WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric water vapour

  1. Water Vapour Content of the Atmosphere in Relation to Surface Humidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. C. Majumdar

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available The theoretical relationship between precipitate water vapour in the atmosphere & surface humidity has been investigated. By introducing the concept of a lapse parameter alpha, a method has been devised for estimation of precipitable water vapour. Results have been compared for six Indian Stations for which upper air data were available.

  2. Accuracy of the Water Vapour Content Measurements in the Atmosphere Using Optical Methods

    CERN Document Server

    Galkin, V D; Alekseeva, G A; Novikov, V V; Pakhomov, V P

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the accuracy and the errors of water vapour content measurements in the atmosphere using optical methods, especially starphotometer. After the general explanations of the used expressions for the star-magnitude observations of the water vapour absorption in section 3 the absorption model for the water vapour band will be discussed. Sections 4 and 5 give an overview on the technique to determine the model parameters both from spectroscopic laboratory and radiosonde observation data. Finally, the sections 6 and 7 are dealing with the details of the errors; that means errors of observable magnitude, of instrumental extraterrestrial magnitude, of atmospheric extinction determination and of water vapour content determination by radiosonde humidity measurements. The main conclusion is: Because of the high precision of the results the optical methods for water vapour observation are suited to validate and calibrate alternative methods (GPS, LIDAR, MICROWAVE) which are making constant progress wo...

  3. The Research on Atmospheric Pressure Water Vapour Plasma Generation and Application for the Destruction of Wastes

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    Viktorija Grigaitiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Lithuanian Energy Institute an experimental atmospheric pressure Ar/water vapour plasma torch has been designed and tested. The power of plasma torch was estimated 40 ÷ 69 kW, the mean temperature of plasma jet at the exhaust nozzle was 2300÷2900K. The chemical compositionof water vapour plasma was established from the emission spectrum lines at 300 ÷ 800nm range. The main species observed in Ar/water vapour plasma were: Ar, OH, H, O, Cu. The experiments on water vapour steam reforming were performed. The results confirmed that water vapour plasma has the unique properties – high enthalpy and environmentally friendly conditions. It could be employed for environmental purposes such as destruction of wastes into simple molecules or conversion to synthetic gas.

  4. Advanced InSAR atmospheric correction: MERIS/MODIS combination and stacked water vapour models

    OpenAIRE

    Z. Li; Fielding, E.; Cross, P; R. Preusker

    2009-01-01

    A major source of error for repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR) is the phase delay in radio signal propagation through the atmosphere (especially the part due to tropospheric water vapour). Based on experience with the Global Positioning System (GPS)/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) integrated model and the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) correction model, two new advanced InSAR water vapour correction models are demonstrated using ...

  5. Deuterium excess in the atmospheric water vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland: regional vs. local signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delattre, H.; Vallet-Coulomb, C.; Sonzogni, C.

    2015-09-01

    Stable isotopes of water vapour represent a powerful tool for tracing atmospheric vapour origin and mixing processes. Laser spectrometry recently allowed high time-resolution measurements, but despite an increasing number of experimental studies, there is still a need for a better understanding of the isotopic signal variability at different time scales. We present results of in situ measurements of δ18O and δD during 36 consecutive days in summer 2011 in atmospheric vapour of a Mediterranean coastal wetland exposed to high evaporation (Camargue, Rhône River delta, France). The mean composition of atmospheric vapour (δv) is δ18O = -14.66 ‰ and δD = - 95.4 ‰, with data plotting clearly above the local meteoric water line on a δ18O-δD plot, and an average deuterium excess (d) of 21.9 ‰. Important diurnal d variations are observed, and an hourly time scale analysis is necessary to interpret the main processes involved in its variability. After having classified the data according to air mass back trajectories, we analyse the average daily cycles relating to the two main meteorological situations, i.e. air masses originating from North Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea. In both situations, we show that diurnal fluctuations are driven by (1) the influence of local evaporation, culminating during daytime, and leading to an increase in absolute water vapour concentration associated to a δv enrichment and d increase; (2) vertical air mass redistribution when the Planetary Boundary Layer collapses in the evening, leading to a d decrease, and (3) dew formation during the night, producing a δv depletion with d remaining stable. Using a two-component mixing model, we calculate the average composition of the locally evaporated vapour (δE). We find higher d(E) under North Atlantic air mass conditions, which is consistent with lower humidity conditions. We also suggest that δv measured when the PBL collapses is the most representative of a regional signal

  6. Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation

    OpenAIRE

    Dim, J. R.; T. Y. Nakajima; T. Takamura; Kikuchi, N

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity) are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI) satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from ...

  7. Canopy-scale kinetic fractionation of atmospheric carbon dioxide and water vapour isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The isotopic fluxes of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water vapour (H2O) between the atmosphere and terrestrial plants provide powerful constraints on carbon sequestration on land 1-2, changes in vegetation cover 3 and the Earth’s Dole effect 4. Past studies, relying mainly on leaf-scale observations, hav...

  8. Climatology of middle atmospheric water vapour above the ALOMAR observatory in northern Norway

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    K. Hallgren

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We have been observing the water vapour line at 22.235 GHz above ALOMAR in northern Norway (69° N, 16° E since early 1996 with ground-based microwave spectrometers (WASPAM and cWASPAM and will here describe a climatology based on these observations. Maintenance, different spectrometers and upgrades of the hardware have slightly changed the instruments. Therefore great care has been taken to make sure the different datasets are compatible with each other. In order to maximise the sensitivity at high altitude for the older instrument a long integration time (168 h was chosen. The complete dataset was thereafter recompiled into a climatology which describes the yearly variation of water vapour at polar latitudes on a weekly basis. The atmosphere is divided into 16 layers between 40–80 km, each 2.5 km thick. The dataset, spanning 15 yr from 1996 to 2010, enabled us to investigate the long-term behaviour of water vapour at these latitudes. By comparing the measurements from every year to the climatological mean we were also able to look for indications of trends in the dataset at different altitudes during the time period of our observations. In general there is a weak negative trend which differs slightly at different altitudes. There are however no drifts in the annual variation of water vapour from the point of view of onset of summer and winter. We compare our climatology to the reference water vapour profiles from AFGL, a free and easy accessible reference atmosphere. There are strong deviations between our observations and the reference profile, therefore we publish our climatological dataset in a table in the paper.

  9. MAX-DOAS observations of the total atmospheric water vapour column and comparison with independent observations

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, T.; Andreae, M. O.; S. Beirle; Dörner, S.; K. Mies; Shaiganfar, R.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an algorithm for the retrieval of the atmospheric water vapour column from Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations in the yellow and red spectral range. The retrieval is based on the so-called geometric approximation and does not depend on explicit a priori information for individual observations, extensive radiative transfer simulations, or the construction of large look-up tables. Disturbances of the radiative transfer due to aerosols and...

  10. MAX-DOAS observations of the total atmospheric water vapour column and comparison with independent observations

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, T.; Andreae, M. O.; S. Beirle; Dörner, S.; K. Mies; Shaiganfar, R.

    2012-01-01

    We developed an algorithm for the retrieval of the atmospheric water vapour column from Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations in the yellow and red spectral range. The retrieval is based on the so called geometric approximation and does not depend on a-priori information, extensive radiative transfer simulations, or the construction of large look-up tables. Disturbances of the radiative transfer due to aerosols and clouds are simply corrected u...

  11. Generation and spectroscopic investigation of an atmospheric pressure water vapour plasma jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water vapour plasma technologies could be used for the conversion of biomass to hydrogen rich synthetic gas and for the neutralization and utilization of hazardous wastes. Formation of water vapour plasma has been investigated using a linear direct current plasma torch with stair stepped anode. A new device with a unique structure, operating at atmospheric pressure has been designed and tested at Lithuanian Energy Institute, Plasma Processing Laboratory for the innovative and environmental friendly plasma treatment of organic materials. The main operating conditions of plasma torch and main parameters of water vapour plasma jet were investigated. The power of plasma torch was 25–45kW; arc current was 140–180 A, the arc voltage was 172–231 V, the efficiency was 0.5–0.78. The average temperature of water vapour plasma jet in exhaust nozzle was 2600–3500 K, and the plasma jet velocity was 200–310 m/s. Emission lines, registered by the optical emission spectrometer AOS4-1, are analysed to observe the chemical composition of water vapour plasma jet. The optical emission spectrum measurement shows that the water molecule in the plasma is decomposed into H, OH and O radicals. Hydrogen is very desirable in the formation of high caloric synthetic gas (CO+H2) during thermal plasma gasification of organic materials. The summarized results can help to calculate and design gasification systems of biomass, to establish optimal parameters for stable operation of plasma generator and regulate the process parameters. (author)

  12. Water Vapour Absorption in the Clear Atmosphere of an exo-Neptune

    CERN Document Server

    Fraine, Jonathan; Benneke, Björn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

    2014-01-01

    Transmission spectroscopy to date has detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain high mean molecular weights, opaque clouds, or scattering hazes in their atmospheres, obscuring our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of HAT-P-11b (~4 Earth radii) from the optical to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at 1.4 micrometre wavelength. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts-per- million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to ~1 mbar, and sufficiently hydrogen-rich to exhibit a large scale height. The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere with an upper limit of ~700 times the abundance of...

  13. ANNEALING OF POLYCRYSTALLINE THIN FILM SILICON SOLAR CELLS IN WATER VAPOUR AT SUB-ATMOSPHERIC PRESSURES

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    Peter Pikna

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Thin film polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si solar cells were annealed in water vapour at pressures below atmospheric pressure. PN junction of the sample was contacted by measuring probes directly in the pressure chamber filled with steam during passivation. Suns-VOC method and a Lock-in detector were used to monitor an effect of water vapour to VOC of the solar cell during whole passivation process (in-situ. Tested temperature of the sample (55°C – 110°C was constant during the procedure. Open-circuit voltage of a solar cell at these temperatures is lower than at room temperature. Nevertheless, voltage response of the solar cell to the light flash used during Suns-VOC measurements was good observable. Temperature dependences for multicrystalline wafer-based and polycrystalline thin film solar cells were measured and compared. While no significant improvement of thin film poly-Si solar cell parameters by annealing in water vapour at under-atmospheric pressures was observed up to now, in-situ observation proved required sensitivity to changing VOC at elevated temperatures during the process.

  14. Development of a 22 GHz ground-based spectrometer for middle atmospheric water vapour monitoring

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    Pietro Paolo Bertagnolio

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The water Vapour Emission SPectrometer for Antarctica at 22 GHz (VESPA-22 has been designed for long-term middle atmospheric climate change monitoring and satellite data validation. It observes the water vapour spectral line at 22.235 GHz using the balanced beam-switching technique. The receiver antenna has been characterized, showing an HPBW of 3.5° and a sidelobe level 40 dB below the main lobe. The receiver front-end has a total gain of 105 dB and a LNA noise temperature of 125 K. A FFT spectrometer (bandwidth 1 GHz, resolution 63 kHz will be used as back-end, allowing the retrieval of H2O concentration profiles in the 20 to 80 km altitude range. The control I/O interface is based on reconfigurable hardware (USB-CPLD.

  15. Improved total atmospheric water vapour amount determination from near-infrared filter measurements with sun photometers

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    F. Mavromatakis

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the effect of the contribution of the solar spectrum to the recorded signal in wavelengths outside the typical 940-nm filter's bandwidth. We use gaussian-shaped filters as well as actual filter transmission curves to study the implications imposed by the non-zero out-of-band contribution to the coefficients used to derive precipitable water from the measured water vapour band transmittance. The moderate-resolution SMARTS radiative transfer code is used to predict the incident spectrum outside the filter bandpass for different atmospheres, solar geometries and aerosol optical depths. The high-resolution LBLRTM radiative transfer code is used to calculate the water vapour transmittance in the 940 nm band. The absolute level of the out-of-band transmittance has been chosen to range from 10−6 to 10−4, and typical response curves of commercially available silicon photodiodes are included into the calculations. It is shown that if the out-of-band transmittance effect is neglected, as is generally the case, then the derived columnar water vapour is systematically underestimated by a few percents. The actual error depends on the specific out-of-band transmittance, optical air mass of observation and water vapour amount. We apply published parameterized transmittance functions to determine the filter coefficients. We also introduce an improved, three-parameter, fitting function that can describe the theoretical data accurately, with significantly less residual effects than with the existing functions. Further investigations will use experimental data from field campaigns to validate these findings.

  16. Water vapour absorption in the clear atmosphere of a Neptune-sized exoplanet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraine, Jonathan; Deming, Drake; Benneke, Bjorn; Knutson, Heather; Jordán, Andrés; Espinoza, Néstor; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Wilkins, Ashlee; Todorov, Kamen

    2014-09-25

    Transmission spectroscopy has so far detected atomic and molecular absorption in Jupiter-sized exoplanets, but intense efforts to measure molecular absorption in the atmospheres of smaller (Neptune-sized) planets during transits have revealed only featureless spectra. From this it was concluded that the majority of small, warm planets evolve to sustain atmospheres with high mean molecular weights (little hydrogen), opaque clouds or scattering hazes, reducing our ability to observe the composition of these atmospheres. Here we report observations of the transmission spectrum of the exoplanet HAT-P-11b (which has a radius about four times that of Earth) from the optical wavelength range to the infrared. We detected water vapour absorption at a wavelength of 1.4 micrometres. The amplitude of the water absorption (approximately 250 parts per million) indicates that the planetary atmosphere is predominantly clear down to an altitude corresponding to about 1 millibar, and sufficiently rich in hydrogen to have a large scale height (over which the atmospheric pressure varies by a factor of e). The spectrum is indicative of a planetary atmosphere in which the abundance of heavy elements is no greater than about 700 times the solar value. This is in good agreement with the core-accretion theory of planet formation, in which a gas giant planet acquires its atmosphere by accreting hydrogen-rich gas directly from the protoplanetary nebula onto a large rocky or icy core.

  17. Middle atmosphere water vapour and dynamical features in aircraft measurements and ECMWF analyses

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    D. G. Feist

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF provides global analyses of atmospheric humidity from the ground to the lower mesosphere. Unlike in the troposphere, in the stratopshere no humidity observations are assimilated. Humidity analyses here are essentially the results of a free-running model constrained by the ECMWF's well-analysed wind fields. So far only the broad-scale features of the resulting stratospheric water vapour distribution have been validated. This study provides the first in-depth comparison of stratospheric humidity from ECMWF with observations from an airborne microwave radiometer that has measured the distribution of stratospheric water vapour over an altitude range of roughly 15–60 km on several flight campaigns since 1998. The aircraft measurements provide a horizontal resolution that cannot be achieved by current satellite instruments. This study examines dynamical features in the moisture fields such as filamentation and the vortex edge, finding that features in the ERA-40 humidity analyses often do correspond to real atmospheric events that are seen in the aircraft measurements. However, the comparisons also show that in general the ECMWF model produces an unrealistically moist mesosphere. As a result it cannot replicate the descent of relatively dry mesospheric air into the polar vortex in winter and spring.

  18. Rotationally resolved water dimer spectra in atmospheric air and pure water vapour in the 188-258 GHz range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serov, E A; Koshelev, M A; Odintsova, T A; Parshin, V V; Tretyakov, M Yu

    2014-12-21

    New experimental results regarding "warm" water dimer spectra under equilibrium conditions are presented. An almost equidistant series of six peaks corresponding to the merged individual lines of the bound dimer with consecutive rotational quantum numbers is studied in the 188-258 GHz frequency range in water vapour over a broad range of pressures and temperatures relevant to the Earth's atmosphere. The series is a continuation of the sequence detected earlier at lower frequencies at room temperature. The signal-to-noise ratio of the observed spectra allowed investigating their evolution, when water vapour was diluted by atmospheric air with partial pressure from 0 up to 540 Torr. Analysis of the obtained spectra permitted determining the dimerization constant as well as the hydrogen bond dissociation energy and the dimer spectral parameters, including the average coefficient of collisional broadening of individual lines by water vapour and air. The manifestation of metastable states of the dimer in the observed spectra is assessed. The contribution of three possible pair states of water molecules to the second virial coefficient is evaluated over the broad range of temperatures. The work supports the significant role of the water dimer in atmospheric absorption and related processes.

  19. Middle atmospheric water vapour and dynamics in the vicinity of the polar vortex during the Hygrosonde-2 campaign

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    S. Lossow

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The Hygrosonde-2 campaign took place on 16 December 2001 at Esrange/Sweden (68° N, 21° E with the aim to investigate the small scale distribution of water vapour in the middle atmosphere in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex. In situ balloon and rocket-borne measurements of water vapour were performed by means of OH fluorescence hygrometry. The combined measurements yielded a high resolution water vapour profile up to an altitude of 75 km. Using the characteristic of water vapour being a dynamical tracer it was possible to directly relate the water vapour data to the location of the polar vortex edge, which separates air masses of different character inside and outside the polar vortex. The measurements probed extra-vortex air in the altitude range between 45 km and 60 km and vortex air elsewhere. Transitions between vortex and extra-vortex usually coincided with wind shears caused by gravity waves which advect air masses with different water vapour volume mixing ratios.

    From the combination of the results from the Hygrosonde-2 campaign and the first flight of the optical hygrometer in 1994 (Hygrosonde-1 a clear picture of the characteristic water vapour distribution inside and outside the polar vortex can be drawn. Systematic differences in the water vapour concentration between the inside and outside of the polar vortex can be observed all the way up into the mesosphere. It is also evident that in situ measurements with high spatial resolution are needed to fully account for the small-scale exchange processes in the polar winter middle atmosphere.

  20. Middle atmospheric water vapour and dynamics in the vicinity of the polar vortex during the Hygrosonde-2 campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lossow

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The Hygrosonde-2 campaign took place on 16 December 2001 at Esrange/Sweden, with the aim to investigate the small scale distribution of water vapour in the middle atmosphere in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex. In-situ balloon and rocket-borne measurements of water vapour were performed by means of OH fluorescence hygrometry. The combined measurements yielded a high resolution water vapour profile up to an altitude of 75 km. Using water vapour as a dynamical tracer it was possible to directly relate the water data to the position of the polar vortex. The measurement probed extra-vortex air below 19 km and in the altitude range between 45 km and 60 km and vortex air elsewhere. Transitions between vortex and extra-vortex usually coincided with wind shears caused by gravity waves which advect air masses with different water vapour characteristics. From the combination of the results from the Hygrosonde-2 campaign and the first flight of the optical hygrometer in 1994 (Hygrosonde-1 a clear picture of the characteristic water vapour distribution inside and outside the polar vortex can be drawn. Systematic differences in the water vapour concentration between the inside and outside of the polar vortex can be observed all the way up into the mesosphere and are consistent with efficient downward transport of air inside the vortex. It is evident that in-situ measurements with high spatial resolution are needed to fully account for the small-scale exchange processes in the polar winter middle atmosphere.

  1. Sampling system of atmospheric water vapour for analysis of the γ sub(D) relationship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of a system to water vapour air, for natural isotopic composition analysis of hydrogen is presented. The system uses molecular sieve, type '4A', without cooling agent and permits the choice of a sampling time, variyng from a few minutes to many hours, through the control of the admission of vapour flux. The system has good performance in field conditions, with errors of the order of + -3,00/00 in the γ sub(D)(0/00) measurements

  2. NRT Atmospheric Water Vapour Retrieval on the Area of Poland at IGG WUELS AC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplon, Jan; Bosy, Jaroslaw; Sierny, Jan; Hadas, Tomasz; Rohm, Witold; Wilgan, Karina; Ryczywolski, Marcin; Oruba, Artur; Kroszczynski, Krzysztof

    2013-04-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) are designed for positioning, navigation and amongst other possible applications it can also be used to derive information about the state of the atmosphere. Continuous observations from GNSS receivers provide an excellent tool for studying the neutral atmosphere, currently in near real-time. The Near Real-Time (NRT) neutral atmosphere and water vapour distribution models are currently obtained with high resolution from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS), where reference stations are equipped with GNSS and meteorological sensors. The Poland territory is covered by dense network of GNSS stations in the frame of GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). This system was established in year 2008 by the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in the frame of the EUPOS project (www.eupos.org) for providing positioning services. The GNSS data are available from 130 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations, airports meteorological stations (METAR messages stations), and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). Institute of Geodesy and Geoinformatics (IGG) of Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences had created permanent NRT service of ZTD (Zenith Total Delay) estimation for the area of Poland from GPS observations called IGGHZG. The first part of the paper presents the methodology of NRT GNSS data processing for ASG-EUPOS stations for ZTD estimation and its comparison to the results coming from EPN ACs and Military University of Technology in Warsaw AC (MUT AC). Second part covers the procedure of IWV (atmospheric Integrated Water Vapour content) estimation at IGG from IGGHZG product and ZHD (Zenith Hydrostatic Delay) derived from Saastamoinen formula (1972

  3. Characteristics of water-vapour inversions observed over the Arctic by Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS and radiosondes

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    A. Devasthale

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available An accurate characterization of the vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere is useful in climate change and attribution studies as well as for the climate modelling community to improve projections of future climate over this highly sensitive region. Here, we investigate one of the dominant features of the vertical structure of the Arctic atmosphere, i.e. water-vapour inversions, using eight years of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder data (2002–2010 and radiosounding profiles released from the two Arctic locations (North Slope of Alaska at Barrow and during SHEBA. We quantify the characteristics of clear-sky water vapour inversions in terms of their frequency of occurrence, strength and height covering the entire Arctic for the first time.

    We found that the frequency of occurrence of water-vapour inversions is highest during winter and lowest during summer. The inversion strength is, however, higher during summer. The observed peaks in the median inversion-layer heights are higher during the winter half of the year, at around 850 hPa over most of the Arctic Ocean, Siberia and the Canadian Archipelago, while being around 925 hPa during most of the summer half of the year over the Arctic Ocean. The radiosounding profiles agree with the frequency, location and strength of water-vapour inversions in the Pacific sector of the Arctic. In addition, the radiosoundings indicate that multiple inversions are the norm with relatively few cases without inversions. The amount of precipitable water within the water-vapour inversion structures is estimated and we find a distinct, two-mode contribution to the total column precipitable water. These results suggest that water-vapour inversions are a significant source to the column thermodynamics, especially during the colder winter and spring seasons. We argue that these inversions are a robust metric to test the reproducibility of thermodynamics within climate models. An accurate statistical

  4. MAX-DOAS observations of the total atmospheric water vapour column and comparison with independent observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, T.; Andreae, M. O.; Beirle, S.; Dörner, S.; Mies, K.; Shaiganfar, R.

    2013-01-01

    We developed an algorithm for the retrieval of the atmospheric water vapour column from Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) observations in the yellow and red spectral range. The retrieval is based on the so-called geometric approximation and does not depend on explicit a priori information for individual observations, extensive radiative transfer simulations, or the construction of large look-up tables. Disturbances of the radiative transfer due to aerosols and clouds are simply corrected using the simultaneously measured absorptions of the oxygen dimer, O4. We applied our algorithm to MAX-DOAS observations made at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, from March to August 2011, and compared the results to independent observations. Good agreement with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF) H2O vertical column densities (VCDs) is found, while the agreement with satellite observations is less good, most probably caused by the shielding effect of clouds for the satellite observations. Good agreement is also found with near-surface in situ observations, and it was possible to derive average daily H2O scale heights (between 1.5 km and 3 km). MAX-DOAS measurements use cheap and simple instrumentation and can be run automatically. One important advantage of our algorithm is that the H2O VCD can be retrieved even under cloudy conditions (except clouds with very high optical thickness).

  5. Comparison between Satellite Water Vapour Observations and Atmospheric Models’ Predictions of the Upper Tropospheric Thermal Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Dim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric profiles (temperature, pressure, and humidity are commonly used parameters for aerosols and cloud properties retrievals. In preparation of the launch of the Global Change Observation Mission-Climate/Second-Generation GLobal Imager (GCOM-C/SGLI satellite, an evaluation study on the sensitivity of atmospheric models to variations of atmospheric conditions is conducted. In this evaluation, clear sky and above low clouds water vapour radiances of the upper troposphere obtained from satellite observations and those simulated by atmospheric models are compared. The models studied are the Nonhydrostatic ICosahedral Atmospheric Model (NICAM and the National Center for Environmental Protection/Department Of Energy (NCEP/DOE. The satellite observations are from the Terra/Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (Terra/MODIS satellite. The simulations performed are obtained through a forward radiative transfer calculation procedure. The resulting radiances are transformed into the upper tropospheric brightness temperature (UTBT and relative humidity (UTRH. The discrepancies between the simulated data and the observations are analyzed. These analyses show that both the NICAM and the NCEP/DOE simulated UTBT and UTRH have comparable distribution patterns. However the simulations’ differences with the observations are generally lower with the NCEP/DOE than with the NICAM. The NCEP/DOE model outputs very often overestimate the UTBT and therefore present a drier upper troposphere. The impact of the lower troposphere instability (dry convection on the upper tropospheric moisture and the consequences on the models’ results are evaluated through a thunderstorm and moisture predictor (the K-stability index. The results obtained show a positive relation between the instability and the root mean square error (RMSE: observation versus models. The study of the impact of convective clouds shows that the area covered by these clouds increases with the

  6. Continuous quality assessment of atmospheric water vapour measurement techniques: FTIR, Cimel, MFRSR, GPS, and Vaisala RS92

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    M. Schneider

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available At the Izaña Observatory, water vapour amounts have been measured routinely by different techniques for many years. We intercompare the total precipitable water vapour (PWV amounts measured between 2005 and 2009 by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrometer, a Multifilter Rotating Shadow-band Radiometer (MFRSR, a Cimel sunphotometer, a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, and daily radiosondes (Vaisala RS92. The long-term characteristics of our study allows a reliable and extensive empirical quality assessment of long-term validity, which is an important prerequisite when applying the data to climate research. We estimate a PWV precision of 1% for the FTIR, about 10% for the MFRSR, Cimel, and GPS (when excluding rather dry conditions, and significantly better than 15% for the RS92 (the detection of different airmasses avoids a better constrained estimation. We show that the MFRSR, Cimel and GPS data quality depends on the atmospheric conditions (humid or dry and that the restriction to clear-sky observations introduces a significant dry bias in the FTIR and Cimel data. In addition, we intercompare the water vapour profiles measured by the FTIR and the Vaisala RS92, which allows the conclusion that both experiments are able to detect lower to upper tropospheric water vapour mixing ratios with a precision of better than 15%.

  7. Range resolved measurements of atmospheric ozone and water vapour; Misure `range resolved` di ozono e vapor d`acqua

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbini, R.; Colao, F.; Palucci, A.; Ribezzo, S.

    1992-12-31

    The ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and Environment) ground based lidar (Light Detection and Ranging) station, equipped with two TEA CO/sub 2/ laser transmitters, allows for range resolved measurements of minor atmospheric constituents or pollutants, using the DIAL differential absorption technique. This paper provides brief notes on the lidar station`s design characteristics and reports on the application of the instruments to obtain water vapour and ozone concentration profiles with a useful investigated range , R = 6 Km.

  8. MAX-DOAS observations of the total atmospheric water vapour column and comparison with independent observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available We developed an algorithm for the retrieval of the atmospheric water vapour column from Multi-AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS observations in the yellow and red spectral range. The retrieval is based on the so called geometric approximation and does not depend on a-priori information, extensive radiative transfer simulations, or the construction of large look-up tables. Disturbances of the radiative transfer due to aerosols and clouds are simply corrected using the simultaneously measured absorptions of the oxygen dimer, O4. We applied our algorithm to MAX-DOAS observations made at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry in Mainz, Germany, from March to August 2011 and compared the results to independent observations. Good agreement with Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET and European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF H2O vertical column densities (VCDs is found, while the agreement with satellite observations is less good, most probably caused by the shielding effect of clouds for the satellite observations. Good agreement is also found with near-surface in-situ observations, and it was possible to derive average daily H2O layer heights (between 1.5 km and 3 km. MAX-DOAS measurements use cheap and simple instrumentation and can be run automatically. One important advantage of our algorithm is that the H2O VCD can be retrieved even under cloudy conditions (except clouds with very high optical thickness.

  9. Technical Note: Improved total atmospheric water vapour amount determination from near-infrared filter measurements with sun photometers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Mavromatakis

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work we explore the effect of the contribution of the solar spectrum to the recorded signal in wavelengths outside the typical 940-nm filter's bandwidth. We employ gaussian-shaped filters as well as actual filter transmission curves, mainly AERONET data, to study the implications imposed by the non-zero out-of-band contribution to the coefficients used to derive precipitable water from the measured water vapour band transmittance. Published parameterized transmittance functions are applied to the data to determine the filter coefficients. We also introduce an improved, three-parameter, fitting function that can describe the theoretical data accurately, with significantly less residual effects than with the existing functions. The moderate-resolution SMARTS radiative transfer code is used to predict the incident spectrum outside the filter bandpass for different atmospheres, solar geometries and aerosol optical depths. The high-resolution LBLRTM radiative transfer code is used to calculate the water vapour transmittance in the 940-nm band. The absolute level of the out-of-band transmittance has been chosen to range from 10−6 to 10−4, and typical response curves of commercially available silicon photodiodes are included into the calculations.

    It is shown that if the out-of-band transmittance effect is neglected, as is generally the case, then the derived columnar water vapour is mainly underestimated by a few percents. The actual error depends on the specific out-of-band transmittance, optical air mass of observation and water vapour amount. Further investigations will use experimental data from field campaigns to validate these findings.

  10. Variability of winter-time middle atmospheric water vapour over the Arctic as observed with a ground-based microwave radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tschanz, Brigitte; Kivi, Rigel; Rüfenacht, Rolf; Kämpfer, Niklaus

    2014-05-01

    Middle atmospheric water vapour has a long chemical lifetime and can therefore be used as a tracer for dynamics. The ground-based microwave radiometer MIAWARA-C is designed for the use on campaigns and measures profiles of water vapour in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere and thus provides valuable data for the investigation of atmospheric processes. It has been operational for five years and has successfully participated in measurement campaigns under various climatic conditions in Germany, Switzerland, California, Finland and on la Réunion. The temporal resolution of the obtained water vapour profiles approximately 2 hours depending on tropospheric conditions. During two campaigns from January to June 2010 and from July 2011 to April 2013 in Sodankylä, Finland, MIAWARA-C monitored time series of polar middle atmospheric water vapour for three winters with three Sudden Stratospheric Warmings (SSW) occurring in early 2010, 2012 and 2013. The obtained time series are used to study the effects of the three SSWs on middle-atmospheric water vapour. During an SSW, humid mid- to low-latitude air is transported towards the polar region resulting in a fast increase in water vapour. The descent of water vapour after the SSW allows the estimation of the descent rate over the polar region as the normal wintertime circulation reforms. Results from the three SSWs are compared. The ground-based water vapour data is combined with sonde data of the Finnish Meteorological Institute and ground-based microwave wind measurements for one winter in order to obtain a more complete picture of the dynamics in the polar winter atmosphere.

  11. Measuring fast variations of δ^{18}O and δ^2H in atmospheric water vapour using laser spectroscopy: an instrument inter-comparison and characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemisegger, F.; Sturm, P.; Graf, P.; Sodemann, H.; Pfahl, S.; Knohl, A.; Wernli, H.

    2012-04-01

    Fast variations of stable water isotopes in water vapour have become measurable lately using novel laser spectroscopic techniques. This allows us to perform process-based investigations of the atmospheric water cycle at the time scales of significant weather events. An important prerequisite for such studies implying automatic field measurements lasting for several weeks or even months is a detailed knowledge about sources of uncertainty and instrument properties. We present a comprehensive characterisation and comparison study of two commercial laser spectroscopic systems based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (Picarro) and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Resarch). The old versions (L1115-i, WVIA) and the new versions (L2130-i, WVIA-EP) of both systems were tested. The uncertainty components of the measurements were assessed in laboratory experiments, focussing on effects of (i) water vapour mixing ratio, (ii) measurement stability, (iii) uncertainties due to calibration and (iv) response times of the isotope measurements due to adsorption-desorption processes on the tubing and measurement cavity walls. Knowledge from our laboratory experiments was used to setup a one-week field campaign for comparing measurements of the ambient isotope signals from the L1115-i and WVIA systems. The optimal calibration strategy determined for both instruments was applied as well as the correction functions for water vapour mixing ratio effects. Using this field measurement data we address the question of how well the deuterium excess (d=δ2H-8δ18O) of atmospheric water vapour can be determined with laser spectroscopy. The deuterium excess is an interesting parameter for process-based atmospheric water cycle studies, which depends on humidity and temperature conditions at source location of water vapour. Up to now only very few high-time-resolution measurements of deuterium excess exist. Our concurrent measurements of atmospheric isotopes in water vapour

  12. Comparison of atmospheric water vapour content with GNSS, Radiosonde, Microwave radiometer, and Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, D.; Park, K.

    2012-12-01

    The increased amount of saturated water vapor due to the Earth's temperature rise frequently causes abnormal meteorological phenomena such as local severe rainfall in Korea. The National Institute of Meteorological Research of Korea Meteorological Administration (KMA) conducted observation experiments using a variety of water-vapor measuring equipments to improve the accuracy of weather forecasts and accurately measure the precipitable water vapor in the atmosphere. Equipments used were GNSS, water vapor radiometers (WVR), radiosonde, and LiDAR. For GNSS measurements we used two receivers that can collect not only GPS but also GLONASS signals: Trimble NetR5 and Septentrio PolaRx4. The two WVR makers are Raidometrics and RPG. For radiosonde observations, KMA launched Vaisala GPSondes every 6 hours during the experiment period. The LiDAR system was made locally by Hanbat University in Daejeon. Thus, we could obtain collocation experiment results from 6 different kinds of water vapor measurement and analyze the characteristics of each device.

  13. New approach for sustaining energetic, efficient and scalable non-equilibrium plasma in water vapours at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energetic and scalable non-equilibrium plasma was formed in pure water vapour at atmospheric pressure between wire-to-strip electrodes on a dielectric surface with one of the electrodes extended forming a conductive plane on the back side of the dielectric surface. The energy deposition increased by an order of magnitude compared with the conventional pulsed corona discharges under the same conditions. The scalability was demonstrated by operating two electrode assemblies with a common conductive plane between two dielectric layers. The energy yields for hydrogen and hydrogen peroxide generation were measured as ∼1.2 g H2/kWh and ∼4 g H2O2/kWh. (fast track communication)

  14. Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 μm spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryde, N.; Lambert, J.; Farzone, M.; Richter, M. J.; Josselin, E.; Harper, G. M.; Eriksson, K.; Greathouse, T. K.

    2015-01-01

    Context. The structures of the outer atmospheres of red giants are very complex. Recent interpretations of a range of different observations have led to contradictory views of these regions. It is clear, however, that classical model photospheres are inadequate to describe the nature of the outer atmospheres. The notion of large optically thick molecular spheres around the stars (MOLspheres) has been invoked in order to explain spectro-interferometric observations and low- and high-resolution spectra. On the other hand high-resolution spectra in the mid-IR do not easily fit into this picture because they rule out any large sphere of water vapour in LTE surrounding red giants. Aims: In order to approach a unified scenario for these outer regions of red giants, more empirical evidence from different diagnostics are needed. Our aim here is to investigate high-resolution, mid-IR spectra for a range of red giants, spanning spectral types from early K to mid M. We want to study how the pure rotational lines of water vapour change with effective temperature, and whether we can find common properties that can put new constraints on the modelling of these regions, so that we can gain new insights. Methods: We have recorded mid-IR spectra at 12.2 - 12.4 μm at high spectral resolution of ten well-studied bright red giants, with TEXES mounted on the IRTF on Mauna Kea. These stars span effective temperatures from 3450 K to 4850 K. Results: We find that all red giants in our study cooler than 4300 K, spanning a wide range of effective temperatures (down to 3450 K), show water absorption lines stronger than expected and none are detected in emission, in line with what has been previously observed for a few stars. The strengths of the lines vary smoothly with spectral type. We identify several spectral features in the wavelength region that are undoubtedly formed in the photosphere. From a study of water-line ratios of the stars, we find that the excitation temperatures, in the

  15. Systematic trend of water vapour absorption in red giant atmospheres revealed by high resolution TEXES 12 micron spectra

    CERN Document Server

    Ryde, N; Farzone, M; Richter, M J; Josselin, E; Harper, G M; Eriksson, K; Greathouse, T K

    2014-01-01

    The structures of the outer atmospheres of red giants are very complex. The notion of large optically thick molecular spheres around the stars (MOLspheres) has been invoked in order to explain e.g. spectro-interferometric observations. However, high-resolution spectra in the mid-IR do not easily fit into this picture. They rule out any large sphere of water vapour in LTE surrounding red giants. Our aim here is to investigate high-resolution, mid-infrared spectra for a range of red giants, from early-K to mid M. We have recorded 12 microns spectra of 10 well-studied bright red giants, with TEXES on the IRTF. We find that all giants in our study cooler than 4300 K, spanning a range of effective temperatures, show water absorption lines stronger than expected. The strengths of the lines vary smoothly with spectral type. We identify several spectral features in the wavelength region that undoubtedly are formed in the photosphere. From a study of water-line ratios of the stars, we find that the excitation temperat...

  16. Gravimetric phenotyping of whole plant transpiration responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit identifies genotypic variation in water use efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Annette C; Dodd, Ian C; Rothwell, Shane A; Jones, Ros; Tardieu, Francois; Draye, Xavier; Davies, William J

    2016-10-01

    There is increasing interest in rapidly identifying genotypes with improved water use efficiency, exemplified by the development of whole plant phenotyping platforms that automatically measure plant growth and water use. Transpirational responses to atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD) and whole plant water use efficiency (WUE, defined as the accumulation of above ground biomass per unit of water used) were measured in 100 maize (Zea mays L.) genotypes. Using a glasshouse based phenotyping platform with naturally varying VPD (1.5-3.8kPa), a 2-fold variation in WUE was identified in well-watered plants. Regression analysis of transpiration versus VPD under these conditions, and subsequent whole plant gas exchange at imposed VPDs (0.8-3.4kPa) showed identical responses in specific genotypes. Genotype response of transpiration versus VPD fell into two categories: 1) a linear increase in transpiration rate with VPD with low (high WUE) or high (low WUE) transpiration rate at all VPDs, 2) a non-linear response with a pronounced change point at low VPD (high WUE) or high VPD (low WUE). In the latter group, high WUE genotypes required a significantly lower VPD before transpiration was restricted, and had a significantly lower rate of transpiration in response to VPD after this point, when compared to low WUE genotypes. Change point values were significantly positively correlated with stomatal sensitivity to VPD. A change point in stomatal response to VPD may explain why some genotypes show contradictory WUE rankings according to whether they are measured under glasshouse or field conditions. Furthermore, this novel use of a high throughput phenotyping platform successfully reproduced the gas exchange responses of individuals measured in whole plant chambers, accelerating the identification of plants with high WUE. PMID:27593468

  17. Correcting atmospheric effects on InSAR with MERIS water vapour data and elevation-dependent interpolation model

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Z. W.

    2012-05-01

    The propagation delay when radar signals travel from the troposphere has been one of the major limitations for the applications of high precision repeat-pass Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR). In this paper, we first present an elevation-dependent atmospheric correction model for Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar (ASAR—the instrument aboard the ENVISAT satellite) interferograms with Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data. Then, using four ASAR interferometric pairs over Southern California as examples, we conduct the atmospheric correction experiments with cloud-free MERIS IWV data. The results show that after the correction the rms differences between InSAR and GPS have reduced by 69.6 per cent, 29 per cent, 31.8 per cent and 23.3 per cent, respectively for the four selected interferograms, with an average improvement of 38.4 per cent. Most importantly, after the correction, six distinct deformation areas have been identified, that is, Long Beach–Santa Ana Basin, Pomona–Ontario, San Bernardino and Elsinore basin, with the deformation velocities along the radar line-of-sight (LOS) direction ranging from −20 mm yr−1 to −30 mm yr−1 and on average around −25 mm yr−1, and Santa Fe Springs and Wilmington, with a slightly low deformation rate of about −10 mm yr−1 along LOS. Finally, through the method of stacking, we generate a mean deformation velocity map of Los Angeles over a period of 5 yr. The deformation is quite consistent with the historical deformation of the area. Thus, using the cloud-free MERIS IWV data correcting synchronized ASAR interferograms can significantly reduce the atmospheric effects in the interferograms and further better capture the ground deformation and other geophysical signals.

  18. Effect of surface albedo, water vapour, and atmospheric aerosols on the cloud-free shortwave radiative budget in the Arctic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di Biagio, C. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); University of Siena, Department of Earth Science, Siena (Italy); Di Sarra, A. [ENEA, Laboratory for Earth Observations and Analyses, Rome (Italy); Eriksen, P. [Danish Climate Centre, DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ascanius, S.E. [DMI, Danish Meteorological Institute, Qaanaaq (Greenland); Muscari, G. [INGV, Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Rome (Italy); Holben, B. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States)

    2012-08-15

    This study is based on ground-based measurements of downward surface shortwave irradiance (SW), columnar water vapour (wv), and aerosol optical depth ({tau}) obtained at Thule Air Base (Greenland) in 2007-2010, together with MODIS observations of the surface shortwave albedo (A). Radiative transfer model calculations are used in combination with measurements to separate the radiative effect of A ({Delta}SW{sub A}), wv ({Delta}SW{sub wv}), and aerosols ({Delta}SW{sub {tau}}) in modulating SW in cloud-free conditions. The shortwave radiation at the surface is mainly affected by water vapour absorption, which produces a reduction of SW as low as -100 Wm{sup -2} (-18%). The seasonal change of A produces an increase of SW by up to +25 Wm{sup -2} (+4.5%). The annual mean radiative effect is estimated to be -(21-22) Wm{sup -2} for wv, and +(2-3) Wm{sup -2} for A. An increase by +0.065 cm in the annual mean wv, to which corresponds an absolute increase in {Delta}SW{sub wv} by 0.93 Wm{sup -2} (4.3%), has been observed to occur between 2007 and 2010. In the same period, the annual mean A has decreased by -0.027, with a corresponding decrease in {Delta}SW{sub A} by 0.41 Wm{sup -2} (-14.9%). Atmospheric aerosols produce a reduction of SW as low as -32 Wm{sup -2} (-6.7%). The instantaneous aerosol radiative forcing (RF{sub {tau}}) reaches values of -28 Wm{sup -2} and shows a strong dependency on surface albedo. The derived radiative forcing efficiency (FE{sub {tau}}) for solar zenith angles between 55 and 70 is estimated to be (-120.6 {+-} 4.3) for 0.1 < A < 0.2, and (-41.2 {+-} 1.6) Wm{sup -2} for 0.5 < A < 0.6. (orig.)

  19. Water Vapour Mixing Ratio Measurements in Potenza in the Frame of the International Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change - NDACC

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Rosa, Benedetto; Di Girolamo, Paolo; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Mancini, Ignazio

    2016-06-01

    In November 2012 the University of BASILicata Raman Lidar system (BASIL) was approved to enter the International Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change (NDACC). This network includes more than 70 high-quality, remote-sensing research stations for observing and understanding the physical and chemical state of the upper troposphere and stratosphere and for assessing the impact of stratosphere changes on the underlying troposphere and on global climate. As part of this network, more than thirty groundbased Lidars deployed worldwide are routinely operated to monitor atmospheric ozone, temperature, aerosols, water vapour, and polar stratospheric clouds. In the frame of NDACC, BASIL performs measurements on a routine basis each Thursday, typically from local noon to midnight, covering a large portion of the daily cycle. Measurements from BASIL are included in the NDACC database both in terms of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature. This paper illustrates some measurement examples from BASIL, with a specific focus on water vapour measurements, with the goal to try and characterize the system performances.

  20. Detection of water vapour absorption around 363nm in measured atmospheric absorption spectra and its effect on DOAS evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lampel, Johannes; Polyansky, Oleg. L.; Kyuberis, Alexandra A.; Zobov, Nikolai F.; Tennyson, Jonathan; Lodi, Lorenzo; Pöhler, Denis; Frieß, Udo; Platt, Ulrich; Beirle, Steffen; Wagner, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    Water vapour is known to absorb light from the microwave region to the blue part of the visible spectrum at a decreasing magnitude. Ab-initio approaches to model individual absorption lines of the gaseous water molecule predict absorption lines until its dissociation limit at 243 nm. We present first evidence of water vapour absorption at 363 nm from field measurements based on the POKAZATEL absorption line list by Polyansky et al. (2016) using data from Multi-Axis differential optical absorption spectroscopy (MAX-DOAS) and Longpath (LP)-DOAS measurements. The predicted absorptions contribute significantly to the observed optical depths with up to 2 × 10‑3. Their magnitude correlates well (R2 = 0.89) to simultaneously measured well-established water vapour absorptions in the blue spectral range from 452-499 nm, but is underestimated by a factor of 2.6 ± 0.6 in the ab-initio model. At a spectral resolution of 0.5nm this leads to a maximum absorption cross-section value of 5.4 × 10‑27 cm2/molec at 362.3nm. The results are independent of the employed cross-section data to compensate for the overlayed absorption of the oxygen dimer O4. The newly found absorption can have a significant impact on the spectral retrieval of absorbing trace-gas species in the spectral range around 363 nm. Its effect on the spectral analysis of O4, HONO and OClO are discussed.

  1. Measuring variations of δ18O and δ2H in atmospheric water vapour using two commercial laser-based spectrometers: an instrument characterisation study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aemisegger, F.; Sturm, P.; Graf, P.; Sodemann, H.; Pfahl, S.; Knohl, A.; Wernli, H.

    2012-07-01

    Variations of stable water isotopes in water vapour have become measurable at a measurement frequency of about 1 Hz in recent years using novel laser spectroscopic techniques. This enables us to perform continuous measurements for process-based investigations of the atmospheric water cycle at the time scales relevant for synoptic and mesoscale meteorology. An important prerequisite for the interpretation of data from automated field measurements lasting for several weeks or months is a detailed knowledge about instrument properties and the sources of measurement uncertainty. We present here a comprehensive characterisation and comparison study of two commercial laser spectroscopic systems based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (Picarro) and off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy (Los Gatos Research). The uncertainty components of the measurements were first assessed in laboratory experiments, focussing on the effects of (i) water vapour mixing ratio, (ii) measurement stability, (iii) uncertainties due to calibration and (iv) response times of the isotope measurements due to adsorption-desorption processes on the tubing and measurement cavity walls. Based on the experience from our laboratory experiments, we set up a one-week field campaign for comparing measurements of the ambient isotope signals from the two laser spectroscopic systems. The optimal calibration strategy determined for both instruments was applied as well as the correction functions for water vapour mixing ratio effects. The root mean square difference between the isotope signals from the two instruments during the field deployment was 2.3‰ for δ2H, 0.5‰ for δ18O and 3.1‰ for deuterium excess. These uncertainty estimates from field measurements compare well to those found in the laboratory experiments. The present quality of measurements from laser spectroscopic instruments combined with a calibration system opens new possibilities for investigating the atmospheric water cycle and

  2. A water vapour monitor at Paranal Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Rose, Thomas; Chacón, Arlette; Cuevas, Omar; Czekala, Harald; Hanuschik, Reinhard; Momany, Yazan; Navarrete, Julio; Querel, Richard R.; Smette, Alain; van den Ancker, Mario E.; Cure, Michel; Naylor, David A.

    2012-09-01

    We present the performance characteristics of a water vapour monitor that has been permanently deployed at ESO's Paranal observatory as a part of the VISIR upgrade project. After a careful analysis of the requirements and an open call for tender, the Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling microwave radiometer (LHATPRO), manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), has been selected. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.5 mm). The unit comprises the above humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared radiometer (~10 μm) for cloud detection. The instrument has been commissioned during a 2.5 week period in Oct/Nov 2011, by comparing its measurements of PWV and atmospheric profiles with the ones obtained by 22 radiosonde balloons. In parallel an IR radiometer (Univ. Lethbridge) has been operated, and various observations with ESO facility spectrographs have been taken. The RPG radiometer has been validated across the range 0.5 - 9 mm demonstrating an accuracy of better than 0.1 mm. The saturation limit of the radiometer is about 20 mm. Currently, the radiometer is being integrated into the Paranal infrastructure to serve as a high time-resolution monitor in support of VLT science operations. The water vapour radiometer's ability to provide high precision, high time resolution information on this important aspect of the atmosphere will be most useful for conducting IR observations with the VLT under optimal conditions.

  3. Is there a solar signal in lower stratospheric water vapour?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schieferdecker, Tobias; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    A merged time series of stratospheric water vapour built from the Halogen Occultation Instrument (HALOE) and the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) data between 60 deg S and 60 deg N and 15 to 30 km, and covering the years 1992 to 2012, was analysed by multivariate linear regression, including an 11-year solar cycle proxy. Lower stratospheric water vapour was found to reveal a phase-shifted anti-correlation with the solar cycle, with lowest water vapour after solar maximum. The phase shift is composed of an inherent constant time lag of about 2 years and a second component following the stratospheric age of air. The amplitudes of the water vapour response are largest close to the tropical tropopause (up to 0.35 ppmv) and decrease with altitude and latitude. Including the solar cycle proxy in the regression results in linear trends of water vapour being negative over the full altitude/latitude range, while without the solar proxy, positive water vapour trends in the lower stratosphere were found. We conclude from these results that a solar signal seems to be generated at the tropical tropopause which is most likely imprinted on the stratospheric water vapour abundances and transported to higher altitudes and latitudes via the Brewer-Dobson circulation. Hence it is concluded that the tropical tropopause temperature at the final dehydration point of air may also be governed to some degree by the solar cycle. The negative water vapour trends obtained when considering the solar cycle impact on water vapour abundances can possibly solve the "water vapour conundrum" of increasing stratospheric water vapour abundances despite constant or even decreasing tropopause temperatures.

  4. Contributions of evaporation, isotopic non-steady state transpiration and atmospheric mixing on the delta18O of water vapour in Pacific Northwest coniferous forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Chun-Ta; Ehleringer, James R; Bond, Barbara J; Paw U, Kyaw Tha

    2006-01-01

    Changes in the 2H and 18O of atmospheric water vapour provide information for integrating aspects of gas exchange within forest canopies. In this study, we show that diurnal fluctuations in the oxygen isotope ratio (delta 18O) as high as 4% per hundred were observed for water vapour (delta (18)Ovp) above and within an old-growth coniferous forest in the Pacific Northwest region of the United States. Values of delta 18Ovp decreased in the morning, reached a minimum at midday, and recovered to early-morning values in the late afternoon, creating a nearly symmetrical diurnal pattern for two consecutive summer days. A mass balance budget was derived and assessed for the 18O of canopy water vapour over a 2-d period by considering the 18O-isoflux of canopy transpiration, soil evaporation and the air entering the canopy column. The budget was used to address two questions: (1) do delta 18O values of canopy water vapour reflect the biospheric influence, or are such signals swamped by atmospheric mixing? and (2) what mechanisms drive temporal variations of delta 18Ovp? Model calculations show that the entry of air into the canopy column resulted in an isotopically depleted 18O-isoflux in the morning of day 1, causing values of delta 18Ovp, to decrease. An isotopically enriched 18O-isoflux resulting from transpiration then offset this decreased delta 18Ovp later during the day. Contributions of 18O-isoflux from soil evaporation were relatively small on day 1 but were more significant on day 2, despite the small H2(16)O fluxes. From measurements of leaf water volume and sapflux, we determined the turnover time of leaf water in the needles of Douglas-fir trees as approximately 11 h at midday. Such an extended turnover time suggests that transpiration may not have occurred at the commonly assumed isotopic steady state. We tested a non-steady state model for predicting delta 18O of leaf water. Our model calculations show that assuming isotopic steady state increased isoflux of

  5. An investigation into the optimum thickness of titanium dioxide thin films synthesized by using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition for use in photocatalytic water oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyett, Geoffrey; Darr, Jawwad A; Mills, Andrew; Parkin, Ivan P

    2010-09-10

    Twenty eight films of titanium dioxide of varying thickness were synthesised by using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of titanium(IV) chloride and ethyl acetate onto glass and titanium substrates. Fixed reaction conditions at a substrate temperature of 660 °C were used for all depositions, with varying deposition times of 5-60 seconds used to control the thickness of the samples. A sacrificial electron acceptor system composed of alkaline sodium persulfate was used to determine the rate at which these films could photo-oxidise water in the presence of 365 nm light. The results of this work showed that the optimum thickness for CVD films on titanium substrates for the purposes of water oxidation was ≈200 nm, and that a platinum coating on the reverse of such samples leads to a five-fold increase in the observed rate of water oxidation. PMID:20645333

  6. Intercomparison on measurement of water vapour permeability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    Three different materials are tested - hard woodfibre board - damp proof course - underlay for roofing The water vapour permeability has been measured according to EN ISO 12572 (2001).......Three different materials are tested - hard woodfibre board - damp proof course - underlay for roofing The water vapour permeability has been measured according to EN ISO 12572 (2001)....

  7. Global trends and variability in integrated water vapour from ground-based GPS data and atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, Olivier; Parracho, Ana; Bastin, Sophie; Hourdin, Frededic; Mellul, Lidia

    2016-04-01

    A high-quality, consistent, global, long-term dataset of integrated water vapour (IWV) was produced from Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements at more than 400 sites over the globe among which 120 sites have more than 15 years of data. The GPS delay data were converted to IWV using surface pressure and weighted mean temperature estimates from ERA-Interim reanalysis. A two-step screening method was developed to detect and remove outliers in the IWV data. It is based on: 1) GPS data processing information and delay formal errors, and 2) intercomparison with ERA-Interim reanalysis data. The GPS IWV data are also homogenized to correct for offsets due to instrumental changes and other unknown factors. The differential homogenization method uses ERA-Interim IWV as a reference. The resulting GPS data are used to document the mean distribution, the global trends and the variability of IWV over the period 1995-2010, and are analysed in coherence with precipitation and surface temperature data (from observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis). These data are also used to assess global climate model simulations extracted from the IPCC AR5 archive. Large coherent spatial patterns of moistening and drying are evidenced but significant discrepancies are also seen between GPS measurements, reanalysis and climate models in various regions. In terms of variability, the monthly mean anomalies are intercompared. The temporal correlation between GPS and the climate model simulations is overall quite small but the spatial variation of the magnitude of the anomalies is globally well simulated. GPS IWV data prove to be useful to validate global climate model simulations and highlight deficiencies in their representation of the water cycle.

  8. Could water vapour be the culprit in global warming?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is easy to understand why most people - and many governments - are quick to blame ''global warming'' for apparently extreme variations in weather and seasonal trends. ''Greenhouse gases'' have long received a bad press, and carbon dioxide is often singled out as the culprit in global warming. Yet a recent study led by Richard Learner of Imperial College in London supports the possibility that water vapour could be a major contributor to atmospheric heating (D Belmiloud et al. 2000 Geophysical Res. Lett. 27 3703). In the February issue of Physics World, Ahilleas Maurellis of the Space Research Organisation Netherlands (SRON), Utrecht, reveals the role water vapour plays in our atmosphere. (U.K.)

  9. Measurement of the Cotton Mouton effect of water vapour

    CERN Document Server

    Della Valle, F; Gastaldi, U; Messineo, G; Milotti, E; Pengo, R; Piemontese, L; Ruoso, G; Zavattini, G

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we report on a measurement of the Cotton Mouton effect of water vapour. Measurement performed at room temperature ($T=301$ K) with a wavelength of 1064 nm gave the value $\\Delta n_u = (6.67 \\pm 0.45) \\cdot 10^{-15}$ for the unit magnetic birefringence (1 T magnetic field and atmospheric pressure).

  10. Intercomparison of TCCON and MUSICA Water Vapour Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, D.; Strong, K.; Deutscher, N. M.; Schneider, M.; Blumenstock, T.; Robinson, J.; Notholt, J.; Sherlock, V.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Barthlott, S.; García, O. E.; Smale, D.; Palm, M.; Jones, N. B.; Hase, F.; Kivi, R.; Ramos, Y. G.; Yoshimura, K.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gómez-Peláez, Á. J.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Warneke, T.; Dohe, S.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.

    2014-12-01

    We present an intercomparison between the water vapour products from the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) and the MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water (MUSICA), two datasets from ground-based Fourier Transform InfraRed (FTIR) spectrometers with good global representation. Where possible, comparisons to radiosondes are also included. The near-infrared TCCON measurements are optimized to provide precise monitoring of greenhouse gases for carbon cycle studies; however, TCCON's retrievals also produce water vapour products. The mid-infrared MUSICA products result from retrievals optimized to give precise and accurate information about H2O, HDO, and δD. The MUSICA water vapour products have been validated by extensive intercomparisons with H2O and δD in-situ measurements made from ground, radiosonde, and aircraft (Schneider et al. 2012, 2014), as well as by intercomparisons with satellite-based H2O and δD remote sensing measurements (Wiegele et al., 2014). This dataset provides a valuable reference point for other measurements of water vapour. This study is motivated by the limited intercomparisons performed for TCCON water vapour products and limited characterisation of their uncertainties. We compare MUSICA and TCCON products to assess the potential for TCCON measurements to contribute to studies of the water cycle, water vapour's role in climate and use as a tracer for atmospheric dynamics, and to evaluate the performance of climate models. The TCCON and MUSICA products result from measurements taken using the same FTIR instruments, enabling a comparison with constant instrumentation. The retrieval techniques differ, however, in their method and a priori information. We assess the impact of these differences and characterize the comparability of the TCCON and MUSICA datasets.

  11. Properties of alumina films prepared by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure in hte presence of small amounts of water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Rem, J.B.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1995-01-01

    Thin alumina films were deposited on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen with low partial pressures of water (0–2.6 × 10−2 kPa (0−0.20 mmHg)) by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) with aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB) as the precursor. Al

  12. Validation of SCIAMACHY AMC-DOAS water vapour columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noël

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available A first validation of water vapour total column amounts derived from measurements of the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY in the visible spectral region has been performed. For this purpose, SCIAMACHY water vapour data have been determined for the year 2003 using an extended version of the Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS method, called Air Mass Corrected (AMC-DOAS. The SCIAMACHY results are compared with corresponding water vapour measurements by the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I and with model data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF.

    In confirmation of previous results it could be shown that SCIAMACHY derived water vapour columns are typically slightly lower than both SSM/I and ECMWF data, especially over ocean areas. However, these deviations are much smaller than the observed scatter of the data which is caused by the different temporal and spatial sampling and resolution of the data sets. For example, the overall difference with ECMWF data is only −0.05 g/cm2 whereas the typical scatter is in the order of 0.5 g/cm2. Both values show almost no variation over the year.

    In addition, first monthly means of SCIAMACHY water vapour data have been computed. The quality of these monthly means is currently limited by the availability of calibrated SCIAMACHY spectra. Nevertheless, first comparisons with ECMWF data show that SCIAMACHY (and similar instruments are able to provide a new independent global water vapour data set.

  13. Water vapour loss measurements on human skin.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valk, Petrus Gerardus Maria van der

    1984-01-01

    In this thesis, the results of a series of investigations into the barrier function of human skin are presented. In these investigations, the barrier function was assessed by water vapour loss measurements of the skin using a method based on gradient estimation.... Zie: Summary and conclusions

  14. Multispecies transmitter for DIAL sensing of atmospheric water vapour, methane and carbon dioxide in the 2 μm region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mammez, Dominique; Cadiou, Erwan; Dherbecourt, Jean-Baptiste; Raybaut, Myriam; Melkonian, Jean-Michel; Godard, Antoine; Gorju, Guillaume; Pelon, Jacques; Lefebvre, Michel

    2015-10-01

    Integrated-path differential absorption lidar (IPDIAL) is an attractive technique to monitor greenhouse gases from space. For that purpose, suitable absorption lines have been identified as good candidates around 2.05 μm for CO2, 2.29 μm for CH4, and 2.06 μm for H2O. In this context, we have developed a high energy transmitter around 2 μm based on frequency conversion in a nested cavity doubly resonant optical parametric oscillator (NesCOPO) followed by high energy parametric amplification. This master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) architecture enables the generation of tunable single-frequency high energy nanosecond pulses (tens of mJ) suitable for atmospheric DIAL applications. Moreover, taking advantage of the wide spectral coverage capability of the NesCOPO, we demonstrate the potential for this single emitter to address the aforementioned spectral lines, without the use of additional seeding devices. The emitter provides energies up to 20 mJ for the signal waves in the vicinity of CO2 and H2O lines, and 16 mJ at 2290 nm for the CH4 line. By implementing a control loop based on a wavemeter frequency measurement, the signal fluctuations can be maintained below 1 MHz rms for 10 s averaging time. Finally, from optical heterodyne analysis of the beat note between our emitter and a stabilized laser diode, the optical parametric source linewidth was estimated to be better than 60 MHz (Full width at half maximum).

  15. Impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-05-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have a significant impact on the Earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes, the stratosphere is also influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts Hamburg - Modular Earth Submodel System (ECHAM/MESSy) Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the long-wave volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour induced by the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on tropospheric water vapour and El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) are evident, if the long-wave forcing is strong enough. Our results are corroborated by additional sensitivity simulations of the Mount Pinatubo period with reduced nudging and reduced volcanic aerosol extinction.

  16. A new portable generator to dynamically produce SI-traceable reference gas mixtures for VOCs and water vapour at atmospheric concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillevic, Myriam; Pascale, Céline; Ackermann, Andreas; Leuenberger, Daiana; Niederhauser, Bernhard

    2016-04-01

    In the framework of the KEY-VOCs and AtmoChem-ECV projects, we are currently developing new facilities to dynamically generate reference gas mixtures for a variety of reactive compounds, at concentrations measured in the atmosphere and in a SI-traceable way (i.e. the amount of substance fraction in mole per mole is traceable to SI-units). Here we present the realisation of such standards for water vapour in the range 1-10 μmol/mol and for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) such as limonene, alpha-pinene, MVK, MEK, in the nmol/mol range. The matrix gas can be nitrogen or synthetic air. Further development in gas purification techniques could make possible to use purified atmospheric air as carrier gas. The method is based on permeation and dynamic dilution: one permeator containing a pure substance (either water, limonene, MVK, MEK or α-pinene) is kept into a permeation chamber with a constant gas flow. The mass loss is precisely calibrated using a magnetic suspension balance. The carrier gas is purified beforehand from the compounds of interest to the required level, using commercially available purification cartridges. This primary mixture is then diluted to reach the required amount of substance fraction. All flows are piloted by mass flow controllers which makes the production process flexible and easily adaptable to generate the required concentration. All parts in contact with the gas mixture are passivated using coated surfaces, to reduce adsorption/desorption processes as much as possible. Two setups are currently developed: one already built and fixed in our laboratory in Bern as well as a portable generator that is still under construction and that could be used anywhere in the field. The permeation chamber of the portable generator has multiple individual cells allowing the generation of mixtures up to 5 different components if needed. Moreover the presented technique can be adapted and applied to a large variety of molecules (e.g., NO2, BTEX, CFCs

  17. Phase Correction for ALMA with 183 GHz Water Vapour Radiometers

    CERN Document Server

    Nikolic, Bojan; Graves, Sarah F; Hills, Richard E; Richer, John S

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuating properties of the atmosphere, and in particular its water vapour content, give rise to phase fluctuations of astronomical signals which, if uncorrected, lead to rapid deterioration of performance of (sub)-mm interferometers on long baselines. The Atacama Large Millimetre/submillimeter Array (ALMA) uses a 183 GHz Water Vapour Radiometer (WVR) system to help correct these fluctuations and provide much improved performance on long baselines and at high frequencies. Here we describe the design of the overall ALMA WVR system, the choice of design parameters and the data processing strategy. We also present results of initial tests that demonstrate both the large improvement in phase stability that can be achieved and the very low contribution to phase noise from the WVRs. Finally, we describe briefly the main limiting factors to the accuracy of phase correction seen in these initial tests; namely, the degrading influence of cloud and the residual phase fluctuations that are most likely to be due to var...

