WorldWideScience

Sample records for atoll netherlands antilles

  1. Biodiversity assessment of the fishes of Saba Bank atoll, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey T Williams

    Full Text Available Biodiversity surveys were conducted on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles, to assess ichthyofaunal richness and to compare with published surveys of other Caribbean localities. The primary objective was to estimate the total species richness of the Saba Bank ichthyofauna. A variety of sampling techniques was utilized to survey the fish species of both the visually accessible megafauna and the camouflaged and small-sized species comprising the cryptic ichthyofauna.Based on results presented herein, the number of species known on Saba Bank is increased from 42 previously known species to 270 species. Expected species-accumulation curves demonstrate that the current estimate of species richness of fishes for Saba Bank under represents the actual richness, and our knowledge of the ichthyofauna has not plateaued. The total expected fish-species richness may be somewhere between 320 and 411 species.The Saba Bank ichthyofaunal assemblage is compared to fish assemblages found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Despite the absence of shallow or emergent shore habitats like mangroves, Saba Bank ranks as having the eighth highest ichthyofaunal richness of surveyed localities in the Greater Caribbean. Some degree of habitat heterogeneity was evident. Fore-reef, patch-reef, and lagoonal habitats were sampled. Fish assemblages were significantly different between habitats. Species richness was highest on the fore reef, but 11 species were found only at lagoonal sites.A comprehensive, annotated list of the fishes currently known to occur on Saba Bank, Netherland Antilles, is provided and color photographs of freshly collected specimens are presented for 165 of the listed species of Saba Bank fishes to facilitate identification and taxonomic comparison with similar taxa at other localities. Coloration of some species is shown for the first time. Preliminary analysis indicates that at least six undescribed new species were collected during the survey and these are

  2. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.W. Thacker; M.C. Díaz; N.J. de Voogd; R.W.M. van Soest; C.J. Freeman; A.S. Mobley; J. LaPietra; K. Cope; S. McKenna

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishe

  3. Mosquitoes of the Netherlands Antilles and their hygienic importance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuyp, van der Edwin

    1954-01-01

    The Netherlands Antilles may be divided into: (1) The Curaçao Group (or Netherlands Leeward Islands): Curaçao, Aruba and Bonaire. (2) The St. Martin Group (or Netherlands Windward Islands): (Netherlands) St. Maarten, Saba and St. Eustatius. The latter islands are very small, forming together only 8.

  4. Preliminary Assessment of Sponge Biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thacker, Robert W.; Díaz, M. Cristina; de Voogd, Nicole J.; van Soest, Rob W. M.; Freeman, Christopher J.; Mobley, Andrew S.; LaPietra, Jessica; Cope, Kevin; McKenna, Sheila

    2010-01-01

    Background Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. Methodology/Principal Findings A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. Conclusions/Significance This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity. PMID:20502643

  5. Preliminary assessment of sponge biodiversity on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Thacker

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Saba Bank Atoll, Netherlands Antilles, is one of the three largest atolls on Earth and provides habitat for an extensive coral reef community. To improve our knowledge of this vast marine resource, a survey of biodiversity at Saba Bank included a multi-disciplinary team that sampled fishes, mollusks, crustaceans, macroalgae, and sponges. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A single member of the dive team conducted surveys of sponge biodiversity during eight dives at six locations, at depths ranging from 15 to 30 m. This preliminary assessment documented the presence of 45 species pooled across multiple locations. Rarefaction analysis estimated that only 48 to 84% of species diversity was sampled by this limited effort, clearly indicating a need for additional surveys. An analysis of historical collections from Saba and Saba Bank revealed an additional 36 species, yielding a total of 81 sponge species recorded from this area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This observed species composition is similar to that found on widespread Caribbean reefs, indicating that the sponge fauna of Saba Bank is broadly representative of the Caribbean as a whole. A robust population of the giant barrel sponge, Xestospongia muta, appeared healthy with none of the signs of disease or bleaching reported from other Caribbean reefs; however, more recent reports of anchor chain damage to these sponges suggests that human activities can have dramatic impacts on these communities. Opportunities to protect this extremely large habitat should be pursued, as Saba Bank may serve as a significant reservoir of sponge species diversity.

  6. 76 FR 68039 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-02

    ... Regulation; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles AGENCIES: Department of Defense (DoD), General... status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands Antilles. DATES: Effective Date: November 2, 2011.... Background The Netherlands Antilles was designated as a beneficiary country under the Caribbean...

  7. Reef fishes of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles: assemblage structure across a gradient of habitat types

    OpenAIRE

    Toller, W; Debrot, A.O.; Vermeij, M.J.A.; Hoetjes, P.C.

    2010-01-01

    Saba Bank is a 2,200 km2 submerged carbonate platform in the northeastern Caribbean Sea off Saba Island, Netherlands Antilles. The presence of reef-like geomorphic features and significant shelf edge coral development on Saba Bank have led to the conclusion that it is an actively growing, though wholly submerged, coral reef atoll. However, little information exists on the composition of benthic communities or associated reef fish assemblages of Saba Bank. We selected a 40 km2 area of the bank...

  8. Situation Reports--Bahamas, Brasil, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    International Planned Parenthood Federation, London (England).

    Data relating to population and family planning in four foreign countries are presented in these situation reports. Countries included are Bahamas, Guatemala, Netherlands Antilles (Curacao), and Uruguay. Information is provided under two topics, general background and family planning situation, where appropriate and if it is available. General…

  9. Scale insects from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reyne, A.

    1964-01-01

    The following species have been reported from the Netherlands’ Antilles: Margarodes formicarum Guilding, collected in 1884 or 1885 by Prof. W. F. R. Suringar in Curaçao; specimens in the State Museum of Natural History at Leiden. Protortonia cacti (Linn.), collected in 1756 by Daniel Rolander in St.

  10. 76 FR 38053 - Defense Federal Acquisition Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-29

    ... Regulation Supplement; Successor Entities to the Netherlands Antilles (DFARS Case 2011-D029) AGENCY: Defense... the change in the political status of the islands that comprised the Netherlands Antilles. DATES... became autonomous territories of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Bonaire, Saba, and Sint Eustatius...

  11. Marine macroalgal diversity assessment of Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark M Littler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Located in the Dutch Windward Islands, Saba Bank is a flat-topped seamount (20-45 m deep in the shallower regions. The primary goals of the survey were to improve knowledge of biodiversity for one of the world's most significant, but little-known, seamounts and to increase basic data and analyses to promote the development of an improved management plan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our team of three divers used scuba to collect algal samples to depths of 50 m at 17 dive sites. Over 360 macrophyte specimens (12 putative new species were collected, more than 1,000 photographs were taken in truly exceptional habitats, and three astonishing new seaweed community types were discovered. These included: (1 "Field of Greens" (N 17 degrees 30.620', W 63 degrees 27.707' dominated by green seaweeds as well as some filamentous reds, (2 "Brown Town" (N 17 degrees 28.027', W 63 degrees 14.944' dominated by large brown algae, and (3 "Seaweed City" (N 17 degrees 26.485', W 63 degrees 16.850' with a diversity of spectacular fleshy red algae. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Dives to 30 m in the more two-dimensional interior habitats revealed particularly robust specimens of algae typical of shallower seagrass beds, but here in the total absence of any seagrasses (seagrasses generally do not grow below 20 m. Our preliminary estimate of the number of total seaweed species on Saba Bank ranges from a minimum of 150 to 200. Few filamentous and thin sheet forms indicative of stressed or physically disturbed environments were observed. A more precise number still awaits further microscopic and molecular examinations in the laboratory. The expedition, while intensive, has only scratched the surface of this unique submerged seamount/atoll.

  12. Description of extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Steven G.; Jaffe, Bruce E.; Morton, Robert A.; Richmond, Bruce M.; Gelfencaum, Guy

    2010-01-01

    To develop a better understanding of the origins of extreme-wave deposits and to help assess the potential risk of future overwash events, a field mapping survey was conducted in November 2006 on the northern coast of Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles. Deposits were mapped and analyzed to help develop a systematic sedimentological approach to distinguish the type of extreme-wave event (tsunamis or storms) or combination of events that formed and modified the deposits over time. Extreme-wave deposits on the northern coast of Bonaire between Boka Onima and Boka Olivia have formed sand sheets, poly-modal ridge complexes, and boulder fields on a Pleistocene limestone platform 3?8 meters above sea level. The deposits exhibit characteristics that are consistent with both large storm and tsunami processes that often overlap one another. Sand sheets occur as low-relief features underlying and incorporated with boulder field deposits. The seaward edge of ridge complexes are deposited up to 70 m from the shoreline and can extend over 200 m inland. Over 600 clasts were measured in fields and range in size from coarse gravel to fine block, weigh up to 165 metric tons, and are placed over 280 m from the shoreline. Our analyses indicate that the deposits may have been produced by a combination of hurricane and tsunami events spanning 10s to 1000s of years. Comparing the different deposit morphologies between study sites highlights the importance of shoreline orientation to the distribution of extreme-wave deposits onshore. However, further investigation is required to fully understand the processes that have produced and modified these deposits over time.

  13. Amsterdam Expeditions to the West Indian Islands, Report 21. A sipunculan, reported to be “interstitial” from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Edmonds, S.J.

    1982-01-01

    The sipunculan Aspidosiphon exiguus Edmonds, 1974, is recorded from Bonaire and Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles). It was first described from three localities in Cuba. Unlike most aspidosiphonids, the species seems to belong to the interstitial fauna of marine beaches and appears to be tolerant of con

  14. Oceanographic data collected during the Bonaire 2008: Exploring Coral Reef Sustainability with New Technologies (bonaire2008) on Fetch1 AUV and Gavia AUV's in Netherlands, Antilles from January 6, 2008 - January 29, 2008 (NODC Accession 0072312)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Bonaire, Netherlands Antilles, is arguably the most pristine coral reef environment in the Caribbean. The percent coral cover is the highest and percent algal cover...

  15. Coastal stratigraphies of eastern Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles): New insights into the palaeo-tsunami history of the southern Caribbean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Max; Brückner, Helmut; Wennrich, Volker; Scheffers, Anja; Kelletat, Dieter; Vött, Andreas; Schäbitz, Frank; Daut, Gerhard; Willershäuser, Timo; May, Simon Matthias

    2010-11-01

    A sediment record of three alluvial sites along the east- and northeast-oriented shore of Bonaire (Netherlands Antilles) provides evidence for the recurrence of several extraordinary wave impacts during the Holocene. The interpretation of onshore high-energy wave deposits is controversially discussed in recent sedimentary research. However, it represents a powerful tool to evaluate the hazard of tsunami and severe storms where historical documentation is short and/or fragmentary. A facies model was established based on sedimentary and geochemical characteristics as well as the assemblage and state of preservation of shells and shell fragments. Radiocarbon data and the comparison of the facies model with both recent local hurricane deposits and global "tsunami signature types" point to the occurrence of three major wave events around 3300, 2000-1700 and shortly before 500 BP. Since (i) the stratigraphically correlated sand layers fulfill several sedimentary characteristics commonly associated with tsunamis and (ii) modern strong hurricanes left only little or even no sediment in the study areas, they were interpreted as tsunamigenic. However, surges largely exceeding the energy of those accompanying modern hurricanes in the southern Caribbean cannot entirely be ruled out. The results are partially consistent with existing chronologies for Holocene extreme wave events deduced from supralittoral coarse-clast deposits on Aruba, Bonaire and Curaçao as well as overwash sediments from Cayo Sal, Venezuela.

  16. Oblique collision and accretion of the Netherlands Leeward Antilles island arc: A structural analysis of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, Amanda Gail

    2007-12-01

    The Netherlands Leeward Antilles volcanic island arc is an ideal natural laboratory to study the evolution of the Caribbean-South American plate boundary. The Leeward Antilles islands (Aruba, Curacao, and Bonaire) are located offshore western Venezuela, within the obliquely convergent diffuse plate boundary zone. Outcrop analysis, microthermometry, and 2D marine seismic reflection data provide evidence of three generations of regional deformation since the Late Cretaceous. Outcrop analysis of structural features, including faults, joints, and veins, characterizes the kinematic history of the islands. Fluid inclusion analysis of quartz and calcite veins coupled with apatite fission-track dating provides the island exhumation history. Finally, marine reflection seismic data processing and interpretation of newly acquired data elucidates offshore structures to integrate with our onshore results. The oldest regional deformation, resulting in both ductile (D1) and brittle (F 1) structures, is attributed to displacement partitioning along the arcuate Caribbean plate boundary. Associated crustal thinning initiated island exhumation, at a rate of 0.18 km/my, from a maximum burial depth of 6 km in the Late Cretaceous (˜89 Ma). Coeval with D1/F1 deformation and exhumation, stretching of the island arc resulted in extensive basin rifting that separated the island blocks. At ˜55 Ma, a change in the relative motion of the Caribbean plate altered plate boundary dynamics. Displacement along the right-lateral Caribbean transform fault and Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar strike-slip fault system created a wrench tectonic regime within the diffuse plate boundary zone. A second generation of brittle structures (F2) developed while the islands were at a maximum burial depth of 2 km during the Paleocene/Eocene. Since ˜45 Ma, continued motion along the strike-slip fault systems and oblique plate convergence resulted in the youngest generation of structural features (F3). Regional

  17. The relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among immigrants from the Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kocken, P.L.; Dorst, A.G. van; Schaalma, H.

    2006-01-01

    A study into the relevance of cultural factors in predicting condom-use intentions among Antillean migrants in the Netherlands is described in this article. The association between the intention to use condoms with a new sexual partner and a perceived taboo on discussing sex, beliefs about sex educa

  18. The Text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973 between The Netherlands and the Agency for the Application of Safeguards with Respect to The Netherlands Antilles in Connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and Additional Protocol 1 to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The text of the Agreement of 5 April 1973, and of the two Protocols thereto, between The Netherlands and the Agency for the application of safeguards with respect to The Netherlands Antilles in connection with the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons and with Additional Protocol I to the Treaty for the Prohibition of Nuclear Weapons in Latin America is reproduced in this document for the information of all Members. The Agreement and the two Protocols thereto entered into force on 5 June 1975, pursuant to Article 24 of the Agreement and to Article II of each of the Protocols.

  19. Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides information on the status of institutional and financial arrangements in the Netherlands for the long term management of HLW and SNF, It includes the following elements: A consistent set of requirements for the technical and legal infrastructure including: funding, liability, institutional control, records management, and research activities; An organizational structure with clearly defined responsibilities; and Provisions for participation by interested parties in decisions and outcomes

  20. Ophiuroidea of the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parslow, Rosemary E.; Clark, Ailsa M.

    1963-01-01

    This paper deals mainly with a collection of ophiuroids from the Lesser Antilles sent to the British Museum (Natural History) by Dr. P. WAGENAAR HUMMELINCK in 1959. The identifications were made by ROSEMARY PARSLOW, but the discussion and figures of Amphiodia and Ophiocomella are by AILSA CLARK. The

  1. HARP PRIA- Palmyra Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This HARP was first deployed off of Palmyra Atoll in 2006. Recording at this site ended in 2010. The HARP was recovered and redeployed multiple times (see time...

  2. Bikini Atoll groundwater development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear weapons testing during the 1950's has left the soil and ground water on Bikini Atoll contaminated with cesium-137, and to a lesser extent, strontium-90. Plans currently are underway for the clean-up and resettlement of the atoll by removal of approximately the upper 30 cm of soil. Any large-scale resettlement program must include provisions for water supply. This will be achieved principally by catchment and storage of rain water, however, since rainfall in Bikini is highly seasonal and droughts occur frequently, ground water development must also be considered. The quantity of potable ground water that can be developed is limited by its salinity and radiological quality. The few ground water samples available from Bikini, which have been collected from only about the top meter of the groundwater body, indicate that small bodies of potable ground water exist on Bikini and Eneu, the two principal living islands, but that cesium and strontium in the Bikioni ground water exceed drinking water standards. In order to make a reasonable estimate of the ground water development potential for the atoll, some 40 test boreholes will be drilled during July/August 1985, and a program of water quality monitoring initiated. This paper will describe preliminary results of the drilling and monitoring work

  3. The Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Anthon K.

    1975-01-01

    Examines early childhood education in the Netherlands: its history, general conceptions of child upbringing and developmental psychology, organizational patterns, main research projects, and goals. (JH)

  4. Utirik Atoll Dose Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robison, W.L.; Conrado, C.L.; Bogen, K.T

    1999-10-06

    On March 1, 1954, radioactive fallout from the nuclear test at Bikini Atoll code-named BRAVO was deposited on Utirik Atoll which lies about 187 km (300 miles) east of Bikini Atoll. The residents of Utirik were evacuated three days after the fallout started and returned to their atoll in May 1954. In this report we provide a final dose assessment for current conditions at the atoll based on extensive data generated from samples collected in 1993 and 1994. The estimated population average maximum annual effective dose using a diet including imported foods is 0.037 mSv y{sup -1} (3.7 mrem y{sup -1}). The 95% confidence limits are within a factor of three of their population average value. The population average integrated effective dose over 30-, 50-, and 70-y is 0.84 mSv (84, mrem), 1.2 mSv (120 mrem), and 1.4 mSv (140 mrem), respectively. The 95% confidence limits on the population-average value post 1998, i.e., the 30-, 50-, and 70-y integral doses, are within a factor of two of the mean value and are independent of time, t, for t > 5 y. Cesium-137 ({sup 137}Cs) is the radionuclide that contributes most of this dose, mostly through the terrestrial food chain and secondarily from external gamma exposure. The dose from weapons-related radionuclides is very low and of no consequence to the health of the population. The annual background doses in the U. S. and Europe are 3.0 mSv (300 mrem), and 2.4 mSv (240 mrem), respectively. The annual background dose in the Marshall Islands is estimated to be 1.4 mSv (140 mrem). The total estimated combined Marshall Islands background dose plus the weapons-related dose is about 1.5 mSv y{sup -1} (150 mrem y{sup -1}) which can be directly compared to the annual background effective dose of 3.0 mSv y{sup -1} (300 mrem y{sup -1}) for the U. S. and 2.4 mSv y{sup -1} (240 mrem y{sup -1}) for Europe. Moreover, the doses listed in this report are based only on the radiological decay of {sup 137}Cs (30.1 y half-life) and other

  5. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  6. Rose Atoll Coral Monitoring Narrative

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Narrative report summarizes the results of coral monitoring at 11 georeferenced sites at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, undertaken by Dr. James Maragos, USFWS Coral...

  7. Frogs of the genus Eleutherodactylus in the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, Albert

    1967-01-01

    The Lesser Antilles consist of those West Indian islands which extend from the Anegada Passage in the north to Grenada in the south.¹) These islands are nomenclatorially divided into two major groups: 1) The Leeward Islands, including Sombrero, Anguilla, St. Martin, St.-Barthélemy [= St. Barts], Sab

  8. Records of Syrphidae (Diptera) from the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doesburg, van P.H.

    1970-01-01

    Having terminated his term of office as a Director of the Suriname Museum at Paramaribo, Dr. D. C. GEIJSKES returned to Holland. Accompanied by Mrs. GEIJSKES he availed himself of the opportunity to make a collecting-trip to several islands of the Windward Group of the Lesser Antilles, situated in a

  9. Growing plants on atoll soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E L; Migvar, L; Robison, W L

    2000-02-16

    Many years ago people living on atolls depended entirely on foods gathered from the sea and reefs and grown on land. Only a few plants, such as coconut (ni), Pandanus (bob), and arrowroot (mok-mok), could be grown on the lower rainfall atolls, although adequate groundwater conditions also allowed taro (iaraj, kotak, wot) to be cultivated. On higher rainfall atolls, breadfruit (ma) was a major food source, and banana (binana, kepran), lime (laim), and taros (iaraj, kotak, wot) could be grown. The early atoll populations were experts in growing plants that were vital to sustaining their nutrition requirements and to providing materials for thatch, basketry, cordage, canoe construction, flowers, and medicine. They knew which varieties of food plants grew well or poorly on their atolls, how to propagate them, and where on their atoll they grew best. They knew the uses of most native plants and what the various woods were well suited for. Many varieties of Pandanus (bob) and breadfruit (ma) grew well with high rainfall, but only a few produced well on drier atolls. Such information had been passed down through the generations although some of it has been lost in the last century. Today there are new plants and new varieties of existing plants that can be grown on atolls. There are also new materials and information on how to grow both the old and new plants more effectively. However, there are also introduced weeds and pests to control. Today, there is also an acute need to grow more of the useful plants adapted to atolls. Increasing numbers of people living on an atoll without an equal increase in income or food production stretches the available food supplies. Much has been written about the poor conditions for plant growth on atolls. As compared with many places in the world where crops are grown, however, atolls can provide some highly favorable conditions. For instance, the driving force for plant growth is sunlight, and on atolls light is abundant throughout the

  10. Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez-Berríos, Nora L.; Daniel J. Redo; T. Mitchell Aide; Matthew L. Clark; Ricardo Grau

    2013-01-01

    Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units) of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this a...

  11. The Vascular Plants of Losap Atoll

    OpenAIRE

    MANNER, Harley I.; SANA, Dickson

    1995-01-01

    Prior to 1988, studies and observations on Losap Atoll (Chuuk, Federated States of Micronesia) indicated a vascular flora of 43 species. A recent collection and observations of the flora of Losap Atoll indicated the presence of 101 species of vascular plants, of which 70 are indigenous and 31 are introduced species. Of these, 34 indigenous and 22 introduced species can be considered new records. An implication of these increases in numbers of species is that the floras of most atolls in the P...

  12. Comments on systematics and zoogeography of bats in the Lesser Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jones, J. Knox; Phillips, Carleton J.

    1970-01-01

    The Lesser Antilles, extending some 500 miles from Anguilla on the north to Grenada on the south, form an archipelago connecting the Greater Antilles with Trinidad and the South American mainland.¹) Bats comprise the major segment of the extant mammalian fauna of the Lesser Antillean islands and the

  13. Rapid assessment of stony coral richness and condition on Saba Bank, Netherlands Antilles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila A McKenna

    Full Text Available The benthic habitats of Saba Bank (17 degrees 25'N, 63 degrees 30'W are at risk from maritime traffic, especially oil tankers (e.g., anchoring. To mitigate this risk, information is needed on the biodiversity and location of habitats to develop a zone use plan. A rapid survey to document the biodiversity of macro-algae, sponges, corals and fishes was conducted. Here we report on the richness and condition of stony coral species at 18 select sites, and we test for the effects of bottom type, depth, and distance from platform edge. Species richness was visually assessed by roving scuba diver with voucher specimens of each species collected. Coral tissue was examined for bleaching and diseases. Thirty-three coral species were documented. There were no significant differences in coral composition among bottom types or depth classes (ANOSIM, P>0.05. There was a significant difference between sites (ANOSIM, P<0.05 near and far from the platform edge. The number of coral species observed ranged from zero and one in algal dominated habitats to 23 at a reef habitat on the southern edge of the Bank. Five reef sites had stands of Acropora cervicornis, a critically endangered species on the IUCN redlist. Bleaching was evident at 82% of the sites assessed with 43 colonies bleached. Only three coral colonies were observed to have disease. Combining our findings with that of other studies, a total of 43 species have been documented from Saba Bank. The coral assemblage on the bank is representative and typical of those found elsewhere in the Caribbean. Although our findings will help develop effective protection, more information is needed on Saba Bank to create a comprehensive zone use plan. Nevertheless, immediate action is warranted to protect the diverse coral reef habitats documented here, especially those containing A. cervicornis.

