WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric ultrafine particles

  1. Ultrafine particles in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, L M; Harrison, R M; Maynard, A D; Maynard, R L

    2003-01-01

    Following the recognition that airborne particulate matter, even at quite modest concentrations, has an adverse effect on human health, there has been an intense research effort to understand the mechanisms and quantify the effects. One feature that has shone through is the important role of ultrafine particles as a contributor to the adverse effects of airborne particles. In this volume, many of the most distinguished researchers in the field provide a state-of-the-art overview of the scientific and medical research on ultrafine particles. Contents: Measurements of Number, Mass and Size Distr

  2. Measurements of hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles during ultrafine particle formation events at urban, industrial, and coastal sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kihong; Kim, Jae-Seok; Park, Seung Ho

    2009-09-01

    The tandem differential mobility analyzer (TDMA) technique was applied to determine the hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles in three sites of urban Gwangju, industrial Yeosu, and coastal Taean in South Korea. A database for the hygroscopicity and volatility of the known compositions and sizes of the laboratory-generated particles wasfirst constructed for comparison with the measured properties of atmospheric ultrafine particles. Distinct differences in hygroscopicity and volatility of atmospheric ultrafine particles werefound between a "photochemical event" and a "combustion event" as well as among different sites. At the Gwangju site, ultrafine particles in the "photochemical event" were determined to be more hygroscopic (growth factor (GF) = 1.05-1.33) than those in the "combustion event" (GF = 1.02-1.12), but their hygroscopicity was not as high as pure ammonium sulfate or sulfuric acid particles in the laboratory-generated database, suggesting they were internally mixed with less soluble species. Ultrafine particles in the "photochemical event" at the Yeosu site, having a variety of SO2, CO, and VOC emission sources, were more hygroscopic (GF = 1.34-1.60) and had a higher amount of volatile species (47-75%)than those observed at the Gwangju site. Ultrafine particle concentration at the Taean site increased during daylight hours with low tide, having a higher GF (1.34-1.80) than the Gwangju site and a lower amount of volatile species (17-34%) than the Yeosu site. Occasionally ultrafine particles were externally mixed according to their hygroscopicity and volatility, and TEM/EDS data showed that each type of particle had a distinct morphology and elemental composition. PMID:19764239

  3. Nature and evolution of ultrafine aerosol particles in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V. V.

    2006-12-01

    Results of experimental and theoretical studies of a poorly understood phenomenon, an intense emission of ultrafine (nanometer) aerosols (ENA), are reviewed. In the English-language literature, this phenomenon is commonly referred to as a nucleation burst. ENA events have been observed on all the continents and throughout the depth of the troposphere, with the number of corresponding publications growing steadily. Intense and long-lasting ENA events have been studied more or less comprehensively and in full detail for Northern Europe, with 60 to 70% of observations taken in a forest area in the presence of snow cover and 10 to 20% in coastal marine areas. Most often, ENA events occur during spring and fall, with 95% of cases in the daytime and under sunny calm conditions, typical of anticyclones. In ENA events, the concentration of nanoparticles initially grows rapidly to values of 103-105 cm-3. One or two hours later, the so-called nuclei fraction with diameters D = 3-15 nm is produced. The appearance of the Aitken fraction D = 20-80 nm and the enlargement of aerosol particles inside the accumulation fraction D = 80-200 nm may occur during the following 4-6 h. Thus, the cycle of formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles in the size range from a few to hundreds of nanometers is reproduced over 6-8 h. A specific synoptic feature of ENA events over land is that they occur when the polar air is transported to measuring sites and the temperature difference between day and light is large. During ENA periods, the formation rate of condensation nuclei with a diameter of 100 nm increases 10-to 100-fold. Important factors of ENA genesis are the “aerosol” and “electric” states of the atmosphere. More intense ENA events occur at low concentrations of background aerosols in the presence of atmospheric ions of medium mobility with D = 2-3 nm. The international experiments ACE 1 and 2, BIOFOR 1, 2, and 3, ESUP 2000, QUEST, etc., have not yet provided any

  4. Production, growth and properties of ultrafine atmospheric aerosol particles in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured by a flow-switching type differential mobility particle sizer in an electrical mobility diameter range of 6–1000 nm in 30 channels near central Budapest with a time resolution of 10 min continuously from 3 November 2008 to 2 November 2009. Daily median number concentrations of particles varied from 3.8×103 to 29×103 cm−3 with a yearly median of 11.8×103 cm−3. Contribution of ultrafine particles to the total particle number ranged from 58 to 92% with a mean ratio and standard deviation of (79±6%. Daily average number concentrations in various size fractions and contribution of ultrafine particles to the total particle number showed no seasonal dependency. Monthly mean number size distributions were similar to each other. Overall mean for the number median mobility diameter of the Aitken and accumulation modes were 26 and 93 nm, respectively, which are substantially smaller than for rural or background environments. The Aitken and accumulation modes contributed similarly to the total particle number concentrations at the actual measurement location. Median diameters of the Aitken and accumulation modes were shifted to larger values before nucleation started and over the growth process, which can be related to the presence of aged aerosol under the conditions that favour nucleation and growth. Particle concentrations were usually increased substantially after nucleations. Overall mean and standard deviation of the nucleation mode number concentrations were (10.4±2.8×103 cm−3. Mean ratio and standard deviation of the nucleation mode number concentration to the total particle number concentration that was averaged for two hours just before the formation was detected was 2.3±1.1. Nucleation unambiguously occurred on 83 days, which represent 27% of all relevant days. Its frequency showed a

  5. Production, growth and properties of ultrafine atmospheric aerosol particles in an urban environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Salma

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Number concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles were measured by a flow-switching type differential mobility particle sizer in an electrical mobility diameter range of 6–1000 nm in 30 channels near central Budapest with a time resolution of 10 min continuously from 3 November 2008 to 2 November 2009. Daily median number concentrations of particles varied from 3.8 × 103 to 29 ×103 cm−3 with a yearly median of 11.8 × 103 cm−3. Contribution of ultrafine particles to the total particle number ranged from 58 to 92% with a mean ratio and standard deviation of (79 ± 6%. Typical diurnal variation of the particle number concentration was related to the major emission patterns in cities, new particle formation, sinks of particles and meteorology. Shapes of the monthly mean number size distributions were similar to each other. Overall mean for the number median mobility diameter of the Aitken and accumulation modes were 26 and 93 nm, respectively, which are substantially smaller than for rural or background environments. The Aitken and accumulation modes contributed similarly to the total particle number concentrations at the actual measurement location. New particle formation and growth unambiguously occurred on 83 days, which represent 27% of all relevant days. Hence, new particle formation and growth are not rare phenomena in Budapest. Their frequency showed an apparent seasonal variation with a minimum of 7.3% in winter and a maximum of 44% in spring. New particle formation events were linked to increased gas-phase H2SO4 concentrations. In the studied area, new particle formation is mainly affected by condensation sink and solar radiation. The formation process seems to be not sensitive to SO2, which was present in a yearly median concentration of 6.7 μg m−3. This suggests that the precursor gas was always available in excess

  6. Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuang, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-02-01

    The Model 3776 Ultrafine Condensation Particle Counter (UCPC; pictured in Appendix A) is designed for researchers interested in airborne particles smaller than 20 nm. With sensitivity to particles down to 2.5 nm in diameter, this UCPC is ideally suited for atmospheric and climate research, particle formation and growth studies, combustion and engine exhaust research, and nanotechnology research.

  7. Ultrafine particles in cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia; Birmili, Wolfram; Paasonen, Pauli; Hu, Min; Kulmala, Markku; Harrison, Roy M; Norford, Leslie; Britter, Rex

    2014-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs; diameter less than 100 nm) are ubiquitous in urban air, and an acknowledged risk to human health. Globally, the major source for urban outdoor UFP concentrations is motor traffic. Ongoing trends towards urbanisation and expansion of road traffic are anticipated to further increase population exposure to UFPs. Numerous experimental studies have characterised UFPs in individual cities, but an integrated evaluation of emissions and population exposure is still lacking. Our analysis suggests that the average exposure to outdoor UFPs in Asian cities is about four-times larger than that in European cities but impacts on human health are largely unknown. This article reviews some fundamental drivers of UFP emissions and dispersion, and highlights unresolved challenges, as well as recommendations to ensure sustainable urban development whilst minimising any possible adverse health impacts. PMID:24503484

  8. Physicochemical and oxidative characteristics of semi-volatile components of quasi-ultrafine particles in an urban atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Pakbin, Payam; Cheung, Ka Lam; Cho, Arthur K.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Kleinman, Michael T.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2011-02-01

    This study examines the physicochemical and redox profiles of atmospheric semi-volatile compounds to evaluate their contribution to the oxidative potential of ambient particulate matter (PM). Concentrated ambient and thermodenuded quasi-ultrafine particles (dithiothreitol) assay. Detailed chemical analyses of PM samples, including organic and elemental carbon, water soluble elements, inorganic ions and PAHs (polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons), were conducted to quantify the volatility profiles of different PM species, and also to investigate their effect on measured oxidative potential. Refractory constituents, such as metals and elemental carbon, were marginally affected by heating, while labile species such as organic carbon and PAHs showed progressive loss in concentration with increase in TD temperature. The DTT-measured oxidative potential of PM was significantly decreased as the aerosols were heated and their semi-volatile components were progressively removed (42 ± 5%, 47 ± 8% and 66 ± 6% decrease at 50, 100 and 200 °C, respectively). Thus, semi-volatile compounds present in quasi-ultrafine urban aerosols constitute a significant fraction of PM oxidative potential, which is associated with the cellular generation of reactive oxygen species. Regression analysis performed between chemical constituents and DTT activity showed that the oxidative potential was strongly correlated with organic carbon and PAHs ( R ≥ 0.80; p ≤ 0.05).