  18. Combined Dial Sounding of Ozone, Water Vapour and Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trickl, Thomas; Vogelmann, Hannes

    2016-06-01

    Routine high-quality lidar measurements of ozone, water vapour and aerosol at Garmisch-Partenkirchen since 2007 have made possible more comprehensive atmospheric studies and lead to a growing insight concerning the most frequently occurring long-range transport pathways. In this contribution we present as examples results on stratospheric layers travelling in the free troposphere for extended periods of time without eroding. In particular, we present a case of an intrusion layer that subsided over as many as fifteen days and survived the interference by strong Canadian fires. These results impose a challenge on atmospheric modelling that grossly overestimates free-tropospheric mixing.

  19. Water vapour measurements during POLINAT 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ovarlez, J.; Ovarlez, H. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 91 - Palaiseau (France). Lab. de Meteorologie Dynamique

    1997-12-31

    The POLINAT (POLlution from aircraft emissions In the North ATlantic flight corridor)1 experiment has been performed within the framework of the Environment Programme of the Commission of the European Community. It was devoted to the study of the pollution from aircraft in the North Atlantic flight corridor, in order to investigate the impact of pollutants emitted by aircraft on the concentrations of ozone and other trace gases in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. For that experiment the water vapour content was measured with a frost-point hygrometer on board of the DLR Falcon research aircraft. This instrument is described, and some selected results are given. (author) 19 refs.

  20. The Water Vapour Radiometer at Effelsberg

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, A. L.; Teuber, U.; Keller, R.

    We have installed a scanning 18 GHz to 26 GHz water vapour radiometer on the focus cabin of the Effelsberg 100 m telescope for tropospheric phase, delay and opacity correction during high-frequency VLBI observations. It is based on the design by Tahmoush & Rogers (2000) but with noise injection for calibration, weather-proof housing, and temperature stabilization. The radiometer is delivering data into an archive since July 2003, from which they are available for download. The data will be delivered automatically to PIs of EVN experiments in a calibration table attached by the EVN calibration pipeline. This paper describes the radiometer and its performance.

  1. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom). Lews Castle College

    2013-10-15

    The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the 'Swiss box') to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 x 10{sup 7} kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box 'import' more water vapour than it 'exports', but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5%) of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products. (orig.)

  2. The water vapour flux above Switzerland and its role in the August 2005 extreme precipitation and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest N'dri Koffi

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The water budget approach is applied to an atmospheric box above Switzerland (hereafter referred to as the “Swiss box” to quantify the atmospheric water vapour flux using ECMWF ERA-Interim reanalyses. The results confirm that the water vapour flux through the Swiss box is highly temporally variable, ranging from 1 to 5 · 107 kg/s during settled anticyclonic weather, but increasing in size by a factor of ten or more during high speed currents of water vapour. Overall, Switzerland and the Swiss box “import” more water vapour than it “exports”, but the amount gained remains only a small fraction (1% to 5% of the total available water vapour passing by. High inward water vapour fluxes are not necessarily linked to high precipitation episodes. The water vapour flux during the August 2005 floods, which caused severe damage in central Switzerland, is examined and an assessment is made of the computed water vapour fluxes compared to high spatio-temporal rain gauge and radar observations. About 25% of the incoming water vapour flux was stored in Switzerland. The computed water vapour fluxes from ECMWF data compare well with the mean rain gauge observations and the combined rain-gauge radar precipitation products.

  3. GPS tomographic experiment on water vapour dynamics in the troposphere over Lisbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Miranda, Pedro

    2015-04-01

    Quantification of the water vapour variability on the atmosphere remains a difficult task, affecting the weather prediction. Coarse water vapour resolution measurements in space and time affect the numerical weather prediction solution models causing artifacts in the prediction of severe weather phenomena. The GNSS atmospheric processing has been developed in the past years providing integrated water vapour estimates comparable with the meteorological sensor measurements, with studies registering 1 to 2 kg/m2 bias, but lack a vertical determination of the atmospheric processes. The GNSS tomography in the troposphere is one of the most promising techniques for sensing the three-dimensional water vapour state of the atmosphere. The determination of the integrated water vapour profile by means of the widely accepted GNSS meteorology techniques, allows the reconstruction of several slant path delay rays in the satellite line of view, providing an opportunity to sense the troposphere at tree-dimensions plus time. The tomographic system can estimate an image solution of the water vapour but impositions have to be introduced to the system of equations inversion because of the non-optimal GNSS observation geometry. Application of this technique on atmospheric processes like large convective precipitation or mesoscale water vapour circulation have been able to describe its local dynamic vertical variation. A 3D tomographic experiment was developed over an area of 60x60 km2 around Lisbon (Portugal). The GNSS network available composed by 9 receivers was used for an experiment of densification of the permanent network using 8 temporarily installed GPS receivers (totalling 17 stations). This study was performed during several weeks in July 2013, where a radiosonde campaign was also held in order to validate the tomographic inversion solution. 2D integrated water vapour maps directly obtained from the GNSS processing were also evaluated and local coastal breeze circulation

  4. Effect of Water Vapour to Temperature Inside Sonoluminescing Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    安宇; 谢崇国; 应崇福

    2003-01-01

    Using the model based on the homo-pressure approximation, we explain why the maximum temperature is sensitive to the ambient temperature in the single bubble sonoluminescence. The numerical simulation shows that the maximum temperature inside a sonoluminescing bubble depends on how much water vapour evaporates or coagulates at the bubble wall during the bubble shrinking to its minimum size. While the amount of water vapour inside the bubble at the initial and the final state of the compression depends on the saturated water vapour pressure which is sensitive to the ambient temperature. The lower the saturated vapour pressure is, the higher the maximum temperature is. This may lead to more general conclusion that those liquids with lower saturated vapour pressure are more favourable for the single bubble sonoluminescence. We also compare those bubbles with different noble gases, the result shows that the maximum temperatures in the different gas bubbles are almost the same for those with the same ambient temperature.

  5. A solar signal in lower stratospheric water vapour?

    OpenAIRE

    T. Schieferdecker; S. Lossow; Stiller, G. P.; von Clarmann, T.

    2015-01-01

    A merged time series of stratospheric water vapour built from HALOE and MIPAS data between 60° S and 60° N and 15 to 30 km and covering the years 1992 to 2012 was analyzed by multivariate linear regression including an 11 year solar cycle proxy. Lower stratospheric water vapour was found to reveal a phase-shifted anti-correlation with the solar cycle, with lowest water vapour after solar maximum. The phase shift is composed of an inherent constant time lag of about 2 years and a second compon...

  6. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    CERN Document Server

    Querel, Richard R

    2014-01-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 {\\mu}m) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5{\\deg} el...

  7. The millennium water vapour drop in chemistry-climate model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brinkop, Sabine; Dameris, Martin; Jöckel, Patrick; Garny, Hella; Lossow, Stefan; Stiller, Gabriele

    2016-07-01

    This study investigates the abrupt and severe water vapour decline in the stratosphere beginning in the year 2000 (the "millennium water vapour drop") and other similarly strong stratospheric water vapour reductions by means of various simulations with the state-of-the-art Chemistry-Climate Model (CCM) EMAC (ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry Model). The model simulations differ with respect to the prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and whether nudging is applied or not. The CCM EMAC is able to most closely reproduce the signature and pattern of the water vapour drop in agreement with those derived from satellite observations if the model is nudged. Model results confirm that this extraordinary water vapour decline is particularly obvious in the tropical lower stratosphere and is related to a large decrease in cold point temperature. The drop signal propagates under dilution to the higher stratosphere and to the poles via the Brewer-Dobson circulation (BDC). We found that the driving forces for this significant decline in water vapour mixing ratios are tropical sea surface temperature (SST) changes due to a coincidence with a preceding strong El Niño-Southern Oscillation event (1997/1998) followed by a strong La Niña event (1999/2000) and supported by the change of the westerly to the easterly phase of the equatorial stratospheric quasi-biennial oscillation (QBO) in 2000. Correct (observed) SSTs are important for triggering the strong decline in water vapour. There are indications that, at least partly, SSTs contribute to the long period of low water vapour values from 2001 to 2006. For this period, the specific dynamical state of the atmosphere (overall atmospheric large-scale wind and temperature distribution) is important as well, as it causes the observed persistent low cold point temperatures. These are induced by a period of increased upwelling, which, however, has no corresponding pronounced signature in SSTs anomalies in the tropics. Our free

  8. Retrieval of global water vapour columns from GOME-2 and first applications in polar regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Noël

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Global total water vapour columns have been derived from measurements of the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 on MetOp. For this purpose, the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS method has been adapted, which has already been applied successfully to GOME (on ERS-2 and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY, on ENVISAT data. Comparisons between the derived GOME-2 and SCIAMACHY water vapour columns show a good overall agreement. This gives confidence that the time series of water vapour columns from GOME-type instruments which started in 1995 can be continued by the MetOp instrumentation until at least 2020. The enhanced temporal and spatial resolution of GOME-2 enables the analysis of short-term variations particularly in the polar regions. This is especially important since atmospheric data sources in the polar regions are generally sparse. As an exemplary application, daily water vapour concentrations over the polar research station Ny Ålesund (78°55'19" N/11°56'33" E are investigated. At this latitude GOME-2 gives about six data points during daylight hours at varying local times. The results of this study show that it is possible to derive information about the diurnal variability of water vapour in polar regions from GOME-2 measurements.

  9. Carbon dioxide and water vapour characteristics on the west coast of Arabian Sea during Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Dharmaraj; M N Patil; R T Waghmare; P Ernest Raj

    2012-08-01

    Carbon dioxide, water vapour, air temperature and wind measurements at 10 Hz sampling rate were carried out over the coast of Arabian Sea, Goa (15°21′N, 73° 51′E) in India. These observations were collected, in association with the surface layer turbulent parameters for the Arabian Sea Monsoon Experiment (ARMEX). In the summer monsoon period, concentration of CO2 was in the range of 550–790 mg m−3 whereas the water vapour was in the range of 17.5–24.5 g m−3. The Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis has been performed on these observations to investigate the spectral behaviour of CO2 and water vapour. The relation between CO2 and water vapour on various atmospheric scales has been proposed. CO2 and water vapour observations confirmed the existence of periodicities of large (11, 8 days), meso (5 days) and micrometeorological (20 min) scales.

  10. Tomographic retrieval of water vapour and temperature around polar mesospheric clouds using Odin-SMR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Christensen

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A special observation mode of the Odin satellite provides the first simultaneous measurements of water vapour, temperature and polar mesospheric cloud (PMC brightness over a large geographical area while still resolving both horizontal and vertical structures in the clouds and background atmosphere. The observation mode has been activated during June, July and August of 2010, 2011 and 2014, and for latitudes between 50 and 82° N. This paper focuses on the water vapour and temperature measurements carried out with Odin's sub-millimetre radiometer (SMR. The tomographic retrieval approach used provides water vapour and temperature between 75–90 km with a vertical resolution of about 2.5 km and a horizontal resolution of about 200 km. The precision of the measurements is estimated to 0.5 ppm for water vapour and 3 K for temperature. Due to limited information about the pressure at the measured altitudes, the results have large uncertainties (> 3 ppm in the retrieved water vapour. These errors, however, influence mainly the mean atmosphere retrieved for each orbit, and variations around this mean are still reliably captured by the measurements. SMR measurements are performed using two different mixer chains, denoted as frequency mode 19 and 13. Systematic differences between the two frontends have been noted. A first comparison with the Solar Occultation For Ice Experiment instrument (SOFIE on-board the Aeronomy of Ice in the Mesosphere (AIM satellite and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer of the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE-FTS on-board SCISAT indicates that the measurements using the frequency mode 19 have a significant low bias in both temperature (> 20 K and water vapour (> 1 ppm, while the measurements using frequency mode 13 agree with the other instruments considering estimated errors. PMC brightness data are provided by the OSIRIS, Odin's other sensor. Combined SMR and OSIRIS data for some example orbits are considered. For these

  11. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, M.; S. Barthlott; F. Hase; González, Y.; Yoshimura, K; O. E. García; E. Sepúlveda; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Gisi, M.; R. Kohlhepp; S. Dohe; Blumenstock, T.; Wiegele, A.; E. Christner; Strong, K.

    2012-01-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologues data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sens...

  12. The CM SAF ATOVS tropospheric water vapour and temperature data record: overview of methodology and evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    N. Courcoux; Schröder, M.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, the reprocessed Advanced Television Infrared Observation Satellite (TIROS)-N Operational Vertical Sounder (ATOVS) tropospheric water vapour and temperature data record has been released by the European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT) Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF). ATOVS observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Agency (NOAA)-15 through NOAA-19 ...

  13. Water vapour variability in the high-latitude upper troposphere - Part 2: Impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioris, Christopher E.; Zou, Jason; McElroy, C. Thomas; Boone, Chris D.; Sheese, Patrick E.; Bernath, Peter F.

    2016-02-01

    The impact of volcanic eruptions on water vapour in the high-latitude upper troposphere is studied using deseasonalized time series based on observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The two eruptions with the greatest impact on the high-latitude upper troposphere during the time frame of this satellite-based remote sensing mission are chosen. The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption in June 2011 was the most explosive in the past 24 years and is shown to be able to account for the observed (50 ± 12) % increase in water vapour in the southern high-latitude upper troposphere in July 2011 after a minor adjustment for the simultaneous influence of the Antarctic oscillation. Eyjafjallajökull erupted in the spring of 2010, increasing water vapour in the upper troposphere at northern high latitudes significantly for a period of ˜ 1 month. These findings imply that extratropical volcanic eruptions in windy environments can lead to significant perturbations to high-latitude upper tropospheric humidity mostly due to entrainment of lower tropospheric moisture by wind-blown plumes. The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle eruption must be taken into account to properly determine the magnitude of the trend in southern high-latitude upper tropospheric water vapour over the last decade.

  14. The atmospheric chemical vapour deposition of coatings on glass

    CERN Document Server

    Sanderson, K D

    1996-01-01

    The deposition of thin films of indium oxide, tin doped indium oxide (ITO) and titanium nitride for solar control applications have been investigated by Atmospheric Chemical Vapour Deposition (APCVD). Experimental details of the deposition system and the techniques used to characterise the films are presented. Results from investigations into the deposition parameters, the film microstructure and film material properties are discussed. A range of precursors were investigated for the deposition of indium oxide. The effect of pro-mixing the vaporised precursor with an oxidant source and the deposition temperature has been studied. Polycrystalline In sub 2 O sub 3 films with a resistivity of 1.1 - 3x10 sup - sup 3 OMEGA cm were obtained with ln(thd) sub 3 , oxygen and nitrogen. The growth of ITO films from ln(thd) sub 3 , oxygen and a range of tin dopants is also presented. The effect of the dopant precursor, the doping concentration, deposition temperature and the effect of additives on film growth and microstr...

  15. Observations of precipitable water vapour over complex topography of Ethiopia from ground-based GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    G. Mengistu Tsidu; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.

    2015-01-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satell...

  16. Water vapour total columns from SCIAMACHY spectra in the 2.36 μm window

    OpenAIRE

    Schrijver, H.; Gloudemans, A. M. S.; Frankenberg, C.; Aben, I.

    2009-01-01

    The potential of the shortwave infrared channel of the atmospheric spectrometer SCIAMACHY on Envisat to provide accurate measurements of total atmospheric water vapour columns is explored. It is shown that good quality results can be obtained for cloud free scenes above the continents using the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method. In addition to the standard cloud filter employed in this method, further cloud screening is obtained by comparing simultaneously retrieved methane columns with val...

  17. The water vapour radiometer of Paranal: homogeneity of precipitable water vapour from two years of operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerber, Florian; Querel, Richard R.; Neureiter, Bianca

    2015-04-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ∼2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (∼10 μm) for cloud detection. We present a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 24 months of PWV observations. The question we tried to address was whether PWV is homogeneous enough across the sky such that service mode observations with the VLT can routinely be conducted with a user-provided constraint for PWV measured at zenith. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 2 to 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be justified in terms of scientific gain before implementation can be considered. We plan to extend our analysis of PWV variations covering a larger parameters space

  18. All-sky homogeneity of precipitable water vapour over Paranal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querel, Richard R.; Kerber, Florian

    2014-08-01

    A Low Humidity and Temperature Profiling (LHATPRO) microwave radiometer, manufactured by Radiometer Physics GmbH (RPG), is used to monitor sky conditions over ESO's Paranal observatory in support of VLT science operations. The unit measures several channels across the strong water vapour emission line at 183 GHz, necessary for resolving the low levels of precipitable water vapour (PWV) that are prevalent on Paranal (median ~2.4 mm). The instrument consists of a humidity profiler (183-191 GHz), a temperature profiler (51-58 GHz), and an infrared camera (~10 μm) for cloud detection. We present, for the first time, a statistical analysis of the homogeneity of all-sky PWV using 21 months of periodic (every 6 hours) all-sky scans from the radiometer. These data provide unique insight into the spatial and temporal variation of atmospheric conditions relevant for astronomical observations, particularly in the infrared. We find the PWV over Paranal to be remarkably homogeneous across the sky down to 27.5° elevation with a median variation of 0.32 mm (peak to valley) or 0.07 mm (rms). The homogeneity is a function of the absolute PWV but the relative variation is fairly constant at 10-15% (peak to valley) and 3% (rms). Such variations will not be a significant issue for analysis of astronomical data. Users at ESO can specify PWV - measured at zenith - as an ambient constraint in service mode to enable, for instance, very demanding observations in the infrared that can only be conducted during periods of very good atmospheric transmission and hence low PWV. We conclude that in general it will not be necessary to add another observing constraint for PWV homogeneity to ensure integrity of observations. For demanding observations requiring very low PWV, where the relative variation is higher, the optimum support could be provided by observing with the LHATPRO in the same line-of-sight simultaneously. Such a mode of operations has already been tested but will have to be

  19. Validation of HITEMP-2010 for carbon dioxide and water vapour at high temperatures and atmospheric pressures in 450-7600cm-1 spectral range

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alberti, Michael; Weber, Roman; Mancini, Marco;

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the work is validation of HITEMP-2010 at atmospheric pressures and temperatures reaching 1770K. To this end, spectral transmissivities at 1cm-1 resolution and excellent signal-to-noise-ratio have been measured for 22 CO2/H2O/N2 mixtures. In this paper we consider the 450cm-1-7600cm...

  20. Water vapour variability in the high-latitude upper troposphere - Part 2: Impact of volcanic emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sioris, C. E.; Zou, J.; McElroy, C. T.; Boone, C. D.; Sheese, P. E.; Bernath, P. F.

    2015-09-01

    The impact of volcanic eruptions on water vapour in the region of the high latitude tropopause is studied using deseasonalized time series based on observations by the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment (ACE) water vapour sensors, namely MAESTRO (Measurements of Aerosol Extinction in the Stratosphere and Troposphere Retrieved by Occultation) and the Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS). The three eruptions with the greatest impact on the high latitude upper troposphere during the time frame of this satellite-based remote sensing mission are chosen. The Puyehue-Cordón Caulle volcanic eruption in June 2011 was the most explosive eruption in the past 24 years and resulted in an observed (50 ± 12) % increase in water vapour in the southern high-latitude upper troposphere in July 2011 that persisted into September 2011. A pair of Northern Hemisphere volcanoes, namely Eyjafjallajökull and Nabro, erupted in 2010 and 2011 respectively, increasing water vapour in the upper troposphere at northern high latitudes significantly for a period of ~ 3 months following each eruption. Both had a volcanic explosivity index of 4. Nabro led to a statistically significant increase of ~ 1 ppm in lower stratospheric (13.5-15.5 km) water vapour at northern high-latitudes (60-90° N) in September 2011, when the brunt of its plume arrived in the Arctic. These findings imply that steam emitted into the high-latitude, upper troposphere during volcanic eruptions must be taken into account to properly determine the magnitude of the trend in water vapour over the last decade.

  1. Breakdown and dc discharge in low-pressure water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivoš, J.; Škoro, N.; Marić, D.; Malović, G.; Petrović, Z. Lj

    2015-10-01

    In this paper we report studies of basic properties of breakdown, low-current Townsend discharge and high-current discharge regimes in water vapour. Paschen curves and the corresponding distributions of emission intensities at low current were recorded in the range of pd (pressure x electrode gap) from 0.1 to 10 Torrcm covering the region of Paschen minimum. From the experimental profiles we obtained effective ionization coefficient of water vapour for the E/N range 650 Td-7 kTd and fitted the results by using the extended Townsend analytical formula. Using the obtained ionization coefficient, we calculated the effective yield of secondary electrons from the copper cathode. Results of the measurements of Volt-Ampere characteristics in water vapour were presented together with the images of the axial structure of the discharge in a wide range of discharge currents for two pd values. Recorded profiles showed development of the spatial structure of the discharge in different operating regimes. We were able to identify conditions where processes induced by heavy particles, probably fast hydrogen atoms, are dominant in inducing emission from the discharge. Finally, standard scaling laws were tested for low current and glow discharges in water vapour.

  2. The STARTWAVE atmospheric water database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Morland

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The STARTWAVE (STudies in Atmospheric Radiative Transfer and Water Vapour Effects project aims to investigate the role which water vapour plays in the climate system, and in particular its interaction with radiation. Within this framework, an ongoing water vapour database project was set up which comprises integrated water vapour (IWV measurements made over the last ten years by ground-based microwave radiometers, Global Positioning System (GPS receivers and sun photometers located throughout Switzerland at altitudes between 330 and 3584 m. At Bern (46.95° N, 7.44° E tropospheric and stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained on a regular basis and integrated liquid water, which is important for cloud characterisation, is also measured. Additional stratospheric water vapour profiles are obtained by an airborne microwave radiometer which observes large parts of the northern hemisphere during yearly flight campaigns. The database allows us to validate the various water vapour measurement techniques. Comparisons between IWV measured by the Payerne radiosonde with that measured at Bern by two microwave radiometers, GPS and sun photometer showed instrument biases within ±0.5 mm. The bias in GPS relative to sun photometer over the 2001 to 2004 period was –0.8 mm at Payerne (46.81° N, 6.94° E, 490 m, which lies in the Swiss plains north of the Alps, and +0.6 mm at Davos (46.81° N, 9.84° E, 1598 m, which is located within the Alps in the eastern part of Switzerland. At Locarno (46.18° N, 8.78° E, 366 m, which is located on the south side of the Alps, the bias is +1.9 mm. The sun photometer at Locarno was found to have a bias of –2.2 mm (13% of the mean annual IWV relative to the data from the closest radiosonde station at Milano. This result led to a yearly rotation of the sun photometer instruments between low and high altitude stations to improve the calibrations. In order to demonstrate the capabilites of the database for studying

  3. Identification and statistical analysis of global water vapour trends based on satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Mieruch, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    Global water vapour total column amounts have been retrieved from spectral data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME) flying on ERS-2, which was launched in April 1995, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY) onboard ENVISAT launched in March 2002. For this purpose the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS) approach has been used. The combination of the data from both instruments provides...

  4. T91钢高温水蒸气氧化行为%High temperature oxidation of T91 steel in water vapour atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志武; 谢兴

    2013-01-01

    The oxidation behavior of T91 steel in high temperature water vapor(650℃) is studied experimentally. The oxidation kinetics curves of T91 steel have been mensurated by thermo gravimetric analyzer (TGA) method. The results show that the oxidation kinetics obeys the parabolic law. The oxide scales are examined by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results show that the formed oxide consists of Fe3 O4 and Fe2 O3; they are flaky, cluster, stripy, granular at different oxidative period. The grain size of oxide is formed with nucleating and growing up. Cr can only be identified from the surface of the oxidation film after lh's oxidation, when the oxidation rate is fast and the subsequent oxidizing reaction is running on the exterior surface of the oxide scale all the time, which is external oxidation. The subsequent oxidizing reaction is running on the exterior surface of the oxide scale all the time, which is external oxidation.%通过T91钢在650℃高温水蒸汽条件下的氧化实验,用静态增重法测定了T91钢的氧化动力学曲线,其氧化动力学遵循类抛物线规律;对氧化膜进行扫描电镜、X射线衍射和能谱分析.结果表明,氧化膜的氧化物类型为Fe2O3和Fe3O4,在不同的氧化时间段分别呈片状、簇状、条状和颗粒状;氧化物晶粒是通过形核和长大形成的;氧化1h时,氧化膜的表面有Cr,其后均未发现Cr,且随后的8h氧化过程中,氧化反应一直在氧化膜的外表层进行,即发生外氧化.

  5. Water vapour accumulation mechanisms in the Western Mediterranean Basin and the development of European extreme rainfalls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Sáez de Cámara

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role of a recently described warm season circulation at the middle troposphere of northern Africa and that of the recirculation-accumulation mode of the Western Mediterranean Basin (WMB in the initiation of rainfall episodes in central and eastern Europe. Both of these atmospheric mechanisms can accumulate not only soil dust and pollutants for several days but also water vapour by evaporation both over the subtropical Atlantic and the western and central Mediterranean. Accumulation layers are vented off into the surrounding area after the irruption of perturbations. In particular, this work explores the exportation of water vapour under perturbed conditions associated with the passage of ‘Vb’ cyclones. The exceptional rainfall experienced over large areas of central Europe (Elbe/Danube floods during August 11-13, 2002 is exposed as a case study. The procedure to simulate the mechanisms involves a combination of the Regional Atmospheric Modelling System and HYbrid PArticle Concentration and Transport modelling systems. MODIS water vapour products, radio-soundings, wind profiler radars and surface-satellite precipitation data are used to verify the simulation outputs. Our results show that most of the precipitation occurring in the target area during the initiation and deepening of the episode was very likely originated in an air mass exported from the WMB. After our tracking experiment, that air mass, with an initial Atlantic origin, entered the WMB and circulated during 4 days (August 6-9 within the marine boundary layer and the coastal range of mountains of the WMB, accumulating vapour. Then, most of it was transported on August 10, after the irruption of the 'Vb' cyclone Ilse, through the Italian Peninsula and the Adriatic Sea, across the Western Balkans into the target area. The transported vapour together with evaporation en route initiated the rainfall episode.

  6. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of thermochromic tungsten doped vanadium dioxide thin films for use in architectural glazing

    OpenAIRE

    Blackman, C. S.; Piccirillo, C.; Binions, R.; Parkin, I. P.

    2009-01-01

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of VCl4, WCl6 and water at 550 degrees C lead to the production of high quality tungsten doped vanadium dioxide thin films. Careful control of the gas phase precursors allowed for tungsten doping up to 8 at.%. The transition temperature of the thermochromic switch was tunable in the range 55 degrees C to - 23 degrees C. The films were analysed using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spect...

  7. ADSORPTION OF WATER AND BENZENE VAPOUR IN MESOPOROUS MATERIALS

    OpenAIRE

    Paulina Taba

    2008-01-01

    Mesoporous materials have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the potential applications promised by the materials. This article discusses adsorption of water and benzene vapour in mesoporous materials (mesoporous silica: MCM-41, MCM-48 and their modification). MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized hydrothermally at 100 oC using cethyltrimethylammonium chloride or dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for MCM-41 (C16) or MCM-41 (C12) respectively and a mixture of cethyltrimethylammoniu...

  8. Phase correction of VLBI with water vapour radiometry

    OpenAIRE

    Roy, A L; Rottmann, H.; Teuber, U.; Keller, R

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate phase correction of 3 mm VLBI observations using the scanning 18 GHz to 26 GHz water vapour radiometer at Effelsberg and we demonstrate an absolute accuracy of 15 mm in zenith path delay by comparing with GPS and radiosondes. This accuracy should provide significant improvement in astrometric phase referencing observations. It is not good enough for geodetic VLBI to replace the tropospheric delay estimation but could be used to remove short-term path-length fluctuations and so ...

  9. Monitoring water vapour penetration using a contactless technique

    OpenAIRE

    Pélisset, S.; Théron, R.; Barnéoud-Raéis, M.; Perret-Aebi, L.-E.; Benkhaira, M.; Ballif, C.

    2009-01-01

    Some layers of thin film photovoltaic modules maybe critically sensitive to moisture. In this study we present a new tool for monitoring the effect of moisture using a particular Transparent Conductive Oxide (TCO) as a sensor. The moisture content of the encapsulant was determined by Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR) spectroscopic measurements. The TCO resistivity was measured using an inductive method. The different spectroscopic results show that the diffusion of water vapour in the encaps...

  10. Mesoscale modelling of water vapour in the tropical UTLS: two case studies from the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Marécal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we evaluate the ability of the BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modeling System mesoscale model compared to ECMWF global analysis to simulate the observed vertical variations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS. The observations are balloon-borne measurements of water vapour mixing ratio and temperature from micro-SDLA (Tunable Diode Laser Spectrometer instrument. Data from two balloon flights performed during the 2004 HIBISCUS field campaign are used to compare with the mesoscale simulations and to the ECMWF analysis. The observations exhibit fine scale vertical structures of water vapour of a few hundred meters height. The ECMWF vertical resolution (~1 km is too coarse to capture these vertical structures in the UTLS. With a vertical resolution similar to ECMWF, the mesoscale model performs better than ECMWF analysis for water vapour in the upper troposphere and similarly or slightly worse for temperature. The BRAMS model with 250 m vertical resolution is able to capture more of the observed fine scale vertical variations of water vapour compared to runs with a coarser vertical resolution. This is mainly related to: (i the enhanced vertical resolution in the UTLS and (ii to the more detailed microphysical parameterization providing ice supersaturations as in the observations. In near saturated or supersaturated layers, the mesoscale model predicted relative humidity with respect to ice saturation is close to observations provided that the temperature profile is realistic. For temperature, the ECMWF analysis gives good results partly attributed to data assimilation. The analysis of the mesoscale model results showed that the vertical variations of the water vapour profile depends on the dynamics in unsaturated layer while the microphysical processes play a major role in saturated/supersaturated layers. In the lower stratosphere, the ECMWF model and the BRAMS model give very similar

  11. A new test method for measuring the water vapour permeability of fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jianhua; Qian, Xiaoming

    2007-09-01

    The water vapour permeability of textile fabrics is a critical determinant of wearer comfort. Existing test methods are either time consuming or require large amounts of material. A new test apparatus was developed for characterizing the water vapour permeability of fabrics. An aluminium cylinder covered with waterproof and vapour permeable PTFE laminate is used for generating water vapour source on one side of the sample. A dry nitrogen sweep gas stream is used to carry water vapour away. The calculation of the rate of water vapour transmission across the fabric is based on the measurement of the relative humidity of the outgoing nitrogen stream. This new measuring apparatus offers a short test time and calls for a small sample size. The comparison measurements show that the test results correlated well with those obtained from ISO 11092 and ASTM E96. Therefore, this test method provides a new technique to accurately and precisely characterize the water vapour transport properties of fabrics.

  12. Inhibition treatment of the corrosion of lead artefacts in atmospheric conditions and by acetic acid vapour: use of sodium decanoate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiency of linear sodium decanoate, CH3(CH2)8COONa (noted NaC10), as corrosion inhibitor of lead was determined by electrochemical techniques in two corrosive mediums: ASTM D1384 standard water and acetic acid-enriched solutions. Best results were obtained with 0.05 mol l-1 of NaC10 solution. In these conditions, the inhibition efficiency can be estimated of 99.9%. The corrosion inhibition effect was confirmed by cyclic atmospheric tests in a climatic chamber in two different conditions: water saturated vapour, and acid acetic enriched vapour simulating the atmosphere in the wooden displays in museums. Surface analyses by SEM and X-ray diffraction indicate that the metal protection is due to the formation of a protective layer mainly composed of lead decanoate Pb(C10)2 (metallic soap). This inhibition treatment was applied on objects of metallic cultural heritage: gallo-roman sarcophagus in lead. Electrochemical methods confirm the efficiency of treatment on archaeological materials. In conclusion, this inhibitor treatment seems to be very promising against the atmospheric corrosion and the corrosion by organic acid vapour in museums

  13. A feasibility study for the retrieval of the total column precipitable water vapour from satellite observations in the blue spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wagner

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new algorithm for satellite retrievals of the atmospheric water vapour column in the blue spectral range. The water vapour absorption cross section in the blue spectral range is much weaker than in the red spectral range. Thus the detection limit and the uncertainty of individual observations are systematically larger than for retrievals at longer wavelengths. Nevertheless, water vapour retrievals in the blue spectral range have also several advantages: since the surface albedo in the blue spectral range is similar over land and ocean, water vapour retrievals are more consistent than for longer wavelengths. Compared to retrievals at longer wavelengths, the sensitivity for atmospheric layers close to the surface is higher due to the (typically 2 to 3 times higher ocean albedo in the blue. Water vapour retrievals in the blue spectral range are also possible for satellite sensors, which do not measure at longer wavelengths of the visible spectral range like the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI. We investigated details of the water vapour retrieval in the blue spectral range based on radiative transfer simulations and observations from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment 2 (GOME-2 and OMI. It is demonstrated that it is possible to retrieve the atmospheric water vapour column density in the blue spectral range over most parts of the globe. The findings of our study are of importance also for future satellite missions (e.g. Sentinel 4 and 5.

  14. A microwave satellite water vapour column retrieval for polar winter conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perro, Christopher; Lesins, Glen; Duck, Thomas J.; Cadeddu, Maria

    2016-05-01

    A new microwave satellite water vapour retrieval for the polar winter atmosphere is presented. The retrieval builds on the work of Miao et al. (2001) and Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), employing auxiliary information for atmospheric conditions and numerical optimization. It was tested using simulated and actual measurements from the Microwave Humidity Sounder (MHS) satellite instruments. Ground truth was provided by the G-band vapour radiometer (GVR) at Barrow, Alaska. For water vapour columns less than 6 kg m-2, comparisons between the retrieval and GVR result in a root mean square (RMS) deviation of 0.39 kg m-2 and a systematic bias of 0.08 kg m-2. These results are compared with RMS deviations and biases at Barrow for the retrieval of Melsheimer and Heygster (2008), the AIRS and MIRS satellite data products, and the ERA-Interim, NCEP, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses. When applied to MHS measurements, the new retrieval produces a smaller RMS deviation and bias than for the earlier retrieval and satellite data products. The RMS deviations for the new retrieval were comparable to those for the ERA-Interim, JRA-55, and ASR reanalyses; however, the MHS retrievals have much finer horizontal resolution (15 km at nadir) and reveal more structure. The new retrieval can be used to obtain pan-Arctic maps of water vapour columns of unprecedented quality. It may also be applied to measurements from the Special Sensor Microwave/Temperature 2 (SSM/T2), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit B (AMSU-B), Special Sensor Microwave Imager/Sounder (SSMIS), Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), and Chinese MicroWave Humidity Sounder (MWHS) instruments.

  15. Comparison of independent integrated water vapour estimates from GPS and sun photometer measurements and a meteorological model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugnaghi, S.; Boccolari, M.; Fazlagić, S.; Pacione, R.; Santangelo, R.; Vedel, H.; Vespe, F.

    Measurements using the Global Positioning System (GPS) are affected by the so-called tropospheric delay. Of this, the so-called wet delay is related mainly to the amount of water vapour along the path of the GPS signal through the troposphere. Precise knowledge of the abundance of water vapour, in space and time, is important for meteorology, both in forecasting and now-casting as well as in climate studies. Both because water vapour is the predecessor of precipitation, which is a forecast product, and because a very significant fraction of the energy released to the atmosphere comes from latent heat via water vapour. Despite the high variability of water vapour compared to other meteorological fields, like pressure and wind, water vapour observations are scarce; wherefore additional measurements of water vapour are expected to benefit meteorology. Water vapour is crucial for the development of the small scale, but sometimes very severe,precipitation events which are often seen at mid latitudes, and which are very hard to predict. In this work a comparison between radiometric (sun photometer) and GPS integrated water vapour (IWV) is presented. A sun photometer has been installed at the ENEA (Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, l'Energia e l'Ambiente) base of Lampedusa Island. The sun photometer is quite close (less then 4 km) to an ASI (Agenzia Spaziale Italiana) GPS permanent receiver. In Venezia an ASI GPS permanent receiver is collocated with another sun photometer. Both sun photometers are installed as part of the AERONET (AErosol and RObotic NETwork) program. A long record of sun photometric measurements, GPS data, and meteorological data is available for the Venezia site. A shorter record (summer period of the year 2000) is available for the station at Lampedusa. The comparison among the three different methods for water vapour delay estimation is presented. We find that the GPS and sun photometric data are better correlated (S.D. about 10 mm for the wet delay

  16. Intercomparison of in-situ and remote sensing δD signals in tropospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; González, Yenny; Dyroff, Christoph; Christner, Emanuel; García, Omaira; Wiegele, Andreas; Andrey, Javier; Barthlott, Sabine; Blumenstock, Thomas; Guirado, Carmen; Hase, Frank; Ramos, Ramon; Rodríguez, Sergio; Sepúveda, Eliezer

    2014-05-01

    The main mission of the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water) is the generation of a quasi-global tropospheric water vapour isototopologue dataset of a good and well-documented quality. We present a first empirical validation of MUSICA's remote sensing δD products (ground-based FTIR within NDACC, Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change, and space-based with IASI, Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer, flown on METOP). As reference we use in-situ measurements made on the island of Tenerife at two different altitudes (2370 and 3550 m a.s.l., using two Picarro L2120-i water isotopologue analyzers) and aboard an aircraft (between 200 and 6800 m a.s.l., using the homemade ISOWAT instrument).

  17. Phase correction of VLBI with water vapour radiometry

    CERN Document Server

    Roy, A L; Teuber, U; Keller, R

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate phase correction of 3 mm VLBI observations using the scanning 18 GHz to 26 GHz water vapour radiometer at Effelsberg and we demonstrate an absolute accuracy of 15 mm in zenith path delay by comparing with GPS and radiosondes. This accuracy should provide significant improvement in astrometric phase referencing observations. It is not good enough for geodetic VLBI to replace the tropospheric delay estimation but could be used to remove short-term path-length fluctuations and so improve the geodetic observables. We discuss lessons learned and opportunities for further improvement.

  18. Phase correction of VLBI with water vapour radiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Alan; Rottmann, H.; Teuber, U.; Keller, R.

    We demonstrate phase correction of 3-mm VLBI observations using the scanning 18-GHz to 26GHz water vapour radiometer (WVR) at Effelsberg and we demonstrate an absolute accuracy of 15-mm in zenith path delay by comparing with GPS and radiosondes. This accuracy should provide significant improvement in astrometric phase-referencing observations. It is not good enough for geodetic VLBI to replace the tropospheric delay estimation but could be used to remove short-term path-length fluctuations and so improve the geodetic observables. We discuss lessons learned and opportunities for further improvement.

  19. Isotopes in the Arctic atmospheric water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen-Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-01-01

    The ISO-ARC project aims at documenting the Arctic atmospheric hydrological cycle, by assessing the imprint of the marine boundary conditions (e.g. temperature variations, circulation changes, or meltwater input) to the isotopic composition of the atmospheric water cycle (H218O and HDO) with a focus on North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. For this purpose, two continuous monitoring water vapour stable isotopes cavity ring-down spectrometers have been installed in July 2015: on-boar...

  20. The Seasonal Cycle of Water Vapour on Mars from Assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Liam J.; Lewis, Stephen R.; Patel, Manish R.; Montmessin, Franck; Forget, Francois; Smith, Michael D.

    2014-01-01

    We present for the first time an assimilation of Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) water vapour column data into a Mars global climate model (MGCM). We discuss the seasonal cycle of water vapour, the processes responsible for the observed water vapour distribution, and the cross-hemispheric water transport. The assimilation scheme is shown to be robust in producing consistent reanalyses, and the global water vapour column error is reduced to around 2-4 pr micron depending on season. Wave activity is shown to play an important role in the water vapour distribution, with topographically steered flows around the Hellas and Argyre basins acting to increase transport in these regions in all seasons. At high northern latitudes, zonal wavenumber 1 and 2 stationary waves during northern summer are responsible for spreading the sublimed water vapour away from the pole. Transport by the zonal wavenumber 2 waves occurs primarily to the west of Tharsis and Arabia Terra and, combined with the effects of western boundary currents, this leads to peak water vapour column abundances here as observed by numerous spacecraft. A net transport of water to the northern hemisphere over the course of one Mars year is calculated, primarily because of the large northwards flux of water vapour which occurs during the local dust storm around L(sub S) = 240-260deg. Finally, outlying frost deposits that surround the north polar cap are shown to be important in creating the peak water vapour column abundances observed during northern summer.

  1. Strategies for 4-D Regional Modeling of Water Vapour Using GPS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. H. Skone; S.M. Shrestha

    2003-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) signals experience ranging errors due to propagation through the neutral atmosphere. These range delays consist of a hydrostatic component, dependent on air pressure and temperature, and a wet delay dependent on water vapour pressure and temperature.Range delays arising from the hydrostatic component can be computed with accuracies of a few millimeters using existing models, provided that surface barometric or meteorological data are available. By using a regional network of GPS reference stations, it is possible to recover estimates of the Slant Wet Delay to all satellites in view. Observations of the Slant Wet Delay (SWD) can be used to model the vertical and horizontal structure of water vapour over a local area. These techniques are based on a tomographic approach using the SWD as input observables, where 4-D models of the wet refractivity may be derived. This method allows improved resolution of water vapour estimates for precise positioning applications and assimilation into Numerical Weather Predictions (NWP). In this paper we present strategies for real-time modeling of wet refractivity, with simulations and preliminary results of data processing for a regional GPS network in Southern California.

  2. Quality assessment of Izaña's upper-air water vapour measurement techniques: FTIR, Cimel, MFRSR, GPS, and Vaisala RS92

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available At the Izaña Atmospheric Research Centre water vapour amounts are measured routinely by different techniques since many years. We intercompare the total precipitable water vapour amounts measured between 2005 and 2009 by a Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR spectrometer, a Multifilter rotating shadow-band radiometer (MFRSR, a Cimel sunphotometer, a Global Positioning System (GPS receiver, and daily radiosondes (Vaisala RS92. In addition we intercompare the water vapor profiles measured by the FTIR and the radiosondes. The long-term intercomparison assures that our study well represents the large water vapour variabilities that occur in the troposphere and allows a reliable empirical quality assessment for the different water vapour dataset. We examine how the data quality of the different techniques depends on atmospheric conditions and estimate the dry bias of the techniques which are restricted to clear sky observations.

  3. Laser induced chemical vapour deposition of TiN coatings at atmospheric pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Croonen, Y.; Verspui, G.

    1993-01-01

    Laser induced Chemical Vapour Deposition of a wide variety of materials has been studied extensively at reduced pressures. However, for this technique to be economically and industrially applicable, processes at atmospheric pressure are preferred. A model study was made on the substrate-coating system molybdenum-titaniumnitride focussing on the feasibility to deposit TiN films locally at atmospheric pressure. The results of this study turned out to be very promising. A Nd-YAG laser beam ([MAT...

  4. Quantification of uncertainties of water vapour column retrievals using future instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Diedrich

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents a quantification of uncertainties of water vapour retrievals based on near infrared measurements of upcoming instruments. The concepts of three scheduled spectrometer were taken into account: OLCI (Ocean and Land Color Instrument on Sentinel-3, METimage on MetOp (Meteorological Operational Satellite and FCI (Flexible Combined Imager on MTG (Meteosat Third Generation. Optimal estimation theory was used to estimate the error of an hypothetical total water vapour column retrieval for 27 different atmospheric cases. The errors range from 100% in very dry cases to 2% in humid cases with a very high surface albedo. Generally the absolute uncertainties increase with higher water vapour column content due to H2O-saturation and decrease with a brighter surface albedo. Uncertainties increase with higher aerosol optical thickness, apart from very dark cases. Overall the METimage channel setting enables the most accurate retrievals. The retrieval using the MTG-FCI buildup has the highest uncertainties apart from very bright cases.

    A retrieval using two absorption channels increases the accuracy, in some cases by one order of magnitude, in comparison to a retrieval using just one absorption channel. On the other hand, a retrieval using three absorption channels has no significant advantage over a two-absorption channel retrieval.

    Furthermore, the optimal position of the absorption channels was determined using the concept of the "information content". For a single channel retrieval a channel at 900 or 915 nm has the highest mean information contents over all cases. The second absorption channel is ideally weakly correlated with the first one, thus positioned at 935 nm, in a region with stronger water vapour absorption.

  5. Measurement of water vapour transport through a porous non-hygroscopic material in a temperature gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thor; Padfield, Tim; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard;

    2014-01-01

    temperature, and a measured but not controlled relative humidity (RH). This assembly was allowed to reach equilibrium with no vapour movement between the spaces, as tested by a constant RH on each side and by zero flux of water vapour measured in the cold side chamber. The RH and temperature values were...... converted to partial vapour pressure and to vapour concentration in g/m3. The concentrations proved to be more equal on either side of the specimen than the partial vapour pressures. This supports an argument that it is concentration difference that drives diffusion of gases. Isothermal diffusion cannot...

  6. Observations of precipitable water vapour over complex topography of Ethiopia from ground-based GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    G. Mengistu Tsidu; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.

    2015-01-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a greenhouse gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks such as clouds and albedo. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on a regular and continuous basis has become possible as a result of the steady increase in the number of deployed global positioning satellite (GPS) ground-based receiv...

  7. Effect of water vapour on growth and adherence of chromia scales on pure chromium

    OpenAIRE

    Michalik, Marek

    2007-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of chromium was studied in the temperature range 950 to 1050oC. A number of atmospheres such as Ar-O2, Ar-H2-H2O, and more complex N2-O2-H2O and N2-H2-H2O were used, to allow the effects of oxygen and water vapour partial pressures to be determined. It was shown that the oxide scale formed in Ar-O2 environments was dependent on the oxygen partial pressure. Decreasing the pO2 in such gas mixtures lowered the oxidation rate and improved scale adherence. Different behavio...

  8. Thermal diffusion of water vapour in porous materials: fact or fiction?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Hans

    2011-01-01

    its negligible magnitude. It can in conclusion be stated that thermal diffusion is of no importance for building science applications, leaving vapour pressure as the sole significant transport potential for the diffusion of water vapour in porous materials. (C) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved......., thermal diffusion of water vapour in porous materials - diffusion driven by temperature gradients - currently stands out, due to the contradictory findings on the topic. Thermal diffusion proponents uphold that, complementary to vapour pressure gradients, temperature gradients equally yield substantial...

  9. Estimation of Water Vapour Attenuation And Rain Attenuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.Kalyana Srinivas

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Attenuation due to and water vapour and rain can severely degrade the radio wave propagation at centimeter or millimeter wavelengths. It restricts the path length of radio communication systems and limits the use of higher frequencies for line-of-sight microwave links and satellite communications. The attenuation will pose a greater problem to communication as the frequency of occurrence of heavy rain increases.In a tropical region, like Malaysia, where excessive rainfall is a common phenomenon throughout the year, the knowledge of the rain attenuation at the frequency of operation is extremely required for the design of a reliable terrestrial and earth space communication link at a particular location.

  10. Condensation of water vapour on moss-dominated biological soil crust, NW China

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Xin-Ping Wang; Yan-Xia Pan; Rui Hu; Ya-Feng Zhang; Hao Zhang

    2014-03-01

    Characteristics of water vapour condensation, including the onset, duration, and amount of water vapour condensation on moss-dominated biological soil crust (BSC) and dune sand were studied under simulated conditions with varying air temperature and relative humidity. The simulations were performed in a plant growth chamber using an electronic balance recording the weight of condensation. There was a positive linear correlation between the water vapour condensation and relative humidity while the mean temperature was negatively linearly related to amounts of water vapour condensation for both soil surfaces. The amount of water vapour condensation on BSC and dune sand can be described by the difference between air temperature and dew point with an exponential function, indicating that when the difference of air temperature and dew point exceeds a value of 35.3°C, there will be zero water vapour condensed on BSC. In contrast, when the difference of air temperature and dew point exceeds a value of 20.4°C, the water vapour condensation will be zero for dune sand. In general, when the air is fully saturated with water and the dew point is equal to the current air temperature, the water vapour condensed on BSC attained its maximum value of 0.398 mm, whereas it was 0.058 mm for dune sand. In comparison, water vapour condensed on BSC was at a relatively high temperature and low relative humidity, while we did not detect water vapour condensation on the dune sand under the similar conditions. Physical and chemical analyses of the samples pointed to a greater porosity, high content of fine particles, and high salinity for BSC compared to the dune sand. These results highlight that soil physicochemical properties are the likely factors influencing the mechanism of water vapour condensation under specific meteorological conditions, as onset was earlier and the duration was longer for water vapour condensation on BSC in comparison with that of dune sand. This contributed to

  11. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for Vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured three high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen during winter 2002/2003. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex. The water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 was obtained within the vortex edge region of the lower stratosphere. Here, a significant reduction of water vapour mixing ratio was observed between 16 and 19 km. The stratospheric temperatures indicate that this dehydration was not caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation. Ozone observations on this day indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex and show laminae in the same altitude range as the water vapour profile. The link between the observed water vapour reduction and filaments in the vortex edge region is indicated in the results of the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, which show that adjacent filaments of polar and mid latitude air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section produced by the MIMOSA model reveals that the water vapour sonde flew through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere below 425 K, then passed through filaments of mid latitude air with lower water vapour concentrations, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. These results indicate that on 11 February 2003 the frost point hygrometer measured different water vapour concentrations as the sonde detected air with different origins. Instead of being linked to dehydration due to PSC particle sedimentation, the local reduction in the stratospheric water vapour profile was in this case caused by dynamical processes in the polar stratosphere.

  12. Influence of hydrogen and water vapour on the kinetics of chromium oxide growth at high temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In support of the selection of structural materials for heat exchangers in helium-cooled high temperature reactors, the oxidation behaviour of the Ni-base chromia-former alloy 230 was investigated at 850 A degrees C in diluted helium atmosphere with a low water vapour content. In such a media, the equivalent partial pressure of oxygen (imposed by the 850 degrees C in diluted helium atmosphere with a low water vapour content. In such a media, the equivalent partial pressure of oxygen (imposed by the P(H2O)/P(H2) ratio) is very low (P(O2)eq around 10-16 Pa). The equivalent partial pressure of oxygen has no straight influence on the parabolic rate constant (kp); on the other hand, P(H2) and P(H2O) demonstrate a complex influence on kp. Photo-electrochemistry analyses revealed that this oxide could simultaneously contain two types of cationic defects. Specific oxidation tests with D2O showed that the oxide scale also contains hydrogen. A mechanist model is proposed in order to describe the scale growth using both cationic defects. Those theoretical results show, at least qualitatively, how P(H2) and P(H2O) may concurrently influence the oxidation rate. (authors)

  13. Airborne hygrometer calibration inter-comparison against a metrological water vapour standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smorgon, Denis; Boese, Norbert; Ebert, Volker

    2014-05-01

    Water vapour is the most important atmospheric greenhouse gas, which causes a major feedback to warming and other changes in the climate system. Knowledge of the distribution of water vapour and its climate induced changes is especially important in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UT/LS) where vapour plays a critical role in atmospheric radiative balance, cirrus cloud formation, and photochemistry. But, our understanding of water in the UT/LS is limited by significant uncertainties in current UT/LS water measurements. One of the most comprehensive inter-comparison campaigns for airborne hygrometers, termed AQUAVIT (AV1) [1], took place in 2007 at the AIDA chamber at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) in Germany. AV1 was a well-defined, referred, blind inter-comparison of 22 airborne field instruments from 17 international research groups. One major metrological deficit of AV1, however, was, that no traceable reference instrument participated in the inter-comparison experiments and that the calibration procedures of the participating instruments were not monitored or interrogated. Consequently a follow-up inter-comparison was organized in April 2013, which for the first time also provides a traceable link to the international humidity scale. This AQUAVIT2 (AV2) campaign (details see: http://www.imk-aaf.kit.edu/aquavit/index.php/Main_Page) was again located at KIT/AIDA and organised by an international organizing committee including KIT, PTB, FZJ and others. Generally AV2 is divided in two parallel comparisons: 1) AV2-A uses the AIDA chamber for a simultaneous comparison of all instruments (incl. sampling and in-situ instruments) over a broad range of conditions characteristic for the UT/LS; 2) AV2-B, about which this paper is reporting, is a sequential comparison of selected hygrometers and (when possible) their reference calibration infrastructures by means of a chilled mirror hygrometer traced back to the primary National humidity standard

  14. The dosage of mercury vapours in air. Application to an atmospheric control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors have studied a technique making it possible to trap completely the mercury vapours in the atmosphere and to analyse them with precision; their object is an application to an atmospheric control. The analytical method used is particularly sensitive and makes possible the determination of 1 micro-gram of mercury in a 1000 litre sample of air with an accuracy of 2 per cent. The total time for the operation can be estimated to be about 2 1/2 hours, including the analysis. The operations are straightforward and can be carried out by specialised personnel after a short training. (author)

  15. Adsorption Of Water And Benzene Vapour In Mesoporous Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Taba

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mesoporous materials have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the potential applications promised by the materials. This article discusses adsorption of water and benzene vapour in mesoporous materials (mesoporous silica: MCM-41, MCM-48 and their modification. MCM-41 and MCM-48 were synthesized hydrothermally at 100 oC using cethyltrimethylammonium chloride or dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide for MCM-41 (C16 or MCM-41 (C12 respectively and a mixture of cethyltrimethylammonium bromide and Triton X-100 for MCM-48 as templates. Their modifications were conducted by silylation of MCM-41 (C16 and MCM-48 with trimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TMCS and MCM48-TMCS and t-butyldimethylchloro silane (MCM16-TBDMCS and MCM48-TBDMCS. Results showed that MCM-41 and MCM-48 materials had hydrophobic features which were shown in the small amount of water adsorption at low P/P0. The hydrophobicity of samples used in this study decrease in the sequence: MCM-41 (C16 > MCM-48 > MCM-41 (C12. The hydrophobicity increased when MCM-41 and MCM-48 were silylated with TMCS or TBDMCS. All unsilylated MCM materials show higher affinity to benzene at low P/P0 than the silylated samples. The results of water and benzene adsorption showed that silylated samples are promising candidates as selective adsorbents for organic compounds.

  16. Comparison of IASI water vapour products over complex terrain with COPS campaign data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Masiello

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we compare IASI-retrieved vertical water vapour profiles and related precipitable water over a complex region, namely the Rhine Valley area, during the pre-operational period of IASI exploitation (June?August 2007. Both IASI water vapour mixing ratio profiles and integrated water vapour content are retrieved from L1C radiances spectra using two techniques and compared with water vapour related observations acquired during the Convective and Orographically-induced Precipitation Study (COPS field campaign that took place in this area at that time (i.e. lidars, radiosoundings and a global positioning system - GPS - station network. This work addresses the issue of IASI vertical spatial resolution and its capability to detect two-layer water vapour structures such as those observed in a mountainous area and which play an important role in convective initiation or inhibition. We found that this capability mostly relies on the type of a-priori background vector (climatology or space-time colocated ECMWF analysis, which is used within the retrieval scheme. Systematic comparison of water vapour products derived from 71 IASI spectra confirms that IASI can retrieve water vapour amounts in 2 km width layers, in the lower troposphere, with an accuracy of approximately 10%.

  17. The critical assessment of vapour pressure estimation methods for use in modelling the formation of atmospheric organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. Barley

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A selection of models for estimating vapour pressures have been tested against experimental data for a set of compounds selected for their particular relevance to the formation of atmospheric aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning. The experimental vapour pressure data (all <100 Pa of 45 multifunctional compounds provide a stringent test of the estimation techniques, with a recent complex group contribution method providing the best overall results. The effect of errors in vapour pressures upon the formation of organic aerosol by gas-liquid partitioning in an atmospherically relevant example is also investigated. The mass of organic aerosol formed under typical atmospheric conditions was found to be very sensitive to the variation in vapour pressure values typically present when comparing estimation methods.

  18. Vapour and air bubble collapse analysis in viscous compressible water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bazanini

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Numerical simulations of the collapse of bubbles (or cavities are shown, using the finite difference method, taking into account the compressibility of the liquid, expected to occur in the final stages of the collapse process. Results are compared with experimental and theoretical data for incompressible liquids, to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the bubble collapse. Pressure fields values are calculated in an area of 800 x 800 mm, for the case of one bubble under the hypothesis of spherical symmetry. Results are shown as radius versus time curves for the collapse (to compare collapse times, and pressure curves in the plane, for pressure fields. Such calculations are new because of their general point of view, since the existing works do not take into account the existence of vapour in the bubble, neither show the pressure fields seen here. It is also expected to see the influence of the compressibility of the water in the collapse time, and in the pressure field, when comparing pressure values.

  19. Modelling water vapour permeability through atomic layer deposition coated photovoltaic barrier defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elrawemi, Mohamed, E-mail: Mohamed.elrawemi@hud.ac.uk [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Blunt, Liam; Fleming, Leigh [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Bird, David, E-mail: David.Bird@uk-cpi.com [Centre for Process Innovation Limited, Sedgefield, County Durham (United Kingdom); Robbins, David [Centre for Process Innovation Limited, Sedgefield, County Durham (United Kingdom); Sweeney, Francis [EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Advanced Metrology, School of Computing and Engineering, University of Huddersfield, Huddersfield (United Kingdom)

    2014-11-03

    Transparent barrier films such as Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} used for prevention of oxygen and/or water vapour permeation are the subject of increasing research interest when used for the encapsulation of flexible photovoltaic modules. However, the existence of micro-scale defects in the barrier surface topography has been shown to have the potential to facilitate water vapour ingress, thereby reducing cell efficiency and causing internal electrical shorts. Previous work has shown that small defects (≤ 3 μm lateral dimension) were less significant in determining water vapour ingress. In contrast, larger defects (≥ 3 μm lateral dimension) seem to be more detrimental to the barrier functionality. Experimental results based on surface topography segmentation analysis and a model presented in this paper will be used to test the hypothesis that the major contributing defects to water vapour transmission rate are small numbers of large defects. The model highlighted in this study has the potential to be used for gaining a better understanding of photovoltaic module efficiency and performance. - Highlights: • A model of water vapour permeation through barrier defects is presented. • The effect of the defects on the water vapour permeability is investigated. • Defect density correlates with water vapour permeability. • Large defects may dominate the permeation properties of the barrier film.

  20. Utility of DMSP-SSM/I for integrated water vapour over the Indian seas

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    P N Mahajan

    2001-09-01

    Recent algorithms for Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (DMSP-SSM/I) satellite data are used for estimating integrated water vapour over the Indian seas. Integrated water vapour obtained from these algorithms is compared with that derived from radiosonde observations at Minicoy and Port Blair islands. Algorithm-3 of Schlussel and Emery (1990) performed best. On the basis of this algorithm, distribution of integrated water vapour is determined during the monsoon depression (22nd{27th July, 1992) that formed over the Bay of Bengal.

  1. Measurements of mesospheric water vapour, aerosols and temperatures with the Spectral Absorption Line Imager (SALI-AT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, M. G.; Mullins, M.; Brown, S.; Sargoytchev, S. I.

    2001-08-01

    Water vapour concentration is one of the most important, yet one of the least known quantities of the mesosphere. Knowledge of water vapour concentration is the key to understanding many mesospheric processes, including the one that is primary focus of our investigation, mesospheric clouds (MC). The processes of formation and occurrence parameters of MC constitute an interesting problem in their own right, but recently evidence has been provided which suggests that they are a critical indicator of atmospheric change. The aim of the SALI-AT experiment is to make simultaneous (although not strictly collocated) measurements of water vapour, aerosols and temperature in the mesosphere and the mesopause region under twilight condition in the presence of mesospheric clouds. The water vapour will be measured in the regime of solar occultation utilizing a water vapour absorption band at 936 nm wavelength employing the SALI (Spectral Absorption Line Imager) instrument concept. A three-channel zenith photometer, AT-3, with wavelengths of 385 nm, 525 nm, and 1040 nm will measure Mie and Rayleigh scattering giving both mesospheric temperature profiles and the particle size distribution. Both instruments are small, low cost and low mass. It is envisioned that the SALI-AT experiment be flown on a small rocket - the Improved Orion/Hotel payload configuration, from the Andoya Rocket range, Norway. Alternatively the instrument can be flown as a "passenger" on larger rocket carrying other experiments. In either case flight costs are relatively low. Some performance simulations are presented showing that the instrument we have designed will be sufficiently sensitive to measure water vapor in concentrations that are expected at the summer mesopause, about 85 km height.

  2. Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vaughan

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of upper tropospheric humidity profiles measured with a standard radiosonde, the Vaisala RS80-A, and a commercial frost-point hygrometer, the Snow White. Modifications to the Snow White, to enable the mirror reflectivity and Peltier cooling current to be monitored during flight, were found to be necessary to determine when the instrument was functioning correctly; a further modification to prevent hydrometeors entering the inlet was also implemented. From 23 combined flights of an ozonesonde, radiosonde and Snow White between September 2001 and July 2002, clear agreement was found between the two humidity sensors, with a mean difference of <2% in relative humidity from 2 to 10 km, and 2.2% between 10 and 13 km. This agreement required a correction to the radiosonde humidity, as described by Miloshevich et al. (2001. Using this result, the dataset of 324 ozonesonde/RS80-A profiles measured from Aberystwyth between 1991 and 2002 was examined to derive statistics for the distribution of water vapour and ozone. Supersaturation with respect to ice was frequently seen at the higher levels – 24% of the time in winter between 8 and 10 km. The fairly uniform distribution of relative humidity persisted to 120% in winter, but decreased rapidly above 100% in summer.

  3. Water vapour and ozone profiles in the midlatitude upper troposphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vaughan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an investigation of upper tropospheric humidity profiles measured with a standard radiosonde, the Vaisala RS80-A, and a commercial frost-point hygrometer, the Snow White. Modifications to the Snow White, to enable the mirror reflectivity and Peltier cooling current to be monitored during flight, were found to be necessary to determine when the instrument was functioning correctly; a further modification to prevent hydrometeors entering the inlet was also implemented. From 23 combined flights of an ozonesonde, radiosonde and Snow White between September 2001 and July 2002, clear agreement was found between the two humidity sensors, with a mean difference of <2% in relative humidity from 2 to 10km, and 2.2% between 10 and 13km. This agreement required a correction to the radiosonde humidity, as described by Miloshevich et al. (2001. Using this result, the dataset of 324 ozonesonde/RS80-A profiles measured from Aberystwyth between 1991 and 2002 was examined to derive statistics for the distribution of water vapour and ozone. Supersaturation with respect to ice was frequently seen at the higher levels - 24% of the time in winter between 8 and 10km. The fairly uniform distribution of relative humidity persisted to 120% in winter, but decreased rapidly above 100% in summer.