  14. The marine Algal Vegetation of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vroman, M.

    1968-01-01

    Along the coast of St. Martin, St. Eustatius and Saba the rocks above sea-level often show a number of differently coloured zones. This is clearly visible when the coast over a larger distance is formed by one type of rock, as for instance on Saba. In many places a light-coloured belt is seen above

  15. Genetic variation within Symbiodinium clade B from the coral genus Madracis in the Caribbean (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diekmann, O.E.; Olsen, J.L.; Stam, W.T.; Bak, R.P M

    2003-01-01

    The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was sequenced in symbiotic dinoflagellates (zooxanthellae) from five morphospecies in the genus Madracis. The phylogeny of the symbionts is congruent with a companion phylogeny of the coral host. Comparison with known clade B symbiont ITS types reveals th

  16. Subsea (0-40 m) terraces and benches, windward off Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Focke, J.W.

    1978-01-01

    At the windward (NE) side of Curaçao at least two well-developed submarine terraces occur. A first, rocky, terrace, 100 to 150 m wide at depths of 5 m inshore to 12-15 m at the drop off, is densely covered with Sargassum. A second, sandy, terrace, approximately 50 to 100 m wide at depths of 32 to 40

  17. Ecology and ethology of Chromis cyanea (Poey), Pomacentridae, on the reefs of Curacao, Netherlands Antilles

    OpenAIRE

    de Boer, Barteld Alje

    1981-01-01

    Het is echter belangrijk om de habitat-preferentie van aparte soorten te kennen teneinde de opbouw van zo'n gemeenschap te kunnen begrijpen. Hiertoe werd een onderzoek gedaan naar de habitat-eisen van Chromis cyanea op de Curaqaose riffen. C. cyanea, behorend tot de Pomacentridaeis, een van de meest algemene vissen op deze riffen. ... Zie: Samenvatting

  18. Land Change in the Greater Antilles between 2001 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora L. Álvarez-Berríos

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Land change in the Greater Antilles differs markedly among countries because of varying socioeconomic histories and global influences. We assessed land change between 2001 and 2010 in municipalities (second administrative units of Cuba, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Jamaica, and Puerto Rico. Our analysis used annual land-use/land-cover maps derived from MODIS satellite imagery to model linear change in woody vegetation, mixed-woody/plantations and agriculture/herbaceous vegetation. Using this approach, we focused on municipalities with significant change (p ≤ 0.05. Between 2001 and 2010, the Greater Antilles gained 801 km2 of woody vegetation. This increase was mainly due to the return of woody vegetation in Cuba, and smaller increases in Puerto Rico and the Dominican Republic. Despite relatively similar environments, the factors associated with these changes varied greatly between countries. In Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, and Jamaica, agriculture declined while mixed-woody vegetation increased, mostly in montane regions. In contrast, Cuba experienced an extensive decline in sugarcane plantations, which resulted in the spread of an invasive woody shrub species and the increase in woody vegetation in areas of high agricultural value. In Haiti, the growing population, fuelwood consumption, and increase in agriculture contributed to woody vegetation loss; however, woody vegetation loss was accompanied with a significant increase in the mixed woody and plantations class. Most regional analyses often treated the Greater Antilles as a homogeneous unit; our results suggest that historical and socio-economic differences among countries are crucial for understanding the variation in present day land change dynamics.

  19. Johnston Atoll - Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or...

  20. Rose Atoll - Eradication of Invasive Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — There are at least 9 species of ants introduced to Rose Atoll, including species that tend to scale insects that are devastating the Pisonia grandis trees on the 15...

  1. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Johnston Atoll 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 17 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  2. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  3. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Species Management 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — We initiated management of 3 species of plants that are introduced and invasive at Palmyra Atoll NWR. The work consisted of describing the distributions of these...

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Wake Atoll in April...

  5. Johnston Atoll -Eradication of Yellow Crazy Ants

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — While on a research and monitoring cruise that visited Johnston Atoll in late January 2010, USFWS employees found an infestation of Anoplolepis gracilipes, or...

  6. CRED REA Algal Assessments Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in October...

  7. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Palmyra Atoll 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  8. Rose Atoll 1993 Shipwreck Restoration Status Report

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Summarizes efforts undertaken to remove grounded shipwreck at Rose Atoll and monitor impacts to community composition between 1993 and 2012.

  9. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll U.S. Nuclear Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US conducted a nuclear testing program at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls in the Marshall Islands from 1946 through 1958. Several atolls, including Bikini, were contaminated as a result of the nuclear detonations. Since 1974 the authors have conducted an extensive research and monitoring program to determine the radiological conditions at the atolls, identify the critical radionuclides and pathways, estimate the radiological dose to current or resettling populations, and develop remedial measures to reduce the dose to atoll populations. This paper describes exposure pathways and radionuclides; composition of atoll soils; radionuclide transport and dose estimates; remedial measures; and reduction in dose from a combined option

  10. Seismological Insights into the Structure of the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaphorst, D.; Kendall, J.; Bastow, I. D.; Baptie, B.

    2012-12-01

    Due to an overall eastwards drift of the Caribbean plate of around 2cm/year relative to the Atlantic plate, the type of the subduction along the eastern part of the Caribbean changes. Compared to the simple subduction of the Atlantic plate in the east, the northern plate boundary zone is far more complex, predominantly characterised by a left-lateral east-west strike-slip motion that includes an oblique convergence of the Bahamas carbonate banks and a pull apart basin in the Mona Passage, the sea gate between Hispaniola and Puerto Rico. The island of Hispaniola is decoupled from the Caribbean plate, which leads to a second subduction zone south of Hispaniola where the Caribbean plate subducts beneath the Hispaniola micro plate. Strictly speaking, the arc only extends to the east of the island of Puerto Rico but since most of the northern Caribbean plate boundary zone is directly linked to it the results become more directly comparable. Fed by the Orinoco River the southern part of the Lesser Antilles is a sediment-rich subduction zone, which becomes sediment-poor towards the north as the sediments get blocked by several banks, including the accretionary prism containing the island of Barbados. Here we investigate the crustal and mantle structure variation along the Antilles Arc using measurements of seismic anisotropy and receiver functions. We use data from three component broadband stations that are located from the southern end of the arc to Hispaniola in the north. Seismic anisotropy refers to directional variations in wave speeds and their polarisations. The observation of two independently propagating shear waves (splitting) is the least ambiguous indication of anisotropy. Such observations can be used to constrain mantle flow beneath subduction regions, offering insights into slab dynamics. We generally observed trench parallel orientations around the plate boundary. However, we see significant local deviations in the inferred flow pattern, for example, in

  11. The two atolls (Mururoa and Fangataufa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After three decades of testing nuclear devices on the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa, France stopped the tests in 1996. The International Atomic Energy Agency was requested to carry out an independent study of the radiological situation on the atolls. The study covers a wide range of disciplines of science and aims to establish whether any residual radioactive material could represent a health hazard. The video shows the first stages of the study: sampling the environment and chemical analysis of plant and fish specimen in order to test the distribution and migration of radioisotopes in the lagoon

  12. La crise sociale aux Antilles françaises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justin Daniel

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available La crise sociale qui a récemment secoué les Antilles françaises consacre le retour de la « question sociale » sur les scènes politiques insulaires. Elle s’est également traduite par un dessaisissement du personnel politique dont la parole est devenue inaudible, et une montée en puissance de la société civile. Loin d’avoir réglé les problèmes structurels, elle témoigne cependant d’une évolution significative des rapports entre l’outre-mer et l’Hexagone.The social crisis which recently shook the French West Indies legitimises the return of the “social question” on the insular political scenes. It also resulted in a withdrawal of the political personnel whose discourse became inaudible and in the emergence of civil society. Far from having resolved the structural problems, it reveals a significant change of the relationship between the overseas territories  and the Hexagon.

  13. Resuspension studies at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The following experiments were conducted on Bikini Atoll to provide key parameters for an assessment of inhalation exposure from plutonium-contaminated dust aerosols: (1) a characterization of background (plutonium activity, dust, plutonium, sea spray, and organic aerosol concentrations); (2) a study of plutonium resuspension from a bare field; (3) a study of plutonium resuspension by traffic; and (4) a study of personal inhalation exposure. Dust concentrations of 21 μg m-3 and sea spray of 34 μg m-3 were the background throughout the Bikini Island except within 50 m of the windward beach. Background concentrations of 239+240Pu were 60 aCi m-3 in the coconut grove and 264 aCi m-3 over rain-stabilized bare soil. The ratio of plutonium activity in aerosols relative to the activity in underlying soil, defined as the enhancement factor, EF, was typically less than one. Enhancement factors increased about 3.8 as a result of tilling. Plutonium resuspension flux was estimated at 0.49 pCi m-2 year-1 over most of Bikini Island. Aerosol size distributions associated with mass and with plutonium activity were typically log-normal with median aerodynamic diameter 2.44 μm, which decreased to 2.0 μm above freshly tilled soil. The Pu concentration in aerosols collected over disturbed soil increased by a factor of 19.1. Vehicular traffic produced dust pulses typically of 10 s duration, 28 μg m-3 average concentration, and plutonium enhancement factor 2.5. Personal dosimetry showed that enhancement of dust by a worker was a factor of 2.64 for heavy work outdoors and 1.86 for light work in and around houses. Pulmonary deposition of plutonium was calculated for various exposure conditions. The pulmonary deposition ranged from 1476 aCi h-1 to 12 aCi h-1

  14. Terrestrial forest management plan for Palmyra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Stacie A.; McEachern, Kathryn; Fisher, Robert N.

    2011-01-01

    This 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) for The Nature Conservancy (TNC) Palmyra Program to refine and expand goals and objectives developed through the Conservation Action Plan process. It is one in a series of adaptive management plans designed to achieve TNC's mission toward the protection and enhancement of native wildlife and habitat. The 'Terrestrial Forest Management Plan for Palmyra Atoll' focuses on ecosystem integrity and specifically identifies and addresses issues related to assessing the status and distribution of resources, as well as the pressures acting upon them, most specifically nonnative and potentially invasive species. The plan, which presents strategies for increasing ecosystem integrity, provides a framework to implement and track the progress of conservation and restoration goals related to terrestrial resources on Palmyra Atoll. The report in its present form is intended to be an overview of what is known about historical and current forest resources; it is not an exhaustive review of all available literature relevant to forest management but an attempt to assemble as much information specific to Palmyra Atoll as possible. Palmyra Atoll is one of the Northern Line Islands in the Pacific Ocean southwest of the Hawai`ian Islands. It consists of many heavily vegetated islets arranged in a horseshoe pattern around four lagoons and surrounded by a coral reef. The terrestrial ecosystem consists of three primary native vegetation types: Pisonia grandis forest, coastal strand forest, and grassland. Among these vegetation types, the health and extent of Pisonia grandis forest is of particular concern. Overall, the three vegetation types support 25 native plant species (two of which may be extirpated), 14 species of sea birds, six shore birds, at least one native reptile, at least seven native insects, and six native land crabs. Green and hawksbill turtles forage at Palmyra Atoll

  15. Boron isotope ratios of surface waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louvat, Pascale, E-mail: louvat@ipgp.fr [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France); Gaillardet, Jerome; Paris, Guillaume; Dessert, Celine [Geochimie et Cosmochimie, IPGP, Universite Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cite, UMR 7154 CNRS, 75005 Paris (France)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: > Rivers outer of hydrothermal areas have d11B around 40 per mille and [B] of 10-31 {mu}g/L. > Thermal springs have d11B of 8-15 per mille and [B] between 250 and 1000 {mu}g/L. > With Na, SO{sub 4} and Cl, boron shows mixing of rain, low and high-T weathering inputs. > Guadeloupe rivers and thermal springs have d11B 20-40 per mille higher than the local rocks. > Solid-solution fractionation during weathering pathways may explain this gap of d11B. - Abstract: Large variations are reported in the B concentrations and isotopic ratios of river and thermal spring waters in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles. Rivers have {delta}{sup 11}B values around 40 per mille and B concentrations lower than 30 {mu}g/L, while thermal springs have {delta}{sup 11}B of 8-15 per mille and B concentrations of 250-1000 {mu}g/L. River samples strongly impacted by hydrothermal inputs have intermediate {delta}{sup 11}B and B contents. None of these surface water samples have {delta}{sup 11}B comparable to the local unweathered volcanic rocks (around 0 per mille), implying that a huge isotopic fractionation of 40 per mille takes place during rock weathering, which could be explained by preferential incorporation of {sup 10}B during secondary mineral formation and adsorption on clays, during rock weathering or in the soils. The soil-vegetation B cycle could also be a cause for such a fractionation. Atmospheric B with {delta}{sup 11}B of 45 per mille represents 25-95% of the river B content. The variety of the thermal spring chemical composition renders the understanding of B behavior in Guadeloupe hydrothermal system quite difficult. Complementary geochemical tracers would be helpful.

  16. Biology of the rodents of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roof rats and Polynesian rats, introduced to the atoll by 20th Century commerce and the Micronesians, respectively, were present allopatrically on the larger islets. Of necessity, they were largely vegetarians. Reproductive cycles were keyed to rainfall patterns. High density populations had high stress indices, including high parasite loads. The rats, at the top of the terrestrial food pyramid, constituted a bioenvironmental monitor that was rarely utilized during the several test programs. Bioconcentration of radioisotopes, especially 137Cs and 60Co, occurred; rats implanted with dosimeters were determined to function as environmental radiation monitors. They hypothesized that roof rats on Enjebi survived the nearby nuclear detonation. Analysis of plasma transferrins indicated greater heterozygosity in the northern atoll rat populations. The incidence of oral palatal ridge deformations also was positively correlated with environmental radiation levels, but other gross indications of radiation effect were not found

  17. Euthanasia in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Wal, G. van der; Dillmann, R. J.

    1994-01-01

    The practice of euthanasia in the Netherlands is often used as an argument in debates outside the Netherlands--hence a clear description of the Dutch situation is important. This article summarises recent data and discusses conceptual issues and relevant characteristics of the system of health care. Special emphasis is put on regulation, including relevant data on notification and prosecution. Besides the practice of euthanasia the Dutch are confronted with the gaps in reporting of cases to t...

  18. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Vieira Paiva; Ronaldo Ruy Oliveira-Filho; Tito Monteiro Da Cruz Lotufo

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov.). One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. ...

  19. Ascidians from Rocas Atoll, northeast Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Paiva, Sandra V.; Oliveira Filho, Ronaldo R. de; Lotufo, Tito M. da Cruz

    2015-01-01

    Rocas Atoll is the only one of its kind in the South Atlantic—and the first Brazilian marine biological reserve. This is the first report about the ascidians from Rocas. A total of 12 species were found, 5 of them not hitherto described: Ascidia viridina sp. nov., Didemnum rochai sp. nov., Leptoclinides crocotulus sp. nov., Polysyncraton maurizeliae sp. nov., and Trididemnum rocasensis sp. nov. One Caribbean species, Didemnum halimedae, was also discovered in the region for the first time. Fu...

  20. Astronomy in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boland, Wilfried; Habing, Harm

    2013-01-01

    We describe the state of astronomical research in the Netherlands per early 2012. We add some notes on its history of this research and on the strategic choices for the future. Compared to the size of the country (16 million people) the Netherlands is maintaining a high profile in astronomical research over a period of more than one century. The professional research community consists of about 650 people. This includes research staff, postdocs, PhD students, technical staff working on instrumentation projects and people involved in the operations of ground-based telescopes and astronomical space missions. We do not take into account staff working for international organizations based in the Netherlands. Astronomical research in the Netherlands is carried out at four university institutes and two national research institutes that fall under the umbrella of the national funding agency NWO. The Netherlands is the host of two international organizations: ESTEC, the technology division of the European Space Agency (ESA), and the Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE). The Netherlands are one of the founding members of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) and of ESA. This paper will address a number of significant multilateral collaborations.

  1. Geochemistry of transuranic elements at Bikini Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the geochemical cycling of radionuclides produced by nuclear testing between 1946 and 1958. The reef areas, which are washed continually by clean ocean water, have low levels of radionuclide concentrations. Radionuclides are contained in fallout particles of pulverized coral. In the water these particles may dissolve, be transported by currents within the Atoll, or enter the North Equatorial Current by tidal exchange of water in the lagoon. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the Atoll, which suggests that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The distribution of plutonium in the water column indicates that plutonium in the sediments is released to the bottom waters and then is transported and diluted by the prevailing currents. Upon interaction with the lagoon environment, plutonium occurs in several physicochemical states. Laboratory tests and field studies at Bikini show that approximately 15% of the plutonium is associated with the colloidal fraction

  2. The archaeology of New World slave societies: A comparative analysis with particular reference to St. Eustatius, Netherlands Antilles.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, R. G.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, a synthetic analysis of historical and archaeological material from slave sites across the Americas is used to identify the cultural role of the slave holder in transforming African-American societies. Using a comparative approach, I have reviewed patterns associated with each European colonial power. It is generally believed that environmental conditions determined much in the way of slave architecture and foodways. However, I will show that ther are specific patterns in slav...

  3. 76 FR 54928 - Export Administration Regulations: Netherlands Antilles, Curaçao, Sint Maarten and Timor-Leste

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-06

    ... Notices, the most recent being that of August 12, 2010, 75 FR 50681 (August 16, 2010) has continued the....S.C. app. 5; 22 U.S.C. 7201 et seq.; 22 U.S.C. 7210; E.O. 13026, 61 FR 58767, 3 CFR, 1996 Comp., p. 228; E.O. 13222, 66 FR 44025, 3 CFR, 2001 Comp., p. 783; Notice of August 12, 2011, 76 FR...

  4. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nagelkerken, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic

  5. Relationship between anthropogenic impacts and bleaching-associated tissue mortality of corals in Curaçao (Netherlands Antilles)

    OpenAIRE

    Nagelkerken, I.

    2007-01-01

    Chronic anthropogenic impacts can have a negative effect on coral health and on coral energy budgets needed for regeneration of lesions. I therefore hypothesise that during massive bleaching events, the degree of corals showing bleaching-related tissue mortality is higher in areas subject to chronic anthropogenic impacts than in relatively pristine areas. In the present study, the degree of bleaching and bleaching-related tissue mortality was estimated for eight abundant coral species in Cura...

  6. The wind energy in Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study take stock on the wind energy situation in Netherlands in terms of installed capacity, in comparison with other developed countries. The study presents also this energy source costs in Netherlands and the financial incentives policy implemented by the Netherlands organizations. The research programs and the enterprises of the sector are then presented. (A.L.B.)

  7. Migration from atolls as climate change adaptation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Thomas Ladegaard Kümmel; Rasmussen, Kjeld

    2014-01-01

    that migration currently improves access to financial and social capital, reduces pressure on natural resources and makes island communities less vulnerable to extreme weather events and other shocks — all factors that contribute positively to adaptive capacity. It also shows that there are major barriers...... in the two atoll communities, Reef Islands and Ontong Java, which are located in the periphery of Solomon Islands. The paper will outline current migration patterns in the two island groups and discuss how some of this migration may contribute to adaptation to climate change and other stresses. It shows...

  8. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin

    OpenAIRE

    Benn Torres, Jada; Vilar, Miguel G.; Torres, Gabriel A.; Gaieski, Jill B.; Bharath Hernandez, Ricardo; Browne, Zoila E.; Stevenson, Marlon; Walters, Wendell; Schurr, Theodore G.; ,

    2015-01-01

    Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people’s contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbe...

  9. Netherlands status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently one nuclear power plant is in operation in the Netherlands (Borssele PWR 480 MW). It is owned by EPZ Joint Venture (2001), 50% shares owned by an electricity distributors and 50% owned by an electricity producer and located in the south- west part of the Netherlands. One nuclear power station (Dodewaard BWR) is in decommissioning phase. Existing training facilities are: ECN (Energie Centrum Nederland) Initial reactor physics; Borssele training centrum (initial employee training, rehearsal training for all employees); GFS/KSG Germany Simulator training. The regulation of the nuclear industry in the Netherlands is the responsibility of the Kernfische dienst (KFD part of the environment and health department of the government). The mandate of the KFD is to regulate the use of nuclear energy in the Netherlands in a manner that prevents unreasonable risk to health, safety, security and environment. Developments in the training area are found in the following areas; Simulator training; Implementation of competencies due to the new organization; Enhanced training on reducing human factors

  10. Out in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saskia Keuzenkamp; David Bos

    2007-01-01

    The Netherlands is generally regarded as a gay-friendly country. It was the first country in the world where partners of the same sex were allowed to marry. Any number of famous Dutch figures openly profess their homosexuality, including one of the ministers in the present  Dutch cabinet. And a

  11. The Netherlands: [national report

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W. Rodenhuis

    2009-01-01

    The article offers updates related to the activities of the Association of Music Libraries, Archives and Documentation (IAML) in 2009 the Netherlands. It notes that the Muziekcentrum Nederland (MCN) for professional music life was opened. It states that Dutch IAML's board has organized a marketing a

  12. Morocco and the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fritschy, W.; Bos, P. (eds.)

    2006-01-01

    This book on aspects of society, economy and culture in Morocco and the Netherlands contains contributions of 28 Moroccan and Dutch authors on religion, family and marriage law, local government and PJD, Abdelkrim, Morocco and the EU, drug trafficking, migration, youth, Dutch-Moroccan writers, and a

  13. Media in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klaver, Franca

    This 2-part report summarizes Dutch policy on mass media and reviews the status of cable television in the Netherlands. The first part defines the underlying principles of a national policy on mass media in relation to the press, commercial and educational television broadcasting, radio, cable television, and media research. Parliamentary debate…

  14. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Wake Atoll, 2005

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 1 or 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 14 sites at Wake Atoll in...