  9. ALADINA - an unmanned research aircraft for observing vertical and horizontal distributions of ultrafine particles within the atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altstädter, B.; Platis, A.; Wehner, B.; Scholtz, A.; Wildmann, N.; Hermann, M.; Käthner, R.; Baars, H.; Bange, J.; Lampert, A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the unmanned research aircraft Carolo P360 "ALADINA" (Application of Light-weight Aircraft for Detecting IN situ Aerosol) for investigating the horizontal and vertical distribution of ultrafine particles in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). It has a wingspan of 3.6 m, a maximum take-off weight of 25 kg and is equipped with aerosol instrumentation and meteorological sensors. A first application of the system, together with the unmanned research aircraft MASC (Multi-Purpose Airborne Carrier) of the Eberhard Karls University of Tübingen (EKUT), is described. As small payload for ALADINA, two condensation particle counters (CPC) and one optical particle counter (OPC) were miniaturised by re-arranging the vital parts and composing them in a space-saving way in the front compartment of the airframe. The CPCs are improved concerning the lower detection threshold and the response time to less than 1.3 s. Each system was characterised in the laboratory and calibrated with test aerosols. The CPCs are operated in this study with two different lower detection threshold diameters of 11 and 18 nm. The amount of ultrafine particles, which is an indicator for new particle formation, is derived from the difference in number concentrations of the two CPCs (ΔN). Turbulence and thermodynamic structure of the boundary layer are described by measurements of fast meteorological sensors that are mounted at the aircraft nose. A first demonstration of ALADINA and a feasibility study were conducted in Melpitz near Leipzig, Germany, at the Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW) station of the Leibniz Institute for Tropospheric Research (TROPOS) on 2 days in October 2013. There, various ground-based instruments are installed for long-term atmospheric monitoring. The ground-based infrastructure provides valuable additional background information to embed the flights in the continuous atmospheric context and is used for validation of the airborne results. The development of the

  10. Lead and cadmium phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility for vegetables exposed to soil or atmospheric pollution by process ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Tiantian; Leveque, Thibault; Shahid, Muhammad; Foucault, Yann; Mombo, Stéphane; Dumat, Camille

    2014-09-01

    When plants are exposed to airborne particles, they can accumulate metals in their edible portions through root or foliar transfer. There is a lack of knowledge on the influence of plant exposure conditions on human bioaccessibility of metals, which is of particular concern with the increase in urban gardening activities. Lettuce, radish, and parsley were exposed to metal-rich ultrafine particles from a recycling factory via field atmospheric fallouts or polluted soil. Total lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) concentrations in of the edible plant parts and their human bioaccessibility were measured, and Pb translocation through the plants was studied using Pb isotopic analysis. The Pb and Cd bioaccessibility measured for consumed parts of the different polluted plants was significantly higher for root exposure (70% for Pb and 89% for Cd in lettuce) in comparison to foliar exposure (40% for Pb and 69% for Cd in lettuce). The difference in metal bioaccessibility could be linked to the metal compartmentalization and speciation changes in relation to exposure conditions. Metal nature strongly influences the measured bioaccessibility: Cd presents higher bioaccessibility in comparison to Pb. In the case of foliar exposure, a significant translocation of Pb from leaves toward the roots was observed. To conclude, the type of pollutant and the method of exposure significantly influences the phytoavailability and human bioaccessibility of metals, especially in relation to the contrasting phenomena involved in the rhizosphere and phyllosphere. The conditions of plant exposure must therefore be taken into account for environmental and health risk assessment. PMID:25603245

  11. Surgical smoke and ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nowak Dennis

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electrocautery, laser tissue ablation, and ultrasonic scalpel tissue dissection all generate a 'surgical smoke' containing ultrafine ( Methods To measure the amount of generated particulates in 'surgical smoke' during different surgical procedures and to quantify the particle number concentration for operation room personnel a condensation particle counter (CPC, model 3007, TSI Inc. was applied. Results Electro-cauterization and argon plasma tissue coagulation induced the production of very high number concentration (> 100000 cm-3 of particles in the diameter range of 10 nm to 1 μm. The peak concentration was confined to the immediate local surrounding of the production side. In the presence of a very efficient air conditioning system the increment and decrement of ultrafine particle occurrence was a matter of seconds, with accumulation of lower particle number concentrations in the operation room for only a few minutes. Conclusion Our investigation showed a short term very high exposure to ultrafine particles for surgeons and close assisting operating personnel – alternating with longer periods of low exposure.

  12. Efficiency of cloud condensation nuclei formation from ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. R. Pierce

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric cloud condensation nuclei (CCN concentrations are a key uncertainty in the assessment of the effect of anthropogenic aerosol on clouds and climate. The ability of new ultrafine particles to grow to become CCN varies throughout the atmosphere and must be understood in order to understand CCN formation. We have developed the Probability of Ultrafine particle Growth (PUG model to answer questions regarding which growth and sink mechanisms control this growth, how the growth varies between different parts of the atmosphere and how uncertainties with respect to the magnitude and size distribution of ultrafine emissions translates into uncertainty in CCN generation. The inputs to the PUG model are the concentrations of condensable gases, the size distribution of ambient aerosol, particle deposition timescales and physical properties of the particles and condensable gases. It was found in most cases that condensation is the dominant growth mechanism and coagulation with larger particles is the dominant sink mechanism for ultrafine particles. In this work we found that the probability of a new ultrafine particle generating a CCN varies from <0.1% to ~90% in different parts of the atmosphere, though in the boundary layer a large fraction of ultrafine particles have a probability between 1% and 40%. Some regions, such as the tropical free troposphere, are areas with high probabilities; however, variability within regions makes it difficult to predict which regions of the atmosphere are most efficient for generating CCN from ultrafine particles. For a given mass of primary ultrafine aerosol, an uncertainty of a factor of two in the modal diameter can lead to an uncertainty in the number of CCN generated as high as a factor for eight. It was found that no single moment of the primary aerosol size distribution, such as total mass or number, is a robust predictor of the number of CCN ultimately generated. Therefore, a complete description of the

  13. Removal of ultrafine particles from indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    , candle burning, emission from building material, etc. Particles are divided into coarse, fine and ultrafine particles (UFP) depending on their size. Research has indicated that UFPs with diameters less than 100 nanometer (nm) may be harmful to the human body. Increased ventilation is commonly discussed...

  14. Ultrafine particle characteristics in seven industrial plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elihn, Karine; Berg, Peter

    2009-07-01

    Ultrafine particles are considered as a possible cause of some of the adverse health effects caused by airborne particles. In this study, the particle characteristics were measured in seven Swedish industrial plants, with a special focus on the ultrafine particle fraction. Number concentration, size distribution, surface area concentration, and mass concentration were measured at 10 different job activities, including fettling, laser cutting, welding, smelting, core making, moulding, concreting, grinding, sieving powders, and washing machine goods. A thorough particle characterization is necessary in workplaces since it is not clear yet which choice of ultrafine particle metric is the best to measure in relation to health effects. Job activities were given a different order of rank depending on what particle metric was measured. An especially high number concentration (130 x 10(3) cm(-3)) and percentage of ultrafine particles (96%) were found at fettling of aluminium, whereas the highest surface area concentration (up to 3800 mum(2) cm(-3)) as well as high PM10 (up to 1 mg m(-3)) and PM1 (up to 0.8 mg m(-3)) were found at welding and laser cutting of steel. The smallest geometric mean diameter (22 nm) was found at core making (geometric standard deviation: 1.9). PMID:19447849

  15. A chemical analyzer for charged ultrafine particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. G. Gonser

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation is a frequent phenomenon in the atmosphere and of major significance for the earth's climate and human health. To date the mechanisms leading to the nucleation of particles as well as to aerosol growth are not completely understood. A lack of appropriate measurement equipment for online analysis of the chemical composition of freshly nucleated particles is one major limitation. We have developed a Chemical Analyzer for Charged Ultrafine Particles (CAChUP capable of analyzing particles with diameters below 30 nm. A bulk of size separated particles is collected electrostatically on a metal filament, resistively desorbed and consequently analyzed for its molecular composition in a time of flight mass spectrometer. We report of technical details as well as characterization experiments performed with the CAChUP. Our instrument was tested in the laboratory for its detection performance as well as for its collection and desorption capabilities. The manual application of known masses of camphene (C10H16 to the desorption filament resulted in a detection limit between 0.5 and 5 ng, and showed a linear response of the mass spectrometer. Flow tube experiments of 25 nm diameter secondary organic aerosol from ozonolysis of alpha-pinene also showed a linear relation between collection time and the mass spectrometer's signal intensity. The resulting mass spectra from the collection experiments are in good agreement with published work on particles generated by the ozonolysis of alpha-pinene. A sensitivity study shows that the current setup of CAChUP is ready for laboratory measurements and for the observation of new particle formation events in the field.

  16. Emission of ultrafine particles from the incineration of municipal solid waste: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alan M.; Harrison, Roy M.

    2016-09-01

    Ultrafine particles (diameter waste, and this article reviews studies carried out on the emissions from modern municipal waste incinerators. The effects of engineering controls upon particle emissions are considered, as well as the very limited information on the effects of changing waste composition. The results of measurements of incinerator flue gas, and of atmospheric sampling at ground level in the vicinity of incinerators, show that typical ultrafine particle concentrations in flue gas are broadly similar to those in urban air and that consequently, after the dispersion process dilutes incinerator exhaust with ambient air, ultrafine particle concentrations are typically indistinguishable from those that would occur in the absence of the incinerator. In some cases the ultrafine particle concentration in the flue gas may be below that in the local ambient air. This appears to be a consequence of the removal of semi-volatile vapours in the secondary combustion zone and abatement plant, and the high efficiency of fabric filters for ultrafine particle collection.