  4. Pressure effects on water vapour lines: beyond the Voigt profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, N H; Tran, H; Gamache, R R; Hartmann, J M

    2012-06-13

    A short overview of recent results on the effects of pressure (collisions) regarding the shape of isolated infrared lines of water vapour is presented. The first part of this study considers the basic collisional quantities, which are the pressure-broadening and -shifting coefficients, central parameters of the Lorentzian (and Voigt) profile and thus of any sophisticated line-shape model. Through comparisons of measured values with semi-classical calculations, the influences of the molecular states (both rotational and vibrational) involved and of the temperature are analysed. This shows the relatively unusual behaviour of H(2)O broadening, with evidence of a significant vibrational dependence and the fact that the broadening coefficient (in cm(-1) atm(-1)) of some lines increases with temperature. In the second part of this study, line shapes beyond the Voigt model are considered, thus now taking 'velocity effects' into account. These include both the influence of collisionally induced velocity changes that lead to the so-called Dicke narrowing and the influence of the dependence of collisional parameters on the speed of the radiating molecule. Experimental evidence of deviations from the Voigt shape is presented and analysed. The interest of classical molecular dynamics simulations, to model velocity changes, together with semi-classical calculations of the speed-dependent collisional parameters for line-shape predictions from 'first principles', are discussed. PMID:22547229

  5. Upper tropospheric water vapour variability over tropical latitudes observed using radiosonde and satellite measurements

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ghouse Basha; M Venkat Ratnam; B V Krishna Murthy

    2013-12-01

    The present study deals with using long-term database for upper tropospheric water vapour (UTWV) variability studies over three tropical stations (Gadanki, Singapore and Truk), where different climatic conditions prevail. Over Gadanki (13.5°N, 79.2°E) strong seasonal variation in UTWV is revealed but not over Singapore (1.37°N, 103.98°E) and Truk (7.46°N, 151.85°E) except at 100 hPa. It is examined whether high resolution radiosonde measurements represent well the UTWV by comparing with different satellite based (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-B (AMSUB) and Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS)) water vapour measurements. Very good comparison in the nature of variations of UTWV is observed between radiosonde data and satellite data, except over Singapore particularly with AIRS and MLS data, on long-term basis. An attempt is also made to examine the source for UTWV. A close relationship is found between UTWV and deep convection over Gadanki indicating that the source for UTWV is convection particularly during the summer monsoon season.

  6. Prediction of clay content from water vapour sorption isotherms considering hysteresis and soil organic matter content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, E.; Tuller, M.; Møldrup, Per;

    2015-01-01

    vapour sorption, which can be measured within a shorter period of time, have recently been developed. Such models are often based on single-point measurements of water adsorption and do not account for sorption hysteresis or organic matter content. The present study introduces regression relationships...... for estimating clay content from hygroscopic water at different relative humidity (RH) levels while considering hysteresis and organic matter content. Continuous adsorption/desorption vapour sorption isotherm loops were measured for 150 differently textured soils with a state-of-the-art vapour sorption analyser...

  7. Design Of A Geosynchronous SAR System For Water-Vapour Maps And Deformation Estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarnieri, Andrea Monti; Perletta, Luca; Rocca, Fabio; Scapin, Diego; Tebaldini, Stefano; Broquetas, Antoni; Ruiz, Josep

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a geosynchronous SAR concept that makes use of dual frequencies to achieve WIDE and SPOT coverage, aiming at continuous monitoring of deformation and generation of water vapour maps at high space-temporal resolution.

  8. The thermotidal exciting function for water vapour absorption of solar radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. BONAFEDE

    1976-06-01

    Full Text Available The thermotidal exciting function J is considered, for
    the absorption of solar radiation by water vapour, according to the model
    derived by Siebert. The Mugge-Moller formula for water vapour absorption
    is integrated numerically, using experimental data for the water vapour
    concentration in the troposphere and the stratosphere. It appears that
    Siebort's formula is a reasonable approximation at low tropospheric levels
    but it dramatically overestimates the water vapour thermotidal heating
    in the upper troposphere and in the stratosphere. It seems thus possible
    that, if the correct vertical profile is employed for J , the amplitudes and
    phases of the diurnal temperature oscillations and of the tidal wind speeds
    may suffer significant changes from those previously calculated and possibly explain the three hours delay of the observed phases from the computed values.

  9. Vertical structure of stratospheric water vapour trends derived from merged satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Hegglin, M. I.; D. A. Plummer; Shepherd, T. G.; Scinocca, J. F.; Anderson, J.; Froidevaux, L.; Funke, B.; Hurst, D; Rozanov, A.; Urban, J.; Von Clarmann, T.; Walker, K. A.; Wang, H. J.; Tegtmeier, S.; Weigel, K

    2014-01-01

    Stratospheric water vapour is a powerful greenhouse gas. The longest available record from balloon observations over Boulder, Colorado, USA shows increases in stratospheric water vapour concentrations that cannot be fully explained by observed changes in the main drivers, tropical tropopause temperatures and methane. Satellite observations could help resolve the issue, but constructing a reliable long-term data record from individual short satellite records is challenging. Here we present an ...

  10. The influence of moisture content on the water vapour resistance of surface coated spruce

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engelund, E.T.; Ulriksen, L.; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard;

    2005-01-01

    , but now with one layer of paint (60 g/m^2) on one surface of the wood specimens. The results show that the RH level significantly influences the water vapour resistance of the paint. For wet cup tests a water vapour resistance of the paint of 6.5•10^8 Pa•m^2•s/kg in average is found. In contrast...

  11. Stratospheric water vapour in the vicinity of the Arctic polar vortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maturilli

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The stratospheric water vapour mixing ratio inside, outside, and at the edge of the polar vortex has been accurately measured by the FLASH-B Lyman-Alpha hygrometer during the LAUTLOS campaign in Sodankylä, Finland, in January and February 2004. The retrieved H2O profiles reveal a detailed view on the Arctic lower stratospheric water vapour distribution, and provide a valuable dataset for the validation of model and satellite data. Analysing the measurements with the semi-lagrangian advection model MIMOSA, water vapour profiles typical for the polar vortex' interior and exterior have been identified, and laminae in the observed profiles have been correlated to filamentary structures in the potential vorticity field. Applying the validated MIMOSA transport scheme to specific humidity fields from operational ECMWF analyses, large discrepancies from the observed profiles arise. Although MIMOSA is able to reproduce weak water vapour filaments and improves the shape of the profiles compared to operational ECMWF analyses, both models reveal a dry bias of about 1 ppmv in the lower stratosphere above 400 K, accounting for a relative difference from the measurements in the order of 20%. The large dry bias in the analysis representation of stratospheric water vapour in the Arctic implies the need for future regular measurements of water vapour in the polar stratosphere to allow the validation and improvement of climate models.

  12. Atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy optimization of GaAsBi alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moussa, I. [Unite de Recherche sur l' Hetero-Epitaxie et Applications, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Boulevard de l' environnement 5019, Monastir (Tunisia)], E-mail: imed.moussa@fsm.rnu.tn; Fitouri, H.; Rebey, A.; El Jani, B. [Unite de Recherche sur l' Hetero-Epitaxie et Applications, Faculte des Sciences de Monastir, Boulevard de l' environnement 5019, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2008-10-01

    Metalorganic vapour phase epitaxial growth of GaAsBi alloy has been carried out at atmospheric pressure in horizontal geometry reactor. In order to achieve the growth of this alloy, we have investigated the growth conditions which allow epitaxial layers of a good crystalline quality with a maximum bismuth concentration. Growth parameters such as growth temperature, trimethylbismuth (TMBi) flow and V/III ratio were checked on a wide range. Growth temperature was varied between 365 and 450 deg. C, TMBi flow was checked in the range below 2 {mu}mol/min and V/III ratio was varied between 6 and 20. According to our experimental results based on in-situ reflectivity measurements, scanning electron microscopy observations and high resolution X-ray diffraction analysis, it was found that the maximum Bi concentration reached in GaAs{sub 1-x}Bi{sub x} layers was 3.7%. This maximum, relative to atmospheric-pressure metalorganic vapour phase epitaxy technique, was found under a growth temperature of 420 deg. C, a TMBi flow of 0.2 {mu}mol/min and a V/III ratio of 9.5.

  13. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologues data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and interferences from humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the humidity interference error and we recommend applying it for isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency.

    In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  14. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, M.; Barthlott, S.; Hase, F.; González, Y.; Yoshimura, K.; García, O. E.; Sepúlveda, E.; Gomez-Pelaez, A.; Gisi, M.; Kohlhepp, R.; Dohe, S.; Blumenstock, T.; Wiegele, A.; Christner, E.; Strong, K.; Weaver, D.; Palm, M.; Deutscher, N. M.; Warneke, T.; Notholt, J.; Lejeune, B.; Demoulin, P.; Jones, N.; Griffith, D. W. T.; Smale, D.; Robinson, J.

    2012-12-01

    Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water), long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change). We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere) to 8 km (in the upper troposphere) and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model). We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  15. Ground-based remote sensing of tropospheric water vapour isotopologues within the project MUSICA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the project MUSICA (MUlti-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, long-term tropospheric water vapour isotopologue data records are provided for ten globally distributed ground-based mid-infrared remote sensing stations of the NDACC (Network for the Detection of Atmospheric Composition Change. We present a new method allowing for an extensive and straightforward characterisation of the complex nature of such isotopologue remote sensing datasets. We demonstrate that the MUSICA humidity profiles are representative for most of the troposphere with a vertical resolution ranging from about 2 km (in the lower troposphere to 8 km (in the upper troposphere and with an estimated precision of better than 10%. We find that the sensitivity with respect to the isotopologue composition is limited to the lower and middle troposphere, whereby we estimate a precision of about 30‰ for the ratio between the two isotopologues HD16O and H216O. The measurement noise, the applied atmospheric temperature profiles, the uncertainty in the spectral baseline, and the cross-dependence on humidity are the leading error sources. We introduce an a posteriori correction method of the cross-dependence on humidity, and we recommend applying it to isotopologue ratio remote sensing datasets in general. In addition, we present mid-infrared CO2 retrievals and use them for demonstrating the MUSICA network-wide data consistency. In order to indicate the potential of long-term isotopologue remote sensing data if provided with a well-documented quality, we present a climatology and compare it to simulations of an isotope incorporated AGCM (Atmospheric General Circulation Model. We identify differences in the multi-year mean and seasonal cycles that significantly exceed the estimated errors, thereby indicating deficits in the modeled atmospheric water cycle.

  16. PRECIPITABLE WATER VAPOUR OVER LA SILLA PARANAL OBSERVATORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kerber

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available En apoyo a la caracterización de sitios potenciales para el European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT, la ESO (European Southern Observatory, ISIS (Institute for Space Imaging Science y el grupo de Astrometeorología de la Universidad de Valparaío han establecido conjuntamente una mejor comprensión del PWV (precipitable water vapour sobre los Observatorio de ESO: La Silla y Paranal. Hasta ahora se han analizado estadísticamente 8 años válidos de espectros de alta resolución tomados con VLT-UVES para reconstruir la historia del PWV sobre Paranal. En el caso de La Silla se han usado 5 años de datos tomados con FEROS. En este análisis se utilizó un modelo de transferencia radiativa (BTRAM, desarrollado por ISIS. Tres campañas de medición fueron realizadas en mayo, agosto y noviembre de 2009 para entender mejor los errores sistemáticos presentes, y donde se validaron varios instrumentos y métodos con respecto a radiosondeos, que es la observación estándar en la investigación atmosférica. Después de corregirse los efectos sistemáticos, se encontró la mediana de PWV de 2.4 mm para Paranal mientras que el valor para La Silla es de 3.7 mm. Los resultados del estudio fueron presentados al Comité Asesor para la selección del sitio E-ELT en 2009. Se aprendieron lecciones valiosas para las operaciones del observatorio y ESO está planeando utilizar permanentemente un monitor de vapor de agua en Paranal como parte del proyecto para mejorar VISIR. Un monitor de PWV autónomo y de alta resolución será esencial para optimizar los resultados científicos de E-ELT.

  17. Long-term series of tropospheric water vapour amounts and HDO/H2O ratio profiles above Jungfraujoch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lejeune, B.; Mahieu, E.; Schneider, M.; Hase, F.; Servais, C.; Demoulin, P.

    2012-04-01

    Water vapour is a crucial climate variable involved in many processes which widely determine the energy budget of our planet. In particular, water vapour is the dominant greenhouse gas in the Earth's atmosphere and its radiative forcing is maximum in the middle and upper troposphere. Because of the extremely high variability of water vapour concentration in time and space, it is challenging for the available relevant measurement techniques to provide a consistent data set useful for trend analyses and climate studies. Schneider et al. (2006a) showed that ground-based Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, performed from mountain observatories, allows for the detection of H2O variabilities up to the tropopause. Furthermore, the FTIR measurements allow the retrieval of HDO amounts and therefore the monitoring of HDO/H2O ratio profiles whose variations act as markers for the source and history of the atmospheric water vapour. In the framework of the MUSICA European project (Multi-platform remote Sensing of Isotopologues for investigating the Cycle of Atmospheric water, http://www.imk-asf.kit.edu/english/musica.php), a new approach has been developed and optimized by M. Schneider and F. Hase, using the PROFFIT algorithm, to consistently retrieve tropospheric water vapour profiles from high-resolution ground-based infrared solar spectra and so taking benefit from available long-term data sets of ground-based observations. The retrieval of the water isotopologues is performed on a logarithmic scale from 14 micro-windows located in the 2600-3100 cm-1 region. Other important features of this new retrieval strategy are: a speed dependant Voigt line shape model, a joint temperature profile retrieval and an interspecies constraint for the HDO/H2O profiles. In this contribution, we will combine the quality of the MUSICA strategy and of our observations, which are recorded on a regular basis with FTIR spectrometers, under clear-sky conditions, at the NDACC site

  18. Water Vapour GNSS Based Tomography For Wet Delay Compensation In In-SAR Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notarpietro, Riccardo; Cucca, Manuela; Perona, Giovanni

    2010-05-01

    One of the most challenging exploitation of GNSS signals for meteorological applications is the retrieval of Water Vapor tridimensional distribution. The real-time (or quasi real-time) knowledge of such distributions could be very useful for several applications: from operative meteorology to atmospheric modeling, or for atmospheric compensation purposes applied for example to SAR or In-SAR observations, in order to improve land remote sensing. In the framework of the European Space Agency project METAWAVE (Mitigation of Electromagnetic Transmission errors induced by Atmospheric Water Vapor Effects), several techniques were investigated in order to find out an In-SAR data compensation strategy for the propagation delay effects due to Water Vapour. Thanks to METAWAVE, a quite dense GPS network (7 dual frequency GPS receivers) was deployed over COMO area and was used for an extensive measurement campaign. The acquired L1 and L2 carrier phase observations were processed in terms of hourly averaged Zenith Wet Delays. These vertical information were mapped along the correspondent line of sights (by up-sampling at 30 second sample times the 15 minutes GPS satellites positions obtained from IGS files) and inverted using a tomographic procedure. The used algorithm performs a first reconstruction (namely, the tomographic pre-processing) based on generalized inversion mechanisms, in order to define a low resolution first guess for the next step. This second step inverts GPS observables using a more refined algebraic tomographic reconstruction algorithm, to improve both vertical and horizontal resolution. Results of this inversion are Wet Refractivity maps distributed over an area of 16 km x 20 km (x 10 km height) around the COMO city, characterized by horizontal resolutions varying from 2 km to 4 km and vertical resolution of 500m. This contribution deals with the description of the results obtained evaluating Water Vapour path delays from such Wet Refractivity maps

  19. Forecasting the precipitable water vapour content: validation for astronomical observatories using radiosoundings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jordán, G.; Castro-Almazán, J. A.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Codina, B.; Vernin, J.

    2015-09-01

    The atmospheric precipitable water vapour content (PWV) strongly affects astronomical observations in the infrared (IR). We have validated the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) mesoscale numerical weather prediction (NWP) model as an operational forecasting tool for PWV. In the validation, we used atmospheric radiosounding data obtained directly at the Roque de los Muchachos Observatory [ORM: ≈2200 metres above sea level (masl)] during three intensive runs and an aditional verification sample of 1 yr of radiosonde data from World Meteorological Organization (WMO) station 60018 in Güímar (Tenerife, TFE: ≈105 masl). These data sets allowed us to calibrate the model at the observatory site and to validate it under different PWV and atmospheric conditions. The ability of the WRF model in forecasting the PWV at astronomical observatories and the effects of horizontal model grid size on the computed PWV and vertical profiles of humidity are discussed. An excellent agreement between model forecasts and observations was found at both locations, with correlations above 0.9 in all cases. Subtle but significant differences between model horizontal resolutions have been found, the 3 km grid size being the most accurate and the one selected for future work. Absolute calibrations are given for the lowest and finest grid resolutions. The median PWV values obtained were 3.8 and 18.3 mm at ORM and TFE, respectively. WRF forecasts will complement the PWV measured by the GPS monitoring system at the Canarian Observatories.

  20. A preview on the determination of mass return flow of air and water vapour into the stratosphere using tritium as a tracer

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Michael

    2011-01-01

    A preview is presented of recent work on the uses of tritium in tracing general atmospheric motions. Using monthly moisture flux data it was possible to determine the regions of major outflow of air and water vapour through the tropopause into the stratosphere over North America for July 1962. It was found that these areas were closely related to the mean position of the jet stream. Computations were made of the total masses of air and water vapour leaving the troposphere. It is postulated th...

  1. Water vapour distribution at urban scale using high-resolution numerical weather model and spaceborne SAR interferometric data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Pichelli

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The local distribution of water vapour in the urban area of Rome has been studied using both a high resolution mesoscale model (MM5 and Earth Remote Sensing-1 (ERS-1 satellite radar data. Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR techniques, after the removal of all other geometric effects, estimate excess path length variation between two different SAR acquisitions (Atmospheric Phase Screen: APS. APS are strictly related to the variations of the water vapour content along the radar line of sight. To the aim of assessing the MM5 ability to reproduce the gross features of the Integrated Water Vapour (IWV spatial distribution, as a first step ECMWF IWV has been used as benchmark against which the high resolution MM5 model and InSAR APS maps have been compared. As a following step, the high resolution IWV MM5 maps have been compared with both InSAR and surface meteorological data. The results show that the high resolution IWV model maps compare well with the InSAR ones. Support to this finding is obtained by semivariogram analysis that clearly shows good agreement beside from a model bias.

  2. Sensitivity of polar stratospheric cloud formation to changes in water vapour and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khosrawi, F.; Urban, J.; Lossow, S.; Stiller, G.; Weigel, K.; Braesicke, P.; Pitts, M. C.; Rozanov, A.; Burrows, J. P.; Murtagh, D.

    2016-01-01

    More than a decade ago it was suggested that a cooling of stratospheric temperatures by 1 K or an increase of 1 ppmv of stratospheric water vapour could promote denitrification, the permanent removal of nitrogen species from the stratosphere by solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC) particles. In fact, during the two Arctic winters 2009/10 and 2010/11 the strongest denitrification in the recent decade was observed. Sensitivity studies along air parcel trajectories are performed to test how a future stratospheric water vapour (H2O) increase of 1 ppmv or a temperature decrease of 1 K would affect PSC formation. We perform our study based on measurements made during the Arctic winter 2010/11. Air parcel trajectories were calculated 6 days backward in time based on PSCs detected by CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder satellite observations). The sensitivity study was performed on single trajectories as well as on a trajectory ensemble. The sensitivity study shows a clear prolongation of the potential for PSC formation and PSC existence when the temperature in the stratosphere is decreased by 1 K and water vapour is increased by 1 ppmv. Based on 15 years of satellite measurements (2000-2014) from UARS/HALOE, Envisat/MIPAS, Odin/SMR, Aura/MLS, Envisat/SCIAMACHY and SCISAT/ACE-FTS it is further investigated if there is a decrease in temperature and/or increase of water vapour (H2O) observed in the polar regions similar to that observed at midlatitudes and in the tropics. Performing linear regression analyses we derive from the Envisat/MIPAS (2002-2012) and Aura/MLS (2004-2014) observations predominantly positive changes in the potential temperature range 350 to 1000 K. The linear changes in water vapour derived from Envisat/MIPAS observations are largely insignificant, while those from Aura/MLS are mostly significant. For the temperature neither of the two instruments indicate any significant changes. Given the strong inter-annual variation observed in

  3. Stratospheric water vapour as tracer for vortex filamentation in the Arctic winter 2002/2003

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Müller

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available During winter 2002/2003, three balloon-borne frost point hygrometers measured high-resolution profiles of stratospheric water vapour above Ny-Ålesund, Spitsbergen. All measurements reveal a high H2O mixing ratio of about 7 ppmv above 24 km, thus differing significantly from the 5 ppmv that are commonly assumed for the calculation of polar stratospheric cloud existence temperatures. The profiles obtained on 12 December 2002 and on 17 January 2003 provide an insight into the vertical distribution of water vapour in the core of the polar vortex.

    Unlike the earlier profiles, the water vapour sounding on 11 February 2003 detected the vortex edge region in the lower part of the stratosphere. Here, a striking diminuition in H2O mixing ratio stands out between 16 and 19 km. The according stratospheric temperatures clarify that this dehydration can not be caused by the presence of polar stratospheric clouds or earlier PSC particle sedimentation.

    On the same day, ozone observations by lidar indicate a large scale movement of the polar vortex, while an ozone sonde measurement even shows laminae in the same altitude range as in the water vapour profile. Tracer lamination in the vortex edge region is caused by filamentation of the vortex. The link between the observed water vapour diminuition and filaments in the vortex edge region is highlighted by results of the MIMOSA contour advection model. In the altitude of interest, adjoined filaments of polar and mid-latitudinal air can be identified above the Spitsbergen region. A vertical cross-section reveals that the water vapour sonde has flown through polar air in the lowest part of the stratosphere. Where the low water vapour mixing ratio was detected, the balloon passed through air from a mid-latitudinal filament from about 425 to 445 K, before it finally entered the polar vortex above 450 K. The MIMOSA model results elucidate the correlation that on 11 February 2003

  4. Initial evaluation of airborne water vapour measurements by the IAGOS-GHG CRDS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filges, Annette; Gerbig, Christoph; Smit, Herman G. J.; Krämer, Martina; Spelten, Nicole

    2013-04-01

    Accurate and reliable airborne measurements of water vapour are still a challenge. Presently, no airborne humidity sensor exists that covers the entire range of water vapour content between the surface and the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UT/LS) region with sufficient accuracy and time resolution. Nevertheless , these data are a pre-requisite to study the underlying processes in the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere. The DENCHAR project (Development and Evaluation of Novel Compact Hygrometer for Airborne Research) addresses this deficit by developing and characterizing novel or improved compact airborne hygrometers for different airborne applications within EUFAR (European Facility for Airborne Research). As part of the DENCHAR inter-comparison campaign in Hohn (Germany), 23 May - 1 June 2011, a commercial gas analyzer (G2401-m, Picarro Inc.,US), based on cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS), was installed on a Learjet to measure water vapour, CO2, CH4 and CO. The CRDS components are identical to those chosen for integration aboard commercial airliner within IAGOS (In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System). Thus the campaign allowed for the initial assessment validation of the long-term IAGOS H2O measurements by CRDS against reference instruments with a long performance record (FISH, the Fast In-situ Stratospheric Hygrometer, and CR2 frostpoint hygrometer, both research centre Juelich). The inlet system, a one meter long 1/8" FEP-tube connected to a Rosemount TAT housing (model 102BX, deiced) installed on a window plate of the aircraft, was designed to eliminate sampling of larger aerosols, ice particles, and water droplets, and provides about 90% of ram-pressure. In combination with a lowered sample flow of 0.1 slpm (corresponding to a 4 second response time), this ensured a fully controlled sample pressure in the cavity of 140 torr throughout an aircraft altitude operating range up to 12.5 km without the need of an upstream sampling pump

  5. Near real-time estimation of water vapour in the troposphere using ground GNSS and the meteorological data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Bosy

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The near real-time (NRT high resolution water vapour distribution models can be constructed based on GNSS observations delivered from Ground Base Augmentation Systems (GBAS and ground meteorological data. Since 2008 in the territory of Poland, a GBAS system called ASG-EUPOS (Active Geodetic Network has been operating. This paper addresses the problems concerning construction of the NRT model of water vapour distribution in the troposphere near Poland. The first section presents all available GNSS and ground meteorological stations in the area of Poland and neighbouring countries. In this section, data feeding scheme is discussed, together with timeline and time resolution. The high consistency between measured and interpolated temperature value is shown, whereas some discrepancy in the pressure is observed. In the second section, the NRT GNSS data processing strategy of ASG-EUPOS network is discussed. Preliminary results show fine alignment of the obtained Zenith Troposphere Delays (ZTDs with reference data from European Permanent Network (EPN processing center. The validation of NRT troposphere products against daily solution shows 15 mm standard deviation of obtained ZTD differences. The last section presents the first results of 2-D water vapour distribution above the GNSS network and application of the tomographic model to 3-D distribution of water vapour in the atmosphere. The GNSS tomography model, working on the simulated data from numerical forecast model, shows high consistency with the reference data (by means of standard deviation 4 mm km−1 or 4 ppm, however, noise analysis shows high solution sensitivity to errors in observations. The discrepancy for real data preliminary solution (measured as a mean standard deviation between reference NWP data and tomography data was on the level of 9 mm km−1 (or 9 ppm in terms of wet refractivity.

  6. High-spatial-resolution mapping of precipitable water vapour using SAR interferograms, GPS observations and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Wei; Liao, Mingsheng; Zhang, Lu; Li, Wei; Yu, Weimin

    2016-09-01

    A high spatial and temporal resolution of the precipitable water vapour (PWV) in the atmosphere is a key requirement for the short-scale weather forecasting and climate research. The aim of this work is to derive temporally differenced maps of the spatial distribution of PWV by analysing the tropospheric delay "noise" in interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR). Time series maps of differential PWV were obtained by processing a set of ENVISAT ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar) images covering the area of southern California, USA from 6 October 2007 to 29 November 2008. To get a more accurate PWV, the component of hydrostatic delay was calculated and subtracted by using ERA-Interim reanalysis products. In addition, the ERA-Interim was used to compute the conversion factors required to convert the zenith wet delay to water vapour. The InSAR-derived differential PWV maps were calibrated by means of the GPS PWV measurements over the study area. We validated our results against the measurements of PWV derived from the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) which was located together with the ASAR sensor on board the ENVISAT satellite. Our comparative results show strong spatial correlations between the two data sets. The difference maps have Gaussian distributions with mean values close to zero and standard deviations below 2 mm. The advantage of the InSAR technique is that it provides water vapour distribution with a spatial resolution as fine as 20 m and an accuracy of ˜ 2 mm. Such high-spatial-resolution maps of PWV could lead to much greater accuracy in meteorological understanding and quantitative precipitation forecasts. With the launch of Sentinel-1A and Sentinel-1B satellites, every few days (6 days) new SAR images can be acquired with a wide swath up to 250 km, enabling a unique operational service for InSAR-based water vapour maps with unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution.

  7. Isothermal vapour flow in extremely dry soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todman, L. C.; Ireson, A. M.; Butler, A. P.; Templeton, M. R.

    2012-04-01

    In dry soils hydraulic connectivity within the liquid water phase decreases and vapour flow becomes a significant transport mechanism for water. The temperature or solute concentration of the liquid phase affects the vapour pressure of the surrounding air, thus temperature or solute gradients can drive vapour flows. However, in extremely dry soils where water is retained by adsorptive forces rather than capillarity, vapour flows can also occur. In such soils tiny changes in water content significantly affect the equilibrium vapour pressure in the soil, and hence small differences in water content can initiate vapour pressure gradients. In many field conditions this effect may be negligible compared to vapour flows driven by other factors. However, flows of this type are particularly significant in a new type of subsurface irrigation system which uses pervaporation, via a polymer tubing, as the mechanism for water supply. In this system, water enters the soil in vapour phase. Experiments were performed in laboratory conditions using marine sand that had previously been oven dried and cooled. This dry sand was used to represent the desert conditions in which this irrigation system is intended for use. Experimental results show that isothermal vapour flows can significantly affect the performance of such irrigation systems due to the rapid transport of water through the soil via the vapour phase. When the irrigation pipe was buried at a depth of 10cm a vapour flow from the soil surface was observed in less than 2 hours. These flows therefore affect the loss of mass into the atmosphere and thus must be considered when evaluating the availability of water for the irrigated crop. The experiments also provide a rare opportunity to observe isothermal vapour flows initiating from a subsurface source. Such experiments allow the significance of these flows to be quantified and potentially applied to other areas of arid zone hydrology.

  8. Discovery of water vapour in the carbon star V Cygni from observations with Herschel/HIFI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.A. Neufeld; E. González-Alfonso; G. Melnick; M. Pułecka; M. Schmidt; R. Szczerba; V. Bujarrabal; J. Alcolea; J. Cernicharo; L. Decin; C. Dominik; K. Justtanont; A. de Koter; A.P. Marston; K. Menten; H. Olofsson; P. Planesas; F.L. Schöier; D. Teyssier; L.B.F.M. Waters; K. Edwards; C. McCoey; R. Shipman; W. Jellema; T. de Graauw; V. Ossenkopf; R. Schieder; S. Philipp

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of water vapour toward the carbon star V Cygni. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1(11)-0(00) para-water transition at 1113.3430 GHz in the upper sideband of the Band 4b receiver. The observed spectral line profile is nearly par

  9. Modelling and interpreting the isotopic composition of water vapour in convective updrafts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bolot

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The isotopic compositions of water vapour and its condensates have long been used as tracers of the global hydrological cycle, but may also be useful for understanding processes within individual convective clouds. We review here the representation of processes that alter water isotopic compositions during processing of air in convective updrafts and present a unified model for water vapour isotopic evolution within undiluted deep convective cores, with a special focus on the out-of-equilibrium conditions of mixed-phase zones where metastable liquid water and ice coexist. We use our model to show that a combination of water isotopologue measurements can constrain critical convective parameters, including degree of supersaturation, supercooled water content and glaciation temperature. Important isotopic processes in updrafts include kinetic effects that are a consequence of diffusive growth or decay of cloud particles within a supersaturated or subsaturated environment; isotopic re-equilibration between vapour and supercooled droplets, which buffers isotopic distillation; and differing mechanisms of glaciation (droplet freezing vs. the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process. As all of these processes are related to updraft strength, particle size distribution and the retention of supercooled water, isotopic measurements can serve as a probe of in-cloud conditions of importance to convective processes. We study the sensitivity of the profile of water vapour isotopic composition to differing model assumptions and show how measurements of isotopic composition at cloud base and cloud top alone may be sufficient to retrieve key cloud parameters.

  10. The role of water-vapour photodissociation on the formation of a deep minimum in mesopause ozone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Vardavas

    Full Text Available A one-dimensional atmospheric photochemical model with an altitude grid of about 1.5 km was used to examine the structure of the global mean vertical ozone profile and its night-time-to-daytime variation in the upper atmosphere. Two distinct ozone layers are predicted, separated by a sharp drop in the ozone concentration near the mesopause. This naturally occurring mesopause ozone deep minimum is primarily produced by the rapid increase in the destruction of water vapour, and hence increase in HOx, at altitudes between 80 and 85 km, a region where water-vapour photodissociation by ultraviolet radiation of the solar Lyman-alpha line is significant, and where the supply of water vapour is maintained by methane oxidation even for very dry conditions at the tropospheric-stratospheric exchange region. The model indicates that the depth of the mesopause ozone minimum is limited by the efficiency with which inactive molecular hydrogen is produced, either by the conversion of atomic hydrogen to molecular hydrogen via one of the reaction channels of H with HO2, or by Lyman-alpha photodissociation of water vapour via the channel that leads to the production of molecular hydrogen. The ozone concentration rapidly recovers above 85 km due to the rapid increase in O produced by the photodissociation of O2 by absorption of ultraviolet solar radiation in the Schumann-Runge bands and continuum. Above 90 km, there is a decrease in ozone due to photolysis as the production of ozone through the three-body recombination of O2 and O becomes slower with decreasing pressure. The model also predicts two peaks in the night-time/daytime ozone ratio, one near 75 km and the other near 110 km, plus a strong peak in the night-time/daytime ratio of OH near 110 km. Recent observational evidence supports the predictions of the model.

    Key words. Atmospheric composition and structure · Middle atmosphere · Thermosphere

  11. Recent decadal trends in Iberian water vapour: GPS analysis and WRF process study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Pedro M. A.; Nogueira, Miguel; Semedo, Alvaro; Benevides, Pedro; Catalao, Joao; Costa, Vera

    2016-04-01

    A 24-year simulation of the recent Iberian climate, using the WRF model at 9km resolution forced by ERA-Interim reanalysis (1989-2012), is analysed for the decadal evolution of the upwelling forcing coastal wind and for column integrated Precipitable water vapour (PWV). Results indicate that, unlike what was found by Bakun et al. (2009) for the Peruvian region, a statistically significant trend in the upwelling favourable (northerly) wind has been accompanied by a corresponding decrease in PWV, not only inland but also over the coastal waters. Such increase is consistent with a reinforced northerly coastal jet in the maritime boundary layer contributing to atmospheric Ekman pumping of dry continental air into the coastal region. Diagnostics of the prevalence of the Iberian thermal low following Hoinka and Castro (2003) also show a positive trend in its frequency during an extended summer period (April to September). These results are consistent with recent studies indicating an upward trend in the frequency of upwelling in SW Iberia (Alves and Miranda 2013), and may be relevant for climate change applications as an increase in coastal upwelling (Miranda et al 2013) may lead to substantial regional impacts in the subtropics. The same analysis with ERA-Interim reanalysis data, which was used to force the WRF simulations, does not reveal the same signal in PWV, and indeed correlates poorly with the GPS observations, indicating that the data assimilation process makes the water vapour data in reanalysis unusable for climate change purposes. The good correlation between the WRF simulated data and GPS observations allow for a detailed analysis of the processes involved in the evolution of the PWV field. Akcnowledgements: Study done within FCT Grant RECI/GEO-MET/0380/2012, financially supported by FCT Grant UID/ GEO/50019/2013-IDL Alves JMR, Miranda PMA (2013) Variability of Iberian upwelling implied by ERA-40 and ERA-Interim reanalyses, Tellus A 2013, http

  12. Low pressure water vapour plasma treatment of surfaces for biomolecules decontamination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fumagalli, F; Kylian, O; Amato, Letizia;

    2012-01-01

    be achieved using pure H2O or Ar/H2O mixtures at low temperatures with removal rates comparable to oxygen-based mixtures. Particle fluxes (Ar+ ions, O and H atomic radicals and OH molecular radicals) from water vapour discharge are measured by optical emission spectroscopy and Langmuir probe under several......Decontamination treatments of surfaces are performed on bacterial spores, albumin and brain homogenate used as models of biological contaminations in a low-pressure, inductively coupled plasma reactor operated with water-vapour-based gas mixtures. It is shown that removal of contamination can...

  13. Vapour pressure osmometry determination of water activity of binary and ternary aqueous (polymer + polymer) solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • VPO determination of water activity for binary and ternary aqueous polymer solutions. • Vapour pressure of binary and ternary aqueous polymer solutions were determined. • Water activities were correlated using the segment-based NRTL and Wilson models. • Molar Gibbs free energy changes due to mixing were determined. - Abstract: Precise water activity measurements at T = 308.15 K were carried out on several binary (water + polymer) and ternary {water + polymer (1) + polymer (2)} systems using the vapour pressure osmometry (VPO) technique. Polymers were polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400), polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000), polypropylene glycol 400 (PPG400), polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and dextran (DEX). The water activity results obtained were used to calculate the vapour pressure of solutions as a function of concentration and the segment-based local composition models, NRTL and Wilson, were used to correlate the experimental water activity values. It was found that, for the polymer concentration range studied here, the values of the water activity obtained for the binary (water + polymer) solutions decrease in the order DEX > PVP > PEG6000 > PPG400 > PEG400. Furthermore, water activities of solutions of each polymer in the aqueous solutions of (5, 10, 15 and 20)% (w/w) other polymers investigated were also measured at T = 308.15 K. The ability of polymer (1) in decreasing the water activity of binary {water + polymer (2)} solutions was discussed on the basis of the (polymer + water) and {polymer (1) + polymer (2)} interactions

  14. Moisture in Self-levelling Flooring Compounds. Part I. Water Vapour Diffusion Coefficients

    OpenAIRE

    Anderberg, Anders; Wadsö, Lars

    2004-01-01

    Diffusion coefficients of three self-levelling flooring compounds (SLC) and water vapour resistance of a primer have been measured with the cup method. The results show that the diffusion coefficient is dependent not only on the vapour content (relative humidity), but also on the absolute moisture content, i.e., there is a hysteresis effect on moisture transport. At RH lower than approximately 90 %, SLC have higher diffusion coefficients than a standard concrete (w/c 0.7 OPC), but the opposit...

  15. The radiative impact of major volcanic eruptions on stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löffler, Michael; Brinkop, Sabine; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Volcanic eruptions can have significant impact on the earth's weather and climate system. Besides the subsequent tropospheric changes also the stratosphere is influenced by large eruptions. Here changes in stratospheric water vapour after the two major volcanic eruptions of El Chichón in Mexico in 1982 and Mount Pinatubo on the Philippines in 1991 are investigated with chemistry-climate model simulations. This study is based on two simulations with specified dynamics of the EMAC model, performed within the Earth System Chemistry integrated Modelling (ESCiMo) project, of which only one includes the volcanic forcing through prescribed aerosol optical properties. The results show a significant increase in stratospheric water vapour after the eruptions, resulting from increased heating rates and the subsequent changes in stratospheric and tropopause temperatures in the tropics. The tropical vertical advection and the South Asian summer monsoon are identified as important sources for the additional water vapour in the stratosphere. Additionally, volcanic influences on the tropospheric water vapour and ENSO are evident.

  16. Water vapour rises from the cooling towers for the ATLAS detector at Point 1

    CERN Multimedia

    Brice, Maximilien

    2015-01-01

    Electronics on the ATLAS detector produce heat when the experiment is running. An elaborate cooling system keeps the detector from overheating. On the surface, the warm water vapour that rises from the detector 100metres underground is clearly visible from the ATLAS cooling towers on the CERN Meyrin site in Switzerland.

  17. Behaviour of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities from a disturbed raised peat bog

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieveen, J.P.; Jacobs, A.F.G.

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of carbon dioxide and water vapour flux densities were carried out for a disturbed raised peat bog in the north of the Netherlands during an 18 month continuous experiment. Tussock grass (sp. Molinea caerulae) mainly dominated the vegetation of the bog area. The maximum leaf area index

  18. Insight from ozone and water vapour on transport in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ploeger

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of ozone observations to constrain transport processes in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, and contrast it with insights that can be obtained from water vapour. Global fields from Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and in-situ observations are predicted using a backtrajectory approach that captures advection, instantaneous freeze-drying and photolytical ozone production. Two different representations of transport (kinematic and diabatic 3-month backtrajectories based on ERA-Interim data are used to evaluate the sensitivity to differences in transport. Results show that mean profiles and seasonality of both tracers can be reasonably reconstructed. Water vapour predictions are similar for both transport representations, but predictions for ozone are systematically higher for kinematic transport. While for global HALOE observations the diabatic prediction underestimates the vertical ozone gradient, for SCOUT-O3 in-situ observations the kinematic prediction shows a clear high bias above 390 K. We show that ozone predictions and vertical dispersion of the trajectories are highly correlated, rendering ozone an interesting tracer for aspects of transport to which water vapour is not sensitive. We show that dispersion and mean upwelling have similar effects on ozone profiles, with slower upwelling and larger dispersion both leading to higher ozone concentrations. Analyses of tropical upwelling based on mean transport characteristics, and model validation have to take into account this ambiguity. In turn, ozone may provide constraints on aspects of transport in the TTL and lower stratosphere that cannot be obtained from water vapour.

  19. Structural properties of zinc oxide deposited using atmospheric pressure combustion chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study the deposition of thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films under atmospheric pressure conditions was investigated. The deposition technique applied was combustion chemical vapour deposition (CCVD), at which a propane–air mixture was combusted in a burner. Dissolved zinc nitrate was used as precursor, which was guided as aerosol droplets by the processing gas flow directly into the reaction zone. Fundamental investigations were performed to form undoped ZnO. The structural properties of the films were analysed in dependence of the substrate temperature during the coating process. The presence of crystalline ZnO structures was proved and differences in film growth and crystallite sizes are revealed. Additionally, the particles generated by the CCVD-flame are characterised. The thin films showed a slight excess of Zn and several states of binding energy could be observed by fitting the core level spectra. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy also indicated ordered structures and additionally different orientations of crystallites were observed. - Highlights: • Columnar growth structures of ZnO by CCVD were observed. • The presence of polycrystalline ZnO with (002) as main orientation was confirmed. • Initial particles significantly differ from crystallite sizes of the resulting films. • The films show an excess of Zn with a Zn-to-O ratio of around 1.7

  20. Structural properties of zinc oxide deposited using atmospheric pressure combustion chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zunke, I., E-mail: iz@innovent-jena.de [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Wolf, S. [University of Jena, Institute for Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3/5, 07745 Jena (Germany); Heft, A.; Schimanski, A.; Grünler, B. [Innovent e.V. Technology Development, Department of Surface Engineering, Prüssingstr. 27B, 07745 Jena (Germany); Ronning, C.; Seidel, P. [University of Jena, Institute for Solid State Physics, Helmholtzweg 3/5, 07745 Jena (Germany)

    2014-08-28

    In this study the deposition of thin zinc oxide (ZnO) films under atmospheric pressure conditions was investigated. The deposition technique applied was combustion chemical vapour deposition (CCVD), at which a propane–air mixture was combusted in a burner. Dissolved zinc nitrate was used as precursor, which was guided as aerosol droplets by the processing gas flow directly into the reaction zone. Fundamental investigations were performed to form undoped ZnO. The structural properties of the films were analysed in dependence of the substrate temperature during the coating process. The presence of crystalline ZnO structures was proved and differences in film growth and crystallite sizes are revealed. Additionally, the particles generated by the CCVD-flame are characterised. The thin films showed a slight excess of Zn and several states of binding energy could be observed by fitting the core level spectra. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy also indicated ordered structures and additionally different orientations of crystallites were observed. - Highlights: • Columnar growth structures of ZnO by CCVD were observed. • The presence of polycrystalline ZnO with (002) as main orientation was confirmed. • Initial particles significantly differ from crystallite sizes of the resulting films. • The films show an excess of Zn with a Zn-to-O ratio of around 1.7.

  1. Sensitivity of polar stratospheric cloud formation to changes in water vapour and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Khosrawi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available More than a decade ago it was suggested that a cooling of stratospheric temperatures by 1 K or an increase of 1 ppmv of stratospheric water vapour could promote denitrification, the permanent removal of nitrogen species from the stratosphere by solid polar stratospheric cloud (PSC particles. In fact, during the two Arctic winters 2009/10 and 2010/11 the strongest denitrification in the recent decade was observed. Sensitivity studies along air parcel trajectories are performed to test how a future stratospheric water vapour (H2O increase of 1 ppmv or a temperature decrease of 1 K would affect PSC formation. We perform our study based on measurements made during the Arctic winter 2010/11. Air parcel trajectories were calculated 6 days backward in time based on PSCs detected by CALIPSO (Cloud Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder satellite observations. The sensitivity study was performed on single trajectories as well as on a trajectory ensemble. The sensitivity study shows a clear prolongation of the potential for PSC formation and PSC existence when the temperature in the stratosphere is decreased by 1 K and water vapour is increased by 1 ppmv. Based on 15 years of satellite measurements (2000–2014 from UARS/HALOE, Envisat/MIPAS, Odin/SMR, Aura/MLS, Envisat/SCIAMACHY and SCISAT/ACE-FTS it is further investigated if there is a decrease in temperature and/or increase of water vapour (H2O observed in the polar regions similar to that observed at midlatitudes and in the tropics. Although in the polar regions no significant trend is found in the lower stratosphere, we found from the observations a correlation between cold winters and enhanced water vapour mixing ratios.

  2. Effects of SO2 oxidation on ambient aerosol growth in water and ethanol vapours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Laaksonen

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Hygroscopicity (i.e. water vapour affinity of atmospheric aerosol particles is one of the key factors in defining their impacts on climate. Condensation of sulphuric acid onto less hygroscopic particles is expected to increase their hygrocopicity and hence their cloud condensation nuclei formation potential. In this study, differences in the hygroscopic and ethanol uptake properties of ultrafine aerosol particles in the Arctic air masses with a different exposure to anthropogenic sulfur pollution were examined. The main discovery was that Aitken mode particles having been exposed to polluted air were more hygroscopic and less soluble to ethanol than after transport in clean air. This aging process was attributed to sulfur dioxide oxidation and subsequent condensation during the transport of these particle to our measurement site. The hygroscopicity of nucleation mode aerosol particles, on the other hand, was approximately the same in all the cases, being indicative of a relatively similar chemical composition despite the differences in air mass transport routes. These particles had also been produced closer to the observation site typically 3–8 h prior to sampling. Apparently, these particles did not have an opportunity to accumulate sulphuric acid on their way to the site, but instead their chemical composition (hygroscopicity and ethanol solubility resembled that of particles produced in the local or semi-regional ambient conditions.

  3. Influence of chemisorption products of carbon dioxide and water vapour on radiolysis of tritium breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Chemisorption products affect formation proceses of radiation-induced defects. • Radiolysis of chemisorption products increase amount of radiation-induced defects. • Irradiation atmosphere influence radiolysis of lithium orthosilicate pebbles. - Abstract: Lithium orthosilicate pebbles with 2.5 wt% excess of silica are the reference tritium breeding material for the European solid breeder test blanket modules. On the surface of the pebbles chemisorption products of carbon dioxide and water vapour (lithium carbonate and hydroxide) may accumulate during the fabrication process. In this study the influence of the chemisorption products on radiolysis of the pebbles was investigated. Using nanosized lithium orthosilicate powders, factors, which can influence the formation and radiolysis of the chemisorption products, were determined and described as well. The formation of radiation-induced defects and radiolysis products was studied with electron spin resonance and the method of chemical scavengers. It was found that the radiolysis of the chemisorption products on the surface of the pebbles can increase the concentration of radiation-induced defects and so could affect the tritium diffusion, retention and the released species

  4. Analysis of global water vapour trends from satellite measurements in the visible spectral range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mieruch

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Global water vapour total column amounts have been retrieved from spectral data provided by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME flying on ERS-2, which was launched in April 1995, and the SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartographY (SCIAMACHY onboard ENVISAT launched in March 2002. For this purpose the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS approach has been used. The combination of the data from both instruments provides us with a long-term global data set spanning more than 11 years with the potential of extension up to 2020 by GOME-2 data on MetOp.

    Using linear and non-linear methods from time series analysis and standard statistics the trends of H2O columns and their errors have been calculated. In this study, factors affecting the trend such as the length of the time series, the magnitude of the variability of the noise, and the autocorrelation of the noise are investigated. Special emphasis has been placed on the calculation of the statistical significance of the observed trends, which reveal significant local changes from −5% per year to +5% per year. These significant trends are distributed over the whole globe. Increasing trends have been calculated for Greenland, East Europe, Siberia and Oceania, whereas decreasing trends have been observed for the northwest USA, Central America, Amazonia, Central Africa and the Arabian Peninsular.

  5. The water vapour continuum in near-infrared windows - Current understanding and prospects for its inclusion in spectroscopic databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shine, Keith P.; Campargue, Alain; Mondelain, Didier; McPheat, Robert A.; Ptashnik, Igor V.; Weidmann, Damien

    2016-09-01

    Spectroscopic catalogues, such as GEISA and HITRAN, do not yet include information on the water vapour continuum that pervades visible, infrared and microwave spectral regions. This is partly because, in some spectral regions, there are rather few laboratory measurements in conditions close to those in the Earth's atmosphere; hence understanding of the characteristics of the continuum absorption is still emerging. This is particularly so in the near-infrared and visible, where there has been renewed interest and activity in recent years. In this paper we present a critical review focusing on recent laboratory measurements in two near-infrared window regions (centred on 4700 and 6300 cm-1) and include reference to the window centred on 2600 cm-1 where more measurements have been reported. The rather few available measurements, have used Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), cavity ring down spectroscopy, optical-feedback - cavity enhanced laser spectroscopy and, in very narrow regions, calorimetric interferometry. These systems have different advantages and disadvantages. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy can measure the continuum across both these and neighbouring windows; by contrast, the cavity laser techniques are limited to fewer wavenumbers, but have a much higher inherent sensitivity. The available results present a diverse view of the characteristics of continuum absorption, with differences in continuum strength exceeding a factor of 10 in the cores of these windows. In individual windows, the temperature dependence of the water vapour self-continuum differs significantly in the few sets of measurements that allow an analysis. The available data also indicate that the temperature dependence differs significantly between different near-infrared windows. These pioneering measurements provide an impetus for further measurements. Improvements and/or extensions in existing techniques would aid progress to a full characterisation of the continuum - as an example, we

  6. Isotope composition of precipitation and water vapour in the Iberian peninsula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first set of isotope results (δ18O, δD and T) obtained by the Spanish Network of Isotopes in Precipitation (SNIP), obtained during the years 2000-2002 are presented and analysed in terms of the geographical and climatic factors controlling its seasonal and spatial distribution. SNIP maintains in operation 16 meteorological stations. The present evaluation of isotope data in precipitation focus on the governing atmospheric circulation processes in the vicinity of the Iberian Peninsula and the influence of Atlantic and Mediterranean marine air masses as well as the Central European or African continental air masses. Also in this paper are presented the first results of the stable isotope measurements carried out on single precipitation events and water vapour collected in a weather station located near the meteorological station of Madrid-Retiro. The long-term isotope values obtained in this programme show a reasonable agreement with the GMWL, with mean d-excess values for the different stations ranging from +7 to +14 per mille. These values are coherent with the prevailing westerly circulation, being the North and Tropical Atlantic the major sources of water vapour producing precipitation over the Iberian Peninsula. The most depleted isotope values in rain and snow were observed during the invasion of cold continental air masses from Russia and Northern Europe, but in all cases, associated to small amounts of precipitation. The most enriched isotope values in precipitation are measured in summer months when convective rains are formed. The most intense rain events in Portugal and western Spain are generally related to events involved humid air masses originated in the tropical Atlantic, especially during autumn and spring. The influence of the air masses generated over the Mediterranean is generally restricted to a short distance from the coastline, mainly in the form of extreme events (>100 mm in a few hours) during the months of September and October. The

  7. Stratospheric water vapour budget and convection overshooting the tropopause: modelling study from SCOUT-AMMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. M. Liu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the impacts of overshooting convection at a local scale on the water distribution in the tropical UTLS. Overshooting convection is assumed to be one of the processes controlling the entry of water vapour mixing ratio in the stratosphere by injecting ice crystals above the tropopause which later sublimate and hydrate the lower stratosphere. For this purpose, we quantify the individual impact of two cases of overshooting convection in Africa observed during SCOUT-AMMA: the case of 4 August 2006 over Southern Chad which is likely to have influenced the water vapour measurements by micro-SDLA and FLASH-B from Niamey on 5 August, and the case of a mesoscale convective system over Aïr on 5 August 2006. We make use of high resolution (down to 1 km horizontally nested grid simulations with the three-dimensional regional atmospheric model BRAMS (Brazilian Regional Atmospheric Modelling System. In both cases, BRAMS succeeds in simulating the main features of the convective activity, as well as overshooting convection, though the exact position and time of the overshoots indicated by MSG brightness temperature difference is not fully reproduced (typically 1° displacement in latitude compared with the overshoots indicated by brightness temperature difference from satellite observations for both cases, and several hours shift for the Aïr case on 5 August 2006. Total water budgets associated with these two events show a significant injection of ice particles above the tropopause with maximum values of about 3.7 ton s−1 for the Chad case (4 August and 1.4 ton s−1 for the Aïr case (5 August, and a total upward cross tropopause transport of about 3300 ton h−1 for the Chad case and 2400 ton h−1 for the Aïr case in the third domain of simulation. The order of magnitude of these modelled fluxes is lower but comparable with similar studies in other tropical areas based on

  8. Leidenfrost vapour layer moderation of the drag crisis and trajectories of superhydrophobic and hydrophilic spheres falling in water

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the dynamic effects of a Leidenfrost vapour layer sustained on the surface of heated steel spheres during free fall in water. We find that a stable vapour layer sustained on the textured superhydrophobic surface of spheres falling through 95 °C water can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by up to 75% and stabilize the sphere trajectory for the Reynolds number between 104 and 106, spanning the drag crisis in the absence of the vapour layer. For hydrophilic spheres under the same conditions, the transition to drag reduction and trajectory stability occurs abruptly at a temperature different from the static Leidenfrost point. The observed drag reduction effects are attributed to the disruption of the viscous boundary layer by the vapour layer whose thickness depends on the water temperature. Both the drag reduction and the trajectory stabilization effects are expected to have significant implications for development of sustainable vapour layer based technologies. © the Partner Organisations 2014.

  9. Oxidation of X20 in Water Vapour: The Effect of Temperature and Oxygen Partial Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Anette Nørgaard; Montgomery, Melanie; Somers, Marcel A. J.

    2009-01-01

    The oxidation behaviour of X20 in various mixtures of water, oxygen and hydrogen was investigated at temperatures between 500 C and 700 C (time: 336 h). The samples were characterised using reflected light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive spectroscopy...... are discussed based on the various hypotheses of the accelerating effect of water vapour that have been put forth in the literature....

  10. Evaluation of ECMWF water vapour fields by airborne differential absorption lidar measurements: a case study between Brazil and Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Flentje

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Three extended airborne Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL sections of tropospheric water vapour across the tropical and sub-tropical Atlantic in March 2004 are compared to short-term forecasts of the European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF. The humidity fields between 28° S and 36° N exhibit large inter air-mass gradients and reflect typical transport patterns of low- and mid-latitudes like convection (e.g. Hadley circulation, subsidence and baroclinic development with stratospheric intrusion. These processes re-distribute water vapour vertically such that locations with extraordinary dry/moist air-masses are observed in the lower/upper troposphere, respectively. The mixing ratios range over 3 orders of magnitude. Back-trajectories are used to trace and characterize the observed air-masses.

    Overall, the observed water vapour distributions are largely reproduced by the short-term forecasts at 0.25° resolution (T799/L91, the correlation ranges from 0.69 to 0.92. Locally, large differences occur due to comparably small spatial shifts in presence of strong gradients. Systematic deviations are found associated with specific atmospheric domains. The planetary boundary layer in the forecast is too moist and to shallow. Convective transport of humidity to the middle and upper troposphere tends to be overestimated. Potential impacts arising from data assimilation and model physics are considered. The matching of air-mass boundaries (transport is discussed with repect to scales and the representativity of the 2-D sections for the 3-D humidity field. The normalized bias of the model with respect to the observations is 6%, 11% and 0% (moist model biases for the three along-flight sections, whereby however the lowest levels are excluded.

  11. Conductive zinc oxide thin film coatings by combustion chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have established a combustion chemical vapour deposition (C-CVD) system for the deposition of zinc oxide (ZnO) at atmospheric pressure. This C-CVD process has the advantage of a short exposure of the substrates to the flame. It is also potentially applicable as an inline coating system. Fundamental studies were performed on undoped ZnO. The specific resistivity of these layers strongly depends on the film thickness and decreases with increasing thickness. As the lowest resistivities, values of about 2.0 · 10−1 Ωcm are achieved. Ultra-violet photoemission spectra show the valence band structure of the deposited ZnO. The work function and valence band edge were determined. UV–vis spectra were taken to investigate the transmission of the coated glass samples. From these spectra the band gap energy was obtained. Raman spectroscopy as well as infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of ordered ZnO crystallites. The X-ray diffraction verified this result and illustrates the hexagonal structure. In the mid-infrared range precursor deposits were detected for low substrate temperatures. - Highlights: ► Zinc oxide (ZnO) films are conductive in the range of 2.0 · 10−1 Ωcm. ► X-ray diffraction, Raman and infrared spectroscopy indicate crystalline ZnO films. ► Precursor deposits were proved within the films for low growing temperatures. ► Band gap energy changes are achieved due to different growing temperatures

  12. Simulation of the isotopic composition of stratospheric water vapour - Part 2: Investigation of HDO / H2O variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, R.; Jöckel, P.; Lossow, S.

    2015-06-01

    Studying the isotopic composition of water vapour in the lower stratosphere can reveal the driving mechanisms of changes in the stratospheric water vapour budget and therefore help to explain the trends and variations of stratospheric water vapour during recent decades. We equipped a global chemistry climate model with a description of the water isotopologue HDO, comprising its physical and chemical fractionation effects throughout the hydrological cycle. We use this model to improve our understanding of the processes which determine the patterns in the stratospheric water isotope composition and in the water vapour budget itself. The link between the water vapour budget and its isotopic composition in the tropical stratosphere is presented through their correlation in a simulated 21-year time series. The two quantities depend on the same processes; however, they are influenced with different strengths. A sensitivity experiment shows that fractionation effects during the oxidation of methane have a damping effect on the stratospheric tape recorder signal in the water isotope ratio. Moreover, the chemically produced high water isotope ratios overshadow the tape recorder in the upper stratosphere. Investigating the origin of the boreal-summer signal of isotopically enriched water vapour reveals that in-mixing of old stratospheric air from the extratropics and the intrusion of tropospheric water vapour into the stratosphere complement each other in order to create the stratospheric isotope ratio tape recorder signal. For this, the effect of ice lofting in monsoon systems is shown to play a crucial role. Furthermore, we describe a possible pathway of isotopically enriched water vapour through the tropopause into the tropical stratosphere.

  13. Comparison of GOME-2/Metop total column water vapour with ground-based and in situ measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Kalakoski

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Total column water vapour product from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 on board Metop-A and Metop-B satellites (GOME-2/Metop-A and GOME-2/Metop-B produced by the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF is compared with co-located radiosonde and Global Positioning System (GPS observations. The comparisons are performed using recently reprocessed data by the GOME Data Processor (GDP version 4.7. The comparisons are performed for the period of January 2007–July 2013 (GOME-2A and from December 2012 to July 2013 (GOME-2B. Radiosonde data are from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA maintained by National Climatic Data Center (NCDC and screened for soundings with incomplete tropospheric column. Ground-based GPS observations from COSMIC/SuomiNet network are used as the second independent data source. Good general agreement between GOME-2 and the ground-based observations is found. The median relative difference of GOME-2 to radiosonde observations is −2.7% for GOME-2A and −0.3% for GOME-2B. Against GPS observations, the median relative differences are 4.9 and 3.2% for GOME-2A and B, respectively. For water vapour total columns below 10 kg m−2, large wet biases are observed, especially against GPS observations. Conversely, at values above 50 kg m−2, GOME-2 generally underestimates both ground-based observations.

  14. Validation of GOME-2/Metop total column water vapour with ground-based and in situ measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalakoski, Niilo; Kujanpää, Jukka; Sofieva, Viktoria; Tamminen, Johanna; Grossi, Margherita; Valks, Pieter

    2016-04-01

    The total column water vapour product from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 on board Metop-A and Metop-B satellites (GOME-2/Metop-A and GOME-2/Metop-B) produced by the Satellite Application Facility on Ozone and Atmospheric Chemistry Monitoring (O3M SAF) is compared with co-located radiosonde observations and global positioning system (GPS) retrievals. The validation is performed using recently reprocessed data by the GOME Data Processor (GDP) version 4.7. The time periods for the validation are January 2007-July 2013 (GOME-2A) and December 2012-July 2013 (GOME-2B). The radiosonde data are from the Integrated Global Radiosonde Archive (IGRA) maintained by the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The ground-based GPS observations from the COSMIC/SuomiNet network are used as the second independent data source. We find a good general agreement between the GOME-2 and the radiosonde/GPS data. The median relative difference of GOME-2 to the radiosonde observations is -2.7 % for GOME-2A and -0.3 % for GOME-2B. Against the GPS, the median relative differences are 4.9 % and 3.2 % for GOME-2A and B, respectively. For water vapour total columns below 10 kg m-2, large wet biases are observed, especially against the GPS retrievals. Conversely, at values above 50 kg m-2, GOME-2 generally underestimates both ground-based observations.

  15. Validation of two independent retrievals of SCIAMACHY water vapour columns using radiosonde data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. du Piesanie

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Two independently derived SCIAMACHY total water vapour column (WVC products are compared with integrated water vapour data calculated from radiosonde measurements, and with each other. The two SCIAMACHY WVC products are retrieved with two different retrieval algorithms applied in the visible and short-wave infrared wavelength regions respectively. The first SCIAMACHY WVC product used in the comparison is ESA's level 2 version 5.01 WVC product derived with the Air Mass Corrected Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (AMC-DOAS retrieval algorithm applied in the visible wavelength range (SCIAMACHY-ESA. The second SCIAMACHY WVC product is derived using the iterative maximum likelihood method (IMLM in the short-wave infrared wavelength range and developed by Netherlands Institute for Space Research (SCIAMACHY-IMLM. Both SCIAMACHY WVC products are compared with collocated water vapour amounts determined from daily relative humidity radiosonde measurements obtained from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF radiosonde network. The SCIAMACHY-ESA WVC product is compared with radiosonde-derived WVC amounts for an 18-month period from February 2010 to mid-August 2011, and the SCIAMACHY-IMLM WVC amounts are compared with radiosonde WVC amounts for the two individual years of 2004 and 2009. In addition the WVC amounts from SCIAMACHY-ESA and SCIAMACHY-IMLM are also compared with each other for a 1-month period for June 2009. The AMC-DOAS method used to retrieve SCIAMACHY-ESA WVC is able to correct for water vapour present below the clouds and can be used during cloudy conditions over both land and ocean surfaces. Results indicate a good agreement between the WVC amounts of SCIAMACHY-ESA and that of radiosondes, with a mean difference of −0.32 g cm−2 for all collocated cases. Overall the SCIAMACHY-ESA WVC amounts are smaller than the radiosonde WVC amounts, especially over oceans. For cloudy conditions the WVC bias has a

  16. Poleward expansion of the tropical belt derived from upper tropospheric water vapour

    OpenAIRE

    You, Qinglong; Min, Jinzhong; Kang, Shichang; Pepin, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Based on intersatellite-calibrated high-resolution infrared radiation sounder (HIRS) upper tropospheric water vapour (UTWV) brightness temperatures, the width of the tropical belt is defined as the distance between the latitudes at which maximum HIRS UTWV brightness temperatures are recorded in both hemispheres. Poleward expansion of the tropical belt is evident during 1979–2013 on an annual basis, with an average global magnitude of 1.57° latitude per decade. Most rapid widening is evident i...

  17. Responses in tropospheric chemistry to changes in UV fluxes, temperatures and water vapour densities

    OpenAIRE

    Fuglestvedt, Jan S.; Jonson, J.E.; WANG, WEI-CHYUNG; Isaksen, Ivar S.A.

    1994-01-01

    A two-dimensional chemistry/transport model of the global troposphere is used to study the chemical response to i) increased UV-radiation from stratospheric ozone depletion and ii) increased temperatures and water vapour densities that follow from in-creased levels of greenhouse gases. Increased UV radiation increases the photolysis rates for several tropospheric gases, in particular ozone. This leads to enhanced levels of odd hydrogen and reduced concentrations of tropospheric ozone. Increas...

