nucifera) and black rats (Rattus rattus). Although it is unclear whether they are non-native, coconut trees are currently the most dominant plant across Palmyra Atoll. They compete with native plant species for space and resources, and are potentially detrimental to seabirds dependent on native vegetation. Black rats are known to predate ground-nesting seabirds and are likely responsible for the lack of burrowing seabird reproduction on Palmyra Atoll. The most notable example of a marine invasive species is the corallimorph (Rhodactis howsei). Although Rhodactis howsei is a native species, it can take advantage of human-altered habitat and significantly change the natural habitat by aggressively outcompeting native corals. Although the

  6. Rose Atoll 1993 Shipwreck Restoration Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summarizes efforts undertaken to remove grounded shipwreck at Rose Atoll and monitor impacts to community composition between 1993 and 2012.

  7. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Species Management 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We initiated management of 3 species of plants that are introduced and invasive at Palmyra Atoll NWR. The work consisted of describing the distributions of these...

  8. Johnston Atoll - Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or yellow...

  9. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Palmyra Atoll 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  10. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Johnston Atoll 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  11. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  12. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in October...

  13. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote atoll...

  14. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote atoll...

  15. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote atoll...

  16. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  17. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Vieira Paiva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov.. One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. Further, this is the first record of Didemnum digestum in the Atlantic. The results indicate a high degree of endemism in the ascidian fauna from Rocas Atoll, where didemnids are presently the most important members.

  18. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge Station Plan [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is currently an overlay refuge managed through cooperative agreement with the U.S. Navy. The refuge is located near the...

  19. Nitrogen uptake by phytoplankton and zooxanthellae in a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wafar, M.V.M.; Devassy, V.P.; Slawyk, G.; Goes, J.I.; Jayakumar, D.A.; Rajendran, A.

    of the Lakshadweep Archipelago (Indian Ocean). This paper also presents the ambient concentrations of these nitrogenous nutrients in the lagoon and surrounding waters. In addition, the excretion of these nitrogen compounds by major coral species of the atoll was also...

  20. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 1 or 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in...

  2. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1995: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Midway Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1995 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  3. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1992: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Midway Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  4. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1994: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Midway Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1994 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  5. Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1992: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Johnston Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1992 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  6. Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1991: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Johnston Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1991 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  7. Johnston Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1993: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Johnston Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  8. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Palmyra Atoll 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the US...

  9. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Johnston Atoll 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  10. Palmyra Atoll Quickbird II Terrestrial Mosaic (1.8m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Pamyra Atoll were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of this...

  11. Palmyra Atoll Quickbird II Seafloor Mosaic (1.8m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Pamyra Atoll were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of this...

  12. Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rose Atoll NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  13. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 1993: Calendar Year

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This annual narrative report for Midway Atoll NWR outlines Refuge accomplishments during the 1993 calendar year. The report begins with a summary of the year's...

  14. Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Crane

    Full Text Available The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1-oceanic (close proximity to deep water and uninhabited (low human impact; cluster 2-oceanic and inhabited (high human impact; and cluster 3-lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon and inhabited (highest human impact. Distance from village, reef exposure to deep water and human population size had the greatest effect in predicting the fish and benthic community structure. Our study demonstrates a strong association between benthic and fish community structure and human use across the Ulithi Atoll (Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia and confirms a pattern observed by local people that an 'opportunistic' scleractinian coral (Montipora sp. is associated with more highly impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that small human populations (subsistence fishing can nevertheless have considerable ecological impacts on reefs due, in part, to changes in fishing practices rather than overfishing per se, as well as larger global trends. Findings from this work can assist in building local capacity to manage reef resources across an atoll-wide scale, and illustrates the importance of anthropogenic impact even in small communities.

  15. External exposure measurements at Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenhouse, N.A.; Miltenberger, R.P.; Lessard, E.T.

    1979-01-01

    External exposure rate surveys from 1975 to 1977 on the islands Nam, Eneu and Bikini of Bikini Atoll gave average external exposure rates of 24, 5.7, and 32 ..mu..R/hr respectively. The exposure rate on Eneu Island is uniform, whereas those on Bikini and Nam range from 7.0 to 80. ..mu..R/hr. Based on an assumed living pattern at Bikini Island, the adult male Bikinian is estimated to be in the presence of an external radiation field corresponding to 16 ..mu..R/hr due to debris and fallout from the 1954 BRAVO incident. This corresponds to a 30 year dose equivalent of 2.8 rem.

  16. Numerical modeling of atoll island hydrogeology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R T; Jenson, J W; Olsen, A E

    2009-01-01

    We implemented Ayers and Vachers' (1986) inclusive conceptual model for atoll island aquifers in a comprehensive numerical modeling study to evaluate the response of the fresh water lens to selected controlling climatic and geologic variables. Climatic factors include both constant and time-varying recharge rates, with particular attention paid to the effects of El Niño and the associated drought it brings to the western Pacific. Geologic factors include island width; hydraulic conductivity of the uppermost Holocene-age aquifer, which contains the fresh water lens; the depth to the contact with the underlying, and much more conductive, Pleistocene karst aquifer, which transmits tidal signals to the base of the lens; and the presence or absence of a semiconfining reef flat plate on the ocean side. Sensitivity analyses of steady-steady simulations show that lens thickness is most strongly sensitive to the depth to the Holocene-Pleistocene contact and to the hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer, respectively. Comparisons between modeling results and published observations of atoll island lens thicknesses suggest a hydraulic conductivity of approximately 50 m/d for leeward islands and approximately 400 m/d for windward islands. Results of transient simulations show that lens thickness fluctuations during average seasonal conditions and El Niño events are quite sensitive to island width, recharge rate, and hydraulic conductivity of the Holocene aquifer. In general, the depletion of the lens during drought conditions is most drastic for small, windward islands. Simulation results suggest that recovery from a 6-month drought requires about 1.5 years.

  17. Atoll-scale patterns in coral reef community structure: Human signatures on Ulithi Atoll, Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Peter; Abelson, Avigdor; Precoda, Kristin; Rulmal, John; Bernardi, Giacomo; Paddack, Michelle

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic relationship between reefs and the people who utilize them at a subsistence level is poorly understood. This paper characterizes atoll-scale patterns in shallow coral reef habitat and fish community structure, and correlates these with environmental characteristics and anthropogenic factors, critical to conservation efforts for the reefs and the people who depend on them. Hierarchical clustering analyses by site for benthic composition and fish community resulted in the same 3 major clusters: cluster 1–oceanic (close proximity to deep water) and uninhabited (low human impact); cluster 2–oceanic and inhabited (high human impact); and cluster 3–lagoonal (facing the inside of the lagoon) and inhabited (highest human impact). Distance from village, reef exposure to deep water and human population size had the greatest effect in predicting the fish and benthic community structure. Our study demonstrates a strong association between benthic and fish community structure and human use across the Ulithi Atoll (Yap State, Federated States of Micronesia) and confirms a pattern observed by local people that an ‘opportunistic’ scleractinian coral (Montipora sp.) is associated with more highly impacted reefs. Our findings suggest that small human populations (subsistence fishing) can nevertheless have considerable ecological impacts on reefs due, in part, to changes in fishing practices rather than overfishing per se, as well as larger global trends. Findings from this work can assist in building local capacity to manage reef resources across an atoll-wide scale, and illustrates the importance of anthropogenic impact even in small communities. PMID:28489903

  18. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kehl, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martinelli, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tumey, S. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Langston, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamblin, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tibon, S. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Chee, L. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Aisek, Jr., A. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); DeDrum, Z. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Mettao, M. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Henson, J. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands)

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  19. Strontium-isotope stratigraphy of Enewetak Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludwig, K. R.; Halley, Robert B.; Simmons, Kathleen R.; Peterman, Zell E.

    1988-01-01

    87Sr/86Sr ratios determined for samples from a 350 m core of Neogene lagoonal, shallow-water limestones from Enewetak Atoll display a remarkably informative trend. Like the recently published data for Deep Sea Drilling Project (DSDP) carbonates, 87Sr/86Sr at Enewetak increases monotonically but not smoothly from the early Miocene to the Pleistocene. The data show intervals of little or no change in 87Sr/86Sr, punctuated by sharp transitions to lower values toward greater core depths. The sharp transitions correlate with observed solution disconformities caused by periods of subaerial erosion, whereas the intervals of little or no change in 87Sr/86Sr correspond to intervals of rapid accumulation of shallow-water carbonate sediments. When converted to numerical ages using the published DSDP 590B trend, the best-resolved time breaks are at 282 m (12.3 to 18.2 Ma missing) and 121.6 m (3.0 to 5.3 Ma missing) below the lagoon floor. At Enewetak, Sr isotopes offer a stratigraphic resolution for these shallow-marine Neogene carbonates comparable to that of nannofossil zonation in deep-sea carbonates (0.3-3 m.y.). In addition, the correlation of times of Sr-isotope breaks at Enewetak with times of rapid Sr-isotope change in the DSDP 590B samples confirms the importance off sea-level changes in the evolution of global-marine Sr isotopes and shows that the Sr-isotope response to sea-level falls is rapid.

  20. Wave and tidal flushing in a near-equatorial mesotidal atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Mirella B.; Macedo, Eduardo C.; Valle-Levinson, Arnoldo; Siegle, Eduardo

    2017-03-01

    Most of the atolls found worldwide are under microtidal regimes, and their circulation mechanisms are widely documented and well known. Here, we describe the flushing mechanisms of a small-sized mesotidal atoll, based on water-level, wave and current data obtained during two different periods (total of 60 d). Rocas is the only atoll in the South Atlantic Ocean and is built primarily of coralline algae. Two reef passages connect the atoll lagoon to the ocean. Synchronous current profilers were deployed at the two reef passages, one inside and one outside the atoll, to characterize the influence of tides and waves on the circulation. Results showed that wind waves drove a setup on the exposed side of the atoll and that currents were predominately downwind, causing outflow at both reef passages. Waves breaking on the windward side supplied water to the atoll causing the lagoon water level to rise above ocean water level, driving the outflow. However, unlike microtidal atolls, at Rocas Atoll the water level drops significantly below the reef rim during low tides. This causes the reef rim to act as a barrier to water pumping into the lagoon by waves, resulting in periodic activation of the wave pumping mechanism throughout a tidal cycle. As result, inflow occurs in the wider passage during 27% of each tidal cycle, starting at low tides and reversing direction during mid-flood tide when the water level exceeded approximately 1.6 m (while overtopping the atoll's rim). Our findings show that tides play a direct role in driving circulation on a mesotidal atoll, not only by modulating wave setup but also by determining the duration of wave pumping into the lagoon.

  1. Evaluation of atrazine plus isoxaflutole (Atoll®) mixture for weed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field experiments were set up in three ecological zones of southwestern Nigeria to evaluate the effectiveness of Atoll® (atrazine + isoxaflutole), a new herbicide mixture, for weed control in maize. Crop i njury rating indicated pronounced phytotoxic effect on crops from 1.34 to 1.61 kg a.i. ha-1 Atoll in all locations. Acceptable ...

  2. Hydrogeology and management of freshwater lenses on atoll islands: Review of current knowledge and research needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Adrian D.; Sharp, Hannah K.; Galvis, Sandra C.; Post, Vincent E. A.; Sinclair, Peter

    2017-08-01

    On atoll islands, fresh groundwater occurs as a buoyant lens-shaped body surrounded by saltwater derived from the sea, forming the main freshwater source for many island communities. A review of the state of knowledge of atoll island groundwater is overdue given their susceptibility to adverse impacts, and the task to address water access and sanitation issues within the United Nations' Sustainable Development Goals framework before the year 2030. In this article, we review available literature to summarise the key processes, investigation techniques and management approaches of atoll island groundwater systems. Over fifty years of investigation has led to important advancements in the understanding of atoll hydrogeology, but a paucity of hydrogeological data persists on all but a small number of atoll islands. We find that the combined effects of buoyancy forces, complex geology, tides, episodic ocean events, strong climatic variability and human impacts create highly dynamic fresh groundwater lenses. Methods used to quantify freshwater availability range from simple empirical relationships to three-dimensional density-dependent models. Generic atoll island numerical models have proven popular in trying to unravel the individual factors controlling fresh groundwater lens behaviour. Major challenges face the inhabitants and custodians of atoll island aquifers, with rising anthropogenic stresses compounded by the threats of climate variability and change, sea-level rise, and some atolls already extracting freshwater at or above sustainability limits. We find that the study of atoll groundwater systems remains a critical area for further research effort to address persistent knowledge gaps, which lead to high uncertainties in water security issues for both island residents and surrounding environs.

  3. Baseline for beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, Christine; Seba B. Sheavly,; John Klavitter,

    2012-01-01

    Baseline measurements were made of the amount and weight of beached marine debris on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, June 2008–July 2010. On 23 surveys, 32,696 total debris objects (identifiable items and pieces) were collected; total weight was 740.4 kg. Seventy-two percent of the total was pieces; 91% of the pieces were made of plastic materials. Pieces were composed primarily of polyethylene and polypropylene. Identifiable items were 28% of the total; 88% of the identifiable items were in the fishing/aquaculture/shipping-related and beverage/household products-related categories. Identifiable items were lowest during April–August, while pieces were at their lowest during June–August. Sites facing the North Pacific Gyre received the most debris and proportionately more pieces. More debris tended to be found on Sand Island when the Subtropical Convergence Zone was closer to the Atoll. This information can be used for potential mitigation and to understand the impacts of large-scale events such as the 2011 Japanese tsunami.

  4. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Zoe T. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia) and Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811 (Australia) and School of Marine and Tropical Biology, James Cook University, Townsville QLD 4811 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia)], E-mail: zoe.richards@jcu.edu.au; Beger, Maria [Ecology Centre and Commonwealth Research Facility for Applied Environmental Decision Analysis, University of Queensland, St Lucia, QLD 4072 (Australia); NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Pinca, Silvia [College of the Marshall Islands, Majuro, Marshall Islands, NRAS - Marshall Islands: Natural Resource Assessment Surveys (Australia); Wallace, Carden C. [Museum of Tropical Queensland, Flinders St, Townsville, QLD 4810 (Australia)

    2008-03-15

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats.

  5. On the occurrence of Bullia tranquebarica (Roding) Nassaridae (Gastropoda) in Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Namboodiri, P.N.; Sivadas, P.

    A live buccinid gastropod Bullia tranquebarica belonging to family Nassaridae was collected from Kavaratti atoll in Lakshadweep island of Indian Ocean. Interesting pattern of its distribution is described. This is the second record of occurrence...

  6. Marine Species Survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for non-indigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  7. Marine species survey of Johnson Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for nonindigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  8. Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Narrative Report: 2002: January-September

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains monthly reports for Palmyra Atoll NWR from January to September of 2002. The reports address highlights, weather conditions, research...

  9. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands, 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments (REA) conducted at 9 sites around Kure Atoll in the...

  10. Historical Summary of Sea Turtle Observations at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 1839-1991

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Compilation of 40 recorded observations of sea turtles at Rose Atoll between 1839 and 1991, with each observation consisting of the source, date, and brief notes.

  11. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola...

  12. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  13. Studies on the intertidal macrofauna of the sandy beach at Kavarati atoll (Lakshadweep)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Narayanan, B.; Sivadas, P.

    The distribution of macrofauna in Kavaratti Atoll is studied in the intertidal region for over a period of 13 months. Several diversity in the faunal composition was not observed. The polychaete Scoloplos sp. and the bivalve Mesodesma glabratum were...

  14. Final Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, including Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll NWR consists of removing the metal debris remaining from the grounding of a Taiwanese fishing vessel in 1993, and monitoring the...

  15. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  16. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  18. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  19. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  20. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 15 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  1. Investigating the Effects of Higher Spatial Resolution on Benthic Classification Accuracy at Midway Atoll

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arledge, Richard K; Hatcher, Ervin B

    2008-01-01

    ...s. This thesis will compare 2 multispectral systems and investigate the effects of increased spatial resolution on benthic classifications in the highly heterogeneous coral reef environment of Midway Atoll...

  2. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at the Palmyra Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 10 sites at Palmyra Atoll in March and...

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  5. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Kure Atoll, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Kure Atoll in...

  6. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at Midway Atoll, 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in July,...

  7. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American...

  8. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites around Palmyra Atoll in...

  9. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 18 sites at Johnston Atoll in the...

  10. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  11. Marine Species Survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000670)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for non-indigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  12. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  13. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 6 sites at Johnston Atoll in the...

  14. CRED REA Algal Assessment at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American...

  15. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  16. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — One, 25-m line transect was surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of the Rapid Ecological Assessment conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian...

  17. Eradication of Polynesian Rats (rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 38-day poison and trap campaign was conducted on Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge to eradicate Polynesian rats in order to reduce their impact of seabird eggs...

  18. Benthic Habitat Maps for Rose Atoll Marine National Monument in American Samoa from 2004 to 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps for Rose Atoll, American Samoa were derived from high resolution, multispectral satellite imagery for 2004, 2006, and 2010. The benthic habitat...

  19. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Pearl and Hermes Atoll...

  20. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  1. Future Reef Growth Can Mitigate Physical Impacts of Sea-Level Rise on Atoll Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetham, Edward; Kench, Paul S.; Popinet, Stéphane

    2017-10-01

    We present new detail on how future sea-level rise (SLR) will modify nonlinear wave transformation processes, shoreline wave energy, and wave driven flooding on atoll islands. Frequent and destructive wave inundation is a primary climate-change hazard that may render atoll islands uninhabitable in the near future. However, limited research has examined the physical vulnerability of atoll islands to future SLR and sparse information are available to implement process-based coastal management on coral reef environments. We utilize a field-verified numerical model capable of resolving all nonlinear wave transformation processes to simulate how future SLR will modify wave dissipation and overtopping on Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu, accounting for static and accretionary reef adjustment morphologies. Results show that future SLR coupled with a static reef morphology will not only increase shoreline wave energy and overtopping but will fundamentally alter the spectral composition of shoreline energy by decreasing the contemporary influence of low-frequency infragravity waves. "Business-as-usual" emissions (RCP 8.5) will result in annual wave overtopping on Funafuti Atoll by 2030, with overtopping at high tide under mean wave conditions occurring from 2090. Comparatively, vertical reef accretion in response to SLR will prevent any significant increase in shoreline wave energy and mitigate wave driven flooding volume by 72%. Our results provide the first quantitative assessment of how effective future reef accretion can be at mitigating SLR-associated flooding on atoll islands and endorse active reef conservation and restoration for future coastal protection.

  2. Marine Biological Survey ROI-NAMUR Outfall, United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll,approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll(USAKA) central command post on...

  3. Baseline Marine Biological Survey ROI-NAMUR Outfall United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1997(NODC Accession 0000630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll(USAKA) central command post on...

  4. Baseline marine biological survey at Roi-Namur sewage outfall, United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1997 (NODC Accession 0000630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) central command post on...

  5. Marine biological survey of ROI-NAMUR outfall at the United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) central command post on...

  6. Formation of atoll garnets in the UHP eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, Himalaya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonnalagadda, Mallika K.; Karmalkar, Nitin R.; Duraiswami, Raymond A.; Harshe, Shivani; Gain, Sarah; Griffin, William L.

    2017-12-01

    The eclogites of the Tso Morari Complex, Ladakh, NW Himalayas preserve both garnets with spectacular atoll textures, as well as whole porphyroblastic garnets. Whole garnets are euhedral, idiomorphic and enclose inclusions of amphibole, phengite and zoisite within the cores, and omphacite and quartz/coesite towards the rims. Detailed electron microprobe analyses and back-scattered electron images show well-preserved prograde zoning in the whole garnets with an increase in Mg and decrease in Ca and Mn contents from the core to the rim. The atoll garnets commonly consist of euhedral ring over island/peninsular core containing inclusions of phengite, omphacite and rarely amphibole between the core and ring. Compositional profiles across the studied atoll grains show elemental variations with higher concentrations of Ca and Mn with low Mg at the peninsula/island cores; contrary to this low Ca, Mn and high Mg is observed at the outer rings. Temperature estimates yield higher values at the Mg-rich atoll garnet outer rings compared to the atoll cores. Atoll garnet formation was favoured by infiltration of fluid formed due to breakdown of hydrous phases, and/or the release of structurally bounded OH from nominally anhydrous minerals at the onset of exhumation. Infiltration of fluids along pre-existing fracture pathways and along mineral inclusion boundaries triggered breakdown of the original garnet cores and released elements which were subsequently incorporated into the newly-grown garnet rings. This breakdown of garnet cores and inward re-growth at the outer ring produced the atoll structure. Calibrated geo-thermobarometers and mineral equilibria reflect that the Tso Morari eclogites attain peak pressures prior to peak temperatures representing a clockwise path of evolution.

  7. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... unacceptable threat to human health or safety or to the marine environment and admitting of no other feasible... most pristine atolls in the world. The lands, submerged lands, waters, and marine environment around... found at Rose Atoll. WHEREAS the lands, submerged lands, and waters of and marine environment around...

  8. Many atolls may be uninhabitable within decades due to climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt; Elias, Edwin P.L.; Berkowitz, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Observations show global sea level is rising due to climate change, with the highest rates in the tropical Pacific Ocean where many of the world’s low-lying atolls are located. Sea-level rise is particularly critical for low-lying carbonate reef-lined atoll islands; these islands have limited land and water available for human habitation, water and food sources, and ecosystems that are vulnerable to inundation from sea-level rise. Here we demonstrate that sea-level rise will result in larger waves and higher wave-driven water levels along atoll islands’ shorelines than at present. Numerical model results reveal waves will synergistically interact with sea-level rise, causing twice as much land forecast to be flooded for a given value of sea-level rise than currently predicted by current models that do not take wave-driven water levels into account. Atolls with islands close to the shallow reef crest are more likely to be subjected to greater wave-induced run-up and flooding due to sea-level rise than those with deeper reef crests farther from the islands’ shorelines. It appears that many atoll islands will be flooded annually, salinizing the limited freshwater resources and thus likely forcing inhabitants to abandon their islands in decades, not centuries, as previously thought.

  9. Shoreline changes in reef islands of the Central Pacific: Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Pillet, Valentin

    2017-04-01

    Atoll reef islands are considered highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change. While accelerated sea-level rise is expected to destabilize reef islands, ocean warming and acidification are considered as major threats to coral reef growth, which is of primary importance for the persistence of islands and of food supply to islanders. Using multi-date aerial imagery, shoreline and island changes between 1969 and 2013 were assessed on Takapoto Atoll, Northern Tuamotu region, in French Polynesia. Results show that over the 44-year study period, 41% of islands were stable in area while 33% expanded and 26% contracted. Island expansion was the dominant mode of change on the leeward side of the atoll. Tropical Cyclone Orama (category 3, 1983) contributed to shoreline and island change on the windward side of the atoll through the reworking of previous storm deposits and the injection of fresh sediments in the island system (with up to 62% of an island's land area being covered with fresh sediments). Human activities contributed significantly to shoreline and island change throughout the atoll through infrastructure construction, the removal of the indigenous vegetation from a number of islets and sediment mining.

  10. Mapping elemental contamination on Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struckhoff, Matthew A.; Orazio, Carl E.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Shaver, David K.; Papoulias, Diana M.

    2018-01-01

    Palmyra Atoll, once a WWII U.S. Navy air station, is now a U.S. National Wildlife Refuge with nearly 50 km2 of coral reef and 275 ha of emergent lands with forests of Pisonia grandistrees and colonies of several bird species. Due to the known elemental and organic contamination from chemicals associated with aviation, power generation and transmission, waste management, and other air station activities, a screening survey to map elemental concentrations was conducted. A map of 1944 Navy facilities was georeferenced and identifiable features were digitized. These data informed a targeted survey of 25 elements in soils and sediment at locations known or suspected to be contaminated, using a hand-held X-ray fluorescence spectrometer. At dozens of locations, concentrations of elements exceeded established soil and marine sediment thresholds for adverse ecological effects. Results were compiled into a publically available geospatial dataset to inform potential remediation and habitat restoration activities.

  11. Peregrine falcon predation of endangered Laysan teal and Laysan Finches on remote Hawaiian atolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Nash, Sarah A.B.; Courtot, Karen

    2015-01-01

    We report the first records of Peregrine falcon (Falco peregrinus) predation on endangered Laysan teal (or duck; Anas laysanensis) and predation on endangered Laysan finches (Telespiza cantans). At Midway Atoll, vagrant Peregrine falcons killed ≥4% of a newly translocated Laysan teal population in 2006 and ≥2% in 2008. On Laysan Island during 2008–2009, remains of >76 Laysan finches (teal and other seabirds were recovered at kill sites on tarmac (runways). If the frequency or duration of vagrant raptors visitation increases at small atolls, this could pose a mortality risk to consider, especially during proposed translocations of endangered species. Vegetation restoration of abandoned runways near wetlands at Midway Atoll would provide cover and may help reduce mortality of endangered species due to vagrant raptors.