  17. [Ultrafine particle emissions from laser printers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grana, Mario; Vicentini, Laura; Pietroiusti, Antonio; Magrini, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In recent years there has been growing attention to the importance of indoor air quality on which scientist and experts have no doubts since in modern society we tend to spend most of the time in various types of indoor environments (office, private homes, etc.). Laser printers, in particular, release an aerosol into the environment including solid and liquid particles and gaseous compounds. The measurement of all these components is not practically feasible. Therefore, it is necessary to identify a marker which, when measured, shows accurately the frequency, duration and magnitude of the exposure. The measure with an optical particle counter (OPC) and a condensation particle counter (CPC) is an indicator with high sensitivity and representativeness. The major advantage of using these tools is the ability to detect the presence of ultrafine particles and also detect the particles in the liquid phase. The continuous recording of submicron particulate matter emitted during the printing activity allows to measure the exposure of personnel, while the ratio between the peak values and the values without printing activity can be used to classify the printers according to their emissivity. The particulate generated during the processes of printing has size less than 0.3 micron and therefore extends in the size range of nanoparticles (ultrafine particles less than 100 nm). These activities lead to high concentrations of ultrafine particles with a variability related to factors such as type of printer, toner, paper type, frequency of maintenance and air exchange. The concentrations of ultrafine particles in office environments can be reduced by proper choice of the printers, with the use of appropriate filtration techniques and placing the equipment away from workstations. PMID:26749975

  18. Specific Property of Ultrafine Particle Classification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guo-hua; HUANG Zhi-chu; ZHANG You-lin

    2003-01-01

    In the process of ultrafine particle classification,the separation curve,which reflects the characteristics of separating process,is frequently influenced by the characteristics of separation flow field and operating parameters,etc.This paper introduces the concept of system deviation and deduces the calculating method of the separation curves.Meanwhile,it analyses the influences of classification flow field's specific properties and some operating parameters on the separation curves.The results show that,in the process of ultrafine particle classification,the local vortex in the separation field improves the separation efficiency to a certain degree,but the accuracy will decrease;the coacervation action of particles will seriously influence the classification accuracy.

  19. Applications of electroflotation for recovery fine and ultrafine particles

    OpenAIRE

    Zendelska, Afrodita; Golomeov, Blagoj; Krstev, Boris; Krstev, Aleksandar

    2010-01-01

    The problem of processing by flotation are fine and ultrafine particles. Particles have small kinetic energy and they can’t overcome hydrodynamic resistance of the fluid surrounding air bubbles, thus reducing the creating a complex of the air bubble - mineral. Electroflotation process is development and focused on recovery fine mineral particles (13-38 µm) and ultrafine mineral particles (

  20. Characterization of ultrafine and fine particles from CHP Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-08-15

    Samples of particles collected at CHP plants in the project 'Survey of emissions from CHP Plants' have been analysed in this project to give information on the morphology and chemical composition of individual particle size classes. The objective of this project was to characterize ultrafine and fine particles emitted to the atmosphere from Danish CHP plants. Nine CHP plants were selected in the Emission Survey Project as being representative for the different types of CHP plants operating in Denmark: 1) Three Waste-to Energy (WTE) plants. 2) Three biomass fired (BM) plants (two straw fired, one wood/saw dust fired). 3) Two gas fired (GF) plants (one natural gas, one landfill gas fired). 4) One gasoil (GO) fired plant. At the WTE and BM plants, various types of emission control systems implemented. The results from these plants represent the composition and size distribution of combustion particles that are emitted from the plants emission control systems. The measured emissions of particles from the waste-to-energy plants WTE1-3 are generally very low. The number and mass concentrations of ultrafine particles (PM{sub 0.1}) were particularly low in the flue gas from WTE2 and WTE3, where bag filters are used for the reduction of particle emissions. The EDX analysis of particles from the WTE plants indicates that the PM{sub 0.1} that penetrates the ECS at WTE can contain high fractions of metals such as Fe, Mn and Cu. The SEM analysis of particles from WTE1-3 showed that the particles were generally porous and irregular in shape. The concentrations of particles in the flue gas from the biomass plants were generally higher than found for the WTE plants. The time series results showed that periodical, high concentration peaks of PM emissions occur from BM1 and BM2. The chemical composition of the particles emitted from the three biomass plants is generally dominated by C, O and S, and to some extend also Fe and Si. A high amount of Cu was found in selected

  1. Preparation of ultrafine chitosan particles by reverse microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafine chitosan particles were prepared by reverse microemulsion consisting of water, Triton X-100, octanol and cyclohexane. Two methods of preparing ultrafine chitosan particles were adopted and compared using TEM and IR, and possible mechanisms for the formation of ultrafine chitosan particles were proposed. Experimental results show that the method which combined ionic gelation and cross-linking gave uniformly sized chitosan nanoparticles with an average diameter of 92 nm, while the cross-linking without ionic gelation produced spindly chitosan particles with an average length of 943 nm and width of 188 nm.

  2. Assessing Ultrafine Particles Exposure in Electronic Cigarette Vape Shops

    OpenAIRE

    Sen, Chanbopha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Vape shops have grown in popularity among adults and youth. The increased popularity of electronic cigarettes has triggered many new businesses to open within the last three years to sell electronic cigarettes devices, flavor liquids and provide a place for lounging. High levels of ultrafine particles (UFP) are generated when active vaping is occurring. Objectives: 1. Quantify and understand the spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in vape shops. 2. Identify factors that ...

  3. Preparation of Ultrafine Colloidal Gold Particles using a Bioactive Molecule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synthesis of nanometer-sized particles with new physical properties is an area of tremendous interest. In metal particles, the changes in size modify the electron density in the particles, which shifts the plasmon band. The most significant size effects occur when the particles are ultrafine (size is max at 470 nm. The appearance of the absorption peak at substantially shorter wavelength (usually gold sol absorbs at ∼520 nm) indicates that the particles are very small. The method discussed here is very simple, reproducible and does not involve any reagent, which contains 'P' or 'S' atoms. Also in this case no polymer or dendrimer or thiol-related stabilizer is used. The effects of different parameters (such as the presence or absence of O2, temperature, TX-100 concentration and dhc concentration) on the formation of ultrafine gold particles are discussed. The effects of 3-mercapto propionic acid and pyridine on the ultrafine gold sol are also studied and compared with those on photochemically prepared gold sol. It is observed that 3-mercapto propionic acid dampens the plasmon absorption at 470 nm of ultrafine gold particles. Pyridine, on the other hand, has no effect on the particles

  4. Synthesis of ultrafine, multicomponent particles using phospholipid vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports that because of their unique properties of self-assembly and selective ion permeability across the lipid bilayers, phospholipid vesicles were used as reaction vessels for the synthesis of ultrafine, multicomponent ceramic particles containing Y, Ba, Cu, and Ag. Chemical inhomogeneities in the system were limited to the individual particle size (2O particles before and after the removal of the phospholipid molecules. Particle packing was greatly improved in the surfactant coated particles. This demonstrates the multifunctionality of this biomimetic system in which the vesicle membrane simultaneously acts as: a reaction cell for particle precipitation, an ion selective membrane that affects precipitation kinetics, a barrier to prevent spontaneous agglomeration of the ultrafine particles, and a lubricant dispersant that facilitates particle rearrangement during consolidation

  5. Physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles by ultrafine pulverization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Lian-Wei; Sun, Peng; Gai, Guo-Sheng; Yang, Yu-Fen; Wang, Yu-Rong

    2011-04-01

    Baizhi, as a medicinal plant, has been demonstrated to be useful for the treatment of aches and pains in China. The physicochemical characterization of Baizhi particles is greatly influenced by ultrafine pulverization. To study the physicochemical characterization of Baizhi, the raw plant material of Baizhi was ground to 6 μm particles by a high speed centrifugal sheering (HSCS) pulverizer. The micron particles were characterized by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Imperatorin is one of the active ingredients of Baizhi, and its extraction yield is determined to evaluate the chemical characterization of Baizhi powder. Imperatorin was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results show that after ultrafine pulverization, the plant cell walls are broken into pieces and the extraction yield of imperatorin is increased by 11.93% compared with the normal particles.

  6. Environmental Ultrafine, Fine and Coarse Particles in a Highway Tunnel and at a Roadside

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Chen, S.C.; Tsai, C.J.; Chen, S.J.; Lin, C.C.; Chou, Ch.C.K.; Lung, S.C.; Roam, G.D.; Wu, W.Y.; Smolík, Jiří; Ondráčková, Lucie

    Prague : Orgit, 2009 - (Smolík, J.; O'Dowd, C.), S.200-203 ISBN 978-80-02-12161-2. [International Conference Nucleation and Atmospheric Aerosols /18./. Prague (CZ), 10.08.2009-14.08.2009] Grant ostatní: EPA (TW) 97/U1U1/02/106 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : ultrafine particle * ambient aerosols * sampling and analysis Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry http://www.icnaa.cz/

  7. Challenges and Approaches for Developing Ultrafine Particle Emission Inventories for Motor Vehicle and Bus Fleets

    OpenAIRE

    Keogh, Diane U.; Darrell Sonntag

    2011-01-01

    Motor vehicles in urban areas are the main source of ultrafine particles (diameters < 0.1 µm). Ultrafine particles are generally measured in terms of particle number because they have little mass and are prolific in terms of their numbers. These sized particles are of particular interest because of their ability to enter deep into the human respiratory system and contribute to negative health effects. Currently ultrafine particles are neither regularly monitored nor regulated by ambient ai...

  8. Nucleation of atmospheric particles

    OpenAIRE

    Curtius J

    2009-01-01

    Two types of particles exist in the atmosphere, primary and secondary particles. While primary particles such as soot, mineral dust, sea salt particles or pollen are introduced directly as particles into the atmosphere, secondary particles are formed in the atmosphere by condensation of gases. The formation of such new aerosol particles takes place frequently and at a broad variety of atmospheric conditions and geographic locations. A considerable fraction of the atmospheric particles is form...