  18. Mechanistic Modeling of Water Vapour Condensation in Presence of Noncondensable Gases

    OpenAIRE

    Karkoszka, Krzysztof

    2007-01-01

    This thesis concerns the analytical and numerical analysis of the water vapour condensation from the multicomponent mixture of condensable and noncondensable gases in the area of the nuclear reactor thermal-hydraulic safety. Following an extensive literature review in this field three aspects of the condensation phenomenon have been taken into consideration: a surface condensation, a liquid condensate interaction with gaseous mixtures and a spontaneous condensation in supersaturated mixtures....

  19. Theoretical investigation of water vapour condensation in presence of noncondensable gases

    OpenAIRE

    Karkoszka, Krzysztof

    2005-01-01

    Steam condensation phenomenon plays an important role in many industrial applications. Especially in energy sector this process requires deep understanding. When noncondensable gases are taken into consideration description of the entire phenomenon becomes more complicated. If the surface condensation is taken into consideration this additional species accumulates and creates noncondensable layer near the surface on water vapour condenses. Due to this effect heat and mass transfer rates from ...

  20. Plasticiser Effect on Water Vapour Permeability Properties of Locust bean gum--Based Edible Films

    OpenAIRE

    BOZDEMİR, Özgür Altan; TUTAŞ, Mehmet

    2003-01-01

    The barrier properties of edible films prepared from polysaccharide polymer (locust bean gum) and various plasticisers (glycerol, propylene glycol, sorbitol, and polyethylene glycol 200) together with hydrophobic modifiers (stearopten and beeswax) were examined. It was determined that the films containing polyethylene glycol 200 (PEG 200) and sorbitol have the lowest water vapour permeability values and the films containing glycerol have the highest WVP values. It was found that the ...

  1. On the inclusion of GPS precipitable water vapour in the nowcasting of rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Benevides, P.; Catalao, J.; P. M. A. Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of precipitable water vapour (PWV) retrieved from GPS delay data is analysed in a number of case studies of intense precipitation in the Lisbon area, in the period 2010–2012 and in a continuous annual cycle of 2012 observations. Such behaviour is found to correlate positively with the probability of precipitation, especially in cases of severe rainfall. The evolution of the GPS PWV in a few stations is analysed by a least-squares fitting of a broken li...

  2. On the inclusion of GPS precipitable water vapour in the nowcasting of rainfall

    OpenAIRE

    Benevides, P.; Catalao, J.; P. M. A. Miranda

    2015-01-01

    The temporal behaviour of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) retrieved from GPS delay data is analysed in a number of case studies of intense precipitation in the Lisbon area, in the period 2010–2012, and in a continuous annual cycle of 2012 observations. Such behaviour is found to correlate positively with the probability of precipitation, especially in cases of severe rainfall. The evolution of the GPS PWV in a few stations is analysed by a...

  3. Insight from ozone and water vapour on transport in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Ploeger

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We explore the potential of ozone observations to constrain transport processes in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL, and contrast it with insights that can be obtained from water vapour. Global fields from Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE and in-situ observations are predicted using a backtrajectory approach that captures advection, instantaneous freeze-drying and photolytical ozone production. Two different representations of transport (kinematic and diabatic 3-month backtrajectories based on ERA-Interim data are used to evaluate the sensitivity to differences in transport. Results show that mean profiles and seasonality of both tracers can be reasonably reconstructed. Water vapour predictions are similar for both transport representations, but predictions for ozone are systematically higher for kinematic transport. Compared to global HALOE observations, the diabatic model prediction underestimates the vertical ozone gradient. Comparison of the kinematic prediction with observations obtained during the tropical SCOUT-O3 campaign shows a large high bias above 390 K potential temperature. We show that ozone predictions and vertical dispersion of the trajectories are highly correlated, rendering ozone an interesting tracer for aspects of transport to which water vapour is not sensitive. We show that dispersion and mean upwelling have similar effects on ozone profiles, with slower upwelling and larger dispersion both leading to higher ozone concentrations. Analyses of tropical upwelling based on mean transport characteristics, and model validation have to take into account this ambiguity between tropical ozone production and in-mixing from the stratosphere. In turn, ozone provides constraints on transport in the TTL and lower stratosphere that cannot be obtained from water vapour.

  4. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W.; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-07-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour.

  5. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T L; Coe, C; Bagot, P A J; Morrall, P; Smith, G D W; Scott, T; Moody, M P

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour. PMID:27403638

  6. Atomic-scale Studies of Uranium Oxidation and Corrosion by Water Vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, T. L.; Coe, C.; Bagot, P. A. J.; Morrall, P.; Smith, G. D. W; Scott, T.; Moody, M. P.

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the corrosion of uranium is important for its safe, long-term storage. Uranium metal corrodes rapidly in air, but the exact mechanism remains subject to debate. Atom Probe Tomography was used to investigate the surface microstructure of metallic depleted uranium specimens following polishing and exposure to moist air. A complex, corrugated metal-oxide interface was observed, with approximately 60 at.% oxygen content within the oxide. Interestingly, a very thin (~5 nm) interfacial layer of uranium hydride was observed at the oxide-metal interface. Exposure to deuterated water vapour produced an equivalent deuteride signal at the metal-oxide interface, confirming the hydride as originating via the water vapour oxidation mechanism. Hydroxide ions were detected uniformly throughout the oxide, yet showed reduced prominence at the metal interface. These results support a proposed mechanism for the oxidation of uranium in water vapour environments where the transport of hydroxyl species and the formation of hydride are key to understanding the observed behaviour. PMID:27403638

  7. Validation of stratospheric water vapour measurements from the airborne microwave radiometer AMSOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Müller

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the validation of a water vapour dataset obtained by the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System AMSOS, a passive microwave radiometer operating at 183 GHz. Vertical profiles are retrieved from spectra by an optimal estimation method. The useful vertical range lies in the upper troposphere up to the mesosphere with an altitude resolution of 8 to 16 km and a horizontal resolution of about 57 km. Flight campaigns were performed once a year from 1998 to 2006 measuring the latitudinal distribution of water vapour from the tropics to the polar regions. The obtained profiles show clearly the main features of stratospheric water vapour in all latitudinal regions. Data are validated against a set of instruments comprising satellite, ground-based, airborne remote sensing and in-situ instruments. It appears that AMSOS profiles have a dry bias of 3–20%, when compared to satellite experiments. A good agreement with a difference of 3.3% was found between AMSOS and in-situ hygrosondes FISH and FLASH and an excellent matching of the lidar measurements from the DIAL instrument in the short overlap region in the upper troposphere.

  8. Remote sensing of water vapour profiles in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schneider

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available We show that the near infrared solar absorption spectra recorded in the framework of the Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON can be used to derive the vertical distribution of tropospheric water vapour. The resolution of the TCCON spectra of 0.02 cm−1 is sufficient for retrieving lower and middle/upper tropospheric water vapour concentrations with a vertical resolution of about 3 and 8 km, respectively. We document the good quality of the remotely-sensed profiles by comparisons with coincident in-situ Vaisala RS92 radiosonde measurements. Due to the high measurement frequency, the TCCON water vapour profile data offer novel opportunities for estimating the water vapour variability at different timescales and altitudes.

  9. The potential impact of changes in lower stratospheric water vapour on stratospheric temperatures over the past 30 years

    OpenAIRE

    Maycock, A. C.; Joshi, M. M.; Shine, K P; Davis, S M; Rosenlof, K. H.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates the potential contribution of observed changes in lower stratospheric water vapour to stratospheric temperature variations over the past three decades using a comprehensive global climate model (GCM). Three case studies are considered. In the first, the net increase in stratospheric water vapour (SWV) from 1980–2010 (derived from the Boulder frost-point hygrometer record using the gross assumption that this is globally representative) is estimated to have cooled the lo...

  10. Properties of alumina films by atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thin alumina films were deposited at low temperatures (290–420°C) on stainless steel, type AISI 304. The deposition process was carried out in nitrogen by metal-organic chemical vapour deposition using aluminum tri-sec-butoxide. The film properties including the protection of the underlying substrat

  11. Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HANShijie; WENXuefa; YUGuirui; SUNXiaomin; LIQingkang; RENChuanyou

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002. To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mg m-2 s-1 (100%), 14.8 mg m-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage, respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  12. Characterization of sorption properties of selected soils from Lublin region by using water vapour adsorption method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-04-01

    *The studies were carried out within the framework of a research project. The project was financed from funds of National Science Center on the base of decision number DEC-2013/11/D/NZ9/02545 Among many methods proposed to study sorption properties of soils an analysis of adsorption/ desorption isotherm is probably the easiest and most convenient one. It characterizes both quantity and quality of mineral and organic components and also their physical and physicochemical properties. The main aim of this study is comparison of sorption properties of selected Polish soils by using water vapour adsorption method. Samples were taken from the depth of 0-20 cm, from the Lublin region, eastern Poland. Soils were selected on the basis of their different physicochemical properties and were classified as: Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem, Mollic Gleysol, Rendzic Phaeozem, Stagnic Luvisol, Haplic Cambisol (WG WRB 2006). Data taken from experimental adsorption isotherms were used to determine parameters of monolayer capacity, specific surface area and the total amount of vapour adsorbed at relative pressure of 0.974. Obtained adsorption and desorption isotherms reviled that adsorbate molecules interacted with the soil particles in different extent. Similar monolayer capacity was observed for Haplic Fluvisol, Haplic Chernozem and Stagnic Luvisol, while for Mollic Gleysol was more than 4 times higher. Mollic Gleysol was also characterized by highest values of specific surface area as well as quantity of adsorbed vapour at relative pressure of 0.974. Higher sorption was caused by presence of soil colloids which contains functional groups of a polar nature (mainly hydroxyls, phenolic and carboxyls). These groups similarly to silicates, oxides, hydratable cations as well as electric charge form adsorption centres for water vapour molecules.

  13. Discovery of water vapour in the carbon star V Cygni from observations with Herschel/HIFI

    CERN Document Server

    Neufeld, D A; Melnick, G; Pułecka, M; Schmidt, M; Szczerba, R; Bujarrabal, V; Alcolea, J; Cernicharo, J; Decin, L; Dominik, C; Justtanont, K; de Koter, A; Marston, A P; Menten, K; Olofsson, H; Planesas, P; Schöier, F L; Teyssier, D; Waters, L B F M; Edwards, K; McCoey, C; Shipman, R; Jellema, W; de Graauw, T; Ossenkopf, V; Schieder, R; Philipp, S

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of water vapour toward the carbon star V Cygni. We have used Herschel's HIFI instrument, in dual beam switch mode, to observe the 1(11) - 0(00) para-water transition at 1113.3430 GHz in the upper sideband of the Band 4b receiver. The observed spectral line profile is nearly parabolic, but with a slight asymmetry associated with blueshifted absorption, and the integrated antenna temperature is 1.69 \\pm 0.17 K km/s. This detection of thermal water vapour emission, carried out as part of a small survey of water in carbon-rich stars, is only the second such detection toward a carbon-rich AGB star, the first having been obtained by the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite toward IRC+10216. For an assumed ortho-to-para ratio of 3 for water, the observed line intensity implies a water outflow rate ~ (3 - 6) E-5 Earth masses per year and a water abundance relative to H2 of ~ (2-5) E-6. This value is a factor of at least 1E+4 larger than the expected photospheric abundance in a carbon-rich en...

  14. The exchange reaction between deuterium and water vapour on platinum deposited over a hydrophobic support

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope exchange reaction between deuterium gas and water vapour at room temperature and below on platinum deposited on hydrophobic supports such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Porapak Q (copolymer of styrene and divinylbenzene) was studied and the results were compared with those of the exchange reaction on platinum over hydrophilic support such as alumina. It was demonstrated that the exchange reaction at temperatures below the boiling point of water is markedly retarded by the multilayer adsorption of water over the platinum catalyst deposited on hydrophilic support, whereas the platinum catalyst on hydrophobic support exhibited a high catalytic activity, being not retarded by the water, forming no multilayer of adsorbed water over platinum surface. Therefore in the case of the hydrogen isotope exchange reaction on platinum over hydrophobic support, the chemical exchange rate can be measured even under a saturated vapour pressure of water. The surface area of platinum was estimated by hydrogen chemisorption and hydrogen titration and specific activities of the catalyst were calculated at both room temperature and freezing point of water, which revealed that the specific rate of this reaction does not differ so much over various supports. (orig.)

  15. Total ozone column, water vapour and aerosol effects on erythemal and global solar irradiance in Marsaxlokk, Malta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilbao, Julia; Román, Roberto; Yousif, Charles; Mateos, David; de Miguel, Argimiro

    2014-12-01

    Observations of erythemal (UVER; 280-400 nm) and total solar shortwave irradiance (SW; 305-2800 nm), total ozone column (TOC), water vapour column (w), aerosol optical depth (AOD) and Ångström exponent (α) were carried out at Marsaxlokk, in south-east Malta. These measurements were recorded during a measurement campaign between May and October 2012, aimed at studying the influence of atmospheric compounds on solar radiation transfer through the atmosphere. The effects of TOC, AOD and w on UVER and SW (global, diffuse and direct) irradiance were quantified using irradiance values under cloud-free conditions at different fixed solar zenith angles (SZA). Results show that UVER (but not SW) irradiance correlates well with TOC. UVER variations ranged between -0.24% DU-1 and -0.32% DU-1 with all changes being statistically significant. Global SW irradiance varies with water vapour column between -2.44% cm-1 and -4.53% cm-1, these results proving statistically significant and diminishing when SZA increases. The irradiance variations range between 42.15% cm-1 and 20.30% cm-1 for diffuse SW when SZA varies between 20° and 70°. The effect of aerosols on global UVER is stronger than on global SW. Aerosols cause a UVER reduction of between 28.12% and 52.41% and a global SW reduction between 13.46% and 41.41% per AOD550 unit. Empirical results show that solar position plays a determinant role, that there is a negligible effect of ozone on SW radiation, and stronger attenuation by aerosol particles in UVER radiation.

  16. Isotopes in the Arctic atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonne, Jean-Louis; Werner, Martin; Meyer, Hanno; Kipfstuhl, Sepp; Rabe, Benjamin; Behrens, Melanie; Schönicke, Lutz; Steen Larsen, Hans Christian; Masson-Delmotte, Valérie

    2016-04-01

    The ISO-ARC project aims at documenting the Arctic atmospheric hydrological cycle, by assessing the imprint of the marine boundary conditions (e.g. temperature variations, circulation changes, or meltwater input) to the isotopic composition of the atmospheric water cycle (H218O and HDO) with a focus on North Atlantic and Arctic oceans. For this purpose, two continuous monitoring water vapour stable isotopes cavity ring-down spectrometers have been installed in July 2015: on-board the Polarstern research vessel and in the Siberian Lena delta Samoylov research station (N 72° 22', E 126° 29'). The Polarstern measurements cover the summer 2015 Arctic campaign from July to mid-October, including six weeks in the Fram Strait region in July- August, followed by a campaign reaching the North Pole and a transect from the Norwegian Sea to the North Sea. These vapour observations are completed by water isotopic measurements in samples from the surface ocean water for Polarstern and from precipitation in Samoylov and Tiksi (120 km south-east of the station). A custom-made designed automatic calibration system has been implemented in a comparable manner for both vapour instruments, based on the injection of different liquid water standards, which are completely vaporised in dry air at high temperature. Subsequent humidity level can be adjusted from 2000 to at least 30000 ppm. For a better resilience, an independent calibration system has been added on the Samoylov instrument, allowing measurements of one standard at humidity levels ranging from 2000 to 15000 ppm: dry air is introduced in a tank containing a large amount of liquid water standard, undergoing evaporation under a controlled environment. The measurement protocol includes an automatic calibration every 25 hours. First instrument characterisation experiments depict a significant isotope-humidity effect at low humidity, dependant on the isotopic composition of the standard. For ambient air, our first isotope

  17. Stable isotopes in monsoon precipitation and water vapour in Nagqu, Tibet, and their implications for monsoon moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Siyuan; Richards, Keith

    2016-09-01

    Understanding climate variations over the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau has become essential because the high plateau sustains various ecosystems and water sources, and impacts on the Asian monsoon system. This paper provides new information from isotopic signals in meteoric water and atmospheric water vapour on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau using high frequency observation data over a relatively short period. The aim is to explore temporal moisture changes and annual variations at the onset and during the summer monsoon season at a transitional site with respect to the monsoon influence. Data show that high frequency and short period observations can reveal typical moisture changes from the pre-monsoon to the monsoon seasons (2010), and the large variation in isotopic signals in different years with respect to active/inactive periods during a mature phase of the monsoon (2011), especially inferring from the temporal changes in the d-excess of precipitation and its relationship with δ18O values, when higher d-excess is found in the pre-monsoon precipitation. In this transition zone on a daily basis, δ18O values in precipitation are controlled mainly by the amount of rainfall during the monsoon season, while temperature seems more important before the onset of monsoon. Furthermore, the "amount effect" is significant for night-time rain events. From comparison of signals in both the precipitation and water vapour, an inconsistent relationship between d-excess values suggests various moisture fluxes are active in a short period. The temporal pattern of isotopic signal change from the onset of the monsoon to the mature monsoon phase provides information about the larger circulation dynamics of the Asian monsoon.

  18. Water vapour flux divergence over the Arabian Sea during 1987 summer monsoon using satellite data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    with the mean monsoon rainfall along the west coast of India. 1. Introduction A detailed study of the heat and moisture budget over the Indian Ocean, Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal is crucial in understanding the mechanisms through which the Asiatic summer... monsoon is maintained (Murakami et al., 1984). Knowledge of water vapour flux divergence over the AS is of vital importance from the Indian summer monsoon point of view. An exact estimate of the contribution of the moisture flux from AS is essential...

  19. A multi-site techniques intercomparison of integrated water vapour observations for climate change analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Van Malderen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Water vapour plays a dominant role in the climate change debate. However, observing water vapour over a climatological time period in a consistent and homogeneous manner is challenging. At one hand, networks of ground-based instruments allowing to retrieve homogeneous Integrated Water Vapour (IWV datasets are being set up. Typical examples are Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS observation networks such as the International GNSS Service (IGS, with continuous GPS (Global Positioning System observations spanning over the last 15+ yr, and the AErosol RObotic NETwork (AERONET, providing long-term observations performed with standardized and well-calibrated sun photometers. On the other hand, satellite-based measurements of IWV already have a time span of over 10 yr (e.g. AIRS or are being merged in order to create long-term time series (e.g. GOME, SCIAMACHY, and GOME-2. The present study aims at setting up a techniques intercomparison of IWV measurements from satellite devices (in the visible, GOME/SCIAMACHY/GOME-2, and in the thermal infrared, AIRS, in-situ measurements (radiosondes and ground-based instruments (GPS, sun photometer, to assess the applicability of either dataset for water vapour trends analysis. To this end, we selected 28 sites worldwide at which GPS observations can directly be compared with coincident satellite IWV observations, together with sun photometer and/or radiosonde measurements. We found that the mean biases of the different techniques w.r.t. the GPS estimates vary only between −0.3 to 0.5 mm of IWV, but the small bias is accompanied by large Root Mean Square (RMS values, especially for the satellite instruments. In particular, we analysed the impact of the presence of clouds on the techniques IWV agreement. Also, the influence of specific issues for each instrument on the intercomparison is investigated, e.g. the distance between the satellite ground pixel centre and the co-located ground-based station, the

  20. Water vapour permeability of poly(lactic acid): Crystallinity and the tortuous path model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Z.; Thomas, N. L.

    2014-02-01

    The water vapour transmission rates (WVTR) through samples of polylactic acid of different crystallinities have been measured. Three different grades of commercial poly(lactic acid) (PLA) were used with different ratios of L-lactide and D-lactide to give a range of crystallinities from 0% to 50%. Sheets of PLA were prepared by melt compounding followed by compression moulding and annealing at different temperatures and for different times to give the range of crystallinities required. Crystallinity was measured by differential scanning calorimetry and the morphology of the samples was observed under crossed polars in a transmitted light microscope. Water vapour transmission rates through the films were measured at 38 °C and at a relative humidity of 90%. It was found that the measured values of WVTR decreased linearly with increasing crystallinity of the PLA from 0% to 50%. The results are discussed in terms of the effect of crystallinity on solubility and shown to fit the "Tortuous Path Model." The model was also successfully used to explain published data on water permeability of polyethylene terephthalate.

  1. Technical Note: Novel method for water vapour monitoring using wireless communication networks measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. David

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new technique that overcomes the obstacles of the existing methods for monitoring near-surface water vapour, by estimating humidity from data collected through existing wireless communication networks.

    Weather conditions and atmospheric phenomena affect the electromagnetic channel, causing attenuations to the radio signals. Thus, wireless communication networks are in effect built-in environmental monitoring facilities. The wireless microwave links, used in these networks, are widely deployed by cellular providers for backhaul communication between base stations, a few tens of meters above ground level. As a result, if all available measurements are used, the proposed method can provide moisture observations with high spatial resolution and potentially high temporal resolution. Further, the implementation cost is minimal, since the data used are already collected and saved by the cellular operators. In addition – many of these links are installed in areas where access is difficult such as orographic terrain and complex topography. As such, our method enables measurements in places that have been hard to measure in the past, or have never been measured before. The technique is restricted to weather conditions which exclude rain, fog or clouds along the propagation path. Strong winds that may cause movement of the link transmitter or receiver (or both may also interfere with the ability to conduct accurate measurements.

    We present results from real-data measurements taken from two microwave links used in a backhaul cellular network that show convincing correlation to surface station humidity measurements. The measurements were taken daily in two sites, one in northern Israel (28 measurements, the other in central Israel (29 measurements. The correlation between the microwave link measurements and the humidity gauges were 0.9 and 0.82 for the north and central sites, respectively. The Root Mean Square Differences

  2. Rain scavenging of tritiated water vapour: a numerical Eulerian stationary model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atanassov, D., E-mail: Dimiter.Atanassov@meteo.b [National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Department ' Content of the Atmosphere and Hydrosphere' , 66 Tzarigradsko Chaussee, 1784 Sofia (Bulgaria); Galeriu, D. [' Horia Hulubei' National Institute for Physics and Nuclear Engineering, Department of Environmental Physics and Life, 407 Atomistilor St., POB MG-6, Bucharest - Magurele, RO-077125 (Romania)

    2011-01-15

    The tradition in tritium washout modeling is to unite the washout model with a Gaussian plume model describing dispersion of tritium vapour in the atmosphere. In the present study, an alternative approach is proposed. A numerical Eulerian model that describes washout independently of dispersion is developed. The sensitivity analysis to model parameters has shown that the washout process is influenced most significantly by rainfall parameters and air temperature: different raindrop size distributions cause differences of up to about 70% in the washout outputs; a change of 15 {sup o}C in the air temperature causes an effect of about 50%. Results are presented showing calculated values of washout outputs (tritium concentration in rain, tritium downward flux, washout coefficient) for different tritium vapour profiles, rainfall rates and air temperatures. The general conclusion is that the washout process is too complex to be described comprehensively by the simple washout coefficient concept. We suggest the approach proposed here for directly calculating the tritium downward flux and concentration in the rainwater is preferable. - Research highlights: {yields}A new approach to tritium washout modeling and a relevant numerical model are proposed. {yields}Shortcomings of the washout coefficient concept are demonstrated. {yields}The washout coefficient is unnecessary and it is not used in the proposed washout model. {yields}The washout model does not suppose Gaussian dispersion and avoids the related demerits. {yields}Tritium washout is influenced most significantly by temperature and rainfall parameters.

  3. The oxidation of stainless steels in water vapour-oxygen mixtures. Design and development of an original equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A device including a thermobalance placed in a tight housing has been conceived and built. This apparatus is suitable to submit metallic samples to the action of dry oxygen, deoxygenated water vapour or mixtures of water vapour and oxygen. The first results obtained with this device, at 6000C, and for a 18-10 stainless steel are: - in the presence of deoxygenated water vapour, one observes very fast oxidation kinetics, with a roughly parabolic law (K approximately equal to 3x10-2 mg2.cm-4.h-1); - the addition of oxygen from about 10 vpm onwards, induces an important initial slowing down of the kinetics; - the duration of this 'induction' period rises with increasing the oxygen content of the water vapour, but the protection of the alloy due to the action of oxygen remains temporary; - in another way, experiments begun with water vapour, were continued with pure oxygen, and reciprocally. During these 'mixed' experiments, the weight increases were continually recorded. A swift slowing down has been observed in the first case and an important acceleration in the second one

  4. Inline atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition for thin film CdTe solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed study has been undertaken to assess the deposition of CdTe for thin film devices via an inline atmospheric pressure metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (AP-MOCVD) reactor. The precursors for CdTe synthesis were released from a showerhead assembly normal to a transparent conductive oxide (TCO)/glass substrate, previously coated with a CdZnS window layer using a conventional batch AP-MOCVD reactor with horizontal flow delivery. Under a simulated illumination with air mass coefficient 1.5 (AM1.5), the initial best cell conversion efficiency (11.2%) for such hybrid cells was comparable to a reference device efficiency (∼ 13%), grown entirely in the AP-MOCVD batch reactor. The performance and structure of the hybrid and conventional devices are compared for spectral response, CdTe grain morphology and crystal structure. These preliminary results reported on the transfer from a batch to an inline AP-MOCVD reactor which holds a good potential for the large-scale production of thin film photovoltaics devices and related materials. - Highlights: • Inline metal-organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) used to grow CdTe films • Desired dopant profiles in CdTe:As achieved with inline MOCVD reactor • Initial conversion efficiency of 11.2% was comparable to batch devices (∼ 13%). • Inline MOCVD holds a good potential for large-scale thin film photovoltaics production

  5. Analysis of the sorption properties of different soils using water vapour adsorption and potentiometric titration methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skic, Kamil; Boguta, Patrycja; Sokołowska, Zofia

    2016-07-01

    Parameters of specific surface area as well as surface charge were used to determine and compare sorption properties of soils with different physicochemical characteristics. The gravimetric method was used to obtain water vapour isotherms and then specific surface areas, whereas surface charge was estimated from potentiometric titration curves. The specific surface area varied from 12.55 to 132.69 m2 g-1 for Haplic Cambisol and Mollic Gleysol soil, respectively, and generally decreased with pH (R=0.835; α = 0.05) and when bulk density (R=-0.736; α = 0.05) as well as ash content (R=-0.751; α = 0.05) increased. In the case of surface charge, the values ranged from 63.00 to 844.67 μmol g-1 Haplic Fluvisol and Mollic Gleysol, respecively. Organic matter gave significant contributions to the specific surface area and cation exchange capacity due to the large surface area and numerous surface functional groups, containing adsorption sites for water vapour molecules and for ions. The values of cation exchange capacity and specific surface area correlated linearly at the level of R=0.985; α = 0.05.

  6. Water vapour source impacts on oxygen isotope variability in tropical precipitation during Heinrich events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. C. Lewis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Water isotope records such as speleothems provide extensive evidence of past tropical hydrological changes. During Heinrich events, isotopic changes in monsoon regions have been interpreted as implying a widespread drying through the Northern Hemisphere tropics and an anti-phased precipitation response in the south. Here, we examine the sources of this variability using a water isotope-enabled general circulation model, Goddard Institute for Space Studies ModelE. We incorporate a new suite of vapour source distribution tracers to help constrain the impact of precipitation source region changes on the isotopic composition of precipitation and to identify nonlocal amount effects. We simulate a collapse of the North Atlantic meridional overturning circulation with a large freshwater input to the region as an idealised analogue to iceberg discharge during Heinrich events. An increase in monsoon intensity, defined by vertical wind shear, is modelled over the South American domain, with small decreases simulated over Asia. Simulated isotopic anomalies agree well with proxy climate records, with lighter isotopic values simulated over South America and enriched values across East Asia. For this particular abrupt climate event, we identify which climatic change is most likely linked to water isotope change – changes in local precipitation amount, monsoon intensity, water vapour source distributions or precipitation seasonality. We categorise individual sites according to the climate variability that water isotope changes are most closely associated with, and find that the dominant isotopic controls are not consistent across the tropics – simple local explanations, in particular, fall short of explaining water isotope variability at all sites. Instead, the best interpretations appear to be site specific and often regional in scale.

  7. Vapour pressures, densities, and viscosities of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system and (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucas, Antonio de [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Donate, Marina [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain); Rodriguez, Juan F. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Castilla - La Mancha, Avda. de Camilo Jose Cela s/n, 13004 Ciudad Real (Spain)]. E-mail: juan.rromero@uclm.es

    2006-02-15

    Measurements of thermophysical properties (vapour pressure, density, and viscosity) of the (water + lithium bromide + potassium acetate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}COOK = 2:1 by mass ratio and the (water + lithium bromide + sodium lactate) system LiBr:CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa = 2:1 by mass ratio were measured. The system, a possible new working fluid for absorption heat pump, consists of absorbent (LiBr + CH{sub 3}COOK) or (LiBr + CH{sub 3}CH(OH)COONa) and refrigerant H{sub 2}O. The vapour pressures were measured in the ranges of temperature and absorbent concentration from T = (293.15 to 333.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.50, densities and viscosities were measured from T = (293.15 to 323.15) K and from mass fraction 0.20 to 0.40. The experimental data were correlated with an Antoine-type equation. Densities and viscosities were measured in the same range of temperature and absorbent concentration as that of the vapour pressure. Regression equations for densities and viscosities were obtained with a minimum mean square error criterion.

  8. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Montoux

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Among the objectives of the HIBISCUS campaign was the study of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS by balloon borne in situ and remote sensing, offering a unique opportunity for evaluating the performances of balloon and satellite water vapour data available at the southern tropics in February-April 2004. Instruments evaluated include balloon borne in situ tunable diode laser spectrometer (μ SDLA and surface acoustic wave hygrometer (SAW, and remote sensing with a near IR spectrometer (SAOZ flown on a circumnavigating long duration balloon. The satellite systems available are those of AIRS/AMSU (v4, SAGE-II (v6.2, HALOE (v19, MIPAS (v4.62 and GOMOS (v6.0. In the stratosphere between 20–25 km, three satellite instruments, HALOE, SAGE-II and MIPAS, are showing very consistent results (nearly constant mixing ratios, while AIRS, GOMOS and the SAOZ balloon are displaying a slight increase with altitude. Considering the previous studies, the first three appear the most precise at this level, HALOE being the less variable (5%, close to the atmospheric variability shown by the REPROBUS/ECMWF Chemistry-Transport model. The three others are showing significantly larger variability, AIRS being the most variable (35%, followed by GOMOS (25% and SAOZ (20%. Lower down in the Tropical Tropopause Layer between 14–20 km, HALOE and SAGE-II are showing marked minimum mixing ratios around 17–19 km, not seen by all others. For HALOE, this might be related to an altitude registration error already identified on ozone, while for SAGE-II, a possible explanation could be the persistence of the dry bias displayed by previous retrieval versions, not completely removed in version 6.2. On average, MIPAS is consistent with AIRS, GOMOS and SAOZ, not displaying the dry bias observed in past versions, but a fast degradation of precision below 20 km. Compared to satellites, the μ SDLA measurements shows systematically larger

  9. Cost of water from a single-purpose multi-stage flash plant with vapour recompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of countries that are deficient in fresh-water supplies are seriously considering the desalting of seawater in their medium- and long-range development plans. In some developed countries where large power grids exist, electricity may be derived from dual-purpose plants that also promise to produce desalinated water at a unit cost low enough for municipal and industrial use. In water-deficient developing countries, however, the power needs are usually low in relation to the water needs, and therefore there is a need for single-purpose desalting plants that could produce water at unit costs approaching those achievable in dual-purpose plants. The International Atomic Energy Agency has sought to encourage the development of single-purpose desalting plants and requested Applied Research and Engineering Ltd (AREL), United Kingdom, to investigate single-purpose vapour recompression as a promising system for a plant. This report presents the cost of water from a single purpose MSF/Recompression plant and compares the cost of water from dual purpose plant. It also shows the cost of water from a plant producing both water and power separately from a common reactor

  10. Structural and Luminescent Properties of ZnO Thin Films Deposited by Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Vapour Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Guo-Liang; LIN Bi-Xia; HONG Liang; MENG Xiang-Dong; FU Zhu-Xi

    2004-01-01

    ZnO thin films were successfully deposited on Si (100) substrates by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) at atmospheric pressure (1 atm). The only solid source used here is zinc acetate, (CHsCOO)2Zn, and the carrier gas is nitrogen. The sample, which was prepared at 550℃ during growth and then annealed in air at 900℃ , has only a ZnO (002) diffraction peak at 34.6° with its FWHM of 0.23° in the XRD pattern. The room-temperature PL spectrum shows a strong ultraviolet emission with the peak centred at 380nm. We analysed the effects of many factors, such as the source, substrates, growth and annealing temperatures, and annealing ambience, on the structural and optical properties of our prepared ZnO films.

  11. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of NbSe2-TiSe2 composite thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of titanium tetrachloride and niobium pentachloride with di-tert-butyl selenide at 550 deg. C was investigated for different precursors' flow rates. Scanning electron microscopy of the films showed that they were composed of two different kinds of plate-like crystallites. Point wavelength dispersive X-ray (WDX) analyses of the crystallites revealed that they either had the NbSe2 or the TiSe2 composition. The presence of the two phases was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the calculated cell parameters indicate that niobium or titanium was not incorporated into each others' lattice. WDX and XRD analyses highlighted how the NbSe2:TiSe2 ratio in the composite films could be controlled by precursor flow rate.

  12. Influence of HCl and water vapour on the corrosion kinetics of Fe beneath molten ZnCl{sub 2}/KCl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruh, Andreas; Spiegel, Michael [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, MPIE, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-40237 Duesseldorf, Germany (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Heat exchanger tubes in waste-fired boilers are usually covered by solid and molten salts, formed by condensation of aerosols within the flue gas. The presence of salts accelerates the corrosion process, especially if they are associated with the formation of melts on the material surface or in the oxide scales. But also corrosive gas species in the flue gases like HCl and H{sub 2}O are known to accelerate the corrosion kinetics by supplying more oxidant. This report focuses on investigations on the influence of HCl and H{sub 2}O on the kinetics of high temperature corrosion of pure Fe beneath a molten chloride deposit. Thermogravimetric (TG) experiments were conducted on pure Fe with a 50 mol.% KCl - 50 mol.% ZnCl{sub 2}-salt mixture (15 mg/cm{sup 2}) at T=320 deg. C in an Ar - O{sub 2} atmosphere with additional H{sub 2}O and HCl. TG tests carried out on pure Fe covered with KCl - ZnCl{sub 2} yield enhanced mass gain for atmospheres containing HCl in comparison to TG tests without HCl. This effect will be discussed with respect to incubation time and overall kinetics. Results showing the influence of water vapour are presented as well. (authors)

  13. Strong low-pass filtering effects on water vapour flux measurements with closed-path eddy correlation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrom, Andreas; Dellwik, Ebba; Flyvbjerg, Henrik K.;

    2007-01-01

    Turbulent water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy correlation (EC) systems are unintentionally low-pass filtered by the system in a manner that varies with environmental conditions. Why and how is described here. So is the practical method that systematically corrects long-term flux......-pass filtering effects. Other than for CO2 is the magnitude of the correction for water vapour flux measurements unsatisfactorily high, i.e. the EC system needs to be technically improved. Our results suggest that such high correction can be avoided by keeping relative humidity in the entire gas transport system...

  14. How do leaf hydraulics limit stomatal conductance at high water vapour pressure deficits?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, James A

    2006-08-01

    A reduction in leaf stomatal conductance (g) with increasing leaf-to-air difference in water vapour pressure (D) is nearly ubiquitous. Ecological comparisons of sensitivity have led to the hypothesis that the reduction in g with increasing D serves to maintain leaf water potentials above those that would cause loss of hydraulic conductance. A reduction in leaf water potential is commonly hypothesized to cause stomatal closure at high D. The importance of these particular hydraulic factors was tested by exposing Abutilon theophrasti, Glycine max, Gossypium hirsutum and Xanthium strumarium to D high enough to reduce g and then decreasing ambient carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2]), and observing the resulting changes in g, transpiration rate and leaf water potential, and their reversibility. Reducing the [CO2] at high D increased g and transpiration rate and lowered leaf water potential. The abnormally high transpiration rates did not result in reductions in hydraulic conductance. Results indicate that low water potential effects on g at high D could be overcome by low [CO2], and that even lower leaf water potentials did not cause a reduction in hydraulic conductance in these well-watered plants. Reduced g at high D in these species resulted primarily from increased stomatal sensitivity to [CO2] at high D, and this increased sensitivity may mediate stomatal responses to leaf hydraulics at high D. PMID:16898024

  15. The effect of thermal annealing on the properties of alumina films prepared by metal organic chemical vapour deposition at atmospheric pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Corbach, van H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    Thin films deposited at 330°C by metal organic chemical vapour deposition on stainless steel, type AISI 304, were annealed in a nitrogen atmosphere for 1, 2 and 4 h at 600, 700 and 800°C. The film properties, including the protection of the underlying substrate against high temperature corrosion, th

  16. Diagnosis of processes controlling water vapour in the tropical tropopause layer by a Lagrangian cirrus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ren

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Lagrangian air-parcel cirrus model (LACM, to diagnose the processes controlling water in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. LACM applies parameterised microphysics to air parcel trajectories. The parameterisation includes the homogeneous freezing of aerosol droplets, the growth/sublimation of ice particles, and sedimentation of ice particles, so capturing the main dehydration mechanism for air in the TTL. Rehydration is also considered by resetting the water vapour mixing ratio in an air parcel to the value at the point in the 4-D analysis/forecast data used to generate the trajectories, but only when certain conditions, indicative of convection, are satisfied. These conditions are imposed to confine what processes contribute to rehydration. The conditions act to restrict rehydration of the Lagrangian air parcels to regions where convective transport of water vapour from below is significant, at least to the extent that the analysis/forecast captures this process. The inclusion of hydration and dehydration mechanisms in LACM results in total water fields near tropical convection that have more of the "stripey" character of satellite observations of high cloud, than do either the ECMWF analysis or trajectories without microphysics.

    The mixing ratios of total water in the TTL, measured by a high-altitude aircraft over Brazil (during the TROCCINOX campaign, have been reconstructed by LACM using trajectories generated from ECMWF analysis. Two other Lagrangian reconstructions are also tested: linear interpolation of ECMWF analysed specific humidity onto the aircraft flight track, and instantaneous dehydration to the saturation vapour pressure over ice along trajectories. The reconstructed total water mixing ratios along aircraft flight tracks are compared with observations from the FISH total water hygrometer. Process-oriented analysis shows that modelled cirrus cloud events are responsible for dehydrating the air

  17. Diagnosis of processes controlling water vapour in the tropical tropopause layer by a Lagrangian cirrus model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Ren

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a Lagrangian air-parcel cirrus model (LACM, to diagnose the processes controlling water in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL. LACM applies parameterised microphysics to air parcel trajectories. The parameterisation includes the homogeneous freezing of aerosol droplets, the growth/sublimation of ice particles, and sedimentation of ice particles, so capturing the main dehydration mechanism for air in the TTL. Rehydration is also considered by resetting the water vapour mixing ratio in an air parcel to the value at the point in the 4-D analysis/forecast data used to generate the trajectories, but only when certain conditions, indicative of convection, are satisfied. The conditions act to restrict rehydration of the Lagrangian air parcels to regions where convective transport of water vapour from below is significant, at least to the extent that the analysis/forecast captures this process. The inclusion of hydration and dehydration mechanisms in LACM results in total water fields near tropical convection that have more of the "stripy" character of satellite observations of high cloud, than do either the ECMWF analysis or trajectories without microphysics.

    The mixing ratios of total water in the TTL, measured by a high-altitude aircraft over Brazil (during the TROCCINOX campaign, have been reconstructed by LACM using trajectories generated from ECMWF analysis. Two other Lagrangian reconstructions are also tested: linear interpolation of ECMWF analysed specific humidity onto the aircraft flight track, and instantaneous dehydration to the saturation vapour pressure over ice along trajectories. The reconstructed total water mixing ratios along aircraft flight tracks are compared with observations from the FISH total water hygrometer. Process-oriented analysis shows that modelled cirrus cloud events are responsible for dehydrating the air parcels coming from lower levels, resulting in total water mixing ratios as low as 2

  18. The assessment of water vapour and carbon dioxide fluxes above arable crops - a comparison of methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaaf, S.; Daemmgen, U.; Burkart, S. [Federal Agricultural Research Centre, Inst. of Agroecology, Braunschweig (Germany); Gruenhage, L. [Justus-Liebig-Univ., Inst. for Plant Ecology, Giessen (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    Vertical fluxes of water vapour and carbon dioxide obtained from gradient, eddy covariance (closed and open path systems) and chamber measurements above arable crops were compared with the directly measured energy balance and the harvested net biomass carbon. The gradient and chamber measurements were in the correct order of magnitude, whereas the closed path eddy covariance system showed unacceptably small fluxes. Correction methods based on power spectra analysis yielded increased fluxes. However, the energy balance could not be closed satisfactorily. The application of the open path system proved to be successful. The SVAT model PLATIN which had been adapted to various arable crops was able to depict the components of the energy balance adequately. Net carbon fluxes determined with the corrected closed path data sets, chamber, and SVAT model equal those of the harvested carbon. (orig.)

  19. On the consequences of the energy imbalance for calculating surface conductance to water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Haslwanter, Alois; Hörtnagl, Lukas; Jasoni, Richard L; Fenstermaker, Lynn F; Arnone, John A; Hammerle, Albin

    2009-09-01

    The Penman-Monteith combination equation, which is most frequently used to derive the surface conductance to water vapour (Gs), implicitly assumes the energy balance to be closed. Any energy imbalance (positive or negative) will thus affect the calculated Gs. Using eddy covariance energy flux data from a temperate grassland and a desert shrub ecosystem we explored five possible approaches of closing the energy imbalance and show that calculated Gs may differ considerably between these five approaches depending on the relative magnitudes of sensible and latent heat fluxes, and the magnitude and sign of the energy imbalance. Based on our limited understanding of the nature of the energy imbalance, we tend to favour an approach which preserves the Bowen-ratio and closes the energy balance on a larger time scale.

  20. Soil-water characteristics of Gaomiaozi bentonite by vapour equilibrium technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenjing Sun

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Soil-water characteristics of Gaomiaozi (GMZ Ca-bentonite at high suctions (3–287 MPa are measured by vapour equilibrium technique. The soil-water retention curve (SWRC of samples with the same initial compaction states is obtained in drying and wetting process. At high suctions, the hysteresis behaviour is not obvious in relationship between water content and suction, while the opposite holds between degree of saturation and suction. The suction variation can change its water retention behaviour and void ratio. Moreover, changes of void ratio can bring about changes in degree of saturation. Therefore, the total change in degree of saturation includes changes caused by suction and that by void ratio. In the space of degree of saturation and suction, the SWRC at constant void ratio shifts to the direction of higher suctions with decreasing void ratio. However, the relationship between water content and suction is less affected by changes of void ratio. The degree of saturation decreases approximately linearly with increasing void ratio at a constant suction. Moreover, the slope of the line decreases with increasing suction and they show an approximately linear relationship in semi-logarithmical scale. From this linear relationship, the variation of degree of saturation caused by the change in void ratio can be obtained. Correspondingly, SWRC at a constant void ratio can be determined from SWRC at different void ratios.

  1. Vapour explosions (fuel-coolant interactions) resulting from the sub-surface injection of water into molten metals: preliminary results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary experiments are reported on the relationship between the injection mode of contact and the occurrence and magnitude of vapour explosions. Water was injected beneath the surface of molten metals, chiefly tin at 250 to 9000C. Vapour explosions occurred in many, but not all, cases. The results are compared with Dullforce's observations (Culham Report (CLM-P424) on the dropping mode of contact and it appears that rather different behaviour is found; in particular, the present results suggest that the Temperature Interaction Zone is different for the two modes of contact. (author)

  2. Atmospheric drivers of storage water use in Scots pine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Verbeeck

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study we determined the microclimatic drivers of storage water use in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. growing in a temperate climate. The storage water use was modeled using the ANAFORE model, integrating a dynamic water flow and – storage model with a process-based transpiration model. The model was calibrated and validated with sap flow measurements for the growing season of 2000 (26 May–18 October.

    Because there was no severe soil drought during the study period, we were able to study atmospheric effects. Incoming radiation was the main driver of storage water use. The general trends of sap flow and storage water use are similar, and follow more or less the pattern of incoming radiation. Nevertheless, considerable differences in the day-to-day pattern of sap flow and storage water use were observed, mainly driven by vapour pressure deficit (VPD. During dry atmospheric conditions (high VPD storage water use was reduced. This reduction was disproportionally higher than the reduction in measured sap flow. Our results suggest that the trees did not rely more on storage water during periods of atmospheric drought, without severe soil drought.

    A third important factor was the tree water deficit. When storage compartments were depleted beyond a threshold, storage water use was limited due to the low water potential in the storage compartments. The maximum relative contribution of storage water to daily transpiration was also constrained by an increasing tree water deficit.

  3. CFD simulation of water vapour condensation in the presence of non-condensable gas in vertical cylindrical condensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun-De

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents the simulation of the condensation of water vapour in the presence of non-condensable gas using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for turbulent flows in a vertical cylindrical condenser tube. The simulation accounts for the turbulent flow of the gas mixture, the condenser wall and the turbulent flow of the coolant in the annular channel with no assumptions of constant wall temperature or heat flux. The condensate film is assumed to occupy a negligible volume and its effect on the condensation of the water vapour has been taken into account by imposing a set of boundary conditions. A new strategy is used to overcome the limitation of the currently available commercial CFD package to solve the simultaneous simulation of flows involving multispecies and fluids of gas and liquid in separate channels. The results from the CFD simulations are compared with the experimental results from the literature for the condensation of water vapour with air as the non-condensable gas and for inlet mass fraction of the water vapour from 0.66 to 0.98. The CFD simulation results in general agree well with the directly measured quantities and it is found that the variation of heat flux in the condenser tube is more complex than a simple polynomial curve fit. The CFD results also show that, at least for flows involving high water vapour content, the axial velocity of the gas mixture at the interface between the gas mixture and the condensate film is in general not small and cannot be neglected. PMID:24850953

  4. Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13 retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milz

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B, the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System (AMSOS, the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B, the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH. In the stratosphere there is no clear indication of a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. The results of χ2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes errors due to uncertainties in spectrally interfering species and where good coincidences were found, the χ2 values found are in the expected range or even below. This suggests that there is no evidence of systematically underestimated MIPAS random errors.

  5. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coradini M.

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bonds. The carbon-based molecules were either home made in the atmosphere and/or in submarine hydrothermal systems or delivered by meteorites and micrometeorites. The search for possible places beyond the earth where the trilogy atmosphere/water/life could exist is the main objective of astrobiology. Within the Solar System, exploration missions are dedicated to Mars, Europa, Titan and the icy bodies. The discovery of several hundreds of extrasolar planets opens the quest to the whole Milky Way.

  6. Terrestrial atmosphere, water and astrobiology

    OpenAIRE

    Coradini M.; Brack A.

    2010-01-01

    Primitive life, defined as a chemical system capable to transfer its molecular information via self-replication and also capable to evolve, originated about 4 billion years ago from the processing of organic molecules by liquid water. Terrestrial atmosphere played a key role in the process by allowing the permanent presence of liquid water and by participating in the production of carbon-based molecules. Water molecules exhibit specific properties mainly due to a dense network of hydrogen bon...

  7. The vapour pressure of water as a function of solute concentration above aqueous solutions of fructose, sucrose, raffinose, erythritol, xylitol, and sorbitol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cooke, S.A.; Jonsdottir, Svava Osk; Westh, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The vapour pressure of water above an aqueous solution of sucrose at T = 298.06 K has been measured for 9 sucrose mole fractions up to 0.12. Vapour pressure measurements have also been made on aqueous solutions of meso-erythritol, xylitol, sorbitol, fructose, and raffinose at T = 317.99 K. The ex...

  8. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of SnSe and SnSe{sub 2} thin films on glass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscher, Nicolas D.; Carmalt, Claire J.; Palgrave, Robert G. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom); Parkin, Ivan P. [Department of Chemistry, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London, WC1H OAJ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: i.p.parkin@ucl.ac.uk

    2008-06-02

    Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of tin monoselenide and tin diselenide films on glass substrate was achieved by reaction of diethyl selenide with tin tetrachloride at 350-650 {sup o}C. X-ray diffraction showed that all the films were crystalline and matched the reported pattern for SnSe and/or SnSe{sub 2}. Wavelength dispersive analysis by X-rays show a variable Sn:Se ratio from 1:1 to 1:2 depending on conditions. The deposition temperature, flow rates and position on the substrate determined whether mixed SnSe-SnSe{sub 2}, pure SnSe or pure SnSe{sub 2} thin films could be obtained. SnSe films were obtained at 650 {sup o}C with a SnCl{sub 4} to Et{sub 2}Se ratio greater than 10. The SnSe films were silver-black in appearance and adhesive. SnSe{sub 2} films were obtained at 600-650 {sup o}C they had a black appearance and were composed of 10 to 80 {mu}m sized adherent crystals. Films of SnSe only 100 nm thick showed complete absorbtion at 300-1100 nm.

  9. Observations of precipitable water vapour over complex topography of Ethiopia from ground-based GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Mengistu Tsidu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The

  10. Observations of precipitable water vapour over complex topography of Ethiopia from ground-based GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.

    2014-09-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important green house gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a green house gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks in general circulation models. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on regular and continuous basis is becoming possible as a result of increase in the number of deployed Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers at a faster pace. However, Horn of Africa region remains a data void region in this regard until recently when some GPS ground-receiver stations have been deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim over Ethiopia. The PWVs from the three instruments and reanalysis show good correlation in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. The radiosonde PWV shows dry bias with respect to other observations and reanalysis. ERA-Interim PWV shows wet bias with respect to all while GPS PWV exhibits wet bias with respect to FTIR. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim is extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Despite the sensitivity of GPS PWV to uncertainty in surface pressure in general, observed surface pressure is used only at four GPS stations. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. In contrast to comparison at Addis Ababa, the comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWVs over seven other GPS stations shows difference in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This variation is also visible across different seasons. The main cause of the

  11. Water vapour emission in vegetable fuel: absorption cell measurements and detection limits of our CO II Dial system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellecci, C.; De Leo, L.; Gaudio, P.; Gelfusa, M.; Lo Feudo, T.; Martellucci, S.; Richetta, M.

    2006-09-01

    Forest fires can be the cause of serious environmental and economic damages. For this reason a considerable effort has been directed toward the forest protection and fire fighting. In the early forest fire detection, Lidar technique present considerable advantages compared to the passive detection methods based on infrared cameras currently in common use, due its higher sensitivity and ability to accurately locate the fire. The combustion phase of the vegetable matter causes a great amount of water vapour emission, thus the water molecule behaviour will be studied to obtain a fire detection system ready and efficient also before the flame propagation. A first evaluation of increment of the water vapour concentration compared to standard one will be estimated by a numerical simulation. These results will be compared with the experimental measurements carried out into a cell with a CO II Dial system, burning different kinds of vegetable fuel. Our results and their comparison will be reported in this paper.

  12. Thermodynamics of the ternary systems: (water + glycine, L-alanine and L-serine + di-ammonium hydrogen citrate) from volumetric, compressibility, and (vapour + liquid) equilibria measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat, E-mail: rahsadeghi@yahoo.co [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Gholamireza, Afsaneh [Department of Chemistry, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    The apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibility of glycine, L-alanine and L-serine in water and in aqueous solutions of (0.500 and 1.00) mol . kg{sup -1} di-ammonium hydrogen citrate {l_brace}(NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} and those of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit in water have been obtained over the (288.15 to 313.15) K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from measurements of density and ultrasonic velocity. The apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values at infinite dilution of the investigated amino acids have been obtained and their variations with temperature and their transfer properties from water to aqueous solutions of (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit have also been obtained. The results have been interpreted in terms of the hydration of the amino acids. In the second part of this work, water activity measurements by the isopiestic method have been carried out on the aqueous solutions of {l_brace}glycine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, {l_brace}alanine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace}, and {l_brace}serine + (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HCit{r_brace} at T = 298.15 K at atmospheric pressure. From these measurements, values of vapour pressure, osmotic coefficient, activity coefficient and Gibbs free energy were obtained. The effect of the type of amino acids on the (vapour + liquid) equilibrium of the systems investigated has been studied. The experimental water activities have been correlated successfully with the segment-based local composition Wilson model. Furthermore, the thermodynamic behaviour of the ternary solutions investigated has been studied by using the semi-ideal hydration model and the linear concentration relations have been tested by comparing with the isopiestic measurements for the studied systems at T = 298.15 K.

  13. Remote plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition of silicon nitride at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silicon nitride films were deposited using an atmospheric pressure plasma source. The discharge was produced by flowing nitrogen and helium through two perforated metal electrodes that were driven by 13.56 MHz radio frequency power. Deposition occurred by mixing the plasma effluent with silane and directing the flow onto a rotating silicon wafer heated to between 100 deg. C and 500 deg. C. Film growth rates ranged from 90±10 to 1300±130 A min-1. Varying the N2/SiH4 feed ratio from 55.0 to 5.5 caused the film stoichiometry to shift from SiN1.45 to SiN1.2. Minimum impurity concentrations of 0.04% carbon, 3.6% oxygen and 13.6% hydrogen were achieved at 500 deg. C, and an N2/SiH4 feed ratio of 22.0. The growth rate increased with increasing silane and nitrogen partial pressures, but was invariant with respect to substrate temperature and rotational speed. The deposition rate also decreased sharply with distance from the plasma. These results combined with emission spectra taken of the afterglow suggest that gas-phase reactions between nitrogen atoms and silane play an important role in this process

  14. Surface thermodynamics of planar, cylindrical, and spherical vapour-liquid interfaces of water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Gabriel V.; Müller, Erich A.; Jackson, George [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Ford, Ian J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy and London Centre for Nanotechnology, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Hunt, Patricia A. [Department of Chemistry, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-21

    The test-area (TA) perturbation approach has been gaining popularity as a methodology for the direct computation of the interfacial tension in molecular simulation. Though originally implemented for planar interfaces, the TA approach has also been used to analyze the interfacial properties of curved liquid interfaces. Here, we provide an interpretation of the TA method taking the view that it corresponds to the change in free energy under a transformation of the spatial metric for an affine distortion. By expressing the change in configurational energy of a molecular configuration as a Taylor expansion in the distortion parameter, compact relations are derived for the interfacial tension and its energetic and entropic components for three different geometries: planar, cylindrical, and spherical fluid interfaces. While the tensions of the planar and cylindrical geometries are characterized by first-order changes in the energy, that of the spherical interface depends on second-order contributions. We show that a greater statistical uncertainty is to be expected when calculating the thermodynamic properties of a spherical interface than for the planar and cylindrical cases, and the evaluation of the separate entropic and energetic contributions poses a greater computational challenge than the tension itself. The methodology is employed to determine the vapour-liquid interfacial tension of TIP4P/2005 water at 293 K by molecular dynamics simulation for planar, cylindrical, and spherical geometries. A weak peak in the curvature dependence of the tension is observed in the case of cylindrical threads of condensed liquid at a radius of about 8 Å, below which the tension is found to decrease again. In the case of spherical drops, a marked decrease in the tension from the planar limit is found for radii below ∼ 15 Å; there is no indication of a maximum in the tension with increasing curvature. The vapour-liquid interfacial tension tends towards the planar limit for large

  15. A lidar for water vapour measurements in daytime at Lampedusa, Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Marenco

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available ENEA is planning to develop a lidar system for measurement of the vertical profi le of water vapour mixing ratio in daytime at a remote site, the Station for Climate Observations located in Lampedusa, Italy. The Raman lidar technique has been retained because of its experimental simplicity with respect to DIAL, and the UV spectral range has been chosen because Raman cross-sections and detector effi ciencies are larger. For a wavelength larger than ~ 300 nm the signal is limited in daytime by sky background, but extinction is acceptable, and the aims of the system can be reached with a strong laser source. The 355 nm wavelength of a frequency-tripled Nd:YAG laser has been retained as this laser source permits to reach a large pulse energy while keeping the system simple to operate. Geometrical form factor calculations need to be performed to evaluate the near-range overlap between the laser beam and the fi eld-of-view of the receiver. Among several options, a dual-receiver system has been retained to account for the several orders of magnitude expected in the backscattered signal intensity: a smaller receiver, with a primary mirror of 200 mm diameter for the 0.2-1 km range, and a larger 500 mm receiver for the 1-3 km range.

  16. Water vapour and the equatorial mesospheric semi-annual oscillation (MSAO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. L. Gattinger

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Observations of the mesospheric semi-annual oscillation (MSAO in the equatorial region have been reported dating back several decades. Seasonal variations in both species densities and airglow emissions are well documented. The extensive observations available offer an excellent case study for comparison with model simulations. The broad range of measurements is summarised with emphasis on the 80 to 100 km region. Photochemical model simulations are described for near-equinox and near-solstice conditions, the two times with notable differences in the observed MSAO parameters. Diurnal tides are included in order to facilitate comparisons of observations made at different local times. The roles of water vapour as the "driver" species and ozone as the "response" species are examined to test for consistency between the model results and observations. The model simulations suggest the interactions between eddy mixing and background vertical advection play a significant role in the MSAO phenomenon. At the equator, 90 km altitude, the derived eddy mixing rate is approximately 1 × 106 cm2 s−1 and vertical advection 0.8 cm s−1. For April the corresponding values are 4 × 105 cm2 s−1 and 0.1 cm s−1.

  17. On the inclusion of GPS precipitable water vapour in the nowcasting of rainfall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Benevides

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The temporal behaviour of Precipitable Water Vapour (PWV retrieved from GPS delay data is analysed in a number of case studies of intense precipitation in the Lisbon area, in the period 2010–2012, and in a continuous annual cycle of 2012 observations. Such behaviour is found to correlate positively with the probability of precipitation, especially in cases of severe rainfall. The evolution of the GPS PWV in a few stations is analysed by a least-squares fitting of a broken line tendency, made by a temporal sequence of ascents and descents over the data. It is found that most severe rainfall event occurs in descending trends after a long ascending period, and that the most intense events occur after steep ascents in PWV. A simple algorithm, forecasting rain in the 6 h after a steep ascent of the GPS PWV in a single station is found to produce reasonable forecasts of the occurrence of precipitation in the nearby region, without significant misses in what concerns larger rain events, but with a substantial amount of false alarms. It is suggested that this method could be improved by the analysis of 2-D or 3-D time varying GPS PWV fields, or by its joint use with other meteorological data relevant to nowcast precipitation.

  18. On the inclusion of GPS precipitable water vapour in the nowcasting of rainfall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevides, P.; Catalao, J.; Miranda, P. M. A.

    2015-12-01

    The temporal behaviour of precipitable water vapour (PWV) retrieved from GPS delay data is analysed in a number of case studies of intense precipitation in the Lisbon area, in the period 2010-2012 and in a continuous annual cycle of 2012 observations. Such behaviour is found to correlate positively with the probability of precipitation, especially in cases of severe rainfall. The evolution of the GPS PWV in a few stations is analysed by a least-squares fitting of a broken line tendency, made by a temporal sequence of ascents and descents over the data. It is found that most severe rainfall events occur in descending trends after a long ascending period and that the most intense events occur after steep ascents in PWV. A simple algorithm, forecasting rain in the 6 h after a steep ascent of the GPS PWV in a single station, is found to produce reasonable forecasts of the occurrence of precipitation in the nearby region, without significant misses in what concerns larger rain events, but with a substantial amount of false alarms. It is suggested that this method could be improved by the analysis of 2-D or 3-D time-varying GPS PWV fields or by its joint use with other meteorological data relevant to nowcast precipitation.

  19. RDF gasification with water vapour: influence of process temperature on yield and products composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The opportunity of using RDF (Refused Derived Fuel) to produce fuel gas seems to be promising and particular attention has been focused on alternative process technologies such as pyrolysis and gasification. Within this frame, present work relates to experimental tests and obtained results of a series of experimental surveys on RDF gasification with water vapour, carried out by means of a bench scale rotary kiln plant at different process temperature, using thermogravimetry (TG) and infrared spectrometry (FTIR), in order to characterize the incoming material, and online gas chromatography to qualify the gaseous stream. Experimental data show that gas yield rise with temperature and, with respect to the gas composition, hydrogen content grows up mainly at the expense of the other gaseous compound, pointing out the major extension of secondary cracking reactions into the gaseous fraction at higher temperature. Syngas obtained at process temperature of 950oC or higher seems to be suitable for fuel cells applications; at lower process temperature, gas composition suggest a final utilisation for feedstock recycling. The low organic content of solid residue does not suggest any other exploitation of the char apart from the land filling

  20. Penetration of tritium (as tritiated water vapour) into low carbon steel and remediation using abrasive cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The UKAEA Winfrith site is in a phase of accelerated decommissioning and de-licensing which will generate significant volumes of metal wastes some of which may be suitable for disposal as exempt wastes. If contamination is present, it is often confined within the surface layers of the metal. The UKAEA Winfrith site operates a shot-blast facility (WACM) that removes paint and surface contamination from low carbon steel enabling surface contaminated painted metal to be processed and therefore certified as exempt. A study was conducted to determine whether tritium (as tritiated water vapour) has penetrated into the metal to levels exceeding the Radioactive Substances Act (1993), Substances of Low Activity (SoLA) Exemption Order criteria, and whether processing via the WACM removes sufficient tritium contamination that the SoLA Exemption Order criteria can be met. The results of sampling and analysis show that the tritium is mainly held in the paint or outer 40 μm layer of the metal and that processing through the WACM removes these layers along with sufficient tritium to meet the SoLA Exemption Order criteria

  1. Profiling tropospheric water vapour with a coherent infrared differential absorption lidar: a sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Philippe; Ishii, Shoken; Mizutani, Kohei; Itabe, Toshikazu; Yasui, Motoaki

    2012-11-01

    In the last decade the precision of coherent Doppler differential absorption lidar (DIAL) has been greatly improved in near and middle infra-red domains for measuring greenhouse gases such as CO2, CH4 and winds. The National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) has developed and is operating a CO2 and wind measuring ground-based coherent DIAL at 2.05 μm (4878 cm-1). The application of this technology from space is now considered. In this analysis we study the use of the NICT DIAL for profiling tropospheric water vapour from space. We present the methodology to select the spectral lines and summarized the results of the selected lines between 4000 and 7000 cm-1. The choice of the frequency offset, the pulse energy and repetition frequency are discussed. Retrieval simulations from the line at 4580 cm-1 (2.18 μm) suitable for the boundary layer and the stronger one at 5621 cm-1 (1.78 μm) for sounding the boundary layer and the middle troposphere, are shown.