  12. Pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera grazing on natural plankton in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Dupuy, Christine; Bouvy, Marc; Couraudon-Réale, Marine; Charpy, Loïc; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Moullac, Gilles; Le Pennec, Marcel; Cochard, Jean-Claude

    2012-01-01

    In atoll lagoons of French Polynesia, growth and reproduction of pearl oysters are mainly driven by plankton concentration. However, the actual diet of black-lip pearl oysters Pinctada margaritifera in these lagoons is poorly known. To fill this gap, we used the flow through chamber method to measure clearance rates of P. margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). We found: (i) that pearl oysters cleared plankton at a rate that was positively related to plankton biovolume, (ii) that nanoflagellates were the main source of carbon for the pearl oysters, and (iii) that the quantity and origin of carbon filtrated by pearl oysters was highly dependent on the concentration and composition of plankton. These results provide essential elements for the comprehension of growth and reproduction variability of pearl oysters in atoll lagoons of French Polynesia. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Hydrodynamics of a Pacific Atoll System - Mechanisms for Flow and Ecological Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Monismith, S. G.; Koweek, D.; Torres, W.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-02-01

    We present characterization of the waves and hydrodynamics of the Palmyra Atoll system based on field measurements from 2012 to 2014, and modeling simulations using a coupled waves and three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COAWST). At the scale of the atoll itself, strong regional flows create flow separation and a well-defined wake, similar to the classical fluid mechanics problem of flow past a cylinder. Circulation within the atoll is primarily governed by tides and waves, and secondarily by wind and regional currents. Tidally driven flow is important at all field sites, and tidal phase delay occurs between the forereef and interior lagoons. Wave driven flow is significant at most of the field sites, and is a strong function of the dominant wave direction. The wave climate is characterized by strong northerly waves which drive across the atoll to the south and through the lagoon system to the west and out the channel to offshore. Wind driven flow is generally weak, except on the shallow terraces. Bottom stress is significant for depths less than about 10 m. Based on Lagrangian float tracks, the mean age appears to clearly differentiate the geomorphic structures. The biological cover shows significant trends with mean flow, age and temperature. While high mean flow appears to differentiate productive coral regions, low water age and low temperature appear to be the most important variables for distinguishing between biological cover types at this site. The resulting connectivity within the atoll system shows that the general trends follow the mean flow paths; however, some connectivity exists between all ten regions of the atoll system.

  14. Environmental sampling plan for Kwajalein Atoll Lagoon: 2017 Kwajalein sampling event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Since the early 1980s, the U.S DOE Marshall Islands Program at LLNL has provided radiological monitoring of the marine and terrestrial environment at nuclear affected atolls in the northern Marshall Islands. The fundamental aim of these studies was to identify the level and distribution of key residual fallout radionuclide in the environment, improve understanding of prevalent radiation exposure pathways, and develop predictive dose assessments for resettled and resettling atoll population groups. These data and information were essential in terms of guiding the development of effective and environmentally protective remedial measures, and promoting potential actions to improve on food safety and security.

  15. A coupled wave-hydrodynamic model of a highly frictional atoll reef system: mechanisms for flow, connectivity, and ecological implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, J.; Monismith, S. G.; Fringer, O. B.; Koweek, D.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present a hydrodynamic analysis of an atoll system from modeling simulations using a coupled wave and three-dimensional hydrodynamic model (COAWST) applied to Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific. This is the first time the vortex force formalism has been applied in a highly frictional reef environment. The model results agree well with field observations considering the model complexity in terms of bathymetry, bottom roughness, and forcing (waves, wind, metrological, tides, regional boundary conditions), and open boundary conditions. At the atoll scale, strong regional flows create flow separation and a well-defined wake, similar to 2D flow past a cylinder. Circulation within the atoll is typically forced by waves and tides, with strong waves from the north driving flow from north to south across the atoll, and from east to west through the lagoon system. Bottom stress is significant for depths less than about 60 m, and in addition to the model bathymetry, is important for correct representation of flow in the model. Connectivity within the atoll system shows that the general trends follow the mean flow paths. However, some connectivity exists between all regions of the atoll system due to nonlinear processes such as eddies and tidal phasing. While high mean flow and travel time less than 20 hours appears to differentiate very productive coral regions, low temperature and moderate wave stress appear to be the most ideal conditions for high coral cover on Palmyra.

  16. A study of the Brazilian Fernando de Noronha island and Rocas atoll wakes in the tropical Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamabi, Christine C.; Araujo, Moacyr; Silva, Marcus; Bourlès, Bernard

    2017-03-01

    Observational data and numerical modeling were used to investigate oceanic current wakes surrounding Fernando de Noronha Island (3°51‧S-32°25‧W) and Rocas Atoll (3°52‧S-33°49‧W). These two Brazilian systems are located in the western tropical Atlantic region and are under the influence of the westward flow of the central South Equatorial Current (cSEC). In order to highlight the effects of wakes on ocean dynamics, two different numerical simulations were performed, using the Regional Oceanic Modeling System (ROMS): the first one including Fernando de Noronha Island and Rocas Atoll (Scenario I) and the second one with artificial removal of the island and atoll (Scenario NI). Simulations are validated through the Scenario I that well reproduces the wakes that give rise to the development of eddies downstream of FN and AR. These mesoscale structures have a strong influence on the thermodynamic properties surrounding the Island and the Atoll. Scenario NI allows evidence of the presence of an Island and Atoll shoaling mixed layer throughout the year, primarily on the western side of the Island and the Atoll. Mixing at the base of the mixed layer, inducing a subsurface cooling, is also enhanced in the downstream portion of the Island and Atoll, particularly when the cSEC is strengthened. These simulations support the ;island mass effect; on the high productivity of subsurface waters generally observed on the western side of these islands.

  17. Population dynamics of Siderastrea stellata Verrill, 1868 from Rocas Atoll, RN: implications for predicted climate change impacts at the only South Atlantic atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andrea L; Cordeiro, Soraia M; Reis, Joice N; Cardoso, Lucas G; Guimarães, Alaíse G

    2017-01-01

    Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.

  18. Population dynamics of Siderastrea stellata Verrill, 1868 from Rocas Atoll, RN: implications for predicted climate change impacts at the only South Atlantic atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARBARA R. PINHEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Coral reefs are one of the most vulnerable ecosystems to ocean warming and acidification, and it is important to determine the role of reef building species in this environment in order to obtain insight into their susceptibility to expected impacts of global changes. Aspects of the life history of a coral population, such as reproduction, growth and size-frequency can contribute to the production of models that are used to estimate impacts and potential recovery of the population, acting as a powerful tool for the conservation and management of those ecosystems. Here, we present the first evidence of Siderastrea stellata planulation, its early growth, population size-frequency distribution and growth rate of adult colonies in Rocas Atoll. Our results, together with the environmental protection policies and the absence of anthropogenic pressures, suggest that S. stellata population may have a good potential in the maintenance and recovery in the atoll. However, our results also indicate an impact on corals' recruitment, probably as a consequence of the positive temperature anomaly that occurred in 2010. Thus, despite the pristine status of Rocas Atoll, the preservation of its coral community seems to be threatened by current global changes, such as more frequent thermal stress events.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P (05 52.291N, 162 06.738W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 14P 2/21/2012 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 14P (14 33.071S, 168 09.421W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P (05 53.796N, 162 07.065W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 4P 2/20/2012 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 4P (14 33.569 S, 168 09.617 W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 1-0M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 6P 3/29/2000 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 6P (05 52.294N, 162 07.098W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 7P 2/24/2002 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 7P (14 32.967S, 168 10.086W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 47.170N, 169 27.908W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Midway Atoll Site P1A 12/3/2002 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P1A (28.244 N, 177.323 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P (14 32.361S, 168 09.430W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 7P 2/20/2012 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 7P (14 32.967S, 168 10.086W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Johnston Atoll Site 6P 1/23/2006 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 6P (16 43.113N, 169 33.076W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 32-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 13P 2/19/2012 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Johnston Atoll Site 6P 1/23/2006 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 6P (16 43.113N, 169 33.076W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 8/11/2006 48-49M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 48 and 49 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Johnston Atoll Site 3B-P 7/1/2000 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3B-P (16 45.260N, 169 31.039W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/31/1999 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 6/1/2001 62-63M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.221N, 162 02.697W), between 62 and 63 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 23P 2/10/2004 36-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 23P (14 32.538S, 168 10.341W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 8/11/2006 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 34P 8/18/2006 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 34P (05 52.067N, 162 04.147W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 48-49M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 48 and 49 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 27P 3/9/2006 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 10P 3/9/2006 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 89-90M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 89 and 90 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 98-99M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 98 and 99 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 26P 3/6/2006 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 31P 3/6/2006 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 27P 3/9/2006 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 26P 3/6/2006 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 31P 3/6/2006 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 27P 3/9/2006 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 31P 3/6/2006 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 27P 3/9/2006 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 13P 3/6/2006 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 27P 3/9/2006 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 13P 3/6/2006 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 31P 3/6/2006 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 27P 3/9/2006 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 13P 3/6/2006 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 13P 3/6/2006 48-49M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 48 and 49 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  3. Johnston Atoll Site 2B-P 6/30/2000 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2B-P (16 45.606N, 169 30.705W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 47.170N, 169 27.908W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Midway Atoll Site P20 12/6/2002 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P20 (28.271 N, 177.385 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 9P 2/19/2012 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 32P 8/17/2006 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 32P (05 53.796N, 162 07.065W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 29P 9/23/2004 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 29P (05 52.213N, 162 03.143W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 32P 2/22/2012 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P (14 32.361S, 168 09.430W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Midway Atoll Site P19 12/5/2002 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P19 (28.193 N, 177.401 W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 23P 2/10/2004 12-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 23P (14 32.538S, 168 10.341W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 13P 8/25/1999 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 31P 7/30/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/28/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 13P 7/31/2004 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 30P 7/30/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 30P (14 32.277S, 168 09.386W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 27P 2/21/2012 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P (14 33.038S, 168 09.251W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Monogenea of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Vidal-Martinez

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the monogeneans of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll detected 16 species already reported from the Indo-West Pacific faunal region. A total of 653 individual fish from 44 species were collected from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Eighteen species of fish were infected with monogeneans. The monogenean species recovered were: Benedenia hawaiiensis on Acanthurus xanthopterus, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus and Rhinecanthus aculeatus; Ancyrocephalus ornatus on Arothron hispidus; Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae on Lutjanus fulvus; Euryhaliotrema grandis on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema acanthuri on Acanthurus triostegus; Haliotrema aurigae on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema dempsteri on Acanthurus xanthopterus; Haliotrema minutospirale on Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Haliotrematoides patellacirrus on Lutjanus monostigma; Neohaliotrema bombini on Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Abudefduf sordidus; Acleotrema girellae and Acleotrema parastromatei on Kyphosus cinerascens; Cemocotylella elongata on Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus and Caranx papuensis; Metamicrocotyla macracantha on Crenimugil crenilabris; and Pseudopterinotrema albulae on Albula glossodonta. All these monogenean–host combinations represent new geographical records. The monogenean species composition of the Palmyra Atoll is similar to that of the Hawaiian Islands. However, the number of species recovered was lower compared with other localities within the Indo-West Pacific, perhaps due to the geographical isolation of Palmyra Atoll.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 63-64M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 63 and 64 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. 75 FR 2158 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of intent to prepare an environmental impact...

  15. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P (14 32.227S, 168 09.122W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 29P 9/23/2004 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 29P (05 52.213N, 162 03.143W), between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/31/1999 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P (14 33.075S, 168 09.622W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Monogenea of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel; Soler-Jiménez, Lilia Catherinne; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma. Leopoldina; Mclaughlin, John; Jaramillo, Alejandra G.; Shaw, Jenny C.; James, Anna; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    A survey of the monogeneans of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll detected 16 species already reported from the Indo-West Pacific faunal region. A total of 653 individual fish from 44 species were collected from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Eighteen species of fish were infected with monogeneans. The monogenean species recovered were: Benedenia hawaiiensis on Acanthurus xanthopterus, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus and Rhinecanthus aculeatus; Ancyrocephalus ornatus on Arothron hispidus; Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae on Lutjanus fulvus; Euryhaliotrema grandis on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema acanthuri on Acanthurus triostegus; Haliotrema aurigae on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema dempsteri on Acanthurus xanthopterus; Haliotrema minutospirale on Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Haliotrematoides patellacirrus on Lutjanus monostigma; Neohaliotrema bombini on Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Abudefduf sordidus; Acleotrema girellae and Acleotrema parastromatei on Kyphosus cinerascens; Cemocotylella elongata on Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus and Caranx papuensis; Metamicrocotyla macracantha on Crenimugil crenilabris; and Pseudopterinotrema albulae on Albula glossodonta. All these monogenean–host combinations represent new geographical records. The monogenean species composition of the Palmyra Atoll is similar to that of the Hawaiian Islands. However, the number of species recovered was lower compared with other localities within the Indo-West Pacific, perhaps due to the geographical isolation of Palmyra Atoll.

  3. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Kure Atoll (100-101), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-101b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Kure Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  4. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Midway Atoll (100-102), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-102b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been produced as part...

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P (05 52.291N, 162 06.738W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 8/11/2006 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 8/11/2006 69-70M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P (05 52.219N, 162 02.697W), between 69 and 70 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-A 8/10/2006 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-A (05 52.663N, 162 07.113W), between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-A 8/10/2006 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-A (05 52.663N, 162 07.113W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 28P 2/22/2012 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P (14 32.300S, 168 09.401W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 23P 2/20/2012 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 23P (14 32.538S, 168 10.341W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 29P 9/23/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 29P (05 52.213N, 162 03.143W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 7P 2/10/2004 17-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 7P (14 32.967S, 168 10.086W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 26P 2/23/2012 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472S), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 4P 2/20/2012 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 4P (14 33.569 S, 168 09.617 W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 3/13/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P (05 52.291N, 162 06.738W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. CRED Gridded Bathymetry near Pearl and Hermes Atoll (100-103), Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — File 100-103b is a 60-m ASCII grid of depth data collected near Pearl and Hermes Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands as of May 2003. This grid has been...

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent...

  20. Rose Atoll Site 23P 2/10/2004 21-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 23P (14 32.538S, 168 10.341W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P2 6/13/2000 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P2 (27.833N, 175.751 W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 31P 6/21/2005 (31)M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), at meter 31 along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 8P 2/19/2012 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 47.170N, 169 27.908W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Monogenea of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll in the Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, Víctor Manuel; Soler-Jiménez, Lilia Catherinne; Aguirre-Macedo, Ma. Leopoldina; Mclaughlin, John; Jaramillo, Alejandra G.; Shaw2, Jenny C.; James, Anna; Hechinger, Ryan F.; Kuris, Armand M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract A survey of the monogeneans of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll detected 16 species already reported from the Indo-West Pacific faunal region. A total of 653 individual fish from 44 species were collected from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Eighteen species of fish were infected with monogeneans. The monogenean species recovered were: Benedenia hawaiiensis on Acanthurus xanthopterus, Chaetodon auriga, Chaetodon lunula, Mulloidichthys flavolineatus, Pseudobalistes flavimarginatus and Rhinecanthus aculeatus; Ancyrocephalus ornatus on Arothron hispidus; Euryhaliotrema annulocirrus on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Euryhaliotrema chrysotaeniae on Lutjanus fulvus; Euryhaliotrema grandis on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema acanthuri on Acanthurus triostegus; Haliotrema aurigae on Chaetodon auriga and Chaetodon lunula; Haliotrema dempsteri on Acanthurus xanthopterus; Haliotrema minutospirale on Mulloidichthys flavolineatus; Haliotrematoides patellacirrus on Lutjanus monostigma; Neohaliotrema bombini on Abudefduf septemfasciatus and Abudefduf sordidus; Acleotrema girellae and Acleotrema parastromatei on Kyphosus cinerascens; Cemocotylella elongata on Caranx ignobilis, Caranx melampygus and Caranx papuensis; Metamicrocotyla macracantha on Crenimugil crenilabris; and Pseudopterinotrema albulae on Albula glossodonta. All these monogenean–host combinations represent new geographical records. The monogenean species composition of the Palmyra Atoll is similar to that of the Hawaiian Islands. However, the number of species recovered was lower compared with other localities within the Indo-West Pacific, perhaps due to the geographical isolation of Palmyra Atoll. PMID:29134039

  6. Rose Atoll Site 13P 3/6/2006 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Johnston Atoll Site 10P 1/15/2004 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 10P (16 45.807N, 169 30.705W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 31P 6/21/2005 (39)M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), at meter 39 along a permanent transect.

  9. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 31P 3/6/2006 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 31P (14 32.568S, 168 09.417W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Johnston Atoll Site 4P 7/1/2000 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 4P (16 46.246N, 169 30.337W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Midway Atoll Site P2 9/21/2002 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P2 (28.260 N, 177.345 W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 5/28/2001 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P (05 52.291N, 162 06.738W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P (14 32.361S, 168 09.430W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Rose Atoll Site 14P 8/1/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 14P (14 33.071S, 168 09.421W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Dongsha Atoll: A potential thermal refuge for reef-building corals in the South China Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Konstantin S; Soong, Keryea

    2017-06-01

    Dongsha Atoll (also known as the Pratas Islands), the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea, experiences two contrasting physical phenomena: repetitive anomalies of the sea surface temperature exceeding the coral bleaching threshold and regular effects of the world's strongest internal waves resulting in the rhythmic upwelling of cold deep waters at the outer reef slopes of the atoll. This unique combination may result in significant differences in coral species composition and structure between the lagoon and forereef. Surveys conducted in August-September 2016 at 12 study sites in the 2-15 m depth range at Dongsha Atoll revealed a clear spatial separation between 'thermally-susceptible' stony coral genera, including Acropora, Pocillopora and Montipora, which mainly inhabited the forereef, and 'thermally-resistant' genera, including massive Porites, foliaceous Echinopora, Pavona and Turbinaria, which mainly resided in the lagoon. The mean coral cover and species richness on the forereef were respectively 1.8 and 1.4 times higher than those in the lagoon (61.3% and 98 species on the forereef vs. 34.2% and 69 species in the lagoon). Coral mortality rates, expressed as the ratio of dead to live stony corals, showed the same pattern (0.4 in the lagoon vs. 0.009 on the forereef). Furthermore, in a laboratory experiment, 'thermally-susceptible' taxa from the lagoon, (e.g. Pocillopora verrucosa and P. damicornis), exhibited higher resistance to bleaching than did their counterparts from the forereef. The present findings indicate that Dongsha Atoll is a potential thermal refuge for reef-building corals in the northern South China Sea and reveal the development of resilience and resistance to bleaching in coral communities of the lagoon. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  18. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  19. 5 m Gridded bathymetry of the lagoon and slope environments of Rose Atoll, American Samoa (netCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the inner lagoon and slope environments of Rose Atoll, American Samoa. This survey provides coverage between <10 and 300...

  20. 5 m Gridded bathymetry of the lagoon and slope environments of Rose Atoll, American Samoa (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the inner lagoon and slope environments of Rose Atoll, American Samoa. This survey provides coverage between <10 and 300...

  1. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  2. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Palmyra Atoll permanent transect site 15P on March 31, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 15P at Palmyra Atoll on 3/31/2004.

  3. Clipperton Atoll Core 2B Stable Isotope (delta 13C, delta 18O) Data for 1893 to 1994

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — 101 year stable isotope record from P. lobata, core 4B, Clipperton Atoll, eastern Pacific. Sampling at annual and 12/year resolution, files clipperton.4B.iso.txt and...

  4. SUTRA model used to evaluate the freshwater flow system on Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — A three-dimensional, groundwater model (SUTRA) was developed to understand the effects of seawater washover on the freshwater lens of Roi-Namur, Kwajalein Atoll,...

  5. Summary of Algal Community Changes Observed on the Southwest Arm of Rose Atoll from 1995-2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This brief summary of observed changes in the reef-top algal community at Rose Atoll NWR is prepared specifically to address the questions posed by the NPFC on...

  6. The Impact of a Ship Grounding and Associated Fuel Spill at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — In October 1993, the Taiwanese longliner Jin Shiang fa ran aground at Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, spilling 100,000 gallons of diesel fuel and other...

  7. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (NetCDF Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  8. Quantitative analysis of photoquadrats acquired at Johnston Atoll permanent transect site 2B-P on June 30, 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This spreadsheet summarizes the number of corals photographed along a permanent transect line at Underwater Site 2B-P at Johnston Atoll on 6/30/2000.

  9. Palmyra Atoll, 2006 Sea Surface Temperature and Meteorological Enhanced Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site Palmyra Atoll, (5.88467, -162.10281 ) ARGOS ID 307-001. Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature and conductivity, and...

  10. Kure Atoll, NWHI, 2004 Sea Surface Temperature and Meterological Standard Mooring - CRED CREWS Near Real Time and Historical Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Site - Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (28.41858, -178.34333 ) ARGOS ID 21392 Time series data from this mooring provide high resolution sea surface temperature,...

  11. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA (NetCDF format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  12. CRED 40 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (40 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete...

  13. CRED Gridded 5m bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and...

  14. Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0 and 200...

  15. CRED Gridded 20m bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Midway Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and...

  16. CRED 20 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (20 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  17. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded (5 m cell size) bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  18. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths...

  19. CRED 5 m Gridded bathymetry of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific (Arc ASCII Format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry (5 m cell size) of the shelf and slope environments of Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific. Almost complete bottom...

  20. Simrad EM300 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Kure Atoll, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0 and 2000...

  1. Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Kure Atoll, Hawaii, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0 and 300...

  2. CRED 20m Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of Kure Atoll, Hawaii, USA (Arc ASCII format)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Gridded bathymetry and IKONOS estimated depths of the shelf and slope environments of Kure Atoll, Hawaii, USA. Bottom coverage was achieved in depths between 0 and...

  3. Tsunami hazard potential for the equatorial southwestern Pacific atolls of Tokelau from scenario-based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orpin, Alan R.; Rickard, Graham J.; Gerring, Peter K.; Lamarche, Geoffroy

    2016-05-01

    Devastating tsunami over the last decade have significantly heightened awareness of the potential consequences and vulnerability of low-lying Pacific islands and coastal regions. Our appraisal of the potential tsunami hazard for the atolls of the Tokelau Islands is based on a tsunami source-propagation-inundation model using Gerris Flow Solver, adapted from the companion study by Lamarche et al. (2015) for the islands of Wallis and Futuna. We assess whether there is potential for tsunami flooding on any of the village islets from a selection of 14 earthquake-source experiments. These earthquake sources are primarily based on the largest Pacific earthquakes of Mw ≥ 8.1 since 1950 and other large credible sources of tsunami that may impact Tokelau. Earthquake-source location and moment magnitude are related to tsunami-wave amplitudes and tsunami flood depths simulated for each of the three atolls of Tokelau. This approach yields instructive results for a community advisory but is not intended to be fully deterministic. Rather, the underlying aim is to identify credible sources that present the greatest potential to trigger an emergency response. Results from our modelling show that wave fields are channelled by the bathymetry of the Pacific basin in such a way that the swathes of the highest waves sweep immediately northeast of the Tokelau Islands. Our limited simulations suggest that trans-Pacific tsunami from distant earthquake sources to the north of Tokelau pose the most significant inundation threat. In particular, our assumed worst-case scenario for the Kuril Trench generated maximum modelled-wave amplitudes in excess of 1 m, which may last a few hours and include several wave trains. Other sources can impact specific sectors of the atolls, particularly distant earthquakes from Chile and Peru, and regional earthquake sources to the south. Flooding is dependent on the wave orientation and direct alignment to the incoming tsunami. Our "worst-case" tsunami

  4. The northernmost coral frontier of the Maldives: The coral reefs of Ihavandippolu Atoll under long-term environmental change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachenko, Konstantin S

    2012-12-01

    Ihavandippolu, the northernmost atoll of the Maldives, experienced severe coral bleaching and mortality in 1998 followed by several bleaching episodes in the last decade. Coral cover in the 11 study sites surveyed in July-December of 2011 in the 3-5 m depth range varied from 1.7 to 51%. Reefs of the islands located in the center of Ihavandippolu lagoon have exhibited a very low coral recovery since 1998 and remain mostly degraded 12 years after the impact. At the same time, some reefs, especially in the inner part of the eastern ring of the atoll, demonstrate a high coral cover (>40%) with a dominance of branching Acropora that is known to be one of the coral genera that is most susceptible to thermal stress. The last severe bleaching event in 2010 resulted in high coral mortality in some sites of the atoll. Differences in coral mortality rates and proportion between "susceptible" and "resistant" taxa in study sites are apparently related to long-term adaptation and local hydrological features that can mitigate thermal impacts. Abundant herbivorous fish observed in the atoll prevent coral overgrowth by macroalgae even on degraded reefs. Despite the frequent influence of temperature anomalies and having less geomorphologic refuges for coral survivals than other larger Maldivian atolls, a major part of observed coral communities in Ihavandippolu Atoll exhibits high resilience and potential for further acclimatization to a changing environment. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa (French Polynesia). The nuclear testings. Radiological aspects; Les atolls de Mururoa et de Fangataufa (Polynesie Francaise). Les experimentations nucleaires. Aspects radiologiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, G

    2007-07-01

    This report provides a review of the radiological measures implemented during the thirty year period of French nuclear tests in Polynesian atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. It presents full details of the practices deployed throughout these tests, including, in particular, aspects concerning radiological protection for the population and the environment. It contains all the scientific results and measurements of radioactivity performed during this period, providing concrete facts that can be used to assess the consequences these tests have had on the personnel involved, the population and the environment. (author)

  6. Rickettsial pathogens and arthropod vectors of medical and veterinary significance on Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durden, L.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Modern surveys of ectoparasites and potential vector-borne pathogens in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Wake Island are poorly documented. We report on field surveys of ectoparasites from 2010 with collections from dogs, cats, and rats. Five ectoparasites were identified: the cat flea Ctenocephalides felis, a sucking louse Hoplopleura pacifica, the mites Laelaps nuttalli and Radfordia ensifera, and the brown dog tickRhipicephalus sanguineus. Ectoparasites were screened for rickettsial pathogens. DNA from Anaplasma platys, a Coxiella symbiont of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, anda Rickettsia sp. were identified by PCR and DNA sequencing from ticks and fleas on Kwajalein Atoll. An unidentified spotted fever group Rickettsia was detected in a pool of Laelaps nuttalli and Hoplopleura pacifica from Wake Island. The records of Hoplopleura pacifica, Laelaps nuttalli, and Radfordia ensifera and the pathogens are new for Kwajalein Atoll and Wake Island.

  7. Radiological-dose assessments of atolls in the northern Marshall Islands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.