  9. Worker exposure to ultrafine particles during carbon black treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Mikołajczyk

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the project was to assess the exposure of workers to ultrafine particles released during handling and packing of carbon black. The assessment included the results of the measurements performed in a carbon black handling plant before, during, and after work shift. Material and Methods: The number concentration of particles within the dimension range 10–1000 nm and 10–100 nm was assayed by a condensation particle counter (CPC. The mass concentration of particles was determined by a DustTrak II DRX aerosol concentration monitor. The surface area concentration of the particles potentially deposited in the alveolar (A and tracheo-bronchial (TB regions was estimated by an AeroTrak 9000 nanoparticle monitor. Results: An average mass concentration of particles during the process was 6-fold higher than that before its start, while a 3-fold increase in the average number concentration of particles within the dimension range 10–1000 nm and 10–100 nm was observed during the process. At the same time a 4-fold increase was found in the surface area concentration of the particles potentially deposited in the A and TB regions. Conclusions: During the process of carbon black handling and packing a significantly higher values of each of the analysed parameters, characterizing the exposure to ultrafine particles, were noted. Med Pr 2015;66(3:317–326

  10. Deposition of fine and ultrafine particles on indoor surface materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Reinhold, Claus

    2008-01-01

    -scale test chamber. Experiments took place in a 32 m3 chamber with walls and ceiling made of glass. Prior to each experiment the chamber was flushed with outdoor air to reach an initial particle concentration typical of indoor air in buildings with natural ventilation. The decay of particle concentrations...... The aim of this study was the experimental determination of particle deposition for both different particle size fractions and different indoor surface materials. The selected surface materials were glass, gypsum board, carpet, and curtain. These materials were tested vertically in a full...... was monitored. Seven particle size fractions were studied. These comprised ultrafine and fine particles. Deposition was higher on carpet and curtain than on glass and gypsum board. Particles ranging from 0.3 to 0.5 µm had the lowest deposition. This fraction also has the highest penetration and its...

  11. Aerosol number size distributions over a coastal semi urban location: Seasonal changes and ultrafine particle bursts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, S Suresh; Kompalli, Sobhan Kumar; Moorthy, K Krishna

    2016-09-01

    Number-size distribution is one of the important microphysical properties of atmospheric aerosols that influence aerosol life cycle, aerosol-radiation interaction as well as aerosol-cloud interactions. Making use of one-yearlong measurements of aerosol particle number-size distributions (PNSD) over a broad size spectrum (~15-15,000nm) from a tropical coastal semi-urban location-Trivandrum (Thiruvananthapuram), the size characteristics, their seasonality and response to mesoscale and synoptic scale meteorology are examined. While the accumulation mode contributed mostly to the annual mean concentration, ultrafine particles (having diameter <100nm) contributed as much as 45% to the total concentration, and thus constitute a strong reservoir, that would add to the larger particles through size transformation. The size distributions were, in general, bimodal with well-defined modes in the accumulation and coarse regimes, with mode diameters lying in the range 141 to 167nm and 1150 to 1760nm respectively, in different seasons. Despite the contribution of the coarse sized particles to the total number concentration being meager, they contributed significantly to the surface area and volume, especially during transport of marine air mass highlighting the role of synoptic air mass changes. Significant diurnal variation occurred in the number concentrations, geometric mean diameters, which is mostly attributed to the dynamics of the local coastal atmospheric boundary layer and the effect of mesoscale land/sea breeze circulation. Bursts of ultrafine particles (UFP) occurred quite frequently, apparently during periods of land-sea breeze transitions, caused by the strong mixing of precursor-rich urban air mass with the cleaner marine air mass; the resulting turbulence along with boundary layer dynamics aiding the nucleation. These ex-situ particles were observed at the surface due to the transport associated with boundary layer dynamics. The particle growth rates from

  12. Comparative study of ultrafine atmospheric aerosol within a city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salma, I.; Borsós, T.; Németh, Z.; Weidinger, T.; Aalto, P.; Kulmala, M.

    2014-08-01

    Particle number size distributions in a mobility diameter range of 6-1000 nm and size-resolved number concentrations were determined with a time resolution of 10 min for a near-city background, city centre, street canyon and road tunnel environments in Budapest. Median N6-100 concentrations for the sites listed were 3.1 × 103, 9.3 × 103, 19.4 × 103 and 123 × 103 cm-3, respectively. Contributions of the ultrafine (UF) particles (urban sites, and for workdays and weekends. Nucleation strength factor (NSF) was introduced for the first time to quantify the relative importance of new particle formation with respect to all sources of UF particles. During the daytime in summer, nucleation in the near-city background was a major production process of UF particles with a daily mean relative contribution of 42%. In the city centre and street canyon, the daily mean relative contributions of nucleation to the UF particles were 30% and 23%, respectively. Median particle diameters for the background, city centre, street canyon and road tunnel environments were 61, 42, 35 and 42 nm, respectively, so they were jointly influenced with the anthropogenic impact and aerosol ageing. Monthly mean frequency of new particle formation and growth events in the background seems somewhat larger, while it appears smaller for the street canyon in comparison to the city centre.

  13. The persistence, transport and health effects of regional ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spada, Nicholas James

    Due to the multitude of health studies that have shown the ability of ultrafine particles (UFPs, DP pollutants. UFPs are commonly detected near busy roadways and other high-temperature combustion sources in the form of heavy metals (copper, lead, zinc, iron) and toxic organics (benzo{a}pyrene, coronene). Studies of UFPs during the 1970s expressed a nucleic propensity for coagulation and growth. Because many of the UFPs studied were generated from heavy-duty diesel engines operating with ≥0.3 wt % sulfur, the resulting sulfur-containing UFPs were hydrophilic and water vapor readily condensed on the generated nuclei. Due to their increased size, UFPs tend to settle out of air streams quickly; thus, limiting their impact regime to near-roadway influence and labeling them as local pollutants. By using highly size- and time-resolved impactors with TeflonRTM ultrafine after-filters (targeting DP California's central valley have shown low levels of UFPs in a regional background. For cities in constrictive topography and meteorology (such as Bakersfield, Fresno and Los Angeles), winter inversions and stagnant weather can saturate the region with ultrafine heavy metals and carcinogenic organics, similar to the disasters during the middle of the last century.

  14. 杭州市超细微粒数浓度和粒径分布特征%Number Concentration Spectrum and Size Distribution of Atmospheric Ultrafine Particles in Hangzhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    付志民; 孙在; 贾峥; 谢小芳

    2012-01-01

    应用FMPS( fast mobility particle sizer)对杭州市城区和城郊工业园区超细微粒的数浓度及粒径分布进行现场跟踪测量,并对数据进行分析.结果表明:杭州市大气超细微粒在5~500 nm内,主要呈对数双峰分布,峰值粒径多处在10~50 nm间.城郊工业园区的平均总数浓度最高,达4.11 x104cm-3,最高值出现在中午,而城区的峰值粒径区间整体右移,表明超细微粒污染较轻.超细微粒数浓度在上午和下午的上、下班期间出现不同程度上升,夜间浓度普遍降低,但偶有波动.部分工厂有夜间工作情况,故夜晚空气质量的下降也应引起重视.%The number concentration and size distribution of ultrafine particles ( UFPs) in urban areas and suburban industrial areas of Hangzhou City, Zhejiang Province were tested using FMPS (fast mobility particle sizer). The results showed that in the range of 5 to 500 nm, the atmospheric particles mainly showed a logarithmic bi-modal distribution, with most CMD (count median diameter) from 10 to 50 nm. The highest average number concentration was 4.11 × 104 cm -3, found in the suburban industrial areas, and the peak concentration was detected at noon. The UFPs pollution in the urban areas was relatively light. The diurnal variation of the number concentration of UFPs illustrated that it was high during rush hours and generally lower at night, although fluctuations occurred occasionally. Some factories worked overnight, so sufficient attention should still be paid to the air quality at night.

  15. Fine and ultrafine particle emissions from microwave popcorn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q; Avalos, J; Zhu, Y

    2014-04-01

    This study characterized fine (PM2.5 ) and ultrafine particle (UFP, diameter popcorn and analyzed influential factors. Each pre-packed popcorn bag was cooked in a microwave oven enclosed in a stainless steel chamber for 3 min. The number concentration and size distribution of UFPs and PM2.5 mass concentration were measured inside the chamber repeatedly for five different flavors under four increasing power settings using either the foil-lined original package or a brown paper bag. UFPs and PM2.5 generated by microwaving popcorn were 150-560 and 350-800 times higher than the emissions from microwaving water, respectively. About 90% of the total particles emitted were in the ultrafine size range. The emitted PM concentrations varied significantly with flavor. Replacing the foil-lined original package with a brown paper bag significantly reduced the peak concentration by 24-87% for total particle number and 36-70% for PM2.5 . A positive relationship was observed between both UFP number and PM2.5 mass and power setting. The emission rates of microwave popcorn ranged from 1.9 × 10(10) to 8.0 × 10(10) No./min for total particle number and from 134 to 249 μg/min for PM2.5 . PMID:24106981

  16. Personal exposure to ultrafine particles in the workplace: Exploring sampling techniques and strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, D.H.; Gijsbers, J.H.J.; Lurvink, M.W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, toxicological and epidemiological studies on health effects related to particle exposure suggest that 'ultrafine particles' (particles with an aerodynamic diameter of <100 nm) may cause severe health effects after inhalation. Although the toxicological mechanisms for these effects have not

  17. Anti-aggregation dispersion of ultrafine particles by electro-static technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dispersion of ultrafine particles in the air can be achieved by mechanical method or surface modification. In this work, the electrostatic technique was first employed for anti-aggregation of ultrafine particles. When the relative humidity of the air is within the region of 70%-75%, effective storage time of ultrafine particles can reach 72 h after treatment by the electrostatic technique. The experi-mental results showed that this technique imparted ultrafine particles much more pronounced anti-aggregation property. In the dry air, the critical diameter of ultrafine particles anti-aggregated by the electrostatic technique is the function of particle property and charging field intensity. The critical diameter is inversely proportional to the square of the charging field intensity.