  2. SIGNAL : Water vapour flux variability and local wind field investigations within five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markwitz, Christian; Siebicke, Lukas; Knohl, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Optimising soil water uptake and ground water consumption in mono-specific agricultural systems plays an important role for sustainable land management. By including tree alleys into the agricultural landscape, called agroforestry (AF), the wind flow is modified leading to a presumably favourable microclimate behind the tree alleys. We expect that this zone is characterized by increased air temperature and atmospheric water vapour content, compared to mono-specific fields. This would extend the growing season and increase the yield production behind the tree alleys. Within the SIGNAL (Sustainable Intensification of Agriculture through Agroforestry) project the evapotranspiration (ET) variability and the local wind field of agroforestry sites compared to mono-specific agricultural systems is investigated. Our study is based on the comparison of five differently managed agroforestry sites across Germany. All site feature one agroforestry plot and one reference plot, which represents a mono-specific cropped system. Each plot is equipped with an eddy-covariance tower, including a high frequency 3D SONIC anemometer and instruments gathering standard meteorological parameter as pressure, temperature, relative humidity, precipitation, ground heat flux, net- and global radiation. The Surface Energy Budget (SEB) method will be used to calculate evapotranspiration QE as QE = - QN - QH - QG - Res by measuring the sensible heat flux, QH, with the eddy covariance method, the radiation balance, QN and the ground heat flux, QG. QH and QN will be measured continuously long-term. We will quantify site specific energy balance non-closure, Res, by temporarily measuring QE, using eddy covariance and a roving tower and then solving the SEB equation for Res. The short term Res will be used to then continuously derive QE from the SEB method. We will compare measured evapotranspiration rates from the SEB method to modelled evapotranspiration of the agroforestry systems through upscaling

  3. Separation of CO2 from CH4 and CO2 capture in the presence of water vapour in NOTT-400

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    From a binary equimolar gas-mixture of CO2 and CH4, NOTT-400 shows CO2 separation from CH4. By kinetic uptake experiments, this material confirms a maximum of 4.3 wt% CO2 capture at 30 C and a significant 2-fold increase (∼9.3 wt%) in CO2 capture under 40% relative humidity of water vapour. (authors)

  4. Feasibility of using ammonia-water mixture in high temperature concentrated solar power plants with direct vapour generation

    OpenAIRE

    Modi, Anish; Knudsen, Thomas; HAGLIND, Fredrik; Clausen, Lasse Røngaard

    2014-01-01

    Concentrated solar power plants have attracted an increasing interest in the past few years – both with respect to the design of various plant components, and extending the operation hours by employing different types of storage systems. One approach to improve the overall plant performance is to use direct vapour generation with water/steam as both the heat transfer fluid in the solar receivers and the cycle working fluid. This enables to operate the plant with higher turbine inlet temperatu...

  5. Pressure-dependent water absorption cross sections for exoplanets and other atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Barton, Emma J; Yurchenko, Sergei N; Tennyson, Jonathan; Dudaryonok, Anna S; Lavrentieva, Nina N

    2016-01-01

    Many atmospheres (cool stars, brown dwarfs, giant planets, extrasolar planets) are predominately composed of molecular hydrogen and helium. H$_2{}^{16}$O is one of the best measured molecules in extrasolar planetary atmospheres to date and a major compound in the atmospheres of brown-dwarfs and oxygen-rich cool stars, yet the scope of experimental and theoretical studies on the pressure broadening of water vapour lines by collision with hydrogen and helium remains limited. Theoretical H$_2$- and He-broadening parameters of water vapour lines (rotational quantum number $J$ up to 50) are obtained for temperatures in the range 300 - 2000 K. Two approaches for calculation of line widths were used: (i) the averaged energy difference method and (ii) the empirical expression for $J$\\p $J$\\pp-dependence. Voigt profiles based on these widths and the BT2 line list are used to generate high resolution ($\\Delta \\tilde{\

  6. Column water vapour: An intertechnique comparison of estimation methods in Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keernik, Hannes; Ohvril, Hanno; Rannat, Kalev; Jakobson, Erko; Luhamaa, Andres

    2013-04-01

    Despite of different estimation techniques for integrated column water vapour (precipitable water, PW, W), no method is identified as the most accurate or reference method. In this work we report intercomparisons, by assessing the reliability, linear fits, correlations and biases, between four W estimation methods - radiosonde, AERONET, GPS and HIRLAM. Two intensive observational periods at Tõravere, Estonia, were used: (1) 9-12 August 2010, and (2) 22 June - 7 November 2008. For the first, short campaign, data obtained with all four methods were available. During the campaign, 17 GRAW DFM-06 (Germany) sondes were launched. Average differences between W , from radiosonde, as a traditional instrument, and other three methods were smaller than 5%. HIRLAM produced the lowest W estimates of the four methods. Considering the second, longer campaign, only observations by GPS, AERONET and HIRLAM were conducted (GPS-registered W ranged from 4.3 to 42.8 mm). By analyzing more than 1000 concurrent observations, a good agreement among all three methods was established: W (GPS) was 1% higher than W (HIRLAM) and 3% higher than W (AERONET), W (HIRLAM) was 2% higher than W (AERONET). The comparison indicates that correlations between different techniques were high, with coefficient of determination (R2) above 0.86 in all cases. However, compared to HIRLAM and GPS, AERONET overestimated W by 5-9% at W 25 mm. Relatively low temporal and spatial resolution of the HIRLAM grid caused higher scatter from other methods. The study suggests that besides radiosonde, as a traditional meteorological tool, the most reliable W estimation is by GPS.

  7. Effect of Water Vapour on the Acidity of ZSM-5Zeolite Used for Catalytic Cracking of Naphtha to Manufacture Ethylene and Propylene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ma Guangwei; Xiao Jingxian; ZhangHuining; Xie Zaiku

    2008-01-01

    The change in acidity of the ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated after it was treated with water vapour,and its capability on ammonia adsorption was also studied after having adsorbed water vapour.The effect of water vapour on products distribution was studied during catalytic cracking of naphtha,the changes in the adsorption ability and catalytic performance of the ZSM-5 zeolite was investigated after the catalyst was loaded with phosphorus species.These results all indicated that water vapour could reduce the acid strength and acid density of ZSM-5 zeolite and affect the capability of ZSM-5 on adsorption of gases,therefore the activated energy contributed by the ZSM-5 zeolite to the catalytic cracking reaction would be low to prevent the feedstock from deepened catalytic cracking and coke formation.

  8. From GNSS and meteorological data to NRT 4D water vapour distribution - GNSS meteorology activities at WUELS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosy, Jaroslaw; Kaplon, Jan; Rohm, Witold; Sierny, Jan; Wilgan, Karina; Hadas, Tomasz; Hordyniec, Pawel

    2014-05-01

    The GNSS and Meteo group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS), Poland is continuously working on GNSS meteorology since 2010. Currently group maintain real-time (RT) service collecting GNSS and meteorological data and near real-time (NRT) services for estimation of Zenith Troposphere Delay (ZTD), Zenith Hydrostatic Delay (ZHD), Integrated Water Vapour (IWV) and GNSS tomography over the territory of Poland. Data are obtained with high resolution from EUREF Permanent Network (EPN) stations and Ground Base Augmentation System (GBAS) called ASG-EUPOS (www.asgeupos.pl). The GNSS data are available from 124 reference stations located in Poland and neighbour countries, with the average 70km distance between stations. The ground meteorological observations in the area of Poland and neighbour countries are available from: ASG-EUPOS stations included in EUREF Permanent Network (EPN), airport meteorological stations (METAR messages stations) and stations managed by national Institute of Meteorology and Water Management (SYNOP messages stations). The first part of the paper presents the methodology of ASG-EUPOS GNSS data processing for NRT ZTD and ZTD horizontal gradients estimation in double-differenced mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.0) as well as new results from PPP mode (under Bernese GNSS Software V5.2) and their validation with respect to Rapid and Final troposphere products. The second part is describing the quality assessment of meteorological parameters interpolation methods for determination of ZHD at GNSS sites performed on GNSS stations equipped with meteorological sensors. The third part concerns on the comparisons of ZTD from GNSS data and meteorological parameters from SYNOP stations with data from COAMPS numerical weather prediction system (NWP) and IWV calculation. The fourth part presents the development of GNSS tomography model TOMO2. The last part describes methods of above products validation and visualization over the

  9. Evaluation of water vapour assimilation in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere by a chemical transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payra, Swagata; Ricaud, Philippe; Abida, Rachid; El Amraoui, Laaziz; Attié, Jean-Luc; Rivière, Emmanuel; Carminati, Fabien; von Clarmann, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    The present analysis deals with one of the most debated aspects of the studies on the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere (UTLS), namely the budget of water vapour (H2O) at the tropical tropopause. Within the French project "Multiscale water budget in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the TROpics" (TRO-pico), a global-scale analysis has been set up based on space-borne observations, models and assimilation techniques. The MOCAGE-VALENTINA assimilation tool has been used to assimilate the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 3.3 H2O measurements within the 316-5 hPa range from August 2011 to March 2013 with an assimilation window of 1 h. Diagnostics based on observations minus analysis and forecast are developed to assess the quality of the assimilated H2O fields. Comparison with an independent source of H2O measurements in the UTLS based on the space-borne Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS) observations and with meteorological ARPEGE analyses is also shown. Sensitivity studies of the analysed fields have been performed by (1) considering periods when no MLS measurements are available and (2) using H2O data from another MLS version (4.2). The studies have been performed within three different spaces in time and space coincidences with MLS (hereafter referred to as MLS space) and MIPAS (MIPAS space) observations and with the model (model space) outputs and at three different levels: 121 hPa (upper troposphere), 100 hPa (tropopause) and 68 hPa (lower stratosphere) in January and February 2012. In the MLS space, the analyses behave consistently with the MLS observations from the upper troposphere to the lower stratosphere. In the model space, the analyses are wetter than the reference atmosphere as represented by ARPEGE and MLS in the upper troposphere (121 hPa) and around the tropopause (100 hPa), but are consistent with MLS and MIPAS in the lower stratosphere (68 hPa). In the MIPAS space, the sensitivity and the

  10. Water vapour {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O isotope ratio in surface air in New England, USA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xuhui Lee [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). School of Forestry and Environmental Studies; Smith, Ronald; Williams, John [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States). Dept. of Geology and Geophysics

    2006-09-15

    In this paper, we report the results of the analysis of two high-resolution time-series of water vapour {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O ratio {delta}{sub v} in surface air observed in Connecticut, USA. On an annual time-scale, {delta}{sub v} is a linear function of ln w, where w is water vapour mixing ratio, and is approximated by a Rayleigh distillation model with partial (80%) rainout. On time scales a few days, {delta}{sub v} shows considerable variations, often exceeding 20 per mil, and is higher in the wetting phase than in the drying phase of a weather cycle. In precipitation events, the vapour in the surface layer is in general brought to state of equilibrium with falling raindrops but not with snowflakes. On a diurnal time-scale, a peak-to-peak variation of 1-2 per mil is observed at a coastal site. At an interior site, evidence of a diurnal pattern is present only on days of low humidity. Our results suggest that the intercept parameter of the Keeling plot is an ambiguous quantity and should not be interpreted as being equivalent to the isotopic signature of evapotranspiration.

  11. The impact of temperature resolution on trajectory modeling of stratospheric water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, T.; Dessler, A. E.; Schoeberl, M. R.; Randel, W. J.; Kim, J.-E.

    2014-11-01

    Lagrangian trajectories driven by reanalysis meteorological fields are frequently used to study water vapour (H2O) in the stratosphere, in which the tropical cold-point temperatures regulate H2O amount entering the stratosphere. Therefore, the accuracy of temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL) is of great importance for trajectory studies. Currently, most reanalyses, such as the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications), only provide temperatures with ~1.2 km vertical resolution in the TTL, which has been argued to introduce uncertainties in the simulations. In this paper, we quantify this uncertainty by comparing the trajectory results using MERRA temperatures on model levels (traj.MER-T) to those using temperatures in finite resolutions, including GPS temperatures (traj.GPS-T) and MERRA temperatures adjusted to recover wave-induced variability underrepresented by the current ~1.2 km vertical resolution (traj.MER-Twave). Comparing with traj.MER-T, traj.GPS-T has little impact on simulated stratospheric H2O (changes ~0.1 ppmv), whereas traj.MER-Twave tends to dry air by 0.2-0.3 ppmv. The bimodal dehydration peaks in traj.MER-T due to limited vertical resolution disappear in traj.GPS-T and traj.MER-Twave by allowing the cold-point tropopause to be found at finer vertical levels. Despite these differences in absolute values of predicted H2O and vertical dehydration patterns, there is virtually no difference in the interannual variability in different runs. Overall, we find that the finite resolution of temperature has limited impact on predicted H2O in the trajectory model.

  12. The impact of temperature resolution on trajectory modeling of stratospheric water vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Wang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lagrangian trajectories driven by reanalysis meteorological fields are frequently used to study water vapour (H2O in the stratosphere, in which the tropical cold-point temperatures regulate H2O amount entering the stratosphere. Therefore, the accuracy of temperatures in the tropical tropopause layer (TTL is of great importance for trajectory studies. Currently, most reanalyses, such as the NASA MERRA (Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications, only provide temperatures with ~1.2 km vertical resolution in the TTL, which has been argued to introduce uncertainties in the simulations. In this paper, we quantify this uncertainty by comparing the trajectory results using MERRA temperatures on model levels (traj.MER-T to those using temperatures in finite resolutions, including GPS temperatures (traj.GPS-T and MERRA temperatures adjusted to recover wave-induced variability underrepresented by the current ~1.2 km vertical resolution (traj.MER-Twave. Comparing with traj.MER-T, traj.GPS-T has little impact on simulated stratospheric H2O (changes ~0.1 ppmv, whereas traj.MER-Twave tends to dry air by 0.2–0.3 ppmv. The bimodal dehydration peaks in traj.MER-T due to limited vertical resolution disappear in traj.GPS-T and traj.MER-Twave by allowing the cold-point tropopause to be found at finer vertical levels. Despite these differences in absolute values of predicted H2O and vertical dehydration patterns, there is virtually no difference in the interannual variability in different runs. Overall, we find that the finite resolution of temperature has limited impact on predicted H2O in the trajectory model.

  13. A study of the crystallisation of amorphous salbutamol sulphate using water vapour sorption and near infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbano, Angela; Buckton, Graham; Wikeley, Philip

    2002-04-26

    The crystallisation of amorphous salbutamol sulphate prepared by spray drying was monitored using a humidity controlled microbalance (Dynamic Vapour Sorption apparatus, Surface Measurement Systems) combined with a near-infrared probe. Amorphous salbutamol sulphate was prepared by spray drying from a solution in water. The particles were then analysed using scanning electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, isothermal microcalorimetry and water vapour sorption analysis combined with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Isothermal microcalorimetry and water vapour sorption combined with NIR spectroscopy were able to detect the transition from the amorphous to crystalline state. However while the isothermal microcalorimeter showed only a classic crystallisation exotherm when the material was exposed at 75% RH, the DVS-NIR results at the same humidity highlighted a more complex process. When exposed at 75% RH, the uptake of water was followed by crystallisation that was detected using NIR. The expulsion of water after crystallisation was very slow and at a constant rate whether the material was exposed to 75 or 0% RH. The NIR and DVS studies indicated that the material had crystallised very soon after exposure to high RH. The water that was expelled during crystallisation was not displaced from the particles and remained associated with the particles for many days. This study showed that the use of gravimetric analysis together with NIR spectroscopy provided valuable information on the dynamics of the crystallisation of salbutamol sulphate. The retention of water within recently crystallised salbutamol is potentially important to the behaviour of dosage forms containing the amorphous (or partially amorphous) form of this drug.

  14. The 1997 El Niño impact on clouds, water vapour, aerosols and reactive trace gases in the troposphere, as measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Loyola

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The El Niño event of 1997/1998 caused dry conditions over the Indonesian area that were followed by large scale forest and savannah fires over Kalimantan, Sumatra, Java, and parts of Irian Jaya. Biomass burning was most intense between August and October 1997, and large amounts of ozone precursors, such as nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons were emitted into the atmosphere. In this work, we use satellite measurements from the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment (GOME sensor to study the teleconnections between the El Niño event of 1997 and the Indonesian fires, clouds, water vapour, aerosols and reactive trace gases (nitrogen dioxide, formaldehyde and ozone in the troposphere.

  15. Partitioning understory evapotranspiration in semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia using the isotopic composition of water vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Blécourt, Marleen; Gaj, Marcel; Holtorf, Kim-Kirsten; Gröngröft, Alexander; Brokate, Ralph; Himmelsbach, Thomas; Eschenbach, Annette

    2016-04-01

    In dry environments with a sparse vegetation cover, understory evapotranspiration is a major component of the ecosystem water balance. Consequently, knowledge on the size of evapotranspiration fluxes and the driving factors is important for our understanding of the hydrological cycle. Understory evapotranspiration is made up of soil evaporation and plant transpiration. Soil evaporation can be measured directly from patches free of vegetation. However, when understory vegetation is present distinguishing between soil evaporation and plant transpiration is challenging. In this study, we aim to partition understory evapotranspiration based on an approach that combines the measurements of water-vapour fluxes using the closed chamber method with measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour. The measurements were done in the framework of SASSCAL (Southern African Science Service Centre for Climate Change and Adaptive Land Management). The study sites were located in three different semi-arid ecosystems in Namibia: thornbush savanna, Baikiaea woodland and shrubland. At each site measurements were done under tree canopies as well as at unshaded areas between the canopies. We measured evaporation from the bare soil and evapotranspiration from patches covered with herbaceous species and shrubs using a transparent chamber connected with an infrared gas analyser (LI-8100A, LICOR Inc.). The stable isotope composition of water vapour inside the chamber and depth profiles of soil water stable isotopes were determined in-situ using a tuneable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscope (OA-ICOS, Los Gatos Research, DLT 100). Xylem samples were extracted using the cryogenic vacuum extraction method and the isotopic composition of the extracted water was measured subsequently with a cavity-ring-down spectrometer (CRDS L2120-i, Picarro Inc.). We will present the quantified fluxes of understory evapotranspiration measured in the three different ecosystems, show the

  16. Atmospheric rivers: a mini-review

    OpenAIRE

    Luis eGimeno; Raquel eNieto; Marta eVázquez; Lavers, David A.

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are narrow regions responsible for the majority of the poleward water vapour transport across the midlatitudes. They are characterized by high water vapour content and strong low level winds, and form a part of the broader warm conveyor belt of extratropical cyclones. Although the meridional water vapour transport within ARs is critical for water resources, ARs can also cause disastrous floods especially when encountering mountainous terrain. They were labelled as atm...

  17. Evaluation of Trichloroethylene vapour fluxes using measurements at the soil-air interface and in the atmosphere close to the soil surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotel, Solenn; Nagel, Vincent; Schäfer, Gerhard; Marzougui, Salsabil; Razakarisoa, Olivier; Millet, Maurice

    2013-04-01

    Industrialization during the 19th and 20th century led to the use of chemical products such as chlorinated solvents, e.g., trichloroethylene (TCE). At locations where volatile organic compounds were accidentally spilled on the soil during transport or leaked from their storage places, they could have migrated vertically through the unsaturated zone towards the underlying groundwater. As a result of their high volatility a large vapour plume is consequently formed. Understanding when, at which concentrations and how long, these pollutants will be present in soil, groundwater, atmosphere or indoor air, still remains a challenge up to date. This study was conducted as part of a broader experiment of TCE multiphase mass transfer in a large (25m×12m×3m) well-instrumented artificial basin. TCE was injected as liquid phase in the vadose zone and experiments were conducted during several months. Firstly, TCE vapour fluxes were experimentally determined in two different ways: (a) direct measurements at the soil-air interface using a flux chamber and (b) evaluations based on measurements of TCE concentrations in the air above the soil surface using a modular experimental flume (5m×1m×1m) with a fixed air flow. Secondly, numerical simulations were conducted to analyse the differences between these two types of fluxes. Several positions of the flume on the soil surface were tested. Based on the TCE concentrations measured in the air, vapour fluxes were determined with the aerodynamic method using the modified Thornthwaite-Holzmann equation. It assumes that the concentrations and velocities are temporally and spatially constant in horizontal planes and requires data on the gradients of concentration, horizontal wind velocity and temperature. TCE vapour fluxes measured at the soil-air interface decrease with distance from the source zone. However, this decrease was either high, at the first stage of experiment (120μg/(m2s) near the source zone compared to 1,1μg/(m2s) 2m

  18. The Effect of Climate Change on Ozone Depletion through Changes in Stratospheric Water Vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk-Davidoff, Daniel B.; Hintsa, Eric J.; Anderson, James G.; Keith, David W.

    1999-01-01

    Several studies have predicted substantial increases in Arctic ozone depletion due to the stratospheric cooling induced by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. But climate change may additionally influence Arctic ozone depletion through changes in the water vapor cycle. Here we investigate this possibility by combining predictions of tropical tropopause temperatures from a general circulation model with results from a one-dimensional radiative convective model, recent progress in understanding the stratospheric water vapor budget, modelling of heterogeneous reaction rates and the results of a general circulation model on the radiative effect of increased water vapor. Whereas most of the stratosphere will cool as greenhouse-gas concentrations increase, the tropical tropopause may become warmer, resulting in an increase of the mean saturation mixing ratio of water vapor and hence an increased transport of water vapor from the troposphere to the stratosphere. Stratospheric water vapor concentration in the polar regions determines both the critical temperature below which heterogeneous reactions on cold aerosols become important (the mechanism driving enhanced ozone depletion) and the temperature of the Arctic vortex itself. Our results indicate that ozone loss in the later winter and spring Arctic vortex depends critically on water vapor variations which are forced by sea surface temperature changes in the tropics. This potentially important effect has not been taken into account in previous scenarios of Arctic ozone loss under climate change conditions.

  19. Validation of water vapour profiles (version 13 retrieved by the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor based on full resolution spectra measured by MIPAS on board Envisat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Milz

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Vertical profiles of stratospheric water vapour measured by the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding (MIPAS with the full resolution mode between September 2002 and March 2004 and retrieved with the IMK/IAA scientific retrieval processor were compared to a number of independent measurements in order to estimate the bias and to validate the existing precision estimates of the MIPAS data. The estimated precision for MIPAS is 5 to 10% in the stratosphere, depending on altitude, latitude, and season. The independent instruments were: the Halogen Occultation Experiment (HALOE, the Atmospheric Chemistry Experiment Fourier Transform Spectrometer (ACE-FTS, the Improved Limb Atmospheric Spectrometer-II (ILAS-II, the Polar Ozone and Aerosol Measurement (POAM III instrument, the Middle Atmospheric Water Vapour Radiometer (MIAWARA, the Michelson Interferometer for Passive Atmospheric Sounding, balloon-borne version (MIPAS-B, the Airborne Microwave Stratospheric Observing System (AMSOS, the Fluorescent Stratospheric Hygrometer for Balloon (FLASH-B, the NOAA frostpoint hygrometer, and the Fast In Situ Hygrometer (FISH. For the in-situ measurements and the ground based, air- and balloon borne remote sensing instruments, the measurements are restricted to central and northern Europe. The comparisons to satellite-borne instruments are predominantly at mid- to high latitudes on both hemispheres. In the stratosphere there is no clear indication of a bias in MIPAS data, because the independent measurements in some cases are drier and in some cases are moister than the MIPAS measurements. Compared to the infrared measurements of MIPAS, measurements in the ultraviolet and visible have a tendency to be high, whereas microwave measurements have a tendency to be low. The results of χ2-based precision validation are somewhat controversial among the comparison estimates. However, for comparison instruments whose error budget also includes

  20. Positive water vapour feedback in climate models confirmed by satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rind, D.; Lerner, J.; Chiou, E.-W.; Chu, W.; Larsen, J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L.

    1991-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that GCMs used to evaluate climate change overestimate the greenhouse effect due to increased concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere. Here, new satellite-generated water vapor data are used to compare summer and winter moisture values in regions of the middle and upper troposphere that have previously been difficult to observe with confidence. It is found that, as the hemispheres warm, increased convection leads to increased water vapor above 500 mbar in approximate quantitative agreement with results from current climate models. The same conclusion is reached by comparing the tropical western and eastern Pacific regions. Thus, water vapor feedback is not overestimated in models and should amplify the climate response to increased trace-gas concentrations.

  1. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinke, S.; Eikenberg, S.; Löhnert, U.; Dick, G.; Klocke, D.; Di Girolamo, P.; Crewell, S.

    2015-03-01

    The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV) on small scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the 2 months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP)2) Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE). The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR), Global Positioning System (GPS), sun photometer, radiosondes, Raman lidar, infrared and near-infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on the satellites Aqua and Terra) measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of random differences (standard deviation ≤1 kg m-2) and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98). The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Nonhydrostatic modelling framework (ICON), which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3-4 km or time of 10-15 min induce IWV variabilities on the order of 0.4 kg m-2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m-2) even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower-resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany) of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is

  2. Assessment of small-scale integrated water vapour variability during HOPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Steinke

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of integrated water vapour (IWV on small-scales of less than 10 km and hours is assessed with data from the two months of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction (HD(CP2 Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE. The statistical intercomparison of the unique set of observations during HOPE (microwave radiometer (MWR, Global Positioning System (GPS, sunphotometer, radiosondes, Raman Lidar, infrared and near infrared Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS on the satellites Aqua and Terra measuring close together reveals a good agreement in terms of standard deviation (≤ 1 kg m−2 and correlation coefficient (≥ 0.98. The exception is MODIS, which appears to suffer from insufficient cloud filtering. For a case study during HOPE featuring a typical boundary layer development, the IWV variability in time and space on scales of less than 10 km and less than 1 h is investigated in detail. For this purpose, the measurements are complemented by simulations with the novel ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic modelling framework (ICON which for this study has a horizontal resolution of 156 m. These runs show that differences in space of 3–4 km or time of 10–15 min induce IWV variabilities in the order of 4 kg m−2. This model finding is confirmed by observed time series from two MWRs approximately 3 km apart with a comparable temporal resolution of a few seconds. Standard deviations of IWV derived from MWR measurements reveal a high variability (> 1 kg m−2 even at very short time scales of a few minutes. These cannot be captured by the temporally lower resolved instruments and by operational numerical weather prediction models such as COSMO-DE (an application of the Consortium for Small-scale Modelling covering Germany of Deutscher Wetterdienst, which is included in the comparison. However, for time scales larger than 1 h, a sampling resolution of 15 min is sufficient

  3. Evaluation of balloon and satellite water vapour measurements in the Southern tropical and subtropical UTLS during the HIBISCUS campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Montoux

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Balloon water vapour in situ and remote measurements in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS obtained during the HIBISCUS campaign around 20° S in Brazil in February–March 2004 using a tunable diode laser (μSDLA, a surface acoustic wave (SAW and a Vis-NIR solar occultation spectrometer (SAOZ on a long duration balloon, have been used for evaluating the performances of satellite borne remote water vapour instruments available at the same latitude and measurement period. In the stratosphere, HALOE displays the best precision (2.5%, followed by SAGE II (7%, MIPAS (10%, SAOZ (20–25% and SCIAMACHY (35%, all of which show approximately constant H2O mixing ratios between 20–25 km. Compared to HALOE of ±10% accuracy between 0.1–100 hPa, SAGE II and SAOZ show insignificant biases, MIPAS is wetter by 10% and SCIAMACHY dryer by 20%. The currently available GOMOS profiles of 25% precision show a positive vertical gradient in error for identified reasons. Compared to these, the water vapour of the Reprobus Chemistry Transport Model, forced at pressures higher than 95 hPa by the ECMWF analyses, is dryer by about 1 ppmv (20%.

    In the lower stratosphere between 16–20 km, most notable features are the steep degradation of MIPAS precision below 18 km, and the appearance of biases between instruments far larger than their quoted total uncertainty. HALOE and SAGE II (after spectral adjustment for reducing the bias with HALOE at northern mid-latitudes both show decreases of water vapour with a minimum at the tropopause not seen by other instruments or the model, possibly attributable to an increasing error in the HALOE altitude registration. Between 16–18 km where the water vapour concentration shows little horizontal variability, and where the μSDLA balloon measurements are not perturbed by outgassing, the average mixing ratios reported by the remote sensing instruments are substantially lower than the 4–5

  4. Characterizing spatial and seasonal variability of carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes above a tropical mixed mangrove forest canopy, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abhra Chanda; Anirban Akhand; Sudip Manna; Sachinandan Dutta; Sugata Hazra; Indrani Das; V K Dadhwal

    2013-04-01

    The above canopy carbon dioxide and water vapour fluxes were measured by micrometeorological gradient technique at three distant stations, within the world’s largest mangrove ecosystem of Sundarban (Indian part), between April 2011 and March 2012. Quadrat analysis revealed that all the three study sites are characterized by a strong heterogeneity in the mangrove vegetation cover. At day time the forest was a sink for CO2, but its magnitude varied significantly from −0.39 to −1.33 mg m−2 s−1. The station named Jharkhali showed maximum annual fluxes followed by Henry Island and Bonnie Camp. Day time fluxes were higher during March and October, while in August and January the magnitudes were comparatively lower. The seasonal variation followed the same trend in all the sites. The spatial variation of CO2 flux above the canopy was mainly explained by the canopy density and photosynthetic efficiency of the mangrove species. The CO2 sink strength of the mangrove cover in different stations varied in the same way with the CO2 uptake potential of the species diversity in the respective sites. The relationship between the magnitude of day time CO2 uptake by the canopy and photosynthetic photon flux was defined by a non-linear exponential curve (2 ranging from 0.51 to 0.60). Water vapour fluxes varied between 1.4 and 69.5 mg m−2 s−1. There were significant differences in magnitude between day and night time water vapour fluxes, but no spatial variation was observed.

  5. Bibliography of electron and photon cross sections with atoms and molecules published in the 20th century. Water vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bibliographies of original and review reports of experiments or theories of electron and photon cross sections and also electron swarm data are presented for atomic or molecular species with specified targets. These works covered 17 atoms and 51 molecules. The present bibliography is only for water vapour (H2O, D2O and HDO). About 1200 papers were compiled. A comprehensive author index is included. The bibliography covers the period 1915 through 2000 for H2O. Finally, author's comments for electron collision cross sections and photodissociation processes of H2O are given. (author)

  6. Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola;

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m......, a composite of two existing approaches, for correcting eddy-covariance fluxes. By means of a comparison with parallel open-path measurements, we show that the mixed method leads to an improved estimation of latent heat fluxes, with respect to the method described by Ibrom et al. (2007). The quantification...

  7. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The "European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites" (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean-Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operations capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, kriging, has been developed and applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA-JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE to both reanalysis is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated in JMA and all

  8. The CM SAF SSM/I-based total column water vapour climate data record: methods and evaluation against re-analyses and satellite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Schröder

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The European Organisation for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites (EUMETSAT Satellite Application Facility on Climate Monitoring (CM SAF aims at the provision and sound validation of well documented Climate Data Records (CDRs in sustained and operational environments. In this study, a total column water vapour path (WVPA climatology from CM SAF is presented and inter-compared to water vapour data records from various data sources. Based on homogenised brightness temperatures from the Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I, a climatology of WVPA has been generated within the Hamburg Ocean–Atmosphere Fluxes and Parameters from Satellite (HOAPS framework. Within a research and operation transition activity the HOAPS data and operation capabilities have been successfully transferred to the CM SAF where the complete HOAPS data and processing schemes are hosted in an operational environment. An objective analysis for interpolation, namely kriging, has been applied to the swath-based WVPA retrievals from the HOAPS data set. The resulting climatology consists of daily and monthly mean fields of WVPA over the global ice-free ocean. The temporal coverage ranges from July 1987 to August 2006. After a comparison to the precursor product the CM SAF SSM/I-based climatology has been comprehensively compared to different types of meteorological analyses from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF-ERA40, ERA INTERIM and operational analyses and from the Japan Meteorological Agency (JMA–JRA. This inter-comparison shows an overall good agreement between the climatology and the analyses, with daily absolute biases generally smaller than 2 kg m−2. The absolute value of the bias to JRA and ERA INTERIM is typically smaller than 0.5 kg m−2. For the period 1991–2006, the root mean square error (RMSE for both reanalyses is approximately 2 kg m−2. As SSM/I WVPA and radiances are assimilated into JMA and all ECMWF analyses and

  9. Precipitable water vapour contents at "local" scale: a comparative study on GNSS-derived data versus modelled ones from ECMWF operational models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccardi, Umberto; Tammaro, Umberto; Boy, Jean-Paul; Masson, Frederic; Capuano, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    We present a comparative study between GNSS-derived precipitable water (PW) contents and modelled data from ECMWF operational models. Nearly 4 years of PW contents derived from meteorological and GNSS data are analyzed. We use GNSS data from a geodetic monitoring network of the Neapolitan active volcanoes managed by INGV as well as from some GPS stations installed on purpose. We compare PW time series retrieved from GNSS observations with those coming from models. The total water vapour content of the atmosphere can be derived by modelling from the vertical profile of the specific humidity. We use ECMWF operational models available at a horizontal resolution of about 15 km, 3-hourly samples. The number of vertical model levels is 91 up to mid 2013 and 137 afterwards. We recomputed the surface pressure on the real Earth surface, which differs from the orography, i.e. the smooth surface of the atmospheric model, by propagating the pressure from the orography to the surface. A very good agreement is achieved between PW retrieved from GNSS observations and computed from models using the highest time and space resolution (0.15 degree, 3-hourly 91-137 layers) operational models. We even focus our analysis on the occasion of some extreme raining events hitting Campania region (Italy).

  10. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on the water vapour permeability and mechanical properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate based edible films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinma, C E; Ariahu, C C; Alakali, J S

    2015-04-01

    The effect of temperature and relative humidity on the water vapour permeability (WVP) and mechanical properties of cassava starch and soy protein concentrate (SPC) based edible films containing 20 % glycerol level were studied. Tensile strength and elastic modulus of edible films increased with increase in temperature and decreased with increase in relative humidity, while elongation at break decreased. Water vapour permeability of the films increased (2.6-4.3 g.mm/m(2).day.kPa) with increase in temperature and relative humidity. The temperature dependence of water vapour permeation of cassava starch-soy protein concentrate films followed Arrhenius relationship. Activation energy (Ea) of water vapour permeation of cassava starch-soy protein concentrate edible films ranged from 1.9 to 5.3 kJ/mol (R (2)  ≥ 0.93) and increased with increase in SPC addition. The Ea values were lower for the bio-films than for polyvinylidene chloride, polypropylene and polyethylene which are an indication of low water vapour permeability of the developed biofilms compared to those synthetic films.

  11. The GEWEX water vapour assessment (G-VAP) - first results from inter-comparisons and stability analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Marc; Lockhoff, Maarit; Shi, Lei; Fennig, Karsten

    2014-05-01

    In a Joint Letter from the Global Climate Observing System (GCOS) and the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) the general need for coordinated international assessments of climate products was formulated. Such assessments are important mechanisms for improvements and to enhance and promote utilisation. The GEWEX Radiation Panel (GRP, renamed to GEWEX Data and Assessment Panel - GDAP) has initiated a Water Vapor Assessment in 2011, further on referred to as G-VAP. The major purpose of G-VAP is to: • Quantify the state of the art in water vapour products being constructed for climate applications, and by this; • Support the selection process of suitable water vapour products by GDAP for its production of globally consistent water and energy cycle products. The usage of products within GDAP activities essentially implies to study long-term data records. Since the start of G-VAP in 2011 two workshops have been conducted. The results of these workshops together with feedback from the first GDAP meeting were used for setting up the G-VAP assessment plan. This plan (available at www.gewex-vap.org) summarizes scope and goals of the assessement, introduces science questions and provides details on the planned technical and scientific activities. Major elements of G-VAP are: • All three parts of the GCOS Essential Climate Variables (ECV) on water vapour and their consistency are considered: Total Column Water Vapour, Upper Tropospheric Humidity as well as water vapour profiles and their related temperature profiles; • The assessment focuses on overall characteristics of participating satellite data records and reanalyses as determined from inter-comparison and comparisons against in situ observations as well as against ground-based products; • In this characterisation process the data records are not ranked according to their quality. Rather, the application areas and requirements of the individual data records as well as the GEWEX requirements are documented

  12. Atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition of vanadium arsenide thin films via the reaction of VCl4 or VOCl3 with tBuAsH2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thin films of vanadium arsenide were deposited via the dual-source atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition reactions of VCl4 or VOCl3 with tBuAsH2. Using the vanadium precursor VCl4, films were deposited at substrate temperatures of 550–600 °C, which were black-gold in appearance and were found to be metal-rich with high levels of chlorine incorporation. The use of VOCl3 as the vanadium source resulted in films being deposited between 450 and 600 °C and, unlike when using VCl4, were silver in appearance. The films deposited using VOCl3 demonstrated vanadium to arsenic ratios close to 1:1, and negligible chlorine incorporation. Films deposited using either vanadium precursor were identified as VAs using powder X-ray diffraction and possessed borderline metallic/semiconductor resistivities. - Highlights: • Formation of VAs films via atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. • Films formed using VCl4 or VOCl3 and tBuAsH2. • Powder X-ray diffraction showed that crystalline VAs films were deposited. • Films from VOCl3 had a V:As ratio close to 1 with negligible Cl incorporation. • Films were silver and possessed borderline metallic/semiconductor resistivities

  13. Determination of permeation parameters of experimental PET films coated with SiOx to ethyl acetate, oxygen and water vapour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamantiadi, A; Badeka, A; Kontominas, M G

    2001-11-01

    The permeation parameters of conventional PET films, films coated with SiOx and SiOx-coated films laminated to LDPE were determined for ethyl acetate using the permeation cell/gas chromatography method. Permeation to O2 and water vapour was also determined to monitor overall changes in the barrier properties of the experimental films. Coating of the PET film was achieved by a 'directed evaporation' method that increased the yield of the coating process from 30-35 to > 70%. It was shown that the SiOx coating increased the film barrier to ethyl acetate by approximately 20-30 times. Permeation values showed low reproducibility, indicating the need for further development and standardization of the 'directed evaporation' web-coating process. The barrier to oxygen and water vapour increased by 20-25 and 12-14 times respectively after coating. The web-coating speed did not seem to influence the barrier properties of the films. Permeation coefficients, diffusion coefficients and solubility coefficients were calculated for all samples. PMID:11665733

  14. Observations of precipitable water vapour over complex topography of Ethiopia from ground-based GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and ERA-Interim reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengistu Tsidu, G.; Blumenstock, T.; Hase, F.

    2015-08-01

    Water vapour is one of the most important greenhouse gases. Long-term changes in the amount of water vapour in the atmosphere need to be monitored not only for its direct role as a greenhouse gas but also because of its role in amplifying other feedbacks such as clouds and albedo. In recent decades, monitoring of water vapour on a regular and continuous basis has become possible as a result of the steady increase in the number of deployed global positioning satellite (GPS) ground-based receivers. However, the Horn of Africa remained a data-void region in this regard until recently, when some GPS ground-receiver stations were deployed to monitor tectonic movements in the Great Rift Valley. This study seizes this opportunity and the installation of a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FTIR) at Addis Ababa to assess the quality and comparability of precipitable water vapour (PWV) from GPS, FTIR, radiosonde and interim ECMWF Re-Analysis (ERA-Interim) over Ethiopia. The PWV from the three instruments and the reanalysis show good correlation, with correlation coefficients in the range from 0.83 to 0.92. On average, GPS shows the highest PWV followed by FTIR and radiosonde observations. ERA-Interim is higher than all measurements with a bias of 4.6 mm compared to GPS. The intercomparison between GPS and ERA-Interim was extended to seven other GPS stations in the country. Only four out of eight GPS stations included simultaneous surface pressure observations. Uncertainty in the model surface pressure of 1 hPa can cause up to 0.35 mm error in GPS PWV. The gain obtained from using observed surface pressure in terms of reducing bias and strengthening correlation is significant but shows some variations among the GPS sites. The comparison between GPS and ERA-Interim PWV over the seven other GPS stations shows differences in the magnitude and sign of bias of ERA-Interim with respect to GPS PWV from station to station. This feature is also prevalent in diurnal and seasonal

  15. The Earth as an extrasolar transiting planet - II: HARPS and UVES detection of water vapour and biogenic species O$_2$ and O$_3$

    CERN Document Server

    Arnold, Luc; Vidal-Madjar, Alfred; Dumusque, Xavier; Nitschelm, Christian; Querel, Richard R; Hedelt, Pascal; Berthier, Jérôme; Lovis, Christophe; Moutou, Claire; Ferlet, Roger; Crooker, David

    2014-01-01

    The atmospheric composition of transiting exoplanets can be characterized during transit by spectroscopy. For an Earth twin, models predict that oxygen and ozone biogenic gases should be detectable, as well as water vapour, a molecule linked to habitability as we know it on Earth. The aim is to measure the Earth radius versus wavelength at the highest spectral resolution available to fully characterize the signature of the Earth seen as a transiting exoplanet. We present observations of Dec. 21, 2010 Moon eclipse. The Earth observed from the Moon during a lunar eclipse transits in front of the Sun and opens access to the Earth atmosphere transmission spectrum. We used two different ESO spectrographs to take penumbra and umbra high-resolution spectra from 3100 to 10400\\AA. A change in moisture above the telescope compromised the UVES data. We explain how we correct this effect. The data are analyzed by three different methods, the first method being the method described in Vidal-Madjar et al. 2010 based on the...

  16. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3± 0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  17. Trends and variability of midlatitude stratospheric water vapour deduced from the re-evaluated Boulder balloon series and HALOE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Scherer

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an updated trend analysis of water vapour in the lower midlatitude stratosphere from the Boulder balloon-borne NOAA frostpoint hygrometer measurements and from the Halogen Occulation Experiment (HALOE. Two corrections for instrumental bias are applied to homogenise the frostpoint data series, and a quality assessment of all soundings after 1991 is presented. Linear trend estimates based on the corrected data for the period 1980–2000 are up to 40% lower than previously reported. Vertically resolved trends and variability are calculated with a multi regression analysis including the quasi-biennal oscillation and equivalent latitude as explanatory variables. In the range of 380 to 640 K potential temperature (≈14 to 25 km, the frostpoint data from 1981 to 2006 show positive linear trends between 0.3±0.3 and 0.7±0.1%/yr. The same dataset shows trends between −0.2±0.3 and 1.0±0.3%/yr for the period 1992 to 2005. HALOE data over the same time period suggest negative trends ranging from −1.1±0.2 to −0.1±0.1%/yr. In the lower stratosphere, a rapid drop of water vapour is observed in 2000/2001 with little change since. At higher altitudes, the transition is more gradual, with slowly decreasing concentrations between 2001 and 2007. This pattern is consistent with a change induced by a drop of water concentrations at entry into the stratosphere. Previously noted differences in trends and variability between frostpoint and HALOE remain for the homogenised data. Due to uncertainties in reanalysis temperatures and stratospheric transport combined with uncertainties in observations, no quantitative inference about changes of water entering the stratosphere in the tropics could be made with the mid latitude measurements analysed here.

  18. Improved water vapour spectroscopy in the 4174–4300 cm−1 region and its impact on SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Scheepmaker

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The relative abundance of the heavy water isotopologue HDO provides a deeper insight into the atmospheric hydrological cycle. The SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY (SCIAMACHY allows for global retrievals of the ratio HDO/H2O in the 2.3 micron wavelength range. However, the spectroscopy of water lines in this region remains a large source of uncertainty for these retrievals. We therefore evaluate and improve the water spectroscopy in the range 4174–4300 cm−1 and test if this reduces systematic uncertainties in the SCIAMACHY retrievals of HDO/H2O. We use a laboratory spectrum of water vapour to fit line intensity, air broadening and wavelength shift parameters. The improved spectroscopy is tested on a series of ground-based high resolution FTS spectra as well as on SCIAMACHY retrievals of H2O and the ratio HDO/H2O. We find that the improved spectroscopy leads to lower residuals in the FTS spectra compared to HITRAN 2008 and Jenouvrier et al. (2007 spectroscopy, and the retrievals become more robust against changes in the retrieval window. For both the FTS and SCIAMACHY measurements, the retrieved total H2O columns decrease by 2–4% and we find a negative shift of the HDO/H2O ratio, which for SCIAMACHY is partly compensated by changes in the retrieval setup and calibration software. The updated SCIAMACHY HDO/H2O product shows somewhat steeper latitudinal and temporal gradients and a steeper Rayleigh distillation curve, strengthening previous conclusions that current isotope-enabled general circulation models underestimate the variability in the near-surface HDO/H2O ratio.

  19. A Project on Atmospheric Water Generator with the Concept of Peltier Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Nandy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In many countries like India it is difficult to obtain water resources for irrigation or other purposes, especially in the arid regions. The problem of water scarcity is also observed in other places of the world due to lack of rainfall. However, in highly humid areas such as places close to the sea, water can be obtained by condensing the water vapour present in air. Here, the paper presents the method to develop a water condensation system based on thermoelectric cooler. The system consists of cooling elements, heat exchange unit and air circulation unit. A solar cell panel unit with a relevant high current output drives the cooling elements through a controlling circuit. Atmospheric Water Generator is a device that can convert atmospheric moisture directly into usable and even drinkable water. It is such a device which uses the principle of latent heat to convert molecules of water vapour into water droplets. It has been introduced a bit before, though it is not very common in India and some other countries. It has a great application standing on such age of technology where we all are running behind renewable sources. This paper also describes the experimental results and the system’s performance.

  20. Modelling water and solute flows at land-sea and land-atmosphere interfaces under data limitations

    OpenAIRE

    Shibuo, Yoshihiro

    2007-01-01

    Water and vapour flows from land to sea and the atmosphere are important for water resources, coastal ecosystems and climate. This thesis investigates possible methods for modelling these flows under often encountered unmonitored hydrological conditions and data limitations. Two contrasting types of drainage basin and associated data limitation/availability cases are considered: the Swedish unmonitored near-coastal catchment areas Forsmark and Simpevarp, for which detailed spatial but not muc...

  1. Tagging Water Sources in Atmospheric Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, M.

    2003-01-01

    Tagging of water sources in atmospheric models allows for quantitative diagnostics of how water is transported from its source region to its sink region. In this presentation, we review how this methodology is applied to global atmospheric models. We will present several applications of the methodology. In one example, the regional sources of water for the North American Monsoon system are evaluated by tagging the surface evaporation. In another example, the tagged water is used to quantify the global water cycling rate and residence time. We will also discuss the need for more research and the importance of these diagnostics in water cycle studies.

  2. Lidar Observations of Low-level Wind Reversals over the Gulf of Lion and Characterization of Their Impact on the Water Vapour Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Paolo; Flamant, Cyrille; Cacciani, Marco; Summa, Donato; Stelitano, Dario; Mancini, Ignazio; Richard, Evelyne; Ducrocq, Véronique; Nuret, Mathieu; Said, Frédérique

    2016-06-01

    Water vapour measurements from a ground-based Raman lidar and an airborne differential absorption lidar, complemented by high resolution numerical simulations from two mesoscale models (Arome-WMED and MESO-NH), are considered to investigate transition events from Mistral/Tramontane to southerly marine flow taking place over the Gulf of Lion in Southern France in the time frame September-October 2012, during the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMeX) Special Observation Period 1 (SOP1). Low-level wind reversals associated with these transitions are found to have a strong impact on water vapour transport, leading to a large variability of the water vapour vertical and horizontal distribution. The high spatial and temporal resolution of the lidar data allow to monitor the time evolution of the three-dimensional water vapour field during these transitions from predominantly northerly Mistral/Tramontane flow to a predominantly southerly flow, allowing to identify the quite sharp separation between these flows, which is also quite well captured by the mesoscale models.

  3. Developing and testing a low cost method for high resolution measurements of volcanic water vapour emissions at Vulcano and Mt. Etna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pering, Tom D.; McGonigle, Andrew J. S.; Tamburello, Giancarlo; Aiuppa, Alessandro; Bitetto, Marcello; Rubino, Cosimo

    2015-04-01

    The most voluminous of emissions from volcanoes are from water vapour (H2O) (Carroll and Holloway, 1994), however, measurements of this species receive little focus due to the difficulty of independent measurement, largely a result of high atmospheric background concentrations which often undergo rapid fluctuations. A feasible method of measuring H2O emissions at high temporal and spatial resolutions would therefore be highly valuable. We describe a new and low-cost method combining modified web cameras (i.e. with infrared filters removed) with measurements of temperature and relative humidity to produce high resolution measurements (≈ 0.25 Hz) of H2O emissions. The cameras are affixed with near-infrared filters at points where water vapour absorbs (940 nm) and doesn't absorb (850 nm) incident light. Absorption of H2O is then determined by using Lambert-Beer's law on a pixel by pixel basis, producing a high spatial resolution image. The system is then calibrated by placing a Multi-GAS unit within the gas source and camera field-of-view, which measures; SO2, CO2, H2S and relative humidity. By combining the point measurements of the Multi-GAS unit with pixel values for absorption, first correcting for the width of the gas source (generally a Gaussian distribution), a calibration curve is produced which allows the conversion of absorption values to mass of water within a pixel. In combination with relative humidity measurements made outside of the plume it is then possible to subtract the non-volcanic background H2O concentration to produce a high resolution calibrated volcanic H2O flux. This technique is demonstrated in detail at the active fumarolic system on Vulcano (Aeolian Islands, Italy). Data processing and image acquisition was completed in Matlab® using a purpose built code. The technique is also demonstrated for the plume of the North-East Crater of Mt. Etna (Sicily, Italy). Here, contemporaneously acquired measurements of SO2 using a UV camera, combined

  4. Retrieval of Land Surface Resistance to Water Vapour Transfer Using Complementary Relationship and Remote Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanguy, M.; Baille, A. Gonzalez-Real, M.; Taylor, C.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we propose an alternative way to derive the surface-to-air gradient of vapour pressure (Δes), the land surface resistance (rs), and a derived aridity index by coupling a simple prognostic model (based on the complementary relationship) to evapotranspiration (E) estimates provided by the triangle/trapezoidal method (Jiang & Islam, 1999). This method requires a combination of remotely sensed data and few ground measurements, and is based on the use of the ratio E to potential evaporation (Ep) to derive the surface humidity prevailing at a given pixel. The method was applied to four sites in Western Africa, and the study of the temporal evolution of Δes and rs showed seasonal variations which are consistent with the wet and dry seasons that characterises the climate at these sites. We then propose a new dryness index, the surface aridity index (SAI) derived from the Δes - rs space, which proved to be a useful tool to assess the aridity state over a region.

  5. Relationships of solar radiation and vapour pressure deficit with photosynthesis and water relations in dry-land pigeon pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was undertaken to compare the relationships of photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) with carbon assimilation and water relations of dry-land pigeon pea at the vegetative and reproductive phases. Photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (T), leaf water potential (wL), and stomatal conductance (gs) were measured at 7- to 10-day intervals from 1 month after seedling until a fortnight before harvest during two seasons. Generally, Pn, T, and gs were higher and wL was lower during the reproductive than during the vegetative phase. At high PAR and VPD, Pn, T, wL, and gs decreased. The decrease in the T at high PAR was smaller during the reproductive phase. Growth of dry-land pigeon pea was affected not only during periods of water stress which was associated with high PAR and high VPD but also under conditions of favourable plant water status which were associated with less than optimal levels of PAR. It also showed transpiration efficiency (TE) was lower during the pod-filling than during the vegetative phase, when PAR was optimum

  6. Airborne differential absorption lidar for water vapour measurements in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere in the spectral region around 940 nm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poberaj, G.

    2000-07-01

    Two all-solid-state laser systems were developed and studied in detail to optimise their performance for an airborne water vapour differential absorption lidar (DIAL). Their special features are high average output powers and excellent spectral properties in the 940-nm spectral region relevant for monitoring very low water vapour contents in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. One system is an injection-seeded pulsed Ti:sapphire ring laser with a spectral bandwidth of 105 MHz and an average power of 1.1 W. The other system is an injection-seeded optical parametric oscillator (OPO) in a ring configuration. Using KTP as nonlinear crystal, a signal output with a spectral bandwidth of 140 MHz and an average power of 1.2 W was achieved. Both systems, the Ti:sapphire ring laser and the KTP OPO, possess spectral purity values higher than 99%. The pump source for these systems is a frequency doubled diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser operating at a repetition rate of 100 Hz. The KTP OPO system has been used as a transmitter in a new airborne water vapour DIAL instrument. For the first time, measurements of two-dimensional water vapour distributions with a high vertical (500 m) and horizontal (20 km) resolution across several potential vorticity streamers were performed. Very low water vapour mixing ratios (10-50 ppmv) and strong gradients were observed in the tropopause region. The sensitivity of the DIAL instrument in the centre of a stratospheric intrusion ranges from 3% in the near field to 12% in the far field (4 km). The first comparison experiments with in situ measuring instruments show a good agreement. Considerable differences are found between DIAL measurements and data obtained from the ECMWF operational analyses and a mesoscale numerical model. (orig.)

  7. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line...

  8. INTRODUCTION: Anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Richard P.; Liepert, Beate G.

    2010-06-01

    The atmospheric branch of the water cycle, although containing just a tiny fraction of the Earth's total water reserves, presents a crucial interface between the physical climate (such as large-scale rainfall patterns) and the ecosystems upon which human societies ultimately depend. Because of the central importance of water in the Earth system, the question of how the water cycle is changing, and how it may alter in future as a result of anthropogenic changes, present one of the greatest challenges of this century. The recent Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report on Climate Change and Water (Bates et al 2008) highlighted the increasingly strong evidence of change in the global water cycle and associated environmental consequences. It is of critical importance to climate prediction and adaptation strategies that key processes in the atmospheric water cycle are precisely understood and determined, from evaporation at the surface of the ocean, transport by the atmosphere, condensation as cloud and eventual precipitation, and run-off through rivers following interaction with the land surface, sub-surface, ice, snow and vegetation. The purpose of this special focus issue of Environmental Research Letters on anticipated changes in the global atmospheric water cycle is to consolidate the recent substantial advances in understanding past, present and future changes in the global water cycle through evidence built upon theoretical understanding, backed up by observations and borne out by climate model simulations. Thermodynamic rises in water vapour provide a central constraint, as discussed in a guest editorial by Bengtsson (2010). Theoretical implications of the Clausius-Clapeyron equation are presented by O'Gorman and Muller (2010) and with reference to a simple model (Sherwood 2010) while observed humidity changes confirm these anticipated responses at the land and ocean surface (Willett et al 2008). Rises in low-level moisture are thought to fuel an

  9. Tritium content in atmospheric water vapor inside of the reactor hall (reactor R-A) in Institute Vinca

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tritium content in atmospheric water vapour inside of the reactor hall was measured during the regular inspection of the fuel channels in Institute of Nuclear Sciences 'Vinca', in March and May 2006. Tritium content in HTO form varied from 1.56·102 Bqm-3 to 4.05·102 Bqm-3. Tritium concentrations in precipitation collected at Zeleno Brdo and Institute 'Vinca' during the 2006. were (-1 and (3.52 - 13.09) Bql-1, respectively. (author)

  10. Water-Aromatic Liquid-Liquid-Vapour Equilibrium Calculation Using a Cubic Equation of State

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an extension of the procedure developed in the case of water-alkane binaries to mixtures of water and benzene or toluene or xylene or ethylbenzene or diethylbenzene.The method used to calculate the equilibria is based on the Peng-Robinson cubic equation of state modified as regards the coefficient α(Tr)and on the use of a binary interaction coefficient kiw specific to binaries containing water.

  11. Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign at OHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; Bosser, P.; Bourcy, T.; David, L.; Goutail, F.; Hoareau, C.; Keckhut, P.; Legain, D.; Pazmino, A.; Pelon, J.; Pipis, K.; Poujol, G.; Sarkissian, A.; Thom, C.; Tournois, G.; Tzanos, D.

    2013-10-01

    The Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement (DEMEVAP) project aims at assessing and improving humidity sounding techniques and establishing a reference system based on the combination of Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. Such a system may be used for climate monitoring, radiosonde bias detection and correction, satellite measurement calibration/validation, and mm-level geodetic positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A field experiment was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP). Two Raman lidars (IGN mobile lidar and OHP NDACC lidar), a stellar spectrometer (SOPHIE), a differential absorption spectrometer (SAOZ), a sun photometer (AERONET), 5 GPS receivers and 4 types of radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow White) participated in the campaign. A total of 26 balloons with multiple radiosondes were flown during 16 clear nights. This paper presents preliminary findings from the analysis of all these data sets. Several classical Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which use either Vaisala RS92 measurements, point capacitive humidity measurements, or GPS integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements. A novel method proposed by Bosser et al. (2010) is also tested. It consists in calibrating the lidar measurements during the GPS data processing. The methods achieve a repeatability of 4-5%. Changes in the calibration factor of IGN Raman lidar are evidenced which are attributed to frequent optical re-alignments. When modelling and correcting the changes as a linear function of time, the precision of the calibration factors improves to 2-3%. However, the variations in the calibration factor, and hence the absolute accuracy, between methods and types of reference data remain at the level of 7%. The intercomparison of radiosonde measurements shows good agreement between RS92 and Snow White measurements up to 12 km. An overall dry bias is found in the

  12. Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in-situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    BOCK, Olivier; Bosser, Pierre; David, Leslie; Thom, Christian; Pelon, Jacques; Hoareau, Christophe; Keckhut, Philippe; Sarkissian, Alain; Pazmino, Andrea; Goutail, Florence; Legain, Dominique; Tzanos, Diane; Bourcy, Thomas; Poujol, Guillaume; Tournois, Guy

    2014-05-01

    The Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement (DEMEVAP) project aims at assessing and improving humidity sounding techniques and establishing a reference system based on the combination of Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. Such a system may be used for climate monitoring, radiosonde bias detection and correction, satellite measurement calibration/validation, and mm-level geodetic positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A field experiment was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence (OHP). Two Raman lidars (IGN mobile lidar and OHP NDACC lidar), a stellar spectrometer (SOPHIE), a differential absorption spectrometer (SAOZ), a sun photometer (AERONET), 5 GPS receivers and 4 types of radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White) participated in the campaign. A total of 26 balloons with multiple radiosondes were flown during 16 clear nights. This paper presents preliminary findings from the analysis of all these datasets. Several classical Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which use either Vaisala RS92 measurements, point capacitive humidity measurements, or GPS integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements. A novel method proposed by Bosser et al. (2010) is also tested. It consists in calibrating the lidar measurements during the GPS data processing. The methods achieve a repeatability of 4-5 %. Changes in calibration factor of IGN Raman lidar are evidenced which are attributed to frequent optical re-alignments. When modelling and correcting the changes as a linear function of time, the precision of the calibration factors improves to 2-3 %. However, the variations in the calibration factor, and hence the absolute accuracy, between methods and types of reference data remain at the level of 7 %. The intercomparison of radiosonde measurements shows good agreement between RS92 and Snow-White measurements up to 12 km. An overall dry bias is found in the

  13. Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bock

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement (DEMEVAP project aims at assessing and improving humidity sounding techniques and establishing a reference system based on the combination of Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. Such a system may be used for climate monitoring, radiosonde bias detection and correction, satellite measurement calibration/validation, and mm-level geodetic positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A field experiment was conducted in September–October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP. Two Raman lidars (IGN mobile lidar and OHP NDACC lidar, a stellar spectrometer (SOPHIE, a differential absorption spectrometer (SAOZ, a sun photometer (AERONET, 5 GPS receivers and 4 types of radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow White participated in the campaign. A total of 26 balloons with multiple radiosondes were flown during 16 clear nights. This paper presents preliminary findings from the analysis of all these data sets. Several classical Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which use either Vaisala RS92 measurements, point capacitive humidity measurements, or GPS integrated water vapour (IWV measurements. A novel method proposed by Bosser et al. (2010 is also tested. It consists in calibrating the lidar measurements during the GPS data processing. The methods achieve a repeatability of 4–5%. Changes in the calibration factor of IGN Raman lidar are evidenced which are attributed to frequent optical re-alignments. When modelling and correcting the changes as a linear function of time, the precision of the calibration factors improves to 2–3%. However, the variations in the calibration factor, and hence the absolute accuracy, between methods and types of reference data remain at the level of 7%. The intercomparison of radiosonde measurements shows good agreement between RS92 and Snow White measurements up to 12 km. An overall dry bias is found

  14. Comparisons of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux at the stand level and derivation of canopy conductance for Scots pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granier, A.; Biron, P.; Köstner, B.; Gay, L. W.; Najjar, G.

    1996-03-01

    Simultaneous measurements of xylem sap flow and water vapour flux over a Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris) forest (Hartheim, Germany), were carried out during the Hartheim Experiment (HartX), an intensive observation campaign of the international programme REKLIP. Sap flow was measured every 30 min using both radial constant heating (Granier, 1985) and two types of Cermak sap flowmeters installed on 24 trees selected to cover a wide range of the diameter classes of the stand (min 8 cm; max 17.5 cm). Available energy was high during the observation period (5.5 to 6.9 mm.day-1), and daily cumulated sap flow on a ground area basis varied between 2.0 and 2.7 mm day-1 depending on climate conditions. Maximum hourly values of sap flow reached 0.33 mm h-1, i.e., 230 W m-2. Comparisons of sap flow with water vapour flux as measured with two OPEC (One Propeller Eddy Correlation, University of Arizona) systems showed a time lag between the two methods, sap flow lagging about 90 min behind vapour flux. After taking into account this time lag in the sap flow data set, a good agreement was found between both methods: sap flow = 0.745* vapour flux, r 2 = 0.86. The difference between the two estimates was due to understory transpiration. Canopy conductance ( g c ) was calculated from sap flow measurements using the reverse form of Penman-Monteith equation and climatic data measured 4 m above the canopy. Variations of g c were well correlated ( r 2 = 0.85) with global radiation ( R) and vapour pressure deficit ( vpd). The quantitative expression for g c = f ( R, vpd) was very similar to that previously found with maritime pine ( Pinus pinaster) in the forest of Les Landes, South Western France.

  15. 水蒸汽影响氧化铝膜生长的研究新进展%PROGRESS OF WATER VAPOUR EFFECT ON GROWTH OF ALUMINA FORMING ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邢琳琳; 郑雁军; 崔立山; 孙茂虎; 邵明增; 卢贵武

    2011-01-01

    Alumina coating has excellent thermal stability at elevated temperatures, this can provide a good diffusion barrier to withstand high temperature oxidation and therefore, increase their life time in aggressive atmospheres. With the industrial development, water vapour is present in nearly all atmospheres where alumina forming alloys are used at high temperatures for industrial process. The most important problem is that how to maintain excellent performance of alloy in humid atmospheres. This paper summarizes the effect of water or water vapour on the stability of alumina scales, growth kinetics, film adherence and alumina film surface morphology.%氧化铝涂层是满足高温工业环境的最佳保护性氧化膜之一,能够有效保护钢材料在高温、强腐蚀环境下发生的腐蚀。随着工业的发展,水或者水蒸汽广泛存在于氧化铝膜的各类服役环境中,如何使氧化铝涂层在含水蒸汽的高温环境中保持优异的力学性能和寿命是工业中面临的一个重要的问题。本文综述了含水气氛对合金氧化铝的稳定性、生长动力学、膜的结合力和对氧化铝膜表面形貌的影响。

  16. Gravitational Condensation of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    OpenAIRE

    De Aquino, Fran

    2015-01-01

    Devices that collect water from the atmospheric air using condensation are well-known. They operate in a manner very similar to that of a dehumidifier: air is passed through a cooled coil, making water to condense. This is the most common technology in use. Here, we present a device that can collect a large amount of water (more than 1m 3 /s) from the atmospheric air using gravitational condensation. Another novelty of this device is that it consumes little electricity. In addition, the new t...