    1983-04-01

    The Marshall Islands in the Equatorial Pacific, specifically Enewetak and Bikini Atolls, were the site of US nuclear testing from 1946 through 1958. In 1978, the Northern Marshall Islands Radiological Survey was conducted to evaluate the radiological conditions of two islands and ten atolls downwind of the proving grounds. The survey included aerial external gamma measurements and collection of soil, terrestrial, and marine samples for radionuclide analysis to determine the radiological dose from all exposure pathways. The methods and models used to estimate doses to a population in an environment where natural processes have acted on the source-term radionuclides for nearly 30 y, data bases developed for the models, and results of the radiological dose analyses are described.

  8. Coralligenous "atolls": discovery of a new morphotype in the Western Mediterranean Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Marina; Pergent-Martini, Christine; Clabaut, Philippe; Pergent, Gérard

    2012-01-01

    Coralligenous habitat and rhodoliths beds are very important in terms of biodiversity in the Mediterranean Sea. During an oceanographic campaign, carried out in northern Cap Corse, new coralligenous structures have been discovered. These structures, never previously identified in the Mediterranean Sea, are named "coralligenous atolls" because of their circular shape. The origin and growth dynamics of these atolls are still unknown but their form does not appear to result from hydrodynamic action and an anthropogenic origin also seems unlikely. However, this kind of shape seems rather closer to that of other circular structures (e.g. pockmarks) the origin of which is related to gaseous emissions. Further studies are needed to confirm this hypothesis through chemical analysis. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier SAS.

  9. Phytoplankton biomass dynamics and environmental variables around the Rocas Atoll Biological Reserve, South Atlantic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Cavalcanti Jales

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Rocas Atoll Biological Reserve is located in the Atlantic Ocean, at 3º 51' S and 33º 49' W. It lies 143 nautical miles from the City of Natal, Rio Grande do Norte (Brazil. The purpose of this study was to analyze the hydrology, water masses, currents and chlorophyll a content to determine the dynamics of phytoplankton biomass around the Rocas Atoll. Samples were collected in July 2010 in the area around the Atoll, using the Research Vessel Cruzeiro do Sul of the Brazilian Navy. Two transects were established according to the surface currents, one of which at the southeast of the Atoll (SE and the other at norwest (NW. Three collection points were determined on each of these transects. Samples were collected at different depths (surface and DCM - Deep Chlorophyll Maximum and different times (day and night. According to PCA (Principal Component Analysis, the nutrients analyzed, DIN (dissolved inorganic nitrogen, DIP (dissolved inorganic phosphorus and silicate, were inversely correlated with temperature and dissolved oxygen. Most environmental variables showed a significant increase due to the turbulence on the Northwest transect. There was an increase in the concentration of chlorophyll a and nutrients when the temperature and oxygen in the mixed layer was reduced due to the influence of the SACW (South Atlantic Central Water. Despite the increase observed in some variables such as nutrient salts and chlorophyll a, the temperature in the mixed layer attained a mean value of 23.23 ºC due to the predominance of Tropical Water. The increase of the phytoplankton biomass on the NW transect was, therefore, caused by the "island effect" and not by upwelling.

  10. Surface and Internal Wave Processes in the Coastal Zone of an Atoll Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-30

    an Atoll Island Mark A. Merrifield 1000 Pope Road, MSB 317 Honolulu, Hawaii 96822 phone: (808) 956-6161 fax: (808) 956-2352 email...current systems, such as the North Equatorial Current (NEC), to smaller scales as flows encounter island and submarine topography characteristic of...nearfield ocean states in the vicinity of island and submarine topography will be measured using shipboard, mooring arrays, remote sensing, and autonomous

  11. 77 FR 61426 - Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa; Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-09

    ...We, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (Service), announce the availability of our Draft Comprehensive Conservation Plan and Environmental Assessment (Draft CCP/EA) for the Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR/refuge) for public review and comment. In the Draft CCP/EA, we present two alternatives for managing this refuge for the next 15 years, as well as related compatibility determinations for the preferred alternative.

  12. Symbiodinium spp. associated with scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll (Pratas, Taiwan, in the South China Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shashank Keshavmurthy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dongsha Atoll (also known as Pratas in Taiwan is the northernmost atoll in the South China Sea and a designated marine national park since 2007. The marine park’s scope of protection covers the bio-resources of its waters in addition to uplands, so it is important to have data logging information and analyses of marine flora and fauna, including their physiology, ecology, and genetics. As part of this effort, we investigated Symbiodinium associations in scleractinian corals from Dongsha Atoll through surveys carried out at two depth ranges (shallow, 1–5 m; and deep, 10–15 m in 2009 and during a bleaching event in 2010. Symbiodinium composition was assessed using restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP of 28S nuclear large subunit ribosomal DNA (nlsrDNA. Our results showed that the 796 coral samples from seven families and 20 genera collected in 2009 and 132 coral samples from seven families and 12 genera collected in 2010 were associated with Symbiodinium C, D and C+D. Occurrence of clade D in shallow water (24.5% was higher compared to deep (14.9%. Due to a bleaching event in 2010, up to 80% of coral species associated with Symbiodinium C underwent moderate to severe bleaching. Using the fine resolution technique of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE of internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2 in 175 randomly selected coral samples, from 2009 and 2010, eight Symbiodinium C types and two Symbiodinium D types were detected. This study is the first baseline survey on Symbiodinium associations in the corals of Dongsha Atoll in the South China Sea, and it shows the dominance of Symbiodinium clade C in the population.

  13. Digenean metacercariae of fishes from the lagoon flats of Palmyra Atoll, Eastern Indo-Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Aguirre-Macedo, M L; McLaughlin, J P; Hechinger, R F; Jaramillo, A G; Shaw, J C; James, A K; Kuris, A M; Lafferty, K D

    2012-12-01

    Although many studies on the taxonomy of digenean trematodes of marine fishes have been completed in the Eastern Indo-Pacific (EIP) marine ecoregion, only a few have considered metacercarial stages. Here, the results are presented of a taxonomic survey of the digenean metacercariae of fishes from Palmyra Atoll, a remote and relatively pristine US National Wildlife Refuge located 1680 km SSW of Hawaii. Up to 425 individual fish were collected, comprising 42 fish species, from the sand flats bordering the lagoon of the atoll. Quantitative parasitological examinations of each fish were performed. Morphological descriptions of the encountered digenean metacercariae are provided, together with their prevalence, mean intensities, host and tissue-use. Up to 33,964 individuals were recovered representing 19 digenean metacercaria species from eight families. The species composition of digeneans in lagoon fishes at Palmyra Atoll is a subset of what has previously been reported for the EIP. Further, the large diversity and abundance of metacercariae reported in this study highlight the utility of including this group in future ecological research in the EIP marine ecoregion.

  14. Coral reef fish assemblages at Clipperton Atoll (Eastern Tropical Pacific and their relationship with coral cover

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurora M. Ricart

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Clipperton Atoll, one of the most isolated coral reefs worldwide, is of great scientific interest due to its geomorphology and high levels of endemism. This study explored the reef fish assemblage structure of Clipperton Atoll and its relationship with live coral cover. Nine stations were sampled at three sites and three depths (6, 12 and 20 m around the reef, measuring fish species richness and biomass and hermatypic coral cover (at genus level. We evaluated variation in species richness, biomass and diversity of fish assemblages among sites and depths, as well as the relationship between the entire fish assemblage composition and live coral cover. The results showed that species richness and biomass were similar among sites, but differed across depths, increasing with depth. In contrast, diversity differed among sites but not among depths. Multivariate analyses indicated that fish assemblage composition differed among sites and depths in relation to changes in cover of coral of the genera Pocillopora, Porites, Pavona and Leptoseris, which dominate at different depths. The results showed that fish species richness and diversity were low at Clipperton Atoll and that, in isolated coral reefs with a low habitat heterogeneity and low human disturbance, live coral cover has a significant influence on the spatial variation of the reef fish assemblages. This study highlights the importance of coral habitat structure in shaping coral reef fish assemblages.

  15. Reef fishes have higher parasite richness at unfished Palmyra Atoll compared to fished Kiritimati Island

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, Kevin D.; Shaw, Jenny C.; Kuris, Armand M.

    2008-01-01

    We compared parasite communities at two coral atolls in the Line Islands chain of the central Pacific (Kiritimati Island and Palmyra Atoll). Palmyra Atoll is relatively pristine while Kiritimati Island is heavily fished. At each island, we sampled five fish species for helminth and arthropod endoparasites: Chromis margaritifer, Plectroglyphidodon dickii,Paracirrhites arcatus, Acanthurus nigricans, and Lutjanus bohar. The surveys found monogeneans, digeneans, cestodes, nematodes, acanthocephalans, and copepods. Parasite richness was higher at Palmyra compared to Kiritimati for all five fish species. Fishes from Palmyra also tended to have more parasites species per host, higher parasite prevalence, and higher parasite abundance than did fishes from Kiritimati. The lower parasitism at Kiritimati may result from a simplified food web due to over fishing. Low biodiversity could impair parasite transmission by reducing the availability of hosts required by parasites with complex life cycles. Most notably, the lower abundances of larval shark tapeworms at Kiritimati presumably reflect the fact that fishing has greatly depleted sharks there in comparison to Palmyra.

  16. Self-Organization of Coral Atolls and Their Response to Rising Sea Level and Ocean Acidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutmann, E. D.; Anderson, R. S.; Tucker, G. E.

    2009-12-01

    Coral atolls are stunning both for their beauty and for their geomorphic organization. In addition, these islands are home to hundreds of thousands of people, and are threatened by both rising sea level and increasing ocean acidification. However, it has been suggested that the same geomorphic processes that formed these islands may continue to provide sediment at a rate sufficient to keep them above a rising sea level. A quantitative assessment of this hypothesis requires a numerical model that must first pass the test of being able to simulate the fundamental geomorphic and sedimentary structural features of a classic atoll. Here we present the first unified landscape process and carbonate growth model to capture the key components of an atoll. The model includes carbonate growth functions modified by light limitation, ocean chemistry, and surf zone energy. It also includes a physically based wave model, erosion by wave action, as well as dissolution and sediment transport functions that serve to modify the subaerial landscape. The model is initialized with a bare volcanic island subsiding at a rate of 0.1mm/yr. We then run the model through multiple glacial - interglacial sea level cycles. This model generates a landscape that matches the following atoll features: an annular island of loose sediment surrounded by a reef, gaps in this ring that are more abundant and larger on atolls with larger diameters, and a deep interior lagoon filled with a combination of autochthonous sediments as well as material transported inward from the outer reef. In addition, the island symmetry shifts in response to predominant wind-wave directions — large islands build on the windward side; islands are small or non-existent in the lee. While this model is not yet suitable for predictions of the fate of specific islands, it does suggest some general rules. If no substantial changes to the system occur, some of these islands may be able to keep pace with rising sea level; however

  17. How many Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis are on Midway Atoll? Methods for monitoring abundance after reintroduction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Michelle H.; Courtot, Karen; Hatfield, Jeffrey

    2017-01-01

    Wildlife managers often request a simple approach to monitor the status of species of concern. In response to that need, we used eight years of monitoring data to estimate population size and test the validity of an index for monitoring accurately the abundance of reintroduced, endangered Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis. The population was established at Midway Atoll in the Hawaiian archipelago after 42 wild birds were translocated from Laysan Island during 2004–2005. We fitted 587 birds with unique markers during 2004–2015, recorded 21,309 sightings until March 2016, and conducted standardised survey counts during 2007–2015. A modified Lincoln-Petersen mark-resight estimator and ANCOVA models were used to test the relationship between survey counts, seasonal detectability, and population abundance. Differences were found between the breeding and non-breeding seasons in detection and how maximum counts recorded related to population estimates. The results showed strong, positive correlations between the seasonal maximum counts and population estimates. The ANCOVA models supported the use of standardised bi-monthly counts of unmarked birds as a valid index to monitor trends among years within a season at Midway Atoll. The translocated population increased to 661 adult and juvenile birds (95% CI = 608–714) by 2010, then declined by 38% between 2010 and 2012 after the Toˉhoku Japan earthquake-generated tsunami inundated 41% of the atoll and triggered an Avian Botulism type C Clostridium botulinum outbreak. Following another severe botulism outbreak during 2015, the population experienced a 37% decline. Data indicated that the Midway Atoll population, like the founding Laysan Island population, is susceptible to catastrophic population declines. Consistent standardised monitoring using simple counts, in place of mark-recapture and resightings surveys, can be used to evaluate population status over the long-term. We estimate there were 314–435 Laysan Teal (95

  18. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Utrok Atoll (2003-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Tibon, S; Chee, L

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance programs are helping meet

  19. Halogenated organic pollutants in marine biota from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea: Levels, biomagnification and dietary exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yu-Xin; Hu, Yong-Xia; Zhang, Zai-Wang; Xu, Xiang-Rong; Li, Heng-Xiang; Zuo, Lin-Zi; Zhong, Yi; Sun, Hong; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2017-05-15

    Six marine biota species were collected from the Xuande Atoll, South China Sea to investigate the bioaccumulation of dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) and dechlorane plus (DP). Pike conger (Muraenesox talabonoides) had the highest concentrations of halogenated organic pollutants (HOPs) among the six marine biota species. DDTs were the predominant HOPs, followed by PCBs and PBDEs, with minor contributions of DBDPE and DP. Twenty-one percent of samples had ratios of (DDE+DDD)/ΣDDTs lower than 0.5, implying the presence of fresh DDT inputs in the environment of the Xuande Atoll. The biomagnification factor values for DDTs, PCBs, PBDEs and DP were higher than 1, suggesting biomagnification of these contaminants in the marine food chains. Consumption of seafood from the Xuande Atoll might not subject local residents in the coastal areas of South China to health risks as far as HOPs are concerned. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of climate and environmental changes on plankton biodiversity and bigeochemical cycles of the Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Wen-tseng; Hsu, Pei-Kai; Hunag, Jia-Jang; Wang, Yu-Huai

    2013-04-01

    Dongsha (Pratas) Atoll, the so called "Pearl Crown of South China Sea", is a well-developed atoll with a total area of 80000 hectares. It possesses various ecosystems and has very high biodiversity, but it is very sensitive to climate change and physical processes. According to our investigation within the shallow semi-enclosed atoll in April, July, and October, 2011 (i.e., spring, summer, and autumn, respectively), we found that plankton assemblages and hydrographical conditions exhibited clear seasonal and spatial variations. Colder and higher salinity water was observed in April, while warmer water in July and lower salinity water in October, respectively. Nutrient concentration within the atoll was similar to that of the oligotrophic South China Sea waters and seemed to be in nitrogen-limit situation, while the distribution pattern of DOC and POC was mainly attributed to Chla and imported detritus matters. Carbon deposition flux also showed significant seasonal changes, but POC/PN value was near Redfield ratio, implying mostly due to biogenic factors; however it could still be classified as a typical coral ecosystem, since CaCO3 sinking flux generally was 30 times higher than that of organic matter. Plankton biodiversity was quite high in the atoll, and preformed apparent seasonal succession; in total, 82 phytoplankton species and 67 copepod species were recorded; furthermore, crab zoea (17.3% of the total zooplankton by number), fish eggs (12.5%), and shrimp larvae (4.2%), were relatively abundant in zooplankton community, revealed that atoll might be a good hatching ground. We deduced that the seasonal patterns of chemical and biological variables were mainly influenced by monsoons and precipitation, while small scales of temporal and spatial variations could be ascribed to internal wave and tide in this study area.

  1. Pisces, Anguilliformes, Moringuidae, Moringua edwardsi (Jordan and Bollman, 1889: First record in Atol das Rocas, northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paiva, C. C.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Moringua edwardsi is recorded for the first time at Atol das Rocas, northeastern Brazil. Previous records of thespecies were located in the western Atlantic Ocean, from Florida to southeastern Brazil, but with many gaps between theseregions. A single specimen was collected in Atol das Rocas in July 2007 and it is deposited in the Dias da Rocha IchthyologicalCollection. The new record of M. edwardsi fills a geographic distribution gap of this species and complements the inventoryof fish species inhabiting one of the most unique marine protected areas in the world.

  2. Avian disease assessment in seabirds and non-native passerines birds at Midway Atoll NWR

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaPointe, Dennis A.; Atkinson, Carter T.; Klavitter, John L.

    2013-01-01

    Midway Atoll in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands supports the largest breeding colony of Laysan albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) in the world and is a proposed site for the translocation of endangered Northwestern Hawaiian Island passerine birds such as the Nihoa finch (Telespiza ultima), Nihoa millerbird (Acrocephalus familiaris kingi), or Laysan finch (Telespiza cantans). On the main Hawaiian Islands, introduced mosquito-borne avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and avian pox (Avipoxvirus) have contributed to the extinction and decline of native Hawaiian avifauna. The mosquito vector (Culex quinquefasciatus) is present on Sand Island, Midway Atoll, where epizootics of Avipoxvirus have been reported among nestling Laysan albatross, black-footed albatross (Phoebastria nigripes), and red-tailed tropicbirds (Phaethon rubricauda) since 1963. Two introduced passerines, the common canary (Serinus canaria) and the common myna (Acridotheres tristis), are also present on Sand Island and may serve as reservoirs of mosquito-borne pathogens. Assessing disease prevalence and transmission potential at Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is a critical first step to translocation of Nihoa endemic passerines. In May 2010 and April 2012 we surveyed Midway Atoll NWR for mosquitoes and evidence of mosquito-borne disease. Although we did not observe active pox infections on albatross nestlings in May 2010, active infections were prevalent on albatross nestlings in April 2012. Presumptive diagnosis of Avipoxvirus was confirmed by PCR amplification of the Avipoxvirus 4b core protein gene from lesions collected from 10 albatross nestlings. Products were sequenced and compared to 4b core protein sequences from 28 Avipoxvirus isolates from the Hawaiian Islands and other parts of the world. Sequences from all Midway isolates were identical and formed a clade with other Avipoxvirus isolates from seabirds that was distinct from other Avipoxvirus isolates from the Hawaiian Islands

  3. Drivers of shoreline change in atoll reef islands of the Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Salvat, Bernard; Salmon, Camille

    2017-11-01

    This paper increases by around 30% the sample of atoll reef islands studied from a shoreline change perspective, and covers an under-studied geographical area, i.e. the French Tuamotu Archipelago. It brings new irrefutable evidences on the persistence of reef islands over the last decades, as 77% of the 111 study islands exhibited areal stability while 15% and 8% showed expansion and contraction, respectively. This paper also addresses a key research gap by interpreting the major local drivers controlling recent shoreline and island change, i.e. tropical cyclones and seasonal swells, sediment supply by coral reefs and human activities. The 1983 tropical cyclones had contrasting impacts, depending on the shoreline indicator considered. While they generally caused a marked retreat of the stability line, the base of the beach advanced at some locations, as a result of either sediment reworking or fresh sediment inputs. The post-cyclone fair weather period was characterised by reversed trends indicating island morphological readjustment. Cyclonic waves contributed to island upwards growth, which reached up to 1 m in places, through the transfer of sediments up onto the island surface. However, the steep outer slopes of atolls limited sediment transfers to the reef flat and island system. We found that 57% of the study islands are disturbed by human activities, including 'rural' and uninhabited islands. Twenty-six percent of these islands have lost the capacity to respond to ocean-climate related pressures, including the 'capital' islands concentrating atolls' population, infrastructures and economic activities, which is preoccupying under climate change.

  4. Relationship between elemental distribution in soil and human impact in Majuro Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, L.; Takahashi, Y.; Yoneda, M.; Omori, T.; Yamazaki, K.; Yoshida, H.; Tamenori, Y.; Suga, H.; Yamaguchi, T.

    2015-12-01

    Majuro Atoll is one of islands of the Marshall Islands, located in the central Pacific Ocean. Reef-building corals and biological remains such as foraminifera have formed the islands under the influence of sea-level changes in the Holocene. Since the altitude of the general coral reef island tends to be very low, it is believed that the islands are vulnerable to natural disasters and climate change. However, people have lived in the Majuro Atoll in Marshall Islands for more than 2000 years. Reef islands in the same atoll are often considered to have same tendencies in the developing process; however, (i) there are possibilities that each geography produces different condition in habitat and (ii) human activities have changed the original nature in the island. In this study, we focus on the changes of physico-chemical conditions of soil depending on the depth according to time series variation in three islands in Majuro Atoll. Dating of each depth was conducted by radiocarbon (14C) measurement for foraminifera using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) and Bayesian age-depth Models. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and ICP-MS analyses were employed to measure major and trace elements at different depth, respectively. Among them, phosphorus (P) is considered to play an important role in soil development; therefore X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) analysis was also conducted to examine the chemical form of P. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to examine the elemental distribution in the soil particles, while X-ray computed tomography (CT) was used to calculate the rate of porosity of foraminifera at each depth. Concentrations of Fe, Mn, and P decrease with depth and vice versa for Mg. As a result of the μ-XAFS analysis, P in the soil exists as organic phosphorus and apatite. Phosphorous detected from the upper layer was found to distribute heterogeneously in the particles, which was observed as punctate pattern by the SEM observation. The ICP-MS results showed

  5. Radiation doses for Marshall Islands Atolls Affected by U.S. Nuclear Testing:All Exposure Pathways, Remedial Measures, and Environmental Loss of 137Cs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F

    2009-04-20

    The United States conducted 24 nuclear tests at Bikini Atoll with a total yield of 76.8 Megatons (MT). The Castle series produced about 60% of this total and included the Bravo test that was the primary source of contamination of Bikini Island and Rongelap and Utrok Atolls. One of three aerial drops missed the atoll and the second test of the Crossroads series, the Baker test, was an underwater detonation. Of the rest, 17 were on barges on water and 3 were on platforms on an island; they produced most of the contamination of islands at the atoll. There were 42 tests conducted at Enewetak Atoll with a total yield of 31.7 MT (Simon and Robison, 1997; UNSCEAR, 2000). Of these tests, 18 were on a barge over wateror reef, 7 were surface shots, 2 aerial drops, 2 under water detonations, and 13 tower shots on either land or reef. All produced some contamination of various atoll islands. Rongelap Atoll received radioactive fallout as a result of the Bravo test on March 1, 1954 that was part of the Castle series of tests. This deposition was the result of the Bravo test producing a yield of 15 MT, about a factor of three to four greater than the predicted yield that resulted in vaporization of more coral reef and island than expected and in the debris-cloud reaching a much higher altitude than anticipated. High-altitude winds were to the east at the time of detonation and carried the debris-cloud toward Rongelap Atoll. Utrok Atoll also received fallout from the Bravo test but at much lower air and ground-level concentrations than at Rongelap atoll. Other atolls received Bravo fallout at levels below that of Utrok [other common spellings of this island and atoll (Simon, et al., 2009)]. To avoid confusion in reading other literature, this atoll and island are spelled in a variety of ways (Utrik, Utirik, Uterik or Utrok). Dose assessments for Bikini Island at Bikini Atoll (Robison et al., 1997), Enjebi Island at Enewetak Atoll (Robison et al., 1987), Rongelap Island at

  6. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certified...

  7. Certified reference materials for radionuclides in Bikini Atoll sediment (IAEA-410) and Pacific Ocean sediment (IAEA-412)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, M. K.; van Beek, P.; Carvalho, F. P.

    2016-01-01

    The preparation and characterization of certified reference materials (CRMs) for radionuclide content in sediments collected offshore of Bikini Atoll (IAEA-410) and in the open northwest Pacific Ocean (IAEA-412) are described and the results of the certification process are presented. The certifi...... in the analysis of radionuclides in sediments, for development and validation of analytical methods and for staff training....

  8. 76 FR 24047 - Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory; Nonnative Rat Eradication...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Fish and Wildlife Service Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, U.S. Pacific Island Territory... directional manner to all potential rat territories within a short operational period. Special measures to...

  9. 78 FR 12015 - Western Pacific Fisheries; Fishing in the Marianas Trench, Pacific Remote Islands, and Rose Atoll...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-21

    ... fishermen and community residents for goods, and/or services for cultural, social, or religious reasons, and..., nor can they supplement trip fee revenues by selling fish caught outside of these Monument boundaries... selling fish would supplement trip fees. Sales of fish caught outside the Rose Atoll and PRI Monuments...

  10. Potential impacts of historical disturbance on green turtle health in the unique & protected marine ecosystem of Palmyra Atoll (Central Pacific).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFadden, Katherine W; Gómez, Andrés; Sterling, Eleanor J; Naro-Maciel, Eugenia

    2014-12-15

    Palmyra Atoll, in the Central Pacific, is a unique marine ecosystem because of its remarkably intact food web and limited anthropogenic stressors. However during World War II the atoll was structurally reconfigured into a military installation and questions remain whether this may have impacted the health of the atoll's ecosystems and species. To address the issue we assessed green sea turtle (n=157) health and exposure to contaminants at this foraging ground from 2008 to 2012. Physical exams were performed and blood was sampled for testosterone analysis, plasma biochemistry analysis, hematology and heavy metal exposure. Hematological and plasma chemistries were consistent with concentrations reported for healthy green turtles. Heavy metal screenings revealed low concentrations of most metals, except for high concentrations of iron and aluminum. Body condition indices showed that <1% of turtles had poor body condition. In this study, we provide the first published blood values for a markedly healthy sea turtle population at a remote Central Pacific Atoll. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. [Physicochemical and sensory properties of flours ready to prepare an amaranth "atole"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras López, Elizabeth; Jaimez Ordaz, Judith; Porras Martínez, Griselda; Juárez Santillán, Luis Felipe; Villanueva Rodríguez, Javier Añorve Morga y Socorro

    2010-06-01

    Atole is a Mexican pre-hispanic drink prepared traditionally with corn; however, cereals as wheat, rice and amaranth have also been used. The aim of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of an amaranth flour to prepare a drink (atole) mentioned above, in order to determine its nutritive value. Proximate analysis of the amaranth, corn and rice drink flours was determined by means of official techniques of AOAC. Mineral content was carried out by atomic absorption spectrometry. Viscosity was measured in a reometer from 25 to 90 degrees C. The quantitative descriptive profile (QDA) of the amaranth drink was studied by a trained panel of 10 judges. Results showed that the amaranth drink flour presented the highest protein and fat content compared to corn and rice drink flours. Sodium and potassium were the most abundant minerals in all flours studied. Corn and rice drink flours showed a constant viscosity from 20 to 84 degrees C, to 85 degrees C an important increase in this parameter was observed. This increase was detected in the amaranth drink flour to 75 degrees C. Descriptors defined by trained judges for the QDA of the amaranth drink flours were: starch, almond/cherry, caramel, vanilla, strawberry, walnut and chocolate. The amaranth drink flour, compared to corn and rice drink flours, presented the best nutritional profile; it is important to emphasize its protein content.