  18. On the time-averaging of ultrafine particle number size spectra in vehicular plumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Yao

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine vehicular particle (<100 nm number size distributions presented in the literature are mostly averages of long scan-time (~30 s or more spectra mainly due to the non-availability of commercial instruments that can measure particle distributions in the <10 nm to 100 nm range faster than 30 s even though individual researchers have built faster (1–2.5 s scanning instruments. With the introduction of the Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS in 2004, high time-resolution (1 full 32-channel spectrum per second particle size distribution data become possible and allow atmospheric researchers to study the characteristics of ultrafine vehicular particles in rapidly and perhaps randomly varying high concentration environments such as roadside, on-road and tunnel. In this study, particle size distributions in these environments were found to vary as rapidly as one second frequently. This poses the question on the generality of using averages of long scan-time spectra for dynamic and/or mechanistic studies in rapidly and perhaps randomly varying high concentration environments. One-second EEPS data taken at roadside, on roads and in tunnels by a mobile platform are time-averaged to yield 5, 10, 30 and 120 s distributions to answer this question.

  19. Exposure visualisation of ultrafine particle counts in a transport microenvironment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, S.; Clark, R. D. R.; Walsh, P. T.; Arnold, S. J.; Colvile, R. N.; Nieuwenhuijsen, M. J.

    An increasing number of studies indicate that short-term peak exposures, such as those seen in the transport microenvironment, pose particular health threats. Short-term exposure can only be sufficiently characterised using portable, fast-response monitoring instrumentation with detailed summaries of individual activity. In this paper, we present an exposure visualisation system that addresses this issue—it allows the simultaneous presentation of mobile video imagery synchronised with measured real-time ultrafine particle count exposure of an individual. The combined data can be examined in detail for the contribution of the surrounding environment and the individual's activities to their peak and overall exposure. The exposure visualisation system is demonstrated and evaluated around the DAPPLE study site in Central London using different modes of transport (walking, cycling, bus, car and taxi). The video images, synchronised with the exposure profile, highlight the extent to which ultrafine particle exposure is associated with traffic density and proximity to pollutant source. The extremely rapid decline in concentration with increasing distance away from the pollutant source, such as from the main street to the backstreets, is clearly evident. The visualisation technique allows these data to be presented to both technical audiences and laypersons thus making it an effective environmental risk communication tool. Some exposure peaks however are not obviously associated with any event recorded on video—in these cases it will be necessary to use advanced dispersion modelling techniques to investigate meteorological conditions and other variables influencing in-street conditions to identify their possible causes.

  20. Surface area of particle administered versus mass in determining the pulmonary toxicity of ultrafine and fine carbon black: comparison to ultrafine titanium dioxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sager Tina M

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nanoparticles are characterized by having a high surface area per mass. Particulate surface area has been reported to play an important role in determining the biological activity of nanoparticles. However, recent reports have questioned this relationship. This study was conducted to determine whether mass of particles or surface area of particles is the more appropriate dose metric for pulmonary toxicity studies. In this study, rats were exposed by intratracheal instillation to various doses of ultrafine and fine carbon black. At 1, 7, or 42 days post-exposure, inflammatory and cytotoxic potential of each particle type was compared on both a mass dosage (mg/rat as well as an equal surface area dosage (cm2 of particles per cm2 of alveolar epithelium. In an additional study, the pulmonary responses to instillation of ultrafine carbon black were compared to equivalent particle surface area doses of ultrafine titanium dioxide. Results Ultrafine carbon black particles caused a dose dependent but transient inflammatory and cytotoxic response. On a mass basis, these responses were significantly (65 fold greater than those for fine sized carbon black. However, when doses were equalized based on surface area of particles given, the ultrafine carbon black particles were only slightly (non-significantly more inflammogenic and cytotoxic compared to the fine sized carbon black. At one day post-exposure, inflammatory potencies of the ultrafine carbon black and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles were similar. However, while the pulmonary reaction to ultrafine carbon black resolved with time, the inflammatory effects of ultrafine titanium dioxide were more persistent over a 42 day post-exposure period. Conclusion These results indicate that for low toxicity low solubility materials, surface area of particles administered rather than mass burden of particles may be a more appropriate dose metric for pulmonary toxicity studies. In addition

  1. Ultrafine and respirable particle exposure during vehicle fire suppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Douglas E; Fent, Kenneth W

    2015-10-01

    Vehicle fires are a common occurrence, yet few studies have reported exposures associated with burning vehicles. This article presents an assessment of firefighters' potential for ultrafine and respirable particle exposure during vehicle fire suppression training. Fires were initiated within the engine compartment and passenger cabins of three salvaged vehicles, with subsequent water suppression by fire crews. Firefighter exposures were monitored with an array of direct reading particle and air quality instruments. A flexible metallic duct and blower drew contaminants to the instrument array, positioned at a safe distance from the burning vehicles, with the duct inlet positioned at the nozzle operator's shoulder. The instruments measured the particle number, active surface area, respirable particle mass, photoelectric response, aerodynamic particle size distributions, and air quality parameters. Although vehicle fires were suppressed quickly (cabin fires averaged 2.04 × 10(5) particles per cm(3), 2.7 mg m(-3) respirable particle mass, 320 μm(2) cm(-3) active particle surface area, and 34 (arbitrary units) in photoelectric response. Passenger cabin fires were a greater potential source of exposure than engine compartment fires. The wind direction and the relative position of the fire crew to the stationary burning vehicle played a primary role in fire crews' potential for exposure. We recommend that firefighters wear self-contained breathing apparatus during all phases of the vehicle fire response to significantly reduce their potential for particulate, vapor, and gaseous exposures. PMID:26308547

  2. Experimental studies of ultrafine particles in streets and the relationship to traffic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahlina, Peter; Palmgren, Finn; Van Dingenen, Rita

    Fine and ultrafine particles are of great concern due to their adverse health effects. Furthermore, the emission of ultrafine particles has been reported to be increasing even if the total mass of particles emitted from vehicles decreases. Determination of emission factors of ultrafine particles from the actual car fleet for different types of vehicles is essential for reliable model calculations of the directly emitted particles from the traffic. The present study includes test of measurement methods and analysis of field data from Copenhagen. Measurements of fine and ultrafine particles were carried out during winter/spring 1999, at street level in central Copenhagen, at roof level in Copenhagen, and at street level in the city Odense. The measurements were carried out by differential mobility analyser (DMA) with a high-time resolution corresponding to the variation in traffic and meteorology. The particles were separated into 29 size fractions from 0.01 to 0.7 μm. Significant correlation at street level was observed between the CO, NO x, and ultrafine particles, indicating that the traffic is the major source of ultrafine particles in the air. Time series for several months of the size distributions have been analysed using statistical methods. Factor analysis has been used for the identification of the important sources, and a constrained linear receptor model has been used for source apportionment and for the determination of single-source size distributions of ultrafine particles from diesel- and petrol-fuelled vehicles.

  3. Monte Carlo N-Particle Tracking of Ultrafine Particle Flow in Bent Micro-Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casella, Andrew M.; Loyalka, Sudarsham K.

    2016-02-16

    The problem of large pressure-differential driven laminar convective-diffusive ultrafine aerosol flow through bent micro-tubes is of interest in several contemporary research areas including; release of contents from pressurized containment vessels, aerosol sampling equipment, advanced scientific instruments, gas-phase micro-heat exchangers, and microfluidic devices. In each of these areas, the predominant problem is the determination of the fraction of particles entering the micro-tube that is deposited within the tube and the fraction that is transmitted through. Due to the extensive parameter restrictions of this class of problems, a Lagrangian particle tracking method making use of the coupling of the analytical stream line solutions of Dean and the simplified Langevin equation is quite a useful tool in problem characterization. This method is a direct analog to the Monte Carlo N-Particle method of particle transport extensively used in nuclear physics and engineering. In this work, 10 nm diameter particles with a density of 1 g/cm3 are tracked within micro-tubes with toroidal bends with pressure differentials ranging between 0.2175 and 0.87 atmospheres. The tubes have radii of 25 microns and 50 microns and the radius of curvature is between 1 m and 0.3183 cm. The carrier gas is helium, and temperatures of 298 K and 558 K are considered. Numerical convergence is considered as a function of time step size and of the number of particles per simulation. Particle transmission rates and deposition patterns within the bent micro-tubes are calculated.

  4. Vascular effects of ultrafine particles in persons with type 2 diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Diabetes confers an increased risk for cardiovascular effects of airborne particles. OBJECTIVE: We hypothesized that inhalation of elemental carbon ultrafine particles (UFP) would activate blood platelets and vascular endothelium in people with type 2 diabetes. ...

  5. Recycling concrete: An undiscovered source of ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Prashant; Morawska, Lidia

    2014-06-01

    While concrete recycling is practiced worldwide, there are many unanswered questions in relation to ultrafine particle (UFP; Dp recycling sites. In particular: (i) Does recycling produce UFPs and in what quantities? (ii) How do they disperse around the source? (iii) What impact does recycling have on ambient particle number concentrations (PNCs) and exposure? (iv) How effective are commonly used dust respirators to limit exposure? We measured size-resolved particles in the 5-560 nm range at five distances between 0.15 and 15.15 m that were generated by an experimentally simulated concrete recycling source and found that: (i) the size distributions were multimodal, with up to ˜93% of total PNC in the UFP size range; and (ii) dilution was a key particle transformation mechanism. UFPs showed a much slower decay rate, requiring ˜62% more distance to reach 10% of their initial concentration compared with their larger counterparts in the 100-560 nm size range. Compared with typical urban exposure during car journeys, exposure decay profiles showed up to ˜5 times higher respiratory deposition within 10 m of the source. Dust respirators were found to remove half of total PNC; however the removal factor for UFPs was only ˜57% of that observed in the 100-560 nm size range. These findings highlight a need for developing an understanding of the nature of the particles as well as for better control measures to limit UFP exposure.