  15. Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge: Comprehensive Conservation Plan

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Comprehensive Conservation Plan (CCP) was written to guide management on Rose Atoll NWR for the next 15 years. This plan outlines the Refuge vision and purpose...

  16. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Managment: Eradicate/Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  17. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  18. Public Use Plan for Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This Public Use Plan has been developed to guide management of public use activities after the Navy and its contractor personnel leave the atoll on June 30, 1997....

  19. Palmyra Atoll Quickbird II Seafloor Mosaic (1.8m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Pamyra Atoll were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of this...

  20. Palmyra Atoll Quickbird II Terrestrial Mosaic (1.8m)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Benthic habitat maps of the nearshore marine environment of Pamyra Atoll were created by visual interpretation of remotely sensed imagery. The objective of this...

  1. Hawaii Abandoned Vessel Inventory, Pearl & Hermes Atoll, NWHI

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Abandoned Vessel Project Data for , Pearl & Hermes, Atoll, NWHI. Abandoned vessels pose a significant threat to the NOAA Trust resources through physical...

  2. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  3. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2013

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  4. Palmyra Atoll - Invasive Plant Management: Eradicate/Control 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Remote atoll ecosystems are havens of biological diversity, but vulnerable to ecological invasion. The prosperity of the plants and animals that inhabit remote...

  5. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Palmyra Atoll 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 8 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  6. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Johnston Atoll 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  7. Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge Station Plan [Draft

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Midway Atoll National Wildlife Refuge (NWR) is currently an overlay refuge managed through cooperative agreement with the U.S. Navy. The refuge is located near the...

  8. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Johnston Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Johnston Atoll in...

  9. Radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll: Prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An international Advisory Group met at IAEA Headquarters in Vienna on 11-15 December 1995 for the purpose of reviewing the current radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and advising on the prospects for rehabilitation of the atoll and resettlement of its indigenous population. The Advisory Group was convened by the IAEA in response to a request for technical assistance from the Government of the Marshall Islands within the framework of IAEA technical co-operation project MHL/9/003, 'Radiological Monitoring in Bikini Atoll'. The primary aim of this review was to assist the Bikinian people to form their own judgement on the radiological conditions at their atoll and on the prospects for resettling there, should they so desire. At the meeting, the Advisory Group benefited greatly from the participation of a delegation from the Marshall Islands. At the request of the Government of the Marshall Islands, the international review was limited to Bikini Atoll and did not extend to other atolls, islands and isles affected by radioactive fallout from the testing. Moreover, within Bikini Atoll, it was concentrated on Bikini Island, where the Bikinian population formerly resided. The review relates to the prevailing radiological circumstances and their implications for the future habitability of the atoll. It is not intended to include the retrospective assessment of the past radiological impact of nuclear testing. The United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR) has routinely estimated, and reported to the United Nations General Assembly, radiation levels and effects attributable to nuclear weapon testing, including the tests carried out in the territory of the Marshall Islands. Some of the UNSCEAR estimates have been included in the report, but only for the sake of completeness

  10. Mousepox in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Osterhaus, Ab; Teppema, J.S.; Wirahadiredja, R.M.S.; Steenis, Bert

    1981-01-01

    textabstractTwo independent outbreaks of ectromelia in mice occurred in The Netherlands. In both cases, the causative virus was isolated and identified as ectromelia virus on the basis of serology, demonstration of antigen by indirect immunofluorescence, negative contrast electron microscopy, morphology of lesions on chorioallantoic membranes of embryonated chicken eggs, and cytopathogenicity for mouse cells. Inoculation of the virus into the dermis of rabbits demonstrated a low virulence for...

  11. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk

  12. Monitor Sustainable Netherlands 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monitor provides an image of the sustainability of the Dutch society. It shows which areas are successful and what the 'concerns for tomorrow' are from the point of view of sustainability. An analysis is conducted of how the Netherlands are doing in the fields of climate change, biodiversity, health, knowledge, graying and social cohesion. These and many other topics are discussed in this monitor by means of a number of sustainability indicators and detail analyses [mk].

  13. Netherlands; Selected Issues

    OpenAIRE

    International Monetary Fund

    1997-01-01

    This Selected Issues paper examines Netherlands’ experience with macroeconomic and structural reforms. The reforms, which were introduced gradually and in a consultative manner, were comprehensive in their coverage. They included a credible monetary policy, based on a tight link to the deutsche mark; expenditure-based fiscal consolidation, which allowed reduction of the tax burden as well as the fiscal deficit; and measures to stimulate both the supply and the demand side of the labor marke...

  14. Mechatronics in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Amerongen, van, W.E.; Jongkind, Wim

    1996-01-01

    This article assesses the present situation of mechatronics in the Netherlands. After a short historical survey, it describes the postgraduate ¿mechatronic designer course¿, introduced in 1991. It deals with the principles of this course and how these principles have been implemented. Also, the activities of the Dutch government in cooperation with the industrial mechatronics community to enhance the awareness of mechatronics, especially directed toward small and medium-sized enterprises (SME...

  15. The Netherlands: country profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-12-01

    This discussion of the Netherlands covers the country's cities and regions, population growth, households and families, housing, contruction, and spatial planning; ethnicity and religion; education; labor force and income; consumption; and transport and communications. As a small and mineral poor nation with a seafaring tradition, the Netherlands survives on foreign trade. In 1983, total export earnings amounted to nearly 62% of the entire national income. Over 72% of Dutch exports go to other member countries of the European Economic Community (EEC), but imports are more diversified, with 47% originating outside the EEC. Since 1848, the Netherlands has been a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary form of government. As such, it is one of the most stable democracies in the world. The main administrative units are the 11 provinces, of which Noord-Holland and Zuid-Holland are the most populous and economically most important. Amsterdam remains the commercial center of the country, but its role as the principal port city has been taken over by Rotterdam. No community has more than 700,000 inhabitants, but the country as a whole is highly urbanized because of the large numbers of medium-sized cities. In 1983 the population of the Netherlands totaled 14.34 million, compared to 5.10 million at the turn of the century. In 1965, the total fertility rate was 3.0. The death rate has virtually stabilized at 8/1000. The Dutch life expectancy stands at 72.7 years for men and 79.4 for women (1983). Natural increase has already dropped to 0.4% a year. Apart from the slight impact of net immigration, the positive growth rate reflects the large proportion (53%) of the population in its reproductive years. Mean household sizes in the 11 provinces vary from 2.5 in Noord-Holland (in 1981) to nearly 3 in Overijssel and Noord-Brabant, whereas the proportion of 1 person households ranges from 16% in Drenthe and 17% in the somewhat traditionalist southern provinces of Limburg and

  16. Isotopic signature of plutonium at Bikini atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atom ratios of the isotopes 239Pu, 240Pu, 241Pu and 244Pu were determined in sediments and soils from Bikini atoll using low energy Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. All samples had been contaminated by local fallout from nuclear weapon testing between 1946 and 1958 and show significant variations in the isotopic composition, which are ascribed to the different yields of single tests and to the mixture of material from various devices. Differences in the 244Pu/239Pu ratio (2.8-5.7x10-4) are more pronounced than in the 240Pu/239Pu ratio of the same samples and provide complementary information to distinguish the sources of contamination.

  17. Examination of Algal Diversity and Benthic Community Structure at Palmyra Atoll, U.S. Line Islands

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Palmyra Atoll National Wildlife Refuge is the second largest atoll under U.S. jurisdiction in the Pacific Ocean. Until recently, little was known about benthic...

  18. Heat flow in the Lesser Antilles island arc and adjacent back arc Grenada basin

    OpenAIRE

    Manga, Michael; Hornbach, Matthew J.; Friant, Anne Le; Ishizuka, Osamu; Stroncik, Nicole; Adachi, Tatsuya; Aljahdali, Mohammed; Boudon, Georges; Breitkreuz, Christoph; Fraass, Andrew; Fujinawa, Akihiko; Hatfield, Robert; Jutzeler, Martin; Kataoka, Kyoko; Lafuerza, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Using temperature gradients measured in 10 holes at 6 sites, we generate the first high fidelity heat flow measurements from Integrated Ocean Drilling Program drill holes across the northern and central Lesser Antilles arc and back arc Grenada basin. The implied heat flow, after correcting for bathymetry and sedimentation effects, ranges from about 0.1 W/m2 on the crest of the arc, midway between the volcanic islands of Montserrat and Guadeloupe, to 15 km from the crest in the back arc direct...

  19. Beetle species diversity in the Lesser Antilles islands: How many species are really there?

    OpenAIRE

    Peck, Stewart B.

    2009-01-01

    Recent extensive and intensive field work by the team of M. A. Ivie on the Lesser Antillean island of Montserrat suggests that a mean of 827 beetle species may be expected on that island. This datum makes possible the generation of hypotheses of the probable beetle species diversity on other islands of the Lesser Antilles as a function of the areas of the islands. Figures are given for the presently known, estimated total, and estimated number of unknown species for each principal island. Thi...

  20. Hygrophoraceae (Agaricales) of the Greater Antilles: Hygrocybe subgenus Pseudohygrocybe sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantrell, Sharon A; Lodge, D Jean

    2004-11-01

    A key to 17 species in the genus Hygrocybe, subgenus Pseudohygrocybe, sections Coccineae and Neohygrocybe sensu Boertmann is provided for the Greater Antilles. Five new species and five taxa that are new reports for the region are described. The new species in section Coccineae are H. pseudoadonis, H. viridiphylla, and H. zonata. The new species in section Neohygrocybe are H. albomarginata and H. ovinoides. The new reports are H. caespitosa, H. coccinea, H. cf. miniata, H. papillata, and H. subovina. Three new combinations are proposed: Hygrocybe mycenoides, H. papillata and H. subovina. PMID:15587063

  1. Netherlands Interuniversity Reactor Institut

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the annual report of the Interuniversity Reactor Institute in the Netherlands for the Academic Year 1977-78. Activities of the general committee, the daily committee and the scientific advice board are presented. Detailed reports of the scientific studies performed are given under five subjects - radiation physics, reactor physics, radiation chemistry, radiochemistry and radiation hygiene and dosimetry. Summarised reports of the various industrial groups are also presented. Training and education, publications and reports, courses, visits and cooperation with other institutes in the area of scientific research are mentioned. (C.F.)

  2. Biomass gasification in the Netherlands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van der Drift, A. [ECN Biomass and Energy Efficiency, Petten (Netherlands)

    2013-07-15

    This reports summarizes the activities, industries, and plants on biomass gasification in the Netherlands. Most of the initiatives somehow relate to waste streams, rather than clean biomass, which may seem logic for a densely populated country as the Netherlands. Furthermore, there is an increasing interest for the production of SNG (Substitute Natural Gas) from biomass, both from governments and industry.

  3. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arne E. Olsen

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state freshwater lens thickness of small oceanic islands. None fully incorporates unique shallow geologic characteristics of atoll islands, and none incorporates time-dependent processes. In this paper, we provide a review of these models, and then present a simple algebraic model, derived from results of a comprehensive numerical modeling study of steady-state atoll island aquifer dynamics, to predict the ground water response to changes in recharge on atoll islands. The model provides an estimate thickness of the freshwater lens as a function of annual rainfall rate, island width, Thurber Discontinuity depth, upper aquifer hydraulic conductivity, presence or absence of a confining reef flat plate, and in the case of drought, time. Results compare favorably with published atoll island lens thickness observations. The algebraic model is incorporated into a spreadsheet interface for use by island water resources managers.

  4. Sero-epidemiological survey on bovine tick-borne diseases in the Lesser Antilles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of a tick-borne disease control programme in the Lesser Antilles, studies were undertaken to determine the prevalence of cowdriosis, babesiosis and anaplasmosis in an effort to determine what the impact of tick eradication would be. The epidemiological situation for bovine babesiosis and anaplasmosis is unstable in all the islands of the Lesser Antilles, but the clinical cases are only recorded in imported breeds, which represent less than 5% of the cattle population. The native cattle population react as if naturally resistant. When the A. variegatum tick eradication campaign begins, it will be necessary, by the end of the acaricide treatment regime, to immunize all the imported cattle born during that period, and possibly all of the seronegative imported cattle already on the islands. Both Antigua and Guadeloupe have a long history of infestation with the tick and both have experienced clinical cases of cowdriosis. On the other islands, less than 6% of the sera were positive and this correlates well also with an apparent absence of clinical cases of cowdriosis. (author)

  5. Significant technical advances in broadband seismic stations in the Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anglade, A.; Lemarchand, A.; Saurel, J.-M.; Clouard, V.; Bouin, M.-P.; De Chabalier, J.-B.; Tait, S.; Brunet, C.; Nercessian, A.; Beauducel, F.; Robertson, R.; Lynch, L.; Higgins, M.; Latchman, J.

    2015-04-01

    In the last few years, French West Indies observatories from the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris (IPGP), in collaboration with The UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC, University of West Indies), have modernized the Lesser Antilles Arc seismic and deformation monitoring network. 15 new, permanent stations have been installed that strengthen and expand its detection capabilities. The global network of the IPGP-SRC consortium is now composed of 20 modernized stations, all equipped with broadband seismometers, strong motion sensors, Global Positioning System (GPS) sensors and satellite communication for real-time data transfer. To enhance the sensitivity and reduce ambient noise, special efforts were made to improve the design of the seismic vault and the original Stuttgart shielding of the broadband seismometers (240 and 120s corner period). Tests were conducted for several months, involving different types of countermeasures, to achieve the highest performance level of the seismometers. GPS data, realtime and validated seismic data (only broadband) are now available from the IPGP data centre (http://centrededonnees.ipgp.fr/index.php?&lang=EN). This upgraded network feeds the Caribbean Tsunami Warning System supported by UNESCO and establishes a monitoring tool that produces high quality data for studying subduction and volcanic processes in the Lesser Antilles arc.

  6. Individual Radiation Protection Monitoring in the Marshall Islands. Utrok Atoll (2010-2012)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, T. F. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Kehl, S. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Martinelli, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, R. E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Hickman, D. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tumey, S. J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Brown, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Langston, R. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tamblin, M. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Tibon, S. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Chee, L. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Aisek, Jr., A. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); DeDrum, Z. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Mettao, M. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands); Henson, J. [Utrok Whole Body Counting Facility, Majuro Atoll (Republic of the Marshall Islands)

    2014-12-15

    As a hard copy supplement to the Marshall Islands Program website (https://marshallislands.llnl.gov), this document provides an overview of the individual radiological surveillance monitoring program established in support of residents of Utrōk Atoll and nonresident citizens of the Utrōk Atoll population group, along with full disclosure of verified measurement data (2010-2012). The Utrōk Atoll Whole Body Counting Facility has been temporarily stationed on Majuro Atoll and, in cooperation with the Utrōk Atoll Local Government, serves as a national radiological facility open to the general public.

  7. Review at Bikini Atoll. Assessing radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll and the prospects for resettlement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some testing during the development of the atomic bomb was done in countries that do not have the infrastructure and expertise for evaluating any associated radiation risks. In such cases, outside expertise is needed to obtain independent advice about the radiological situation caused by residual radioactive material from nuclear testing. The IAEA has been requested by the governments of a number of its Member States to provide assistance in this context. Among the former nuclear test sites which the IAEA has reviewed is the Bikini Atoll of the Marshall Islands. Based on its review, the IAEA Advisory Group determined that no further corroboration of the measurements and assessments of the radiological conditions at Bikini Atoll is necessary. The data that have been collected are of sufficient quality to allow an appropriate evaluation to be performed. The limited IAEA monitoring of the area provided a good quality assurance verification of the previously collected data. It was recommended that Bikini Island should not be permanently resettled under the present radiological conditions. This recommendation was based on the assumption that persons resettling on the island would consume a diet of entirely locally produced food. The radiological data support that if a diet of this type were permitted, it could lead to an annual effective dose of about 15 mSv. This level was judged to require intervention of some type for radiation protection purposes

  8. Road fatalities in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    This fact sheet outlines the development of the number of road fatalities in the Netherlands since 1950. After a rise in the 1950s and 1960s, the number of road deaths in the Netherlands has shown a gradual decline since 1973. As was the case in 2013, the Netherlands counted 570 road fatalities in 2014. Nearly a third of the fatalities are car occupants (187), another near third are cyclists (185). Measured by the population size, relatively many fatalities occur among young people and young ...

  9. A Proposed Community Network For Monitoring Volcanic Emissions In Saint Lucia, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, E. P.; Beckles, D. M.; Robertson, R. E.; Latchman, J. L.; Edwards, S.

    2013-12-01

    Systematic geochemical monitoring of volcanic systems in the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles was initiated by the UWI Seismic Research Centre (SRC) in 2000, as part of its volcanic surveillance programme for the English-speaking islands of the Lesser Antilles. This programme provided the first time-series observations used for the purpose of volcano monitoring in Dominica and Saint Lucia, permitted the characterization of the geothermal fluids associated with them, and established baseline studies for understanding of the hydrothermal systems during periods of quiescence (Joseph et al., 2011; Joseph et al., 2013). As part of efforts to improve and expand the capacity of SRC to provide volcanic surveillance through its geothermal monitoring programme, it is necessary to develop economically sustainable options for the monitoring of volcanic emissions/pollutants. Towards this effort we intend to work in collaboration with local authorities in Saint Lucia, to develop a monitoring network for quantifying the background exposure levels of ambient concentrations of volcanic pollutants, SO2 in air and As in waters (as health significant marker elements in the geothermal emissions) that would serve as a model for the emissions monitoring network for other volcanic islands. This programme would facilitate the building of local capacity and training to monitor the hazardous exposure, through the application and transfer of a regionally available low-cost and low-technology SO2 measurement/detection system in Saint Lucia. Existing monitoring technologies to inform evidence based health practices are too costly for small island Caribbean states, and no government policies or health services measures currently exist to address/mitigate these influences. Gases, aerosols and toxic elements from eruptive and non-eruptive volcanic activity are known to adversely affect human health and the environment (Baxter, 2000; Zhang et al., 2008). Investigations into the

  10. The historic reality of the cyclonic variability in French Antilles, 1635–2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Garnier

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Facing climate change and increasing costs of natural disasters, the exposure evolution analysis requires having a long-term knowledge of the impacts of extreme events. By associating historical and modeling approaches, we aim to build a long term chronology of natural disaster severity and damages. To highlight this new methodology, the overseas departments of French Antilles have been chosen. These territories are strongly exposed to natural disasters, particularly hurricanes. The search with historical archives made it possible to reconstruct, for the first time, the chronology and severity of hurricanes since the 17th century. During the 20th century, a significative increase in the number of cyclones has occurred after the 1950s. The analysis of a longer historical period (since the 1630s allows us to temperate this idea by showing intensive cyclonic period in the past centuries.

  11. Surge ammonium uptake in macroalgae from a coral atoll

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Raikar, V.; Wafar, M.V.M.

    (Phaeophyta)) from Kavaratti atoll (Lakshadweep, India). Addition of ammonium (up to 20 mmol L-1) led to pronounced uptake within 4–6 min, with the amount of ammonium taken up during surge phase (<4 min) accounting for from about half to 10 times that taken up...

  12. Status and conservation of parrots and parakeets in the Greater Antilles, Bahama Islands, and Cayman Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, J.W.

    1991-01-01

    In the 1490s a minimum of 28 species of psittacines occurred in the West Indies. Today, only 43% (12) of the species survive. All macaws and most parakeet species have been lost. Although the surviving parrot fauna of the Greater Antilles, Cayman Islands, and Bahama Islands has fared somewhat better than that of the Lesser Antilles, every species has undergone extensive reductions of populations and all but two have undergone extensive reductions in range, mostly as a result of habitat loss, but also from persecution as agricultural pests, conflicts with exotic species, harvesting for pets, and natural disasters. The Cayman Brac Parrot Amazona leucocephala hesterna with its tiny population (less than 150 individuals in the wild) and range, and the Puerto Rican Parrot A. vittata, with about 22-23 birds in the wild and 56 individuals in captivity, must be considered on the verge of extinction and in need of (in the latter's case, continuing) aggressive programmes of research and management. Other populations declining in numbers and range include the Yellow-billed Amazona collaria, and Black-billed A. agilis Parrots of Jamaica, Hispaniolan Parakeet Aratinga chloroptera, Hispaniolan Parrot Amazona ventralis, Cuban Parrot A. leucocephala leucocephala and, most seriously, Cuban Parakeet Aratinga euops. The population of the Grand Cayman Parrot (Amazona leucocephala caymanensis), although numbering only about 1,000 birds, appears stable and the current conservation programme gives hope for the survival of the race. An active conservation and public education programme has begun for the Bahama Parrot A. l. bahamensis, which still occurs in good numbers on Great Inagua Island, but is threatened on Abaco Island. Recommendations for conservation of parrots and parakeets in the region include (1) instituting long-term programmes of research to determine distribution, status, and ecology of each species; (2) developing conservation programmes through education and management

  13. Gender differences in health and health care utilisation in various ethnic groups in the Netherlands: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devillé Walter L

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To determine gender differences in health and health care utilisation within and between various ethnic groups in the Netherlands. Methods Data from the second Dutch National Survey of General Practice (2000–2002 were used. A total of 7,789 persons from the indigenous population and 1,512 persons from the four largest migrant groups in the Netherlands – Morocco, Netherlands Antilles, Turkey and Surinam – aged 18 years and older were interviewed. Self-reported health outcomes studied were general health status and the presence of acute (past 14 days and chronic conditions (past 12 months. And self-reported utilisation of the following health care services was analysed: having contacted a general practitioner (past 2 months, a medical specialist, physiotherapist or ambulatory mental health service (past 12 months, hospitalisation (past 12 months and use of medication (past 14 days. Gender differences in these outcomes were examined within and between the ethnic groups, using logistic regression analyses. Results In general, women showed poorer health than men; the largest differences were found for the Turkish respondents, followed by Moroccans, and Surinamese. Furthermore, women from Morocco and the Netherlands Antilles more often contacted a general practitioner than men from these countries. Women from Turkey were more hospitalised than Turkish men. Women from Morocco more often contacted ambulatory mental health care than men from this country, and women with an indigenous background more often used over the counter medication than men with an indigenous background. Conclusion In general the self-reported health of women is worse compared to that of men, although the size of the gender differences may vary according to the particular health outcome and among the ethnic groups. This information might be helpful to develop policy to improve the health status of specific groups according to gender and ethnicity. In

  14. ADS National Programmes: Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ADS related activities within the Netherlands are concentrated at NRG. From 2000 to 2006, NRG supported SCK•CEN in their development of MYRRHA. The support was mainly devoted to Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations for the windowless target option. This collaboration was prolonged within the framework of the EU FP6 EUROTRANS project. Eventually this lead to a solution strategy for the hydraulic (without heat transfer) evaluation of a windowless target with one free surface using an Eulerian-Eulerian modeling approach. As a second free surface was added to the target design later, this approach would need to be revisited. The developed approach was applied to an assess the feasibility of a three feeder windowless target design. This preliminary assessment confirmed that there were no serious show stoppers for a three feeder design. Another study undertaken using related to the windowless target was a preliminary assessment of the risk of lead-bismuth splashing in case of a sudden heat deposition by the beam, e.g. at beam startup or beam interuptions. Within the framework of the EU FP7 CDT project, a window target is currently being assessed thermalhydraulicly in collaboration with SCK•CEN. Within the EU FP5 ASCHLIM project, the state of the art with regard to turbulence modelling for CFD approaches was determined. It was concluded that accurate simulation of heat transport in HLM was not feasible, especially in natural or mixed convection regimes. Within the EU FP7 THINS project this issue is currently being treated. NRG assists the commercial CFD code vendor CD adapco in implementing and testing a promising, academically tested, algebraic heat flux model

  15. Crustal structure of Guadeloupe Islands and the Lesser Antilles Arc from a new gravity and magnetic synthesis

    OpenAIRE

    Gailler, Lydie; Bouchot, Vincent; Martelet, Guillaume; Thinon, Isabelle; Lebrun, Jean-Frédéric; Münch, Philippe

    2012-01-01

    Guadeloupe Island (West French Indies) is one of the twenty islands that compose the Lesser Antilles Arc, which results from the subduction of the Atlantic Ocean plate beneath the Caribbean one. The island lies in a complex volcano-tectonic system and the need to understand its geological context has led to numerous on- and offshore geophysical investigations. This work presents the compilation and processing of available, on-land, airborne and marine, gravity and magnetic data acquired durin...