  12. Impacts of category 5 tropical cyclone Fantala (April 2016) on Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles Islands, Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duvat, Virginie K. E.; Volto, Natacha; Salmon, Camille

    2017-12-01

    This paper provides new insights on the impacts of a category 5 tropical cyclone on Indian Ocean atoll reef islands. Using multi-date aerial imagery and field observations, the contribution of tropical cyclone Fantala to shoreline and island change, and to sediment production and transport, was assessed on Farquhar Atoll, Seychelles Islands. Results show that the two largest islands (> 3 km2) only suffered limited land loss (- 1.19 to - 8.35%) while small islets lost 13.17 to 28.45% of their initial land area. Islands and islets exhibited contrasting responses depending on their location, topography and vegetation type. Depending on islands, the retreat of the vegetation line occurred either along all shorelines, or along ocean shoreline only. The structure (wooded vs. grassy) and origin (native vs. introduced) of the vegetation played a major role in island response. Five days after the cyclone, beach width and beach area were multiplied by 1.5 to 10, depending on the setting, and were interpreted as resulting from both sediment reworking and the supply of large amounts of fresh sediments by the reef outer slopes to the island system. Fourth months after the cyclone, extended sheets of loose sediments were still present on the reef flat and in inter-islet channels and shallow lagoon waters, indicating continuing sediment transfer to islands. As a reminder (see Section 3.1.4), beach width uncertainty equals to 6 m for all beach sections.

  13. Persistent synthetic chlorinated hydrocarbons in albatross tissue samples from Midway Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, P.D.; Hannah, D.J.; Buckland, S.J. [ESR:Environmental, Lower Hutt (New Zealand)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    Anthropogenic organic contaminants have been found in even the most remote locations. To assess the global distribution and possible effects of such contaminants, the authors examined the tissues of two species of albatross collected from Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. These birds have an extensive feeding range covering much of the subtropical and northern Pacific Ocean. Anthropogenic contaminants were found at relatively great concentrations in these birds. The sum of 19 polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners ranged from 177 ng/g wet weight in eggs to 2,750 ng/g wet weight in adult fat. Total toxic equivalents (TEQs) derived from polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and dibenzofurans (PCDFs) ranged from 17.2 to 297 pg/g wet weight in the same tissues, while the inclusion of TEQs from PCBs increased these values to 48.4 and 769 pg/g wet weight, respectively. While contaminant concentrations varied between species and tissues, the contaminant profile was relatively uniform. The profile of contaminants detected was unusual in that much of the TEQs was contributed by two pentachlorinated congeners (2,3,4,7,8-pentachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin), and the profiles of PCB congeners did not match known sources. When compared to other studies the concentrations detected in the Midway Atoll samples were near or above the thresholds known to cause adverse effects in other fish-eating bird species.

  14. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Enewetak Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Johannes, K; Henry, D

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Enewetak Island (Figure 1) (Bell et al., 2002). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental

  15. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands: Rongelap Atoll (2002-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T F; Kehl, S; Hickman, D; Brown, T; Marchetti, A A; Martinelli, R; Arelong, E; Langinbelik, S

    2006-01-17

    The United States Department of Energy (U.S. DOE) has recently implemented a series of strategic initiatives to address long-term radiological surveillance needs at former U.S. nuclear test sites in the Marshall Islands. The plan is to engage local atoll communities in developing shared responsibilities for implementing radiation protection monitoring programs for resettled and resettling populations in the northern Marshall Islands. Using the pooled resources of the U.S. DOE and local atoll governments, individual radiological surveillance programs have been developed in whole body counting and plutonium urinalysis in order to accurately assess radiation doses resulting from the ingestion and uptake of fallout radionuclides contained in locally grown foods. Permanent whole body counting facilities have been established at three separate locations in the Marshall Islands including Rongelap Atoll (Figure 1). These facilities are operated and maintained by Marshallese technicians with scientists from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) providing on-going technical support services. Bioassay samples are collected under controlled conditions and analyzed for plutonium isotopes at the Center for Accelerator Mass Spectrometry at LLNL using state-of-the art measurement technologies. We also conduct an on-going environmental monitoring and characterization program at selected sites in the northern Marshall Islands. The aim of the environmental program is to determine the level and distribution of important fallout radionuclides in soil, water and local foods with a view towards providing more accurate and updated dose assessments, incorporating knowledge of the unique behaviors and exposure pathways of fallout radionuclides in coral atoll ecosystems. These scientific studies have also been essential in helping guide the development of remedial options used in support of island resettlement. Together, the individual and environmental radiological surveillance

  16. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hoeke, Ron K.

    2017-10-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  17. Between-Habitat Variation of Benthic Cover, Reef Fish Assemblage and Feeding Pressure on the Benthos at the Only Atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, G. O.; Morais, R. A.; Martins, C. D. L.; Mendes, T. C.; Aued, A. W.; Cândido, D. V.; de Oliveira, J. C.; Nunes, L. T.; Fontoura, L.; Sissini, M. N.; Teschima, M. M.; Silva, M. B.; Ramlov, F.; Gouvea, L. P.; Ferreira, C. E. L.; Segal, B.; Horta, P. A.; Floeter, S. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most “pristine” areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp.) prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos between open

  18. Between-Habitat Variation of Benthic Cover, Reef Fish Assemblage and Feeding Pressure on the Benthos at the Only Atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G O Longo

    Full Text Available The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp. prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos

  19. Projected atoll shoreline and run-up changes in response to sea-level rise and varying large wave conditions at Wake and Midway Atolls, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shope, James B.; Storlazzi, Curt; Hoeke, Ron

    2017-01-01

    Atoll islands are dynamic features that respond to seasonal alterations in wave conditions and sea level. It is unclear how shoreline wave run-up and erosion patterns along these low elevation islands will respond to projected sea-level rise (SLR) and changes in wave climate over the next century, hindering communities' preparation for the future. To elucidate how these processes may respond to climate change, extreme boreal winter and summer wave conditions under future sea-level rise (SLR) and wave climate scenarios were simulated at two atolls, Wake and Midway, using a shallow-water hydrodynamic model. Nearshore wave conditions were used to compute the potential longshore sediment flux along island shorelines via the CERC empirical formula and wave-driven erosion was calculated as the divergence of the longshore drift; run-up and the locations where the run-up exceed the berm elevation were also determined. SLR is projected to predominantly drive future island morphological change and flooding. Seaward shorelines (i.e., ocean fronted shorelines directly facing incident wave energy) were projected to experience greater erosion and flooding with SLR and in hypothetical scenarios where changes to deep water wave directions were altered, as informed by previous climate change forced Pacific wave modeling efforts. These changes caused nearshore waves to become more shore-normal, increasing wave attack along previously protected shorelines. With SLR, leeward shorelines (i.e., an ocean facing shoreline but sheltered from incident wave energy) became more accretive on windward islands and marginally more erosive along leeward islands. These shorelines became more accretionary and subject to more flooding with nearshore waves becoming more shore-normal. Lagoon shorelines demonstrated the greatest SLR-driven increase in erosion and run-up. They exhibited the greatest relative change with increasing wave heights where both erosion and run-up magnitudes increased. Wider

  20. Between-Habitat Variation of Benthic Cover, Reef Fish Assemblage and Feeding Pressure on the Benthos at the Only Atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, G O; Morais, R A; Martins, C D L; Mendes, T C; Aued, A W; Cândido, D V; de Oliveira, J C; Nunes, L T; Fontoura, L; Sissini, M N; Teschima, M M; Silva, M B; Ramlov, F; Gouvea, L P; Ferreira, C E L; Segal, B; Horta, P A; Floeter, S R

    2015-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contrasting tide pool habitats: open pools, which communicate with the open ocean even during low tides, thus more exposed to wave action; and closed pools, which remain isolated during low tide and are comparatively less exposed. Reef fish assemblages, benthic cover, algal turfs and fish feeding pressure on the benthos remarkably varied between open and closed pools. The planktivore Thalassoma noronhanum was the most abundant fish species in both habitats. In terms of biomass, the lemon shark Negaprion brevirostris and the omnivore Melichtys niger were dominant in open pools, while herbivorous fishes (mainly Acanthurus spp.) prevailed in closed pools. Overall benthic cover was dominated by algal turfs, composed of articulated calcareous algae in open pools and non-calcified algae in closed pools. Feeding pressure was dominated by acanthurids and was 10-fold lower in open pools than in closed pools. Besides different wave exposure conditions, such pattern could also be related to the presence of sharks in open pools, prompting herbivorous fish to feed more in closed pools. This might indirectly affect the structure of reef fish assemblages and benthic communities. The macroalgae Digenea simplex, which is uncommon in closed pools and abundant in the reef flat, was highly preferred in herbivory assays, indicating that herbivory by fishes might be shaping this distribution pattern. The variations in benthic and reef fish communities, and feeding pressure on the benthos between open and

  1. Investigation of the marine communities of Midway Harbor and adjacent lagoon, Midway Atoll, Northwest Hawaiian Islands in 1998 (NODC Accession 0001098)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A survey of the marine communities of Midway Atoll harbor and surrounding lagoon was conducted at 12 sites from September 5 to 9, 1998. The primary focus of these...

  2. CRED Simrad em300 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 5 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  3. Inventory of endangered species and wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1988 (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — An inventory of endangered species and the wildlife resources at the US Army Kwajelein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Island were conducted from 30 October 1998 to...

  4. 1998 Inventory of Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources at the US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (NODC Accession 0000631)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the second United States Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (UES) inventory of...

  5. 1996 Inventory of Endangered Species and Wildlife Resources on US Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands (NODC Accession 0000251)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This report summarizes the results of the first United States Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) Activities in the Republic of the Marshall Islands (UES) inventory of...

  6. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in GeoTIFF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  7. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 1 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  8. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 30 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  9. CRED Reson 8101 multibeam backscatter data of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, Central Pacific with 1 meter resolution in netCDF format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of the lagoon, shelf, and slope environments of Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Island Areas, Central Pacific....

  10. CRED Simrad EM3002d multibeam backscatter data from portions of the banktop and bank edge environments at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Hawaii, USA with 30 meter resolution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multibeam backscatter imagery extracted from gridded bathymetry of Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, USA. These data provide coverage between 0...

  11. The lagoon at Caroline/Millennium atoll, Republic of Kiribati: natural history of a nearly pristine ecosystem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie L Barott

    Full Text Available A series of surveys were carried out to characterize the physical and biological parameters of the Millennium Atoll lagoon during a research expedition in April of 2009. Millennium is a remote coral atoll in the Central Pacific belonging to the Republic of Kiribati, and a member of the Southern Line Islands chain. The atoll is among the few remaining coral reef ecosystems that are relatively pristine. The lagoon is highly enclosed, and was characterized by reticulate patch and line reefs throughout the center of the lagoon as well as perimeter reefs around the rim of the atoll. The depth reached a maximum of 33.3 m in the central region of the lagoon, and averaged between 8.8 and 13.7 m in most of the pools. The deepest areas were found to harbor large platforms of Favia matthaii, which presumably provided a base upon which the dominant corals (Acropora spp. grew to form the reticulate reef structure. The benthic algal communities consisted mainly of crustose coralline algae (CCA, microfilamentous turf algae and isolated patches of Halimeda spp. and Caulerpa spp. Fish species richness in the lagoon was half of that observed on the adjacent fore reef. The lagoon is likely an important nursery habitat for a number of important fisheries species including the blacktip reef shark and Napoleon wrasse, which are heavily exploited elsewhere around the world but were common in the lagoon at Millennium. The lagoon also supports an abundance of giant clams (Tridacna maxima. Millennium lagoon provides an excellent reference of a relatively undisturbed coral atoll. As with most coral reefs around the world, the lagoon communities of Millennium may be threatened by climate change and associated warming, acidification and sea level rise, as well as sporadic local resource exploitation which is difficult to monitor and enforce because of the atoll's remote location. While the remote nature of Millennium has allowed it to remain one of the few nearly pristine

  12. Translocation of wild Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis from Laysan Island to Midway Atoll: Project update

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, M.H.; Breeden, J.H.; Klavitter, J.L.

    2007-01-01

    The Laysan Teal Anas laysanensis is endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, where it has been restricted to Laysan Island over the last 150 years. Individuals of this endangered species have recently been translocated to the two largest islands that comprise Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, to reduce the risk of the Laysan Teal becoming extinct. Post-release monitoring with the aid of radio-telemetry was conducted to determine the success of the reintroduction attempt during October 2004-2007. The population was found to have increased after three breeding seasons, from forty-two founders sourced directly from Laysan, to a population of ??? 192 post-fledglings juveniles and adults. ?? Wildfowl & Wetlands Trust.

  13. Limited trophic partitioning among sympatric delphinids off a tropical oceanic atoll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hillary Young

    Full Text Available Understanding trophic relationships among marine predators in remote environments is challenging, but it is critical to understand community structure and dynamics. In this study, we used stable isotope analysis of skin biopsies to compare the isotopic, and thus, trophic niches of three sympatric delphinids in the waters surrounding Palmyra Atoll, in the Central Tropical Pacific: the melon-headed whale (Peponocephala electra, Gray's spinner dolphin (Stenella longirostris longirostris, and the common bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus. δ15N values suggested that T. truncatus occupied a significantly higher trophic position than the other two species. δ13C values did not significantly differ between the three delphinds, potentially indicating no spatial partitioning in depth or distance from shore in foraging among species. The dietary niche area-determined by isotopic variance among individuals-of T. truncatus was also over 30% smaller than those of the other species taken at the same place, indicating higher population specialization or lower interindividual variation. For P. electra only, there was some support for intraspecific variation in foraging ecology across years, highlighting the need for temporal information in studying dietary niche. Cumulatively, isotopic evidence revealed surprisingly little evidence for trophic niche partitioning in the delphinid community of Palmyra Atoll compared to other studies. However, resource partitioning may happen via other behavioral mechanisms, or prey abundance or availability may be adequate to allow these three species to coexist without any such partitioning. It is also possible that isotopic signatures are inadequate to detect trophic partitioning in this environment, possibly because isotopes of prey are highly variable or insufficiently resolved to allow for differentiation.

  14. Concentrations of radionuclides in fish collected from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Wong, K.M.; Eagle, R.J.; Jokela, T.A.; Brunk, J.A.

    1986-07-01

    This report summarizes all available data on the concentrations of radionuclides in fish from Bikini Atoll between 1977 and 1984. As found in other global studies, /sup 137/Cs is most highly accumulated in edible flesh of all species of fish, the lowest fractions are found in the bone or liver. The mean concentration of /sup 137/Cs in muscle of reef fish from the southern part of the atoll is comparable to the global fallout concentration measured in market samples of fish collected from Chicago, Illinois, in 1982. /sup 90/Sr is generally associated with non-edible parts of fish, such as bone or viscera. Twenty-five to fifty percent of the total body burden of /sup 60/Co is accumulated in the muscle tissue; the remainder is distributed among the liver, skin, and viscera. The mean concentration of /sup 60/Co in fish has been decreasing at a rate faster than radiological decay alone. Most striking is the range of /sup 207/Bi concentrations among different species of fish collected at the same time and place. Highest concentrations of /sup 207/Bi were consistently detected in the muscle (and other tissues) of goatfish and some of the pelagic lagoon fish. In other reef fish, such as mullet, surgeonfish, and parrotfish, /sup 207/Bi was usually below detection limits by gamma spectrometry. Over 70% of the whole-body activity of /sup 207/Bi in goatfish is associated with the muscle tissue, whereas less than 5% is found in the muscle of mullet and surgeonfish. Neither /sup 239 +240/Pu nor /sup 241/Am is significantly accumulated in the muscle tissue of any species of fish. Apparently, /sup 238/Pu is in a more readily available form for accumulation by fishes than /sup 239 +240/Pu. Based on a daily ingestion rate of 200 q of fish flesh, dose rates to individuals through the fish-food ingestion pathway are well below current Federal guidelines.

  15. An updated dose assessment for a U.S. Nuclear Test Site - Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1995-10-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. There has been a continuing effort since 1977 to refine dose assessments for resettlement options at Bikini Atoll. Here we provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island as part of our continuing research and monitoring program that began in 1975. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr) to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Without counter measures, cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The doses are calculated assuming a resettlement date of 1999. The estimated maximum annual effective dose for current island conditions is 4.0 mSv when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The corresponding 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 9.1 cSv, 13 cSv, and 15 cSv, respectively. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {plus_minus}35% of its expected value. We have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to about 5% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

  16. Human impact on atolls leads to coral loss and community homogenisation: a modeling study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernhard M Riegl

    Full Text Available We explore impacts on pristine atolls subjected to anthropogenic near-field (human habitation and far-field (climate and environmental change pressure. Using literature data of human impacts on reefs, we parameterize forecast models to evaluate trajectories in coral cover under impact scenarios that primarily act via recruitment and increased mortality of larger corals. From surveys across the Chagos, we investigate the regeneration dynamics of coral populations distant from human habitation after natural disturbances. Using a size-based mathematical model based on a time-series of coral community and population data from 1999-2006, we provide hind- and forecast data for coral population dynamics within lagoons and on ocean-facing reefs verified against monitoring from 1979-2009. Environmental data (currents, temperatures were used for calibration. The coral community was simplified into growth typologies: branching and encrusting, arboresent and massive corals. Community patterns observed in the field were influenced by bleaching-related mortality, most notably in 1998. Survival had been highest in deep lagoonal settings, which suggests a refuge. Recruitment levels were higher in lagoons than on ocean-facing reefs. When adding stress by direct human pressure, climate and environmental change as increased disturbance frequency and modified recruitment and mortality levels (due to eutrophication, overfishing, pollution, heat, acidification, etc, models suggest steep declines in coral populations and loss of community diversification among habitats. We found it likely that degradation of lagoonal coral populations would impact regeneration potential of all coral populations, also on ocean-facing reefs, thus decreasing reef resilience on the entire atoll.

  17. Stomach nematodes (Mastophorus Muris) in rats (Rattus rattus) are associated with coconut (Cocos nucifera) Habitat at palmyra atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafferty, K.D.; Hathaway, S.A.; Wegmann, A.S.; Shipley, F.S.; Backlin, A.R.; Helm, J.; Fisher, R.N.

    2010-01-01

    Black rats (Rattus rattus) and their stomach nematodes (Mastophorus muris) were historically introduced to islets at Palmyra Atoll in the central Pacific Line Islands. To investigate patterns of parasitism, we trapped rats and quantified nematodes on 13 islets of various sizes and habitat types. Most rats were parasitized (59) with an average of 12 worms per infected rat. Islet size did not greatly influence parasite population biology. Nematodes also did not appear to affect rat condition (weight to skull length). The only strong and consistent factor associated with the mean abundance of nematodes in rats was habitat (dominant cover and locally dominant plant species). Thus, nematodes were much more abundant in rats from sites dominated by coconut trees (Cocos nucifera). Coconut trees may also be an introduced species at Palmyra Atoll. ?? American Society of Parasitologists 2010.

  18. 137Cs Inter-Plant Concentration Ratios Provide a Predictive Tool for Coral Atolls with Distinct Benefits Over Transfer Factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Bogen, K; Corado, C L; Kehl, S R

    2007-07-17

    Inter-plant concentration ratios (IPCR), [Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in coral atoll tree food-crops/Bq g{sup -1} {sup 137}Cs in leaves of native plant species whose roots share a common soil volume], can replace transfer factors (TF) to predict {sup 137}Cs concentration in tree food-crops in a contaminated area with an aged source term. The IPCR strategy has significant benefits relative to TF strategy for such purposes in the atoll ecosystem. IPCR strategy applied to specific assessments takes advantage of the fact tree roots naturally integrate 137Cs over large volumes of soil. Root absorption of {sup 137}Cs replaces large-scale, expensive soil sampling schemes to reduce variability in {sup 137}Cs concentration due to inhomogeneous radionuclide distribution. IPCR [drinking-coconut meat (DCM)/Scaevola (SCA) and Tournefortia (TOU) leaves (native trees growing on all atoll islands)] are log normally distributed (LND) with geometric standard deviation (GSD) = 1.85. TF for DCM from Enewetak, Eneu, Rongelap and Bikini Atolls are LND with GSD's of 3.5, 3.0, 2.7, and 2.1, respectively. TF GSD for Rongelap copra coconut meat is 2.5. IPCR of Pandanus fruit to SCA and TOU leaves are LND with GSD = 1.7 while TF GSD is 2.1. Because IPCR variability is much lower than TF variability, relative sampling error of an IPCR field sample mean is up 6- to 10-fold lower than that of a TF sample mean if sample sizes are small (10 to 20). Other IPCR advantages are that plant leaf samples are collected and processed in far less time with much less effort and cost than soil samples.

  19. The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate Shoals Atoll, Hawai‘i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Jonathan J.; Stankus, Austin M.; Burns, Michael S.; Meyer, Carl G.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcha...

  20. Weights, hematology and serum chemistry of free-ranging brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) in Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.

    1999-01-01

    Hematologic and serum chemistry values are reported for 105 brown boobies (Sula leucogaster) from Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific. Hematocrit, estimated total plasma solids, total and differential white cell counts, serum glucose, calcium, phosphorus, uric acid, total protein, albumin, globulin, aspartate aminotransferase, and creatinine phosphokinase were analyzed. Hematologic and serum chemistry values varied with age and sex. Values were compared with those of red-footed boobies and other tropical and temperate marine pelecaniforms.

  1. Phase shift from a coral to a corallimorph-dominated reef associated with a shipwreck on Palmyra atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M; Aeby, Greta S; Maragos, James E

    2008-08-20

    Coral reefs can undergo relatively rapid changes in the dominant biota, a phenomenon referred to as phase shift. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including increased human disturbance, pollution, or changes in coral reef biota that serve a major ecological function such as depletion of grazers. However, pinpointing the actual factors potentially responsible can be problematic. Here we show a phase shift from coral to the corallimorpharian Rhodactis howesii associated with a long line vessel that wrecked in 1991 on an isolated atoll (Palmyra) in the central Pacific Ocean. We documented high densities of R. howesii near the ship that progressively decreased with distance from the ship whereas R. howesii were rare to absent in other parts of the atoll. We also confirmed high densities of R. howesii around several buoys recently installed on the atoll in 2001. This is the first time that a phase shift on a coral reef has been unambiguously associated with man-made structures. This association was made, in part, because of the remoteness of Palmyra and its recent history of minimal human habitation or impact. Phase shifts can have long-term negative ramification for coral reefs, and eradication of organisms responsible for phase shifts in marine ecosystems can be difficult, particularly if such organisms cover a large area. The extensive R. howesii invasion and subsequent loss of coral reef habitat at Palmyra also highlights the importance of rapid removal of shipwrecks on corals reefs to mitigate the potential of reef overgrowth by invasives.

  2. Concentrations, source and risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in soils from midway atoll, north pacific ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuyi Yang

    Full Text Available This study was designed to determine concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in soil samples collected from Midway Atoll and evaluate their potential risks to human health. The total concentrations of 16 PAHs ranged from 3.55 to 3200 µg kg(-1 with a mean concentration of 198 µg kg(-1. Higher molecular weight PAHs (4-6 ring PAHs dominated the PAH profiles, accounting for 83.3% of total PAH mass. PAH diagnostic ratio analysis indicated that primary sources of PAHs in Midway Atoll could be combustion. The benzo[a]pyrene equivalent concentration (BaPeq in most of the study area (86.5% was less than 40 µg kg(-1 BaPeq and total incremental lifetime cancer risks of PAHs ranged from 1.00×10(-10 to 9.20×10(-6 with a median value of 1.24×10(-7, indicating a minor carcinogenic risk of PAHs in Midway Atoll.

  3. Phase Shift from a Coral to a Corallimorph-Dominated Reef Associated with a Shipwreck on Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Work, Thierry M.; Aeby, Greta S.; Maragos, James E.

    2008-01-01

    Coral reefs can undergo relatively rapid changes in the dominant biota, a phenomenon referred to as phase shift. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including increased human disturbance, pollution, or changes in coral reef biota that serve a major ecological function such as depletion of grazers. However, pinpointing the actual factors potentially responsible can be problematic. Here we show a phase shift from coral to the corallimorpharian Rhodactis howesii associated with a long line vessel that wrecked in 1991 on an isolated atoll (Palmyra) in the central Pacific Ocean. We documented high densities of R. howesii near the ship that progressively decreased with distance from the ship whereas R. howesii were rare to absent in other parts of the atoll. We also confirmed high densities of R. howesii around several buoys recently installed on the atoll in 2001. This is the first time that a phase shift on a coral reef has been unambiguously associated with man-made structures. This association was made, in part, because of the remoteness of Palmyra and its recent history of minimal human habitation or impact. Phase shifts can have long-term negative ramification for coral reefs, and eradication of organisms responsible for phase shifts in marine ecosystems can be difficult, particularly if such organisms cover a large area. The extensive R. howesii invasion and subsequent loss of coral reef habitat at Palmyra also highlights the importance of rapid removal of shipwrecks on corals reefs to mitigate the potential of reef overgrowth by invasives. PMID:18714355

  4. Arthropods of Rose Atoll with special reference to ants and Pulvinaria Urbicola Scales (Hempitera Coccidae) on Pisonia Grandis trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Pendleton, Frank; Schmaedick, Mark; Ernsberger, Kelsie

    2014-01-01

    Rose Atoll, at the eastern end of the Samoan Archipelago, is a small but important refuge for seabirds, shorebirds, and sea turtles. While the vertebrate community is relatively well-studied, the terrestrial arthropod fauna, and its role in ecosystem function, are poorly known. Arthropods may be influencing the decline of Pisonia grandis, an ecologically important tree that once dominated the 6.6 ha of land on Rose Atoll. Reasons for the decline are not fully understood but a facultative relationship between two invasive arthropods, the soft scale Pulvinaria urbicola and ants, likely has contributed to tree death. The primary objectives of this study were to systematically survey the terrestrial arthropod fauna and identify ant species that tend scales on Pisonia. Using an array of standard arthropod collecting techniques, at least 73 species from 20 orders were identified, including nine ant species. Of the ants collected, only Tetramorium bicarinatum and T. simillimum were observed tending scales on Pisonia. No known natural enemies of Pulvinaria scales were found, suggesting little predation on scale populations. Treatment of Pisonia with the systemic insecticide imidacloprid failed to eliminate Pulvinaria scales, although short-term suppression apparently occurred. The arthropod fauna of Rose Atoll is dominated by exotic species that likely have a significant impact on the structure and function of the island’s ecosystem.