  6. Dispersion of ultrafine SiC particles in molten Al- 12Si alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin-Ju PARK; Sang-Hoon LEE; Min-Ku LEE; Chang-Kyu RHEE

    2011-01-01

    The bulk Al-12 Si eutectic composites were fabricated through a conventional liquid metal casting route, especially with the help of ultrafine ceramic powders made by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) process. The SHS powders were fabricated by the chemical reaction between micro-sized SiC and Al particles at very high combustion temperatures, producing the coarse Al particles (several tens of microns) containing ultrafine SiC ceramic particles. Microstmctural observation revealed that the addition of ultrafine SiC particles has a crumbling tendency of Si eutectic phase. It is suggested that the casting method combined with SHS process is promising for fabricating the Al-based MMC with ultrafine ceramic particles.

  7. Identification and verification of ultrafine particle affinity zones in urban neighbourhoods: sample design and data pre-processing.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Harris, Paul

    2009-01-01

    A methodology is presented and validated through which long-term fixed site air quality measurements are used to characterise and remove temporal signals in sample-based measurements which have good spatial coverage but poor temporal resolution. The work has been carried out specifically to provide a spatial dataset of atmospheric ultrafine particle (UFP < 100 nm) data for ongoing epidemiologic cohort analysis but the method is readily transferable to wider epidemiologic investigations and research into the health effects of other pollutant species.

  8. Ultrafine particle emissions from desktop 3D printers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, Brent; Azimi, Parham; El Orch, Zeineb; Ramos, Tiffanie

    2013-11-01

    The development of low-cost desktop versions of three-dimensional (3D) printers has made these devices widely accessible for rapid prototyping and small-scale manufacturing in home and office settings. Many desktop 3D printers rely on heated thermoplastic extrusion and deposition, which is a process that has been shown to have significant aerosol emissions in industrial environments. However, we are not aware of any data on particle emissions from commercially available desktop 3D printers. Therefore, we report on measurements of size-resolved and total ultrafine particle (UFP) concentrations resulting from the operation of two types of commercially available desktop 3D printers inside a commercial office space. We also estimate size-resolved (11.5 nm-116 nm) and total UFP (PLA) feedstock to ˜1.9 × 1011 # min-1 for the same type of 3D printer utilizing a higher temperature acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) thermoplastic feedstock. Because most of these devices are currently sold as standalone devices without any exhaust ventilation or filtration accessories, results herein suggest caution should be used when operating in inadequately ventilated or unfiltered indoor environments. Additionally, these results suggest that more controlled experiments should be conducted to more fundamentally evaluate particle emissions from a wider arrange of desktop 3D printers.

  9. Cardiovascular Effects in Adults with Metabolic Syndrome Exposed to Concentrated Ultrafine Air Pollution Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    RATIONALE: Epidemiologic studies report associations between ambient air pollution particulate matter (PM) and various indices of cardiopulmonary morbidity and mortality. A leading hypothesis contends that smaller ultrafine (UF) particles induce a greater physiologic response bec...

  10. Particle Size Distribution, Powder Agglomerates and Their Effects on Sinterability of Ultrafine Alumina Powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    An intensive study of the particle size distribution of four commercial ultrafine alumina powders to obtain information about the powder agglomeration and relate them to the compactibility and the sinterability has been made.

  11. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    OpenAIRE

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal; William Fernando Mora Pulido; Luís Ignacio Rodríguez Varela; Javier Ramírez; José de Jesús Díaz Velásquez

    2011-01-01

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40), coke reactivity index (CRI) with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index). Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain c...

  12. Outdoor ultrafine particle concentrations in front of fast food restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vert, Cristina; Meliefste, Kees; Hoek, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) have been associated with negative effects on human health. Emissions from motor vehicles are the principal source of UFPs in urban air. A study in Vancouver suggested that UFP concentrations were related to density of fast food restaurants near the monitoring sites. A previous monitoring campaign could not separate the contribution of restaurants from road traffic. The main goal of this study has been the quantification of fast food restaurants' contribution to outdoor UFP concentrations. A portable particle number counter (DiscMini) has been used to carry out mobile monitoring in a largely pedestrianized area in the city center of Utrecht. A fixed route passing 17 fast food restaurants was followed on 8 days. UFP concentrations in front of the restaurants were 1.61 times higher than in a nearby square without any local sources used as control area and 1.22 times higher compared with all measurements conducted in between the restaurants. Adjustment for other sources such as passing mopeds, smokers or candles did not explain the increase. In conclusion, fast food restaurants result in significant increases in outdoor UFP concentrations in front of the restaurant. PMID:26531805

  13. Ultrafine particle size as a tracer for aircraft turbine emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Erin A.; Gould, Timothy; Hartin, Kris; Fruin, Scott A.; Simpson, Christopher D.; Yost, Michael G.; Larson, Timothy

    2016-08-01

    Ultrafine particle number (UFPN) and size distributions, black carbon, and nitrogen dioxide concentrations were measured downwind of two of the busiest airports in the world, Los Angeles International Airport (LAX) and Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport (ATL - Atlanta, GA) using a mobile monitoring platform. Transects were located between 5 km and 10 km from the ATL and LAX airports. In addition, measurements were taken at 43 additional urban neighborhood locations in each city and on freeways. We found a 3-5 fold increase in UFPN concentrations in transects under the landing approach path to both airports relative to surrounding urban areas with similar ground traffic characteristics. The latter UFPN concentrations measured were distinct in size distributional properties from both freeways and across urban neighborhoods, clearly indicating different sources. Elevated concentrations of Black Carbon (BC) and NO2 were also observed on airport transects, and the corresponding pattern of elevated BC was consistent with the observed excess UFPN concentrations relative to other urban locations.

  14. Study of real time detection and size distribution measurement of ultrafine aerosol with a particle growth system (PGS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebours, A.

    1994-06-29

    First, the theoretical knowledge on condensation phenomena of a supersaturated vapor in a cylindrical duct where an ultrafine aerosol of nanometers size is flowing, is recalled. Then, a Particle Growth-System (PGS) of original design is developed: the aerosol is confined in a region with a uniform vapor supersaturation profile. When imperfectly filtered atmospheric air is used as source of condensation nuclei, the produced droplets are found to be monodisperse. Therefore, our PGS offers a simple method of calibrating Optical Particle Counters because the size distribution of theses droplets is controlled. After an experimental study validated by a theoretical model, we establish that, under certain supersaturation conditions, the droplet size in our PGS is a function of ultrafine particle size on which the vapor condenses. Furthermore, when the sampled aerosol is constituted of an ultrafine fraction and a fine fraction, we show that the size distribution of the droplets that come out from the PGS is bimodal too. Finally, a simple redesign of our fluids inlet system should reduce particles losses in the PGS due to brownian diffusion and, in that manner improve their detection. (author). 72 refs., 46 figs., 8 tabs., 4 appends.

  15. What does respirator certification tell us about filtration of ultrafine particles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, Robert M; Honda, Takeshi; Reponen, Tiina; McKay, Roy; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2008-05-01

    Recent interest in exposures to ultrafine particles (less than 100 nm) in both environmental and occupational settings led the authors to question whether the protocols used to certify respirator filters provide adequate attention to ultrafine aerosols. The authors reviewed the particle size distribution of challenge aerosols and evaluated the aerosol measurement method currently employed in the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) particulate respirator certification protocol for its ability to measure the contribution of ultrafine particles to filter penetration. Also considered were the differences between mechanical and electrically charged (electret) filters in light of the most penetrating particle size. It was found that the sodium chloride (NaCl) and dioctylphthalate (DOP) aerosols currently used in respirator certification tests contain a significant fraction of particles in the ultrafine region. However, the photometric method deployed in the certification test is not capable of adequately measuring light scatter of particles below approximately 100 nm in diameter. Specifically, 68% (by count) and 8% (by mass) of the challenge NaCl aerosol particles and 10% (by count) and 0.3% (by mass) of the DOP particles below 100 nm do not significantly contribute to the filter penetration measurement. In addition, the most penetrating particle size for electret filters likely occurs at 100 nm or less under test conditions similar to those used in filter certification. The authors conclude, therefore, that the existing NIOSH certification protocol may not represent a worst-case assessment for electret filters because it has limited ability to determine the contribution of ultrafine aerosols, which include the most penetrating particle size for electret filters. Possible strategies to assess ultrafine particle penetration in the certification protocol are discussed. PMID:18322869

  16. PREPARATION OF WATERBORNE ULTRAFINE PARTICLES OF EPOXY RESIN BY PHASE INVERSION TECHNIQUE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Zhengzhong; XU Yuanze; WANG Shengjie; YU Hao; CAI Weizhen

    1997-01-01

    Waterborne ultrafine particles of epoxy resin were prepared by phase inversion technique The results of SEM revealed that the particles diameter was in the range of 50 to l()am and the effects on amount of water required at phase inversion point were also dis()ed.

  17. Redox activity of urban quasi-ultrafine particles from primary and secondary sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Vishal; Ning, Zhi; Cho, Arthur K.; Schauer, James J.; Shafer, Martin M.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2009-12-01

    To characterize the redox activity profiles of atmospheric aerosols from primary (traffic) and secondary photochemical sources, ambient quasi-ultrafine particles were collected near downtown Los Angeles in two different time periods - morning (6:00-9:00 PDT) and afternoon (11:00-14:00 PDT) in the summer of 2008. Detailed chemical analysis of the collected samples, including water-soluble elements, inorganic ions, organic species and water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) was conducted and redox activity of the samples was measured by two different assays: the dithiothreitol (DTT) and the macrophage reactive oxygen species (ROS) assays. Tracers of secondary photochemical reactions, such as sulfate and organic acids were higher (2.1 ± 0.6 times for sulfate, and up to 3 times for the organic acids) in the afternoon period. WSOC was also elevated by 2.5 ± 0.9 times in the afternoon period due to photo-oxidation of primary particles during atmospheric aging. Redox activity measured by the DTT assay was considerably higher for the samples collected during the afternoon; on the other hand, diurnal trends in the ROS-based activity were not consistent between the morning and afternoon periods. A linear regression between redox activity and various PM chemical constituents showed that the DTT assay was highly correlated with WSOC ( R2 = 0.80), while ROS activity was associated mostly with water soluble transition metals (Vanadium, Nickel and Cadmium; R2 > 0.70). The DTT and ROS assays, which are based on the generation of different oxidizing species by chemical PM constituents, provide important information for elucidating the health risks related to PM exposure from different sources. Thus, both primary and secondary particles possess high redox activity; however, photochemical transformations of primary emissions with atmospheric aging enhance the toxicological potency of primary particles in terms of generating oxidative stress and leading to subsequent damage in cells.