  16. External radiation survey and dose predictions for Rongelap, Utirik, Rongerik, Ailuk, and Wotje Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    External radiation measurements were made at several atolls in the northern Marshall Islands, which are known or suspected to have been the recipients of tropospheric fallout during the Pacific Testing Programs. Sufficient data were available to ascertain realistic dose predictions for the inhabitants of Rongelap and Utirik Atolls where the 30 year integral doses from external sources exclusive of background radiation were 0.65 and 0.06 rem respectively. These estimates are based on realistic life-style models based on observations of each atoll community. Ailuk and Wotje Atolls were found to be represenatives of regional background radiation levels

  17. Gall's visit to The Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eling, Paul; Draaisma, Douwe; Conradi, Matthijs

    2011-04-01

    In March 1805, Franz Joseph Gall left Vienna to start what has become known as his cranioscopic tour. He traveled through Germany, Denmark, and The Netherlands. In this article, we will describe his visit to The Netherlands in greater detail, as it has not yet received due attention. Gall was eager to go to Amsterdam because he was interested in the large collection of skulls of Petrus Camper. Gall presented a series of lectures, reports of which can be found in a local newspaper and in a few books, published at that time. We will summarize this material. We will first outline developments in the area of physiognomy, in particular in The Netherlands, and what the Dutch knew about Gall's doctrine prior to his arrival. We will then present a reconstruction of the contents of the lectures. Finally, we will discuss the reception of his ideas in the scientific community. PMID:21480037

  18. Netherlands looses leading role for solar electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An overview is given of the market for solar energy in the Netherlands. Budgets for research and development and marketing of solar energy in the Netherlands are declining, while budgets in other countries increase

  19. Wind energy in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wind energy is a 'winning reality' in the Netherlands. This is apparent from the results by researchers, industry and the market. During recent years the market has acquired confidence in wind energy. At the start of 1987 there was about 15 MW of installed wind power in the Netherlands. Halfway through 1990 this has almost quadrupled, with 45 MW in operation and 35 MW under construction. The power companies have specific capital expenditure plans for further growth to approximately 400 MW by 1995. This investment scheme will consist of existing turbines (< 600 kW). (Author)

  20. ADS activities in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of long-lived nuclear waste was under consideration in the Netherlands during a number of years. Within this framework different reactor concepts have been considered. One of the most promising concepts appears to be the Accelerator Driven System (ADS) or Fast Energy Amplifier (FEA), as it has been proposed by C. Rubbia of CERN. To unite the effort on accelerator driven reactor concepts in the Netherlands, KEMA, NIKHEF, ECN, KVI, and IRI have joined their forces in a co-operative program since 1996. Cupertino covers the technical fields of nuclear data, reactor physics, and innovative fuels. (author)

  1. Halogen content in Lesser Antilles arc volcanic rocks : exploring subduction recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thierry, Pauline; Villemant, Benoit; Caron, Benoit

    2016-04-01

    Halogens (F, Cl, Br and I) are strongly reactive volatile elements which can be used as tracers of igneous processes, through mantle melting, magma differentiation and degassing or crustal material recycling into mantle at subduction zones. Cl, Br and I are higly incompatible during partial melting or fractional cristallization and strongly depleted in melts by H2O degassing, which means that no Cl-Br-I fractionation is expected through magmatic differenciation [current thesis]. Thus, Cl/Br/I ratios in lavas reflect the halogen content of their mantle sources. Whereas these ratios seemed quite constant (e.g. Cl/Br =300 as seawater), recent works suggest significant variations in arc volcanism [1,2]. In this work we provide high-precision halogen measurements in volcanic rocks from the recent activity of the Lesser Antilles arc (Montserrat, Martinique, Guadeloupe, Dominique). Halogen contents of powdered samples were determined through extraction in solution by pyrohydrolysis and analysed by Ion Chromatography for F and Cl and high performance ICP-MS (Agilent 8800 Tripe Quad) for Cl, Br and I [3,4]. We show that lavas - and mantle sources - display significant vraiations in Cl/Br/I ratios along the Lesser Antilles arc. These variations are compared with Pb, Nd and Sr isotopes and fluid-mobile elements (Ba, U, Sr, Pb etc.) compositions which vary along the arc from a nothern ordinary arc compositions to a southern 'crustal-like' composition [5,6]. These characteristics are attributed to subducted sediments recycling into the mantle wedge, whose contribution vary along the arc from north to south [7,8]. The proportion of added sediments is also related to the distance to the trench as sediment melting and slab dehydration may occur depending on the slab depth [9]. Further Cl-Br-I in situ measurements by LA-ICP-MS in Lesser Antilles arc lavas melt inclusions will be performed, in order to provide better constraints on the deep halogen recycling cycle from crust to

  2. Active faulting induced by the slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leclerc, Frédérique; Feuillet, Nathalie

    2010-05-01

    AGUADOMAR marine cruise data acquired 11 years ago allowed us to identified and map two main sets of active faults within the Lesser Antilles arc (Feuillet et al., 2002; 2004). The faults belonging to the first set, such as Morne-Piton in Guadeloupe, bound up to 100km-long and 50km-wide arc-perpendicular graben or half graben that disrupt the fore-arc reef platforms. The faults of the second set form right-stepping en echelon arrays, accommodating left-lateral slip along the inner, volcanic islands. The two fault systems form a sinistral horsetail east of the tip of the left-lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench-parallel component of convergence between the North-American and Caribbean plates west of the Anegada passage. In other words, they together accommodate large-scale slip partitioning along the northeastern arc, consistent with recent GPS measurements (Lopez et al., 2006). These intraplate faults are responsible for a part of the shallow seismicity in the arc and have produce damaging historical earthquakes. Two magnitude 6.3 events occurred in the last 25 years along the inner en echelon faults, the last one on November 21 2004 in Les Saintes in the Guadeloupe archipelago. To better constrain the seismic hazard related to the inner arc faults and image the ruptures and effects on the seafloor of Les Saintes 2004 earthquake, we acquired new marine data between 23 February and 25 March 2009 aboard the French R/V le Suroît during the GWADASEIS cruise. We present here the data (high-resolution 72 channel and very high-resolution chirp 3.5 khz seismic reflection profiles, EM300 multibeam bathymetry, Küllenberg coring and SAR imagery) and the first results. We identified, mapped and characterized in detail several normal to oblique fault systems between Martinique and Saba. They offset the seafloor by several hundred meters and crosscut all active volcanoes, among them Nevis Peak, Soufriere Hills, Soufriere de Guadeloupe and Montagne Pel

  3. Long-distance multistep sediment transfer at convergent plate margins (Barbados, Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limonta, Mara; Garzanti, Eduardo; Resentini, Alberto; Andò, Sergio; Boni, Maria; Bechstädt, Thilo

    2015-04-01

    We present a regional provenance study of the compositional variability and long distance multicyclic transport of terrigenous sediments along the convergent and transform plate boundaries of Central America, from the northern termination of the Andes to the Lesser Antilles arc-trench system. We focus on high-resolution bulk-petrography and heavy-mineral analyses of modern beach and fluvial sediments and Cenozoic sandstones of Barbados island, one of the places in the world where an active accretionary prism is subaerially exposed (Speed et al., 2012). The main source of siliciclastic sediment in the Barbados accretionary prism is off-scraped quartzose to feldspatho-litho-quartzose metasedimentaclastic turbidites, ultimately supplied from South America chiefly via the Orinoco fluvio-deltaic system. Modern sand on Barbados island is either quartzose with depleted heavy-mineral suites recycled from Cenozoic turbidites and including epidote, zircon, tourmaline, andalusite, garnet, staurolite and chloritoid, or calcareous and derived from Pleistocene coral reefs. The ubiquitous occurrence of clinopyroxene and hypersthene, associated with green-brown kaersutitic hornblende in the north or olivine in the south, points to reworking of ash-fall tephra erupted from andesitic (St. Lucia) and basaltic (St. Vincent) volcanic centers in the Lesser Antilles arc transported by the prevailing anti-trade winds in the upper troposphere. Modern sediments on Barbados island and those shed by other accretionary prisms such as the Indo- Burman Ranges and Andaman-Nicobar Ridge (Garzanti et al., 2013) define the distinctive mineralogical signature of Subduction Complex Provenance, which is invariably composite. Detritus recycled dominantly from accreted turbidites and oceanic mudrocks is mixed in various proportions with detritus from the adjacent volcanic arc or carbonate reefs widely developed at tropical latitudes. Ophiolitic detritus may be locally prominent. Quantitative provenance

  4. How wide is the seismogenic zone of the Lesser Antilles forearc?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutscher, M.; Westbrook, G. K.; Marcaillou, B.; Graindorge, D.; Gailler, A.; Pichot, T.; Maury, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles subduction zone has produced no recent strong thrust earthquakes, making it difficult to quantify the seismic hazard from such events. Numerical models of forearc thermal structure were constructed along six transects perpendicular to the arc in order to determine the thermally predicted width of the seismogenic zone. The geometry of each section is constrained by published seismic profiles and by earthquake hypocenters at depth. The dip of the deep slab ranges from 53° in the north to 45° in the south. The age of the subducting oceanic lithosphere is 80 Ma and the subduction velocity 2 cm/yr. The temperature beneath the volcanic arc (1100-1200°C) as well as observed surface heat flow provide some constraints on the modeled thermal structure. Modeling results indicate a systematic southward increase in the width of the seismogenic zone, more than doubling in width from north to south and corresponding to a dramatic southward increase in forearc width (trench - arc distance). The minimum width (as defined by the 150°C and 350°C isotherms) increases from about 80 km north of 16°N to 230 km at 13°N, respectively. The maximum width (as defined by the 100°C and 450°C isotherms) ranges from 150-160 km in the north to up to 320 km in the south. There is good agreement between the thermally predicted seismogenic limits and the sparse distribution of recorded thrust earthquakes, which are observed only in the northern portion of the arc. Possible scenarios for mega-thrust earthquakes are discussed. Depending on the segment length (along-strike) of the rupture plane, an event of magnitude 8-9 cannot be excluded. (left) seismicity map of the Lesser Antilles with focal mechanisms of shallow dipping thrust type earthquakes shown and the possible rupture zones of the 1839 and 1844 earthquakes (intensities X) the position of the cross section at right is indicated; (right) modeled thermal structure for a transect through Guadeloupe, with earthquake

  5. New Perspective of Tsunami Deposit Investigations: Insight from the 1755 Lisbon Tsunami in Martinique, Lesser Antilles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, J.; Clouard, V.; Moizan, E.

    2014-12-01

    The recent devastating tsunamis having occurred during the last decades have highlighted the essential necessity to deploy operationnal warning systems and educate coastal populations. This could not be prepared correctly without a minimum knowledge about the tsunami history. That is the case of the Lesser Antilles islands, where a few handfuls of tsunamis have been reported over the past 5 centuries, some of them leading to notable destructions and inundations. But the lack of accurate details for most of the historical tsunamis and the limited period during which we could find written information represents an important problem for tsunami hazard assessment in this region. Thus, it is of major necessity to try to find other evidences of past tsunamis by looking for sedimentary deposits. Unfortunately, island tropical environments do not seem to be the best places to keep such deposits burried. In fact, heavy rainfalls, storms, and all other phenomena leading to coastal erosion, and associated to human activities such as intensive sugarcane cultivation in coastal flat lands, could caused the loss of potential tsunami deposits. Lots of places have been accurately investigated within the Lesser Antilles (from Sainte-Lucia to the British Virgin Islands) the last 3 years and nothing convincing has been found. That is when archeaological investigations excavated a 8-cm thick sandy and shelly layer in downtown Fort-de-France (Martinique), wedged between two well-identified layers of human origin (Fig. 1), that we found new hope: this sandy layer has been quickly attributed without any doubt to the 1755 tsunami, using on one hand the information provided by historical reports of the construction sites, and on the other hand by numerical modeling of the tsunami (wave heights, velocity fields, etc.) showing the ability of this transoceanic tsunami to wrap around the island after ~7 hours of propagation, enter Fort-de-France's Bay with enough energy to carry sediments, and

  6. Slip partitioning in the Lesser Antilles arc: implications for seismic and volcanic hazards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feuillet, N.; Leclerc, F.; Deplus, C.; Tapponnier, P.; Beauducel, F.; Jacques, E.; Beck, C.; Le Friant, A.; Boudon, G.; LeBrun, J.; Bazin, S.

    2012-12-01

    The Lesser Antilles arc is a region of high seismic and volcanic hazards exposed to large megathrust earthquakes along the subduction zone, to more local events within the arc and to destructive eruptions as in 1902 at Mount Pelee or in 1995 at Soufriere Hills of Montserrat. On November 21, 2004, the Guadeloupe archipelago was struck by a magnitude 6.3 superficial and very damaging earthquake. To better constrain the mechanisms of the recent deformation within the arc and its link with volcanic activity, several marine cruises were conducted since 1998 (AGUADOMAR, GWADASEIS and BATHYSAINTES). A lot of high-resolution data were acquired: Bathymetry, back-scatter images, Küllenberg cores, seismic reflection and chirp profiles. By combining them with onshore data, observations and measurements in the field, we have documented at several scales the active faulting between St Lucia and Saba, the northernmost emerged volcano of the arc. We have shown that the Lesser Antilles arc is crosscut by two main fault sets: arc perpendicular graben in the outer arc and a large en echelon system along the inner active arc. Volcanic complexes are crosscut by or emplaced within fault systems implying that faulting controls the emission of volcanic products. The Nevis volcano is growing on the hanging-wall of a large NE-dipping offshore normal fault probably responsible for the M6+ 1961 earthquake. Montserrat volcanic domes are aligned along a fissure set, parallel to large normal faults and Soufriere of Guadeloupe lies at the western tip of the Marie-Galante graben. At plate scale, the arc perpendicular fore arc graben and inner arc en echelon system are connected, forming a sinistral horsetail, east of the tip of the left lateral Puerto Rico fault zone that takes up the trench parallel component of convergence between the North American and Caribbean plates, west of the Anegada passage. Considering the newly published Caribbean North American Euler vector, the trench parallel

  7. Causes of mortality of albatross chicks at Midway Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sileo, L.; Sievert, P.R.; Samuel, M.D.

    1990-01-01

    As part of an investigation of the effect of plastic ingestion on seabirds in Hawaii, we necropsied the carcasses of 137 Laysan albatross (Diomedea immutabilis) chicks from Midway Atoll in the Pacific Ocean during the summer of 1987. Selected tissues were collected for microbiological, parasitological, toxicological or histopathological examinations. Dehydration was the most common cause of death. Lead poisoning, trauma, emaciation (starvation) and trombidiosis were other causes of death; nonfatal nocardiosis and avian pox also were present. There was no evidence that ingested plastic caused mechanical lesions or mortality in 1987, but most of the chicks had considerably less plastic in them than chicks from earlier years. Human activity (lead poisoning and vehicular trauma) caused mortality at Midway Atoll and represented additive mortality for pre-fledgling albatrosses.

  8. Primary productivity and its correlation with rainfall on Aldabra Atoll

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekeine, J.; Turnbull, L. A.; Cherubini, P.; de Jong, R.; Baxter, R.; Hansen, D.; Bunbury, N.; Fleischer-Dogley, F.; Schaepman-Strub, G.

    2015-01-01

    Aldabra Atoll, a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 1982, hosts the world's largest population of giant tortoises. In view of recent rainfall declines in the East African region, it is important to assess the implications of local rainfall trends on the atoll's ecosystem and evaluate potential threats to the food resources of the giant tortoises. However, building an accurate picture of the effects of climate change requires detailed context-specific case-studies, an approach often hindered by data deficiencies in remote areas. Here, we present and analyse a new historical rainfall record of Aldabra atoll together with two potential measures of primary productivity: (1) tree-ring measurements of the deciduous tree species Ochna ciliata and, (2) satellite-derived NDVI (normalized difference vegetation index) data for the period 2001-2012. Rainfall declined by about 6 mm yr-1 in the last four decades, in agreement with general regional declines, and this decline could mostly be attributed to changes in wet-season rainfall. We were unable to cross-date samples of O. ciliata with sufficient precision to deduce long-term patterns of productivity. However, satellite data were used to derive Aldabra's land surface phenology (LSP) for the period 2001-2012 which was then linked to rainfall seasonality. This relationship was strongest in the eastern parts of the atoll (with a time-lag of about six weeks between rainfall changes and LSP responses), an area dominated by deciduous grasses that supports high densities of tortoises. While the seasonality in productivity, as reflected in the satellite record, is correlated with rainfall, we did not find any change in mean rainfall or productivity for the shorter period 2001-2012. The sensitivity of Aldabra's vegetation to rainfall highlights the potential impact of increasing water stress in East Africa on the region's endemic ecosystems.

  9. Estimating the Ground Water Resources of Atoll Islands

    OpenAIRE

    Olsen, Arne E.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Jenson, John W.

    2010-01-01

    Ground water resources of atolls, already minimal due to the small surface area and low elevation of the islands, are also subject to recurring, and sometimes devastating, droughts. As ground water resources become the sole fresh water source when rain catchment supplies are exhausted, it is critical to assess current groundwater resources and predict their depletion during drought conditions. Several published models, both analytical and empirical, are available to estimate the steady-state ...

  10. Late Quaternary changes in bat palaeobiodiversity and palaeobiogeography under climatic and anthropogenic pressure: new insights from Marie-Galante, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoetzel, Emmanuelle; Royer, Aurélien; Cochard, David; Lenoble, Arnaud

    2016-07-01

    Data on Lesser Antillean Late Quaternary fossil bat assemblages remains limited, leading to their general exclusion from studies focusing on Caribbean bat palaeobiodiversity and palaeobiogeography. Additionally, the role of climatic versus human pressure driving changes in faunal communities remains poorly understood. Here we describe a fossil bat assemblage from Blanchard Cave on Marie-Galante in the Lesser Antilles, which produced numerous bat remains from a well-dated, stratified context. Our study reveals the occurrence of at least 12 bat species during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene on Marie-Galante, whereas only eight species are currently known on the island. Among these 12 species, six are extirpated and one is extinct. Faunal changes within the Blanchard sequence indicate variations in Pleistocene bat species representation in the Lesser Antilles to have been influenced by climatic conditions, with "northern species" (Greater Antilles) favored during glacial conditions and "southern species" (southern Lesser Antilles) during interglacial events. However, few species disappeared at the end of the Late Pleistocene, with most of the extinction/extirpation events occurring during the Holocene. This pattern suggests human activities in the Lesser Antilles to have played a major role in bat turnover during the late Holocene.

  11. Marine radioactivity assessment of Mururoa and Fangataufa atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) carried out an international project 'The Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa' with the aim of assessing the present and future radiological situation at the atolls and making recommendations for either monitoring or remedial actions if they are deemed necessary. The paper concentrates on marine radioactivity aspects and gives an estimation of present radionuclide concentrations in water, sediment and biota of the Mururoa and Fangataufa lagoons and the surrounding ocean. The dominant radionuclide in both lagoons is Pu in sediments (the total inventory is approximately 30 TBq). A decline in radionuclide concentrations has been observed in recent years in lagoon water, with the exception of 3H and 90Sr, for which a contribution from underground sources is to be expected. Radionuclide concentrations in biota from the lagoons and the surrounding ocean are low and consistent with previous measurements. The observed radionuclide concentrations in both lagoons imply that no radiological risk exists for hypothetical inhabitants of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls

  12. Radionuclides in sediments and seawater at Rongelap Atoll

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noshkin, V.E.; Robison, W.L.; Eagle, R.J.; Brunk, J.L.

    1998-03-01

    The present concentrations and distributions of long-lived, man-made radionuclides in Rongelap Atoll lagoon surface sediments, based on samples collected and analyzed in this report. The radionuclides were associated with debris generated with the 1954 Bravo thermonuclear test at Bikini Atoll. Presently, only {sup 90}Sr and the transuranic radionuclides are found associated with the surface sediments in any quantity. Other radionuclides, including {sup 60}Co and {sup 137} Cs, are virtually absent and have either decayed or migrated from the deposits to the overlying seawater. Present inventories of {sup 241}Am and {sup 249+240}Pu in the surface layer at Rongelap are estimated to be 3% of the respective inventories in surface sediments from Bikini Atoll. There is a continuous slow release of the transuranics from the sediments back to the water column. The inventories will only slowly change with time unless the chemical-physical processes that now regulate this release to the water column are changed or altered.

  13. The atoll source states of 4U 1608-52

    CERN Document Server

    Van Straaten, S; Méndez, M; Straaten, Steve van; Klis, Michiel van der; Mendez, Mariano

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the atoll source 4U 1608-52 using a large data set obtained with the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer. We find that the timing properties of 4U 1608-52 are almost exactly identical to those of the atoll sources 4U 0614+09 and 4U 1728-34 despite the fact that contrary to these sources 4U 1608-52 is a transient covering two orders of magnitude in luminosity. The frequencies of the variability components of these three sources follow a universal scheme when plotted versus the frequency of the upper kilohertz QPO, suggesting a very similar accretion flow configuration. If we plot the Z sources on this scheme only the lower kilohertz QPO and HBO follow identical relations. Using the mutual relations between the frequencies of the variability components we tested several models; the transition layer model, the sonic point beat frequency model, and the relativistic precession model. None of these models described the data satisfactory. Recently, it has been suggested that the atoll sources (among them 4U ...