  5. A Geospatial Appraisal of Ecological and Geomorphic Change on Diego Garcia Atoll, Chagos Islands (British Indian Ocean Territory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holly East

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This study compiled a wide range of modern and historic geospatial datasets to examine ecological and geomorphic change at Diego Garcia Atoll across a 38-year period (1967–2005. This remarkable collection of spatially referenced information offered an opportunity to advance our understanding of the nature and extent of environmental change that has taken place with the construction of the military airbase at Diego Garcia. Changes assessed included movements of the lagoon rim shorelines, changes in the terrestrial vegetation on the lagoon rim and amendments to the bathymetry of the lagoon basin through dredging activities. Data compiled included detailed shoreline and vegetation maps produced as part of the H.M.S. Vidal Indian Ocean Expedition (1967, three Ikonos satellite images acquired in 2005 that collectively covered the complete Atoll area, a ground truthing field dataset collected in the northern section of the lagoon for the purpose of seafloor mapping (2005, observational evidence of shoreline erosion including photographs and descriptions of seawater inundations and bathymetric soundings from five independent surveys of the lagoon floor (1967, 1985, 1987, 1988 and 1997. Results indicated that much of the change along the lagoon rim is associated with the expansion of the inner lagoon shoreline as a result of the construction of the military airbase, with an estimated increase in land area of 3.01 km2 in this portion of the atoll rim. Comparisons of 69 rim width transects measured from 1967 and 2005 indicated that shorelines are both eroding (26 transects and accreting (43 transects. Within a total vegetated area of 24 km2, there was a notable transition from Cocos Woodland to Broadleaf Woodland for a land area of 5.6 km2. From the hydrographic surveys, it was estimated that approximately 0.55 km3 of carbonate sediment material has been removed from the northwest quadrant of the lagoon, particularly in the vicinity of the Main

  6. Modeling patterns of coral bleaching at a remote Central Pacific atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Gareth J; Knapp, Ingrid S; Maragos, James E; Davy, Simon K

    2010-09-01

    A mild bleaching event (9.2% prevalence) at Palmyra Atoll occurred in response to the 2009 ENSO, when mean water temperature reached 29.8-30.1 degrees C. Prevalence among both abundant and sparse taxa varied with no clear pattern in susceptibility relating to coral morphology. Seven taxon-specific models showed that turbidity exacerbated while prior exposure to higher background temperatures alleviated bleaching, with these predictors explaining an average 16.3% and 11.5% variation in prevalence patterns, respectively. Positive associations occurred between bleaching prevalence and both immediate temperature during the bleaching event (average 8.4% variation explained) and increased sand cover (average 3.7%). Despite these associations, mean unexplained variation in prevalence equalled 59%. Lower bleaching prevalence in areas experiencing higher background temperatures suggests acclimation to temperature stress among several coral genera, while WWII modifications may still be impacting the reefs via shoreline sediment re-distribution and increased turbidity, exacerbating coral bleaching susceptibility during periods of high temperature stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whale shark economics: a valuation of wildlife tourism in South Ari Atoll, Maldives

    KAUST Repository

    Cagua, Edgar F.

    2014-08-12

    Whale sharks attract large numbers of tourists, divers and snorkelers each year to South Ari Atoll in the Republic of Maldives. Yet without information regarding the use and economic extent of the attraction, it is difficult to prioritize conservation or implement effective management plans. We used empirical recreational data and generalized mixed statistical models to conduct the first economic valuation (with direct spend as the primary proxy) of whale shark tourism in Maldives. We estimated that direct expenditures for whale shark focused tourism in the South Ari Marine Protected Area for 2012 and 2013 accounted for US$7.6 and $9.4 million respectively. These expenditures are based on an estimate of 72,000-78,000 tourists who are involved in whale shark excursions annually. That substantial amount of income to resort owners and operators, and tourism businesses in a relatively small area highlights the need to implement regulations and management that safeguard the sustainability of the industry through ensuring guest satisfaction and whale shark conservation. © 2014 Cagua et al.

  8. Whale shark economics: a valuation of wildlife tourism in South Ari Atoll, Maldives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagua, Edgar Fernando; Collins, Neal; Hancock, James; Rees, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Whale sharks attract large numbers of tourists, divers and snorkelers each year to South Ari Atoll in the Republic of Maldives. Yet without information regarding the use and economic extent of the attraction, it is difficult to prioritize conservation or implement effective management plans. We used empirical recreational data and generalized mixed statistical models to conduct the first economic valuation (with direct spend as the primary proxy) of whale shark tourism in Maldives. We estimated that direct expenditures for whale shark focused tourism in the South Ari Marine Protected Area for 2012 and 2013 accounted for US$7.6 and $9.4 million respectively. These expenditures are based on an estimate of 72,000-78,000 tourists who are involved in whale shark excursions annually. That substantial amount of income to resort owners and operators, and tourism businesses in a relatively small area highlights the need to implement regulations and management that safeguard the sustainability of the industry through ensuring guest satisfaction and whale shark conservation.

  9. Independent verification of plutonium decontamination on Johnston Atoll (1992--1996)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson-Nichols, M.J.; Wilson, J.E.; McDowell-Boyer, L.M.; Davidson, J.R.; Egidi, P.V.; Coleman, R.L.

    1998-05-01

    The Field Command, Defense Special Weapons Agency (FCDSWA) (formerly FCDNA) contracted Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Environmental Technology Section (ETS) to conduct an independent verification (IV) of the Johnston Atoll (JA) Plutonium Decontamination Project by an interagency agreement with the US Department of Energy in 1992. The main island is contaminated with the transuranic elements plutonium and americium, and soil decontamination activities have been ongoing since 1984. FCDSWA has selected a remedy that employs a system of sorting contaminated particles from the coral/soil matrix, allowing uncontaminated soil to be reused. The objective of IV is to evaluate the effectiveness of remedial action. The IV contractor`s task is to determine whether the remedial action contractor has effectively reduced contamination to levels within established criteria and whether the supporting documentation describing the remedial action is adequate. ORNL conducted four interrelated tasks from 1992 through 1996 to accomplish the IV mission. This document is a compilation and summary of those activities, in addition to a comprehensive review of the history of the project.

  10. Atol das Rocas: an oasis for Octopus insularis juveniles (Cephalopoda: Octopodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena F Bouth

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The habitat, population density, distribution and diet of Octopus insularis Leite & Haimovici, 2008 were studied in the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve, based on visual census carried out in fixed quadrants. For each octopus den, we collected data on octopus size, substrate, type of den, and food remains around it. A total of 100 octopus dens were found within the fixed quadrants. The highest density occurred at Mapas area (0.30 inds/100 m² and the lowest at Crista Algálica (0.07 inds/100 m². The preferred den type was the one on the reef bed (69%, reinforcing the importance of rocky substrates for this species. A total of 454 food items, classified into 22 distinct taxa, were collected. The class Crustacea was best represented, accounting for 70.5% of the total prey, followed by Gastropoda (22.4%, Bivalvia (6.4% and Cephalopoda (0.7%. Five species represented more than 80% of all findings: the crabs, Xanthodius denticulatus White, 1848 (38.5%, Microphrys bicornutus (Latreille, 1825 (18.5% and Mithrax forceps Milne-Edwards, 1875 (7.0%; and the gastropods Hipponix sp. (9.3% and Collisella sp. (8.4%. The overwhelming preference for small crabs shows that O. insularis is a specialized predator. The strong presence of juveniles inside the ring reef indicates the importance of this location for the development of this octopus species in northeastern Brazil.

  11. Phase shift from a coral to a corallimorph-dominated reef associated with a shipwreck on Palmyra atoll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thierry M Work

    Full Text Available Coral reefs can undergo relatively rapid changes in the dominant biota, a phenomenon referred to as phase shift. Various reasons have been proposed to explain this phenomenon including increased human disturbance, pollution, or changes in coral reef biota that serve a major ecological function such as depletion of grazers. However, pinpointing the actual factors potentially responsible can be problematic. Here we show a phase shift from coral to the corallimorpharian Rhodactis howesii associated with a long line vessel that wrecked in 1991 on an isolated atoll (Palmyra in the central Pacific Ocean. We documented high densities of R. howesii near the ship that progressively decreased with distance from the ship whereas R. howesii were rare to absent in other parts of the atoll. We also confirmed high densities of R. howesii around several buoys recently installed on the atoll in 2001. This is the first time that a phase shift on a coral reef has been unambiguously associated with man-made structures. This association was made, in part, because of the remoteness of Palmyra and its recent history of minimal human habitation or impact. Phase shifts can have long-term negative ramification for coral reefs, and eradication of organisms responsible for phase shifts in marine ecosystems can be difficult, particularly if such organisms cover a large area. The extensive R. howesii invasion and subsequent loss of coral reef habitat at Palmyra also highlights the importance of rapid removal of shipwrecks on corals reefs to mitigate the potential of reef overgrowth by invasives.

  12. Larval dispersal modeling of pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera following realistic environmental and biological forcing in Ahe atoll lagoon.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoann Thomas

    Full Text Available Studying the larval dispersal of bottom-dwelling species is necessary to understand their population dynamics and optimize their management. The black-lip pearl oyster (Pinctada margaritifera is cultured extensively to produce black pearls, especially in French Polynesia's atoll lagoons. This aquaculture relies on spat collection, a process that can be optimized by understanding which factors influence larval dispersal. Here, we investigate the sensitivity of P. margaritifera larval dispersal kernel to both physical and biological factors in the lagoon of Ahe atoll. Specifically, using a validated 3D larval dispersal model, the variability of lagoon-scale connectivity is investigated against wind forcing, depth and location of larval release, destination location, vertical swimming behavior and pelagic larval duration (PLD factors. The potential connectivity was spatially weighted according to both the natural and cultivated broodstock densities to provide a realistic view of connectivity. We found that the mean pattern of potential connectivity was driven by the southwest and northeast main barotropic circulation structures, with high retention levels in both. Destination locations, spawning sites and PLD were the main drivers of potential connectivity, explaining respectively 26%, 59% and 5% of the variance. Differences between potential and realistic connectivity showed the significant contribution of the pearl oyster broodstock location to its own dynamics. Realistic connectivity showed larger larval supply in the western destination locations, which are preferentially used by farmers for spat collection. In addition, larval supply in the same sectors was enhanced during summer wind conditions. These results provide new cues to understanding the dynamics of bottom-dwelling populations in atoll lagoons, and show how to take advantage of numerical models for pearl oyster management.

  13. A dose assessment for a U.S. nuclear test site -- Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Bogen, K.T.; Conrado, C.L.

    1993-07-01

    On March 1, 1954, a nuclear weapon test, code-named BRAVO, conducted at Bikini Atoll in the northern Marshall Islands contaminated the major residence island. Here the authors provide a radiological dose assessment for the main residence island, Bikini, using extensive radionuclide concentration data derived from analysis of food crops, ground water, cistern water, fish and other marine species, animals, air, and soil collected at Bikini Island. The unique composition of coral soil greatly alters the relative contribution of cesium-137 and strontium-90 to the total estimated dose relative to expectations based on North American and European soils. Cesium-137 produces 96% of the estimated dose for returning residents, mostly through uptake from the soil to terrestrial food crops but also from external gamma exposure. The estimated maximum annual effective dose is 4.4 mSv y{sup {minus}1} when imported foods, which are now an established part of the diet, are available. The 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral effective doses are 10 cSv, 14 cSv, and 16 cSv, respectively. An analysis of interindividual variability in 0- to 30-y expected integral dose indicates that 95% of Bikini residents would have expected doses within a factor of 3.4 above and 4.8 below the population-average value. A corresponding uncertainty analysis showed that after about 5 y of residence, the 95% confidence limits on population-average dose would be {+-}35% of its expected value. The authors have evaluated various countermeasures to reduce {sup 137}Cs in food crops. Treatment with potassium reduces the uptake of {sup 137}Cs into food crops, and therefore the ingestion dose, to less than 10% of pretreatment levels and has essentially no negative environmental consequences.

  14. Internal Solitary Wave Reflection Near Dongsha Atoll, the South China Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaolin; Li, Xiaofeng; Lamb, Kevin G.; Hu, Jianyu

    2017-10-01

    Internal solitary wave (ISW) reflection is rarely observed in satellite images, even in the South China Sea (SCS), where the strongest and most energetic ISWs in the world have been observed. Compared to the large number of satellite images showing shoaling ISW in the SCS, fewer than 10 satellite images have been reported showing ISW reflection. In this study, we collect recent satellite images and implement a numerical model to analyze ISW reflection near Dongsha Atoll, in the SCS. Satellite observations show that the reflection appears to be associated with the large-amplitude ISWs generated by strong tidal currents in Luzon Strait. Numerical simulations show that ISWs break when reaching the sloping bottom. Part of ISW energy is reflected by mode-1 waves and their trailing mode-2 waves. The mode-1 waves have two types: long inertia-gravity waves and breaking ISW-induced short waves. They propagate quickly but induce weak vertical velocity and surface imprints. Mode-2 waves induce strong vertical velocity, showing visible signature in satellites. Horizontal distribution of the energy indicates that a maximum energy of about 2% of the incident energy is contained in a single reflected wave. This could explain why the reflected waves are rarely observed, because reflected waves must be sufficiently large to be detected in satellite images. Although individual wave's energy is small, in total up to 20% of the incident wave is reflected by the groups of mode-1 and mode-2 waves. This suggests that ISW reflection has a significant impact on energy distribution over the continental slopes.

  15. Atoll groundwater movement and its response to climatic and sea-level fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberle, Ferdinand; Swarzenski, Peter; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Groundwater resources of low-lying atoll islands are threatened due to short-term and long-term changes in rainfall, wave climate, and sea level. A better understanding of how these forcings affect the limited groundwater resources was explored on Roi-Namur in the Republic of the Marshall Islands. As part of a 16-month study, a rarely recorded island-overwash event occurred and the island’s aquifer’s response was measured. The findings suggest that small-scale overwash events cause an increase in salinity of the freshwater lens that returns to pre-overwash conditions within one month. The overwash event is addressed in the context of climate-related local sea-level change, which suggests that overwash events and associated degradations in freshwater resources are likely to increase in severity in the future due to projected rises in sea level. Other forcings, such as severe rainfall events, were shown to have caused a sudden freshening of the aquifer, with salinity levels retuning to pre-rainfall levels within three months. Tidal forcing of the freshwater lens was observed in electrical resistivity profiles, high-resolution conductivity, groundwater-level well measurements and through submarine groundwater discharge calculations. Depth-specific geochemical pore water measurements further assessed and confirmed the distinct boundaries between fresh and saline water masses in the aquifer. The identification of the freshwater lens’ saline boundaries is essential for a quantitative evaluation of the aquifers freshwater resources and help understand how these resources may be impacted by climate change and anthropogenic activities.

  16. Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov., a gammaproteobacterium from Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zepeda, Vanessa K; Busse, Hans-Jürgen; Golke, Jan; Saw, Jimmy H W; Alam, Maqsudul; Donachie, Stuart P

    2015-10-01

    A Gram-negative, helical bacterium designated PH27AT was cultivated from an anchialine pool on Pearl and Hermes Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. The obligately halophilic strain was motile by bipolar tufts of flagella and grew optimally at pH 7, and microaerobically or aerobically. Closest neighbours based on 16S rRNA gene nucleotide sequence identity are Marinospirillum celere v1c_Sn-redT (93.31 %) and M. alkaliphilum Z4T (92.10 %) in the family Oceanospirillaceae, class Gammaproteobacteria. PH27AT is distinguished phenotypically from members of the genus Marinospirillum by its hydrolysis of gelatin, the absence of growth in media containing ≤ 1 % (w/v) NaCl and the ranges of temperature (12–40 °C) and pH (5–8) for growth. The major compound ubiquinone Q-9 distinguishes the quinone system of strain PH27AT from those in members of the genus Marinospirillum and other members of the Oceanospirillaceae, in which the major quinone is Q-8. Major polar lipids in PH27AT were phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylglycerol, with moderate amounts of diphosphatidylglycerol and phosphatidylserine. Spermidine and cadaverine dominated the polyamine pattern; large proportions of cadaverine have not been reported in members of the genus Marinospirillum. Genotypic and chemotaxonomic data show that PH27AT does not belong in the genus Marinospirillum or other genera of the family Oceanospirillaceae or the Halomonadaceae. We propose a new genus, Terasakiispira gen. nov., be created to accommodate Terasakiispira papahanaumokuakeensis gen. nov., sp. nov. as the type species, with PH27AT ( = ATCC BAA-995T = DSM 16455T = DSM 23961T) as the type strain.

  17. More coral, more fish? Contrasting snapshots from a remote Pacific atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Beldade

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Coral reefs are in decline across the globe as a result of overexploitation, pollution, disease and, more recently, climate change. The impacts of changes in coral cover on associated fish communities can be difficult to predict because of the uneven dependence of reef fish species on corals for food, shelter or the three-dimensional structure they provide. We compared live coral cover, reef fish community metrics, and their associations in two surveys of the lagoon of the remote atoll of Mataiva (French Polynesia carried out 31 years apart. In contrast to the general pattern of decreasing coral cover reported for many parts of the Indo-Pacific region, live coral cover increased 6–7 fold at Mataiva between 1981 and 2012, and fish density nearly doubled. The stable overall reef fish species richness belied a significant shift in community structure. There was little overlap in community composition across years, and fish assemblages in 2012 were more homogeneous in composition than they were in 1981. Changes in species abundance were not clearly related to species-specific reliance on corals. The strong positive relationships between live coral cover and fish diversity and abundance noted in 1981, when coral cover rarely exceeded 10%, were no longer present in 2012, when coral cover rarely fell below this value. The most parsimonious explanation for these contrasting relationships is that, over the combined range of coral cover observed in the 1981 and 2012 snapshots, there is a rapidly asymptotic relationship between coral and fish. Our results, and other data from the south and west Pacific, suggest that fish diversity and abundance might accumulate rapidly up to a threshold of approximately 10% live coral cover. Such a relationship would have implications for our expectations of resistance and recovery of reef fish communities facing an increasingly severe regime of coral reef disturbances.

  18. Genetic diversity of Wolbachia endosymbionts in Culex quinquefasciatus from Hawai`i, Midway Atoll, and Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, Carter T.; Watcher-Weatherwax, William; Lapointe, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Incompatible insect techniques are potential methods for controlling Culex quinquefasciatus and avian disease transmission in Hawai‘i without the use of pesticides or genetically modified organisms. The approach is based on naturally occurring sperm-egg incompatibilities within the Culex pipiens complex that are controlled by different strains of the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia pipientis (wPip). Incompatibilities can be unidirectional (crosses between males infected with strain A and females infected with strain B are fertile, while reciprocal crosses are not) or bidirectional (reciprocal crosses between sexes with different wPip strains are infertile). The technique depends on release of sufficient numbers of male mosquitoes infected with an incompatible wPip strain to suppress mosquito populations and reduce transmission of introduced avian malaria (Plasmodium relictum) and Avipoxvirus in native forest bird habitats. Both diseases are difficult to manage using more traditional methods based on removal and treatment of larval habitats and coordination of multiple approaches may be needed to control this vector. We characterized the diversity of Wolbachia strains in C. quinquefasciatus from Hawai‘i, Kaua‘i, Midway Atoll, and American Samoa with a variety of genetic markers to identify compatibility groups and their distribution within and between islands. We confirmed the presence of wPip with multilocus sequence typing, tested for local genetic variability using 16 WO prophage genes, and identified similarities to strains from other parts of the world with a transposable element (tr1). We also tested for genetic differences in ankyrin motifs (ank2 and pk1) which have been used to classify wPip strains into five worldwide groups (wPip1–wPip5) that vary in compatibility with each other based on experimental crosses. We found a mixture of both widely distributed and site specific genotypes based on presence or absence of WO prophage and transposable

  19. Polychlorinated Biphenyls in the Plasma and Preen Oil of Black-Footed Albatross (Diomedea nigripes) Chicks and Adults on Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Caccamise, Sarah A L; Woodward, Lee Ann; Li, Qing X

    2015-01-01

    Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are ubiquitous in the environment. Midway Atoll, located in the North Pacific Ocean, was occupied by the military during and after World War II. However, Midway Atoll has become a national wildlife refuge and home to many different seabirds today, including the black-footed albatross (Diomedea nigripes) (BFAL). The profiles and toxic equivalents (TEQ) of PCB congeners in the plasma and preen oil of BFAL chicks and adults were determined in this study. The concentrations of the total PCBs in the plasma samples of chicks and adults collected in Midway Atoll ranged from 2.3 to 223.8 (mean 80.1) and 22.8 to 504.5 (mean 158.6) ng g(-1) (wet weight, ww), respectively. The TEQs ranged from 0.2 to 0.6 (mean 0.4) and 0.4 to 1.6 (mean 0.9) pg g(-1) ww, respectively, in the plasma samples of chicks and adults from Midway Atoll. The major congeners in the plasma samples of chicks and adults included PCBs 31, 87, 97, 99, 118, 138, 153, and 180, accounting for 70% of the total PCBs. The concentrations of the total PCBs in the adult preen oil samples ranged from 1693 to 39404 (mean 10122) ng g(-1) (ww), of which 97% were PCBs 105, 118, 128, 138, 153, 161, 172, and 183.

  20. Plastic ingestion by Masked booby, Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, on Biological Reserve of Rocas Atoll, RN, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich de Freitas Mariano

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Plastic particles are one of the most common pollutants in the marine environment and it is reaching regions with low human population density. These particles are frequently ingested by many marine organisms, causing digestive problems, which may lead to the weakening and death of the animal. In a research on the feeding of 631-masked boobies, Sula dactylatra from the Biological Reserve of Atol das Rocas, plastic particles were found in stomach contents of four adults. The artifacts found were made of transperant plastic, a piece of label of a mineral water bottle, two pieces of black plastic and a small hard and red piece. The flow of fishing and tourism boats on the Atol das Rocas Biological Reserve may be the source of origin of the plastic parts in both the stomach contents and those found on the islands of the reserve, which suggests that anthropogenic behaviour has already reached isolated areas which should have a high degree of biodiversity protection. Several measures can be taken to avoid deleterious events in the marine biota, but there is great difficulty in avoiding waste dumping from fishing and tourism ships/boats, in addition to that, there are many materials from the mainland, which requires an increase in awareness and supervision.

  1. Distribution, sources and risk assessment of polychlorinated biphenyls in soils from the Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ge

    Full Text Available Concentrations of 28 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs were assessed in soils from the Midway Atoll in the central North Pacific Ocean. The analytical procedure involved the application of accelerated solvent extraction (ASE and gas chromatography coupled with ion trap mass spectrometric detection (GC/ITMS for identification and quantification. Among the 28 PCB congeners studied, 26 of them, except CB195 and CB209, were detected in the analyzed samples at different frequencies. The total concentrations of 28 indicator PCBs (ΣPCBs ranged from 2.6 to 148.8 ng g⁻¹ with an average value of 50.7 ng g⁻¹ and median of 39.5 ng g⁻¹. Sources and congeners' pattern of PCB were investigated in the soil of Midway Atoll. The principal component analysis indicated that the compositions of PCBs in most of the soil samples were similar. The total concentrations of PCBs were used to assess the cancer risk probabilities in humans via ingestion, dermal contact and inhalation of soil particles. Very low cancer risk was found in all soil samples caused by ΣPCBs.

  2. Nuclear weapons produced 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu archived in a Porites Lutea coral from Enewetak Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Wallner, A; Fifield, L K

    2017-11-01

    A slice from a Porites Lutea coral core collected inside the Enewetak Atoll lagoon, within 15 km of all major nuclear tests conducted at the atoll, was analysed for 236U, 239Pu and 240Pu over the time interval 1952-1964 using a higher time resolution than previously reported for a parallel slice from the same core. In addition two sediment samples from the Koa and Oak craters were analysed. The strong peaks in the concentrations of 236U and 239Pu in the testing years are confirmed to be considerably wider than the flushing time of the lagoon. This is likely due to the growth mechanism of the coral. Following the last test in 1958 atom concentrations of both 236U and 239Pu decreased from their peak values by more than 95% and showed a seasonal signal thereafter. Between 1959 and 1964 the weighted average of the 240Pu/239Pu atom ratio is 0.124 ± 0.008 which is similar to that in the lagoon sediments (0.129 ± 0.006) but quite distinct from the global fallout value of ∼0.18. This, and the high 239,240Pu and 236U concentrations in the sediments, provides clear evidence that the post-testing signal in the coral is dominated by remobilisation of the isotopes from the lagoon sediments rather than from global fallout. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The natural history of Caroline Atoll, Southern Line Islands. Part I. History, physiography, botany, and isle descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepler, A.K.; Kepler, C.B.