  18. Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Manuel Gutierrez Bernal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  19. Environmental and health impacts of fine and ultrafine metallic particles: Assessment of threat scores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposes global threat scores to prioritize the harmfulness of anthropogenic fine and ultrafine metallic particles (FMP) emitted into the atmosphere at the global scale. (Eco)toxicity of physicochemically characterized FMP oxides for metals currently observed in the atmosphere (CdO, CuO, PbO, PbSO4, Sb2O3, and ZnO) was assessed by performing complementary in vitro tests: ecotoxicity, human bioaccessibility, cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential. Using an innovative methodology based on the combination of (eco)toxicity and physicochemical results, the following hazard classification of the particles is proposed: CdCl2∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO4>Sb2O3. Both cadmium compounds exhibited the highest threat score due to their high cytotoxicity and bioaccessible dose, whatever their solubility and speciation, suggesting that cadmium toxicity is due to its chemical form rather than its physical form. In contrast, the Sb2O3 threat score was the lowest due to particles with low specific area and solubility, with no effects except a slight oxidative stress. As FMP physicochemical properties reveal differences in specific area, crystallization systems, dissolution process, and speciation, various mechanisms may influence their biological impact. Finally, this newly developed and global approach could be widely used in various contexts of pollution by complex metal particles and may improve risk management. - Highlights: • Seven micro- and nano- monometallic characterized particles were studied as references. • Bioaccessibility, eco and cytotoxicity, and oxidative potential assays were performed. • According to calculated threat scores: CdCl2∼CdO>CuO>PbO>ZnO>PbSO4>Sb2O3

  20. Ultrafine particle emission characteristics of diesel engine by on-board and test bench measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cheng Huang; Diming Lou; Zhiyuan Hu; Piqiang Tan; Di Yao; Wei Hu; Peng Li; Jin Ren; Changhong Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the emission characteristics of ultrafine particles based on test bench and on-board measurements.The bench test results showed the ultrafine particle number concentration of the diesel engine to be in the range of (0.56-8.35) × 108 cm-3.The on-board measurement results illustrated that the ultrafine particles were strongly correlated with changes in real-world driving cycles.The particle number concentration was down to 2.0 × 106 cm-3 and 2.7 × 107 cm-3 under decelerating and idling operations and as high as 5.0 × 108 cm-3 under accelerating operation.It was also indicated that the particle number measured by the two methods increased with the growth of engine load at each engine speed in both cases.The particle number presented a "U" shaped distribution with changing speed at high engine load conditions,which implies that the particle number will reach its lowest level at medium engine speeds.The particle sizes of both measurements showed single mode distributions.The peak of particle size was located at about 50-80 nm in the accumulation mode particle range.Nucleation mode particles will significantly increase at low engine load operations like idling and decelerating caused by the high concentration of unburned organic compounds.

  1. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine particles in Barcelona

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles were investigated both horizontally and vertically in the large urban agglomerate of Barcelona, Spain. Within the SAPUSS project (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, a large number of instruments was deployed simultaneously at different monitoring sites (road, two urban background, regional background, urban tower 150 m a.s.l., urban background tower site 80 m a.s.l. during a 4 week period in September–October 2010. Particle number concentrations (N>5 nm are highly correlated with black carbon (BC at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under cleaner atmospheric conditions (low condensation sink, CS such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10–500 as well as particle number concentrations (N>5 nm allow us to identify three types of nucleation and growth events: (1 a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding urban background area; (2 a regional type event impacting only the regional background area but not the urban agglomerate; (3 an urban type event which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the optimal combination between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated

  2. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine particles in Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Wenger, J.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.

    2013-01-01

    Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles were investigated both horizontally and vertically in the large urban agglomerate of Barcelona, Spain. Within the SAPUSS project (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies), a large number of instruments was deployed simultaneously at different monitoring sites (road, two urban background, regional background, urban tower 150 m a.s.l., urban background tower site 80 m a.s.l.) during a 4 week period in September-October 2010. Particle number concentrations (N>5 nm) are highly correlated with black carbon (BC) at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under cleaner atmospheric conditions (low condensation sink, CS) such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10-500) as well as particle number concentrations (N>5 nm) allow us to identify three types of nucleation and growth events: (1) a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding urban background area; (2) a regional type event impacting only the regional background area but not the urban agglomerate; (3) an urban type event which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the optimal combination between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated particles. By contrast, within stagnant polluted atmospheric conditions, higher N and BC

  3. CARDIOVASCULAR RESPONSES IN UNRESTRAINED WKY-RATS TO INHALED ULTRAFINE CARBON PARTICLES

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbstractThis study provides evidence for adverse cardiac effects of inhaled ultrafine particles (UFPs) in healthy WKY rats. Short term exposure (24 h) with carbon UFPs (180 ?g?m ?) induced a moderate but significant heart rate increase of 18 bpm (4.8 %) in association with a ...

  4. Synthesis of Magnetic Ultrafine Particles from a Ternary Gaseous Mixture Involving Cobalt Tricarbonyl Nitrosyl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morita, H.; Sakano, H.; Murafa, Nataliya; Šubrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 46 (2014), s. 477-483. ISSN 0914-9244 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : gas phase photochemical reaction * magnetic ultrafine particle * cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl * tetraethylgermane * propenyltrimethylsilane Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2014

  5. Combustion of PTFE: The effects of gravity on ultrafine particle generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, Thomas; Todd, Paul; Oberdorster, Gunter

    1996-01-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain an understanding of the effect of gravity on the toxicity of ultrafine particle and gas phase materials produced when fluorocarbon polymers are thermally degraded or burned. The motivation for the project is to provide a basic technical foundation on which policies for spacecraft health and safety with regard to fire and polymers can be formulated.

  6. The Effects of Vegetation Barriers on Near-road Ultrafine Particle Number and Carbon Monoxide Concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous studies have shown that people living in near-roadway communities (within 100 m of the road) are exposed to high ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations, which may be associated with adverse health effects. Vegetation barriers have been shown to affect pollutant t...

  7. Scavenging of ultrafine particles by rainfall at a boreal site: observations and model estimations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Andronache

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Values of the scavenging coefficient were determined from observations of ultrafine particles (with diameters in the range 10–510 nm during rain events at a boreal forest site in Southern Finland between 1996 and 2001. The estimated range of values of the scavenging coefficient was [7×10−6–4×10−5] s−1, which is generally higher than model calculations based only on below-cloud processes (Brownian diffusion, interception, and typical charge effects. A new model that includes below-cloud scavenging processes, mixing of ultrafine particles from the boundary layer (BL into cloud, followed by cloud condensation nuclei activation and in-cloud removal by rainfall, is presented. The effective scavenging coefficients estimated from this new model have values comparable with those obtained from observations. Results show that ultrafine particle removal by rain depends on aerosol size, rainfall intensity, mixing processes between BL and cloud elements, in-cloud scavenged fraction, in-cloud collection efficiency, and in-cloud coagulation with cloud droplets. Implications for the treatment of scavenging of BL ultrafine particles in numerical models are discussed.

  8. Preparation and Hydrogen Storage Properties of Mg-Rich Mg-Ni Ultrafine Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianxin Zou

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, Mg-rich Mg-Ni ultrafine powders were prepared through an arc plasma method. The phase components, microstructure, and hydrogen storage properties of the powders were carefully investigated. It is found that Mg2Ni and MgNi2 could be obtained directly from the vapor state reactions between Mg and Ni, depending on the local vapor content in the reaction chamber. A nanostructured MgH2 + Mg2NiH4 hydrogen storage composite could be generated after hydrogenation of the Mg-Ni ultrafine powders. After dehydrogenation, MgH2 and Mg2NiH4 decomposed into nanograined Mg and Mg2Ni, respectively. Thermogravimetry/differential scanning calorimetry (TG/DSC analyses showed that Mg2NiH4 phase may play a catalytic role in the dehydriding process of the hydrogenated Mg ultrafine particles.

  9. On the unification of aircraft ultrafine particle emission data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaercher, B.; Busen, R. [DLR Deutsches Zentrum fuer Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V., Wessling (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik der Atmosphaere; Turco, R.P.; Yu Fangqun [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Atmospheric Sciences; Danilin, M.Y.; Weisenstein, D.K. [Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc., Cambridge, MA (United States); Miake-Lye, R.C. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States)

    2000-03-01

    To predict the environmental impacts of future commercial aviation, intensive studies have been launched to measure the properties and effects of aircraft emissions. These observations have revealed an extremely wide variance with respect to the number and sizes of the particles produced in the exhaust plumes. Aircraft aerosol ultimately contributes to the population of cloud-forming nuclei, and may lead to significant global radiative and chemical perturbations. In this paper, recent discoveries are coordinated and unified in the form of a physically consistent plume aerosol model that explains most of the observational variance. Using this new approach, it is now practical to carry out reliable global atmospheric simulations of aircraft effects, as demonstrated by a novel assessment of the perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer by a supersonic aircraft fleet. (orig.)