  14. Organisational innovations in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F. den; Verbruggen, V.

    2000-01-01

    The Netherlands have shown some major technological and economical changes in the field of new production forms and organisation and labour-related innovations. As in other European countries, some autonomous developments like economic developments partly determine the work organisation and the type

  15. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. van Eijk

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  16. Work life in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossche, S. van den; Dhondt, S.; Genabeek, J. van; Goudswaard, A.; Hooftman, W.; Houtman, I.; Klein Hesselink, J.; Korte, E. de; Kraan, K.; Oeij, P.; Pot, F.; Smulders, P.G.W.; Vaas, F.; Wevers, C.; Willems, D.

    2012-01-01

    The nature of work is changing, not only in the Netherlands but throughout Europe. There is a growing demand for different types of products and services. These demands are influenced by technological developments and innovations, but also by globalization, which indicates the integration of nationa

  17. Informal learning in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Caniëls, M. C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Informal learning in the Netherlands. In S. Halley, C. Birch, D. Tempelaar, M. McCuddy, N. Hérnandez Nanclares, S. Reeb Grube, W. Gijselaers, B. Rienties, & N. Nelissen (Eds), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing Borders in Education and Work

  18. Kjeller's impact in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This lecture is an attempt to assess the impact in the Netherlands of the bilateral co-operation with Norway in the field of nuclear energy during the fifties and sixties. The story about the establishment, development and abolishment of the Joint Establishment for Nuclear Energy Research (JENER) at Kjeller Norway is told

  19. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient lev

  20. Performance Budgeting in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Raphael Debets

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the reforms introduced in the Netherlands since the 1980s to improve the transparency and efficiency of government programmes: programme budgeting, policy orientation, and interdepartmental policy reviews. The impact on the budget structure and process is described. An annex explains some typical characteristics of the Dutch budgetary process.

  1. Sustainable safety in The Netherlands.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegman, F.C.M.

    1996-01-01

    The recent stagnation in further reduction of road accidents, insufficient results of existing policies to improve road safety and its rather curative nature of these policies induced the wish to renew and to improve road safety policy in the Netherlands. This new approach is called : a sustainable

  2. European Bat Lyssaviruses, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poel, van der W.H.M.; Heide, van der R.; Verstraten, E.R.A.M.; Kramps, J.A.

    2005-01-01

    To study European bat lyssavirus (EBLV) in bat reservoirs in the Netherlands, native bats have been tested for rabies since 1984. For all collected bats, data including species, age, sex, and date and location found were recorded. A total of 1,219 serotine bats, Eptesicus serotinus, were tested, and

  3. Landslide occurrence above the city of Philipsburg, Sint Maarten, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazabraud, Y.

    2015-12-01

    In the northern part of the Lesser Antilles volcanic arc, the island of Saint Martin/Sint Maartin is a remnant of the Eo-Oligocene "ancient arc". It is constituted of Oligocene granodiorites intruding Eocene tuff deposits and andesitic lava flows. The eastern and western parts of the island are covered with Miocene limestone (Terre-Basses and Tintamarre islet). The igneous rocks outcrop in the central part of the island. As a response to tropical weathering, the coarse grain granodiorites are deeply eroded and form depressions. The very fine-grained tuffs are on the contrary forming crests and hilltops. At Fort Hill, immediately west of Philipsburg city, the metamorphised tuffs are extending North-South, following the direction of the contact with the granodiorite that form the base of the hill. The granodiorite is quartz bearing and its magmatic prismation is well developed. It shows fractures in both directions, parallel and perpendicular to the contact (i.e. north-south and east-west). Being in the hill-slope orientation, the contact parallel fractures are re-activated into normal faults. Several blocks are individualized, sliding downhill towards the first houses. In this work, we present a geological sketch of the Fort Hill landslide and its applications with regard to disaster mitigation. We also present ongoing satellite survey of deformation through time. The aim being to decipher in the signal the average quantity of sliding from the transient, hurricane related part.

  4. Probabilistic hurricane-induced storm surge hazard assessment in Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krien, Y.; Dudon, B.; Roger, J.; Zahibo, N.

    2015-01-01

    Current storm surge hazard maps in the French West Indies are essentially based on simple statistical methods using limited historical data and early low-resolution models which do not take the effect of waves into account. In this paper, we infer new 100 and 1000 year surge levels in Guadeloupe from the numerical modelling of storm surges induced by a large set of synthetic events that are in statistical agreement with features of historical hurricanes in the North Atlantic Basin between 1980 and 2011. Computations are performed using the wave-current coupled model ADCIRC-SWAN with high grid resolutions (up to 40-60 m) in the coastal and wave dissipation areas. This model is validated against observations during past events such as hurricane HUGO (1989). Results are generally found to be in reasonable agreement with past studies in areas where surge is essentially wind-driven, but to differ significantly in coastal regions where the transfer of momentum from waves to the water column constitutes a non-negligible part of the total surge. The methodology, which can be applied to other islands in the Lesser Antilles, allows to obtain storm surge level maps that can be of major interest for coastal planners and decision makers in terms of risk management.

  5. Genetic Diversity in the Lesser Antilles and Its Implications for the Settlement of the Caribbean Basin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jada Benn Torres

    Full Text Available Historical discourses about the Caribbean often chronicle West African and European influence to the general neglect of indigenous people's contributions to the contemporary region. Consequently, demographic histories of Caribbean people prior to and after European contact are not well understood. Although archeological evidence suggests that the Lesser Antilles were populated in a series of northward and eastern migratory waves, many questions remain regarding the relationship of the Caribbean migrants to other indigenous people of South and Central America and changes to the demography of indigenous communities post-European contact. To explore these issues, we analyzed mitochondrial DNA and Y-chromosome diversity in 12 unrelated individuals from the First Peoples Community in Arima, Trinidad, and 43 unrelated Garifuna individuals residing in St. Vincent. In this community-sanctioned research, we detected maternal indigenous ancestry in 42% of the participants, with the remainder having haplotypes indicative of African and South Asian maternal ancestry. Analysis of Y-chromosome variation revealed paternal indigenous American ancestry indicated by the presence of haplogroup Q-M3 in 28% of the male participants from both communities, with the remainder possessing either African or European haplogroups. This finding is the first report of indigenous American paternal ancestry among indigenous populations in this region of the Caribbean. Overall, this study illustrates the role of the region's first peoples in shaping the genetic diversity seen in contemporary Caribbean populations.

  6. Ethnic background and differences in health care use: a national cross-sectional study of native Dutch and immigrant elderly in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Foets Marleen

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Immigrant elderly are a rapidly growing group in Dutch society; little is known about their health care use. This study assesses whether ethnic disparities in health care use exist and how they can be explained. Applying an established health care access model as explanatory factors, we tested health and socio-economic status, and in view of our research population we added an acculturation variable, elaborated into several sub-domains. Methods Cross-sectional study using data from the "Social Position, Health and Well-being of Elderly Immigrants" survey, conducted in 2003 in the Netherlands. The study population consisted of first generation immigrants aged 55 years and older from the four major immigrant populations in the Netherlands and a native Dutch reference group. The average response rate to the survey was 46% (1503/3284; country of origin: Turkey n = 307, Morocco n = 284, Surinam n = 308, the Netherlands Antilles n = 300, the Netherlands n = 304. Results High ethnic disparities exist in health and health care utilisation. Immigrant elderly show a higher use of GP services and lower use of physical therapy and home care. Both self-reported health status (need factor and language competence (part of acculturation have high explanatory power for all types of health services utilisation; the additional impact of socio-economic status and education is low. Conclusion For all health services, health disparities among all four major immigrant groups in the Netherlands translate into utilisation disparities, aggravated by lack of language competence. The resulting pattern of systematic lower health services utilisation of elderly immigrants is a challenge for health care providers and policy makers.

  7. 2006 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI-06-09 - Kure Atoll, Pearl and Hermes Atoll and Kauai Island

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected from 23 June to 19 July 2006 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Kure Atoll, Pearl and...

  8. Between-Habitat Variation of Benthic Cover, Reef Fish Assemblage and Feeding Pressure on the Benthos at the Only Atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas Atoll, NE Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Longo, G. O.; Morais, R. A.; C D L Martins; Mendes, T. C.; Aued, A. W.; Cândido, D. V.; Oliveira, J. C.; L T Nunes; Fontoura, L.; M N Sissini; Teschima, M. M.; M. B. Silva; Ramlov, F.; Gouvea, L. P.; Ferreira, C. E. L.

    2015-01-01

    The Southwestern Atlantic harbors unique and relatively understudied reef systems, including the only atoll in South Atlantic: Rocas atoll. Located 230 km off the NE Brazilian coast, Rocas is formed by coralline red algae and vermetid mollusks, and is potentially one of the most "pristine" areas in Southwestern Atlantic. We provide the first comprehensive and integrative description of the fish and benthic communities inhabiting different shallow reef habitats of Rocas. We studied two contras...

  9. Informal learning in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Caniëls, Marjolein; Kirschner, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Caniëls, M. C., & Kirschner, P. A. (2010). Informal learning in the Netherlands. In S. Halley, C. Birch, D. Tempelaar, M. McCuddy, N. Hérnandez Nanclares, S. Reeb Grube, W. Gijselaers, B. Rienties, & N. Nelissen (Eds), Proceedings of the 17th EDINEB Conference: Crossing Borders in Education and Work-Based Learning (pp. 339-348). Maastricht: FEBA ERD Press.

  10. Housing commissioning in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    S. Maussen; Smits, M.

    2011-01-01

    Property developers in the Netherlands are responsible for 83% of de housing production in the profit and non-profit sector. At this moment the housing shortage is neutralized but there is still a quality mismatch between demand and supply on the Dutch housing market. In recent years, a new organizer of housing projects is becoming more popular within the development sector, the end users of the houses themselves. The Dutch government has taken initiative to expand housing production commissi...

  11. Restructuring in SMEs: The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Winnubst, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Based on information derived from 85 case studies across all EU Member States and other sources, the project outlines the features peculiar to SMEs in their anticipation and management of restructuring, explores the main drivers of change and analyses the factors influencing successful restructuring. It offers some insight into how restructuring impacts on workers and the company itself and sets out several policy pointers for future action. This is the country report for the Netherlands.

  12. The Netherlands' School Building Prize

    OpenAIRE

    OECD

    1999-01-01

    The School Building Prize has been awarded every two years since 1992 to Dutch school boards that have proved able to embrace new directions in school building design while keeping within their available budget. The Prize, which has drawn acclaim for the development of high quality educational architecture in the Netherlands, provides publicity for successful projects so that other schools can benefit from the designs and information. The 1998 School Building Prize was awarded to the British ...

  13. Patient education in The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Bensing, J.M.; Visser, S.; Saan, H.

    2001-01-01

    This article presents the development of patient education (PE) in The Netherlands from a historical perspective. A description is given of the first pioneering years from the 70s till the late 80s, in which early topics like the organization of PE, the orchestration of PE between different disciplines, the role of the social environment, the provision of PE in difficult patient groups and -most of all- the technical development of educational materials took the time and attention of the grow...

  14. A unique opportunity to reconstruct the volcanic history of the island of Nevis, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saginor, I.; Gazel, E.

    2012-12-01

    We report twelve new ICP-MS analyses and two 40Ar/39Ar ages for the Caribbean island of Nevis, located in the Lesser Antilles. These data show a very strong fractionation trend, suggesting that along strike variations may be primarily controlled by the interaction of rising magma with the upper plate. If this fractionation trend is shown to correlate with age, it may suggest that underplating of the crust is responsible for variations in the makeup of erupted lava over time, particularly with respect to silica content. We have recently been given permission to sample a series of cores being drilled by a geothermal company with the goal of reconstructing the volcanic history of the island. Drilling is often cost-prohibitive, making this a truly unique opportunity. Nevis has received little recent attention from researchers due to the fact that it has not been active for at least 100,000 years and also because of its proximity to the highly active Montserrat, which boasts its very own volcano observatory. However, there are a number of good reasons that make this region and Nevis in particular an ideal location for further analysis. First, and most importantly, is the access to thousands of meters of drill cores that is being provided by a local geothermal company. Second, a robust earthquake catalog exists (Bengoubou-Valerius et al., 2008), so the dip and depth to the subducting slab is well known. These are fundamental parameters that influence the mechanics of a subduction zone, therefore it would be difficult to proceed if they were poorly constrained. Third, prior sampling of Nevis has been limited since Hutton and Nockolds (1978) published the only extensive petrologic study ever performed on the island. This paper contained only 43 geochemical analyses and 6 K-Ar ages, which are less reliable than more modern Ar-Ar ages. Subsequent studies tended to focus on water geochemistry (GeothermEx, 2005), geothermal potential (Geotermica Italiana, 1992; Huttrer, 1998

  15. Thermochronology and tectonics of the Leeward Antilles: Evolution of the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Lelij, Roelant; Spikings, Richard A.; Kerr, Andrew C.; Kounov, Alexandre; Cosca, Michael; Chew, David; Villagomez, Diego

    2010-01-01

    Tectonic reconstructions of the Caribbean Plate are severely hampered by a paucity of geochronologic and exhumation constraints from anastomosed basement blocks along its southern margin. New U/Pb, 40Ar/39Ar, apatite fission track, and apatite (U-Th)/He data constrain quantitative thermal and exhumation histories, which have been used to propose a model for the tectonic evolution of the emergent parts of the Bonaire Block and the southern Caribbean Plate boundary zone. An east facing arc system intruded through an oceanic plateau during ~90 to ~87 Ma and crops out on Aruba. Subsequent structural displacements resulted in >80°C of cooling on Aruba during 70–60 Ma. In contrast, exhumation of the island arc sequence exposed on Bonaire occurred at 85–80 Ma and 55–45 Ma. Santonian exhumation on Bonaire occurred immediately subsequent to burial metamorphism and may have been driven by the collision of a west facing island arc with the Caribbean Plate. Island arc rocks intruded oceanic plateau rocks on Gran Roque at ~65 Ma and exhumed rapidly at 55–45 Ma. We attribute Maastrichtian-Danian exhumation on Aruba and early Eocene exhumation on Bonaire and Gran Roque to sequential diachronous accretion of their basement units to the South American Plate. Widespread unconformities indicate late Eocene subaerial exposure. Late Oligocene–early Miocene dextral transtension within the Bonaire Block drove subsidence and burial of crystalline basement rocks of the Leeward Antilles to ≤1 km. Late Miocene–recent transpression caused inversion and ≤1 km of exhumation, possibly as a result of the northward escape of the Maracaibo Block.

  16. Contrasting sedimentary processes along a convergent margin: the Lesser Antilles arc system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, Michel; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Boudon, Georges

    2006-12-01

    Sedimentation processes occurring in an active convergent setting are well illustrated in the Lesser Antilles island arc. The margin is related to westward subduction of the North and/or the South America plates beneath the Caribbean plate. From east to west, the arc can be subdivided into several tectono-sedimentary depositional domains: the accretionary prism, the fore-arc basin, the arc platform and inter-arc basin, and the Grenada back-arc basin. The Grenada back-arc basin, the fore-arc basin (Tobago Trough) and the accretionary prism on the east side of the volcanic arc constitute traps for particles derived from the arc platform and the South American continent. The arc is volcanically active, and provides large volumes of volcaniclastic sediments which accumulate mainly in the Grenada basin by volcaniclastic gravity flows (volcanic debris avalanches, debris flows, turbiditic flows) and minor amounts by fallout. By contrast, the eastern side of the margin is fed by ash fallout and minor volcaniclastic turbidites. In this area, the dominant component of the sediments is pelagic in origin, or derived from South America (siliciclastic turbidites). Insular shelves are the locations of carbonate sedimentation, such as large platforms which develop in the Limestone Caribbees in the northern part of the margin. Reworking of carbonate material by turbidity currents also delivers lesser amounts to eastern basins of the margin. This contrasting sedimentation on both sides of the arc platform along the margin is controlled by several interacting factors including basin morphology, volcanic productivity, wind and deep-sea current patterns, and sea-level changes. Basin morphology appears to be the most dominant factor. The western slopes of the arc platform are steeper than the eastern ones, thus favouring gravity flow processes.

  17. Relocalizing a historical earthquake using recent methods: The 10 November 1935 Earthquake near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemz, P.; Amorèse, D.

    2016-03-01

    This study investigates the hypothesis of Feuillet et al. (2011) that the hypocenter of the seismic event on November 10, 1935 near Montserrat, Lesser Antilles (MS 6 1/4) (Gutenberg and Richter, 1954) was mislocated by other authors and is actually located in the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. While this proposal was based both on a Ground Motion Prediction Equation and on the assumption that earthquakes in this region are bound to prominent fault systems, our study relies on earthquake localization methods using arrival times of the International Seismological Summary (ISS). Results of our methodology suggest that the hypocenter was really located at 16.90° N, 62.53° W. This solution is about 25 km north-west of the location proposed by Feuillet et al. (2011) within the Redonda fault system, northward of the Montserrat-Havers fault zone. As depth phases that contribute valuable insights to the focal depth are not included in the ISS data set and the reassociation of these phases is difficult, the error in depth is high. Taking into account tectonic constraints and the vertical extend of NonLinLoc's uncertainty area of the preferred solution we assume that the focus is most probably in the lower crust between 20 km and the Moho. Our approach shows that the information of the ISS can lead to a reliable solution even without an exhaustive search for seismograms and station bulletins. This is encouraging for a better assessment of seismic and tsunami hazard in the Caribbean, Mexico, South and Central America, where many moderate to large earthquakes occurred in the first half of the 20th century. The limitations during this early phase of seismology which complicate such relocations are described in detail in this study.

  18. Brief Report: Normal Intestinal Permeability at Elevated Platelet Serotonin Levels in a Subgroup of Children with Pervasive Developmental Disorders in Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemperman, Ramses F. J.; Muskiet, Fred D.; Boutier, A. Inge; Kema, Ido P.; Muskiet, Frits A. J.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between platelet (PLT) serotonin (5-HT) and intestinal permeability in children with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Differential sugar absorption and PLT 5-HT were determined in 23 children with PDD. PLT 5-HT (2.0-7.1 nmol/10[to the ninth power] PLT) was elevated in 4/23 patients. None exhibited…

  19. Bonaire 2008: Exploring Coral Reef Sustainability with New Technologies on Fetch1 AUV and Gavia AUV's in Netherlands, Antilles between 20080107 and 20080130

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The goal of the Bonaire 2008 expedition is to survey this unique environment over a greater depth range than can be reached with compressed air scuba, using three...

  20. Recovery of the long-spined sea urchin Diadema Antillarum in Curacao (Netherlands Antilles) linked to lagoonal and wave sheltered shallow rocky habitats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debrot, A.O.; Nagelkerken, I.

    2006-01-01

    Mangroves are an important fish habitat, but little is known of their nursery function and connectivity to other habitats such as coral reefs. Here, the present status of knowledge on connectivity between non-estuarine mangroves and coral reefs by post-larval coral reef fishes is reviewed. Only sinc

  1. Resettlement of Bikini Atoll: US nuclear test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikini Atoll was one of two sites in the Marshall Islands that were used in the 1950's by the United States for testing nuclear weapons. The testing produced widespread radioactive contamination in Bikini and much of the Northern Marshall Islands. The Bikini people, relocated in 1946 before the test program began, have long desired to return to their homeland. Coral soil on Bikini Island makes cesium-137 (137Cs) much more available for plant uptake than do soils of North America and Europe. Hence, when locally grown crops mature and become available for consumption, the resulting body burden of 137Cs and the associated doses to humans exceeds federal guidelines. The dose from the terrestrial food ingestion pathway dominates all other pathways and contributes about 90% of the total dose to returning residents. We are, therefore, involved in cost-effective efforts to reduce the dose associated with resettlement. We have evaluated several measures, in addition to soil removal, to eliminate 137Cs from the soil and to reduce its uptake into food crops. The most effective, and the easiest to implement, is the application of potassium to the atoll soils. A dramatic reduction in 137Cs occurs in tropical fruits after applications of potassium-rich fertilizer to experimental soil plots. This treatment reduces the associated ingestion dose to about 5% of the pre-treatment levels, and this option avoids removal of the organic-rich surface soils. In addition, the added potassium increases plant productivity. We are now focusing on determining the duration of the effects of potassium treatment on 137Cs uptake into plants, and the rate of environmental loss of 137Cs in the atoll ecosystem. (author)

  2. Population pressure on coral atolls: trends and approaching limits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapaport, M

    1990-09-01

    Trends and approaching limits of population pressure on coral atolls is discussed by examining the atoll environment in terms of the physical geography, the production systems, and resource distribution. Atoll populations are grouped as dependent and independent, and demographic trends in population growth, migraiton, urbanization, and political dependency are reviewed. Examination of the carrying capacity includes a dynamic model, the influences of the West, and philopsophical considerations. The carrying capacity is the "maximal population supportable in a given area". Traditional models are criticized because of a lack in accounting for external linkages. The proposed model is dynamic and considers perceived needs and overseas linkages. It also explains regional disparities in population distribution, and provides a continuing model for population movement from outer islands to district centers and mainland areas. Because of increased expectations and perceived needs, there is a lower carrying capacity for outlying areas, and expanded capacity in district centers. This leads to urbanization, emigration, and carrying capacity overshot in regional and mainland areas. Policy intervention is necessary at the regional and island community level. Atolls, which are islands surrounding deep lagoons, exist in archipelagoes across the oceans, and are rich in aquatic life. The balance in this small land area with a vulnerable ecosystem may be easily disturbed by scarce water supplies, barren soils, rising sea levels in the future, hurricanes, and tsunamis. Traditionally, fisheries and horticulture (pit-taro, coconuts, and breadfruit) have sustained populations, but modern influences such as blasting, reef mining, new industrial technologies, population pressure, and urbanization threaten the balance. Population pressure, which has lead to pollution, epidemics, malnutrition, crime, social disintegration, and foreign dependence, is evidenced in the areas of Tuvalu, Kiribati

  3. Taxation of income in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Fidler, Josef

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to describe the current state of tax system in the Netherlands. This system is interesting because it combines elements of high progressive taxation of income of individuals with large tax savings for a holding company based in the Netherlands. The paper describes the design of income tax of individuals and legal persons in the Netherlands and compares them with the Czech legislation. Description of these two taxes is held according to design of tax in this order: ...