  17. Total column water vapour measurements from GOME-2 MetOp-A and MetOp-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Grossi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the total column water vapour (TCWV global distribution is fundamental for climate analysis and weather monitoring. In this work, we present the retrieval algorithm used to derive the operational TCWV from the GOME-2 sensors and perform an extensive inter-comparison and validation in order to estimate their absolute accuracy and long-term stability. We use the recently reprocessed data sets retrieved by the GOME-2 instruments aboard EUMETSAT's MetOp-A and MetOp-B satellites and generated by DLR in the framework of the O3M-SAF using the GOME Data Processor (GDP version 4.7. The retrieval algorithm is based on a classical Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS method and combines H2O/O2 retrieval for the computation of the trace gas vertical column density. We introduce a further enhancement in the quality of the H2O column by optimizing the cloud screening and developing an empirical correction in order to eliminate the instrument scan angle dependencies. We evaluate the overall consistency between about 8 months measurements from the newer GOME-2 instrument on the MetOp-B platform with the GOME-2/MetOp-A data in the overlap period. Furthermore, we compare GOME-2 results with independent TCWV data from ECMWF and with SSMIS satellite measurements during the full period January 2007–August 2013 and we perform a validation against the combined SSM/I + MERIS satellite data set developed in the framework of the ESA DUE GlobVapour project. We find global mean biases as small as ± 0.03 g cm−2 between GOME-2A and all other data sets. The combined SSM/I-MERIS sample is typically drier than the GOME-2 retrievals (−0.005 g cm−2, while on average GOME-2 data overestimate the SSMIS measurements by only 0.028 g cm−2. However, the size of some of these biases are seasonally dependent. Monthly average differences can be as large as 0.1 g cm−2, based on the analysis against SSMIS measurements, but are not as evident in

  18. Water, vapour and heat transport in concrete cells for storing radioactive waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carme Chaparro, M.; W. Saaltink, Maarten

    2016-08-01

    Water is collected from a drain situated at the centre of a concrete cell that stores radioactive waste at 'El Cabril', which is the low and intermediate level radioactive waste disposal facility of Spain. This indicates flow of water within the cell. 2D numerical models have been made in order to reproduce and understand the processes that take place inside the cell. Temperature and relative humidity measured by sensors in the cells and thermo-hydraulic parameters from laboratory test have been used. Results show that this phenomenon is caused by capillary rise from the phreatic level, evaporation and condensation within the cell produced by temperature gradients caused by seasonal temperature fluctuations outside. At the centre of the cell, flow of gas and convection also play a role. Three remedial actions have been studied that may avoid the leakage of water from the drain.

  19. Thickness and structure of the water film deposited from vapour on calcite surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Jakob; Wogelius, Roy A.; Morris, Peter M.;

    2010-01-01

    Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from......Synchrotron X-ray reflectivity (SXR) was used to measure the thickness of the water film that adsorbs on a {10¯14} cleavage surface of calcite (CaCO3) in a sample chamber where relative humidity could be controlled within the range from...

  20. Detection of chemical substances in water using an oxide nanowire transistor covered with a hydrophobic nanoparticle thin film as a liquid-vapour separation filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Taekyung; Lee, Jonghun; Ju, Sanghyun

    2016-08-01

    We have developed a method to detect the presence of small amounts of chemical substances in water, using a Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film covered with phosphonic acid (HDF-PA) self-assembled monolayer. The HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film acts as a liquid-vapour separation filter, allowing the passage of chemical vapour while blocking liquids. Prevention of the liquid from contacting the SnO2 nanowire and source-drain electrodes is required in order to avoid abnormal operation. Using this characteristic, the concentration of chemical substances in water could be evaluated by measuring the current changes in the SnO2 nanowire transistor covered with the HDF-PA self-assembled Al2O3 nanoparticle thin film.

  1. Balloon-borne cryogenic frost-point hygrometer observations of water vapour in the tropical upper troposphere and lower stratosphere over India: First results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunilkumar, S. V.; Muhsin, M.; Emmanuel, Maria; Ramkumar, Geetha; Rajeev, K.; Sijikumar, S.

    2016-03-01

    Balloon-borne cryogenic frost-point hygrometer (CFH) observations of water vapour in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (UTLS) region carried out over India, from Trivandrum [8.5°N, 76.9°E] and Hyderabad [17.5°N, 78.6°E], were compared with that obtained from quasi-collocated Aura-Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) satellite observations. Comparisons show a small dry bias for MLS in the stratosphere. Saturated or super-saturation layers observed near the base of tropical tropopause layer (TTL) are consistent with the quasi-collocated space-based observations of tropical cirrus from KALPANA-1 and CALIPSO. Disturbance of large scale waves in the upper troposphere appears to modulate the water vapour and cirrus distribution.

  2. Integrated Precipitable Water Vapour Measurements At Polish Polar Station Hornsund From GPS Observations Verified By Aerological Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Kruczyk Michał; Liwosz Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    We present results of the comparison of integrated precipitable water measurements from GPS solution and aerological techniques: CIMEL-318 sun-photometer and radiosoundings (RAOB). Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW) - important meteorological parameter is derived from GPS tropospheric solutions by known procedure for GPS station at Polish Polar Station, Hornsund (Svalbard). The relation between 2 m temperature and the mean temperature of atmosphere above, used to convert from wet part of tro...

  3. Carbon dioxide and water vapour exchange from understory species in boreal forest.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, M.M.P.D.; Arp, W.J.; Chapin, F.S.

    2004-01-01

    Although recent eddy covariance measurements in boreal forests provide CO2 and energy exchange data for the whole ecosystem, very little is known about the role of the understory vegetation. We conducted chamber flux measurements in an Alaskan black spruce forest in order to compare CO2 and water va

  4. Water vapour at high redshift : Arecibo monitoring of the megamaser in MG J0414+0534

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castangia, P.; Impellizzeri, C. M. V.; McKean, J. P.; Henkel, C.; Brunthaler, A.; Roy, A. L.; Wucknitz, O.; Ott, J.; Momjian, E.

    2011-01-01

    Aims: The study of water masers at cosmological distances would allow us to investigate the parsec-scale environment around powerful radio sources, to probe the physical conditions of the molecular gas in the inner parsecs of quasars, and to estimate their nuclear engine masses in the early universe

  5. Development of a capillary plasma pump with vapour bubble for water purification: experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, S.; Ishihata, K.; Nishiyama, H.

    2016-10-01

    This paper describes the development of a small-sized reactive plasma pump driven by capillary bubble discharge for the purification of treated water. The apparatus we developed decomposes the pollutants in the water by using chemical species generated by the plasma discharge. The resulting stream of bubbles obviates the need for an external gas supply or pump to transport the water. A high-speed camera was used to investigate the bubble dynamics responsible for the pumping effect, which is achieved by selecting the shape of the capillary such that the bubble ejections within enhance the ‘self-repetition’ action required for the pumping motion. Our experiments showed that optimal bubble generation requires a consumed power of 17.8 W. A theoretical model was developed to investigate the pumping mechanism. We solve the problems associated with liquid oscillations in the U-shaped water reservoir by employing a non-uniform cross-sectional area in our model. The chemical reactivity of the device was confirmed by using emission spectroscopy of OH radical and by measuring the decomposition of methylene blue.

  6. Lidar Observations of Low-level Wind Reversals over the Gulf of Lion and Characterization of Their Impact on the Water Vapour Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Di Girolamo Paolo; Flamant Cyrille; Cacciani Marco; Summa Donato; Stelitano Dario; Mancini Ignazio; Richard Evelyne; Ducrocq Véronique; Nuret Mathieu; Said Frédérique

    2016-01-01

    International audience Water vapour measurements from a ground-based Raman lidar and an airborne differential absorption lidar, complemented by high resolution numerical simulations from two mesoscale models (Arome-WMED and MESO-NH), are considered to investigate transition events from Mistral/Tramontane to southerly marine flow taking place over the Gulf of Lion in Southern France in the time frame September-October 2012, during the Hydrological Cycle in the Mediterranean Experiment (HyMe...

  7. G305.8 - 0.2 water vapour source: A young object

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilas-Boas, J. W. S.; Scalise, E., Jr.; Sanzovo, C. G.

    1991-09-01

    Observations of water vapor and silicon monoxide masers were conducted in the direction of G305.8-0.2. No SiO maser emission above 7 Jy of flux density was detected. The short-time variability of the H20 maser together with the absence of compact radio continuum emission suggests that the excitation energy of the maser could originate from an O7-O9 protostar in its earlier evolutionary stages.

  8. Effect of water vapour on the molecular structures of supported vanadium oxide catalysts at elevated temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jehng, Jih-Mirn; Deo, G.; Weckhuysen, B.M.; Wachs, I.E.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of water vapor on the molecular structures of V2O3-supported catalysts (SiO2, Al2o3, TiO2, and CeO2) was investigated by in situ Raman spectroscopy as a function of temperature (from 500°C to 120°C). Under dry conditions only isolated surface VO4 species are present on the dehydrated SiO2

  9. Influence of capillary forces on water injection into hot rock, saturated with superheated vapour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsypkin, G.G. [Institute for Problems in Mechanics, RAS, Vernadskogo Ave. 101, 119420 Moscow (Russian Federation); Calore, C. [Istituto di Geoscienze e Georisorse - CNR, Sezione di Firenze, via La Pira 4, 50121 Florence (Italy)

    2007-07-15

    The results of a theoretical study and numerical analysis of the role of capillary pressure of cold water injection into depleted geothermal reservoirs are presented. A simplified 1-D mathematical model is developed, that describes the motion of a sharp vaporization front. Some asymptotic estimates for a wide range of parameters are given and a similarity solution is derived. Analytical results are then compared with those obtained from the numerical reservoir simulator TOUGH2, showing a good agreement between the two. (author)

  10. An observational study of air and water vapour convergence over the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, during summertime and the development of isolated thunderstorms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Edward [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics; Lews Castle College, University of the Highlands and Islands, Stornoway, Scotland (United Kingdom); N' Dri Koffi, Ernest; Maetzler, Christian [Bern Univ. (Switzerland). Inst. of Applied Physics

    2012-12-15

    The daytime summer phenomenon of the mesoscale transport of air and water vapour from the Swiss lowlands into the nearby western Alps, leading to orographic convection, is investigated using a range of independent observations. These observations are: Global Positioning System (GPS) integrated water vapour (IWV) data, the TROWARA microwave radiometer, MeteoSwiss ANETZ surface weather station data, the Payerne radiosonde, synoptic analyses for Switzerland and Europe, EUMETSAT and NOAA visible and infrared satellite images, MeteoSwiss operational precipitation radar, photographs and webcam images including time-lapse cloud animations. The intention was to show, using GPS IWV data, that significant differences in IWV may occur between the Swiss plain and nearby Alps during small single-cell Alpine thunderstorm events, and that these may be attributable to regional airflow convergence. Two particular case studies are presented for closer examination: 20 June 2005 and 13 June 2006. On both days, fine and warm weather was followed by isolated orographic convection over the Alps in the afternoon and evening, producing thunderstorms. The thunderstorms investigated were generally small, local, discrete and short-lived phenomena. They were selected for study because of almost stationary position over orography, rendering easy observation because they remained contained within a particular mountain region before dissipating. The results show that large transfers of air and water vapour occur from the Swiss plain to the mountains on such days, with up to a 50% increase in GPS IWV values at individual Alpine stations, coincident with strong airflow convergence in the same locality. (orig.)

  11. Validation of Aura MLS retrievals of temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower-middle stratosphere over the Tibetan Plateau during boreal summer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiaolu; Wright, Jonathon S.; Zheng, Xiangdong; Livesey, Nathaniel J.; Vömel, Holger; Zhou, Xiuji

    2016-08-01

    We validate Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) version 3 (v3) and version 4 (v4) retrievals of summertime temperature, water vapour and ozone in the upper troposphere and lower-middle stratosphere (UTLS; 10-316 hPa) against balloon soundings collected during the Study of Ozone, Aerosols and Radiation over the Tibetan Plateau (SOAR-TP). Mean v3 and v4 profiles of temperature, water vapour and ozone in this region during the measurement campaigns are almost identical through most of the stratosphere (10-68 hPa), but differ in several respects in the upper troposphere and tropopause layer. Differences in v4 relative to v3 include slightly colder mean temperatures from 100 to 316 hPa, smaller mean water vapour mixing ratios in the upper troposphere (215-316 hPa) and a more vertically homogeneous profile of mean ozone mixing ratios below the climatological tropopause (100-316 hPa). These changes substantially improve agreement between ozonesondes and MLS ozone retrievals in the upper troposphere, but slightly worsen existing cold and dry biases at these levels. Aura MLS temperature profiles contain significant cold biases relative to collocated temperature measurements in several layers of the lower-middle stratosphere and in the upper troposphere. MLS retrievals of water vapour volume mixing ratio generally compare well with collocated measurements, excepting a substantial dry bias (-32 ± 11 % in v4) that extends through most of the upper troposphere (121-261 hPa). MLS retrievals of ozone volume mixing ratio are biased high relative to collocated ozonesondes in the stratosphere (18-83 hPa), but are biased low at 100 hPa. The largest relative biases in ozone retrievals (approximately +70 %) are located at 83 hPa. MLS v4 offers substantial benefits relative to v3, particularly with respect to water vapour and ozone. Key improvements include larger data yields, reduced noise in the upper troposphere and smaller fluctuations in the bias profile at pressures larger than 100

  12. Estimation of precipitable water vapour using kinematic GNSS precise point positioning over an altitude range of 1 km

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, S. R.; Penna, N. T.; Clarke, P. J.; Webster, S.; Martin, I.

    2013-12-01

    The estimation of total precipitable water vapour (PWV) using kinematic GNSS has been investigated since around 2001, aiming to extend the use of static ground-based GNSS, from which PWV estimates are now operationally assimilated into numerical weather prediction models. To date, kinematic GNSS PWV studies suggest a PWV measurement agreement with radiosondes of 2-3 mm, almost commensurate with static GNSS measurement accuracy, but only shipborne experiments have so far been carried out. As a first step towards extending such sea level-based studies to platforms that operate at a range of altitudes, such as airplanes or land based vehicles, the kinematic GNSS estimation of PWV over an exactly repeated trajectory is considered. A data set was collected from a GNSS receiver and antenna mounted on a carriage of the Snowdon Mountain Railway, UK, which continually ascends and descends through 950 m of vertical relief. Static GNSS reference receivers were installed at the top and bottom of the altitude profile, and derived zenith wet delay (ZWD) was interpolated to the altitude of the train to provide reference values together with profile estimates from the 100 m resolution runs of the Met Office's Unified Model. We demonstrate similar GNSS accuracies as obtained from previous shipborne studies, namely a double difference relative kinematic GNSS ZWD accuracy within 14 mm, and a kinematic GNSS precise point positioning ZWD accuracy within 15 mm. The latter is a more typical airborne PWV estimation scenario i.e. without the reliance on ground-based GNSS reference stations. We show that the kinematic GPS-only precise point positioning ZWD estimation is enhanced by also incorporating GLONASS observations.

  13. 长白山针阔混交林秋季净生态系统水气交换量%Net water vapour exchange over a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest in Changbai Mountain during autumn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    温学发; 于贵瑞; 孙晓敏

    2003-01-01

    Water vapour and CO2 fluxes were measured by the eddy-covariance technique above a mixed needle and broad-leaved forest with affiliated meteorological measurements in Changbai Mountain as part of China's FLUX projects since late August in 2002. Net water vapour exchange and environmental control over the forest were examined from September 1 to October 31 in 2002.To quantify the seasonal dynamics, the transition period was separated into leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages according to the development of leaf area. The results showed that (a) seasonal variation of water vapour exchange was mainly controlled by net radiation (Rn) which could account for 78.5%, 63.4% and 56.6% for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stages, respectively, while other environmental factors' effects varied evidently; (b) magnitude of water vapour flux decreased remarkably during autumn and daily mean of water vapour exchange was 24.2 mgm-2 s-1 (100%),14.8 mgm-2 s-1 (61.2%) and 10.3 mg m-2 s-1 (42.6%) for leafed, leaf falling and leafless stage,respectively; and (c) the budget of water vapour exchange during autumn was estimated to be 87.1 kg H2O m-2, with a mean of 1427.2 g H2O d-1 varying markedly from 3104.0 to 227.5 g H2O m-2d-1.

  14. Modified TEWL in vitro measurements on transdermal patches with different additives with regard to water vapour permeability kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokuhl, Joana; Müller-Goymann, Christel C

    2013-02-28

    Water vapour permeability (WVP) and water absorption capacity (WAC) influence physicochemical properties and wearability of transdermal patches considerably. For determination of WVP, a modified transepidermal water loss (TEWL) measurement was developed. These measurements continuously measure WVP of transdermal patches in vitro along with time required to reach steady state, and its magnitude according to the type of polymer used. Additionally, WAC of the patches was examined and related to WVP. According to literature in the field of WVP determination, usually selected points are taken from the evaporation time curve and averaged over a given time span without knowing whether steady state has already been reached or not. The latter causes errors upon averaging. The advantage of the in vitro TEWL measurement presented includes reproducibly adjustable conditions for every time span desired, thus providing information on the kinetics of the experiment and avoiding biased results from averaging. Knowing the shape of the evaporation time curve and thus the kinetics of the experiment allows for focusing on the relevant part of the measurement, i.e. the determination of the steady state level and the time to reach it. Four different polymers (P1-P4) based on sugar-modified polyacrylates were investigated with regard to WVP and WAC of the matrices prepared thereof along with the influence of drug loading and the incorporation of a variety of additives commonly used for transdermal patches. A clear correlation between WVP and the hydrophilicity in terms of the number of free hydroxyl groups of the polymer was elaborated. Additives of higher hydrophilicity compared to that of the polymer itself led to higher WVPs and vice versa. The combination of the model drug lidocaine in its free base form together with the additive succinic acid (Suc) resulted in ionization of the drug and thus in substantially increased WVPs. Addition of α-tocopherol acetate (Toc) into P3 and P4 and

  15. Laser Filament Induced Water Condensation

    OpenAIRE

    Kasparian J.; Webe K.; Vogel A; Petit Y.; Lüder J.; Hao Z.Q.; Rohwetter P.; Petrarca M.; Stelmaszczyk K.; Henin S.; Wöste L.; Wolf J.-P.

    2013-01-01

    At relative humidities above 70%, femtosecond laser filaments generate aerosol particles and water droplets in the atmosphere. The water vapour condensation and droplet stabilization are assured by soluble species produced in the laser plasma.

  16. A dilute Cu(Ni) alloy for synthesis of large-area Bernal stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madito, M. J.; Bello, A.; Dangbegnon, J. K.; Momodu, D. Y.; Masikhwa, T. M.; Barzegar, F.; Manyala, N., E-mail: ncholu.manyala@up.ac.za [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Oliphant, C. J.; Jordaan, W. A. [National Metrology Institute of South Africa, Private Bag X34, Lynwood Ridge, Pretoria 0040 (South Africa); Fabiane, M. [Department of Physics, Institute of Applied Materials, SARCHI Chair in Carbon Technology and Materials, University of Pretoria, Pretoria 0028 (South Africa); Department of Physics, National University of Lesotho, P.O. Roma 180 (Lesotho)

    2016-01-07

    A bilayer graphene film obtained on copper (Cu) foil is known to have a significant fraction of non-Bernal (AB) stacking and on copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) thin films is known to grow over a large-area with AB stacking. In this study, annealed Cu foils for graphene growth were doped with small concentrations of Ni to obtain dilute Cu(Ni) alloys in which the hydrocarbon decomposition rate of Cu will be enhanced by Ni during synthesis of large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ni doped concentration and the Ni homogeneous distribution in Cu foil were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. An electron backscatter diffraction map showed that Cu foils have a single (001) surface orientation which leads to a uniform growth rate on Cu surface in early stages of graphene growth and also leads to a uniform Ni surface concentration distribution through segregation kinetics. The increase in Ni surface concentration in foils was investigated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The quality of graphene, the number of graphene layers, and the layers stacking order in synthesized bilayer graphene films were confirmed by Raman and electron diffraction measurements. A four point probe station was used to measure the sheet resistance of graphene films. As compared to Cu foil, the prepared dilute Cu(Ni) alloy demonstrated the good capability of growing large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene film by increasing Ni content in Cu surface layer.

  17. A dilute Cu(Ni) alloy for synthesis of large-area Bernal stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bilayer graphene film obtained on copper (Cu) foil is known to have a significant fraction of non-Bernal (AB) stacking and on copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) thin films is known to grow over a large-area with AB stacking. In this study, annealed Cu foils for graphene growth were doped with small concentrations of Ni to obtain dilute Cu(Ni) alloys in which the hydrocarbon decomposition rate of Cu will be enhanced by Ni during synthesis of large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ni doped concentration and the Ni homogeneous distribution in Cu foil were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. An electron backscatter diffraction map showed that Cu foils have a single (001) surface orientation which leads to a uniform growth rate on Cu surface in early stages of graphene growth and also leads to a uniform Ni surface concentration distribution through segregation kinetics. The increase in Ni surface concentration in foils was investigated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The quality of graphene, the number of graphene layers, and the layers stacking order in synthesized bilayer graphene films were confirmed by Raman and electron diffraction measurements. A four point probe station was used to measure the sheet resistance of graphene films. As compared to Cu foil, the prepared dilute Cu(Ni) alloy demonstrated the good capability of growing large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene film by increasing Ni content in Cu surface layer

  18. A dilute Cu(Ni) alloy for synthesis of large-area Bernal stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madito, M. J.; Bello, A.; Dangbegnon, J. K.; Oliphant, C. J.; Jordaan, W. A.; Momodu, D. Y.; Masikhwa, T. M.; Barzegar, F.; Fabiane, M.; Manyala, N.

    2016-01-01

    A bilayer graphene film obtained on copper (Cu) foil is known to have a significant fraction of non-Bernal (AB) stacking and on copper/nickel (Cu/Ni) thin films is known to grow over a large-area with AB stacking. In this study, annealed Cu foils for graphene growth were doped with small concentrations of Ni to obtain dilute Cu(Ni) alloys in which the hydrocarbon decomposition rate of Cu will be enhanced by Ni during synthesis of large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene using atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. The Ni doped concentration and the Ni homogeneous distribution in Cu foil were confirmed with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and proton-induced X-ray emission. An electron backscatter diffraction map showed that Cu foils have a single (001) surface orientation which leads to a uniform growth rate on Cu surface in early stages of graphene growth and also leads to a uniform Ni surface concentration distribution through segregation kinetics. The increase in Ni surface concentration in foils was investigated with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. The quality of graphene, the number of graphene layers, and the layers stacking order in synthesized bilayer graphene films were confirmed by Raman and electron diffraction measurements. A four point probe station was used to measure the sheet resistance of graphene films. As compared to Cu foil, the prepared dilute Cu(Ni) alloy demonstrated the good capability of growing large-area AB-stacked bilayer graphene film by increasing Ni content in Cu surface layer.

  19. Effect of Atmospheric Ions on Interfacial Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chien-Chang Kurt Kung

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of atmospheric positivity on the electrical properties of interfacial water was explored. Interfacial, or exclusion zone (EZ water was created in the standard way, next to a sheet of Nafion placed horizontally at the bottom of a water-filled chamber. Positive atmospheric ions were created from a high voltage source placed above the chamber. Electrical potential distribution in the interfacial water was measured using microelectrodes. We found that beyond a threshold, the positive ions diminished the magnitude of the negative electrical potential in the interfacial water, sometimes even turning it to positive. Additionally, positive ions produced by an air conditioner were observed to generate similar effects; i.e., the electrical potential shifted in the positive direction but returned to negative when the air conditioner stopped blowing. Sometimes, the effect of the positive ions from the air conditioner was strong enough to destroy the structure of interfacial water by turning the potential decidedly positive. Thus, positive air ions can compromise interfacial water negativity and may explain the known negative impact of positive ions on health.

  20. Inherent calibration of a novel LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thalman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0. We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420–490 nm to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2, glyoxal (CHOCHO, methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO, iodine oxide (IO, water vapour (H2O and oxygen dimers (O4. We demonstrate the first CEAS detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. A further innovation consists in the measurement of extinction losses from the cavity, e.g. due to aerosols, at two wavelengths by observing O4 (477 nm and H2O (443 nm and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3–7×10-7 cm-1. Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement in open cavity mode (mirrors facing the open atmosphere, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, and/or keep the cavity enclosed and aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2

  1. Inherent calibration of a novel LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-06-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first CEAS detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. A further innovation consists in the measurement of extinction losses from the cavity, e.g. due to aerosols, at two wavelengths by observing O4 (477 nm) and H2O (443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7×10-7 cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement in open cavity mode (mirrors facing the open atmosphere), and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, and/or keep the cavity enclosed and aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction at 477 nm and 443 nm. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation

  2. Rate Constants for the Reactions of OH with CO, NO and NO2, and of HO2 with NO2 in the Presence of Water Vapour at Lower-Tropospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolletter, Michael; Fuchs, Hendrik; Novelli, Anna; Ehlers, Christian; Hofzumahaus, Andreas

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies have shown that the chemistry of gaseous nitrous acid (HONO) in the lower troposphere is not fully understood. Aside from heterogenous reactions, the daytime HONO formation in the gas-phase is not well understood (Li et al., Science, 2014). For a better understanding of HONO in the gas-phase, we have reinvestigated the reaction rate constants of important tropospheric reactions of the HOx radical family (OH and HO2) with nitrogen oxides at realistic conditions of the lower troposphere (at ambient temperature/pressure and in humid air). In this study we apply a direct pump and probe technique with high accuracy, using small radical concentrations to avoid secondary chemistry. Pulsed laser photolysis/laser-induced fluorescence (LP/LIF) was used to investigate the reaction rate constants of OH with CO, NO, NO2, and HO2 with NO2 in synthetic air at different water vapor concentrations (up to 5 x 1017 molecules cm‑3). Photolysis of ozone in the presence of gaseous water was the source of OH. The reactions took place in a flow-tube at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The chemical decay of the radicals was monitored by laser-induced fluorescence detection in a low-pressure cell, which sampled air continuously from the end of the flow-tube. Knowing the reactant concentrations subsequently allowed to calculate the bimolecular reaction rate constants at 1 atm from the pseudo-first-order decays. In order to observe HO2 reactions, OH was converted into HO2 with an excess of CO in the flow-tube. The newly measured rate constants for OH with CO, NO and NO2 agree very well with current recommendations by NASA/JPL and IUPAC and have an improved accuracy (uncertainty < 5%). These rate coefficients are independent of the presence of water vapour. The measured rate constant of HO2 with NO2 was found to depend significantly on the water-vapour concentration (probably due to formation of HO2*H2O complexes) and to exceed current recommendations by NASA/JPL and

  3. The importance of the poikilohydric nature of lichens as natural tracers for delta18O of ambient vapour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartard, Britta; Cuntz, Matthias; Lakatos, Michael; Máguas, Cristina

    2010-05-01

    The stable isotope composition of water is routinely used as a tracer to study water exchange processes in vascular plants and ecosystems. To date, no study has focussed on isotope processes in poikilohydric organisms (i.e. lichens and bryophytes), where relative water content equilibrate with the surrounding humidity conditions and that are able to use distinct water sources such as precipitation, dew, fog and also water vapour. Moreover, lichens are ubiquitous organisms, and on a global scale, they are found in nearly all terrestrial ecosystems and also within these ecosystems they inhabit many microhabitats. As poikilohydric. especially green algal lichens are known to photosynthetically reactivate solely upon uptake of atmospheric moisture, even at non-saturated ambient humidity conditions. To understand basic isotope exchange processes on non-vascular plants, thallus water isotopic composition was studied in various green-algal lichens exposed to desiccation. The study indicates that lichens equilibrates with the isotopic composition of surrounding water vapour. We found that the thallus water of lichens exposed to high relative humidity shows fast isotopic equilibration with the surrounding vapour regardless of whether the lichen experiences water loss or vapour uptake. The time until isotopic equilibrium is achieved depends on the initial water status as well as on the lichen's specific morphology. It ranged from 5 to 12h in previously dried lichens to approximately 40h in lichens previously rehydrated with liquid water of distinct isotopic composition. Even though markedly slower, isotopic equilibration between leaf water and ambient vapour may also occur in homoiohydric plants exposed to high relative humidity. At low relative humidity, however, the apparent vapour pressure deficit between the evaporative sites and the ambient air and the increased stomatal diffusion resistance generally causes leaf water enrichment. In contrast, poikilohydric lichens lack

  4. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 1: Background and equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10 was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code library for the thermodynamic properties of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air, referred to as the Sea-Ice-Air (SIA library. Here we present the background information and equations required for the determination of the properties of single phases and components as well as of phase transitions and composite systems as implemented in the library. All results are based on rigorous mathematical methods applied to the Primary Standards of the constituents, formulated as empirical thermodynamic potential functions and, except for humid air, endorsed as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS. Details of the implementation in the TEOS-10 SIA library are given in a companion paper.

  5. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air - Part 1: Background and equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wright, D. G.; Jackett, D. R.; Miyagawa, K.; Reissmann, J. H.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-07-01

    A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127) on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code library for the thermodynamic properties of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air, referred to as the Sea-Ice-Air (SIA) library. Here we present the background information and equations required for the determination of the properties of single phases and components as well as of phase transitions and composite systems as implemented in the library. All results are based on rigorous mathematical methods applied to the Primary Standards of the constituents, formulated as empirical thermodynamic potential functions and, except for humid air, endorsed as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). Details of the implementation in the TEOS-10 SIA library are given in a companion paper.

  6. Water vapour solubility and conductivity study of the proton conductor BaCe(0.9 − x)ZrxY0.1O(3 − δ)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ricote, Sandrine; Bonanos, Nikolaos; Caboche, G:

    2009-01-01

    in the sample. The direct current conductivity has been measured as a function of oxygen partial pressure, at a water vapour partial pressure of 0.015 atm. The total conductivity has been resolved into a p-type and an ionic component using a fitting procedure appropriate to the assumed defect model....... An estimation of the protonic component was made by assuming a conductivity isotope effect between 1.4 and 1.8. The total conductivity, obtained using impedance spectroscopy has been measured as a function of temperature in the water and heavy water exchanged states. The activation energy has been found to be 0......The perovskite BaCe(0.9 − x)ZrxY0.1O(3 − δ) has been prepared by solid state reaction at 1400 °C and conventional sintering at 1700 °C. Water uptake experiments performed between 400 and 600 °C, at a water vapour pressure of 0.02 atm, provide data on the concentration of protons incorporated...

  7. Validation of GOME-2/MetOp-A total water vapour column using reference radiosonde data from GRUAN network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Antón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this article is to validate the total water vapour column (TWVC measured by the Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2 satellite sensor and generated using the GOME Data Processor (GDP retrieval algorithm developed by the German Aerospace Center (DLR. For this purpose, spatially and temporally collocated TWVC data from highly accurate sounding measurements for the period January 2009–May 2014 at six sites are used. These balloon-borne data are provided by GCOS Reference Upper-Air Network (GRUAN. The correlation between GOME-2 and sounding TWVC data is reasonably good (determination coefficient (R2 of 0.89 when all available radiosondes (1400 are employed in the inter-comparison. When cloud-free cases (544 are selected by means of the satellite cloud fraction (CF, the correlation exhibits a remarkable improvement (R2 ~ 0.95. Nevertheless, analyzing the six datasets together, the relative differences between GOME-2 and GRUAN data shows mean values (in absolute term of 19% for all-sky conditions and 14% for cloud-free cases, which evidences a notable bias in the satellite TWVC data against the reference balloon-borne measurements. The satellite-sounding TWVC differences show a strong solar zenith angle (SZA dependence for values above 50° with a stable behaviour for values below this zenith angle. The smallest relative differences found in the inter-comparison (between −5 and +3% are achieved for those cloud-free cases with SZA below 50°. Furthermore, the detailed analysis of the influence of cloud properties (CF, cloud top albedo (CTA and cloud top pressure (CTP on the satellite-sounding differences reveals, as expected, a large effect of clouds in the GOME-2 TWVC data. For instance, the relative differences exhibit a large negative dependence on CTA, varying from +5 to −20% when CTA rises from 0.3 to 0.9. Finally, the satellite-sounding differences also show a negative dependence on the reference TWVC values

  8. An observational study of air and water vapour convergence over the Bernese Alps, Switzerland, during summertime and the development of isolated thunderstorms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward Graham

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The daytime summer phenomenon of the mesoscale transport of air and water vapour from the Swiss lowlands into the nearby western Alps, leading to orographic convection, is investigated using a range of independent observations. These observations are: Global Positioning System (GPS integrated water vapour (IWV data, the TROWARA microwave radiometer, MeteoSwiss ANETZ surface weather station data, the Payerne radiosonde, synoptic analyses for Switzerland and Europe, EUMETSAT and NOAA visible and infra-red satellite images, MeteoSwiss operational precipitation radar, photographs and webcam images including time-lapse cloud animations. The intention was to show, using GPS IWV data, that significant differences in IWV may occur between the Swiss plain and nearby Alps during small single-cell Alpine thunderstorm events, and that these may be attributable to regional airflow convergence. Two particular case studies are presented for closer examination: 20 June 2005 and 13 June 2006. On both days, fine and warm weather was followed by isolated orographic convection over the Alps in the afternoon and evening, producing thunderstorms. The thunderstorms investigated were generally small, local, discrete and short-lived phenomena. They were selected for study because of almost stationary position over orography, rendering easy observation because they remained contained within a particular mountain region before dissipating. The results show that large transfers of air and water vapour occur from the Swiss plain to the mountains on such days, with up to a 50% increase in GPS IWV values at individual Alpine stations, coincident with strong airflow convergence in the same locality.

  9. Low-cost and easy experiments about water in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, M.; Mazon, J.

    2012-04-01

    Atmospheric water represents only the 0,001% of the total water in the hydrosphere. Despite this tiny percentage, the physical changes water experiences in the atmosphere are essential for the conservation of this substance in our planet. Often, the understanding of the presence of water in the Earth's atmosphere and its physical changes inside this gas layer are difficult for most secondary and primary school students. We present 5 examples of simple practical activities that will facilitate students to think about and understand some important concepts about atmospheric water. Two of the basic principles to bear in mind when designing these activities are the use of cheap and easy to find materials and the simplicity of the construction and development of each activity. This simplicity makes it possible for the students to easily carry the experiments in the classroom or in the laboratory, using only a part of a class session. We think that the use of these kinds of activities enables us to work some basic concepts about atmospheric water with the students which lead to a more meaningful understanding, not only of these concepts but also of many other processes related to this part of the hydrosphere, such as meteorological phenomena, erosion, floods, etc. Here we present a brief description of the five experiments we suggest: 1- a crazy thermometer? Using water at the same temperature of the air, a piece of paper and two thermometers, we can easily "build" a dry and a wet bulb thermometer. Making questions about the differences between the temperatures of both thermometers we can understand what the air's humidity is and how we can calculate it. 2- what are clouds made of? Most of people think that clouds are made of water vapour. Observing what happens with the air above a small container filled with warm water when we approach a tray containing ice, we can conduct a Socratic dialogue that allows us to understand that clouds are made of ice or liquid water

  10. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Atmosphere Water Interactions

    KAUST Repository

    Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2011-07-04

    Understanding and quantifying the interaction of the atmosphere with underlying water surfaces is of great importance for a wide range of scientific fields such as water resources management, climate studies of ocean-atmosphere exchange, and regional weat

  11. Intensities and self-broadening coefficients of the strongest water vapour lines in the 2.7 and 6.25μm absorption bands

    OpenAIRE

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2016-01-01

    Intensities and self-broadening coefficients are presented for about 460 of the strongest water vapour lines in the spectral regions 1400–1840 cm−1 and 3440–3970 cm−1 at room temperature, obtained from rather unique measurements using a 5-mm-path-length cell. The retrieved spectral line parameters are compared with those in the HITRAN database ver. 2008 and 2012 and with recent ab-initio calculations. Both the retrieved intensities and half-widths are on average in reasonable agreement with t...

  12. Diurnal variability of water vapour in the Baltic Sea region according to NCEP-CFSR and BaltAn65+ reanalyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erko Jakobson

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Diurnal variations in water vapour in the Baltic Sea region are examined using BaltAn65+ and NCEP-CFSR reanalyses of summer (JJA data for the period 1979-2005. A systematic difference between precipitable water (PW diurnal variability above the land and the water is revealed. Above the land, PW diurnal variability has minimal values at 00 and 06 UTC, as in previous studies, whereas above the water, the minima are at 12 and 18 UTC. Diurnal variability in the vertical humidity profile is controlled by turbulent mixing and the diurnal behaviour of sea breezes. The impacts and proportions of diurnal variability of humidity are evaluated at different vertical levels.

  13. Integrated Precipitable Water Vapour Measurements At Polish Polar Station Hornsund From GPS Observations Verified By Aerological Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kruczyk Michał

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We present results of the comparison of integrated precipitable water measurements from GPS solution and aerological techniques: CIMEL-318 sun-photometer and radiosoundings (RAOB. Integrated Precipitable Water (IPW - important meteorological parameter is derived from GPS tropospheric solutions by known procedure for GPS station at Polish Polar Station, Hornsund (Svalbard. The relation between 2 m temperature and the mean temperature of atmosphere above, used to convert from wet part of tropospheric delay (ZWD to IPW, has been derived using local radiosonde data at Ny Alesund. Sunphotometer data have been provided by AERONET. Quality of dedicated tropospheric solutions has been verified by comparison with EPN tropospheric combined product. Several IPW comparisons and analyses lead to determination of systematic difference between techniques: GPS IPW and sunphotometer data (not present in case of RAOBs. IPW measured by CIMEL is on average 5% bigger (0.5 mm than IPW from GPS. This bias changes seasonally and is a function of atmospheric temperature what signals some systematic deficiencies in solar photometry as IPW retrieval technique. CIMEL IPW show some temperature dependent bias also in relation to radiosoundings.

  14. Effect of densifying the GNSS GBAS network on monitoring the troposphere zenith total delay and precipitable water vapour content during severe weather events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapłon, Jan; Stankunavicius, Gintautas

    2016-04-01

    The dense ground based augmentation networks can provide the important information for monitoring the state of neutral atmosphere. The GNSS&METEO research group at Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences (WUELS) is operating the self-developed near real-time service estimating the troposphere parameters from GNSS data for the area of Poland. The service is operational since December 2012 and it's results calculated from ASG-EUPOS GBAS network (120 stations) data are supporting the EGVAP (http://egvap.dmi.dk) project. At first the zenith troposphere delays (ZTD) were calculated in hourly intervals, but since September 2015 the service was upgraded to include SmartNet GBAS network (Leica Geosystems Polska - 150 stations). The upgrade included as well: increasing the result interval to 30 minutes, upgrade from Bernese GPS Software v. 5.0 to Bernese GNSS Software v. 5.2 and estimation of the ZTD and it's horizontal gradients. Processing includes nowadays 270 stations. The densification of network from 70 km of mean distance between stations to 40 km created the opportunity to investigate on it's impact on resolution of estimated ZTD and integrated water vapour content (IWV) fields during the weather events of high intensity. Increase in density of ZTD measurements allows to define better the meso-scale features within different synoptic systems (e.g. frontal waves, meso-scale convective systems, squall lines etc). These meso-scale structures, as a rule are short living but fast developing and hardly predictable by numerical models. Even so, such limited size systems can produce very hazardous phenomena - like widespread squalls and thunderstorms, tornadoes, heavy rains, snowfalls, hail etc. because of prevalence of Cb clouds with high concentration of IWV. Study deals with two meteorological events: 2015-09-01 with the devastating squalls and rainfall bringing 2M Euro loss of property in northern Poland and 2015-10-12 with the very active front bringing

  15. Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Thalman

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0. We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420–490 nm to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2, glyoxal (CHOCHO, methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO, iodine oxide (IO, water vapour (H2O and oxygen dimers (O4. We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The instrument is further inherently calibrated for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3–7 × 10−7cm−1. Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype

  16. Inherent calibration of a blue LED-CE-DOAS instrument to measure iodine oxide, glyoxal, methyl glyoxal, nitrogen dioxide, water vapour and aerosol extinction in open cavity mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thalman, R.; Volkamer, R.

    2010-12-01

    The combination of Cavity Enhanced Absorption Spectroscopy (CEAS) with broad-band light sources (e.g. Light-Emitting Diodes, LEDs) lends itself to the application of cavity enhanced Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (CE-DOAS) to perform sensitive and selective point measurements of multiple trace gases and aerosol extinction with a single instrument. In contrast to other broad-band CEAS techniques, CE-DOAS relies only on the measurement of relative intensity changes, i.e. does not require knowledge of the light intensity in the absence of trace gases and aerosols (I0). We have built a prototype LED-CE-DOAS instrument in the blue spectral range (420-490 nm) to measure nitrogen dioxide (NO2), glyoxal (CHOCHO), methyl glyoxal (CH3COCHO), iodine oxide (IO), water vapour (H2O) and oxygen dimers (O4). We demonstrate the first direct detection of methyl glyoxal, and the first CE-DOAS detection of CHOCHO and IO. The instrument is further inherently calibrated for light extinction from the cavity by observing O4 or H2O (at 477 nm and 443 nm) and measuring the pressure, relative humidity and temperature independently. This approach is demonstrated by experiments where laboratory aerosols of known size and refractive index were generated and their extinction measured. The measured extinctions were then compared to the theoretical extinctions calculated using Mie theory (3-7 × 10-7cm-1). Excellent agreement is found from both the O4 and H2O retrievals. This enables the first inherently calibrated CEAS measurement at blue wavelengths in open cavity mode, and eliminates the need for sampling lines to supply air to the cavity, i.e., keep the cavity enclosed and/or aerosol free. Measurements in open cavity mode are demonstrated for CHOCHO, CH3COCHO, NO2, H2O and aerosol extinction. Our prototype LED-CE-DOAS provides a low cost, yet research grade innovative instrument for applications in simulation chambers and in the open atmosphere.

  17. Leaf Stomatal Responses to Vapour Pressure Deficit Under Current and CO2- Enriched Atmosphere Explained by the Economics of gas Exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmroth, S.; Katul, G. G.; Oren, R.

    2008-12-01

    Climate models predict that warming caused by increasing atmospheric greenhouse gases will not be accompanied with a change in atmospheric relative humidity (RH) but will cause an exponential increase in vapor pressure deficit (D). Predictions of water cycling in future climates are sensitive to the response of stomatal conductance (g) to all these changes. In currently used ecosystem models, the simulation of CO2 and water vapor exchange through stomata is typically based on empirical or semi-empirical stomatal responses to environmental stimuli. Depending on the formulation, stomata respond to either D or RH and, consequently, g predicted under future climate scenarios will greatly differ. In difference to the semi- empirical formulations of g, the tradeoffs between leaf-level carbon gain in photosynthesis and water loss in transpiration can be analyzed using the economics of gas exchange. First presented by Cowan (1977) and Cowan and Farquhar (1977; hereafter CF77) and reformulated by Berninger and Hari (1993; hereafter BH93), the cost (water loss) to benefit (carbon gain) analysis was framed as an economic optimization where the daily carbon gain is maximized for a given loss of water. While the assumptions on the form of the underlying functions differ between CF77 and BH93, we show that the optimal solutions can be made identical where the solution is independent of the time scale of flux integration. The stomatal control over gas exchange is described through a concept of invariant 'cost of water', without a priori specification of stomatal response to D or atmospheric CO2. The expressions are "emergent properties" of the optimization theory. These emergent responses are compared with data from studies from a wide range of conditions and are shown to be consistent with (1) the onset of an apparent "feed-forward" mechanism, (2) the sensitivity of stomatal conductance to D, and (3) the nonlinear variation in intercellular CO2 concentration with increasing D

  18. Intensities and self-broadening coefficients of the strongest water vapour lines in the 2.7 and 6.25 μm absorption bands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ptashnik, Igor V.; McPheat, Robert; Polyansky, Oleg L.; Shine, Keith P.; Smith, Kevin M.

    2016-07-01

    Intensities and self-broadening coefficients are presented for about 460 of the strongest water vapour lines in the spectral regions 1400-1840 cm-1 and 3440-3970 cm-1 at room temperature, obtained from rather unique measurements using a 5-mm-path-length cell. The retrieved spectral line parameters are compared with those in the HITRAN database ver. 2008 and 2012 and with recent ab-initio calculations. Both the retrieved intensities and half-widths are on average in reasonable agreement with those in HITRAN-2012. Maximum systematic differences do not exceed 4% for intensities (1600 cm-1 band) and 7% for self-broadening coefficients (3600 cm-1 band). For many lines however significant disagreements were detected with the HITRAN-2012 data, exceeding the average uncertainty of the retrieval. In addition, water vapour line parameters for 5300 cm-1 (1.9 μm) band reported by us in 2005 were also compared with HITRAN-2012, and show average differences of 4-5% for both intensities and half-widths.

  19. Characterization of simultaneous heat and mass transfer phenomena for water vapour condensation on a solid surface in an abiotic environment--application to bioprocesses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Akhilesh; Kondjoyan, Alain; Fontaine, Jean-Pierre

    2012-07-01

    The phenomenon of heat and mass transfer by condensation of water vapour from humid air involves several key concepts in aerobic bioreactors. The high performance of bioreactors results from optimised interactions between biological processes and multiphase heat and mass transfer. Indeed in various processes such as submerged fermenters and solid-state fermenters, gas/liquid transfer need to be well controlled, as it is involved at the microorganism interface and for the control of the global process. For the theoretical prediction of such phenomena, mathematical models require heat and mass transfer coefficients. To date, very few data have been validated concerning mass transfer coefficients from humid air inflows relevant to those bioprocesses. Our study focussed on the condensation process of water vapour and developed an experimental set-up and protocol to study the velocity profiles and the mass flux on a small size horizontal flat plate in controlled environmental conditions. A closed circuit wind tunnel facility was used to control the temperature, hygrometry and hydrodynamics of the flow. The temperature of the active surface was controlled and kept isothermal below the dew point to induce condensation, by the use of thermoelectricity. The experiments were performed at ambient temperature for a relative humidity between 35-65% and for a velocity of 1.0 ms⁻¹. The obtained data are analysed and compared to available theoretical calculations on condensation mass flux.

  20. New particle formation during α- and β-pinene oxidation by O3, OH and NO3, and the influence of water vapour: particle size distribution studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Moortgat

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation during the oxidation of a- and b-pinene (C10H16 by ozone, OH and NO3 was studied by measuring the particle size distributions with a scanning mobility particle sizer (TSI 3936. The results indicate a drastically higher nucleation potential of the ozonolysis than in the reaction with either OH or NO3. On the contrary, the contribution of the individual oxidation reactions to form new aerosol volume was found to depend on the location of the carbon double bond to be oxidized: for the endocyclic a-pinene reactions the ozonolysis contributed mostly to the aerosol volume yield, whereas for the exocyclic b-pinene reactions the oxidation by O3, OH and NO3 yielded a similar aerosol volume. In a second part of this study the influence of water vapour on the nucleation in all three possible oxidation routes was examined. The observations revealed only an effect of water vapour during the ozonolysis reactions.

  1. Impact of Pt additives on the surface reactions between SnO2, water vapour, CO and H2; an operando investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Großmann, Katharina; Wicker, Susanne; Weimar, Udo; Barsan, Nicolae

    2013-11-28

    The impact of Pt doping on the surface reactions between tin dioxide, water vapour, CO and H2 was investigated by a combination of simultaneously performed operando DRIFT (Diffuse Reflectance Infrared Fourier Transform) spectroscopy, DC resistance measurements and analysis of the reaction products by using a MS (Mass Spectrometer). Both undoped and Pt doped tin dioxide sensors were exposed to different test gases in synthetic air or in N2 backgrounds. The approach made it possible to identify the differences between the two materials with respect to their surface chemistry and their impact on the gas sensing performance. The main finding is that the presence of Pt changes the reaction partners' nature for water vapour and H2 on the one hand, and CO on the other hand when the sensors are operated in air. In this way the cross interference effect of humidity, which is responsible for the loss of CO sensing performance for the sensors based on undoped SnO2, is reversed. PMID:24105035

  2. A Novel Satellite Mission Concept for Upper Air Water Vapour, Aerosol and Cloud Observations Using Integrated Path Differential Absorption LiDAR Limb Sounding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Weitnauer

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new satellite mission to deliver high quality measurements of upper air water vapour. The concept centres around a LiDAR in limb sounding by occultation geometry, designed to operate as a very long path system for differential absorption measurements. We present a preliminary performance analysis with a system sized to send 75 mJ pulses at 25 Hz at four wavelengths close to 935 nm, to up to 5 microsatellites in a counter-rotating orbit, carrying retroreflectors characterized by a reflected beam divergence of roughly twice the emitted laser beam divergence of 15 µrad. This provides water vapour profiles with a vertical sampling of 110 m; preliminary calculations suggest that the system could detect concentrations of less than 5 ppm. A secondary payload of a fairly conventional medium resolution multispectral radiometer allows wide-swath cloud and aerosol imaging. The total weight and power of the system are estimated at 3 tons and 2,700 W respectively. This novel concept presents significant challenges, including the performance of the lasers in space, the tracking between the main spacecraft and the retroreflectors, the refractive effects of turbulence, and the design of the telescopes to achieve a high signal-to-noise ratio for the high precision measurements. The mission concept was conceived at the Alpbach Summer School 2010.

  3. The Liquid Vapour Interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Als-Nielsen, Jens Aage

    1985-01-01

    In this short review we are concerned with the density variation across the liquid-vapour interface, i.e. from the bulk density of the liquid to the essentially zero density of the vapour phase. This density variation can in principle be determined from the deviation of the reflectivity from...

  4. Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in-situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign at OHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Bock

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement (DEMEVAP project aims at assessing and improving humidity sounding techniques and establishing a reference system based on the combination of Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. Such a system may be used for climate monitoring, radiosonde bias detection and correction, satellite measurement calibration/validation, and mm-level geodetic positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A field experiment was conducted in September–October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence. Two Raman lidars, a stellar spectrometer (SOPHIE, a differential absorption spectrometer (SAOZ, a sun photometer (AERONET, 5 GPS receivers and 4 types of radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White participated in the campaign. A total of 26 balloons with multiple radiosondes were flown during 16 clear nights. This paper presents preliminary findings from the analysis of all these datasets. Several classical Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which use either Vaisala RS92 measurements, point capacitive humidity measurements, or GPS integrated water vapour (IWV measurements. A novel method proposed by Bosser et al. (2010 is also tested. It consists in calibrating the lidar measurements during the GPS data processing. The methods achieve a repeatability of 4–5%. A drift in the IGN-LATMOS Raman lidar calibration of 15% over the 45 days of the experiment is evidenced but not yet explained. When this drift is removed, the precision of the calibration factors improves to 2–3%. However, the variations in the absolute calibration factor between methods and types of reference data remain at the level of 7%. The intercomparison of radiosonde measurements shows good agreement between RS92 and Snow-White measurements up to 12 km. An overall dry bias is found in the measurements from both MODEM radiosondes. Investigation of situations with low RH values (<10% in

  5. Controlling suction by vapour equilibrium technique at different temperatures, application to the determination of the water retention properties of MX80 clay

    CERN Document Server

    Tang, Anh-Minh

    2005-01-01

    Problems related to unsaturated soils are frequently encountered in geotechnical or environmental engineering works. In most cases, for the purpose of simplicity, the problems are studied by considering the suction effects on volume change or shear strength under isothermal conditions. Under isothermal condition, very often, a temperature independent water retention curve is considered in the analysis, which is obviously a simplification. When the temperature changes are too significant to be neglected, it is necessary to account for the thermal effects. In this paper, a method for controlling suction using the vapour equilibrium technique at different temperatures is presented. First, calibration of various saturated saline solutions was carried out from temperature of 20 degrees C to 60 degrees C. A mirror psychrometer was used for the measurement of relative humidity generated by saturated saline solutions at different temperatures. The results obtained are in good agreement with the data from the literatu...

  6. Determining Atmospheric Pressure Using a Water Barometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohrengel, C. Frederick, II; Larson, Paul R.

    2012-01-01

    The atmosphere is an envelope of compressible gases that surrounds Earth. Because of its compressibility and nonuniform heating by the Sun, it is in constant motion. The atmosphere exerts pressure on Earth's surface, but that pressure is in constant flux. This experiment allows students to directly measure atmospheric pressure by measuring the…

  7. Well-controlled metal co-catalysts synthesised by chemical vapour impregnation for photocatalytic hydrogen production and water purification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ren; Forde, Michael M; He, Qian; Shen, Yanbin; Wang, Xueqin; Dimitratos, Nikolaos; Wendt, Stefan; Huang, Yudong; Iversen, Bo B; Kiely, Christopher J; Besenbacher, Flemming; Hutchings, Graham J

    2014-10-28

    As co-catalyst materials, metal nanoparticles (NPs) play crucial roles in heterogeneous photocatalysis. The photocatalytic performance strongly relies on the physical properties (i.e., composition, microstructure, and surface impurities) of the metal NPs. Here we report a convenient chemical vapour impregnation (CVI) approach for the deposition of monometallic-, alloyed, and core-shell structured metal co-catalysts onto the TiO2 photocatalyst. The as-synthesised metal NPs are highly dispersed on the support and show narrow size distributions, which suit photocatalysis applications. More importantly, the surfaces of the as-synthesised metal NPs are free of protecting ligands, enabling the photocatalysts to be ready to use without further treatment. The effect of the metal identity, the alloy chemical composition, and the microstructure on the photocatalytic performance has been investigated for hydrogen production and phenol decomposition. Whilst the photocatalytic H2 production performance can be greatly enhanced by using the core-shell structured co-catalyst (Pdshell-Aucore and Ptshell-Aucore), the Ptshell-Aucore modified TiO2 yields enhanced quantum efficiency but a reduced effective decomposition of phenol to CO2 compared to that of the monometallic counterparts. We consider the CVI approach provides a feasible and elegant process for the decoration of photocatalyst materials. PMID:24970298

  8. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias R.; Gilles, Marry K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-25

    Atmospheric ice formation induced by particles with complex chemical and physical properties through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by ambient particles collected from urban environments in Los Angeles and Mexico City are presented. Using a vapour controlled cooling system equipped with an optical microscopy, the range of onset conditions for ice nucleation and water uptake by the collected particles was determined as a function of temperature (200{273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice) up to water saturation. Three distinctly different types of authentic atmospheric particles were investigated including soot particles associated with organics/inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn containing inorganic particles apportioned to anthropogenic emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption ne structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, signicant differences in water uptake and immersion freezing effciencies of the different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, the particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation effciencies and formed ice at RHice values well below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data show that the chemical composition of these eld{collected particles plays an important role in determining water uptake and immersion freezing. Heterogeneous ice nucleation rate coeffcients, cumulative ice nuclei (IN) spectrum, and IN activated fraction for deposition ice nucleation are derived. The presented ice nucleation data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine particles comprising of various chemical and physical properties exhibit distinctly different ice

  9. Modelling vapour transport in Surtseyan bombs

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuinness, Mark J.; Greenbank, Emma; Schipper, C. Ian

    2016-05-01

    We address questions that arise if a slurry containing liquid water is enclosed in a ball of hot viscous vesicular magma ejected as a bomb in the context of a Surtseyan eruption. We derive a mathematical model for transient changes in temperature and pressure due to flashing of liquid water to vapour inside the bomb. The magnitude of the transient pressure changes that are typically generated are calculated together with their dependence on material properties. A single criterion to determine whether the bomb will fragment as a result of the pressure changes is derived. Timescales for ejection of water vapour from a bomb that remains intact are also revealed.

  10. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of water, vapour, ice, seawater and air – Part 1: Background and equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Feistel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10 was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code library for the thermodynamic properties of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air, referred to as the Sea-Ice-Air (SIA library. Here we present the background information and equations required for the determination of the properties of single phases and components as well as of phase transitions and composite systems as implemented in the library. All results are based on rigorous mathematical methods applied to the Primary Standards of the constituents, formulated as empirical thermodynamic potential functions and, except for humid air, endorsed as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS. Details of the implementation in the TEOS-10 SIA library are given in a companion paper.

  11. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of water, vapour, ice, seawater and air - Part 1: Background and equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feistel, R.; Wright, D. G.; Jackett, D. R.; Miyagawa, K.; Reissmann, J. H.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-03-01

    A new seawater standard referred to as the International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater 2010 (TEOS-10) was adopted in June 2009 by UNESCO/IOC on its 25th General Assembly in Paris, as recommended by the SCOR/IAPSO Working Group 127 (WG127) on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater. To support the adoption process, WG127 has developed a comprehensive source code library for the thermodynamic properties of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air, referred to as the Sea-Ice-Air (SIA) library. Here we present the background information and equations required for the determination of the properties of single phases and components as well as of phase transitions and composite systems as implemented in the library. All results are based on rigorous mathematical methods applied to the Primary Standards of the constituents, formulated as empirical thermodynamic potential functions and, except for humid air, endorsed as Releases of the International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). Details of the implementation in the TEOS-10 SIA library are given in a companion paper.

  12. Investigation of sodium iodide hydration and dehydration in moist atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of different factors on NaI hydration and dehydration kinetics under nonequilibrium conditions is studied. NaIx2H2O solid or homogeneous solution is established to be formed at sodium iodide interaction with water vapour depending on air humidity. At low humidity water absorption is not observed. Effect of water vapour pressure, the NaI particle size, the air flux rate over a salt on the absorption rate is studied. The latter points to process rate limitation by diffusion in a gaseous phase. The NaI solution decomposition at light with iodine formation is marked. The character of NaIx2H2O dehydration depends on water vapour removing from the over-salt space. Total water removing before and after crystal hydrate thermal degradation when aqueous solution evaporation occurs, is possible. At 143 deg C the water vapour pressure over solution equals the atmospheric one

  13. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO2-rich atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Wordsworth, Robin; Pierrehumbert, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on a range of atmospheric and external parameters. We show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the mi...

  14. Ultrafast vapourization dynamics of laser-activated polymeric microcapsules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajoinie, Guillaume; Gelderblom, Erik; Chlon, Ceciel; Böhmer, Marcel; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; de Jong, Nico; Manohar, Srirang; Versluis, Michel

    2014-04-01

    Precision control of vapourization, both in space and time, has many potential applications; however, the physical mechanisms underlying controlled boiling are not well understood. The reason is the combined microscopic length scales and ultrashort timescales associated with the initiation and subsequent dynamical behaviour of the vapour bubbles formed. Here we study the nanoseconds vapour bubble dynamics of laser-heated single oil-filled microcapsules using coupled optical and acoustic detection. Pulsed laser excitation leads to vapour formation and collapse, and a simple physical model captures the observed radial dynamics and resulting acoustic pressures. Continuous wave laser excitation leads to a sequence of vapourization/condensation cycles, the result of absorbing microcapsule fragments moving in and out of the laser beam. A model incorporating thermal diffusion from the capsule shell into the oil core and surrounding water reveals the mechanisms behind the onset of vapourization. Excellent agreement is observed between the modelled dynamics and experiment.

  15. Accuracy assessment of water vapour measurements from in-situ and remote sensing techniques during the DEMEVAP 2011 campaign at OHP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bock, O.; Bosser, P.; Bourcy, T.; David, L.; Goutail, F.; Hoareau, C.; Keckhut, P.; Legain, D.; Pazmino, A.; Pelon, J.; Pipis, K.; Poujol, G.; Sarkissian, A.; Thom, C.; Tournois, G.; Tzanos, D.