    1994-01-01

    conclusion: Lushly wooded Caroline Atoll, with the majority of its 39 islets (399 ha of land) either in near-pristine condition or having recovered remarkably from past disturbance, is one of the least spoiled atolls in the Pacific. Uninhabited, it harbors plant ecosystems and breeding seabirds (Pt. II) of national and international importance. Its marine and terrestrial ecosystems are prime outdoor ecological laboratories for research on geological processes including ground water, sea level changes, the dynamics of motu formation, fish poisoning, and numerous facets of ecology including plant succession and Pisonia growth rates. Caroline boasts prime coral reefs thickly studded with Tridacna clams, substantial numbers of coconut crabs, breeding sites for green turtles, wintering grounds for shorebirds including the rare Bristle-thighed Curlew, ancient Tuamotuan marae, and a crystalline, unpolluted lagoon. The variety, abundance, and quality of its flora and fauna qualify it for status as an officially recognized international preserve (Pt. II, Sect. G). Efforts toward its conservation have thus far been unsuccessful: in 1992 it was leased to a private French businessman who is currently fishing the reefs for commercial profit, as well as disturbing seabird, turtle and coconut crab populations.

  4. Artificial radioactivity in edible parts of giant clam mollusc from Mururoa atoll from 1967 to 1990. Health physics aspect. Radioactivite artificielle dans les parties comestibles d'un mollusque (Benitier) de l'atoll de Mururoa entre 1967 et 1990. Interpretation sanitaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bablet, J.P.; Ducousso, R. (Service mixte de controle biologique, 91 - Montlhery (FR)); Arnould, C. (Laboratoire d' etudes et de surveillance de l' environnement, Papeete, Tahiti, (Polynesie francaise))

    1991-01-01

    Radionuclides concentration by giant clams is associated with feeding habit. It's also a main food for polynesian atolls inhabitants, elsewhere than Mururoa island because this mollusc is not consumed like all the other fishery products from this atoll lagoon. Nevertheless measurements of ten artificial radionuclides are performed in edible parts of giant clams fished from Mururoa lagoon since the beginning of nuclear tests. The decay of radionuclides concentration is described versus time. To go further on we have computed the dose-equivalent for internal exposure of an eventual giant clams eater. It is estimated that the resulting risk of malignancy is below than 1 per 10 000.

  5. Chromium-isotope signatures in scleractinian corals from the Rocas Atoll, Tropical South Atlantic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, N S; Voegelin, A R; Paulukat, C; Sial, A N; Ferreira, V P; Frei, R

    2016-01-01

    Chromium-isotope compositions (expressed as δ(53) Cr) of recent and ancient skeletal and non-skeletal carbonates are currently explored as a (paleo-) redox-proxy for shallow seawater. The idea behind this approach is that biogenic and non-biogenic carbonates could potentially be used as archives recording the Cr-isotope composition of seawater in which they formed, and with this contribute to the reconstruction of past paleo-environmental changes in the marine realm, and potentially to climate changes on land. However, investigations addressing the behavior and uptake mechanism of Cr, and the potential isotope fractionations between seawater and biogenic carbonates are scarce. Here, we present a study of Cr-isotope variations in three species of corals and contemporary seawater from the Rocas Atoll, NE, Brazil. Cr-isotope values of the studied coral species (Siderastrea stellata, Porites sp., and Montastrea cavernosa) vary from -0.5 to +0.33‰ and point to significant isotopic disequilibrium with coexisting seawater characterized by a Cr-isotope value of +0.92 ± 0.2‰. This isotopic offset requires reduction of hexavalent Cr(VI) in the sequestration process of all the studied coral species. Cr-isotope values in a profile across an S. stellata colony returned homogeneous, slightly positively fractioned δ(53) Cr values of +0.07 ± 0.08‰ (n = 8, 2σ), which we interpret to reflect a constant reductive uptake during the 20-year growth period recorded in this coral. In contrast, samples across a 12-year growth profile from Porites sp. display rather heterogeneous Cr-isotope values with δ(53) Cr varying from -0.50 to +0.10‰, indicating Cr incorporation under changing redox processes during its growth intervals. We propose a mechanism whereby initial photoreduction of isotopically heavy Cr(VI) to isotopically lighter Cr(III) in the endodermal layer of corals must be followed by efficient and effective re-oxidation of reduced Cr species to favor subsequent

  6. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map (5m grid) derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Rose Atoll Lagoon, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Rose Atoll...

  7. National Coral Reef Monitoring Program: Stratified Random Surveys (StRS) of Coral Demography (Adult and Juvenile Corals) across Rose Atoll from 2016-05-01 to 2016-05-04 (NCEI Accession 0159167)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The data described here result from benthic coral demographic surveys for two life stages (juveniles, adults) across Rose Atoll in 2016. Juvenile colony surveys...

  8. Preliminary hard and soft bottom seafloor substrate map (40m grid) derived from an unsupervised classification of gridded backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Rose Atoll, Territory of American Samoa, USA.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Preliminary hard and soft seafloor substrate map derived from an unsupervised classification of multibeam backscatter and bathymetry derivatives at Rose Atoll,...

  9. Forecasting the impact of storm waves and sea-level rise on Midway Atoll and Laysan Island within the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument—a comparison of passive versus dynamic inundation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Berkowitz, Paul; Reynolds, Michelle H.; Logan, Joshua B.

    2013-01-01

    Two inundation events in 2011 underscored the potential for elevated water levels to damage infrastructure and affect terrestrial ecosystems on the low-lying Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in the Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The goal of this study was to compare passive "bathtub" inundation models based on geographic information systems (GIS) to those that include dynamic water levels caused by wave-induced set-up and run-up for two end-member island morphologies: Midway, a classic atoll with islands on the shallow (2-8 m) atoll rim and a deep, central lagoon; and Laysan, which is characterized by a deep (20-30 m) atoll rim and an island at the center of the atoll. Vulnerability to elevated water levels was assessed using hindcast wind and wave data to drive coupled physics-based numerical wave, current, and water-level models for the atolls. The resulting model data were then used to compute run-up elevations using a parametric run-up equation under both present conditions and future sea-level-rise scenarios. In both geomorphologies, wave heights and wavelengths adjacent to the island shorelines increased more than three times and four times, respectively, with increasing values of sea-level rise, as more deep-water wave energy could propagate over the atoll rim and larger wind-driven waves could develop on the atoll. Although these increases in water depth resulted in decreased set-up along the islands’ shorelines, the larger wave heights and longer wavelengths due to sea-level rise increased the resulting wave-induced run-up. Run-up values were spatially heterogeneous and dependent on the direction of incident wave direction, bathymetry, and island configuration. Island inundation was modeled to increase substantially when wave-driven effects were included, suggesting that inundation and impacts to infrastructure and terrestrial habitats will occur at lower values of predicted sea-level rise, and thus sooner in the 21st century, than suggested

  10. Efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants on Johnston Atoll: Results from Crazy Ant Strike Team IX, December 2014-June 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banko, Paul C.; Peck, Robert W.; Donmoyer, Kevin; Kropidlowski, Stephan; Pollock, Amanda

    2015-01-01

    The ecologically destructive yellow crazy ant (YCA; Anoplolepis gracilipes) was first detected on Johnston Atoll in January 2010. Within eight months, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service had mobilized its first crazy ant strike team (CAST), a group of biologists dedicated to testing and identifying insecticidal baits to be used to eradicate the ant on the atoll. During December 2014‒May 2015 CAST IX focused on testing hydrogel crystals saturated with sucrose solution (25%) carrying the insecticides thiamethoxam and dinotefuran against YCA. A series of experiments, including artificial nest box trials, and field-based palatability trials and eradication tests on small (500 m2 or 0.05 ha) and large plots (2500 m2 or 0.25 ha), were conducted to test concentrations of thiamethoxam ranging from 0.0005% to 0.01%, and dinotefuran at 0.05%. Additionally, the cat food-based matrix containing dinotefuran (0.05%), the standard bait used to suppress YCA on Johnston since 2011, and textured vegetable protein (TVP) carrying dinotefuran at 0.1% and 0.05% were included in large plot tests. Nest box trials were inconclusive due to a consistent loss of queen and worker ants in control boxes, so they were discontinued. Palatability trials suggested higher dosages of thiamethoxam (0.005 and 0.01%) were less attractive than lower dosages (0.0005 and 0.001%) and controls (sucrose only), but small and large plot experiments failed to identify a thiamethoxam concentration that was consistently effective at killing YCA. In contrast, hydrogel containing dinotefuran was consistently effective, killing >95% of YCA on small and large plots. As expected, the cat food bait effectively reduced YCA abundances, but was slightly less effective than hydrogel containing dinotefuran over time. Three successive, approximately weekly treatments of large plots with hydrogel bait, or other baits followed by hydrogel bait, suggest an increasing overall effectiveness, with no aversion of YCA to the bait

  11. {sup 240}Pu/239Pu isotopic ratios and 239+240Pu total measurements in surface and deep waters around Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls compared with Rangiroa atoll (French Polynesia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiappini, R.; Pointurier, F.; Millies-Lacroix, J.C.; Lepetit, G.; Hemet, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Direction DAM-Ile de-France, Departement Analyse et Surveillance de l' Environnement. BP 12, 91680 Bruyeres-le-Chatel (France)

    1999-09-30

    The average values of 240Pu/239Pu mass isotopic ratios of plutonium deposited in Mururoa and Fangataufa atoll sediments by French atmospheric nuclear tests range from 3.5 to 5%. In order to assess the near field and far field influence of those deposits in the open ocean, two water profiles were measured for 239+240Pu and 240Pu/239Pu using, for the first time, an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer which was developed to achieve femtogram detection limits. One site was located at the limit of the French territorial waters, which is 22 km distant from Mururoa. The second site was located close to Rangiroa atoll, at a distance of approximately 1200-km from French nuclear test sites. The sample volumes were approximately 500 litres and plutonium was purified prior to mass spectrometry and alpha spectrometry measurements. In Rangiroa, the 239+240Pu profile is comparable with those already determined in world open oceans but the maximum detected activity, 9 mBq/m{sup 3} at 500-600 m is a lot lower than those measured in the northern hemisphere. 240Pu/239Pu ratios were measured between 500 and 1000 m and were not statistically different from the typical 0.18{+-}0.01 ratio which characterises the global fallout. Consequently, any influence of plutonium from the tests in Mururoa and Fangataufa is not apparent at Rangiroa. The vertical distribution of 239+240Pu near Mururoa shows similar changes with depth but with a slight increase in concentration. 240Pu/239Pu mass ratios vary with depth, from 7 to 10% in the upper 500 m and in the deep waters (below 1000 m) to 15-16% between 600 and 1000 m. A contribution from plutonium deposited in the sediments at Mururoa and Fangataufa is observed at the limit of territorial waters, especially in surface and deep waters.

  12. Drivers of abundance and spatial distribution of reef-associated sharks in an isolated atoll reef system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickler, David M; Letessier, Tom B; Koldewey, Heather J; Meeuwig, Jessica J

    2017-01-01

    We investigated drivers of reef shark demography across a large and isolated marine protected area, the British Indian Ocean Territory Marine Reserve, using stereo baited remote underwater video systems. We modelled shark abundance against biotic and abiotic variables at 35 sites across the reserve and found that the biomass of low trophic order fish (specifically planktivores) had the greatest effect on shark abundance, although models also included habitat variables (depth, coral cover and site type). There was significant variation in the composition of the shark assemblage at different atolls within the reserve. In particular, the deepest habitat sampled (a seamount at 70-80m visited for the first time in this study) recorded large numbers of scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) not observed elsewhere. Size structure of the most abundant and common species, grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos), varied with location. Individuals at an isolated bank were 30% smaller than those at the main atolls, with size structure significantly biased towards the size range for young of year (YOY). The 18 individuals judged to be YOY represented the offspring of between four and six females, so, whilst inconclusive, these data suggest the possible use of a common pupping site by grey reef sharks. The importance of low trophic order fish biomass (i.e. potential prey) in predicting spatial variation in shark abundance is consistent with other studies both in marine and terrestrial systems which suggest that prey availability may be a more important predictor of predator distribution than habitat suitability. This result supports the need for ecosystem level rather than species-specific conservation measures to support shark recovery. The observed spatial partitioning amongst sites for species and life-stages also implies the need to include a diversity of habitats and reef types within a protected area for adequate protection of reef-associated shark assemblages.

  13. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan J Dale

    Full Text Available Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%, gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8% and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4% sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

  14. The Shark Assemblage at French Frigate Shoals Atoll, Hawai‘i: Species Composition, Abundance and Habitat Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan J.; Stankus, Austin M.; Burns, Michael S.; Meyer, Carl G.

    2011-01-01

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao Mh ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289–1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling. PMID:21347321

  15. Drivers of abundance and spatial distribution of reef-associated sharks in an isolated atoll reef system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David M Tickler

    Full Text Available We investigated drivers of reef shark demography across a large and isolated marine protected area, the British Indian Ocean Territory Marine Reserve, using stereo baited remote underwater video systems. We modelled shark abundance against biotic and abiotic variables at 35 sites across the reserve and found that the biomass of low trophic order fish (specifically planktivores had the greatest effect on shark abundance, although models also included habitat variables (depth, coral cover and site type. There was significant variation in the composition of the shark assemblage at different atolls within the reserve. In particular, the deepest habitat sampled (a seamount at 70-80m visited for the first time in this study recorded large numbers of scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini not observed elsewhere. Size structure of the most abundant and common species, grey reef sharks (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, varied with location. Individuals at an isolated bank were 30% smaller than those at the main atolls, with size structure significantly biased towards the size range for young of year (YOY. The 18 individuals judged to be YOY represented the offspring of between four and six females, so, whilst inconclusive, these data suggest the possible use of a common pupping site by grey reef sharks. The importance of low trophic order fish biomass (i.e. potential prey in predicting spatial variation in shark abundance is consistent with other studies both in marine and terrestrial systems which suggest that prey availability may be a more important predictor of predator distribution than habitat suitability. This result supports the need for ecosystem level rather than species-specific conservation measures to support shark recovery. The observed spatial partitioning amongst sites for species and life-stages also implies the need to include a diversity of habitats and reef types within a protected area for adequate protection of reef-associated shark

  16. The shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals atoll, Hawai'i: species composition, abundance and habitat use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Jonathan J; Stankus, Austin M; Burns, Michael S; Meyer, Carl G

    2011-02-10

    Empirical data on the abundance and habitat preferences of coral reef top predators are needed to evaluate their ecological impacts and guide management decisions. We used longline surveys to quantify the shark assemblage at French Frigate Shoals (FFS) atoll from May to August 2009. Fishing effort consisted of 189 longline sets totaling 6,862 hook hours of soak time. A total of 221 sharks from 7 species were captured, among which Galapagos (Carcharhinus galapagensis, 36.2%), gray reef (Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, 25.8%) and tiger (Galeocerdo cuvier, 20.4%) sharks were numerically dominant. A lack of blacktip reef sharks (Carcharhinus melanopterus) distinguished the FFS shark assemblage from those at many other atolls in the Indo-Pacific. Compared to prior underwater visual survey estimates, longline methods more accurately represented species abundance and composition for the majority of shark species. Sharks were significantly less abundant in the shallow lagoon than adjacent habitats. Recaptures of Galapagos sharks provided the first empirical estimate of population size for any Galapagos shark population. The overall recapture rate was 5.4%. Multiple closed population models were evaluated, with Chao M(h) ranking best in model performance and yielding a population estimate of 668 sharks with 95% confidence intervals ranging from 289-1720. Low shark abundance in the shallow lagoon habitats suggests removal of a small number of sharks from the immediate vicinity of lagoonal islets may reduce short-term predation on endangered monk seal (Monachus schauinslandi) pups, but considerable fishing effort would be required to catch even a small number of sharks. Additional data on long-term movements and habitat use of sharks at FFS are required to better assess the likely ecological impacts of shark culling.

  17. Influence of plankton concentration on gametogenesis and spawning of the black lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera in Ahe atoll lagoon (Tuamotu Archipelago, French polynesia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fournier, Jonathan; Levesque, Emmanuelle; Pouvreau, Stephane; Le Pennec, Marcel; Le Moullac, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    Pearl culture industry represents one of the dominant business sector of French Polynesia. However, it still entirely relies on unpredictable spat collection success. Our aim was to assess the influence of natural plankton concentration fluctuations on maturation and spawning of the black lip pearl oyster Pinctada margaritifera, during a 4 months survey conducted in Ahe atoll lagoon. Plankton concentration was assessed by chlorophyll a extraction and by microscope counts while gonadic index, gonado-visceral dry weights and histology were used to measure pearl oysters reproduction activity. We found that (i) plankton concentration fluctuations were mainly related to wind regime, (ii) gametogenesis rate was mainly related to plankton concentration, (iii) spawning occurred when maximal gonad storage was reached, (iv) plankton concentration was the main spawning synchronizing factor. These results contribute explaining P. margaritifera spat collection variability in French Polynesian atoll lagoon. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Ocean-lagoon water and plankton exchanges in a semi-closed pearl farming atoll lagoon (Ahe, Tuamotu archipelago, French Polynesia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M.; Rodier, M.; Guillaumot, C.; Thomas, Y.; Henry, K.; Andréfouët, S.

    2017-05-01

    In atoll lagoons, plankton richness is highly dependent on water exchange with the ocean through the atoll rim. However, the dynamics of the physical and biological fluxes at the lagoon-ocean interface remain poorly characterized. Here, we studied the combined effects of lagoon-ocean water exchanges and local environmental conditions on the phyto- and zooplankton abundance and community structure across the atoll lagoon rim of Ahe (Tuamotu Archipelago, French Polynesia). Plankton and environmental variables were monitored in May 2013 (i) at several stations inside and outside the lagoon and (ii) during time-series corresponding to ebb-flood tidal cycles in the two types of channels connecting the lagoon to the ocean: at the passage (300 m long and about 11 m deep) and in hoa (i.e reef-flat less than 50 cm depth). Our results highlight tidally-driven selective plankton exchanges between the lagoon and external ocean. Phytoplankton (chlorophyll-a) and zooplankton biomass were respectively 4 times and 7 times higher in the lagoon than at stations outside the atoll lagoon. Copepoda was the dominant zooplankton group at the oceanic station (>75% abundance) whereas meroplankton (with bivalve larvae most common) was dominant at the lagoon stations (54%), in the passage (55-82%) and in hoa (>80%). These differences between sites suggest a loss of bivalve larvae through export to the ocean and retention and/or increased production of copepods in the lagoon. The daily export of bivalve larvae represents a low percentage of the lagoon stock, in agreement with previously published larval dispersal numerical models. The retention of copepods could constitute a significant input of nutrients and organic matter (through excretion, feces release, decomposition, and remineralization) into the lagoon.

  19. Influence of sea-level rise on freshwater lenses of different atoll island sizes and lens resilience to storm-induced salinization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chui, Ting Fong May; Terry, James P.

    2013-10-01

    Human populations inhabiting remote coral atoll islands in the tropical Pacific Ocean rely heavily on thin unconfined fresh groundwater lenses (FWLs) as their main natural source of potable water. Potential threats to the continuing viability of atoll FWLs may be associated with eustatic sea-level rise (SLR), but little is known about the influence of SLR on the FWLs of different atoll island sizes and the resilience of FWLs to salinization caused by storm-induced wave washover of low-lying land. Here, numerical modelling is carried out to generate steady-state FWL configurations at three chosen island sizes (400, 600 and 800 m widths), upon which a 40 cm SLR scenario is imposed, followed by transient simulations to assess saline damage and recovery over a 1-year period after a storm washover event on a 600 m wide island. Two different approaches are tested for taking into account the existence of a freshwater swamp, formed where a topographic depression exposes the central region of a FWL above the ground surface. These 'groundwater window' and 'specified flux' approaches yield similar results, implying that complex integrated surface and groundwater modelling may be unnecessary to develop realistic models of FWL configuration where central freshwater swamps exist. Thereafter, steady-state solutions indicate how FWL dimensions are not related in a linear manner to atoll island size, such that smaller islands develop much more restricted lenses than larger islands. Partly in consequence, smaller FWLs display greater potential for disturbance by SLR, while larger and more robust FWLs may show more resilience. Results from simulation of saline damage caused by storm washover produce a somewhat counterintuitive finding: in a post-SLR situation it is apparent that FWL vulnerability to washover salinization may actually be reduced, owing to the thinner layer of unsaturated substrate lying above the water table (i.e. FWL surface), into which saline water can infiltrate

  20. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Stone, E L; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L

    2004-04-14

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 2070 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4% of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  1. Long-Term Reduction in 137Cs Concentration in Food Crops on Coral Atolls Resulting from Potassium Treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W; Stone, E; Hamilton, T; Conrado, C

    2005-04-08

    Bikini Island was contaminated March 1, 1954 by the Bravo detonation (U.S nuclear test series, Castle) at Bikini Atoll. About 90% of the estimated dose from nuclear fallout to potential island residents is from cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) transferred from soil to plants that are consumed by residents. Thus, radioecology research efforts have been focused on removing {sup 137}Cs from soil and/or reducing its uptake into vegetation. Most effective was addition of potassium (K) to soil that reduces {sup 137}Cs concentration in fruits to 3-5% of pretreatment concentrations. Initial observations indicated this low concentration continued for some time after K was last applied. Long-term studies were designed to evaluate this persistence in more detail because it is very important to provide assurance to returning populations that {sup 137}Cs concentrations in food (and, therefore, radiation dose) will remain low for extended periods, even if K is not applied annually or biennially. Potassium applied at 300, 660, 1260, and 1970 kg ha{sup -1} lead to a {sup 137}Cs concentration in drinking coconut meat that is 34, 22, 10, and about 4 % of original concentration, respectively. Concentration of {sup 137}Cs remains low 8 to 10 y after K is last applied. An explanation for this unexpected result is discussed.

  2. Effect of Potassium on Uptake of 137Cs in Food Crops Grown on Coral Soils: Annual Crops at Bikini Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E R; Robinson, W

    2002-02-01

    In 1954 a radioactive plume from the thermonuclear device code named BRAVO contaminated the principal residential islands, Eneu and Bikini, of Bikini Atoll (11{sup o} 36 minutes N; 165{sup o} 22 minutes E), now part of the Republic of the Marshall Islands. The resulting soil radioactivity diminished greatly over the three decades before the studies discussed below began. By that time the shorter-lived isotopes had all but disappeared, but strontium-90 ({sup 90}Sr), and cesium-137, ({sup 137}Cs) were reduced by only one half-life. Minute amounts of the long-lived isotopes, plutonium-239+240 ({sup 239+240}Pu) and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am), were present in soil, but were found to be inconsequential in the food chain of humans and land animals. Rather, extensive studies demonstrated that the major concern for human health was {sup 137}Cs in the terrestrial food chain (Robison et al., 1983; Robison et al., 1997). The following papers document results from several studies between 1986 and 1997 aimed at minimizing the {sup 137}Cs content of annual food crops. The existing literature on radiocesium in soils and plant uptake is largely a consequence of two events: the worldwide fallout of 1952-58, and the fallout from Chernobyl. The resulting studies have, for the most part, dealt either with soils containing some amount of silicate clays and often with appreciable K, or with the short-term development of plants in nutrient cultures.

  3. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Dominik; Arp, Gernot; Reimer, Andreas; Reitner, Joachim; Daniel, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰). Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster), which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria), Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae), purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria), purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales), anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae), Nitrospirae (OPB95), Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata) to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B) with increasing depth.

  4. Phylogenetic analysis of a microbialite-forming microbial mat from a hypersaline lake of the Kiritimati atoll, Central Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Schneider

    Full Text Available On the Kiritimati atoll, several lakes exhibit microbial mat-formation under different hydrochemical conditions. Some of these lakes trigger microbialite formation such as Lake 21, which is an evaporitic, hypersaline lake (salinity of approximately 170‰. Lake 21 is completely covered with a thick multilayered microbial mat. This mat is associated with the formation of decimeter-thick highly porous microbialites, which are composed of aragonite and gypsum crystals. We assessed the bacterial and archaeal community composition and its alteration along the vertical stratification by large-scale analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences of the nine different mat layers. The surface layers are dominated by aerobic, phototrophic, and halotolerant microbes. The bacterial community of these layers harbored Cyanobacteria (Halothece cluster, which were accompanied with known phototrophic members of the Bacteroidetes and Alphaproteobacteria. In deeper anaerobic layers more diverse communities than in the upper layers were present. The deeper layers were dominated by Spirochaetes, sulfate-reducing bacteria (Deltaproteobacteria, Chloroflexi (Anaerolineae and Caldilineae, purple non-sulfur bacteria (Alphaproteobacteria, purple sulfur bacteria (Chromatiales, anaerobic Bacteroidetes (Marinilabiacae, Nitrospirae (OPB95, Planctomycetes and several candidate divisions. The archaeal community, including numerous uncultured taxonomic lineages, generally changed from Euryarchaeota (mainly Halobacteria and Thermoplasmata to uncultured members of the Thaumarchaeota (mainly Marine Benthic Group B with increasing depth.

  5. Hydrogeology and ground-water resources of Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll, State of Pohnpei, Federated States of Micronesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony, S.S.

    1996-01-01

    The lens of fresh ground water on Pingelap Island, Pingelap Atoll contains about 384 million gallons of potable water. Recharge to the freshwater lens is estimated to be 230,000 gallons per day on the basis of an average annual rainfall of 160 inches. The long-term average sustainable yield is estimated to be about 69,000 gallons per day. The estimated demand for water is about 50,000 gallons per day. Shallow-vertical-tube wells or horizontal-infiltration wells could be used to develop the freshwater lens. The effect of development on the lens can be determined by monitoring the chloride concentration of water from a network of shallow-water-table wells and deep driven wells. The ground-water resource on Pingelap can be used in conjunction with individual rainwater-catchment systems: rainwater can be used for drinking and cooking, and ground water can be used for sanitary uses. When rainwater-catchment systems fail during extended dry periods, ground water would be available to meet the total demand.