  4. Disability in the Netherlands: another dutch disease?

    OpenAIRE

    Muysken, J.; Rutten, T.

    2002-01-01

    The Netherlands is well known for its high employment growth and corresponding low unemployment rate. At various occasions the so-called Dutch miracle has been applauded, together with the underlying ‘Polder model’. A feature that initially was less recognised in the international debate, but has been a long-debated topic in the Netherlands, is the vast amount of persons in disability schemes. From the outset of the introduction of the first scheme (WAO) in 1969, disability in the Netherlands...

  5. Seismic tomography of Basse-Terre volcanic island, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, using earthquake travel times and noise correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnoud, Anne; Coutant, Olivier; Bouligand, Claire; Massin, Frédérick; Stehly, Laurent

    2015-04-01

    We image the volcanic island of Basse-Terre, Guadeloupe, Lesser Antilles, using both earthquake travel times and noise correlations. (1) A new earthquake catalog was recently compiled for the Lesser Antilles by the CDSA/OVSG/IPGP (Massin et al., EGU General Assembly 2014) and allows us to perform classical travel time tomography to obtain smooth 3D body wave velocity models. The geometrical configuration of the volcanic arc controls the resolution of the model in our zone of interest. (2) Surface wave tomography using noise correlations was successfully applied to volcanoes (Brenguier et al., Geophys. Res. Lett. 2007). We use seismic noise recorded at 16 broad-band stations and 9 short-period stations from Basse-Terre over a period of six years (2007-2012). For each station pair, we extract a dispersion curve from the noise correlation to get surface wave velocity models. The inversion of the dispersion curves produces a 3D S-wave velocity model of the island. The spatial distribution of seismic stations accross the island is highly heterogeneous, leading to higher resolution near the dome of the Soufrière of Guadeloupe volcano. Resulting velocity models are compared with densities obtained by 3D inversion of gravimetric data (Barnoud et al., AGU Fall Meeting 2013). Further work should include simultaneous inversion of seismic and gravimetric datasets to overcome resolution limitations.

  6. Inter-annual rainfall variability in the eastern Antilles and coupling with the regional and intra-seasonal circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jury, Mark R.

    2015-08-01

    Climate variability in the eastern Antilles island chain is analyzed via principal component analysis of high-resolution monthly rainfall in the period 1981-2013. The second mode reflecting higher rainfall in July-October season between Martinique and Grenada is the focus of this study. Higher rainfall corresponds with a weakened trade wind and boundary current along the southern edge of the Caribbean. This quells the coastal upwelling off Venezuela and builds the freshwater plume east of Trinidad. There is corresponding upper easterly wind flow that intensifies passing tropical waves. During a storm event over the Antilles on 4-5 October 2010, there was inflow from east of Guyana where low salinity and high sea temperatures enable surplus latent heat fluxes. A N-S convective rain band forms ˜500 km east of the cyclonic vortex. Many features at the weather timescale reflect the seasonal correlation and composite difference maps and El Nino Southern Oscillation (ENSO) modulation of oceanic inter-basin transfers.

  7. Plutonium and americium behavior in coral atoll environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inventories of 239+240Pu and 241Am greatly in excess of global fallout levels persist in the benthic environments of Bikini and Enewetak Atolls. Quantities of 239+240Pu and lesser amounts of 241Am are continuously mobilizing from these sedimentary reservoirs. The amount of 239+240Pu mobilized to solution at any time represents 0.08 to 0.09% of the sediment inventories to a depth of 16 cm. The mobilized 239+240Pu has solute-like characteristics and different valence states coexist in solution - the largest fraction of the soluble plutonium is in an oxidized form (+V,VI). The adsorption of plutonium to sediments is not completely reversible because of changes that occur in the relative amounts of the mixed oxidation states in solution with time. Further, any characteristics of 239+240Pu described at one location may not necessarily be relevant in describing its behavior elsewhere following mobilization and migration. The relative amounts of 241Am to 239+240Pu in the sedimentary deposits at Enewetak and Bikini may be altered in future years because of mobilization and radiological decay. Mobilization of 239+240Pu is not a process unique to these atolls, and quantities in solution derived from sedimentary deposits can be found at other global sites. These studies in the equatorial Pacific have significance in assessing the long-term behavior of the transuranics in any marine environment. 22 references, 1 figure, 13 tables

  8. Biogeochemistry of transuranic elements in Bikini Atoll lagoon. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of transuranic and other radionuclides in the marine environment at Bikini Atoll was studied to better understand the biogeochemical cycling of radionuclides produced during testing of some 23 nuclear and thermonuclear devices between 1946 and 1958. The radionuclides are primarily associated with the coralline sediments. However, the highest radionuclide concentrations are not found at the detonation craters but with the fine particles which have been washed out of the craters in the reef by the currents and deposited downstream. The transuranic elements are distributed widely in sediments over the northwest quadrant of the atoll suggesting that this area serves as a settling basin for particles. The transuranic elements associated with these sediment particles do not remain fixed but are remobilized and distributed asymmetrically in the water column throughout the lagoon. The physico-chemical states of plutonium, measured using dialysis and sorption techniques include approx. 15% colloidal and varying amounts in the soluble and particulate fractions depending on sample location. Uptake of these physicochemical states is extensive on plankton with distribution coefficients measured at Bikini between water and plankton of 104 - 106. The uptake of plutonium in higher organisms decreases with trophic level and low concentrations (approx. .001 pCi/g for 239240Pu) are found in the edible muscle of fish. The half-time for cleansing the reef of contaminant radionuclides has been estimated near the Bravo Crater using measurements made on the viscera of mullet

  9. Bikini Atoll coral biodiversity resilience five decades after nuclear testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five decades after a series of nuclear tests began, we provide evidence that 70% of the Bikini Atoll zooxanthellate coral assemblage is resilient to large-scale anthropogenic disturbance. Species composition in 2002 was assessed and compared to that seen prior to nuclear testing. A total of 183 scleractinian coral species was recorded, compared to 126 species recorded in the previous study (excluding synonomies, 148 including synonomies). We found that 42 coral species may be locally extinct at Bikini. Fourteen of these losses may be pseudo-losses due to inconsistent taxonomy between the two studies or insufficient sampling in the second study, however 28 species appear to represent genuine losses. Of these losses, 16 species are obligate lagoonal specialists and 12 have wider habitat compatibility. Twelve species are recorded from Bikini for the first time. We suggest the highly diverse Rongelap Atoll to the east of Bikini may have contributed larval propagules to facilitate the partial resilience of coral biodiversity in the absence of additional anthropogenic threats

  10. Coastal maintenance in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Verhagen, H.J.

    1991-01-01

    The government of The Netherlands has decided in the summer of 1990 to maintai.n the coastline at the position of 1990. This will be done mainly by artificial beach nourishment. The costs will be paid by the national government. The purpose of this coastal maintenance is to maintain a sufficient level of safety and to maintain the various functions of beach and dune areas. As a criterion for coastal erosion the movement of the "coastline" is used. In this paper the definition of coastline is ...

  11. Aerial radiological and photographic survey of eleven atolls and two islands within the Northern Marshall Islands. Dates of surveys, July-November 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An aerial radiological survey was conducted over eleven atolls and two islands within the northern Marshall Islands between September and November 1978. This survey was part of a comprehensive radiological survey, which included extensive terrestrial and marine sampling, to determine possible residual contamination which might remain as a result of the United States nuclear testing program conducted at Bikini Enewetak Atolls between 1946 and 1958. A similar survey was conducted at Enewetak Atoll in 1972. The present survey covered those atolls known to have received direct fallout from the Bravo event, conducted in March 1954 at Bikini Atoll. These included Bikini, Rongelap, Rongerik, Ailinginae, Bikar, Taka, and Utirik Atolls. In addition, several atolls and islands which might have been at the fringes of the Bravo fallout were also surveyed, including Likiep and Ailuk Atolls, Jemo and Mejit Islands, and Wotho Atoll. Ujelang Atoll, which lies approximately 200 km southwest of Enewetak, was also surveyed. Island-averaged terrestrial exposure rates in the range of 30 to 50 μR/h were observed over parts of Bikini Atoll, including Bikini Island, and over the northern part of Rongelap Atoll. Levels over southern Rongelap and over Rongerik Atoll ranged from 4 to 7 μR/h. Levels were somewhat lower at Ailinginae Atoll (approximately 2 μR/h) and at Utirik Atoll (approximately 0.7 μR/h). The variations observed were consistent with what might be expected from the fallout pattern of the Bravo event. Levels at Ailuk, Likiep, Wotho and Ujelang Atolls and at Mejit and Jemo Islands were consistent with 137Cs activity, due to worldwide fallout, observed within the United States and at other locations in the central Pacific. These four atolls and the two islands, therefore, do not appear to have recieved any significant direct contamination from the Bravo event or the other tests conducted at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls

  12. Hydrothermal mineralization at Kick'em Jenny submarine volcano in the Lesser Antilles island arc

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, R.; Carey, S.; Sigurdsson, H.; Cornell, W. C.

    2011-12-01

    Kick 'em Jenny (KeJ) is an active submarine volcano located in the Lesser Antilles island arc, ~7.5 km northwest of Grenada. Of the twelve eruptions detected since 1939, most have been explosive as evidenced by eyewitness accounts in 1939, 1974, and 1988 and the dominance of explosive eruption products recovered by dredging. In 2003, vigorous hydrothermal activity was observed in the crater of KeJ. Video footage taken by a remotely operated vehicle (ROV) during the cruise RB-03-03 of the R/V Ronald Brown documented the venting of a vapor phase in the form of bubbles that ascended through the water column and a clear fluid phase in the form of shimmering water. The shimmering water generally ascended through the water column but can also been seen flowing down gradient from a fissure at the top of a fine-grained sediment mound. These fine-grained sediment mounds are the only structure associated with hydrothermal venting; spire or chimney structures were not observed. Hydrothermal venting was also observed coming from patches of coarse-grained volcaniclastic sediment on the crater floor and from talus slopes around the perimeter of the crater. Samples were collected from these areas and from areas void of hydrothermal activity. XRD and ICPMS analyses of bulk sediment were carried out to investigate the geochemical relationships between sediment types. Sediment samples from the hydrothermal mound structures are comprised of the same components (plagioclase, amphibole, pyroxene, and scoria) as sediment samples from areas void of hydrothermal activity (primary volcaniclastic sediment) in the 500-63 μm size range. High resolution grain size analyses show that >78% of sediment in the hydrothermal mound samples are between 63-2 μm with 6-20% clay sized (talc, and I/S mixed layer) in the hydrothermal mound samples was confirmed x-ray diffraction analysis. Differences in major oxide composition of the two sediment types (depletion in Al2O3 but enrichments in MgO and Fe2O3

  13. Mercury concentration, speciation and budget in volcanic aquifers: Italy and Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagnato, E.; Aiuppa, A.; Parello, F.; D'Alessandro, W.; Allard, P.; Calabrese, S.

    2009-01-01

    Quantifying the contribution of volcanism to global mercury (Hg) emissions is important to understand the pathways and the mechanisms of Hg cycling through the Earth's geochemical reservoirs and to assess its environmental impacts. While previous studies have suggested that degassing volcanoes might contribute importantly to the atmospheric budget of mercury, little is known about the amount and behaviour of Hg in volcanic aquifers. Here we report on detailed investigations of both the content and the speciation of mercury in aquifers of active volcanoes in Italy and Guadeloupe Island (Lesser Antilles). In the studied groundwaters, total Hg (THg) concentrations range from 10 to 500 ng/l and are lower than the 1000 ng/l threshold value for human health protection fixed by the World Health Organization [WHO (1993): WHO Guidelines for Drinking Water Quality- http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/GDWQ/index.htlm]. Positive co-variations of (THg) with sulphate indicate that Hg-SO 4-rich acid groundwaters receive a direct input of magmatic/hydrothermal gases carrying mercury as Hg 0(gas). Increasing THg in a volcanic aquifer could thus be a sensitive tracer of magmatic gas input prior to an eruption. Since the complex behaviour and toxicity of mercury in waters depend on its chemical speciation, we carefully determined the different aqueous forms of this element in our samples. We find that dissolved elemental Hg 0(aq) and particulate-bound Hg (Hg P) widely prevail in volcanic aquifers, in proportions that highlight the efficiency of Hg adsorption onto colloidal particles. Moreover, we observe that dissolved Hg 0aq and Hg(II) forms coexist in comparable amount in most of the waters, in stark contrast to the results of thermodynamic equilibrium modelling. Therefore, chemical equilibrium between dissolved mercury species in volcanic waters is either prevented by natural kinetic effects or not preserved in collected waters due to sampling/storage artefacts. Finally, we

  14. Fractures, Faults, and Hydrothermal Systems of Puna, Hawaii, and Montserrat, Lesser Antilles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenedi, Catherine Lewis

    The focus of this work is to use geologic and geophysical methods to better understand the faults and fracture systems at Puna, in southeastern Hawaii, and southern Montserrat, in the Lesser Antilles. The particular interest is understanding and locating the deep fracture networks that are necessary for fluid circulation in hydrothermal systems. The dissertation first presents a study in which identification of large scale faulting places Montserrat into a tectonic context. Then follow studies of Puna and Montserrat that focus on faults and fractures of the deep hydrothermal systems. The first chapter consists of the results of the SEA-CALIPSO experiment seismic reflection data, recorded on a 48 channel streamer with the active source as a 2600 in3 airgun. This chapter discusses volcaniclastic debris fans off the east coast of Montserrat and faults off the west coast. The work places Montserrat in a transtensional environment (influenced by oblique subduction) as well as in a complex local stress regime. One conclusion is that the stress regime is inconsistent with the larger arc due to the influence of local magmatism and stress. The second chapter is a seismic study of the Puna hydrothermal system (PHS) along the Kilauea Lower East Rift Zone. The PHS occurs at a left step in the rift, where a fracture network has been formed between fault segments. It is a productive geothermal field, extracting steam and reinjecting cooled, condensed fluids. A network of eight borehole seismometers recorded >6000 earthquakes. Most of the earthquakes are very small (Puna the transfer zone is a relay ramp. The results from the PHS are used as an example to examine the proposed hydrothermal system at St. George's Hill, Montserrat. In southern Montserrat, hot springs and fumaroles suggest a deep hydrothermal system heated by local magmatism. A magnetotelluric study obtained resistivity data that suggest focused alteration under southeastern Montserrat that is likely to be along

  15. Oblique Collision of the Leeward Antilles, Offshore Venezuela: Linking Onshore and Offshore Data from BOLIVAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beardsley, A. G.; Avé Lallemant, H. G.; Levander, A.; Clark, S. A.

    2006-12-01

    The kinematic history of the Leeward Antilles (offshore Venezuela) can be characterized with the integration of onshore outcrop data and offshore seismic reflection data. Deformation structures and seismic interpretation show that oblique convergence and wrench tectonics have controlled the diachronous deformation identified along the Caribbean - South America plate boundary. Field studies of structural features in outcrop indicate one generation of ductile deformation (D1) structures and three generations of brittle deformation (F1 - F3) structures. The earliest deformation (D1/F1) began ~ 110 Ma with oblique convergence between the Caribbean plate and South American plate. The second generation of deformation (F2) structures initiated in the Eocene with the extensive development of strike-slip fault systems along the diffuse plate boundary and the onset of wrench tectonics within a large-scale releasing bend. The most recent deformation (F3) has been observed in the west since the Miocene where continued dextral strike-slip motion has led to the development of a major restraining bend between the Caribbean plate transform fault and the Oca - San Sebastian - El Pilar fault system. Deformation since the late Cretaceous has been accompanied by a total of 135° clockwise rotation. Interpretation of 2D marine reflection data indicates similar onshore and offshore deformation trends. Seismic lines that approximately parallel the coastline (NW-SE striking) show syndepositional normal faulting during F1/F2 and thrust faulting associated with F3. On seismic lines striking NNE-SSW, we interpret inversion of F2 normal faults with recent F3 deformation. We also observe both normal and thrust faults related to F3. The thick sequence of recent basin sedimentation (Miocene - Recent), interpreted from the seismic data, supports the ongoing uplift and erosion of the islands; as suggested by fluid inclusion analysis. Overall, there appears to be a strong correlation between

  16. The Opilionida (Arachnida) of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoek, G.L.

    1963-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Until now very little has been published on the harvestmen of The Netherlands. The earliest paper known to me is by Goedaert (1669), who mentions Phalangium opilio from The Netherlands and gives the following "biological" information: "The animals originate from mush-rooms; they eat sal

  17. The Social State of the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rob Bijl; Jeroen Boelhouwer; Evert Pommer

    2007-01-01

    Original title: De sociale staat van Nederland 2007. How is the Dutch population faring? That is the central question addressed in The Social State of the Netherlands 2007. To answer this question, the report describes the position of the Netherlands and the Dutch in a number of key areas of life t

  18. Human Hantavirus Infections in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Sane, Jussi; Reimerink, Johan; Harms, Margriet; Bakker, Jacinta; Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Schimmer, Barbara; van Pelt, Wilfrid

    2014-01-01

    We report the recent epidemiology and estimated seroprevalence of human hantavirus infections in the Netherlands. Sixty-two cases were reported during December 2008–December 2013. The estimated seroprevalence in the screened municipalities in 2006–2007 was 1.7% (95% CI 1.3%–2.3%). Findings suggest that hantavirus infections are underdiagnosed in the Netherlands.

  19. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulenberg, M.T.G.; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure

  20. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  1. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiiian Islands, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  2. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2002 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  3. CRED REA Fish Team Belt Transect Surveys at the Midway Atoll, 2002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 3 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Midway Atoll in...

  4. CRED REA Algal Assessment at Rose Atoll, American Samoa, 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in...

  5. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Rose Atoll, American Samoa in 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites around Rose Atoll in...

  6. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  7. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Kure Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2003 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the...

  8. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 13 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  9. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Johnston Atoll, Pacific Remote Island Areas (PRIAs), 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 18 sites at Johnston Atoll in the...

  10. CRED REA Fish Team Stationary Point Count Surveys at Rose Atoll, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Stationary Point Counts at 4 stations at each survey site were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 12 sites at Rose Atoll in American...

  11. 2007 Reson 8101ER Multibeam Sonar Data from Cruise AHI0701 - Wake Atoll

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Reson 8101ER multibeam Data were collected between 19 April - 9 May 2007 aboard NOAA Survey Launch Acoustic Habitat Investigator (AHI) at Wake Atoll, Western...

  12. Eradication of Polynesian Rats (rattus exulans) from Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, American Samoa

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A 38-day poison and trap campaign was conducted on Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge to eradicate Polynesian rats in order to reduce their impact of seabird eggs...

  13. Marine species survey of Johnson Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000697)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for nonindigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  14. CRED REA Algal Assessments, Midway Atoll, Northwestern Hawaiian Islands 2004 (NODC Accession 0010352)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Midway Atoll in the...

  15. Marine Species Survey of Johnston Atoll, Central Pacific Ocean, June 2000 (NODC Accession 0000679)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The marine biota of Johnston atoll was surveyed for non-indigenous species in June, 2000 with observations and collections made by investigators using Scuba. Eleven...

  16. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola...

  17. CRED REA Algal Assessments at Kure Atoll, NW Hawaiian Islands in 2006

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Twelve quadrats were sampled along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines, as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments, conducted at 9 sites at Kure Atoll in the NW...

  18. CRED REA Coral Population Parameters at Palmyra Atoll, Line Islands, 2004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Belt transects along 2 consecutively-placed, 25m transect lines were surveyed as part of Rapid Ecological Assessments conducted at 9 sites at Palmyra Atoll in the...

  19. Final Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge, including Environmental Assessment

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — The Restoration Plan for Rose Atoll NWR consists of removing the metal debris remaining from the grounding of a Taiwanese fishing vessel in 1993, and monitoring the...

  20. Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Guibault; K. van 't Klooster

    2012-01-01

    Generally speaking, Dutch copyright law does not differentiate in terms of the effects of copyright law according to various work categories. The Dutch Copyright Act protects "works of literature, science or art", as exemplified in the non-exhaustive list of work categories of Article 10(1) which is

  1. Transuranium radionuclides in components of the benthic environment of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data on the concentrations and distributions of transuranium radionuclides in the marine environment of Enewetak Atoll are reviewed. The distributions of the transuranics in the lagoon are very heterogeneous. The quantities of transuranics generated during the nuclear-test years at the Atoll and now associated with various sediment components are discussed. Whenever possible, concentrations of 241Am and /sup 239+240/Pu are compared

  2. Nature et fonctionnement des atolls des Tuamotu (Polynésie Française)

    OpenAIRE

    Rougerie, Francis (collab.)

    1995-01-01

    The 77 atolls of the Tuamotu Archipelago (French Polynesia) constitute bio-geomorphological singularities in the oligotrophic oceanic field of the South Pacific. These open-ocean atoll reefs are locally overlaid by sandy islets (motu) and encompass lagoons with hydrological properties that are different from oceanic water, according to their degree of enclosure. Lagoonal waters may be more or less saline and eutrophic than oceanic water. In eutrophic lagoons, corals are replaced by macro-alga...

  3. Meiobenthic and Macrobenthic Community Structure in Carbonate Sediments of Rocas Atoll (North-east, Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netto, S. A.; Warwick, R. M.; Attrill, M. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rocas is the only atoll of the South Atlantic and it is built almost exclusively by coralline red algae, vermetid gastropods and encrusting foraminiferans. Patterns in the community structure of meiofauna and macrofauna, particularly nematodes and polychaetes, at Rocas Atoll, north-east Brazil, are determined and compared for different habitats: sublittoral, tidal flat, reef pools and lagoon. Nematodes and copepods were the most abundant meiofaunal taxa. In all studied habitats at Rocas Atoll, oligochaetes, nematodes and polychaetes numerically dominate the macrofauna. Univariate and multivariate analyses reveal clear differences in community structure between the habitats of the atoll, especially between the sublittoral and the inner habitats. The number of species, total density, diversity (H') and trophic structure vary significantly between the habitats, but the differences are dependent on which faunistic category (meiobenthic or macrobenthic) is analysed. Nematodes belonging to the Epsilonematidae and Draconematidae, together with a diverse community of meiobenthic polychaetes, characterize the sublittoral habitat of Rocas Atoll. Both meiofauna and macrofauna are depressed in the tidal flat, and the local sediment instability particularly affects the polychaete abundance. Reef pools and lagoons support a very dense aggregation of invertebrates, particularly the macrofauna, when compared with other carbonate reef sediments. However, differences in the structure of meiofauna and macrofauna communities between reef pools and lagoons are not significant. Changes in meiobenthic and macrobenthic community structure are related to the gradation in the physical environment of the atoll.