    2013-04-01

    The Development of Methodologies for Water Vapour Measurement (DEMEVAP) project aims at assessing and improving humidity sounding techniques and establishing a reference system based on the combination of Raman lidars, ground-based sensors and GPS. Such a system may be used for climate monitoring, radiosonde bias detection and correction, satellite measurement calibration/validation, and mm-level geodetic positioning with Global Navigation Satellite Systems. A field experiment was conducted in September-October 2011 at Observatoire de Haute Provence. Two Raman lidars, a stellar spectrometer (SOPHIE), a differential absorption spectrometer (SAOZ), a sun photometer (AERONET), 5 GPS receivers and 4 types of radiosondes (Vaisala RS92, MODEM M2K2-DC and M10, and Meteolabor Snow-White) participated in the campaign. A total of 26 balloons with multiple radiosondes were flown during 16 clear nights. This paper presents preliminary findings from the analysis of all these datasets. Several classical Raman lidar calibration methods are evaluated which use either Vaisala RS92 measurements, point capacitive humidity measurements, or GPS integrated water vapour (IWV) measurements. A novel method proposed by Bosser et al. (2010) is also tested. It consists in calibrating the lidar measurements during the GPS data processing. The methods achieve a repeatability of 4-5%. A drift in the IGN-LATMOS Raman lidar calibration of 15% over the 45 days of the experiment is evidenced but not yet explained. When this drift is removed, the precision of the calibration factors improves to 2-3%. However, the variations in the absolute calibration factor between methods and types of reference data remain at the level of 7%. The intercomparison of radiosonde measurements shows good agreement between RS92 and Snow-White measurements up to 12 km. An overall dry bias is found in the measurements from both MODEM radiosondes. Investigation of situations with low RH values (GPS IWV, while the MODEM

  16. Effects of drought and changes in vapour pressure deficit on water relations of Populusdeltoides growing in ambient and elevated CO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), changes in the earth's climate are expected to become more extreme as carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations increase over the next century. This study examined the means by which growth CO2 concentration affects anatomy and water relation responses to drought and vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Yearly coppiced, 4-year-old Populus deltoides clones grown in either ambient or elevated CO2 for 3 years were examined to determine if trees growing in elevated CO2 during drought would have a lower volume flux density of water (JV), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration per leaf area (E), as well as a lower stomatal density and a greater stomatal response to drought and changes in VPD than would trees in ambient CO2. The study showed that trees in elevated CO2 actually had higher JV values, but did not differ from trees in ambient CO2 in terms of gs or E under saturating light or E scaled from JV. The higher JV in elevated CO2 was attributed to the greater leaf area in the trees and not from differences in gs. Plants in elevated CO2 had greater absolute leaf loss during the drought, but the percentage of leaf area lost was similar to that of trees in ambient CO2. Under saturating light, gs and E were influenced by changes in VPD after the first 9 days of the experiment, which coincided with a large decrease in water potential. It was concluded that longer-term growth of P. deltoides clone under elevated CO2 did not improve the effects of drought and high VPD on plant and water relations. 56 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  17. Interactive effects of soil water deficit and air vapour pressure deficit on mesophyll conductance to CO2 in Vitis vinifera and Olea europaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Martin, A; Flexas, J; Ribas-Carbó, M; Bota, J; Tomás, M; Infante, J M; Diaz-Espejo, A

    2009-01-01

    The present work aims to study the interactive effect of drought stress and high vapour pressure deficit (VPD) on leaf gas exchange, and especially on mesophyll conductance to CO(2) (g(m)), in two woody species of great agronomical importance in the Mediterranean basin: Vitis vinifera L. cv. Tempranillo and Olea europaea L. cv. Manzanilla. Plants were grown in specially designed outdoor chambers with ambient and below ambient VPD, under both well-irrigated and drought conditions. g(m) was estimated by the variable J method from simultaneous measurements of gas exchange and fluorescence. In both species, the response to soil water deficit was larger in g(s) than in g(m), and more important than the response to VPD. Olea europaea was apparently more sensitive to VPD, so that plants growing in more humid chambers showed higher g(s) and g(m). In V. vinifera, in contrast, soil water deficit dominated the response of g(s) and g(m). Consequently, changes in g(m)/g(s) were more related to VPD in O. europaea and to soil water deficit in V. vinifera. Most of the limitations of photosynthesis were diffusional and especially due to stomatal closure. No biochemical limitation was detected. The results showed that structural parameters played an important role in determining g(m) during the acclimation process. Although the relationship between leaf mass per unit area (M(A)) with g(m) was scattered, it imposed a limitation to the maximum g(m) achievable, with higher values of M(A) in O. europaea at lower g(m) values. M(A) decreased under water stress in O. europaea but it increased in V. vinifera. This resulted in a negative relationship between M(A) and the CO(2) draw-down between substomatal cavities and chloroplasts in O. europaea, while being positive in V. vinifera. PMID:19457982

  18. Effects of drought and changes in vapour pressure deficit on water relations of Populusdeltoides growing in ambient and elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobich, E.G.; Barron-Gafford, G.A.; Rascher, K.G. [Columbia Univ., Oracle, AZ (United States). Biosphere 2 Center; Murthy, R. [Columbia Univ., Oracle, AZ (United States). Biosphere 2 Center, Earth and Environmental Sciences, Lamont-Doherty Earth Observatory

    2010-07-15

    According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), changes in the earth's climate are expected to become more extreme as carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations increase over the next century. This study examined the means by which growth CO{sub 2} concentration affects anatomy and water relation responses to drought and vapour pressure deficit (VPD). Yearly coppiced, 4-year-old Populus deltoides clones grown in either ambient or elevated CO{sub 2} for 3 years were examined to determine if trees growing in elevated CO{sub 2} during drought would have a lower volume flux density of water (JV), stomatal conductance (gs) and transpiration per leaf area (E), as well as a lower stomatal density and a greater stomatal response to drought and changes in VPD than would trees in ambient CO{sub 2}. The study showed that trees in elevated CO{sub 2} actually had higher JV values, but did not differ from trees in ambient CO{sub 2} in terms of gs or E under saturating light or E scaled from JV. The higher JV in elevated CO{sub 2} was attributed to the greater leaf area in the trees and not from differences in gs. Plants in elevated CO{sub 2} had greater absolute leaf loss during the drought, but the percentage of leaf area lost was similar to that of trees in ambient CO{sub 2}. Under saturating light, gs and E were influenced by changes in VPD after the first 9 days of the experiment, which coincided with a large decrease in water potential. It was concluded that longer-term growth of P. deltoides clone under elevated CO{sub 2} did not improve the effects of drought and high VPD on plant and water relations. 56 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  19. WATER FORMATION IN THE UPPER ATMOSPHERE OF THE EARLY EARTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleury, Benjamin; Carrasco, Nathalie; Marcq, Emmanuel; Vettier, Ludovic; Määttänen, Anni, E-mail: benjamin.fleury@latmos.ipsl.fr [Université Versailles St-Quentin, Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, CNRS/INSU, LATMOS-IPSL, 11 Boulevard d’Alembert, F-78280 Guyancourt (France)

    2015-07-10

    The water concentration and distribution in the early Earth's atmosphere are important parameters that contribute to the chemistry and the radiative budget of the atmosphere. If the atmosphere above the troposphere is generally considered as dry, photochemistry is known to be responsible for the production of numerous minor species. Here we used an experimental setup to study the production of water in conditions simulating the chemistry above the troposphere of the early Earth with an atmospheric composition based on three major molecules: N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2}. The formation of gaseous products was monitored using infrared spectroscopy. Water was found as the major product, with approximately 10% of the gas products detected. This important water formation is discussed in the context of the early Earth.

  20. Analysis of carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy fluxes over an Indian teak mixed deciduous forest for winter and summer months using eddy covariance technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Chandra Shekhar Jha; Kiran Chand Thumaty; Suraj Reddy Rodda; Ajit Sonakia; Vinay Kumar Dadhwal

    2013-10-01

    In the present study, we report initial results on analysis of carbon dioxide (CO2), water vapour (H2O), and energy fluxes (sensible and latent heat flux) over teak mixed deciduous forests of Madhya Pradesh, central India, during winter (November 2011 and January 2012) and summer (February–May 2012) seasons using eddy covariance flux tower datasets. During the study period, continuous fast response measurements of CO2, H2O and heat fluxes above the canopy were carried out at 10 Hz and averaged for 30 minutes. Concurrently, slow response measurements of meteorological parameters are also being carried out. Diurnal and seasonal variations of CO2, H2O and heat fluxes were analysed and correlated with the meteorological variables. The study showed strong influence of leaf off and on scenario on the CO2, H2O and energy fluxes due to prevalence of deciduous vegetation type in the study area. Maximum amount of CO2 was sequestered for photosynthesis during winter (monthly mean of −25 mol/m2/s) compared to summer (monthly mean of −2 mol/m2/s). Energy flux analysis (weekly mean) showed more energy being portioned into latent heat during winter (668 W/m2) and sensible heat during summer (718 W/m2).

  1. Robust, spatially scanning, open-path TDLAS hygrometer using retro-reflective foils for fast tomographic 2-D water vapour concentration field measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Seidel

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a fast, spatially direct scanning tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (dTDLAS that combines four polygon-mirror based scanning units with low-cost retro-reflective foils. With this instrument, tomographic measurements of absolute 2-D water vapour concentration profiles are possible without any calibration using a reference gas. A spatial area of 0.8 m × 0.8 m was covered, which allows for application in soil physics, where greenhouse gas emission from certain soil structures shall be monitored. The whole concentration field was measured with up to 2.5 Hz. In this paper, we present the setup and spectroscopic performance of the instrument regarding the influence of the polygon rotation speed and mode on the absorption signal. Homogeneous H2O distributions were measured and compared to a single channel, bi-static reference TDLAS spectrometer for validation of the instrument. Good accuracy and precision with errors of less than 6% of the absolute concentration and length and bandwidth normalized detection limits of up to 1.1 ppmv · m · √Hz−1 were achieved. The spectrometer is a robust and easy to set up instrument for tomographic reconstructions of 2-D-concentration fields that can be considered a good basis for future field measurements in environmental research.

  2. Mercury(II) and methyl mercury determinations in water and fish samples by using solid phase extraction and cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuzen, Mustafa; Karaman, Isa; Citak, Demirhan; Soylak, Mustafa

    2009-07-01

    A method has been developed for mercury(II) and methyl mercury speciation on Staphylococcus aureus loaded Dowex Optipore V-493 micro-column in the presented work, by using cold vapour atomic absorption spectrometry. Selective and sequential elution with 0.1 molL(-1) HCl for methyl mercury and 2 molL(-1) HCl for mercury(II) were performed at the pH range of 2-6. Optimal analytical conditions including pH, amounts of biosorbent, sample volumes were investigated. The detection limits of the analytes were 2.5 ngL(-1) for Hg(II) and 1.7 ngL(-1) for methyl mercury. The capacity of biosorbent for mercury(II) and methyl mercury was 6.5 and 5.4 mgg(-1), respectively. The validation of the presented procedure is performed by the analysis of standard reference material. The speciation procedure established was successfully applied to the speciation of mercury(II) and methyl mercury in natural water and microwave digested fish samples.

  3. Characterisation and source attribution of the semi-volatile organic content of atmospheric particles and associated vapour phase in Birmingham, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrad, Stuart; Hassoun, Suzanne; Callén Romero, María. S.; Harrison, Roy M.

    Concentrations of n-alkanes, petroleum biomarkers such as hopanes and steranes, n-alkanoic acids, n-alkanols, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), dicarboxylic acids, and selected oxygenated PAH were separately determined in total suspended particulate matter and associated vapour phase in ambient air in Birmingham, UK. Samples were taken simultaneously at two locations on 24 separate occasions every 1-2 weeks between August 1999 and August 2000. Site A was 10 m from a busy road, 800 m from site B that was located within the "green space" of the University of Birmingham campus. Despite some differences in concentrations of some compounds, data from this study is in line with that reported in London, UK and in California. Differences between Sites A and B in both concentrations and carbon preference indices are consistent with greater traffic inputs at Site A, with some evidence of an appreciable biogenic input of n-alkanols and n-alkanes at the less-traffic influenced and more vegetated Site B. The biogenic input at Site B appears greater in the spring and summer months and suggests that biogenic emissions are appreciable even in British urban areas. Secondary formation mechanisms for some compounds including dicarboxylic acids and oxygenated PAH like fluoren-9-one are indicated by the lack of any significant intersite difference in concentrations. Intersite differences in concentrations provide new evidence that while petroleum biomarkers arise predominantly from local traffic, regional as well as local sources play an important rôle for the higher molecular weight PAH which exist predominantly in the particle phase.

  4. Dependence of Water Vapour Adsorption on the Polarity of the Graphene Surfaces of Multi-wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, Robert H. [University of Oxford; Andreu, Aurik [The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 1FR, U.K.; Cassity, Kelby [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Osbeck, Susan [The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen AB10 1FR, U.K.; Andrews, Rodney [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Meier, Mark [University of Kentucky, Lexington; Johnston, C [University of Oxford

    2010-01-01

    The adsorption of water by the graphene surfaces of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in either the untreated (4.3 atom% oxygen) or oxidised (22.3 atom% oxygen) surface states has been studied. Different concentrations of surface oxygen groups, which have been directly measured using XPS, give rise to distinctly different shapes of water adsorption isotherms. Those from the untreated materials follow the pressure axis which lends them a Type III character in the BDDT classification. However, since they display a clear point of inflection at the lowest pressure, they are strictly speaking Type II isotherms but indicative of relatively few polar interactions and weak water adsorptivity. In sharp contrast, the isotherms from the oxidised MWCNTs are typically Type II and are characterised by a marked positive curvature in their low pressure region due to the increased numbers of specific interactions occurring between water molecules and the polar surface oxygen groups. The water adsorption data were modelled by the equation of D'Arcy and Watt with a direct correlation being observed between the surface polarity parameters (amL and a0) and also as (the limiting water uptake) and the surface oxygen levels of the MWCNTs. The difference in polar surface energy was confirmed by measurements of the calorimetric enthalpies of immersion in water ( hi), which were -54 mJ/m2 for the untreated and -192 mJ/m2 for the oxidised materials. These values also reflect the difference in the integral net enthalpies of adsorption for the two hydrophilic surfaces: a value of ca. -35 mJ/m2 being obtained for an oxygen-free (hydrophobic) surface. Water adsorption on these hydrophilic graphene surfaces was shown to occur by specific hydrogen bonding and was therefore strongly dependent on the numbers of oxygen-containing polar surface sites. This behaviour is well known for other types of porous and non-porous carbon materials and is also predicted for carbon nanotubes by molecular

  5. Combined Daily Monitoring of Aerosol Optical Depths and Water Vapour Column Content during LACE 98 and LITFASS 98 Experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Novikov, V V; Alekseeva, G A; Galkin, V D; Güldner, J; Naebert, T; Service, German Weather; Observatory, Meteorological; Lindenberg,; Germany,; Sciences, Russian Academy of; Observatory, Pulkovo; Petersburg, St; Russia,

    2010-01-01

    During summer of 1998 two large-scale complex campaigns, LITFASS98 (May 25th to June 22nd) and LACE98 (July 13th to August 14th), took place at the Meteorological Observatory Lindenberg (MOL). The aim of both experiments focus on the intensive daily observations of atmospheric conditions and the determination of their fundamental meteorological parameters in the vertical column over Lindenberg (Lindenberg's Column). About 20 German research institutions and addition one from the Netherlands, Austria and Russia participated at the experiments. A wide variety of ground-based instruments was operated in Lindenberg and Falkenberg, including LIDARs, microwave radiometer and radiosondes complemented by tethered balloons and aircraft measurements. For the first time the star- and sunphotometer of MOL were used together with other geophysical tools. The observations with both photometers were carried out practically every day and night except during absolutely overcast conditions. The observed data were processed imm...

  6. Feasibility of using ammonia-water mixture in high temperature concentrated solar power plants with direct vapour generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Modi, Anish; Knudsen, Thomas; Haglind, Fredrik;

    2014-01-01

    two cases are compared for the analysis: a simple Rankine cycle and an ammonia-water cycle with a separator for varying the ammonia mass fraction within the cycle. Thermodynamic simulations are performed using Aspen Plus and MATLAB, and performances in terms of overall plant efficiency are evaluated...

  7. Factors governing water condensation in the Martian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colburn, David S.; Pollack, J. B.; Haberle, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    Modeling results are presented suggesting a diurnal condensation cycle at high altitudes at some seasons and latitudes. In a previous paper, the use of atmospheric optical depth measurements at the Viking lander site to show diurnal variability of water condensation at different seasons of the Mars year was described. Factors influencing the amount of condensation include latitude, season, atmospheric dust content and water vapor content at the observation site. A one-dimensional radiative-convective model is used herein based on the diabatic heating routines under development for the Mars General Circulation Model. The model predicts atmospheric temperature profiles at any latitude, season, time of day and dust load. From these profiles and an estimate of the water vapor, one can estimate the maximum occurring at an early morning hour (AM) and the minimum in the late afternoon (PM). Measured variations in the atmospheric optical density between AM and PM measurements were interpreted as differences in AM and PM condensation.

  8. An unstructured finite volume solver for two phase water/vapour flows based on an elliptic oriented fractional step method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on experience gained at EDF and Cea, a more general and robust 3-dimensional (3D) multiphase flow solver has been being currently developed for over three years. This solver, based on an elliptic oriented fractional step approach, is able to simulate multicomponent/multiphase flows. Discretization follows a 3D full unstructured finite volume approach, with a collocated arrangement of all variables. The non linear behaviour between pressure and volume fractions and a symmetric treatment of all fields are taken into account in the iterative procedure, within the time step. It greatly enforces the realizability of volume fractions (i.e 0 < α < 1), without artificial numerical needs. Applications to widespread test cases as static sedimentation, water hammer and phase separation are shown to assess the accuracy and the robustness of the flow solver in different flow conditions, encountered in nuclear reactors pipes. (authors)

  9. Diurnal to annual variations in the atmospheric water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Ruane, Alexander C

    2007-01-01

    This dissertation examines aspects of diurnal to annual variability in the atmospheric water cycle in observations and global numerical weather prediction models. Investigations begin with an in-depth evaluation of variance at a single time scale, followed by a comprehensive analysis of a particular water cycle component, and finally a complete description of the balances and exchanges of water cycle components across time scales. Comparisons of global and regional reanalyses reveal ...

  10. Retrieving Atmospheric Precipitable Water Vapor Using Artificial Neural Network Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Xin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Discussing of water vapor and its variation is the important issue for synoptic meteorology and meteorology. In physical Atmospheric, the moisture content of the earth atmosphere is one of the most important parameters, it is hard to represent water vapor because of its space-time variation. High-spectral resolution Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS data can be used to retrieve the small scale vertical structure of air temperature, which provided a more accurate and good initial field for the numerical forecasting and the large-scale weather analysis. This paper proposes an artificial neural network to retrieve the clear sky atmospheric radiation data from AIRS and comparing with the AIRS Level-2 standard product, and gain a good inversion results.

  11. Investigation on the interactions between soil water, irrigation and transpiration in the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum with 18O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The complex interaction between plant and soil water during the cropping season requires further investigation. How does the plant react in terms of transpiration to water stress during its growth? How is the interaction between the plant, the soil water and irrigation at different levels of water stress? These are the questions to be answered by a pot experiment conducted in a glasshouse at Seibersdorf laboratories involving 18O. Oxygen 18 is a rare (natural abundance of 0.2 %), natural and stable isotope of water and therefore very useful for tracking water pathways from irrigation or precipitation within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. One of the noteworthy properties of 18O is the temperature dependency of its fractionation factor between the liquid phase and the vapour during evaporation, while the plant water uptake does not change the isotopic signature of soil water. These two properties can be exploited to investigate not only soil evaporation and plant transpiration but also the irrigation water pathway within the soil-plant-atmosphere continuum. Thirty six large pots (diam. 50 cm) were filled with a 1:1 Seibersdorf soil (diam. 0.5 cm)/quartz sand mixture in a randomised block experiment, consisting of 3 treatments: (i) field capacity + crop, (ii) 60% of field capacity + crop and (iii) 60% of field capacity + bare soil. The crop used for the experiment is corn (Zea Mays). Climatic data and soil humidity will be monitored during the cropping season. Oxygen 18 in irrigation, soil and plant water (sap and dry organic matter) at different stages of plant growth will be analysed. Soil water and plant sap will need to be extracted before isotopic analyses with the mass-spectrometer can be conducted, involving the construction of a cryodistillation line in the laboratory. (author)

  12. Porous Silicon & Titanium Dioxide Coatings Prepared by Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet Chemical Vapour Deposition Technique-A Novel Coating Technology for Photovoltaic Modules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bhatt

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Jet (APPJ is an alternative for wet processes used to make anti reflection coatings and smooth substrate surface for the PV module. It is also an attractive technique because of it’s high growth rate, low power consumption, lower cost and absence of high cost vacuum systems. This work deals with the deposition of silicon oxide from hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO thin films and titanium dioxide from tetraisopropyl ortho titanate using an atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ system in open air conditions. A sinusoidal high voltage with a frequency between 19-23 kHz at power up to 1000 W was applied between two tubular electrodes separated by a dielectric material. The jet, characterized by Tg ~ 600-800 K, was mostly laminar (Re ~ 1200 at the nozzle exit and became partially turbulent along the jet axis (Re ~ 3300. The spatially resolved emission spectra showed OH, N2, N2+ and CN molecular bands and O, H, N, Cu and Cr lines as well as the NO2 chemiluminescence continuum (450-800 nm. Thin films with good uniformity on the substrate were obtained at high deposition rate, between 800 -1000 nm.s-1, and AFM results revealed that coatings are relatively smooth (Ra ~ 2 nm. The FTIR and SEM analyses were better used to monitor the chemical composition and the morphology of the films in function of the different experimental conditions.

  13. Atmospheric hypotheses' of Earth's global warming

    CERN Document Server

    Shaidurov, V

    2005-01-01

    Two hypotheses are presented, outlining a new cause for global warming. We propose that the crucial factor in global warming is the amount and position of water vapour through the atmosphere. The purpose of this report is to open the debate and to encourage discussion among scientists.

  14. High-resolution terahertz atmospheric water vapor continuum measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slocum, David M.; Goyette, Thomas M.; Giles, Robert H.

    2014-05-01

    The terahertz frequency regime is often used as the `chemical fingerprint' region of the electromagnetic spectrum due to the large number of rotational and vibrational transitions of many molecules of interest. This region of the spectrum has particular utility for applications such as pollution monitoring and the detection of energetic chemicals using remote sensing over long path lengths through the atmosphere. Although there has been much attention to atmospheric effects over narrow frequency windows, accurate measurements across a wide spectrum are lacking. The water vapor continuum absorption is an excess absorption that is unaccounted for in resonant line spectrum simulations. Currently a semiempirical model is employed to account for this absorption, however more measurements are necessary to properly describe the continuum absorption in this region. Fourier Transform Spectroscopy measurements from previous work are enhanced with high-resolution broadband measurements in the atmospheric transmission window at 1.5THz. The transmission of broadband terahertz radiation through pure water vapor as well as air with varying relative humidity levels was recorded for multiple path lengths. The pure water vapor measurements provide accurate determination of the line broadening parameters and experimental measurements of the transition strengths of the lines in the frequency region. Also these measurements coupled with the atmospheric air measurements allow the water vapor continuum absorption to be independently identified at 1.5THz. Simulations from an atmospheric absorption model using parameters from the HITRAN database are compared with the current and previous experimental results.

  15. Spectroscopy underlying microwave remote sensing of atmospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretyakov, M. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The paper presents a spectroscopist's view on the problem of recovery of the atmosphere humidity profile using modern microwave radiometers. Fundamental equations, including the description of their limitations, related to modeling of atmospheric water vapor absorption are given. A review of all reported to date experimental studies aimed at obtaining corresponding numerical parameters is presented. Best estimates of these parameters related to the Voigt (Lorentz, Gross, Van Vleck - Weisskopf and other equivalent) profile based modeling of the 22- and 183-GHz water vapor diagnostic lines and to non-resonance absorption as well as corresponding uncertainties are made on the basis of their comparative analysis.

  16. The pyrolytic decomposition of ATSB during chemical vapour deposition of thin alumina films

    OpenAIRE

    Haanappel, V.A.C.; Corbach, van, H.D.; Fransen, T.; Gellings, P.J.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of the deposition temperature and the partial pressure of water on the thermal decomposition chemistry of aluminium-tri-sec-butoxide (ATSB) during metal organic chemical vapour deposition (MOCVD) is reported. The MOCVD experiments were performed in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure. The partial pressure of ATSB was 0.026 kPa (0.20 mmHg) and that of water was between 0 and 0.026 kPa (0–0.20 mmHg). The pyrolytic decomposition chemistry of ATSB was studied by mass spectrometry at tempe...

  17. Stabilization of Leidenfrost vapour layer by textured superhydrophobic surfaces

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2012-09-12

    In 1756, Leidenfrost observed that water drops skittered on a sufficiently hot skillet, owing to levitation by an evaporative vapour film. Such films are stable only when the hot surface is above a critical temperature, and are a central phenomenon in boiling. In this so-called Leidenfrost regime, the low thermal conductivity of the vapour layer inhibits heat transfer between the hot surface and the liquid. When the temperature of the cooling surface drops below the critical temperature, the vapour film collapses and the system enters a nucleate-boiling regime, which can result in vapour explosions that are particularly detrimental in certain contexts, such as in nuclear power plants. The presence of these vapour films can also reduce liquid-solid drag. Here we show how vapour film collapse can be completely suppressed at textured superhydrophobic surfaces. At a smooth hydrophobic surface, the vapour film still collapses on cooling, albeit at a reduced critical temperature, and the system switches explosively to nucleate boiling. In contrast, at textured, superhydrophobic surfaces, the vapour layer gradually relaxes until the surface is completely cooled, without exhibiting a nucleate-boiling phase. This result demonstrates that topological texture on superhydrophobic materials is critical in stabilizing the vapour layer and thus in controlling-by heat transfer-the liquid-gas phase transition at hot surfaces. This concept can potentially be applied to control other phase transitions, such as ice or frost formation, and to the design of low-drag surfaces at which the vapour phase is stabilized in the grooves of textures without heating. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  18. Water loss from terrestrial planets with CO2-rich atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Water photolysis and hydrogen loss from the upper atmospheres of terrestrial planets is of fundamental importance to climate evolution but remains poorly understood in general. Here we present a range of calculations we performed to study the dependence of water loss rates from terrestrial planets on atmospheric composition (CO2 and N2 levels), planetary mass, and external parameters (stellar spectrum, orbital distance and impacts). From coupled 1D climate and escape modeling, we show that CO2 can only cause significant water loss by increasing surface temperatures over a narrow range of conditions, with cooling of the middle and upper atmosphere acting as a bottleneck on escape in other circumstances. Around G-stars, efficient loss only occurs on planets with intermediate CO2 atmospheric partial pressures (0.1 to 1 bar) that receive a net flux close to the critical runaway greenhouse limit. Because G-star total luminosity increases with time but XUV/UV luminosity decreases, this places strong limits on moist...

  19. Automated continuous monitoring of inorganic and total mercury in wastewater and other waters by flow-injection analysis and cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Birnie, S. E.

    1988-01-01

    An automated continuous monitoring system for the determination of inorganic and total mercury by flow-injection analysis followed by cold-vapour atomic absorption spectrometry is described. The method uses a typical flow-injection manifold where digestion and reduction of the injected sample takes place. Mercury is removed by aeration from the flowing stream in a specially designed air-liquid separator and swept into a silica cell for absorption measurement at a wavelength of 253.7 nm. A cal...

  20. Potential evaporation trends over land between 1983–2008: driven by radiative fluxes or vapour-pressure deficit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Matsoukas

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We model the Penman potential evaporation (PE over all land areas of the globe for the 25-yr period 1983–2008, relying on radiation transfer models (RTMs for the shortwave and longwave fluxes. Penman's PE is determined by two factors: available energy for evaporation and ground to atmosphere vapour transfer. Input to the PE model and RTMs comprises satellite cloud and aerosol data, as well as data from reanalyses. PE is closely linked to pan evaporation, whose trends have sparked controversy in the community, since the factors responsible for the observed pan evaporation trends are not determined with consensus. Our particular interest is the temporal evolution of PE, and the provided insight to the observed trends of pan evaporation. We examine the decadal trends of PE and various related physical quantities, such as net solar flux, net longwave flux, water vapour saturation deficit and wind speed. Our findings are the following: Global warming has led to a larger water vapour saturation deficit. The periods 1983–1989, 1990–1999, and 2000–2008 were characterised by decreasing, increasing, and slightly decreasing PE, respectively. In these last 25 yr, global dimming/brightening cycles generally increased the available energy for evaporation. PE trends seem to follow more closely the trends of energy availability than the trends of the atmospheric capability for vapour transfer, at most locations on the globe, with trends in the Northern hemisphere significantly larger than in the Southern. These results support the hypothesis that global potential evaporation trends are attributed primarily to secular changes in the radiation fluxes, and secondarily to vapour transfer considerations.

  1. An example of transition from a corrosion process in gaseous phase to corrosion in aqueous environment: the case of Z2CN18-10 stainless steel by iodine and water in vapour phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research thesis addresses an example of transition of a corrosion process in gaseous phase towards corrosion in aqueous environment, specifically in the case of the corrosion of the Z2CN18-10 stainless steel by gaseous iodine in presence of water vapour (and possibly nitrogen dioxide). This transition occurs in two steps: initiation in gaseous phase and growth in aqueous environment. This transition is due to hygroscopic properties of mostly chromium iodides and, to a lesser extent, iron iodides. Morphological, electrochemical and thermogravimetry studies have been performed by varying different parameters governing corrosion processes: corrosion temperature, iodine concentration, relative humidity, and reaction time

  2. Analytical Models of Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Atmospheric Dynamics via the Shallow Water System

    CERN Document Server

    Heng, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Within the context of exoplanetary atmospheres, we present a comprehensive linear analysis of forced, damped, magnetized shallow water systems, exploring the effects of dimensionality, geometry (Cartesian, pseudo-spherical and spherical), rotation, magnetic tension and hydrodynamic and magnetic sources of friction. Across a broad range of conditions, we find that the key governing equation for atmospheres and quantum harmonic oscillators are identical, even when forcing (stellar irradiation), sources of friction (molecular viscosity, Rayleigh drag and magnetic drag) and magnetic tension are included. The global atmospheric structure is largely controlled by a single, key parameter that involves the Rossby and Prandtl numbers. This near-universality breaks down when either molecular viscosity or magnetic drag varies significantly across latitude or a poloidal magnetic field is present, suggesting that these effects will introduce qualitative changes to the familiar chevron-shaped feature witnessed in simulatio...

  3. ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE CONDENSATION TO WATER RECOVERY BY HOME AIR CONDITIONERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Mahvi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Earth’s atmosphere contains billion cubic meters of fresh water, which is considerable as a reliable water resource, especially in sultry areas. What is important in this context, how to extract the water, in an economic manner. In order to extract water from air conditioner, no need to spend any cost, because water produced as a by-product and trouble production. This cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate the quantity and chemical quality of water obtained from Bandar Abbas air conditioners; at intervals beginning of March to early December of 2010. Sixty six samples were taken in cluster random plan. Bandar Abbas divided into four clusters; based on distance to shore and population density. Chemical tests which included: Turbidity, alkalinity, total hardness, Dissolved Solids (TDS and Electrical Conductivity (EC and quantity measurement were performed on them. Obtained water had slightly acidic pH, near to neutral range. Total dissolved solids, electrical conductivity, total hardness and alkalinity of extracted water were in low rate. Each air conditioner produced 36 liter per day averagely. Split types obtained more water to window air conditioners. With regard to some assumptions, approximately 4680 to 9360 cubic meter per day water is obtainable which is suitable for many municipal and industrial water applications.

  4. Atmospheric correction for China's coastal water color remote sensing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The space satellite programs, such as CZCS/Nimbus- 7, VHRSR/FY - 1, OCTS/ADEOS and SeaWiFS/SeaStar, have demonstrated and proven that remote sensing is a powerful tool for understanding the spatial and temporal ocean color distribution. In general, there are two main techni cal keys in the processing ocean color satellite data. They are the atmospheric correction and the inver sion of water-leaving radiance into water constituents (such as chlorophyll, suspended material and yel low substance) quantitatively. The SeaWiFS (sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor) atmospheric correc tion algorithm for China's coastal waters is discussed.First, the major advantages of SeaWiFS are introduced. Second, in view of the problems of the SeaDAS algorithm applying in China' s coastal waters, the local atmospheric correction algorithms are discussed and developed. Finally, the advantages of the loc al algorithms are presented by the compari son of the results from two different algorithms.

  5. Concentration of tritium in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Concentration of tritium in the atmosphere was measured in Ibaraki, Japan. At first, sampled air was passed through a column of molecular sieve, and all the water vapour was removed. Hydrogen gas obtained by the electrolysis of water was added to the air, and oxidized by a Pd catalyst column, then the oxidized hydrogen was absorbed by a last column of molecular sieves. These columns of molecular sieves were dehydrated by heating at 400 deg C. The concentration range of atmospheric HTO and HT was 1-2 pCi/m3 in Ibaraki for a year. The concentration of atmospheric HTO varied depending on the content of water vapour in air. (J.P.N.)

  6. Can painted glass felt or glass fibre cloth be used as vapour barrier?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    El-Khattam, Amira; Andersen, Mie Them; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard;

    2014-01-01

    with a ventilated attic where the ceiling may be air tight but has no vapour barrier; post-insulation of the attic may cause the need for a vapour barrier. Placing a vapour barrier above the ceiling can be tiresome and it is difficult to ensure tightness. A simpler way is to paint a vapour barrier directly...... cloth has very little impact. The measured water vapour resistance for specimens with acrylic paint was the highest, these were measured to be up to approximately 3·109 Pa·m 2 ·s/kg which is considerably less than 50·109 Pa·m2·s/kg as recommended for a vapour barrier. Therefore, two layers of ordinary...... acrylic paint on glass felt or glass fibre cloth cannot be used instead of a vapour barrier....

  7. Ethanol vapour sensing properties of screen printed WO3 thick films

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R S Khadayate; R B Waghulde; M G Wankhede; J V Sali; P P Patil

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents ethanol vapour sensing properties of WO3 thick films. In this work, the WO3 thick films were prepared by standard screen-printing method. These films were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The ethanol vapour sensing properties of these thick films were investigated at different operating temperatures and ethanol vapour concentrations. The WO3 thick films exhibit excellent ethanol vapour sensing properties with a maximum sensitivity of ∼1424.6% at 400°C in air atmosphere with fast response and recovery time.

  8. Absorption of water vapour in the falling film of water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) in a vertical tube at air-cooling thermal conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourouis, Mahmoud; Valles, Manel; Medrano, Marc; Coronas, Alberto [Centro de Innovacion Tecnologica en Revalorizacion Energetica y Refrigeracion, CREVER, Universitat Rovira i Virgili, Autovia de Salou, s/n, 43006, Tarragona (Spain)

    2005-05-01

    In air-cooled water-LiBr absorption chillers the working conditions in the absorber and condenser are shifted to higher temperatures and concentrations, thereby increasing the risk of crystallisation. To develop this technology, two main problems are to be addressed: the availability of new salt mixtures with wider range of solubility than water-LiBr, and advanced absorber configurations that enable to carry out simultaneously an appropriate absorption process and an effective air-cooling. One way of improving the solubility of LiBr aqueous solutions is to add other salts to create multicomponent salt solutions. The aqueous solution of the quaternary salt system (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) presents favourable properties required for air-cooled absorption systems: less corrosive and crystallisation temperature about 35 K lower than that of water-LiBr.This paper presents an experimental study on the absorption of water vapour over a wavy laminar falling film of an aqueous solution of (LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) on the inner wall of a water-cooled smooth vertical tube. Cooling water temperatures in the range 30-45 C were selected to simulate air-cooling thermal conditions. The results are compared with those obtained in the same experimental set-up with water-LiBr solutions.The control variables for the experimental study were: absorber pressure, solution Reynolds number, solution concentration and cooling water temperature. The parameters considered to assess the absorber performance were: absorber thermal load, mass absorption flux, degree of subcooling of the solution leaving the absorber, and the falling film heat transfer coefficient.The higher solubility of the multicomponent salt solution makes possible the operation of the absorber at higher salt concentration than with the conventional working fluid water-LiBr. The absorption fluxes achieved with water-(LiBr + LiI + LiNO{sub 3} + LiCl) at a concentration of 64.2 wt% are around 60 % higher than

  9. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  10. Thermal shallow water models of geostrophic turbulence in Jovian atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warneford, Emma S., E-mail: emma.warneford@maths.ox.ac.uk; Dellar, Paul J., E-mail: dellar@maths.ox.ac.uk [OCIAM, Mathematical Institute, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Observatory Quarter, Oxford OX2 6GG (United Kingdom)

    2014-01-15

    Conventional shallow water theory successfully reproduces many key features of the Jovian atmosphere: a mixture of coherent vortices and stable, large-scale, zonal jets whose amplitude decreases with distance from the equator. However, both freely decaying and forced-dissipative simulations of the shallow water equations in Jovian parameter regimes invariably yield retrograde equatorial jets, while Jupiter itself has a strong prograde equatorial jet. Simulations by Scott and Polvani [“Equatorial superrotation in shallow atmospheres,” Geophys. Res. Lett. 35, L24202 (2008)] have produced prograde equatorial jets through the addition of a model for radiative relaxation in the shallow water height equation. However, their model does not conserve mass or momentum in the active layer, and produces mid-latitude jets much weaker than the equatorial jet. We present the thermal shallow water equations as an alternative model for Jovian atmospheres. These equations permit horizontal variations in the thermodynamic properties of the fluid within the active layer. We incorporate a radiative relaxation term in the separate temperature equation, leaving the mass and momentum conservation equations untouched. Simulations of this model in the Jovian regime yield a strong prograde equatorial jet, and larger amplitude mid-latitude jets than the Scott and Polvani model. For both models, the slope of the non-zonal energy spectra is consistent with the classic Kolmogorov scaling, and the slope of the zonal energy spectra is consistent with the much steeper spectrum observed for Jupiter. We also perform simulations of the thermal shallow water equations for Neptunian parameter values, with a radiative relaxation time scale calculated for the same 25 mbar pressure level we used for Jupiter. These Neptunian simulations reproduce the broad, retrograde equatorial jet and prograde mid-latitude jets seen in observations. The much longer radiative time scale for the colder planet Neptune

  11. Natural chlorine and fluorine in the atmosphere, water and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemical cycles of chlorine and fluorine are surveyed and summarized as framework for the understanding of the global natural abundances of these species in the atmosphere, water, and precipitation. In the cycles the fluxes into and out of the atmosphere can be balanced within the limits of our knowledge of the natural sources and sinks. Sea salt from the ocean surfaces represent the predominant portion of the source of chlorine. It is also an important source of atmospheric fluorine, but volcanoes are likely to be more important fluorine sources. Dry deposition of sea salt returns about 85 percent of the salt released there. Precipitation removes the remainder. Most of the sea salt materials are considered to be cyclic, moving through sea spray over the oceans and either directly back to the oceans or deposited dry and in precipitation on land, whence it runs off into rivers and streams and returns to the oceans. Most of the natural chlorine in the atmosphere is in the form of particulate chloride ion with lesser amounts as gaseous inorganic chloride and methyl chloride vapor. Fluorine is emitted from volcanoes primarily as HF. It is possible that HF may be released directly form the ocean surface but this has not been confirmed by observation. HCl and most likely HF gases are released into the atmosphere by sea salt aerosols. The mechanism for the release is likely to be the provision of protons from the so-called excess sulfate and HNO3. Sea salt aerosol contains fluorine as F(-), MgF(+), CaF(+), and NaF. The concentrations of the various species of chlorine and fluorine that characterize primarily natural, unpolluted atmospheres are summarized in tables and are discussed in relation to their fluxes through the geochemical cycle.

  12. Equipment selection for atmospheric drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy water management is a major factor in deciding the economics of the PHWRs. Hence it is necessary to have an efficient recovery system, for the heavy water vapour escaping from various process systems and maintain a dry atmosphere in the recovery areas. While the basic objective of the atmospheric drying system is to maximize recovery and to minimize stack losses, it is equally important to optimally design the system with due consideration to operational and maintenance aspects. At present, heavy water vapour recovery in the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is carried out by dryers of dual fixed bed design. While moving bed design could have some advantages, this has not been adopted so far because of the cumbersome mechanical design involved and special requirements for nuclear application. Developmental work done in this direction has resulted in compact alternative designs. In one of the designs, the change over from adsorption to regeneration is achieved by rotating the bed slowly. This concept is further refined in another alternative using a dessicant wheel. This paper contains brief equipment description of different designs; enumerates the design requirements of an atmospheric drying system for reactor building; describes steps for designing fixed bed type D2O vapour recovery system, and highlights advances in dryer technology. (author)

  13. Importance of Rain Evaporation and Continental Convection in the Tropical Water Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, John; Noone, David; Bowman, Kevin; Beer, R.; Eldering, A.; Fisher, B.; Gunson, M.; Goldman, Aaron; Kulawik, S. S.; Lampel, Michael; Osterman, Gregory; Rinsland, Curtis P.; Rogders, Clive; Sander, Stanley; Shepard, Mark; Webster, Christopher R.; Worden, H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Atmospheric moisture cycling is an important aspect of the Earth's climate system, yet the processes determining atmospheric humidity are poorly understood. For example, direct evaporation of rain contributes significantly to the heat and moisture budgets of clouds, but few observations of these processes are available. Similarly, the relative contributions to atmospheric moisture over land from local evaporation and humidity from oceanic sources are uncertain. Lighter isotopes of water vapour preferentially evaporate whereas heavier isotopes preferentially condense and the isotopic composition of ocean water is known. Here we use this information combined with global measurements of the isotopic composition of tropospheric water vapour from the Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) aboard the Aura spacecraft, to investigate aspects of the atmospheric hydrological cycle that are not well constrained by observations of precipitation or atmospheric vapour content. Our measurements of the isotopic composition of water vapour near tropical clouds suggest that rainfall evaporation contributes significantly to lower troposphere humidity, with typically 20% and up to 50% of rainfall evaporating near convective clouds. Over the tropical continents the isotopic signature of tropospheric water vapour differs significantly from that of precipitation, suggesting that convection of vapour from both oceanic sources and evapotranspiration are the dominant moisture sources. Our measurements allow an assessment of the intensity of the present hydrological cycle and will help identify any future changes as they occur.

  14. Atmospheric Photochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massey, Harrie; Potter, A. E.

    1961-01-01

    The upper atmosphere offers a vast photochemical laboratory free from solid surfaces, so all reactions take place in the gaseous phase. At 30 km altitude the pressure has fallen to about one-hundredth of that at ground level, and we shall, rather arbitrarily, regard the upper atmosphere as beginning at that height. By a little less than 100 km the pressure has fallen to 10(exp -3) mm Hg and is decreasing by a power of ten for every 15 km increase in altitude. Essentially we are concerned then with the photochemistry of a nitrogen-oxygen mixture under low-pressure conditions in which photo-ionization, as well as photodissociation, plays an important part. Account must also be taken of the presence of rare constituents, such as water vapour and its decomposition products, including particularly hydroxyl, oxides of carbon, methane and, strangely enough, sodium, lithium and calcium. Many curious and unfamiliar reactions occur in the upper atmosphere. Some of them are luminescent, causing the atmosphere to emit a dim light called the airglow. Others, between gaseous ions and neutral molecules, are almost a complete mystery at this time. Similar interesting phenomena must occur in other planetary atmospheres, and they might be predicted if sufficient chemical information were available.

  15. Solar geoengineering, atmospheric water vapor transport, and land plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ken; Cao, Long

    2015-04-01

    This work, using the GeoMIP database supplemented by additional simulations, discusses how solar geoengineering, as projected by the climate models, affects temperature and the hydrological cycle, and how this in turn is related to projected changes in net primary productivity (NPP). Solar geoengineering simulations typically exhibit reduced precipitation. Solar geoengineering reduces precipitation because solar geoengineering reduces evaporation. Evaporation precedes precipitation, and, globally, evaporation equals precipitation. CO2 tends to reduce evaporation through two main mechanisms: (1) CO2 tends to stabilize the atmosphere especially over the ocean, leading to a moister atmospheric boundary layer over the ocean. This moistening of the boundary layer suppresses evaporation. (2) CO2 tends to diminish evapotranspiration, at least in most land-surface models, because higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations allow leaves to close their stomata and avoid water loss. In most high-CO2 simulations, these effects of CO2 which tend to suppress evaporation are masked by the tendency of CO2-warming effect to increase evaporation. In a geoengineering simulation, with the warming effect of CO2 largely offset by the solar geoengineering, the evaporation suppressing characteristics of CO2 are no longer masked and are clearly exhibited. Decreased precipitation in solar geoengineering simulations is a bit like ocean acidification - an effect of high CO2 concentrations that is not offset by solar geoengineering. Locally, precipitation ultimately either evaporates (much of that through the leaves of plants) or runs off through groundwater to streams and rivers. On long time scales, runoff equals precipitation minus evaporation, and thus, water runoff generated at a location is equal to the net atmospheric transport of water to that location. Runoff typically occurs where there is substantial soil moisture, at least seasonally. Locations where there is enough water to maintain

  16. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Ts< 245K), cold and damp (270 < Ts< 290K), hot and moist (350< Ts< 550K) and very hot and dry (Ts< 900K). No stable climate exists for 290< Ts < 350K or 550 < Ts < 900K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describe the liquid ...

  17. Interactions of fission product vapours with aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benson, C.G.; Newland, M.S. [AEA Technology, Winfrith (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-01

    Reactions between structural and reactor materials aerosols and fission product vapours released during a severe accident in a light water reactor (LWR) will influence the magnitude of the radiological source term ultimately released to the environment. The interaction of cadmium aerosol with iodine vapour at different temperatures has been examined in a programme of experiments designed to characterise the kinetics of the system. Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) is a technique that is particularly amenable to the study of systems involving elemental iodine because of the high intensity of the fluorescence lines. Therefore this technique was used in the experiments to measure the decrease in the concentration of iodine vapour as the reaction with cadmium proceeded. Experiments were conducted over the range of temperatures (20-350{sup o}C), using calibrated iodine vapour and cadmium aerosol generators that gave well-quantified sources. The LIF results provided information on the kinetics of the process, whilst examination of filter samples gave data on the composition and morphology of the aerosol particles that were formed. The results showed that the reaction of cadmium with iodine was relatively fast, giving reaction half-lives of approximately 0.3 s. This suggests that the assumption used by primary circuit codes such as VICTORIA that reaction rates are mass-transfer limited, is justified for the cadmium-iodine reaction. The reaction was first order with respect to both cadmium and iodine, and was assigned as pseudo second order overall. However, there appeared to be a dependence of aerosol surface area on the overall rate constant, making the precise order of the reaction difficult to assign. The relatively high volatility of the cadmium iodide formed in the reaction played an important role in determining the composition of the particles. (author) 23 figs., 7 tabs., 22 refs.

  18. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air - Part 2: The library routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Feistel, R.; Reissmann, J. H.; Miyagawa, K.; Jackett, D. R.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-07-01

    The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air) library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater) library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org). This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i) almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii) an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii) separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv) code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site. 1SCOR/IAPSO: Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research/International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans 2

  19. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air – Part 2: The library routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS–10 was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org. This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site.

    1

  20. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    OpenAIRE

    Pecenová Z.; Kouřil M.

    2016-01-01

    Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal) can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous co...

  1. Habitability of waterworlds: runaway greenhouses, atmospheric expansion and multiple climate states of pure water atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Goldblatt, Colin

    2015-01-01

    There are four different stable climate states for pure water atmospheres, as might exist on so-called "waterworlds". I map these as a function of solar constant for planets ranging in size from Mars size to 10 Earth-mass. The states are: globally ice covered (Ts< 245K), cold and damp (270 < Ts< 290K), hot and moist (350< Ts< 550K) and very hot and dry (Ts< 900K). No stable climate exists for 290< Ts < 350K or 550 < Ts < 900K. The union of hot moist and cold damp climates describe the liquid water habitable zone, the width and location of which depends on planet mass. At each solar constant, two or three different climate states are stable. This is a consequence of strong non-linearities in both thermal emission and the net absorption of sunlight. Across the range of planet sizes, I account for the atmospheres expanding to high altitudes as they warm. The emitting and absorbing surfaces (optical depth of unity) move to high altitude, making their area larger than the planet surfa...

  2. Preparation of hydrosol suspensions of elemental and core-shell nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Binns, Chris, E-mail: cb12@leicester.ac.uk [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Prieto, Pilar [Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Departamento de F Latin-Small-Letter-Dotless-I sica Aplicada C-XII (Spain); Baker, Stephen; Howes, Paul [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Dondi, Ruggero [University of Leicester, Department of Chemistry (United Kingdom); Burley, Glenn [University of Strathclyde, Department of Pure and Applied Chemistry (United Kingdom); Lari, Leonardo; Kroeger, Roland; Pratt, Andrew [University of York, Department of Physics (United Kingdom); Aktas, Sitki [University of Leicester, Department of Physics and Astronomy (United Kingdom); Mellon, John K. [University of Leicester, Department of Cancer Studies and Molecular Medicine (United Kingdom)

    2012-09-15

    We report a new method to produce liquid suspensions of nanoparticles by co-deposition with water vapour from the gas-phase in ultra-high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The water is injected from outside the vacuum as a molecular beam onto a substrate maintained at 77 K and forms an ice layer with a UHV vapour pressure. Molecular dynamics simulations confirm that the nanoparticles are soft-landed close to the surface of the growing ice layer. We show that the un-agglomerated size distribution within the liquid is similar to the gas-phase size distribution and demonstrate that the inclusion of surfactants in the injected water prevents agglomeration. The method allows the flexibility and tight size control available with gas-phase production methods to be applied to making nanoparticle suspensions with any desired properties. This is important for practical applications, especially in medicine. We have extended the method to include core-shell nanoparticles, in which there is flexible control over the core size and shell thickness and free choice of the material in either. Here, we report the production of suspensions of Cu, Ag and Au elemental nanoparticles and Fe-Au and Fe-Fe-oxide core-shell nanoparticles with diameters in the range 5-15 nm. We demonstrate the power of the method in practical applications in the case of Fe-Fe-oxide nanoparticles, which have a specific absorption rate of an applied oscillating magnetic field that is significantly higher than available Fe-oxide nanoparticle suspensions and the highest yet reported. These will thus have a very high-performance in the treatment of tumours by magnetic nanoparticle hyperthermia.

  3. Water isotope characteristics of landfalling atmospheric rivers in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mix, H.; Reilly, S. P.; Martin, A.; Kawzenuk, B.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are a defining feature of mid-latitude water vapor transport, responsible for 30-50% of the precipitation delivered to the western US on an annual basis. Despite the growing number of intra-event stable isotope studies, water isotope time series has only been examined for a single AR event to date. Here, we present hourly oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in precipitation for two AR events: 1) A December 10-12 event, collected in Santa Clara, CA; and 2) Four precipitation time series collected during the February 6-8 AR event in Cazadero, CA. During the December event, δ18O values decrease steadily from ~ -2 to ~ -20 ‰, with the exception of the 6 hours leading to the passage of the cold front at the surface. During this period, d-excess values decreases by 10-15 ‰, consistent with a transition between multiple moisture sources. Three of four February precipitation events exhibit V-shapes of up to 6 ‰ in δ18O values. Such patterns have been observed in a prior AR event as well as other mid-latitude cyclones, and may reflect changes in post-condensation exchange related to cold front passage. Future work will incorporate additional meteorological in-situ and satellite-derived observations in order to gain insight into the atmospheric river dynamics.

  4. Protection of historical lead against acetic acid vapour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pecenová Z.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical lead artefacts (small figurines, appliques, bull (metal seal can be stored in depository and archives in inconvenient storage conditions. The wooden show-case or paper packagings release volatile organic compound to the air during their degradation. These acids, mainly acetic acid are very corrosive for lead. The thin layer of corrosion products which slows atmospheric corrosion is formed on lead surface in atmospheric condition. In presence of acetic acid vapour the voluminous corrosion products are formed and fall off the surface. These corrosion products do not have any protection ability. The lead could be protected against acid environment by layer of “metal soup” which is formed on surface after immersion in solution of salt of carboxylic acid for 24 hours. The solutions of acids (with vary long of carbon chain and their salts are examined. Longer carbon chain provides better efficiency convers layer. The disadvantages are low solubility of carboxylic acids in water and bad abrasion resistance of formed layer.

  5. On-line speciation of inorganic and methyl mercury in waters and fish tissues using polyaniline micro-column and flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, M V Balarama; Chandrasekaran, K; Karunasagar, D

    2010-04-15

    A simple and efficient method for the determination of ultra-trace amounts of inorganic mercury (iHg) and methylmercury (MeHg) in waters and fish tissues was developed using a micro-column filled with polyaniline (PANI) coupled online to flow injection-chemical vapour generation-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICPMS) system. Preliminary studies indicated that inorganic and methyl mercury species could be separated on PANI column in two different speciation approaches. At pH extraction of the mercury species from biological samples, was used directly to separate MeHg from iHg in the fish tissues (tuna fish ERM-CE 463, ERM-CE 464 and IAEA-350) by PANI column using speciation procedure 1. The determined values were in good agreement with certified values. Under optimal conditions, the limits of detection (LODs) were 2.52 pg and 3.24 pg for iHg and MeHg (as Hg) respectively. The developed method was applied successfully to the direct determination of iHg and MeHg in various waters (tap water, lake water, ground water and sea-water) and the recoveries for the spiked samples were in the range of 96-102% for both the Hg species.

  6. Oxidation of ferritic 9-12% Cr-steels in water vapour containing environments at 550 to 650 C; Oxidation von ferritischen 9-12% Cr-Staehlen in wasserdampfhaltigen Atmosphaeren bei 550 bis 650 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ehlers, R.J.; Quadakkers, W.J.

    2001-06-01

    In the present work, the oxidation behaviour of several of the new 9-12 wt.% Cr steels in environments containing water vapour, mainly Ar-50 vol.% H{sub 2}O has been studied especially at temperatures between 550 and 650 C. The oxidation behaviour is compared to that of common alloys such as 1CrMoV, 12Cr1MoV and the austenitic steel 316LN. Besides this, a number of model alloys were investigated to study the influence of alloying elements on the oxidation behaviour. A variety of analytical methods have been used, such as optical microscopy, electron microscopy (SEM incl. EDX and WDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) and various specially designed experimental techniques, e.g. in-situ gas change between wet and dry gas, as well as oxygen-18 isotope tracer experiments. The results of the oxidation tests clearly indicate that the oxygen coming from the water vapour is incorporated in the oxide scale in a different way as the oxygen originating from the O{sub 2} molecule. A typical feature of 9-12% Cr-steels is the bell-shaped temperature dependence of the oxidation rates in water vapour, i.e. at 550 and especially at 800 C the oxidation rates are much lower than at 600 to 650 C. For the enhanced oxidation rates of the 9-12 chromium steels in environments containing water vapour a mechanism is proposed which involves the evaporation of volatile iron hydroxide. Tests with simple model steels have shown that additions of cobalt may provide significant improvement in the steam oxidation behaviour of the studied steels. (orig.) [German] In dieser Arbeit wurde das Oxidationsverhalten der neuen 9-12% Cr-Staehle in wasserdampfhaltigen Atmosphaeren, vornehmlich Ar-50Vol.% H{sub 2}O, insbesondere im Temperaturbereich von 550 bis 650 C betrachtet. Das Oxidationsverhalten wurde mit dem der bekannten Staehle 30 CrMoNiV 5 11, X20 CrMoV 12 1 und dem Austenit X3 CrNiMoN 17 13 verglichen. Die Untersuchungen

  7. Corrigendum to “Relative humidity effects on water vapour fluxes measured with closed-path eddy-covariance systems with short sampling lines” [Agric. Forest Meteorol. 165 (2012) 53–63

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fratini, Gerardo; Ibrom, Andreas; Arriga, Nicola;

    2012-01-01

    It has been formerly recognised that increasing relative humidity in the sampling line of closed-path eddy-covariance systems leads to increasing attenuation of water vapour turbulent fluctuations, resulting in strong latent heat flux losses. This occurrence has been analyzed for very long (50 m......, a composite of two existing approaches, for correcting eddy-covariance fluxes. By means of a comparison with parallel open-path measurements, we show that the mixed method leads to an improved estimation of latent heat fluxes, with respect to the method described by Ibrom et al. (2007). The quantification......) and long (7 m) sampling lines. To date, only a few analytical or in situ analyses have been proposed to quantify and correct such effects, among which the comprehensive method by Ibrom et al. (2007) was proved effective for the very long sampling line of a forest eddy-covariance setup.Here we analyze data...

  8. The ignitability of petrol vapours and potential for vapour phase explosion by use of TASER® law enforcement electronic control device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, C; Andrews, S P

    2014-12-01

    An experimental study was made of the potential of the TASER-X26™ law enforcement electronic control device to ignite petrol vapours if used by an officer to incapacitate a person soaked in petrol, or within a flammable atmosphere containing petrol vapour. Bench scale tests have shown that a wooden mannequin with pig skin covering the chest was a suitable representation of a human target. Full scale tests using the mannequin have shown that the arc from a TASER-X26™ is capable of igniting petrol/air vapours on a petrol-soaked person. Further tests in a 1/5 scale and a full scale compartment have shown that if a TASER is used within a compartment, a petrol vapour explosion (deflagration) may be achieved. It is evident from this research that if used in a flammable vapour rich environment, the device could prove fatal not only to the target but the TASER® operator as well. PMID:25498927

  9. Solvent vapour detection with a charge flow transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkop, T; Ray, A K [Sheffield Hallam University, School of Engineering, Physical Electronics and Fibre Optics Research Laboratories, City Campus, Pond Street, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-21

    A novel method to detect reversibly high concentrations of organic vapours in air has been developed by combining an intrinsically low conductive membrane of the calix[4]resorcinarene [C{sub 7}H{sub 15}] derivative with a charge flow transistor. The modulation of the turn-on response for the transistor upon exposure to acetone, chloroform, methanol, hexane and water is presented. The increase in the membrane conductivity is partially attributed to condensation of the vapours in the highly microporous membrane even below the saturation vapour pressure and partially to the effect of the polar analyte molecules complexing inside and between the OH groups of the cavities. The observed sensitivity is in the order chloroform chloroform >> acetone >> methanol >> hexane >> water.

  10. The slant path atmospheric refraction calibrator - An instrument to measure the microwave propagation delays induced by atmospheric water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, Steven J.; Bender, Peter L.

    1992-01-01

    The water vapor-induced propagation delay experienced by a radio signal traversing the atmosphere is characterized by the Slant Path Atmospheric Refraction Calibrator (SPARC), which measures the difference in the travel times between an optical and a microwave signal propagating along the same atmospheric path with an accuracy of 15 picosec or better. Attention is given to the theoretical and experimental issues involved in measuring the delay induced by water vapor; SPARC measurements conducted along a 13.35-km ground-based path are presented, illustrating the instrument's stability, precision, and accuracy.

  11. Comparison of time series of integrated water vapor measured using radiosonde, GPS and microwave radiometer at the CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amato, Franceso; Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Information about the amount and spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor is essential to improve our knowledge of weather forecasting and climate change. Water vapor is highly variable in space and time depending on the complex interplay of several phenomena like convection, precipitation, turbulence, etc. It remains one of the most poorly characterized meteorological parameters. Remarkable progress in using of Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), in particular GPS, for the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor has been achieved during the last decades. Various studies have demonstrated that GPS could provide accurate water vapor estimates for the study of the atmosphere. Different GPS data processing provided within the scientific community made use of various tropospheric models that primarily differs for the assumptions on the vertical refractivity profiles and the mapping of the vertical delay with elevation angles. This works compares several models based on the use of surface meteorological data. In order to calculate the Integrated Water Vapour (IWV), an algorithm for calculating the zenith tropospheric delay was implemented. It is based upon different mapping functions (Niell, Saastamoinen, Chao and Herring Mapping Functions). Observations are performed at the Istituto di Metodologie per l'Analisi Ambientale (IMAA) GPS station located in Tito Scalo, Potenza (40.60N, 15.72E), from July to December 2014, in the framework of OSCAR project (Observation System for Climate Application at Regional scale). The retrieved values of the IWV using the GPS are systematically compared with the other estimation of IWV collected at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory) using the other available measurement techniques. In particular, in this work the compared IWV are retrieved from: 1. a Trimble GPS antenna (data processed by the GPS-Met network, see gpsmet.nooa.gov); 2. a Novatel GPS antenna (data locally processed using a software developed at CIAO); 3

  12. Clear sky atmosphere at cm-wavelengths from climatology data

    OpenAIRE

    Lew, Bartosz; Uscka-Kowalkowska, Joanna

    2015-01-01

    We utilise ground-based, balloon-borne and satellite climatology data to reconstruct site and season-dependent vertical profiles of precipitable water vapour (PWV). We use these profiles to solve radiative transfer through the atmosphere, and derive atmospheric brightness temperature ($T_{\\rm atm}$) and optical depth ($\\tau$) at centimetre wavelengths. We validate the reconstruction by comparing the model column PWV with photometric measurements of PWV, performed in clear sky conditions point...

  13. A synthesis of atmospheric mercury depletion event chemistry linking atmosphere, snow and water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Steffen

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available It was discovered in 1995 that, during the spring time, unexpectedly low concentrations of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM occurred in the Arctic air. This was surprising for a pollutant known to have a long residence time in the atmosphere; however conditions appeared to exist in the Arctic that promoted this depletion of mercury (Hg. This phenomenon is termed atmospheric mercury depletion events (AMDEs and its discovery has revolutionized our understanding of the cycling of Hg in Polar Regions while stimulating a significant amount of research to understand its impact to this fragile ecosystem. Shortly after the discovery was made in Canada, AMDEs were confirmed to occur throughout the Arctic, sub-Artic and Antarctic coasts. It is now known that, through a series of photochemically initiated reactions involving halogens, GEM is converted to a more reactive species and is subsequently associated to particles in the air and/or deposited to the polar environment. AMDEs are a means by which Hg is transferred from the atmosphere to the environment that was previously unknown. In this article we review the history of Hg in Polar Regions, the methods used to collect Hg in different environmental media, research results of the current understanding of AMDEs from field, laboratory and modeling work, how Hg cycles around the environment after AMDEs, gaps in our current knowledge and the future impacts that AMDEs may have on polar environments. The research presented has shown that while considerable improvements in methodology to measure Hg have been made the main limitation remains knowing the speciation of Hg in the various media. The processes that drive AMDEs and how they occur are discussed. As well, the roles that the snow pack, oceans, fresh water and the sea ice play in the cycling of Hg are presented. It has been found that deposition of Hg from AMDEs occurs at marine coasts and not far inland and that a fraction of the deposited Hg does not

  14. Use of tritium-labelled water in the study of transfers and exchanges in Helianthus annuus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A labelling method with tritium-labelled water was developed and an experiment was carried out to study the kinetics of water transfer in the plant, to measure the extend of water vapour exchange between the leaves and atmosphere and the migration of this water towards the root systems

  15. Precipitation in Madeira island and atmospheric rivers in the winter seasons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couto, Flavio T.; Salgado, Rui; João Costa, Maria; Prior, Victor

    2016-04-01

    This study aims to analyse the distribution of the daily accumulated precipitation in the Madeira's highlands over a 10-year period, as well as the main characteristics associated with atmospheric rivers (ARs) affecting the island during 10 winter seasons, and their impact in the rainfall amounts recorded near the mountain crest in the south-eastern part of the island. The period between September 2002 and November 2012 is considered for the analysis. The ARs have been identified from the total precipitable water vapour field extracted from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). The AIRS observations were downloaded for a domain covering large part of the North Atlantic Ocean. The precipitable water vapour field from the European Centre for Medium-range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) analysis was also used aiming to support the AIRS data when there was no satellite information over the island. The daily accumulated precipitation at surface showed generally drier summers, while the highest accumulated precipitation are recorded mainly during the winter, although some significant events may occur also in autumn and spring seasons. The patterns of the precipitable water vapour field when ARs reach the island were investigated, and even if great part of the atmospheric rivers reaches the island in a dissipation stage, some rivers are heavy enough to reach the Madeira Island. In this situation, the water vapour transport could be observed in two main configurations and transporting significant water vapour amounts toward the Madeira from the tropical region. This study lead to conclude that the atmospheric rivers, when associated to high values of precipitable water vapour over the island can provide favourable conditions to the development of precipitation, sometimes associated with high amounts. However, it was also found that many cases of high to extreme accumulated precipitation at the surface were not associated to this kind of moisture transport.

  16. Measurement of volatile organic compounds and total OH reactivity in the atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Sinha, Vinayak

    2007-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds play a critical role in ozone formation and drive the chemistry of the atmosphere, together with OH radicals. The simplest volatile organic compound methane is a climatologically important greenhouse gas, and plays a key role in regulating water vapour in the stratosphere and hydroxyl radicals in the troposphere. The OH radical is the most important atmospheric oxidant and knowledge of the atmospheric OH sink, together with the OH source and ambient OH concentration...

  17. International Space Station Atmosphere Control and Supply, Atmosphere Revitalization, and Water Recovery and Management Subsystem - Verification for Node 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, David E.

    2007-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) Node 1 Environmental Control and Life Support (ECLS) System is comprised of five subsystems: Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS), Atmosphere Revitalization (AR), Fire Detection and Suppression (FDS), Temperature and Humidity Control (THC), and Water Recovery and Management (WRM). This paper provides a summary of the nominal operation of the Node 1 ACS, AR, and WRM design and detailed Element Verification methodologies utilized during the Qualification phase for Node 1.

  18. Carbon Dioxide in Exoplanetary Atmospheres: Rarely Dominant Compared to Carbon Monoxide and Water in Hot, Hydrogen-dominated Atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Heng, Kevin; Lyons, James R.

    2015-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the abundance of carbon dioxide in exoplanetary atmospheres in hot, hydrogen-dominated atmospheres. We construct novel analytical models of systems in chemical equilibrium that include carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, water, methane and acetylene and relate the equilibrium constants of the chemical reactions to temperature and pressure via the tabulated Gibbs free energies. We prove that such chemical systems may be described by a quintic equation for the m...

  19. Solid state and sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures of cyclic aliphatic dicarboxylic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Booth

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Knudsen Effusion Mass Spectrometry (KEMS has been used to measure for the first time the solid state vapour pressures of a series of aliphatic cyclic dicarboxylic acids with increasing ring size. Additionally the atmospherically important compounds; cis-pinonic acid and levoglucosan were also measured. Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC was used to measure melting points, enthalpies and entropies of fusion, which were used to determine sub-cooled liquid vapour pressures for the compounds. The sub-cooled liquid vapour pressure of straight chain, branched and cyclic dicarboxylic acids was compared to a selection of estimation methods.