  6. Derivation of plant-soil relationships for dose assessment on Bikini Atoll. [Radiation dose to returning population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colsher, C. S.

    1976-11-01

    A radiological survey of the terrestrial environment of Bikini and Eneu Islands (Bikini Atoll) was conducted in June 1975 to evaluate the potential radiation dose to the returning Bikini population. This report presents measurements of the radionuclide concentration in soil profiles and in dominant species of edible and nonedible indicator plants and describes the use of these data to derive relationships to predict the plant uptake of radionuclides from soil. Soil-plant concentration factors together with leaf-leaf and fruit-leaf concentration ratios for indicator and edible plant species from the same area are calculated to quantitatively assess and compare the uptake of /sup 90/Sr, /sup 137/Cs, and /sup 239/'/sup 240/Pu. In general, the concentration factors for /sup 137/Cs in terrestrial vegetation are greater than those for /sup 90/Sr and the concentration factors for both these nuclides exceed those for /sup 239/'/sup 240/Pu by ten to one hundred-fold. Uptake of /sup 90/Sr and /sup 239/'/sup 240/Pu by fruit is less than that by mature leaves; however, the opposite is true for /sup 137/Cs. The relative contribution of the individual plant species to the internal dose to man varies with the nuclide. The use of concentration factors and concentration ratios to predict nuclide concentrations in fruit from those in soil or leaves is prescribed.

  7. Amount and type of derelict gear from the declining black pearl oyster aquaculture in Ahe atoll lagoon, French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andréfouët, Serge; Thomas, Yoann; Lo, Cedrik

    2014-06-15

    Pearl oyster aquaculture is a major activity in French Polynesia atoll lagoons. After the economic decline that characterized the last decade, concerns recently rose about discarded installations and materials that supported aquaculture practices and by facilities abandoned after they had to close their activities. In May 2013, a first inventory of the type and amount of pearl farms derelict gear (PFDG) was achieved on 47 sites in Ahe lagoon. Surveys were conducted within and outside the boundaries of aquaculture concessions. Twenty types of PFDG littered the lagoon floor and the water column. The most impacted areas were near abandoned grafting houses with up to nine types of PFDG. Forty-five percent of the sites were impacted, including outside concessions. While management authorities are fully aware of the problem, this first assessment is a wake-up call to stimulate the cleaning of lagoons, enhance awareness among farmers, and identify potential ecological consequences on lagoon ecosystems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Individual Radiological Protection Monitoring of Utrok Atoll Residents Based on Whole Body Counting of Cesium-137 (137Cs) and Plutonium Bioassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T; Kehl, S; Brown, T; Martinelli, R; Hickman, D; Jue, T; Tumey, S; Langston, R

    2007-06-08

    This report contains individual radiological protection surveillance data developed during 2006 for adult members of a select group of families living on Utrok Atoll. These Group I volunteers all underwent a whole-body count to determine levels of internally deposited cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) and supplied a bioassay sample for analysis of plutonium isotopes. Measurement data were obtained and the results compared with an equivalent set of measurement data for {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes from a second group of adult volunteers (Group II) who were long-term residents of Utrok Atoll. For the purposes of this comparison, Group II volunteers were considered representative of the general population on Utrok Atoll. The general aim of the study was to determine residual systemic burdens of fallout radionuclides in each volunteer group, develop data in response to addressing some specific concerns about the preferential uptake and potential health consequences of residual fallout radionuclides in Group I volunteers, and generally provide some perspective on the significance of radiation doses delivered to volunteers (and the general Utrok Atoll resident population) in terms of radiological protection standards and health risks. Based on dose estimates from measurements of internally deposited {sup 137}Cs and plutonium isotopes, the data and information developed in this report clearly show that neither volunteer group has acquired levels of internally deposited fallout radionuclides specific to nuclear weapons testing in the Marshall Islands that are likely to have any consequence on human health. Moreover, the dose estimates are well below radiological protection standards as prescribed by U.S. regulators and international agencies, and are very small when compared to doses from natural sources of radiation in the Marshall Islands and the threshold where radiation health effects could be either medically diagnosed in an individual or epidemiologically discerned in a

  9. Frequency distribution, isotopic composition and physical characterization of plutonium-bearing particles from the Fig-Quince zone on Runit Island, Enewetak Atoll

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Terry F.; Jernström, Jussi; Martinelli, Roger E.

    2009-01-01

    Runit Island on Enewetak Atoll was very heavily impacted by the U.S. nuclear testing campaign in the northern Marshall Islands (1946–58). The primary source of contamination on Runit Island was the 1958 Quince safety test where a large quantity of device plutonium (Pu) was scattered over the area...... near the GZ. A second low-yield device was detonated on the same site 10 days later, further disturbing the soil and leaving behind a very heterogeneous pattern of contamination including milligram-size particles of plutonium. A limited cleanup of the Fig-Quince zone was carried out in 1979. During...

  10. Land-use change and managed aquifer recharge effects on the hydrogeochemistry of two contrasting atoll island aquifers, Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hejazian, Mehrdad; Gurdak, Jason; Swarzenski, Peter; Odigie, Kingsley; Storlazzi, Curt

    2017-01-01

    Freshwater resources on low-lying atoll islands are highly vulnerable to climate change and sea-level rise. In addition to rainwater catchment, groundwater in the freshwater lens is a critically important water resource on many atoll islands, especially during drought. Although many atolls have high annual rainfall rates, dense natural vegetation and high evapotranspiration rates can limit recharge to the freshwater lens. Here we evaluate the effects of land-use/land-cover change and managed aquifer recharge on the hydrogeochemistry and supply of groundwater on Roi-Namur Island, Republic of the Marshall Islands. Roi-Namur is an artificially conjoined island that has similar hydrogeology on the Roi and Namur lobes, but has contrasting land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge only on Roi. Vegetation removal and managed aquifer recharge operations have resulted in an estimated 8.6 x 105 m3 of potable groundwater in the freshwater lens on Roi, compared to only 1.6 x 104 m3 on Namur. We use groundwater samples from a suite of 33 vertically nested monitoring wells, statistical testing, and geochemical modeling using PHREEQC to show that the differences in land-use/land-cover and managed aquifer recharge on Roi and Namur have a statistically significant effect on several groundwater-quality parameters and the controlling geochemical processes. Results also indicate a seven-fold reduction in the dissolution of carbonate rock in the freshwater lens and overlying vadose zone of Roi compared to Namur. Mixing of seawater and the freshwater lens is a more dominant hydrogeochemical process on Roi because of the greater recharge and flushing of the aquifer with freshwater as compared to Namur. In contrast, equilibrium processes and dissolution-precipitation non-equilibrium reactions are more dominant on Namur because of the longer residence times relative to the rate of geochemical reactions. Findings from Roi-Namur Island support selective land-use/land-cover change and

  11. Cryptic species obscure introduction pathway of the blue Caribbean sponge (Haliclona (Soestella caerulea, (order: Haplosclerida to Palmyra Atoll, Central Pacific

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid S. Knapp

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cryptic species are widespread across the phylum Porifera making the identification of non-indigenous species difficult, an issue not easily resolved by the use of morphological characteristics. The widespread order Haplosclerida is a prime example due to limited and plastic morphological features. Here, we study the reported introduction of Haliclona (Soestella caerulea from the Caribbean to Palmyra Atoll via Hawaiʻi using morphological characteristics and genetic analyses based on one nuclear (18s rDNA and three mitochondrial (COI, the barcoding COI extension (COI ext. and rnl rDNA markers. Despite no clear division in lengths of the oxea spicules between the samples, both mtDNA and nDNA phylogenetic trees supported similar topologies resolving two distinct clades. Across the two clades, the concatenated mtDNA tree resolved twelve subclades, with the COI ext. yielding most of the variability between the samples. Low sequence divergence values (0.68% between two of the subclades indicate that the same species is likely to occur at Palmyra, Hawaiʻi and the Caribbean, supporting the hypothesis that H. caerulea was introduced to Palmyra from the Caribbean, although whether species came directly from the Caribbean to Palmyra or from Hawaiʻi remains unresolved. Conversely, the pattern of highly divergent cryptic species supports the notion that traditionally used spicule measurements are taxonomically unreliable in this group. This study illustrates how understanding the scale of within- as opposed to between-species level genetic variation is critical for interpreting biogeographic patterns and inferring the origins of introduced organisms.

  12. Multi-taxa coral reef community structure in relation to habitats in the Baa Atoll Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve (Maldives), and implications for its conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, H.; Bigot, L.; Bourmaud, C.; Chabanet, P.; Gravier-Bonnet, N.; Hamel, M. A.; Payri, C.; Mattio, L.; Menou, J. L.; Naeem, S.; Rilwan, Y.; Sattar, S.; Scott, L.; Shiham, A.; Vigliola, L.; Andréfouët, S.

    2012-08-01

    The distribution of species in their environment is largely defined by habitat characteristics. Both species and habitat distributions can be used to define conservation areas, especially in highly diversified ecosystems like coral reefs where biodiversity inventories are lacking. The main objective of this study was to test the relationship between multi-taxa community structure (defined by richness, species lists, and taxonomic distinctness) and habitat typology in the Man and Biosphere UNESCO Reserve of Baa Atoll (Maldives). Species richness per taxon was described at 18 stations located on different habitats mapped using high resolution satellite imagery. A total of 1012 species were described including 178 macroalgae, 173 corals, 121 hydroids, 351 fish and 189 (other) macro-invertebrates. Rarity was extremely high for macro-invertebrates, algae and hydrozoans. The results highlighted a marked difference in species composition between stations for macro-algae and corals but not for other groups (hydroids, fish and macro-invertebrates). These distribution patterns were not strongly correlated to differences in habitat characteristics, which created a weak spatial structure of communities between habitats probably caused by differential exposure of atolls to monsoons and the 1998 bleaching event. Community differences between stations were often due to rarity. Therefore, identifying a network of protected areas that includes occurrences of all species may pose challenges. This is overcome by conservation planning scenarios using medium-size (of the order of 1 km2) management units.

  13. Coral-based climate records from tropical South Atlantic: 2009/2010 ENSO event in C and O isotopes from Porites corals (Rocas Atoll, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Natan S; Sial, Alcídes N; Kikuchi, Ruy K P; Ferreira, Valderez P; Ullmann, Clemens V; Frei, Robert; Cunha, Adriana M C

    2015-01-01

    Coral skeletons contain records of past environmental conditions due to their long life span and well calibrated geochemical signatures. C and O isotope records of corals are especially interesting, because they can highlight multidecadal variability of local climate conditions beyond the instrumental record, with high fidelity and sub-annual resolution. Although, in order to get an optimal geochemical signal in coral skeleton, sampling strategies must be followed. Here we report one of the first coral-based isotopic record from the Equatorial South Atlantic from two colonies of Porites astreoides from the Rocas Atoll (offshore Brazil), a new location for climate reconstruction. We present time series of isotopic variation from profiles along the corallite valley of one colony and the apex of the corallite fan of the other colony. Significant differences in the isotopic values between the two colonies are observed, yet both record the 2009/2010 El Niño event - a period of widespread coral bleaching - as anomalously negative δ18O values (up to -1 permil). δ13C is found to be measurably affected by the El Niño event in one colony, by more positive values (+0.39 ‰), and together with a bloom of endolithic algae, may indicate physiological alteration of this colony. Our findings indicate that corals from the Rocas Atoll can be used for monitoring climate oscillations in the tropical South Atlantic Ocean.

  14. The effect of a natural water-movement related disturbance on the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities in the intertidal sand flat of Rocas Atoll (NE, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Attrill, M. J.; Warwick, R. M.

    1999-12-01

    Rocas, the only atoll in the South Atlantic, is located 266 km off the northeast Brazilian coast. Spatial patterns in community structure of meiofauna, particularly nematodes, and macrofauna were examined along a transect through the sediment path from windward to leeward of the Rocas Atoll sand flat. Differences in benthic community structure between four zones of the sand flat were found to be significant and related to the major local processes of carbonate-grain transport and sedimentation. Both meiobenthic and macrobenthic assemblages were significantly more diverse and abundant within the sediment inflow zone (the initial part of the detrital path of Rocas sand flat) than in the other zones, where a clear impoverishment of benthic invertebrates occurred. This first study of the benthos of an intertidal sand flat over a reef island in the Atlantic showed that the meiofauna is numerically dominated by the nematodes Metoncholainus sp. 1 (Oncholaimidae) and Epsilonema sp. 1 (Epsilonematidade), whilst the macrofauna is largely dominated by oligochaetes and large Oncholaimidae nematodes. Analysis of the species composition, trophic structure and abundance of both the meiobenthos and the macrobenthos revealed an impoverished community subjected to an intense water-movement disturbance.

  15. Efforts to eradicate yellow crazy ants on Johnston Atoll: Results from crazy ant strike teams X, XI and XII (June 2015–December 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert W; Banko, Paul C.; Donmoyer, Kevin; Scheiner, Katrina; Karimi, Rebekah; Kropidlowski, Stefan

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to eradicate invasive yellow crazy ants (Anoplolepis gracilipes; YCA) on Johnston Atoll have been continuous since their discovery in 2010. Through 2014, a variety of commercial and novel formicidal baits were tested against the ant, but none proved capable of eradication. More recently, polyacrylamide crystals (“hydrogel”) saturated with a sucrose solution containing the insecticide dinotefuran has been shown to be effective over large areas when applied against YCA alone or sequentially with a protein-based cat food bait. During June 2015–December 2016, Crazy Ant Strike Teams (CASTs) conducted treatment and monitoring efforts across an infestation of about 57 ha on Johnston Atoll. Following three infestation-wide treatments (primarily using hydrogel) during 2015, YCA were reduced 98% and surviving nests became difficult to find. Subsequently, a protocol designed to detect ants at low abundance that combined hand searching with a high density of baited monitoring stations (12 stations/0.25 ha; HST protocol) was employed within a network of 50 x 50 m cells that subdivided the infestation. During 2016 YCA were found at numerous locations using this method and standard grid-based bait monitoring surveys. Overall, 65 cells where YCA were detected, or cells adjacent to detections, were treated with hydrogel or cat food bait. YCA were not detected during four monitoring events each separated by at least one week, on 85% of these cells after 1–3 treatments, but it was necessary to treat several cells 4–7 times before YCA were eliminated. Results from HST searches allowed us to estimate the probability that YCA were detected when present in an area when searched using that method. Based on this probability, it was determined that areas would have to be searched three times without YCA being detected to allow 93% certainty that the ants were absent. The level of certainty increased to 99% when the search was conducted four times and YCA were not found

  16. Plastic ingestion by Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes from Kure Atoll, Hawai'i: Linking chick diet remains and parental at-sea foraging distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyrenbach, K. David; Hester, Michelle M.; Adams, Josh; Titmus, Andrew J.; Michael, Pam; Wahl, Travis; Chang, Chih-Wei; Marie, Amarisa; Vanderlip, Cynthia

    2017-01-01

    We quantified the incidence (percentage of samples with plastic) and loads (mass, volume) of four plastic types (fragments, line, sheet, foam) ingested by Black-footed Albatross Phoebastria nigripes chicks raised on Kure Atoll, the westernmost Hawaiian colony. All 25 samples contained plastic, mostly in the form of foam and line. On average (± SD), boluses and stomachs contained 28.2 ± 14.3 g and 40.3 ± 29.0 g of plastic, respectively. Plastic was the dominant indigestible material in the boluses and the stomach samples, accounting for 48.8%-89.7% of the bolus mass (mean 67.4 ± 12.1%, median 67.5%, n = 20), and for 18.2%-94.1% of the stomach content mass (mean 70.0 ± 30.3%, median 75.6%, n = 5). Although the ingested plastic fragments ranged widely in size, most (92% in boluses, 91% in stomachs) were mesoplastics (5-25 mm), followed by macroplastics (>25 mm; 7% in boluses, 6% in stomachs), and microplastics (1-5 mm; 1% in boluses, 4% in stomachs). Yet the two fragment size distributions were significantly different, with more small-sized items (3-8 mm) in stomachs and with more large-sized items (46-72 mm) in boluses. To investigate where albatross parents collect this material, we tracked seven provisioning adults during 14 foraging trips using satellite-linked transmitters. The tracked birds foraged west of Kure Atoll (180–150°E, 30-40°N) and spent most of their time over pelagic waters (>2000 m deep; averaging 89 ± 9%), with substantial time over seamounts (averaging 11 ± 7%). Together, these results indicate that Black-footed Albatross chicks at Kure Atoll ingest plastics sourced by their parents foraging in waters of the western North Pacific. Provisioning adults forage within an area of surface convergence, downstream from the Kuroshio Current, and frequently visit seamounts northwest of the Hawaiian archipelago.

  17. Ingested plastic as a route for trace metals in Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) from Midway Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavers, Jennifer L; Bond, Alexander L

    2016-09-15

    Seabirds are declining faster than any other group of birds, with plastic ingestion and associated contaminants linked to negative impacts on marine wildlife, including >170 seabird species. To provide quantitative data on the effects of plastic pollution, we sampled feathers and stomach contents from Laysan Albatross (Phoebastria immutabilis) and Bonin Petrel (Pterodroma hypoleuca) on Midway Atoll, North Pacific Ocean, and assessed our ability to detect change over time by synthesizing previous studies. Between 25 and 100% of fledglings exceed international targets for plastic ingestion by seabirds. High levels of ingested plastic were correlated with increased concentrations of chlorine, iron, lead, manganese, and rubidium in feathers. The frequency of plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross and concentration of some elements in both species is increasing, suggesting deterioration in the health of the marine environment. Variability in the frequency of plastic ingestion by Laysan Albatross may limit their utility as an indicator species. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Vertical and horizontal genetic connectivity in Chromis verater, an endemic damselfish found on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago and adjacent Johnston Atoll.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimberly A Tenggardjaja

    Full Text Available Understanding vertical and horizontal connectivity is a major priority in research on mesophotic coral ecosystems (30-150 m. However, horizontal connectivity has been the focus of few studies, and data on vertical connectivity are limited to sessile benthic mesophotic organisms. Here we present patterns of vertical and horizontal connectivity in the Hawaiian Islands-Johnston Atoll endemic threespot damselfish, Chromis verater, based on 319 shallow specimens and 153 deep specimens. The mtDNA markers cytochrome b and control region were sequenced to analyze genetic structure: 1 between shallow (< 30 m and mesophotic (30-150 m populations and 2 across the species' geographic range. Additionally, the nuclear markers rhodopsin and internal transcribed spacer 2 of ribosomal DNA were sequenced to assess connectivity between shallow and mesophotic populations. There was no significant genetic differentiation by depth, indicating high levels of vertical connectivity between shallow and deep aggregates of C. verater. Consequently, shallow and deep samples were combined by location for analyses of horizontal connectivity. We detected low but significant population structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago (overall cytochrome b: ΦST = 0.009, P = 0.020; control region: ΦST = 0.012, P = 0.009 and a larger break between the archipelago and Johnston Atoll (cytochrome b: ΦST = 0.068, P < 0.001; control region: ΦST = 0.116, P < 0.001. The population structure within the archipelago was driven by samples from the island of Hawaii at the southeast end of the chain and Lisianski in the middle of the archipelago. The lack of vertical genetic structure supports the refugia hypothesis that deep reefs may constitute a population reservoir for species depleted in shallow reef habitats. These findings represent the first connectivity study on a mobile organism that spans shallow and mesophotic depths and provide a reference point for future connectivity studies on

  19. Vertical and horizontal genetic connectivity in Chromis verater, an endemic damselfish found on shallow and mesophotic reefs in the Hawaiian Archipelago and adjacent Johnston Atoll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenggardjaja, Kimberly A; Bowen, Brian W; Bernardi, Giacomo

    2014-01-01

    Understanding vertical and horizontal connectivity is a major priority in research on mesophotic coral ecosystems (30-150 m). However, horizontal connectivity has been the focus of few studies, and data on vertical connectivity are limited to sessile benthic mesophotic organisms. Here we present patterns of vertical and horizontal connectivity in the Hawaiian Islands-Johnston Atoll endemic threespot damselfish, Chromis verater, based on 319 shallow specimens and 153 deep specimens. The mtDNA markers cytochrome b and control region were sequenced to analyze genetic structure: 1) between shallow (< 30 m) and mesophotic (30-150 m) populations and 2) across the species' geographic range. Additionally, the nuclear markers rhodopsin and internal transcribed spacer 2 of ribosomal DNA were sequenced to assess connectivity between shallow and mesophotic populations. There was no significant genetic differentiation by depth, indicating high levels of vertical connectivity between shallow and deep aggregates of C. verater. Consequently, shallow and deep samples were combined by location for analyses of horizontal connectivity. We detected low but significant population structure across the Hawaiian Archipelago (overall cytochrome b: ΦST = 0.009, P = 0.020; control region: ΦST = 0.012, P = 0.009) and a larger break between the archipelago and Johnston Atoll (cytochrome b: ΦST = 0.068, P < 0.001; control region: ΦST = 0.116, P < 0.001). The population structure within the archipelago was driven by samples from the island of Hawaii at the southeast end of the chain and Lisianski in the middle of the archipelago. The lack of vertical genetic structure supports the refugia hypothesis that deep reefs may constitute a population reservoir for species depleted in shallow reef habitats. These findings represent the first connectivity study on a mobile organism that spans shallow and mesophotic depths and provide a reference point for future connectivity studies on mesophotic

  20. Petrology of upper silurian reservoir rocks from the Kudirka Atoll, Lithuania. On the spatiotemporal relations between different diagenetic events that have affected the reservoir quality of the rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stentoft, N.; Lapinskas, P.; Musteikis, P.; Kristensen, L.; Hoelstad, T.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an understanding of the diagenetic development of the different reservoir rocks of the Kudirka Atoll, and to make out to what degree the present reservoir qualities (permeability and porosity) of the reef rocks are dependent on the preceding post depositional diagenetic events. Beside that the scope was to get a better understanding of the architecture of the reef complex by combining macroscopic core descriptions with log interpretations of selected wells. The spatial distribution of both porosity, water saturation, lithology and texture is included. The project encompasses investigation of core and plug material from following wells of the Kudirka Atoll field: Vilkaviskis-126, -131, -132, -135, -136, -137 and -139. From 50 small core pieces (cf. Appendix A) a total of 100 one inch plug sampels were drilled (that is two plus from each core piece) and cleaned by use of soxhlet extractor. Porosity, air permeability and grain density were then measured on each plug (cf. Appendix E). Wireline logs from the seven wells, plus from Vilkaviskis-133 and Kudirka-146, were digitized and used in the log interpretation. To ensure that characteristics essential to both the log interpretation and the diagnetic history were called attention to, the macroscopic core descriptions were carried out in accordance to the procedure described in the `introductory remarks` of Appendix A. The microscopic investigations, that form the basis of the description of the diagenetic history, are based on 50 thin-section (30 {mu}m thick) prepared from one inch plugs (cf Appenix B). To see whether the carbonate crystals, that were assumed to be dolomite from their reaction with Alizarin Red S, are in fact pure, or close to pure CaMg(CO-3){sub 2}, two thin sections were polished and examined by SEM-ED (cf. Appencix F). A total of 15 plugs were picked out for capillary pressure measurements (the porous plate method using 8 pressure steps) including

  1. Petrology of upper silurian reservoir rocks from the Kudirka Atoll, Lithuania. On the spatiotemporal relations between different diagenetic events that have affected the reservoir quality of the rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stentoft, N.; Lapinskas, P.; Musteikis, P.; Kristensen, L.; Hoelstad, T.

    1998-08-01

    The purpose of the study was to provide an understanding of the diagnetic development of the different reservoir rocks of the Kudirka Atoll, and to make out to what degree the present reservoir qualities (permeability and porosity) of the reef rocks are dependent on the preceding post depositional diagenetic events. Beside that the scope was to get a better understanding of the architecture of the reef complex by combining macroscopic core descriptions with log interpretations of selected wells. The spatial distribution of both porosity, water saturation, lithology and texture is included. The project encompasses investigation of core and plug material from following wells of the Kudirka Atoll field: Vilkaviskis-126, -131, -132, -135, -136, -137 and -139. From 50 small core pieces (cf. Appendix A) a total of 100 one inch plug samples were drilled (that is two plus from each core piece) and cleaned by use of soxhlet extractor. Porosity, air permeability and grain density were then measured on each plug (cf. Appendix E). Wireline logs from the seven wells, plus from Vilkaviskis-133 and Kudirka-146, were digitized and used in the log interpretation. To ensure that characteristics essential to both the log interpretation and the diagenetic history were called attention to, the macroscopic core descriptions were carried out in accordance to the procedure described in the `introductory remarks` of Appendix A. The microscopic investigations, that form the basis of the description of the diagenetic history, are based on 50 thin-section (30 {mu}m thick) prepared from one inch plugs (cf Appenix B). To see whether the carbonate crystals, that were assumed to be dolomite from their reaction with Alizarin Red S, are in fact pure, or close to pure CaMg(CO-3){sub 2}, two thin sections were polished and examined by SEM-ED (cf. Appendix F). A total of 15 plugs were picked out for capillary pressure measurements (the porous plate method using 8 pressure steps) including

  2. Sediment studies at Bikini Atoll part 3. Inventories of some long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides associated with lagoon surface sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.