  4. Primary productivity and its correlation with rainfall on Aldabra Atoll

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Shekeine

    2015-01-01

    O. ciliata with sufficient precision to deduce long-term patterns of productivity. However, satellite data were used to derive Aldabra's land surface phenology (LSP for the period 2001–2012 which was then linked to rainfall seasonality. This relationship was strongest in the eastern parts of the atoll (with a time-lag of about six weeks between rainfall changes and LSP responses, an area dominated by deciduous grasses that supports high densities of tortoises. While the seasonality in productivity, as reflected in the satellite record, is correlated with rainfall, we did not find any change in mean rainfall or productivity for the shorter period 2001–2012. The sensitivity of Aldabra's vegetation to rainfall highlights the potential impact of increasing water stress in East Africa on the region's endemic ecosystems.

  5. Bikini Atoll ionizing radiation survey - May 1985 - May 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between 1946 and 1958, the United States conducted 23 nuclear tests at the Bikini Atoll in the Marshall Islands. The single largest detonation was the Bravo test, which resulted in extensive radioactive contamination of a number of islands and prevented the timely resettlement of the native population. Since 1958, many studies have been conducted to assess clean up options and the internal and external radiation doses the Bikinians would likely receive, should they resettle the islands. Although the external dose rates from β and γ radiation have been previously determined by aerial and ground measurement techniques, technical constraints limited the assessment of external β dose rates from the Cs-137 and Sr-90/Y-90 contamination on the islands. Now, because of the recent development of very thin thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs), these external β dose rates can be measured

  6. Nucnet experience in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear Energy is a highly debated issue in the Netherlands. Public opposition has caused many delays in political decision making in relation with the expansion of new power plants. Recently the need for new reactor designs like the inherently safe reactors has become stronger. This is important for the communicators working in the nuclear field. Therefore it is needed to have a communication policy in which the main goal is building community relations focusing to public concerns and needs to gain acceptance. The public needs to be informed on options and benefits. Positive messages can influence attention and understanding, for example newspaper articles and television programs. Nucnet is an important instrument in building these relations

  7. Marine biological survey of ROI-NAMUR outfall at the United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) central command post on...

  8. Baseline marine biological survey at Roi-Namur sewage outfall, United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1997 (NODC Accession 0000630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll (USAKA) central command post on...

  9. Marine Biological Survey ROI-NAMUR Outfall, United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, May 2000 (NODC Accession 0000653)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll,approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll(USAKA) central command post on...

  10. Baseline Marine Biological Survey ROI-NAMUR Outfall United States Army Kwajalein Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands, 1997(NODC Accession 0000630)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Roi-Namur is located at the northernmost tip of Kwajalein Atoll, approximately 64 kilometers north of the U.S. Army Kwajalein Atoll(USAKA) central command post on...

  11. Netherlands' national communication on climate change policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    National Communication was produced to fulfil the Netherlands' commitments to the Framework Convention on Climate Change which was ratified by the Netherlands' Government on 21 December 1993. It gives a broad overview of the country's climate change policies and a summary of the inventory of greenhouse gas emissions. It discusses projection of emissions to 2000 and effect of measures on emissions. The vulnerability of the Netherlands to sea level rise is discussed and adaptations outlined. Initiatives on joint implementation are summarised. Finance of mitigation/adaptation, international cooperation, research programs and education and training programs on climate change and its mitigation are briefly discussed. 63 refs., 40 figs., 36 tabs

  12. Impacts of climate change in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main conclusion of the study on the title subject is that the impacts of climatic change in the Netherlands are still limited. However, the impacts will be stronger in the next decades and will be even problematic at the end of this century. In this book an overview is given of probable changes in the climate for the Netherlands, danger for flooding in specific areas of the Netherlands, changes of the nature, impacts for agriculture, tourism and recreation, and industry and businesses, and risks for public health

  13. Wave energy gradients across a Maldivian atoll: Implications for island geomorphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kench, Paul S.; Brander, Robert W.; Parnell, Kevin E.; McLean, Roger F.

    2006-11-01

    Exposure to wave energy has been used to account for a range of ecological, geological and geomorphic processes in coral reef systems, but few attempts have been made to quantify spatial variations in energy at the atoll scale. This study presents results of measurements of wave energy on reef platforms across South Maalhosmadulu Atoll, Maldives and their implications for island geomorphology. The atoll has a perforated rim (37% effective aperture) and experiences predictable shifts in monsoon winds from the west (8 months) and northeast (4 months). Results show that wave energy affecting the atoll is considerably greater during the westerly monsoon. Atoll structure promotes significant changes in wave energy and wave characteristics across the atoll. Short period (3-8 s) monsoon-driven wave energy, which is significant on windward reefs, is dissipated on the peripheral reef network and the density of lagoonal patch reefs limits development of locally generated wind-wave energy across the lagoon. However, longer period swell (8-20 s) propagates through the lagoon to leeward reefs. A windward to leeward decay in wave energy is evident in the westerly monsoon, but not in the northeast monsoon, when long period swell (from the southwest) remains significant on western reefs. Net energy calculations that account for seasonal changes in wave energy across the atoll identify a steep west-east gradient that has geomorphic significance for island building. Western reefs are dominated by westerly flowing energy that is 4.5-7 times the total energy input elsewhere in the atoll. Wave energy on central reefs is balanced, whereas net energy on eastern reef platforms is dominated by eastward propagating waves. This steep energy gradient provides a physical explanation for the presence and distribution of islands on reef platforms across the atoll and provides quantitative support for the theory of Gardiner [Gardiner, J.S., 1903. The Fauna and Geography of the Maldives and

  14. Microbial ecology of four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A Dinsdale

    Full Text Available Microbes are key players in both healthy and degraded coral reefs. A combination of metagenomics, microscopy, culturing, and water chemistry were used to characterize microbial communities on four coral atolls in the Northern Line Islands, central Pacific. Kingman, a small uninhabited atoll which lies most northerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of an open ocean ecosystem. On this atoll the microbial community was equally divided between autotrophs (mostly Prochlorococcus spp. and heterotrophs. In contrast, Kiritimati, a large and populated ( approximately 5500 people atoll, which is most southerly in the chain, had microbial and water chemistry characteristic of a near-shore environment. On Kiritimati, there were 10 times more microbial cells and virus-like particles in the water column and these microbes were dominated by heterotrophs, including a large percentage of potential pathogens. Culturable Vibrios were common only on Kiritimati. The benthic community on Kiritimati had the highest prevalence of coral disease and lowest coral cover. The middle atolls, Palmyra and Tabuaeran, had intermediate densities of microbes and viruses and higher percentages of autotrophic microbes than either Kingman or Kiritimati. The differences in microbial communities across atolls could reflect variation in 1 oceaonographic and/or hydrographic conditions or 2 human impacts associated with land-use and fishing. The fact that historically Kingman and Kiritimati did not differ strongly in their fish or benthic communities (both had large numbers of sharks and high coral cover suggest an anthropogenic component in the differences in the microbial communities. Kingman is one of the world's most pristine coral reefs, and this dataset should serve as a baseline for future studies of coral reef microbes. Obtaining the microbial data set, from atolls is particularly important given the association of microbes in the ongoing degradation

  15. Ethnicity, schooling, and merit in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Werfhorst, Herman G. van de; Van Tubergen, Frank

    2007-01-01

    We examine to what extent ethnicity affects academic ability measured in the first year of secondary school and secondary school type in the Netherlands. We focus on second-generation immigrants. The empirical results indicate that academic ability (both in mathematics and language) is not affected by ethnicity, independent of parents’ occupation, education, and resources. On a bivariate level, children of Turkish and Moroccan immigrants in the Netherlands are found relatively often in lower ...

  16. Early yaws, imported in The Netherlands.

    OpenAIRE

    Engelkens, H J; Oranje, A P; Stolz, E

    1989-01-01

    Early yaws in a 9 year old girl from Ghana, diagnosed as imported disease in The Netherlands is reported. She had lived in The Netherlands for six months. Tropical non-venereal treponematoses are rarely seen in Europe, and only a few case reports have been published. Migration and travelling may confront the medical profession with cases of tropical diseases such as yaws. Positive serological reactions in non-venereal tropical or venereal treponematoses cannot be distinguished at present.

  17. INLAND DUNE VEGETATION OF THE NETHERLANDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HAVEMAN

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Drifting sands in the Netherlands are the result of human over-exploitation (sod-cutting, over-grazing of woodlands and heathlands. The most important association of inland sand dune areas is the Spergulo-Corynephoretum (Corynephorion canescentis, which is poor in vascular plants, but in it older stager rich in mosses and especially lichens. In the Netherlands, the area of drifting sand is reduced dramatically in the last 70 years. mainly by afforestation and spontaneous succession.

  18. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Saskia Keuzenkamp

    2011-01-01

    The Dutch government wishes to promote the social acceptance of homosexuality. To gain an impression of the current status and the progress in achieving this objective, the government asked the Netherlands Institute for Social Research/SCP to carry out a study of the current statistics and trends in this regard. This report shows that the Netherlands is still the most gay-tolerant country in Europe. Nonetheless, there are limits to that tolerance and there are some groups in Dutch society whi...

  19. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Lisette Kuyper; Floor Bakker

    2006-01-01

    Original title: De houding ten opzichte van homoseksualiteit. To date, relatively little systematic research has been carried out on public attitudes to homosexual men and women in the Netherlands - far less than in the United States, for example. SCP has recently carried out a large-scale survey of the attitudes of the Dutch public to homosexuality; this was published earlier this year under the title Just doing what comes naturally. Acceptance of homosexuality in the Netherlands (Gewoon doe...

  20. Agricultural marketing in Belgium and The Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    M.T.G. Meulenberg; Viaene, J.

    1993-01-01

    Agriculture in Belgium and the Netherlands has a strong export tradition and has been market oriented for a long time. In this article agricultural markeling in Belgium and the Netherlands is analyzed on the basis of the concepts structure, conduct and performance. In our review of market structure attention is paid to the structure of agriculture, the food consumer, food retailing, government policies, competition and marketing channels. Afterwards market conduct with respect to product, pri...

  1. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 1. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the terrestrial environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides technical details of the terrestrial sampling and measurement campaign undertaken as part of the Study of the Radiological Situation at the Atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa by the Terrestrial Working Group. The primary objective of this group was to evaluate existing French data on the presence of environmental radionuclides on the atolls of Mururoa, Fangataufa and Tureia in French Polynesia. All aspects of the terrestrial environments of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls - the sites of atmospheric and underground nuclear tests - were included in the sampling programme. Tureia Atoll - the nearest inhabited island - was also included in the sampling programme, in order to determine whether deposits from atmospheric testing are detectable there. The task required the co-operation of many different parties in order to provide the supporting logistics for the sampling campaign and the expertise for analysing the different radionuclides of interest in the samples collected. Samples were analysed by members of the IAEA's co-ordinated international network of Analytical Laboratories for Measuring Environmental Radioactivity (ALMERA) and the Agency's laboratories, Seibersdorf. Samples were also sent to the French Service Mixte de Surveillance Radiologique et Biologique (SMSRB)

  2. The radiological situation at the atolls of Mururoa and Fangataufa. Technical report. V. 2. Radionuclide concentrations measured in the aquatic environment of the atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A marine monitoring programme was carried out within the framework of the IAEA's project entitled ''Study of the Radiological Situation at Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls'' with the aim of assessing present radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment of Mururoa and Fangataufa Atolls. The terms of reference of the marine working group (WG2) included a review of the data provided by the French authorities on radionuclide distributions in the littoral and sub-littoral environments at the atolls. Further, using accredited international laboratories, it was decided to carry out sufficient and new independent monitoring work at and around the atolls in order to validate existing French data and, the same time, to provide a representative and high quality data set on current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, with particular reference to the requirement of Task Group A for radiological assessment purposes. This work included measurements of the current radionuclide concentrations in the marine environment, and estimation of concentration factors and Kd values appropriate for the region. The variations in activity concentrations in the lagoons over the past few years are discussed, and the likely sources of activity implied by these data are identified where possible

  3. Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities of Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. mature trees and seedlings in the neotropical coastal forests of Guadeloupe (Lesser Antilles)

    OpenAIRE

    Séne, S.; Avril, R.; Chaintreuil, Clémence; Geoffroy, A; Ndiaye, C; Diedhiou, A. G.; Sadio, O.; Courtecuisse, R.; Sylla, S.; Selosse, M.A.; Bâ, Amadou

    2015-01-01

    We studied belowground and aboveground diversity and distribution of ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungal species colonizing Coccoloba uvifera (L.) L. (seagrape) mature trees and seedlings naturally regenerating in four littoral forests of the Guadeloupe island (Lesser Antilles). We collected 546 sporocarps, 49 sclerotia, and morphotyped 26,722 root tips from mature trees and seedlings. Seven EM fungal species only were recovered among sporocarps (Cantharellus cinnabarinus, Amanita arenicola, Russula ...

  4. Genetic evidence of hybridization between the endangered native species Iguana delicatissima and the invasive Iguana iguana (Reptilia, Iguanidae) in the Lesser Antilles: management Implications

    OpenAIRE

    Vuillaume, Barbara; Valette, Victorien; Lepais, Olivier; Grandjean, Frederic; Breuil, Michel

    2015-01-01

    The worldwide increase of hybridization in different groups is thought to have become more important with the loss of isolating barriers and the introduction of invasive species. This phenomenon could result in the extinction of endemic species. This study aims at investigating the hybridization dynamics between the endemic and threatened Lesser Antillean iguana (Iguana delicatissima) and the invasive common green iguana (Iguana iguana) in the Lesser Antilles, as well as assessing the impact ...

  5. 3-D magnetotelluric inversion with coast effect modeling to assess the geothermal potential of Anses d'Arlet (Martinique, Lesser Antilles)

    OpenAIRE

    Coppo, Nicolas; Hautot, Sophie; Wawrzyniak, Pierre; Baltassat, Jean-Michel; Girard, Jean-François; Tarits, Pascal; Martelet, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Within the framework of a global French program towards development of renewable energies, Martinique Island (Lesser Antilles, France) has been extensively investigated (from 2012 to 2013) through an integrated multi-disciplinary approach, with the aim to identify precisely the potential geothermal resources previously highlighted (Gadalia et al., 2014). Among the investigation methods deployed (geological, geochemical and hydrogeological), we carried out three magnetotelluric (MT) surve ys a...

  6. Ecoturisme, conservació de la natura i desenvolupament local: el cas de Mèxic, Amèrica Central i les Grans Antilles.

    OpenAIRE

    Nel·lo Andreu, Marta Gemma

    2003-01-01

    Ecotourism, preservation of nature and local development: the case of Mexico, Central America and the Great AntillesAREA OF STUDY AND METHODOLOGYThe present thesis is a continuity of the dissertation, in which the area of study at the time was limited to Costa Rica, a country that was starting to stand out in 1994 as regards ecotourism. However, in this doctoral thesis the territorial area of analysis has been considered appropriate for extension. The reasons why are exposed below.Throughout ...

  7. 3 CFR 8337 - Proclamation 8337 of January 6, 2009. Establishment of the Rose Atoll Marine National Monument

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... abundant marine life, deep sea coral forests, and several new fish and invertebrate species. Rose Atoll supports most of the seabird population of American Samoa, including 12 federally protected migratory... the seabird and turtle species of the Central Pacific. Threatened Pisonia atoll forest trees are...

  8. Methane emissions in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Methane is the most important greenhouse gas after carbon dioxide. Detailed national emission estimates are needed to narrow the gap between world emission estimates and budget results from atmospheric chemistry. These estimates have to be based on sound emission factors and better extrapolation of methane measurement results. The article identifies the most important sources of methane in the Netherlands as landfills, ruminants, manure and the production, distribution and combustion of gas. It explains that emissions from landfills will decrease as a result of policies to reduce landfilling. The encouragement of increased internal use of otherwise vented gas on oil and gas production platforms and the planned extra maintenance of destribution networks should further decrease emissions. Policies to reduce milk and beef surplus and the introduction of new types of stabling and manure handling systems will reduce emissions in the agriculture sector. These measures should produce a total reduction of methane of 20% in 2000 with respect to 1990 levels. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  9. Modern microbialites and their environmental significance, Meiji reef atoll, Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN JianWei; WANG Yue

    2008-01-01

    Meiji (Mischief) coral atoll, in Nansha (Spratly) Islands, South China Sea, consists of an annular reef rim surrounding a central lagoon. On the atoll rim there are either protuberant 'motu' (small coral patch reefs on the rim of atoll) islets or lower sandy cays that contain modern microbialite deposits on the corals in pinnacles and surrounding bottoms of the atoll. Microbialites, including villiform, hairy, and thin spine growth forms, as well as gelatinous masses, mats and encruststion, developed on coral colonies and atoll rim sediments between 0 and 15 m deep-water settings. The microbialites were produced by natural populations of filamentous cyanobacteria and grew on (1) bulbous corals together with Acropora sp., (2) on massive colonies of Galaxea fascicularis, (3) on dead Montipora digitata, and (4) on dead Acropora teres, some hairy microbialite growing around broken coral branches. This study demonstrates that microbial carbonates are developed in coral reefs of South China Sea and indicates that microbial processes may be important in the construction of modern reef systems. The results have significance in the determination of nature and composition in microorganisms implied in the formation ancient microbialites, and permit evaluation of the importance of microbial deposits in modern coral reefs and of 'microbialites' in biogeochemical cycles of modern coral reef systems. The results also provide evidence of modern analogues for ancient microbialites in shallow-water settings, and combine with sedimentological studies of ancient microbialites to understand their controls.

  10. Environmental assessment for the resettlement of Eneu Island on Bikini Atoll, Republic of the Marshall Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental assessment evaluates various alternatives to return the Bikini people to their homeland on Bikini Atoll. Eneu Island was spared the heavy nuclear contamination that rendered Bikini Island, the largest and main inhabitable island on the atoll, presently unsuitable for resettlement. The economic, social, technical and environmental consequences of all alternatives were compared, and alternative sites, purposes and scales for resettlement were included in the analysis. This environmental assessment explores these alternatives in detail and concludes that the resettlement of Eneu Island by some of the Bikini people at this time will not result in significant adverse effects to the environment nor will it foreclose any other full scale resettlement option involving the cleanup of Bikini Atoll. In addition, it concludes that the resettlement of Eneu can be accomplished independently from the planned cleanup and resettlement of Bikini Island. Plans and combination of plans involving the early resettlement of Eneu are fully feasible and implementable at this time. (author)

  11. Some statistical aspects of the cleanup of Enewetak Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cleaning up the radionuclide contamination at Enewetak Atoll has involved a number of statistical design problems. Theoretical considerations led to choosing a grid sampling pattern; practical problems sometimes lead to resampling on a finer grid. Other problems associated with using grids have been both physical and statistical. The standard sampling system is an in situ intrinsic gamma detector which measures americium concentration. The cleanup guidelines include plutonium concentration, so additional sampling of soil is required to establish Pu/Am ratios. The soil sampling design included both guidelines for location of the samples and also a special pattern of subsamples making up composite samples. The large variance of the soil, sample results makes comparison between the two types difficult anyway, but this is compounded by vegetation attenuation of the in situ readings, soil disturbance influences, and differences in devegetation methods. The constraints inherent in doing what amounts to a research and development project, on a limited budget of time and money, in a field engineering environment are also considered

  12. Wave transformation and shoreline water level on Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beetham, Edward; Kench, Paul S.; O'Callaghan, Joanne; Popinet, Stéphane

    2016-01-01

    The influence of sea swell (SS) waves, infragravity (IG) waves, and wave setup on maximum runup (Rmax) is investigated across different tidal stages on Fatato Island, Funafuti Atoll, Tuvalu. Field results illustrate that SS waves are tidally modulated at the shoreline, with comparatively greater wave attenuation and setup occurring at low tide versus high tide. A shoreward increase in IG wave height is observed across the 100 m wide reef flat at all tidal elevations, with no tidal modulation of IG wave height at the reef flat or island shoreline. A 1-D shock-capturing Green-Naghdi solver is used to replicate the field deployment and analyze Rmax. Model outputs for SS wave height, IG wave height and setup at the shoreline match field results with model skill >0.96. Model outputs for Rmax are used to identify the temporal window when geomorphic activity can occur on the beach face. During periods of moderate swell energy, waves can impact the beach face at spring low tide, due to a combination of wave setup and strong IG wave activity. Under mean wave conditions, the combined influence of setup, IG waves and SS waves results in interaction with island sediment at midtide. At high tide, SS and IG waves directly impact the beach face. Overall, wave activity is present on the beach face for 71% of the study period, a significantly longer duration than is calculated using mean water level and topographic data.

  13. Developing tools to eradicate ecologically destructive ants on Rose Atoll: effectiveness and attractiveness of formicidal baits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, Robert; Banko, Paul; Pendleton, Frank

    2014-01-01

    A key factor contributing to the decline in the population of Pisonia grandis on Rose Atoll is an infestation of the non-native scale, Pulvinaria urbicola (Homoptera: Coccidae). Ants, in facultative relationships with scale insects, may facilitate scale population growth and increase their effect on plant hosts. Three ant species found on Rose Atoll, Tetramorium bicarinatum, T. simillimum, and Pheidole oceanica, are capable of tending Pulvinaria on Pisonia and may have contributed to the demise of the trees on the atoll. Replicated trials conducted on Rose Atoll during 17–21 March 2013 tested the effectiveness and relative attractiveness of five formicidal baits potentially to be used to eradicate these ants on the atoll. Three baits contained toxins (hydramethylnon in Amdro® and Maxforce®, indoxacarb in Provaunt®) and two baits contained an insect growth regulator (IGR; pyriproxyfen in Distance® and s-methoprene in Tango®). Amdro, Distance, and Maxforce are granular baits while Provaunt and Tango were mixed with adjuvants to form a gel-like matrix. Results varied among ant species and baits, but Provaunt was highly effective against workers of both Tetramorium species while Amdro and Maxforce were highly effective against T. simillimum and P. oceanica. Limited time on the island prevented the evaluation of the effectiveness of the IGR baits. The relative attractiveness of the baits generally mirrored their ability to kill worker ants. Tetramorium simillimum was attracted to all five baits; T. bicarinatum was attracted to Provaunt, Distance, and Tango; and P. oceanica was attracted to the three granular baits. These results and the small area of Rose Atoll suggest that island-wide application of formicidal baits may result in eradication of these ants, but an application strategy targeting all three species would more likely succeed with the use of multiple baits.