  20. The model study of water mass and energy exchange between the inland water body and atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN ShuFen; YAN JinFeng; XIA Nan; LI Qian

    2008-01-01

    Based on a one-dimensional eddy diffusion model, a model to study the water mass and energy exchange between the water body (such as lake and wetland) and the atmosphere is developed, which takes the phase change process due to the seasonal melting and freezing of water and the convection mixing process of en-ergy caused by temperature stratification into consideration. The model uses en-thalpy instead of temperature as predictive variable, which will help to deal with the phase change process and to design an efficient numerical scheme for obtaining the solution more easily. The performance of the model and the rationality of taking convection mixing into the consideration are validated by using observed data of Kinneret Lake in Israel and Lower Two Medicine Lake in Montana State in America. The comparison of model results with observed data indicates that the model pre-sented here is capable of describing the physical process of water mass and en-ergy between the water body (lake and wetland) and atmosphere. Comparison of the result from wetland with shallow and deep lakes under the same forcing condi-tions shows that the evaporation from wetland is much greater than that from lakes,which accords with the real observation fact and physical mechanism.

  1. The model study of water mass and energy exchange between the inland water body and atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on a one-dimensional eddy diffusion model,a model to study the water mass and energy exchange between the water body(such as lake and wetland) and the atmosphere is developed,which takes the phase change process due to the seasonal melting and freezing of water and the convection mixing process of energy caused by temperature stratification into consideration. The model uses enthalpy instead of temperature as predictive variable,which will help to deal with the phase change process and to design an efficient numerical scheme for obtaining the solution more easily. The performance of the model and the rationality of taking convection mixing into the consideration are validated by using observed data of Kinneret Lake in Israel and Lower Two Medicine Lake in Montana State in America. The comparison of model results with observed data indicates that the model presented here is capable of describing the physical process of water mass and energy between the water body(lake and wetland) and atmosphere. Comparison of the result from wetland with shallow and deep lakes under the same forcing conditions shows that the evaporation from wetland is much greater than that from lakes,which accords with the real observation fact and physical mechanism.

  2. Chemical vapour deposition of metal oxides and phosphides.

    OpenAIRE

    Binions, R.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis investigates the deposition of thin films of main group metal phosphide and main group metal oxide compounds on glass substrates by the use of dual source atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition. Binary phosphide systems with tin, germanium, silicon, antimony, copper or boron have been examined. Binary oxide systems of gallium, antimony, tin or niobium have also been investigated. Additionally these systems were deposited on gas sensor substrates and evaluated as metal oxi...

  3. GCM simulations of the martian water cycle

    OpenAIRE

    Bottger, H.M.; Lewis, S R; Read, P. L.; Forget, F.

    2003-01-01

    Results from the Viking Orbiter Mars Atmospheric Water Detectors (MAWD) have long been the definitive data set for observations of the Martian water cycle (Farmer et al., 1977). The ongoing Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer (TES) observations are providing new insights into the current water cycle, with detailed longitude-latitude dependence of water vapour (Figure 1) and water cloud (Figure 2) with time, as well as information on vertical distribution...

  4. Effect of paint on vapour resistivity in plaster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de Villanueva, L.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The vapour resistivity of plaster coatings such as paint and their effectiveness as water repellents were studied in several types of plaster. To this end, painted, unpainted and pigmented specimens were tested. Experimental values were collected on diffusion and vapour permeability, or its inverse, water vapour resistivity.The data obtained were very useful for evaluating moisture exchange between plaster and the surrounding air, both during initial drying and throughout the life of the material. They likewise served as a basis for ensuring the proper evacuation of water vapour in walls, and use of the capacity of the porous network in plaster products to regulate moisture content or serve as a water vapour barrier to avoid condensation.Briefly, the research showed that pigments, water-based paints and silicon-based water repellents scantly raised vapour resistance. Plastic paints, enamels and lacquers, however, respectively induced five-, ten- and twenty-fold increases in vapour resistivity, on average.Se estudia el fenómeno de la resistividad al vapor de los de yeso y el efecto impermeabilizante que producen los recubrimientos de pintura sobre diversos tipos de yeso y escayola. Para ello, se ensayan probetas desnudas y recubiertas con distintos tipos de pintura, así como coloreados en masa. Se obtienen valores experimentales de la difusividad o permeabilidad al vapor o su inverso la resistividad al vapor de agua.Los datos obtenidos son muy útiles para valorar el fenómeno del intercambio de humedad entre el yeso y el ambiente, tanto durante el proceso de su secado inicial, como en el transcurso de su vida. Así como para disponer soluciones adecuadas para la evacuación del vapor de agua a través de los cerramientos, para utilizar la capacidad de regulación de la humedad, que proporciona el entramado poroso de los productos de yeso, o para impedir el paso del vapor de agua y evitar condensaciones.Como resumen de la investigación, se

  5. Isotopic signature of atmospheric xenon released from light water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A global monitoring system for atmospheric xenon radioactivity is being established as part of the International Monitoring System to verify compliance with the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The isotopic activity ratios of 135Xe, 133mXe, 133Xe and 131mXe are of interest for distinguishing nuclear explosion sources from civilian releases. Simulations of light water reactor (LWR) fuel burn-up through three operational reactor power cycles are conducted to explore the possible xenon isotopic signature of nuclear reactor releases under different operational conditions. It is studied how ratio changes are related to various parameters including the neutron flux, uranium enrichment and fuel burn-up. Further, the impact of diffusion and mixing on the isotopic activity ratio variability are explored. The simulations are validated with reported reactor emissions. In addition, activity ratios are calculated for xenon isotopes released from nuclear explosions and these are compared to the reactor ratios in order to determine whether the discrimination of explosion releases from reactor effluents is possible based on isotopic activity ratios

  6. Clear-sky atmospheric radiative transfer : a model intercomparison for shortwave irradiances

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, P.; Knap, W.H.; Kuipers Munneke, P.; Stammes, P.

    2008-01-01

    This study consists of an intercomparison of clear-sky shortwave irradiances calculated by the Doubling Adding model of KNMI (DAK) and the Simple Model of the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS). The DAK and SMARTS models are run with identical input (state profiles, water vapour, oz

  7. Experimental evidence for the role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Marsh, N.D.;

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of aerosol nucleation in air, containing trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide and water vapour at concentrations relevant for the Earth's atmosphere, are reported. The production of new aerosol particles is found to be proportional to the negative ion density and yields...

  8. The Vapour Pressure of Plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The vapour pressure of liquid plutonium has been determined over the temperature range 1100 to 1800°K by the Knudsen effusion method. The least-squares equation which fits the data is log10p(atm) = -17 420/T(°K) + 4.913. The standard deviation corresponds to about ±10% in the pressures calculated from this equation. The heat of vaporization computed from the temperature dependence of the experimental data is ΔH0298 = 82.3 kcal/g-at. The heat computed by combining independent entropy and heat capacity data with the present measurements is ΔH0298 = 82.1 kcal/g-at. Effects of oxygen upon the volatility of liquid plutonium were sought by comparing the vapour pressures observed with the liquid in contact with tantalum, tantalum carbide, magnesia, and plutonium sesquioxide. No differences were found. In addition, the vapour pressure was measured with different degrees of vacuum in the system. No effect was found here either, except that in very poor vacuums a surface film of oxide apparently formed and reduced the volatility by about a factor of 2. (author)

  9. Vapor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes reflect water of combustion in the urban atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Gorski, Galen; Strong, Courtenay; Good, Stephen P.; Bares, Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Gabriel J Bowen

    2015-01-01

    Human activities affect the water cycle in many ways, some of which remain difficult to measure. One such process is emission of water vapor through combustion of fossil fuels, which may be a significant part of the atmospheric water budget in urban centers. It has not previously been possible to uniquely identify combustion-derived water vapor with atmospheric measurements. We introduce a method for the measurement of combustion-derived vapor, and show that this source contributes as much as...

  10. Under vapour. The use of evaporators for the up-concentration of waste water; Unter Dampf. Einsatz von Verdampfern zur Aufkonzentrierung von Abwaessern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, P. [Guetling Wassertechnologie GmbH, Fellbach (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    The evaporation technology is an alternative method to the common waste water treatment technologies, like membranes or chemophysical treatment.The thermal separation of water from the other substances yields a very good result with respect to the quality of the distillate. This fact allows a circulation stream of the recovered water and a significant reduction of the waste water volume. The re-usability of the concentrate is possible in some cases. Several evaporation technologies allow an up-concentration up to solid state. Due to the compact construction the facility does not require high installation costs. The facilities are delivered ready for implementation into the supply line.

  11. Determination of water vapor and ozone profiles in the middle atmosphere by microwave-spectroscopy. Bestimmung von Wasserdampf- und Ozonprofilen in der mittleren Atmosphaere durch Millimeterwellenspektroskopie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puliafito, S.E.

    1989-10-17

    This work was performed at the Max-Planck-Institut fuer Aeronomie (F.R.G.) and treats the following points: 1. Satellite borne microwave radiometry. Principles for a real-time evaluation of the MAS-Limb-Sounding measurements. (MAS: Millimeter Wave Atmospheric Sounder from Space Shuttle as part of the NASA ATLAS Missions, 1991-1997). (a) Deconvolution of the 60 GHz-antenna. (b) Test of different inversion proceedings. A detailed study of the boundary conditions and 'error influence' as well as a discussion of the radiometer specifications. (c) Near real time inversion of microwave spectral lines of the Earth atmosphere. i. The possibility of a (near) real time evaluation (retrieval of the profiles of the atmospheric components) was proved for the first time with a space proof microprocessor. ii. Data reduction of about a factor > 10{sup 3} in comparison with other methods. 2. Airborne and ground based microwave radiometry. (a) Study of the possibilities of ground- and aircraft based measurements for validation and cross calibration of the satellite measurements. (b) Study of the possibilities of ground based radiometric measurements of water vapour in the Artic or Antartica. Precise boundary conditions were given for the first time in order to perform ground based millimeter radiometric measurements in these areas. (orig.).

  12. Impact of biomass burning on ocean water quality in Southeast Asia through atmospheric deposition: eutrophication modeling

    OpenAIRE

    P. Sundarambal; P. Tkalich; Balasubramanian, R

    2010-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of nutrients (N and P species) can intensify anthropogenic eutrophication of coastal waters. It was found that the atmospheric wet and dry depositions of nutrients was remarkable in the Southeast Asian region during the course of smoke haze events, as discussed in a companion paper on field observations (Sundarambal et al., 2010b). The importance of atmospheric deposition of nutrients in terms of their biological responses in the coastal waters of the ...

  13. Evaluating the vapour shift concept in agriculture: some aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, S.; Metselaar, K.; van Dam, J. C.; Klik, A.

    2009-04-01

    Human population growth leads to an increasing pressure on freshwater resources. By 2050 Falkenmark et al. (2004) estimate a global water deficit for crop production of 5800 km3.y-1. This has important consequences for management of fresh water resources at different scales, and new strategies at different scales are required. One of the strategies suggested is that of managing crops in such a way that the use of rainfall and irrigation is shifted as much as possible from evaporation towards transpiration, a so-called vapour shift. The suggested savings are in the order of 330 km3.y-1, and are based on estimates of the magnitude of three processes: Reducing early season evaporation; increasing canopy cover; and increasing yield levels. The vapour shift concept was evaluated empirically, and in a simulation study. The empirical evaluation using results for wheat, maize, millet, cotton, and barley suggests the estimate of potential savings is 37% lower than the estimate by Falkenmark et al. (2004). The uncertainty is large and due to the limited number of experiments in which a separation of evapotranspiration in evaporation and transpiration has been made over the entire growing season. This suggests that theoretical support for the vapour shift concept should become more important. In the simulation approach two management options, mulching and planting density, are evaluated for a site in India for an irrigated wheat crop using a simulation approach for water limited crop yield. Given the simulation model used, and the management options investigated, the assumption implicit in the vapour shift concept - decreasing evaporation with increasing yield level - does not hold in irrigated areas, or in areas in which water is the most limiting factor. This suggests that vapour shift will be largest in those areas where nutrients and pests- and diseases are still limiting or reducing crop yields, and measures are taken to reduce those limitations.

  14. Water vapour pressure influence on the kinetics of the superconducting YBCO thin films epitaxic growth by the TFA-MOD method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have found two different regimes in the kinetics of the YBCO formation depending on the water partial pressure at a constant temperature and total flow rate of the carrier gas. The first regime at low partial water pressure shows continual kinetics curves until the end of YBCO growth and the reaction is controlled chemically. The second regime at high partial water pressure shows irreproducible steps in the kinetics curves during the thin films YBCO growth. In this work we suggest that there is formation of a boundary layer of water (Nernst layer) when the partial water pressure is higher than 20 hPa at 795 deg. C for a total gas flow rate lower than 2.4 x 10-2 m s-1. These irreproducible steps dues probably to a water boundary layer formation can be eliminated by increasing the stirring rate of the carrier gas. The reaction order of YBa2Cu3O7-x formation respect to the water pressure is n = 0.5 when the water boundary layer is not formed, but the apparent reaction order respect to the partial water pressure is zero or negative when the gas flow rate of the carrier gas is not big enough for the elimination of this water layer. This work also evidences that there is an intermediate step in the kinetics curves before the formation of YBCO. This step, which starts at low temperature during the heating ramp (∼400 deg. C) is attributed to the partial elimination of F from the BaF2 precursor to form oxyfluoride compounds. So, at low total flow gas rates and low partial water pressures, the reaction is controlled by diffusion mechanism due to the formation of a HF boundary layer (Nernst layer), because the apparent order of YBCO formation is one respect to the stirring rate. Nevertheless, at high flow gas rates and low partial water pressures, the YBCO formation is controlled chemically, then the apparent order respect to the stirring rate is zero and the HF Nernst layer is eliminated. The apparent E a for the oxyfluoride formation at low temperatures is only ∼18

  15. Regulation of radionuclides discharges to the atmosphere and emissions to the water from Ukraine NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible order of radionuclides discharges to the atmosphere and emissions to the water from Ukraine NPPs regulation is given allowance for laws and norms of Ukraine and ICRP and IAEA guidelines. For definition of a dose relevant to marginal discharges to the atmosphere and emissions to the water of separate radionuclides are counted dose coefficients (Sv/Bg). Considered three critical age groups: the babies (up to 1 year), children (till 10 years) and adult. The age group being critical for discharges to the atmosphere and emissions to the water are determined. The radionuclides producing the greatest contribution to a dose are determined. Guidelines on calculation of marginal radionuclides discharges to the atmosphere and emissions to the water of Ukraine NPPs are given. Matching of doses from actual radionuclides discharges to the atmosphere and emissions to the water of Ukraine NPPs with quotas, assigned in RSNU-97 is carried out

  16. Emission to atmosphere of tritiated water formed at soil surface by oxidation of HT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the event of a release of molecular tritium to atmosphere, some tritium can oxidized at soil surface and be gradually re-emitted to atmosphere as HTO. The two processes are characterized by a deposition velocity and an emission rate, which are commonly used in deposition/emission models designed to calculate the concentrations of HTO in atmosphere. A technique has been developed to determine the emission rate and its evolution, by covering a small area of undisturbed soil by a field chamber, exposing the enclosed soil to molecular tritium, then determining the changes in HTO vapour content of a measured air-stream passing through the chamber. The emission rate is derived by dividing the amount of HTO extracted from the chamber during a given period of time, by the average amount of HTO contained in the soil during the same period. First experiments have been done on bare and grass-covered soils. The data obtained from these small-scale field experiments are consistent with those obtained from a full-scale field study carried out at nearly the same place

  17. Effects of atmospheric water on the optical properties of soot aerosols with different mixing states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soot aerosols have become the second most important contributor to global warming after carbon dioxide in terms of direct forcing, which is the dominant absorber of visible solar radiation. The optical properties of soot aerosols depend strongly on the mixing mechanism of black carbon with other aerosol components and its hygroscopic properties. In this study, the effects of atmospheric water on the optical properties of soot aerosols have been investigated using a superposition T-matrix method that accounts for the mixing mechanism of soot aerosols with atmospheric water. The dramatic changes in the optical properties of soot aerosols were attributed to its different mixing states with atmospheric water (externally mixed, semi-embedded mixed, and internally mixed). Increased absorption is accompanied by a larger increase in scattering, which is reflected by the increased single scattering albedo. The asymmetry parameter also increased when increasing the atmospheric water content. Moreover, atmospheric water intensified the radiative absorption enhancement attributed to the mixing states of the soot aerosols, with values ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 on average at 0.870 μm. The increased absorption and scattering ability of soot aerosols, which is attributed to atmospheric water, exerted an opposing effect on climate change. These findings should improve our understanding of the effects of atmospheric water on the optical properties of soot aerosols and their effects on climate. The mixing mechanism for soot aerosols and atmospheric water is important when evaluating the climate effects of soot aerosols, which should be explicitly considered in radiative forcing models. - Highlights: • Effects of atmospheric water on optical properties of soot aerosols are investigated. • Increased absorption is accompanied by a larger increase in scattering. • Atmospheric water intensified the absorption enhancement due the mixing states

  18. Signal transduction pathway(s) in guard cells after prolonged exposure to low vapour pressure deficit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Niaei Fard, S.

    2014-01-01

    Keywords: Abscisic acid, Arabidopsis thaliana, calcium, CYP707As, desiccation, environmental factors, guard cells’ signalling pathway, hydrogen peroxide, natural variation, nitric oxide, photosystem II efficiency, RD29A, relative water content, secondary messengers, stomata, vapour pressure def

  19. 智能防水透湿聚氨酯研究进展%Development of Shape Memory Polyurethane on Intelligent Waterproof and Water Vapour Permeable

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王玮玲; 于伟东

    2014-01-01

    简要介绍了实现形状记忆聚氨酯( SMPU)的智能透湿机理,综述了SMPU在智能透湿性方面的研究进展及智能防水透湿膜和织物研究中存在的问题,提出了研究开发具有创新功能的智能防水透湿织物是未来纺织工业发展的趋势。%The mechanism of waterproof and water vapor permeable of shape memory polyurethane was brief in⁃troduced. The research progress of shape memory polyurethane(SMPU) in intelligent water vapor permeability and problem which existed in membrane and fabrics of smart waterproof breathable were summerized. The research of in⁃telligent water proof and breathable fabrics with innovation function was the trend of textiles in the future.

  20. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    OpenAIRE

    Kasting, James F.; Chen, Howard; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a '...

  1. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    OpenAIRE

    Kent Rosser; Karl Pavey; Nicholas FitzGerald; Anselm Fatiaki; Daniel Neumann; David Carr; Brian Hanlon; Javaan Chahl

    2015-01-01

    The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS), as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV), and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm con...

  2. Hoplia coerulea, a porous natural photonic structure as template of optical vapour sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mouchet, Sébastien; Su, Bao-Lian; Tabarrant, Tijani; Lucas, Stéphane; Deparis, Olivier

    2013-05-01

    Natural photonic structures found on the cuticle of insects are known to give rise to astonishing structural colours. These ordered porous structures are made of biopolymers, such as chitin, and some of them possess the property to change colour according to the surrounding atmosphere composition. This phenomenon is still not completely understood. We investigated the structure found on the cuticle of the male beetle Hoplia coerulea (Scarabaeidae). The structure, in this case, consists in a 1D periodic porous multilayer inside scales, reflecting incident light in the blue. The colour variations were quantified by reflectance spectral measurements using water, ethanol and acetone vapours. A 1D scattering matrix formalism was used for modelling light reflection on the photonic multilayer. The origin of the reported colour changes has to be tracked in variations of the effective refractive index and of the photonic structure dimensions. This remarkable phenomenon observed for a non-open but still porous multilayer could be very interesting for vapour sensing applications and smart glass windows.

  3. Simulating the Vapour Phase Air/Water Exchange of p,p′-DDE, p,p′-DDT, Lindane, and 2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorodibenzodioxin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uncertainties in our understanding of gaseous air/water exchange have emerged as major sources of concern in efforts to construct global and regional mass balances of both the green house gas carbon dioxide and semi-volatile persistent, bioaccumulative and toxic chemicals. Hoff e...

  4. Multi-year GNSS monitoring of atmospheric IWV over Central and South America for climate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Clara Eugenia; Mendoza, Luciano Pedro Oscar; Fernández, Laura Isabel; Natali, María Paula; Meza, Amalia Margarita; Francisco Moirano, Juan

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric water vapour has been acknowledged as an essential climate variable. Weather prediction and hazard assessment systems benefit from real-time observations, whereas long-term records contribute to climate studies. Nowadays, ground-based global navigation satellite system (GNSS) products have become widely employed, complementing satellite observations over the oceans. Although the past decade has seen a significant development of the GNSS infrastructure in Central and South America, its potential for atmospheric water vapour monitoring has not been fully exploited. With this in mind, we have performed a regional, 7-year-long and homogeneous analysis, comprising 136 GNSS tracking stations, obtaining high-rate and continuous observations of column-integrated water vapour and troposphere zenith total delay. As a preliminary application for this data set, we have estimated local water vapour trends, their significance, and their relation with specific climate regimes. We have found evidence of drying at temperate regions in South America, at a rate of about 2 % per decade, while a slow moistening of the troposphere over tropical regions is also weakly suggested by our results. Furthermore, we have assessed the regional performance of the empirical model GPT2w to blindly estimate troposphere delays. The model reproduces the observed mean delays fairly well, including their annual and semi-annual variations. Nevertheless, a long-term evaluation has shown systematical biases, up to 20 mm, probably inherited from the underlying atmospheric reanalysis. Additionally, the complete data set has been made openly available as supplementary material.

  5. History of water loss and atmospheric O2 buildup on rocky exoplanets near M dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Feng

    2015-12-01

    It is recently proposed that early stellar luminosity evolution of M dwarfs leads to severe water loss and the buildup of massive O2 atmospheres on rocky exoplanets in the habitable zone of these stars if interactions of such O2 atmospheres with planetary surfaces are inefficient. Here we show that even without considering atmosphere-surface interactions, the existence of a massive O2 atmosphere on such exoplanets is not an unavoidable consequence around M0-M3 stars and depends on stellar XUV properties, the mass of the exoplanets, and most importantly the initial planetary water inventories. In the case of inefficient atmosphere-surface interactions, the distribution of atmospheric O2 contents on these exoplanets should be bi-modal and such a distribution could be verified by future surveys of rocky exoplanets.

  6. Development of a Model for Water and Heat Exchange Between the Atmosphere and a Water Body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Shufen; YAN Jinfeng; XIA Nan; SUN Changhai

    2007-01-01

    A model for studying the heat and mass exchange between the atmosphere and a water body is developed,in which the phase change process of water freezing in winter and melting in summer and the function of the convective mixing process are taken into consideration. The model uses enthalpy rather than temperature as the predictive variable. It helps to set up governing equations more concisely, to deal with the phase change process more easily, and make the numerical scheme simpler. The model is verified by observed data from Lake Kinneret for a non-frozen lake in summer time, and Lake Lower Two Medicine for a frozen lake in winter time. Reasonably good agreements between the model simulations and observed data indicate that the model can serve as a component for a water body in a land surface model. In order to more efficiently apply the scheme in a climate system model, a sensitivity study of various division schemes with less layers in the vertical direction in the water body is conducted. The results of the study show that the division with around 10 vertical layers could produce a prediction accuracy that is comparable to the fine division with around 40 layers.

  7. Maintaining Atmospheric Mass and Water Balance Within Reanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takacs, Lawrence L.; Suarez, Max; Todling, Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    This report describes the modifications implemented into the Goddard Earth Observing System Version-5 (GEOS-5) Atmospheric Data Assimilation System (ADAS) to maintain global conservation of dry atmospheric mass as well as to preserve the model balance of globally integrated precipitation and surface evaporation during reanalysis. Section 1 begins with a review of these global quantities from four current reanalysis efforts. Section 2 introduces the modifications necessary to preserve these constraints within the atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM), the Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) analysis procedure, and the Incremental Analysis Update (IAU) algorithm. Section 3 presents experiments quantifying the impact of the new procedure. Section 4 shows preliminary results from its use within the GMAO MERRA-2 Reanalysis project. Section 5 concludes with a summary.

  8. The Martian atmospheric water cycle as viewed from a terrestrial perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurek, Richard W.

    1988-01-01

    It is noted that the conditions of temperature and pressure that characterize the atmosphere of Mars are similar to those found in the Earth's stratosphere. Of particular significance is the fact that liquid water is unstable in both environments. Thus, it is expected that terrestrial studies of the dynamical behavior of stratospheric water should benefit the understanding of water transport on Mars as well.

  9. Atmospheric effect on the ground-based measurements of broadband surface albedo

    OpenAIRE

    Manninen, T.; Riihelä, A.; De Leeuw, G.

    2012-01-01

    Ground-based pyranometer measurements of the (clear-sky) broadband surface albedo are affected by the atmospheric conditions (mainly by aerosol particles, water vapour and ozone). A new semi-empirical method for estimating the magnitude of the effect of atmospheric conditions on surface albedo measurements in clear-sky conditions is presented. Global and reflected radiation and/or aerosol optical depth (AOD) at two wavelengths are needed to apply the method. Depending on the...

  10. Water cycle dynamic increases resilience of vegetation under higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemordant, L. A.; Gentine, P.; Stéfanon, M.; Drobinski, P. J.; Fatichi, S.

    2015-12-01

    Plant stomata couple the energy, water and carbon cycles. Photosynthesis requires stomata to open to take up carbon dioxide. In the process water vapor is released as transpiration. As atmospheric CO2 concentration rises, for the same amount of CO2 uptake, less water vapor is transpired, translating into higher water use efficiency. Reduced water vapor losses will increase soil water storage if the leaf area coverage remains similar. This will in turn alter the surface energy partitioning: more heat will be dissipated as sensible heat flux, resulting in possibly higher surface temperatures. In contrast with this common hypothesis, our study shows that the water saved during the growing season by increased WUE can be mobilized by the vegetation and help reduce the maximum temperature of mid-latitude heat waves. The large scale meteorological conditions of 2003 are the basis of four regional model simulations coupling an atmospheric model to a surface model. We performed two simulations with respectively 2003 (CTL) and 2100 (FUT) atmospheric CO2 applied to both the atmospheric and surface models. A third (RAD) and a fourth (FER) simulations are run with 2100 CO2 concentration applied to respectively the atmospheric model only and the surface model only. RAD investigates the impact of the radiative forcing, and FER the response to vegetation CO2 fertilization. Our results show that the water saved through higher water use efficiency during the growing season enabled by higher atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations helps the vegetation to cope during severe heat and dryness conditions in the summer of mid-latitude climate. These results demonstrate that consideration of the vegetation carbon cycle is essential to model the seasonal water cycle dynamic and land-atmosphere interactions, and enhance the accuracy of the model outputs especially for extreme events. They also have important implications for the future of agriculture, water resources management, ecosystems

  11. Gas and vapour detection using polypyrrole

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leur, R.H.M. van de; Waal, A. van der

    1999-01-01

    The vapours of organic solvents like toluene, butanon, and ethanol do effect the electrical conductivity of electrochemically synthesised polypyrrole. This property allows the use of polypyrrole in sensors for vapour detection. The conductivity is also a function of temperature and the history of th

  12. Temporal variations of δ18O of atmospheric water vapor at Delingha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Oxygen stable isotope of atmospheric water vapor is widely used to study the modern process of cli- mate. Atmospheric water vapor samples were collected at Dlingha, northeast of Tibetan Plateau during the period from July 2005 to February 2006. The variation of δ18O and the relationships between δ18O and both the temperature and specific humidity are analyzed in this paper. Results show that the sea- sonal variation of δ18O of atmospheric water vapor at Delingha is remarkable with higher δ18O in summer and lower δ18O in winter. The temporal variation of vapor δ18O shows obvious fluctuations, with magnitude of over 37‰. The daily variation of the δ18O is highly correlated with air temperature. The relationship between δ18O and atmospheric water vapor content is complex. Study shows that δ18O of atmospheric water vapor is positively correlated with specific humidity in winter in seasonal scale and inversely correlated with specific humidity in summer rainy period. The δ18O values of at- mospheric water vapor are lower than those of precipitation at Delingha, and the average difference is 10.7‰. Variations of δ18O of atmospheric water vapor is also found to be affected by precipitation events, The model results show that the precipitation effect could have caused the vapor δ18O in the raining season to lower by 7% in average in July and August.

  13. Formation of Organic Molecules and Water in Warm Disk Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Najita, Joan R; Glassgold, Alfred E

    2011-01-01

    Observations from Spitzer and ground-based infrared spectroscopy reveal significant diversity in the molecular emission from the inner few AU of T Tauri disks. We explore theoretically the possible origin of this diversity by expanding on our earlier thermal-chemical model of disk atmospheres. We consider how variations in grain settling, X-ray irradiation, accretion-related mechanical heating, and the oxygen-to-carbon ratio can affect the thermal and chemical properties of the atmosphere at 0.25-40 AU. We find that these model parameters can account for many properties of the detected molecular emission. The column density of the warm (200-2000K) molecular atmosphere is sensitive to grain settling and the efficiency of accretion-related heating, which may account, at least in part, for the large range in molecular emission fluxes that have been observed. The dependence of the atmospheric properties on the model parameters may also help to explain trends that have been reported in the literature between molec...

  14. Effects of Irrigation in India on the Atmospheric Water Budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinenburg, O.A.; Hutjes, R.W.A.; Stacke, T.; Wiltshire, A.; Lucas-Picher, P.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of large-scale irrigation in India on the moisture budget of the atmosphere was investigated using three regional climate models and one global climate model, all of which performed an irrigated run and a natural run without irrigation. Using a common irrigation map, year-round irrigation

  15. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasting, James F.; Chen, Howard; Kopparapu, Ravi K.

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  16. Stratospheric Temperatures and Water Loss from Moist Greenhouse Atmospheres of Earth-like Planets

    CERN Document Server

    Kasting, James F; Kopparapu, Ravi Kumar

    2015-01-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3-D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a 'moist greenhouse' explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing 'inverse' climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1-D models.

  17. STRATOSPHERIC TEMPERATURES AND WATER LOSS FROM MOIST GREENHOUSE ATMOSPHERES OF EARTH-LIKE PLANETS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasting, James F.; Kopparapu, Ravi K. [Department of Geosciences, The Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA 16801 (United States); Chen, Howard, E-mail: jfk4@psu.edu, E-mail: hwchen@bu.edu [Department of Astronomy, Boston University, 725 Commonwealth Ave., Boston, MA 02215 (United States)

    2015-11-01

    A radiative-convective climate model is used to calculate stratospheric temperatures and water vapor concentrations for ozone-free atmospheres warmer than that of modern Earth. Cold, dry stratospheres are predicted at low surface temperatures, in agreement with recent 3D calculations. However, at surface temperatures above 350 K, the stratosphere warms and water vapor becomes a major upper atmospheric constituent, allowing water to be lost by photodissociation and hydrogen escape. Hence, a moist greenhouse explanation for loss of water from Venus, or some exoplanet receiving a comparable amount of stellar radiation, remains a viable hypothesis. Temperatures in the upper parts of such atmospheres are well below those estimated for a gray atmosphere, and this factor should be taken into account when performing inverse climate calculations to determine habitable zone boundaries using 1D models.

  18. A simplified method to estimate atmospheric water vapor using MODIS near-infrared data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinming; Gu, Xiaoping; Wu, Zhanping

    2016-03-01

    Atmospheric water vapor plays a significant role in the study of climate change and hydrological cycle processes. In order to acquire the accurate distribution of atmospheric water vapor which is varying with time, location, and altitude, it is necessary to monitor it at high spatial and temporal resolution. Unfortunately, it is difficult to map the spatial distribution of atmospheric water vapor due to the lack of meteorological instrumentation at adequate spatial and temporal observation scales. This paper introduces a simplified method to retrieve Precipitable Water Vapor (PWV) using the ratio of the apparent reflectance values of the 18th and 19th band of Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Compared to the EOS PWV products of the same time and area, the PWV estimated using this simplified method is closer to the radiosonde results which is considered as the true PWV value. Results reveal that this simplified method is applicable over cloud-free atmospheric conditions of the mid-latitude regions.

  19. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of water, vapour, ice, seawater and air - Part 2: The library routines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, D. G.; Feistel, R.; Reissmann, J. H.; Miyagawa, K.; Jackett, D. R.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-03-01

    The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10) was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air) library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater) library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org). This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i) almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii) an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii) separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv) code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site. 1 SCOR/IAPSO: Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research/International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans 2 IOC

  20. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of water, vapour, ice, seawater and air – Part 2: The library routines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. G. Wright

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The SCOR/IAPSO1 Working Group 127 on Thermodynamics and Equation of State of Seawater has prepared recommendations for new methods and algorithms for numerical estimation of the thermophysical properties of seawater. As an outcome of this work, a new International Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10 was endorsed by IOC/UNESCO2 in June 2009 as the official replacement and extension of the 1980 International Equation of State, EOS-80. As part of this new standard a source code package has been prepared that is now made freely available to users via the World Wide Web. This package includes two libraries referred to as the SIA (Sea-Ice-Air library and the GSW (Gibbs SeaWater library. Information on the GSW library may be found on the TEOS-10 web site (http://www.TEOS-10.org. This publication provides an introduction to the SIA library which contains routines to calculate various thermodynamic properties as discussed in the companion paper. The SIA library is very comprehensive, including routines to deal with fluid water, ice, seawater and humid air as well as equilibrium states involving various combinations of these, with equivalent code developed in different languages. The code is hierachically structured in modules that support (i almost unlimited extension with respect to additional properties or relations, (ii an extraction of self-contained sub-libraries, (iii separate updating of the empirical thermodynamic potentials, and (iv code verification on different platforms and between different languages. Error trapping is implemented to identify when one or more of the primary routines are accessed significantly beyond their established range of validity. The initial version of the SIA library is available in Visual Basic and FORTRAN as a supplement to this publication and updates will be maintained on the TEOS-10 web site.

    1 SCOR

  1. Atmospheric water balance over oceanic regions as estimated from satellite, merged, and reanalysis data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hyo-Jin; Shin, Dong-Bin; Yoo, Jung-Moon

    2013-05-01

    The column integrated atmospheric water balance over the ocean was examined using satellite-based and merged data sets for the period from 2000 to 2005. The data sets for the components of the atmospheric water balance include evaporation from the HOAPS, GSSTF, and OAFlux and precipitation from the HOAPS, CMAP, and GPCP. The water vapor tendency was derived from water vapor data of HOAPS. The product for water vapor flux convergence estimated using satellite observation data was used. The atmospheric balance components from the MERRA reanalysis data were also examined. Residuals of the atmospheric water balance equation were estimated using nine possible combinations of the data sets over the ocean between 60°N and 60°S. The results showed that there was considerable disagreement in the residual intensities and distributions from the different combinations of the data sets. In particular, the residuals in the estimations of the satellite-based atmospheric budget appear to be large over the oceanic areas with heavy precipitation such as the intertropical convergence zone, South Pacific convergence zone, and monsoon regions. The lack of closure of the atmospheric water cycle may be attributed to the uncertainties in the data sets and approximations in the atmospheric water balance equation. Meanwhile, the anomalies of the residuals from the nine combinations of the data sets are in good agreement with their variability patterns. These results suggest that significant consideration is needed when applying the data sets of water budget components to quantitative water budget studies, while climate variability analysis based on the residuals may produce similar results.

  2. Mini Vapour Cycle System For High Density Electronic Cooling Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Mancin, Simone; Zilio, Claudio; Rossetto, Luisa

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the preliminary experimental results of a mini Vapour Cycle System (VCS) for electronic thermal management applications. The water cooled miniature scale refrigeration system uses R134a as working fluid and implements a new concept oil-free linear compressor prototype. In the range of operating test conditions investigated, the cooling capacity of the system varied from 46 to 310 W while the coefficient of performance (COP) ranged between 1.05 and 5.54. Particular attention...

  3. Chemical vapour deposition synthetic diamond: materials, technology and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Balmer, R. S.; Brandon, J R; Clewes, S L; Dhillon, H. K.; Dodson, J M; Friel, I.; Inglis, P. N.; Madgwick, T D; Markham, M. L.; Mollart, T P; Perkins, N.; Scarsbrook, G. A.; Twitchen, D. J.; Whitehead, A J; Wilman, J J

    2009-01-01

    Substantial developments have been achieved in the synthesis of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) diamond in recent years, providing engineers and designers with access to a large range of new diamond materials. CVD diamond has a number of outstanding material properties that can enable exceptional performance in applications as diverse as medical diagnostics, water treatment, radiation detection, high power electronics, consumer audio, magnetometry and novel lasers. Often the material is synt...

  4. Effect of land use on carbon dioxide, water vapour and energy exchange over terrestrial ecosystems in Southwestern France during the CERES campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Jarosz

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Eddy fluxes were measured over different ecosystems, winter and summer crops, a maritime pine forest at different stages of development and grassland, from 17 May to 26 June 2005 in the southwestern region of France. During the experiment, summer crops started growing whereas winter crops and grassland achieved their senescence. Comparatively, the other ecosystems had a much slower growth emphasized by soil water deficit at forest sites.

    The ten ecosystems showed different partitioning of available energy. Net radiation was the highest above the maritime pine forest, followed, in decreasing order, by the crops, the vineyard and the grassland. Over the whole campaign period, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE was larger above the forest sites than for the other sites.

    The various vegetation types also showed contrasting net ecosystem exchange (NEE dynamics following their growth status and respective behaviour in response to drought. Both the clearcut and summer crops before irrigation and plant growth behaved as sources of CO2, whereas the vineyard, the mature forest and winter crops acted as sinks. However the maize crops became substantial sinks of CO2 after the start of irrigation and canopy growth, with fluxes twice as large as for the mature pine forest. Finally, throughout the experiment, forest, grassland and crops sequestrated from about 50 gC m−2 to 230 gC m−2, while the cleacut and the beans crop rejected about 30 gC m−2.

    These results support the idea that converting a mature forest to a clearcut or bare soil available to agricultural use enhances the sensible heat flux and shifts the ecosystem from a sink to a source of carbon.

  5. Carbon compounds in the atmosphere and their chemical reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Martišová, Petra

    2013-01-01

    The essay dissert on compounds of carbon in the atmosphere and its reaction. The most important are carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane. Included among important compounds of carbon are volatile organic substances, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon and dioxin. Carbon dioxide and methane representing greenhouse gases have also indispensable meaning. As they, together with water vapour, nitrogen monoxide and other gases are causing the major part of greenhouse effect. Primarily because of...

  6. Atmospheric pollution in the mediterranean area: geochemical studies of aerosols and rain waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is now recognised that the atmosphere is a major pathway for the transport of material to the oceans. The material in the atmosphere is present as gaseous and particulate (aerosol) phases. Aerosols may be removed from the atmosphere by a combination of 'dry' (i.e. not involving an atmospheric aqueous phase) and 'wet' (precipitation scavenging) processes. Thus, aerosols are intimately related to rain waters, and interactions between the two are discusses below in relation to the input of material to the Mediterranean Sea

  7. Investigating the Source, Transport, and Isotope Composition of Water in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffis, T. J.; Schultz, N. M.; Lee, X.

    2011-12-01

    The isotope composition of water (liquid and vapor phases) can provide important insights regarding the source of water used by plants, the origins of atmospheric water vapor, and the sources of carbon dioxide. In recent years there have been significant advances in the ability to quantify the isotope composition of water and water vapor using optical isotope techniques. We have used and helped develop some of these techniques to determine the isotope composition of soil and plant waters, to measure the isoflux of water vapor between the land surface and atmosphere, and to examine the isotope composition of water vapor and deuterium excess in the atmospheric boundary layer. In this presentation we will discuss three related issues: 1) Identification and correction of spectral contamination in soil and plant water samples using optical techniques; 2) The benefits and practical limitations of quantifying the isotope composition of evapotranspiration using the eddy covariance approach; and 3) The scientific value and feasibility of tracking the long-term (seasonal and interannual) behavior of the isotope composition of water vapor and deuterium excess in the atmospheric boundary layer. A few short stories will be provided from experiments conducted in the lab, at the field scale, and from a very tall tower at the University of Minnesota from 2008 to 2011.

  8. Vertical distribution of water in the atmosphere of Venus - A simple thermochemical explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John S.; Grinspoon, David H.

    1990-01-01

    Several lines of evidence concerning the vertical abundance profile of water in the atmosphere of Venus lead to strikingly unusual distributions (the water vapor abundance decreases sharply in the immediate vicinity of the surface) or to serious conflicts in the profiles (different IR bands suggest water abundances that are discrepant by a factor of 2.5 to 10). These data sets can be reconciled if (1) water molecules associate with carbon dioxide and sulfur trioxide to make gaseous carbonic acid and sulfuric acid in the lower atmosphere, and (2) the discrepant 0.94-micrometer water measurements are due to gaseous sulfuric acid, requiring it to be a somewhat stronger absorber than water vapor in this wavelength region. A mean total water abundance of 50 + or - 20 parts/million and a near-surface free water vapor abundance of 10 + or - 4 parts/million are derived.

  9. Experimental Investigation of Influence of Acoustic Wave on Vapour Precipitation Process

    OpenAIRE

    V. Vekteris; I. Tetsman; V. Moksin

    2013-01-01

    The measurement results of acoustic field parameters above electroplating bath, in presence of water vapour, are analyzed in this work. Suction was created by means of side exhausters. It is obtained that the sound field generator generated a sound level of 130–140 dB at frequency interval between 1 and 10 kHz. It is shown that aerosol coagulation and precipitation processes are intensified under the mentioned conditions. The concentration of vapour and other aerosols in removal air decreases...

  10. Understanding dynamics of large-scale atmospheric vortices with moist-convective shallow water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rostami, M.; Zeitlin, V.

    2016-08-01

    Atmospheric jets and vortices which, together with inertia-gravity waves, constitute the principal dynamical entities of large-scale atmospheric motions, are well described in the framework of one- or multi-layer rotating shallow water models, which are obtained by vertically averaging of full “primitive” equations. There is a simple and physically consistent way to include moist convection in these models by adding a relaxational parameterization of precipitation and coupling precipitation with convective fluxes with the help of moist enthalpy conservation. We recall the construction of moist-convective rotating shallow water model (mcRSW) model and give an example of application to upper-layer atmospheric vortices.

  11. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Kolb

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change – a European Network Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review.

    In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  12. An overview of current issues in the uptake of atmospheric trace gases by aerosols and clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, C. E.; Cox, R. A.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Ammann, M.; Davis, E. J.; Donaldson, D. J.; Garrett, B. C.; George, C.; Griffiths, P. T.; Hanson, D. R.; Kulmala, M.; McFiggans, G.; Pöschl, U.; Riipinen, I.; Rossi, M. J.; Rudich, Y.; Wagner, P. E.; Winkler, P. M.; Worsnop, D. R.; O'Dowd, C. D.

    2010-11-01

    A workshop was held in the framework of the ACCENT (Atmospheric Composition Change - a European Network) Joint Research Programme on "Aerosols" and the Programme on "Access to Laboratory Data". The aim of the workshop was to hold "Gordon Conference" type discussion covering accommodation and reactive uptake of water vapour and trace pollutant gases on condensed phase atmospheric materials. The scope was to review and define the current state of knowledge of accommodation coefficients for water vapour on water droplet and ice surfaces, and uptake of trace gas species on a variety of different surfaces characteristic of the atmospheric condensed phase particulate matter and cloud droplets. Twenty-six scientists participated in this meeting through presentations, discussions and the development of a consensus review. In this review we present an analysis of the state of knowledge on the thermal and mass accommodation coefficient for water vapour on aqueous droplets and ice and a survey of current state-of the-art of reactive uptake of trace gases on a range of liquid and solid atmospheric droplets and particles. The review recommends consistent definitions of the various parameters that are needed for quantitative representation of the range of gas/condensed surface kinetic processes important for the atmosphere and identifies topics that require additional research.

  13. Trends in the chemistry of atmospheric deposition and surface waters in the Lake Maggiore catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Rogora

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The Lake Maggiore catchment is the area of Italy most affected by acid deposition. Trend analysis was performed on long-term (15-30 years series of chemical analyses of atmospheric deposition, four small rivers draining forested catchments and four high mountain lakes. An improvement in the quality of atmospheric deposition was detected, due to decreasing sulphate concentration and increasing pH. Similar trends were also found in high mountain lakes and in small rivers. Atmospheric deposition, however, is still providing a large and steady flux of nitrogen compounds (nitrate and ammonium which is causing increasing nitrogen saturation in forest ecosystems and increasing nitrate levels in rivers. Besides atmospheric deposition, an important factor controlling water acidification and recovery is the weathering of rocks and soils which may be influenced by climate warming. A further factor is the episodic deposition of Saharan calcareous dust which contributes significantly to base cation deposition. Keywords: trend, atmospheric deposition, nitrogen, stream water chemistry.

  14. Vapor hydrogen and oxygen isotopes reflect water of combustion in the urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorski, Galen; Strong, Courtenay; Good, Stephen P.; Bares, Ryan; Ehleringer, James R.; Bowen, Gabriel J.

    2015-03-01

    Anthropogenic modification of the water cycle involves a diversity of processes, many of which have been studied intensively using models and observations. Effective tools for measuring the contribution and fate of combustion-derived water vapor in the atmosphere are lacking, however, and this flux has received relatively little attention. We provide theoretical estimates and a first set of measurements demonstrating that water of combustion is characterized by a distinctive combination of H and O isotope ratios. We show that during periods of relatively low humidity and/or atmospheric stagnation, this isotopic signature can be used to quantify the concentration of water of combustion in the atmospheric boundary layer over Salt Lake City. Combustion-derived vapor concentrations vary between periods of atmospheric stratification and mixing, both on multiday and diurnal timescales, and respond over periods of hours to variations in surface emissions. Our estimates suggest that up to 13% of the boundary layer vapor during the period of study was derived from combustion sources, and both the temporal pattern and magnitude of this contribution were closely reproduced by an independent atmospheric model forced with a fossil fuel emissions data product. Our findings suggest potential for water vapor isotope ratio measurements to be used in conjunction with other tracers to refine the apportionment of urban emissions, and imply that water vapor emissions associated with combustion may be a significant component of the water budget of the urban boundary layer, with potential implications for urban climate, ecohydrology, and photochemistry.

  15. A Plant-Based Proxy for the Oxygen Isotope Ratio of Atmospheric Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helliker, B.

    2007-12-01

    Atmospheric water vapor is a major component of the global hydrological cycle, but the isotopic balance of vapor is largely unknown. It is shown here that the oxygen isotope ratio of leaf water in the epiphytic Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) plant Tillandsia usneoides (Spanish Moss) is controlled by the oxygen isotope ratio of atmospheric water vapor in both field and lab studies. Assuming that the leaf-water isotopic signature (and hence the atmospheric water vapor signature) is recorded in plant organic material, the atmospheric water vapor oxygen isotope ratios for Miami, Florida (USA) were reconstructed for several years from 1878 to 2005 using contemporary and herbarium specimens. T. usneoides ranges from Virginia, USA southwards through the tropics to Argentina, and the CAM epiphytic lifeform is widespread in other species. Therefore, epiphytes may be used to reconstruct the isotope ratio of atmospheric water for spatial scales that span over 60° of latitude and temporal scales that cover the last century of global temperature increase.

  16. Load of soil and water by atmospheric nitrogen deposition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After comprehensive retrofitting of power plants with flue gas desulfurization systems has been completed in Germany, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and ammonia became the most important air pollutants. Pollution control measures to reduce the release of these substances which predominantly originate from traffic and agriculture had only marginal success. Some way or other, emissions into the atmosphere return to the ground and entail here generally harmful side effects. After introductory remarks on nitrogen as an air contaminant, the present potential in the derivation of emittor/receptor-relationships for nitrogen compounds are described. Subsequently, the nitrogen deposition rates are quantified and evaluated. (orig.)

  17. Modelling (vapour + liquid) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria of {l_brace}water (H{sub 2}O) + methanol (MeOH) + dimethyl ether (DME) + carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}){r_brace} quaternary system using the Peng-Robinson EoS with Wong-Sandler mixing rule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Kongmeng [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Freund, Hannsjoerg, E-mail: freund@mpi-magdeburg.mpg.de [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Sundmacher, Kai [Max Planck Institute for Dynamics of Complex Technical Systems, Sandtorstr. 1, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany); Process Systems Engineering, Otto-von-Guericke University Magdeburg, Universitaetsplatz 2, D-39106 Magdeburg (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > Phase behaviour modelling of H{sub 2}O-MeOH-DME under pressurized CO{sub 2} (anti-solvent) using PRWS. > PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK has better performance than PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby in general. > Reliable to extend the VLE and VLLE phase behaviour from binary to multicomponent systems. > Successful prediction of the VLE and VLLE of binary, ternary, and quaternary systems. > Potential to apply the model for designing new DME separation process. - Abstract: The (vapour + liquid) equilibria (VLE) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibria (VLLE) binary data from literature were correlated using the Peng-Robinson (PR) equation of state (EoS) with the Wong-Sandler mixing rule (WS). Two group contribution activity models were used in the PRWS: UNIFAC-PSRK and UNIFAC-Lby. The systems were successfully extrapolated from the binary systems to ternary and quaternary systems. Results indicate that the PRWS-UNIFAC-PSRK generally displays a better performance than the PRWS-UNIFAC-Lby.

  18. A new look at the atmospheric water cycle: measurements of water vapor and its main isotopologue using SCIAMACHY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheepmaker, Remco; Frankenberg, Christian; Aben, Ilse; Schrijver, Hans; Gloudemans, Annemieke; Roeckmann, Thomas; Yoshimura, Kei

    2010-05-01

    Water vapor is by far the most important greenhouse gas in the atmosphere. As a warmer atmosphere can contain more water vapor, a positive feedback effect with respect to climate change is expected. The distribution of water vapor is very inhomogeneous and variable, unlike that of other greenhouse gases. In the light of climate reconstructions and predictions, it is therefore crucial to better understand the water cycle and its response to past and present climate change. The relative abundance of the heavy water isotopologue HDO provides a deeper insight in the water cycle, as evaporation and condensation processes deplete heavy water in the gas phase. In the application of isotopologues, however, the space-borne retrieval of atmospheric water vapor isotopologues near the surface has so far been overlooked. We provide, for the first time (Frankenberg et al., Science 2009), global HDO/H2O abundances using the Scanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CHartography (SCIAMACHY) instrument onboard ENVISAT. This allows for an entirely new perspective on the near-surface distribution of water vapor isotopologues. We are using the 2.3 micron (SWIR) window of SCIAMACHY, which is also used for the first time (Schrijver et al., AMT 2009) to derive total water vapor columns. Because of this wavelength range, and because SCIAMACHY is an absorption spectrometer, we are sensitive down to the lowest parts of the atmosphere where most of the water vapor resides. We further exploit a novel method to correct for the scattering effects of an ice layer on the SWIR detector and in order to further improve the accuracy of our HDO/H2O dataset, we derived an improved spectral linelist for H2O in the 2.3 micron window. The total water vapor columns have been validated with collocated ECMWF data and show good agreement. First results of atmospheric HDO/H2O show an expected latitudinal gradient, but also strong evaporation signals over the Red Sea and highly depleted values

  19. Surface waters as a sink and source of atmospheric gas phase ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, G Brooks; Foley, Laura; Carroll, Angela L; Roebuck, Jesse Alan; Guy, Amanda; Mead, Ralph N; Kieber, Robert J; Willey, Joan D; Skrabal, Stephen A; Felix, J David; Mullaugh, Katherine M; Helms, John R

    2016-02-01

    This study reports the first ethanol concentrations in fresh and estuarine waters and greatly expands the current data set for coastal ocean waters. Concentrations for 153 individual measurements of 11 freshwater sites ranged from 5 to 598 nM. Concentrations obtained for one estuarine transect ranged from 56 to 77 nM and levels in five coastal ocean depth profiles ranged from 81 to 334 nM. Variability in ethanol concentrations was high and appears to be driven primarily by photochemical and biological processes. 47 gas phase concentrations of ethanol were also obtained during this study to determine the surface water degree of saturation with respect to the atmosphere. Generally fresh and estuarine waters were undersaturated indicating they are not a source and may be a net sink for atmospheric ethanol in this region. Aqueous phase ethanol is likely converted rapidly to acetaldehyde in these aquatic ecosystems creating the undersaturated conditions resulting in this previously unrecognized sink for atmospheric ethanol. Coastal ocean waters may act as either a sink or source of atmospheric ethanol depending on the partial pressure of ethanol in the overlying air mass. Results from this study are significant because they suggest that surface waters may act as an important vector for the uptake of ethanol emitted into the atmosphere including ethanol from biofuel production and usage.

  20. HIFI observations of water in the atmosphere of comet C/2008 Q3 (Garradd)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartogh, P.; Crovisier, J.; de Val-Borro, M.; Bockelée-Morvan, D.; Biver, N.; Lis, D. C.; Moreno, R.; Jarchow, C.; Rengel, M.; Emprechtinger, M.; Szutowicz, S.; Banaszkiewicz, M.; Bensch, F.; Blecka, M. I.; Cavalié, T.; Encrenaz, T.; Jehin, E.; Küppers, M.; Lara, L. -M; Lellouch, E.; Swinyard, B. M.; Vandenbussche, B.; Bergin, E. A.; Blake, G.A.; Blommaert, J. A. D. L.; Cernicharo, J.; Decin, L.; Encrenaz, P.; de Graauw, Th.; Hutsemekers, D.; Kidger, M.; Manfroid, J.; Medvedev, A. S.; Naylor, D. A.; Schieder, R.; Thomas, N.; Waelkens, C.; Roelfsema, P. R.; Dieleman, P.; Güsten, R.; Klein, T.; Kasemann, C.; Caris, M.; Olberg, M.; Benz, A. O.

    2010-01-01

    High-resolution far-infrared and sub-millimetre spectroscopy of water lines is an important tool to understand the physical and chemical properties of cometary atmospheres. We present observations of several rotational ortho- and para-water transitions in comet C/2008 Q3 (Garradd) performed with HIF

  1. New progress of research on water cycle in atmosphere in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    New progresses are introduced briefly about the water cycle study on atmosphere of China made in recent years. The introduction includes eight aspects as follows: 1) precipitation characteristics, 2) stability of climatic system, 3) precipitation sensitive region, 4) regional evaporation and evapotranspiration, 5) water surface evaporation, 6) vegetation transpiration, 7) cloud physics, and 8) vapor source.

  2. Reactivity of water vapor in an atmospheric pressure DBD -Application to LDPE surfaces

    CERN Document Server

    Collette, S; Viville, Pascal; Reniers, François

    2016-01-01

    The reactivity of water vapor introduced in an atmospheric dielectric barrier discharge supplied in argon is investigated through optical emission spectroscopy measurements. This discharge is also used for the treatment of LDPE surfaces. Water contact angles measurements, XPS and AFM techniques are used to study the grafting of oxygen functions on the LDPE surface and increase its hydrophilicity.

  3. Water cycles in closed ecological systems: effects of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rygalov, Vadim Y.; Fowler, Philip A.; Metz, Joannah M.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Bucklin, Ray A.; Sager, J. C. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    In bioregenerative life support systems that use plants to generate food and oxygen, the largest mass flux between the plants and their surrounding environment will be water. This water cycle is a consequence of the continuous change of state (evaporation-condensation) from liquid to gas through the process of transpiration and the need to transfer heat (cool) and dehumidify the plant growth chamber. Evapotranspiration rates for full plant canopies can range from 1 to 10 L m-2 d-1 (1 to 10 mm m-2 d-1), with the rates depending primarily on the vapor pressure deficit (VPD) between the leaves and the air inside the plant growth chamber. VPD in turn is dependent on the air temperature, leaf temperature, and current value of relative humidity (RH). Concepts for developing closed plant growth systems, such as greenhouses for Mars, have been discussed for many years and the feasibility of such systems will depend on the overall system costs and reliability. One approach for reducing system costs would be to reduce the operating pressure within the greenhouse to reduce structural mass and gas leakage. But managing plant growth environments at low pressures (e.g., controlling humidity and heat exchange) may be difficult, and the effects of low-pressure environments on plant growth and system water cycling need further study. We present experimental evidence to show that water saturation pressures in air under isothermal conditions are only slightly affected by total pressure, but the overall water flux from evaporating surfaces can increase as pressure decreases. Mathematical models describing these observations are presented, along with discussion of the importance for considering "water cycles" in closed bioregenerative life support systems.

  4. The Runaway Greenhouse: implications for future climate change, geoengineering and planetary atmospheres

    OpenAIRE

    Goldblatt, Colin; Watson, Andrew J.

    2012-01-01

    The ultimate climate emergency is a "runaway greenhouse": a hot and water vapour rich atmosphere limits the emission of thermal radiation to space, causing runaway warming. Warming ceases only once the surface reaches ~1400K and emits radiation in the near-infrared, where water is not a good greenhouse gas. This would evaporate the entire ocean and exterminate all planetary life. Venus experienced a runaway greenhouse in the past, and we expect that Earth will in around 2 billion years as sol...

  5. Forests, Water, and the Atmosphere in Northern California: Insights from Sap-Flow Data Analysis and Numerical Atmospheric Model Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Percy Anne

    Evapotranspiration cools the land surface by consuming a large fraction of the net radiative energy at the surface. In forested regions, trees actively control the rate of transpiration by modulating stomatal conductance in response to environmental conditions, and species with different stomatal dynamics can affect the atmosphere in distinct ways. Using principal component analysis (PCA) and Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) parameter estimation with direct, tree-level measurements of water use, we show that Douglas-firs ( Pseudotsuga menziesii), a common evergreen needleleaf tree species in the Northern California Coast Range, decrease their transpiration sharply in the summer dry season in response to a dry root zone; and in contrast, broadleaf evergreen tree species, especially Pacific madrones (Arbutus menziesii), transpire maximally in the summer dry season because their transpiration is much less sensitive to a dry root zone and increases continually in response to increasing atmospheric evaporative demand. We scale up these tree-level observations to construct a bottom-up estimate of regional transpiration, and we use these regional estimates along with atmospheric models, one simple and one comprehensive, to quantify the potential impact of species transpiration differences on regional summertime climate. The atmospheric models suggest that these species differences in transpiration could affect the well-mixed atmospheric boundary layer temperature and humidity by 1-1.5 degrees C and 1 g/kg, respectively, and near-surface temperature and humidity by 1.5-2.5 degrees C and 2-3 g/kg, respectively. We further investigate the sensitivity of California climate to evapotranspiration by estimating the sensitivity of wind energy forecasts at a California wind farm to regional-scale perturbations in soil moisture using a regional atmospheric model. These tests show that forecasts at this particular farm are most sensitive to soil moisture in the Central Valley, and

  6. Development and Validation of Water Vapor Tracers as Diagnostics for the Atmospheric Hydrologic Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosilovich, Michael G.; Schubert, Siegfried D.; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Understanding of the local and remote sources of water vapor can be a valuable diagnostic in understanding the regional atmospheric hydrologic cycle. In the present study, we have implemented passive tracers as prognostic variables to follow water vapor evaporated in predetermined regions until the water tracer precipitates. The formulation of the sources and sinks of tracer water is generally proportional to the prognostic water vapor variable. Because all water has been accounted for in tracers, the water vapor variable provides the validation of the tracer water and the formulation of the sources and sinks. The tracers have been implemented in a GEOS General Circulation Model (GCM) simulation consisting of several summer periods to determine the source regions of precipitation for the United States and India. The recycling of water and interannual variability of the sources of water will be examined. Potential uses in GCM sensitivity studies, predictability studies and data assimilation will be discussed.

  7. Relative Influence of Initial Surface and Atmospheric Conditions on Seasonal Water and Energy Balances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglesby, Robert J.; Marshall, Susan; Roads, John O.; Robertson, Franklin R.; Goodman, H. Michael (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    We constructed and analyzed wet and dry soil moisture composites for the mid-latitude GCIP region of the central US using long climate model simulations made with the NCAR CCM3 and reanalysis products from NCEP. Using the diagnostic composites as a guide, we have completed a series of predictability experiments in which we imposed soil water initial conditions in CCM3 for the GCIP region for June 1 from anomalously wet and dry years, with atmospheric initial conditions taken from June 1 of a year with 'near-normal' soil water, and initial soil water from the near-normal year and atmospheric initial conditions from the wet and dry years. Preliminary results indicate that the initial state of the atmosphere is more important than the initial state of soil water determining the subsequent late spring and summer evolution of sod water over the GCIP region. Surprisingly, neither the composites or the predictability experiments yielded a strong influence of soil moisture on the atmosphere. To explore this further, we have made runs with extreme dry soil moisture initial anomalies imposed over the GCIP region (the soil close to being completely dry). These runs did yield a very strong effect on the atmosphere that persisted for at least three months. We conclude that the magnitude of the initial soil moisture anomaly is crucial, at least in CCM3, and are currently investigating whether a threshold exists, below which little impact is seen. In a complementary study, we compared the impact of the initial condition of snow cover versus the initial atmospheric state over the western US (corresponding to the westward extension of the GAPP program follow-on to GCIP). In this case, the initial prescription of snow cover is far more important than the initial atmospheric state in determining the subsequent evolution of snow cover. We are currently working to understand the very different soil water and snow cover results.

  8. Strong Water Isotopic Anomalies in the Martian Atmosphere: Probing Current and Ancient Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, G. L.; Mumma, M. J.; Novak, R. E.; Käufl, H. U.; Hartogh, P.; Encrenaz, T.; Tokunaga, A.; Khayat, A.; Smith, M. D.

    2015-01-01

    We measured maps of atmospheric water (H2O) and its deuterated form (HDO) across the martian globe, showing strong isotopic anomalies and a significant high deuterium/hydrogen (D/H) enrichment indicative of great water loss. The maps sample the evolution of sublimation from the north polar cap, revealing that the released water has a representative D/H value enriched by a factor of about 7 relative to Earth's ocean [Vienna standard mean ocean water (VSMOW)]. Certain basins and orographic depressions show even higher enrichment, whereas high-altitude regions show much lower values (1 to 3 VSMOW). Our atmospheric maps indicate that water ice in the polar reservoirs is enriched in deuterium to at least 8 VSMOW, which would mean that early Mars (4.5 billion years ago) had a global equivalent water layer at least 137 meters deep.

  9. Autonomous Chemical Vapour Detection by Micro UAV

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kent Rosser

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ability to remotely detect and map chemical vapour clouds in open air environments is a topic of significant interest to both defence and civilian communities. In this study, we integrate a prototype miniature colorimetric chemical sensor developed for methyl salicylate (MeS, as a model chemical vapour, into a micro unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV, and perform flights through a raised MeS vapour cloud. Our results show that that the system is capable of detecting MeS vapours at low ppm concentration in real-time flight and rapidly sending this information to users by on-board telemetry. Further, the results also indicate that the sensor is capable of distinguishing “clean” air from “dirty”, multiple times per flight, allowing us to look towards autonomous cloud mapping and source localization applications. Further development will focus on a broader range of integrated sensors, increased autonomy of detection and improved engineering of the system.