    1997-12-01

    Surface sediment samples were collected during 1979 from 87 locations in the lagoon at Bikini Atoll. The collections were made to better define the concentrations and distribution of long-lived radionuclides associated with the bottom material and to show what modifications occurred to the composition of the surface sediment from the nuclear testing program conducted by the United States at the Atoll between 1946 and 1958. This is the last of three reports on Bikini sediment studies. In this report, we discuss the concentrations and inventories of the residual long-lived gamma-emitting radionuclides in sediments from the lagoon. The gamma-emitting radionuclides detected most frequently in sediments collected in 1979, in addition to Americium-241 ({sup 241}Am) (discussed in the second report of this series), included Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs), Bismuth-207 ({sup 207}Bi), Europium-155 ({sup 155}Eu), and Cobalt-60 ({sup 60}Co). Other man-made, gamma-emitting radionuclides such as Europium-152,154 ({sup 152,154}Eu), Antimony-125 ({sup 125}Sb), and Rhodium-101,102m ({sup 101,102m}Rh) were occasionally measured above detection limits in sediments near test site locations. The mean inventories for {sup 137}Cs, {sup 207}Ei, {sup 155}Eu, and {sup 60}Co in the surface 4 cm of the lagoon sediment to be 1.7, 0.56, 7.76, and 0.74 TBq, respectively. By June 1997, radioactive decay would reduce these values to 1.1, 0.38, 0.62, and 0.07 TBq, respectively. Some additional loss results from a combination of different processes that continuously mobilize and return some amount of the radionuclides to the water column. The water and dissolved constituents are removed from the lagoon through channels and exchange with the surface waters of the north equatorial Pacific Ocean. Highest levels of these radionuclides are found in surface deposits lagoonward of the Bravo Crater. Lowest concentrations and inventories are associated with sediment lagoonward of the eastern reef. The quantities in

  3. Commercial Appropriation of a Person's Image: Wells V Atoll Media (Pty Ltd (Unreported 11961/2006 [2009] ZAWCHC 173 (9 November 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SJ Cornelius

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Our modern society has become transfixed with celebrity. Business people and marketers also endeavour to cash in on the popularity enjoyed by the stars and realise the value of associating merchandise or trademarks with the rich and famous. This leads to difficulties when the attributes of a person are apparently used without consent, which poses new questions to the law: should the law protect the individual against the unlawful use of his or her image? If so, to what extent should such protection be granted? These were some of the questions which the court had to answer in Wells v Atoll Media (Pty. The judgment in Wells has redefined the right to identity and provided some clarity on what the infringement of that right would amount to. When the attributes of a person are used without consent, the right to identity can be violated in one of four ways. A person's right to identity can be infringed upon if the attributes of that person are used without permission in a way which cannot be reconciled with the true image of the individual concerned, if the use amounts to the commercial exploitation of the individual, if it cannot be reconciled with generally accepted norms of decency, or if it violates the privacy of that person.

  4. The flip-or-flop boutique: Marine debris on the shores of St Brandon's rock, an isolated tropical atoll in the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwman, Hindrik; Evans, Steven W; Cole, Nik; Choong Kwet Yive, Nee Sun; Kylin, Henrik

    2016-03-01

    Isolated coral atolls are not immune from marine debris accumulation. We identified Southeast Asia, the Indian sub-continent, and the countries on the Arabian Sea as most probable source areas of 50 000 items on the shores of St. Brandon's Rock (SBR), Indian Ocean. 79% of the debris was plastics. Flip-flops, energy drink bottles, and compact fluorescent lights (CFLs) were notable item types. The density of debris (0.74 m(-)(1) shore length) is comparable to similar islands but less than mainland sites. Intact CFLs suggests product-facilitated long-range transport of mercury. We suspect that aggregated marine debris, scavenged by the islands from currents and gyres, could re-concentrate pollutants. SBR islets accumulated debris types in different proportions suggesting that many factors act variably on different debris types. Regular cleaning of selected islets will take care of most of the accumulated debris and may improve the ecology and tourism potential. However, arrangements and logistics require more study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Late Pennsylvanian depositional cycles and fusulinid zonations for the Salt Creek reef of the Horseshoe Atoll of west Texas - Implications for a sea level curve and regional correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J.M. (Mobil Exploration and Producing U.S. Inc., Midland, TX (United States))

    1992-04-01

    The Salt Creek reef is one of a number of carbonate reef-mound complexes that makes up the Horseshoe Atoll. At least eleven depositional cycles have been delineated from the Strawn Formation (Late Desmoinesian) through the Canyon Limestone (Missourian) to the Cisco Formation (Early Virgilian). A typical cycle consists of a basal unit of intraclastic and skeletal grainstone to dark-gray lime-mudstone with black shale laminations, chert nodules, and scattered crinoid fragments; an intermediary unit of crinoid wackestone and packstone grading up to interbedded skeletal packstone and algal baffle-boundstone; and a capping unit of skeletal and oolitic grainstone. The cycle is bounded by unconformities. These cycles were deposited in a starved basin as a fringing reef-mound complex on an isolated, drowned platform. Nine fusulinid biostratigraphy zones established for the Permian basin are recognized in Salt Creek: one Strawn zone; seven zones in the Canyon, and one in the Cisco. These zones coincide with the eleven major depositional cycles at Salt Creek. The authors have correlated these eleven lithostratigraphic-biostratigraphic units to a series of 14 major transgressive sequences in north Texas and 16 sequences in the mid-continent of North America. These correlations suggest that glacial eustasy is the basic control of these cycles. Differences in the correlation between the cycles may be due to the unique setting of the Salt Creek reef, variations in sea level fluctuations and basin subsidence, or variations in sedimentation rates between carbonate platforms and cratonic shelves with mixed lithologies.

  6. A novel mcl PHA-producing bacterium, Pseudomonas guezennei sp. nov., isolated from a 'kopara' mat located in Rangiroa, an atoll of French Polynesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon-Colin, C; Alain, K; Colin, S; Cozien, J; Costa, B; Guezennec, J G; Raguénès, G H C

    2008-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe an aerobic, mesophilic and heterotrophic bacterium, designated RA26, able to produce a medium-chain-length polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA). It was isolated from a French Polynesian bacterial mat located in the atoll of Rangiroa. This micro-organism, on the basis of the phenotypical features and genotypic investigations can be clearly assigned to the Pseudomonas genus and the name of Pseudomonas guezennei is proposed. Optimal growth occurs between 33 and 37 degrees C, at a pH between 6.4 and 7.1 and at ionic strength of 15 g l(-1) of sea salts. The G+C content of DNA is 63.2%. Under laboratory conditions, this bacterium produced a novel, medium-chain-length PHA, mainly composed of 3-hydroxydecanaote (64 mol.%) and 3-hydroxyoctanoate (24 mol.%) (GC-MS, NMR) from a single nonrelated carbon substrate, i.e. glucose. The bacterium P. guezennei produces a novel PHA mcl with elastomeric properties. PHAs share physical and material properties that recommend them for application in various areas, and are considered as an alternative to nonbiodegradable plastics produced from fossil oils. In this study, we describe a new bacteria with the capability to synthesize a novel PHA with promising biotechnological applications.

  7. Concentration of Beryllium (Be) and Depleted Uranium (DU) in Marine Fauna and Sediment Samples from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands at Kwajalein Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W L; Hamilton, T F; Martinelli, R E; Kehl, S R; Lindman, T R

    2005-02-24

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) personnel have supported US Air Force (USAF) ballistic missile flight tests for about 15 years for Peacekeeper and Minuteman missiles launched at Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB). Associated re-entry vehicles (RV's) re-enter at Regan Test Site (RTS) at the US Army base at Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) where LLNL has supported scoring, recovery operations for RV materials, and environmental assessments. As part of ongoing USAF ballistic missile flight test programs, LLNL is participating in an updated EA being written for flights originating at VFAB. Marine fauna and sediments (beach-sand samples) were collected by US Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS), National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), and LLNL at Illeginni Island and Boggerik Island (serving as a control site) at Kwajalein Atoll. Data on the concentration of DU (hereafter, U) and Be in collected samples was requested by USFWS and NMFS to determine whether or not U and Be in RV's entering the Illeginni area are increasing U and Be concentrations in marine fauna and sediments. LLNL agreed to do the analyses for U and Be in support of the EA process and provide a report of the results. There is no statistically significant difference in the concentration of U and Be in six species of marine fauna from Illeginni and Boggerik Islands (p - 0.14 for U and p = 0.34 for Be). Thus, there is no evidence that there has been any increase in U and Be concentrations in marine fauna as a result of the missile flight test program. Concentration of U in beach sand at Illeginni is the same as soil and beach sand in the rest of the Marshall Islands and again reflects an insignificant impact from the flight test program. Beach sand from Illeginni has a mean concentration of Be higher than that from the control site, Boggeik Island. Seven of 21 samples from Ileginni had detectable Be. Four samples had a concentration of Be ranging from 4 to 7 ng g {sup -1} (4 to 7 parts per

  8. Time-resolved record of 236U and 239,240Pu isotopes from a coral growing during the nuclear testing program at Enewetak Atoll (Marshall Islands).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froehlich, M B; Chan, W Y; Tims, S G; Fallon, S J; Fifield, L K

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive series of nuclear tests were carried out by the United States at Enewetak Atoll in the Marshall Islands, especially between 1952 and 1958. A Porites Lutea coral that was growing in the Enewetak lagoon within a few km of all of the high-yield tests contains a continuous record of isotopes, which are of interest (e.g. 14C, 236U, 239,240Pu) through the testing period. Prior to the present work, 14C measurements at ∼2-month resolution had shown pronounced peaks in the Δ14C data that coincided with the times at which tests were conducted. Here we report measurements of 236U and 239,240Pu on the same coral using accelerator mass spectrometry, and again find prominent peaks in the concentrations of these isotopes that closely follow those in 14C. Consistent with the 14C data, the magnitudes of these peaks do not, however, correlate well with the explosive yields of the corresponding tests, indicating that smaller tests probably contributed disproportionately to the debris that fell in the lagoon. Additional information about the different tests can also be obtained from the 236U/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu ratios, which are found to vary dramatically over the testing period. In particular, the first thermonuclear test, Ivy-Mike, has characteristic 236U/239Pu and 240Pu/239Pu signatures which are diagnostic of the first arrival of nuclear test material in various archives. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A remarkable sea-level drop and relevant biotic responses across the Guadalupian-Lopingian (Permian) boundary in low-latitude mid-Panthalassa: Irreversible changes recorded in accreted paleo-atoll limestones in Akasaka and Ishiyama, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kofukuda, Daisuke; Isozaki, Yukio; Igo, Hisayoshi

    2014-03-01

    The Capitanian (Upper Guadalupian) to Wuchiapingian (Lower Lopingian) shallow-marine limestones at Akasaka and Ishiyama in central Japan record unique aspects of the extinction-related Guadalupian-Lopingian boundary (G-LB) interval. The ca. 140 m-thick Akasaka Limestone consists of the Capitanian black limestone (Unit B; 112 m) and the Wuchiapingian light gray dolomitic limestone (Unit W; 21 m), with a black/white striped limestone (Unit S; 9 m) between them. The G-LB horizon is assigned at the base of Unit W, on the basis of the first occurrence of the Wuchiapingian fusulines. The Capitanian Unit B and the Wuchiapingian Unit W were deposited mostly in the subtidal zone of a lagoon, whereas the intervened Unit S and the lowermost Unit W were in the intertidal zone. A hiatus with a remarkable erosional feature was newly identified at the top of Unit S. These records indicate that the sea-level has dropped significantly around the G-LB to have exposed the top of the atoll complex above the sea-level. The Ishiyama Limestone, located ca. 10 km to the north of the Akasaka limestone, retains almost the same depositional records. The extinction of large-tested fusuline (Yabeina) and large bivalves (Alatoconchidae) occurred in the upper part of Unit B, and the overlying 20 m-thick limestone (the uppermost Unit B and Unit S) below the hiatus represents a unique barren interval. The upper half of the barren interval is more depleted in fossils than the lower half, and this likely represents a duration of the severest environmental stress(es) for the shallow-marine protists/animals on the mid-oceanic paleo-atoll complex. Small-tested fusulines re-appeared at the base of Unit W above the hiatus. These facts prove that the elimination of shallow-marine biota occurred during the Capitanian shallowing of Akasaka paleo-atoll before the subaerial exposure/erosion across the G-LB. The overall shallowing and the development of such a clear hiatus at the top of a mid-oceanic seamount

  10. Palmyra Atoll - Corallimorph Control 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ongoing project with many stages. The first stage included the removal of the Hui Feng No. 1 ship wreck, which was completed in January 2014. The second...

  11. Rose Atoll: an Annotated Bibliography

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Over 290 citations of published monographs, articles from learned journals, periodical features, official reports, letters, notes, some limited circulation and/or...

  12. Ingestão de plástico pelo atobá-mascarado, Sula dactylatra Lesson, 1831, na Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, RN, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erich de Freitas Mariano

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/2175-7925.2012v25n4p285   Partículas plásticas constituem um dos poluentes mais comuns no ambiente marinho e atingem inclusive regiões com baixa densidade populacional humana. Frequentemente, essas partículas são ingeridas por diversos organismos marinhos, ocasionando problemas no trato digestivo, que podem culminar no enfraquecimento e morte do animal. Em um estudo acerca da alimentação de 631 Atobás-mascarados, Sula dactylatra, na Reserva Biológica do Atol das Rocas, foram encontradas partículas plásticas no conteúdo estomacal de quatro indivíduos adultos. Os artefatos plásticos encontrados constituíam-se de um plástico transparente, um pedaço de rótulo de garrafa de água mineral, dois pedaços de plástico preto e um pedaço rígido pequeno e vermelho. O fluxo de embarcações, tanto pesqueiras quanto turísticas, no entorno da ReBio Atol das Rocas pode ser a fonte de origem das peças plásticas tanto nos conteúdos estomacais quanto os encontrados nas ilhas da reserva, evidenciando que ações antropogênicas já atingem áreas isoladas, as quais deveriam ter um elevado grau de proteção da biodiversidade. Diversas medidas podem ser tomadas para evitar eventos deletérios na biota marinha, porém há uma grande dificuldade em evitar o descarte de lixo proveniente de navios pesqueiros e de turismo, além dos materiais vindos do continente, sendo necessário um incremento nos esforços de conscientização e fiscalização.

  13. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Kimio; Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2016-08-01

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the "Bravo" detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the "5th Fukuryu-maru" did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed.

  14. Chromosome aberrations in Japanese fishermen exposed to fallout radiation 420-1200 km distant from the nuclear explosion test site at Bikini Atoll: report 60 years after the incident

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Kimio [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan); Institute for Environmental Sciences, Kakimita, Aomori (Japan); Ohtaki, Megu; Hoshi, Masaharu [Hiroshima University, Research Institute for Radiation Biology and Medicine, Hiroshima City, Hiroshima (Japan)

    2016-08-15

    During the period from March to May, 1954, the USA conducted six nuclear weapon tests at the ''Bravo'' detonation sites at the Bikini and Enewetak Atolls, Marshall Islands. At that time, the crew of tuna fishing boats and cargo ships that were operating approximately 150-1200 km away from the test sites were exposed to radioactive fallout. The crew of the fishing boats and those on cargo ships except the ''5th Fukuryu-maru'' did not undergo any health examinations at the time of the incident. In the present study, chromosome aberrations in peripheral blood lymphocytes were examined in detail by the G-banding method in 17 crew members from 8 fishing boats and 2 from one cargo ship, 60 years after the tests. None of the subjects examined had suffered from cancer. The percentages of both stable-type aberrations such as translocation, inversion and deletion, and unstable-type aberrations such as dicentric and centric ring in the study group were significantly higher (1.4- and 2.3-fold, respectively) than those in nine age-matched controls. In the exposed and control groups, the percentages of stable-type aberrations were 3.35 % and 2.45 %, respectively, and the numbers of dicentric and centric ring chromosomes per 100 cells were 0.35 and 0.15, respectively. Small clones were observed in three members of the exposed group. These results suggest that the crews were exposed to slightly higher levels of fallout than had hitherto been assumed. (orig.)

  15. An Ecological Assessment of Johnston Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Brown Boobies were banded since this study began (at least 90% of chicks fledging every year were banded in cooperation with the US Fish and Wildlife... crustaceans and other animals that are usually found buried in sand. They use their specialized chin-barbels, which are covered with taste-buds to...by members of the US Fish and Wildlife Cooperative Fishery Research Unit at the University of Hawaii. The purpose of this study was to characterize

  16. Palmyra Atoll - Corallimorph Control and Eradication 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This is an ongoing project with many stages. The first stage included the removal of the Hui Feng No. 1 ship wreck, and that is currently under way and will be...

  17. Migration from atolls as climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    that migration currently improves access to financial and social capital, reduces pressure on natural resources and makes island communities less vulnerable to extreme weather events and other shocks — all factors that contribute positively to adaptive capacity. It also shows that there are major barriers...

  18. Midway Atoll Coastal Digital Elevation Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...

  19. Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge Research Compendium

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Overall, there is a need to bring all refuges in line with the new National Wildlife Refuge System mission, goals, and policies, as described in the National...

  20. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Midway Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  1. 2010 Northwestern Hawaiian Islands Lidar - Kure Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) contracted with Hawaii-based Aerial Surveying, Inc. to collect lidar-derived elevation data over the low-lying areas within the...

  2. Zooplankton composition of the Kalpeni and Agatti atolls, Lakshadweep archiplago

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Achuthankutty, C.T.; Nair, S.R.S.; Haridas, P.; Madhupratap, M.

    Composition of zooplankton in the lagoons was quite different from that of the sea and to a large extent, was independent of oceanic influence While copepods were dominant in the sea, meroplankton, particularly brachyuran zoeae constituted...

  3. Rose Atoll IKONOS Imagery - IKONOS Imagery for American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort among the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment; the...

  4. Conservation of Sooty Terns on Wake Atoll Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Ascension Island. Atlantic Seabirds 1:159-168. Robertson, W. B. 1964. The terns of the Dry Tortugas. Bulletin of the Florida State Museum 8:1-94 Saliva...and F. A. Roberts. 1999. The population status of Sooty Terns Sterna fuscata on Ascension Island. Atlantic Seabirds 1:159-168. Ricklefs, R. E...bacteria in seawater. Microbial Ecology 10:69-77. Nelson, J. B. 1978. The Sulidae: gannets and boobies. Oxford Univ. Press, Oxford, U. K

  5. An Environmental Survey of Canton Atoll Lagoon, 1973

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-06-01

    Hull Ellice Islands I Tokelau Islands , Fonnfuti Danger Svwains S iN"u arcotor ProjectiNii n bamcsa Islands after $. " U. S. Hydrographic Office Chart...Islands within 1500 kml at’ C’anton, including Swains, Nassau, Jarvis, and Danger Islands, At least 85 sp~eies and 38 genera and sublgencra of’ roeel...wsa11V pro port Ionls a~ In1111 ýk I Ik oniciIlpoo 1’. ( ’itrd 1idiScl~l-L’’setilted lait el Iy b\\%1)i one Species oft ud,1ilmio, at\\verigeý 417

  6. Commercial Appropriation of a Person's Image: Wells V Atoll Media ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This leads to difficulties when the attributes of a person are apparently used without consent, which poses new questions to the law: should the law protect the individual against the unlawful use of his or her image? If so, to what ... of that person. Keywords: Identity; image rights; publicity rights; personality rights; delict; tort ...

  7. Okeanos Explorer (EX1706): Johnston Atoll (ROV/Mapping)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Operations will include the use of the ship's deep water mapping systems (Kongsberg EM302 multibeam sonar, EK60 split-beam fisheries sonars, Knudsen 3260 chirp...

  8. Manglicolous fungi from atolls of Maldives, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chinnaraj, S.

    Thirty nine species represented by 29 species of Ascomycetes, 2 of Basidiomycetes and 8 of Deuteromycetes were collected from partially submerged, dead and decayed parts of 5 mangrove species. The dominant species were Dactylospora haliotrepha...

  9. Distribution of strontium in sediments of the Minicoy atoll, Lakshadweep

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Mascarenhas, A.; Siddiquie, H.N.; Topgi, R.S.

    values in the lagoon are possibly related to greater contribution of calcareous algae (calcite and rich in Mg and low in Sr) to the reef sediments. Luxuriant coral (aragonite and higher in Sr) growth and greater contribution from corals to the lagoonal...

  10. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    surge uptake of ammonium is not frequently measured, it could be an important mechanism of N acquisition for macroalgae in nutrient-poor reef waters given the diversity of heterotrophs habiting on them and in the vicinity. Seaweed surfaces... provide all of or more than the quantity of N required by the alga, removal by dilution (Taylor and Rees, 1998) could substantially reduce the amount of N that actually becomes available to the alga from the heterotrophs. Efficient acquisition of N from...

  11. CRED REA Reef Fish Assessment Survey at Pearl And Hermes Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 12 September - 12...

  12. Vectorized Shoreline of Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2001 Derived from IKONOS Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — IKONOS imagery was purchased to support the Pacific Islands Geographic Information System (GIS) project and the National Ocean Service's (NOS) coral mapping...

  13. Slope grid derived from gridded bathymetry of Kure Atoll, Hawaii, USA

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Slope is derived from gridded (5 m cell size) multibeam bathymetry, collected aboard NOAA Ship Hiialaka'i and R/V AHI, and IKONOS derived depth values. Cell values...

  14. Marine macrophytes of Minicoy (Lakshadweep) coral atoll of the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Untawale, A.G.; Jagtap, T.G.

    gracilis, Padina pavonia, Dictyota dichotoma, Dictyurus purpurescens and Acanthophora delilei. Thalassia hemprichii, Halophila ovalis and Cymodocea rotundata form the dominant flora in the lagoon area. Bruguiera parviflora was the only mangrove species...

  15. ESI-07 Rose Atoll, American Samoa 2003 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  16. ESI-HI94 Pearl and Hermes Atoll, NWHI, Hawaii 2001 (Environmental Sensitivity Index Map)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Environmental Sensitivity Index (ESI) maps are an integral component in oil-spill contingency planning and assessment. They serve as a source of information in the...

  17. Rose Atoll IKONOS Mosaic Imagery 2001-2002 - IKONOS Imagery for American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This project is a cooperative effort between the National Ocean Service, National Centers for Coastal Ocean Science, Center for Coastal Monitoring and Assessment,...

  18. Formation of Atoll Garnets in the UHP Eclogites of the Tso Morari ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    7

    geothermal gradients: zeolite →pumpellyite-actinolitefacies /lawsonite albite facies→blueschist. 1 facies→ type C eclogites (Guillotet al. 2008). The reconstruction of thetectonic history of the. 2. Tso Morari eclogites proposed below is based on our petrologic study and considers the. 3 following constraints: (1) Protoliths for ...

  19. Stress response of two coral species in the Kavaratti atoll of the Lakshadweep Archipelago, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Harithsa, S.; Raghukumar, C.; Dalal, S.G.

    ). Corals under stress respond by producing stress proteins, also called heat shock proteins. These are used as biomarkers to monitor environmental stress in corals (Weins et al. 2000). The increased production of stress proteins may also change the RNA... fixed in 4% formalin prepared in seawater for 24 h followed by fixation in 10% formalin prepared in seawater for 48 h. The fixed samples were rinsed with tap water and were stored in 70% ethanol till further processing. To study the zooxanthellae...

  20. NOAA Coral Reef Watch Larval Connectivity, Hawaiian Archipelago (and Johnston Atoll)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Climate change threatens even the best-protected and most remote reefs. Reef recovery following catastrophic disturbance usually requires disturbed sites be reseeded...

  1. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12...

  2. CRED REA Benthic Parameter Assessment at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Point-count surveys at 50-cm intervals were conducted along 2 consecutively placed, 25m line transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 6...

  3. CRED REA Coral Health and Disease Assessment at Rose Atoll, American Samoa 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed at 50-cm intervals as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 11 sites at...

  4. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  5. An indigenous soil classification system for Bellona Island - a raised atoll in the Solomon Islands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elberling, Bo; Breuning-Madsen, Henrik; Bruun, Thilde Bech

    2010-01-01

    perceive the same four out of seven soil types as highly useful for cultivation and rank these soil types similarly according to their suitability for different crops such as yam, watermelon, cassava and sweet potato. It is concluded that the indigenous soil classification is in line with the soil...

  6. Structure of major seagrass beds from three coral reef atolls of Lakshadweep, Arabian Sea, India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.

    earlier studies Jagtap and Inamdar, 1991 . ()T.G. JagtaprAquatic Botany 60 1998 397–408 399 These beds were evaluated for their structural components, from 1–8 November 1993, . when the seagrass standing crop remains at peak in the tropics Fortes, 1986..., and hence were the major contributors of total biomass. The higher biomass at shallower depths obviously resulted . from higher shoot densities of the standing crop Table 1 . A similar trend of seagrass . distribution has been reported, except the more...

  7. Atoll mangroves and associated flora from Republic of Maldives, Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jagtap, T.G.; Untawale, A.G.

    is commercially exploited for fish sticks and wood for boat building and construction and cultivated on small scale. Islanders are well verged with plantation techniques and generally dense plantations particularly of B. cylindrica are practised in the intertidal...

  8. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  9. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  10. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  11. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  12. PI- Why are the goonies dying on West Beach, Midway Atoll NWR: Hazmat or habitat?

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Analysis of long term monitoring data as well as analysis of data collected during the 2005/2006 Albatross breeding season show that nests located within long-term...

  13. CRED Cumulative Map of Percent Scleractinian Coral Cover at Pearl and Hermes Atoll, 2002-2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This map displays optical validation observation locations and percent coverage of scleractinian coral overlaid on bathymetry.

  14. CRED REA Invertebrate Quantitative Assessments at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas, in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support a long-term NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, from 21 March- 9 April 2004,...

  15. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  16. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  17. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  18. CRED Towed-Diver Fish Biomass Surveys at Midway Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Towed-diver surveys (aka. Towboard surveys) are conducted by the Coral Reef Ecosystem Division (CRED) of the NOAA Pacific Islands Fisheries Science Center (PIFSC) as...

  19. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...

  20. CRED Towed-Diver Benthic Characterization Surveys at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — To support NOAA Coral Reef Conservation Program (CRCP) long-term goals for sustainable management and conservation of coral reef ecosystems, towed-diver surveys...