  14. Euthanasia in Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-01

    Each of the Benelux countries (Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands) has enacted legislation that partially decriminalises euthanasia, defined as an act that intentionally terminates someone's life at their request. In the Netherlands and Luxembourg, but not in Belgium, the legislation partially decriminalised assisted suicide at the same time. In all three countries, euthanasia can only be performed by a doctor, in response to the patient's voluntary and well-considered request, and for patients who have an incurable disease that causes unbearable suffering, without any prospect of relief. In the Netherlands, minors can request euthanasia as of the age of 12 years. In 2011, reported euthanasia accounted for about 1% of deaths in Belgium and 3% in the Netherlands. In 75% of cases, cancer was the disease leading to a request for euthanasia. In the Netherlands, the number of cases of euthanasia reported by doctors in surveys matches the number that is officially declared. In Belgium, it is thought that there are as many unreported as reported cases of euthanasia. Since the enactment of euthanasia legislation, fewer deaths involve the intentional administration of lethal drugs without an explicit request from the patient. PMID:24427846

  15. Green growth in the Netherlands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In 2009 the Ministerial Council Meeting of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) committed itself to a green growth strategy. Such a strategy fosters economic growth and development while ensuring that natural resources can continue to provide the ecosystem services on which our well-being relies. It also endorses investment, competition and innovation which will underpin sustained growth and give rise to new economic opportunities. Green growth provides both a policy strategy for implementing this economic transformation and a monitoring framework with a proposed set of indicators. This report presents an overview of the state of green growth in the Netherlands. It should be regarded as a benchmark for a more thorough and comprehensive assessment of green growth in the future. It is based on the set of indicators proposed by the OECD in their intermediate report of February 2011. Data relevant to the Dutch situation are presented for twenty of these indicators, illustrating the observed trends. The indicators are grouped in four themes. For the first theme, environmental efficiency of production, on the whole the indicators show increased efficiency. However, indicators such as greenhouse gas intensity, energy efficiency and material intensity show only relative decoupling, which on its own is not enough to ensure green growth. In addition, the increase in environmental efficiency is partly explained by substitution of imports for domestic production, which is not conducive to green growth on a global scale: the efficiency gains in domestic production, for example, are offset by increases in foreign greenhouse gas emissions. Water use and agricultural nutrient surpluses are the only indicators where absolute decoupling has occurred. The second theme contains indicators regarding the natural assets base. This group of indicators provides a mixed picture. Natural gas reserves are decreasing and the overall level of threat to animal

  16. Invertebrate distribution patterns and river typology for the implementation of the water framework directive in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadet C.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the past decade, Europe’s Water Framework Directive provided compelling reasons for developing tools for the biological assessment of freshwater ecosystem health in member States. Yet, the lack of published study for Europe’s overseas regions reflects minimal knowledge of the distribution patterns of aquatic species in Community’s outermost areas. Benthic invertebrates (84 taxa and land-cover, physical habitat and water chemistry descriptors (26 variables were recorded at fifty-one stations in Martinique, French Lesser Antilles. Canonical Correspondence Analysis and Ward’s algorithm were used to bring out patterns in community structure in relation to environmental conditions, and variation partitioning was used to specify the influence of geomorphology and anthropogenic disturbance on invertebrate communities. Species richness decreased from headwater to lowland streams, and species composition changed from northern to southern areas. The proportion of variation explained by geomorphological variables was globally higher than that explained by anthropogenic variables. Geomorphology and land cover played key roles in delineating ecological sub-regions for the freshwater biota. Despite this and the small surface area of Martinique (1080 km2, invertebrate communities showed a clear spatial turnover in composition and biological traits (e.g., insects, crustaceans and molluscs in relation to natural conditions.

  17. Remote sensing observations of the coherent and non-coherent ring structures in the vicinity of Lesser Antilles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. C. Cruz Gómez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The North Brazil Current Rings (NBCR penetration into the Caribbean Sea is being investigated by employing a merged altimeter-derived sea height anomaly (TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1 and ERS-1, 2, the ocean surface color data (SeaWiFS and Global Drifter Program information. Four strategies are being applied to process the data: (1 calculations of the Okubo-Weiss parameter for NBCR identification, (2 longitude-time plots (also known as Hovmöller diagrams, (3 two-dimensional Radon transforms and (4 two-dimensional Fourier transforms.

    A twofold NBCR structure has been detected in the region under investigation. The results have shown that NBC rings mainly propagate into the Caribbean Sea along two principal pathways (near 12° N and 17° N in the ring translation corridor. Thus, rings following the southern pathway in the fall-winter period can enter through very shallow southern straits as non-coherent structures. A different behavior is observed near the northern pathway (~17° N, where NBC rings are thought to have a coherent structure during their squeezing into the eastern Caribbean, i.e. conserving the principal characteristics of the incident rings. We attribute this difference in the rings' behavior to the vertical scales of the rings and to the bottom topography features in the vicinity of the Lesser Antilles.

  18. The Social State of the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Rob Bijl; Jeroen Boelhouwer; Evert Pommer

    2007-01-01

    Original title: De sociale staat van Nederland 2007. How is the Dutch population faring? That is the central question addressed in The Social State of the Netherlands 2007. To answer this question, the report describes the position of the Netherlands and the Dutch in a number of key areas of life today and explores whether any changes have taken place in that situation over the last ten years. Have people's incomes improved? Are there more people in work? Are people less troubled by crime? Ha...

  19. Ageing aircraft research in the Netherlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejonge, J. B.; Bartelds, G.

    1992-01-01

    The problems of aging aircraft are worldwide. Hence, international cooperative actions to overcome or prevent problems should be taken. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the Netherlands Civil Aviation Department (RLD) signed a Memorandum of Cooperation in the area of structural integrity, with specific reference to research on problems in the area of aging aircraft. Here, an overview is given of aging research that is going on in the Netherlands. The work described is done largely at the National Aerospace Laboratory; much of the research is part of the forementioned cooperative agreement.

  20. Strategic Plan for Astronomy in the Netherlands 2011-2020

    OpenAIRE

    Groot, P.J.; Kuijken, K.; Stark, R.

    2012-01-01

    Strategic Plan for Astronomy in the Netherlands 2011 - 2020, written by the Netherlands Committee for Astronomy (NCA), on behalf of the excellence research school in astronomy NOVA, (combining the university astronomy institutes of the universities of Amsterdam, Groningen, Leiden and Nijmegen), the NWO division of Physical Sciences, the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy ASTRON and the Netherlands Institute for Space Research SRON. The Strategic plan outlines the scientific priorities ...

  1. Radiological conditions at the Southern Islands of Rongelap Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The data presented in the following tables is the total available for each southern island; they include both the data from the 1978 Northern Marshall Island Radiological Survey (NMIRS) and trips to Rongelap Atoll from 1986 through 1991. There are additional samples that were taken at Rongelap Island in 1990 and 1991, and the data are unavailable for this report. In one table we present the number of vegetation samples collected in the 1978 NMIRS and from 1986 through 1991. Again, the majority of the 137Cs is from the 1986-1991 trips. We have not made additional analyses of 239+240Pu, 241Am and 90Sr because the concentrations are very low and these radionuclides contribute less than 5% of an already very small dose. In another table we show the number of soil samples collected at each island in 1978 and the number collected since 1986. Most of the data are from 1986 through 1991. The major exception is 90Sr where all of the data are from the 1978 NMIRS. We have done some additional Pu analyses of soils from Rongelap Eniaetok, and Borukka Island but none of the other southern islands. A significant amount of new data for 137Cs and 241Am have been generated from the samples collected from 1986 through 1991. The data are presented in the form of summary tables, graphics, detailed appendices and aerial photographs of the islands with the sample locations marked. The identified sample locations from the 1978 NMIRS will be added later

  2. Characterization studies of actinide contamination on Johnston Atoll

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents results that indicates that plutonium and americium contamination of Johnson Atoll soil and sludge from the cleanup plant settling pond is dispersed. The 241Am/239Pu ratio was essentially identical for all analyzed material. Except for one ''hot particle,'' no discrete Pu particles were located in untreated coral soil by SEM even though our sample contained both 241Am and 239Pu activity measurable by gammaray spectrometry. Alpha particle spectrometry analysis of sequentially filtered sludge showed small that activity is associated with particles as 0.4 μm in diameter. Thin section analysis revealed that the ''hot particle'' was a fragment of stainless steel with a layer of oxidized Pu, U, and other metals deposited on the outside. This Pu-containing layer was covered with a layer of coral soil that formed on the oxidized Pu/U phase during the process of weathering on JA. Analyses of all samples except the ''hot particle'' with SEM or TEM coupled with EDS did not reveal the presence of any distinct Pu phases, despite measurable activity in these samples. Together, these findings are consistent with the Pu and Am being highly dispersed throughout the contaminated soil and sludge. Direct evidence for association of Pu with coral was observed in the thin section of the ''hot particle.'' A possible mechanism for the dispersal of contamination is that weathering of fragments from the aborted missile leads to complexation of Pu with calcium carbonate followed by adsorption onto the coral soil surface. This process has not led to measurable fractionation of Am from its Pu parent

  3. Radiological survey of plants, animals, and soil at Christmas Island and seven atolls in the Marshall Islands. Progress report for 1974--1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Division of Operational Safety or DOS (now Safety Standards and Compliance) portion of the Laboratory of Radiation Ecology (LRE) Pacific Radiocology Program (formerly Johnston Atoll Program) began on 1 July 1974 and is continuing. The purpose of this program is to determine the kinds and amounts of radionuclides distributed in the foods, plants, animals, and soil of the Central Pacific, especially the Marshall Islands. Five field trips were conducted for this program between April 1974 and August 1975, and about 600 samples were collected. Results of the analyses indicate that 90Sr and 137Cs are dominant in the terrestrial environment and, in addition, 241Am and /sup 239,240/Pu are also important in the soil from Bikini and Rongelap atolls. Cobalt-60 and 55Fe are predominant in the marine environment together with naturally occurring 40K. Amounts of radioactivity vary between atolls and between islands within an atoll in relation to the distance from the nuclear weapons test sites. Bikini atoll has the highest amounts of radioactivity, but the northern islands of Rongelap Atoll have only slightly lower amounts. Rongerik and Ailinginae atolls and the southern islands of Rongelap Atoll have similar amounts of radioactivity which are lower than Bikini by factors of 5 to 10 or more. Values at Utirik Atoll are lower still, but are higher than amounts at Wotho and Kwajalein atolls. Christmas Island in the Line Islands has the least amount of radioactivity of the areas surveyed for this report

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3AP 16 45.260N, 169 31.039W, between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Midway Atoll Site P2C 9/21/2002 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P2C 28.260 N, 177.345 W, between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 26P 6/22/2005 (2)M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P (14 32.465S, 168 09.472W), at meter 2 along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P9 9/28/2002 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P9 (27.794 N, 175.859 W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent...

  8. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 30-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/30/1999 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent...

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P9 9/28/2002 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P9 (27.794 N, 175.859 W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent...

  12. Rose Atoll Site 25P 7/30/1999 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P (14 32.297S, 168 09.327W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 56-57M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 56 and 57 meters along a permanent...

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent...

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent...

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P12 9/29/2002 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P12 (27.763 N, 175.973 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent...

  17. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/20/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280S, 168 09.878W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 10-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/29/1999 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/29/1999 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P (14 32.282S, 168 09.218W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 5P 2/10/2004 47-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 5P (14 33.280 S, 168 09.878 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 29P 3/9/2006 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P 14 32.227S, 168 09.122W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 46.909N, 169 27.757W, between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 27P 2/21/2012 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 27P 14 33.038S, 168 09.251W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/31/1999 9-10.5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30PB 05 52.907N, 162 07.218W, between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 48-49M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 48 and 49 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 40-41M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 40 and 41 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 45-46M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 45 and 46 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 41-42M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 41 and 42 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 30P-B 9/6/2006 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 30P-B (05 52.907N, 162 07.218W), between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 9P-B 3/29/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 9P-B (05 52.056N, 162 05.272W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P 05 52.868N, 162 02.529W, between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Midway Atoll Site P18 12/4/2002 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P18 28.263 N, 177.337 W, between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P1 6/13/2000 66-67M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Pearl Hermes Atoll, site P1 27.831N, 175.751 W, between 66 and 67 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Rose Atoll Site 26P 3/6/2006 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P 14 32.465S, 168 09.472W, between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 26P 2/23/2012 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P 14 32.465S, 168 09.472S, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P 05 52.868N, 162 02.529W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P 05 52.868N, 162 02.529W, between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 46.909N, 169 27.757W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of 137Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff

  13. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 14P 2/21/2012 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 14P (14 33.071S, 168 09.421W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/15/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P 05 52.221N, 162 02.697W, between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 28.277 N, 177.368 W, between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 29P 7/31/2004 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 29P 14 32.227S, 168 09.122W, between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 46.909N, 169 27.757W, between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Midway Atoll Site P20 12/6/2002 49-50M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P20 28.271 N, 177.385 W, between 49 and 50 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 9P 7/30/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 28.231 N, 177.318 W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 26P 7/29/2004 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 26P 14 32.465S, 168 09.472S, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 47.170N, 169 27.908W, between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Midway Atoll Site P14 9/24/2002 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P14 28.241 N, 177.371 W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Midway Atoll Site P19 12/5/2002 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P19 28.193 N, 177.401 W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Johnston Atoll Site 1B-P 6/29/2000 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1BP 16 47.147N, 169 27.695W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 14P 2/21/2012 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 14P 14 33.071S, 168 09.421W, between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Midway Atoll Site P2 9/21/2002 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P2 28.260 N, 177.345 W, between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 84-85M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 84 and 85 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 32-33M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 32 and 33 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 64-65M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 64 and 65 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 77-78M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 77 and 78 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 52-53M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 52 and 53 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 58-59M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 58 and 59 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 83-84M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 83 and 84 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 58-59M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 58 and 59 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 50-51M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 50 and 51 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 75-76M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 75 and 76 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 90-91M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 90 and 91 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 85-86M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 85 and 86 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 54-55M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 54 and 55 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 57-58M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 57 and 58 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 29-30M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 29 and 30 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 61-62M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 61 and 62 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 57-58M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 57 and 58 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 18-19M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 18 and 19 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 63-64M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 63 and 64 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 81-82M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 81 and 82 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 79-80M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 79 and 80 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 75-76M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 75 and 76 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 86-87M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 86 and 87 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 19-20M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 19 and 20 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 83-84M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 83 and 84 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 67-68M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 67 and 68 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 28-29M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 28 and 29 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 89-90M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 89 and 90 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 76-77M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 76 and 77 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 81-82M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 81 and 82 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 82-83M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 82 and 83 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 76-77M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 76 and 77 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 55-56M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 55 and 56 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 79-80M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 79 and 80 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 66-67M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 66 and 67 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 53-54M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 53 and 54 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 61-62M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 61 and 62 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 80-81M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 80 and 81 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 21-22M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 21 and 22 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 74-75M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 74 and 75 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 27-28M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 27 and 28 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 2-3M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 2 and 3 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 60-61M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 77-78M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 77 and 78 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 20-21M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 20 and 21 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 12-13M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 12 and 13 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 13-14M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 13 and 14 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 74-75M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 74 and 75 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 78-79M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 78 and 79 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 87-88M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 87 and 88 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 62-63M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 62 and 63 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 91-92M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 91 and 92 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 1-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 1 and 2 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 84-85M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 84 and 85 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 82-83M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 82 and 83 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 56-57M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 56 and 57 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 31-32M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 31 and 32 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 60-61M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 60 and 61 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P3 6/14/2000 88-89M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P3 (27.833 N, 175.753W), between 88 and 89 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 59-60M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 59 and 60 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P4 6/14/2000 78-79M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P4 (27.834N, 175.753 W), between 78 and 79 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Pearl & Hermes Atoll Site P6 9/19/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Pearl & Hermes Atoll, site P6 (27.817 N, 175.833W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Rose Atoll Site 7P 2/20/2012 9-10M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 7P 14 32.967S, 168 10.086W, between 9 and 10 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 47.170N, 169 27.908W, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 10P 7/30/2004 5-6M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 5 and 6 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 36-37M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 36 and 37 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 16P 9/24/2004 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 16P 05 52.291N, 162 06.738W, between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Palmyra Atoll Site 27P 9/21/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 27P (05 52.868N, 162 02.529W), between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Midway Atoll Site P17 12/4/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P17 (28.231 N, 177.318 W), between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 47-48M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 (28.277 N, 177.368 W), between 47 and 48 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 16-17M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 16 and 17 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 17-18M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 17 and 18 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Rose Atoll Site 8P 7/28/2004 51-52M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 8P 14 32.282S, 168 09.218W, between 51 and 52 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Collection and processing of plant, animal and soil samples from Bikini, Enewetak and Rongelap Atolls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, M.L.

    1995-09-01

    The United States used the Marshall Islands for its nuclear weapons program testing site from 1946 to 1958. The BRAVO test was detonated at Bikini Atoll on March 1, 1954. Due to shifting wind conditions at the time of the nuclear detonation, many of the surrounding Atolls became contaminated with fallout (radionuclides carried by the wind currents). Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s (LLNL) Marshall Islands Project has been responsible for the collecting, processing, and analyzing of food crops, vegetation, soil, water, animals, and marine species to characterize the radionuclides in the environment, and to estimate dose at atolls that may have been contaminated. Tropical agriculture experiments reducing the uptake of {sup 137}Cs have been conducted on Bikini Atoll. The Marshall Islands field team and laboratory processing team play an important role in the overall scheme of the Marshall Islands Dose Assessment and Radioecology Project. This report gives a general description of the Marshall Islands field sampling and laboratory processing procedures currently used by our staff.

  20. Rose Atoll Site 13P 2/19/2012 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P (14 32.946S, 168 09.584W), between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Rose Atoll Site 9P 3/9/2006 35-36M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 9P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 35 and 36 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Rose Atoll Site 28P 7/29/2004 46-47M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 28P 14 32.300S, 168 09.401W, between 46 and 47 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P 05 52.219N, 162 02.697W, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Rose Atoll Site 25P 2/21/2012 42-43M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P 14 32.297S, 168 09.327W, between 42 and 43 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Rose Atoll Site 10P 2/19/2012 6-7M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 10P 14 33.075S, 168 09.622W, between 6 and 7 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 28.277 N, 177.368 W, between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of limestones and dolomites, bikini and eniwetok atolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Gross M.; Tracey, J.I., Jr.

    1966-01-01

    Aragonitic, unconxolidated sediments from the borings on the Eniwetok and Bikini atolls are isotopically identical with unaltered skeletal fragments, whereas the recrystallized limestones exhibit isotopic variations resulting from alteration in meteoric waters during periods of emergence. Dolomites and associated calcites are enriched in O18, perhaps because of interaction with hypersaline brines.

  8. Rose Atoll Site 4P 2/20/2012 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 4P 14 33.569 S, 168 09.617 W, between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Rose Atoll Site 32P 8/2/2004 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 32P 14 32.361S, 168 09.430W, between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 4P 2/20/2012 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 4P 14 33.569 S, 168 09.617 W, between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3A-P (16 45.260N, 169 31.039W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 10-11M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 10 and 11 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 37-38M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3A-P (16 45.260N, 169 31.039W), between 37 and 38 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 3-4M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 33-34M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 33 and 34 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 30-31M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 30 and 31 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 8-9M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 8 and 9 meters along a permanent transect.

  20. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 43-44M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 43 and 44 meters along a permanent transect.

  1. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 11-12M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 11 and 12 meters along a permanent transect.

  2. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 7-8M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3A-P (16 45.260N, 169 31.039W), between 7 and 8 meters along a permanent transect.

  3. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 39-40M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 39 and 40 meters along a permanent transect.

  4. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 25-26M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 47.170N, 169 27.908W), between 25 and 26 meters along a permanent transect.

  5. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 4-5M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 4 and 5 meters along a permanent transect.

  6. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 15-16M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3A-P (16 45.260N, 169 31.039W), between 15 and 16 meters along a permanent transect.

  7. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 1/23/2006 24-25M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1A-P (16 46.909N, 169 27.757W), between 24 and 25 meters along a permanent transect.

  8. Johnston Atoll Site 3A-P 7/1/2000 26-27M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 3A-P (16 45.260N, 169 31.039W), between 26 and 27 meters along a permanent transect.

  9. Johnston Atoll Site 2A-P 6/30/2000 38-39M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — One-meter-square (1 meter x 1 meter) benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 2A-P (16 45.815N, 169 30.706W), between 38 and 39 meters along a permanent transect.

  10. Rose Atoll Site 7P 2/24/2002 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 7P 14 32.967S, 168 10.086W, between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  11. Palmyra Atoll Site 15P 3/31/2004 44-45M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Palmyra Atoll, site 15P 05 52.219N, 162 02.697W, between 44 and 45 meters along a permanent transect.

  12. Rose Atoll Site 13P 2/19/2012 14-15M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P 14 32.946S, 168 09.584W, between 14 and 15 meters along a permanent transect.

  13. Rose Atoll Site 13P 2/19/2012 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 13P 14 32.946S, 168 09.584W, between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.

  14. Rose Atoll Site 23P 2/10/2004 3-2M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 23P 14 32.538S, 168 10.341W, between 3 and 4 meters along a permanent transect.

  15. Johnston Atoll Site 1A-P 6/29/2000 0-1M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Johnston Atoll, site 1AP 16 47.170N, 169 27.908W, between 0 and 1 meters along a permanent transect.

  16. Rose Atoll Site 25P 2/21/2012 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Rose Atoll, site 25P 14 32.297S, 168 09.327W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  17. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 34-35M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 28.277 N, 177.368 W, between 34 and 35 meters along a permanent transect.

  18. Midway Atoll Site P20 12/6/2002 22-23M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P20 28.271 N, 177.385 W, between 22 and 23 meters along a permanent transect.

  19. Capilloquinol: A Novel Farnesyl Quinol from the Dongsha Atoll Soft Coral Sinularia capillosa

    OpenAIRE

    Shang-Kwei Wang; Chang-Yih Duh; Shi-Yie Cheng; Ki-Jhih Huang

    2011-01-01

    Capilloquinol (1), possessing an unprecedented farnesyl quinoid skeleton, was isolated from the Dongsha Atoll soft coral Sinularia capillosa. The structure of capilloquinol was elucidated by extensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The cytotoxicity and antiviral activity against human cytomegalovirus of 1 was evaluated in vitro.

  20. Midway Atoll Site P16 12/3/2002 23-24M

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Onemetersquare 1 meter x 1 meter benthic substrate at Midway Atoll, site P16 28.277 N, 177.368 W, between 23 and 24 meters along a permanent transect.