  10. Experiments and Modeling of the Preparation of Ultrafine Calcium Carbonate in Spouted Beds with Inert Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林诚; 朱涛; 朱跃姿; 张济宇

    2003-01-01

    A novel reaction-drying process was carried out in a spouted bed reactor with inert particles and used to prepare ultrafine CaCO3 particles. Effects of concentrations of CO2 and Ca(OH)2, and reaction temperature on Ca(OH)2 conversion were experimentally investigated. The particle sizes and composition of CaCO3 produced were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that ultrafine CaCO3 particles with mean size of 80 nm could be obtained with this novel process.By modifying the Arrhenius Equation and considering the Ca(OH)2 state, a kinetic model was established to describe the process in the spouted bed. The model parameters estimated from the reaction-drying experiments were found to fit well the experimental data, indicating the applicability of the proposed kinetic model.

  11. Human pulmonary responses to experimental inhalation of high concentration fine and ultrafine magnesium oxide particles.

    OpenAIRE

    Kuschner, W G; Wong, H; D'Alessandro, A; Quinlan, P; Blanc, P.D.

    1997-01-01

    Exposure to air polluted with particles less than 2.5 micron in size is associated epidemiologically with adverse cardiopulmonary health consequences in humans. The goal of this study was to characterize human pulmonary responses to controlled experimental high-dose exposure to fine and ultrafine magnesium oxide particles. We quantified bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) cell and cytokine concentrations, pulmonary function, and peripheral blood neutrophil concentrations in six healthy volunteers 18...

  12. Mineralogical characterization of ambient fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei C1 coal combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Senlin; Hao, Xiaojie; Liu, Dingyu; Wang, Qiangxiang; Zhang, Wenchao; Liu, Pinwei; Zhang, Rongci; Yu, Shang; Pan, Ruiqi; Wu, Minghong; Yonemochi, Shinich; Wang, Qingyue

    2016-03-01

    Nano-quartz in Xuanwei coal, the uppermost Permian (C1) coal deposited in the northwest of Yuanan, China, has been regarded as one of factors which caused high lung cancer incidence in the local residents. However, mineralogical characterization of the fine/ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion has not previously been studied. In this study, PM1 and ultrafine particles emitted from Xuanwei coal combustion were sampled. Chemical elements in the ambient particles were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), and mineralogical characterization of these ambient particles was investigated using scanning electronic microscopy (SEM/EDX) and transmission electronic microscopy, coupled with energy-dispersive spectroscopy (TEM/EDX). Our results showed that the size distribution of mineral particles from the coal combustion emissions ranged from 20 to 200 nm. Si-containing particles and Fe-containing particles accounted for 50.7% of the 150 individual particles measured, suggesting that these two types of particles were major minerals in the ambient particles generally. The nano-mineral particles were identified as quartz (SiO2) and gypsum (CaSO4) based on their crystal parameters and chemical elements. Additionally, there also existed unidentified nano-minerals. Armed with these data, toxicity assessments of the nano-minerals will be carried out in a future study.

  13. Dynamics of ultrafine particles embedded in a crystal of organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The dynamics of ultrafine particles embedded in crystalline hexadecane and decaline has been studied. At temperatures slightly below the melting point of the decaline very broad components appear in the Moessbauer spectrum. This is interpreted to be due to Brownian oscillations. In the hexadecane-based sample such broad components are not observed. In both cases the absorption area of the Moessbauer spectrum decreases rapidly when the melting point is approached. (orig.)

  14. Effect of Inhaled Carbon Ultrafine Particles on Reactive Hyperemia in Healthy Human Subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Shah, Alpa P.; Pietropaoli, Anthony P.; Frasier, Lauren M.; Speers, Donna M.; Chalupa, David C.; Delehanty, Joseph M.; Huang, Li-shan; Utell, Mark J.; Frampton, Mark W

    2007-01-01

    Background Ultrafine particles (UFP) may contribute to the cardiovascular effects of exposure to particulate air pollution, partly because of their relatively efficient alveolar deposition and potential to enter the pulmonary vascular space. Objectives This study tested the hypothesis that inhalation of elemental carbon UFP alters systemic vascular function. Methods Sixteen healthy subjects (mean age, 26.9 ± 6.5 years) inhaled air or 50 μg/m3 elemental carbon UFP by mouthpiece for 2 hr, while...

  15. Assessing Children's Exposure to Ultrafine Particles and Other Air Pollutants in School Buses and at Schools

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Qunfang

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter < 100 nm). Children are particularly at risk due to their immature respiratory systems and greater breathing rates per body weight. This study aims to assess children's exposure to UFPs and other air pollutants in school buses and at schools. 24 school buses were employed to represent commonly used school buses in the United States. UFPs and other air pollutants in and around school buses were measured w...

  16. Modeling Population Exposure to Ultrafine Particles in a Major Italian Urban Area

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Spinazzè; Andrea Cattaneo; Carlo Peruzzo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2014-01-01

    Average daily ultrafine particles (UFP) exposure of adult Milan subpopulations (defined on the basis of gender, and then for age, employment or educational status), in different exposure scenarios (typical working day in summer and winter) were simulated using a microenvironmental stochastic simulation model. The basic concept of this kind of model is that time-weighted average exposure is defined as the sum of partial microenvironmental exposures, which are determined by the product of UFP...

  17. Associations Between Ultrafine Particles and Co-Pollutant Concentrations in the Tampa Bay Area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Ushang; Watson, Alain

    2016-05-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFPs) are ubiquitous in urban air and have been recognized as a risk to human health. The aim of this study was to measure the relationships among ultrafine particles and other ambient air pollutants and meteorological factors in the Tampa Bay Area. This study measured continuous UFPs, black carbon, oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), particulate matter having an aerodynamic diameter of 10 microns or less (PM10), relative humidity, wind speed, and ambient temperature during January to March 2014. Moreover, the study compared the relationship between UFPs and various co-pollutants daily, including during morning rush hour periods. This study found a moderate correlation among UFPs and black carbon, NO(x), NO2, and NO during hourly continuous measurements and rush hour periods, and a low level of correlation among UFPs and CO, O3, SO2, PM10, relative humidity, wind speed, and ambient temperature. This study indicates that co-pollutants should not be used as a surrogate to assess the human health risk from ultrafine particles exposure. PMID:27263179

  18. DYNAMIC RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOR OF POLYPROPYLENE FILLED WITH ULTRA-FINE POWDERED RUBBER PARTICLES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zheng; Yan-xia Cao; Miao Du

    2004-01-01

    Dynamic rheological characteristics of polypropylene (PP) filled with ultra-fine full-vulcanized powdered rubber (UFPR) composed of styrene-butadiene copolymer were studied through dynamic rheological measurements on an Advanced Rheometric Expansion System (ARES). A specific viscoelastic phenomenon, i.e. "the second plateau", appeared at low frequencies, and exhibits a certain dependence on the amount of rubber particles and the dispersion state in the matrix. This phenomenon is attributed to the formation of aggregation structure of rubber particles. The analyses of Cole-Cole diagrams of the dynamic viscoelastic functions suggest that the heterogeneity of the composites is enhanced on increasing both particle content and temperature.

  19. Filtration efficiency of an electrostatic fibrous filter: Studying filtration dependency on ultrafine particle exposure and composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Johnson, Matthew S.; Yazdi, Sadegh;

    2014-01-01

    controlled laboratory environment using two different particle counters: a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer and a NanoTracer. Particles were generated at different concentrations by burning a pure wax candle in a test room. The set-up consisted of a test room, a fan a duct and the particle filter. The......The objective of the present study is to investigate the relationship between ultrafine particle concentrations and removal efficiencies for an electrostatic fibrous filter in a laboratory environment. Electrostatic fibrous filters capture particles efficiently, with a low pressure drop. Therefore...... they have applications in building ventilation systems. The relationship between particle removal efficiency and particle concentration has not been widely investigated in ventilation systems and indoor environments. In order to achieve the objective of this study, experiments were performed in a...

  20. Traffic and nucleation events as main sources of ultrafine particles in high-insolation developed world cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brines, M.; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D. C. S.; Harrison, R. M.; Gómez-Moreno, F.; Núñez, L.; Artíñano, B.; Costabile, F.; Gobbi, G. P.; Salimi, F.; Morawska, L.; Sioutas, C.; Querol, X.

    2015-05-01

    Road traffic emissions are often considered the main source of ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter smaller than 100 nm) in urban environments. However, recent studies worldwide have shown that - in high-insolation urban regions at least - new particle formation events can also contribute to UFP. In order to quantify such events we systematically studied three cities located in predominantly sunny environments: Barcelona (Spain), Madrid (Spain) and Brisbane (Australia). Three long-term data sets (1-2 years) of fine and ultrafine particle number size distributions (measured by SMPS, Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer) were analysed. Compared to total particle number concentrations, aerosol size distributions offer far more information on the type, origin and atmospheric evolution of the particles. By applying k-means clustering analysis, we categorized the collected aerosol size distributions into three main categories: "Traffic" (prevailing 44-63% of the time), "Nucleation" (14-19%) and "Background pollution and Specific cases" (7-22%). Measurements from Rome (Italy) and Los Angeles (USA) were also included to complement the study. The daily variation of the average UFP concentrations for a typical nucleation day at each site revealed a similar pattern for all cities, with three distinct particle bursts. A morning and an evening spike reflected traffic rush hours, whereas a third one at midday showed nucleation events. The photochemically nucleated particles' burst lasted 1-4 h, reaching sizes of 30-40 nm. On average, the occurrence of particle size spectra dominated by nucleation events was 16% of the time, showing the importance of this process as a source of UFP in urban environments exposed to high solar radiation. Nucleation events lasting for 2 h or more occurred on 55% of the days, this extending to > 4 h in 28% of the days, demonstrating that atmospheric conditions in urban environments are not favourable to the growth of photochemically nucleated particles. In

  1. Stochastic model of ultrafine particle deposition and clearance in the human respiratory tract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deposition and clearance of insoluble ultrafine particles, ranging from 1 to 100 nm, were simulated by stochastic models using Monte Carlo methods. Brownian motion is the dominant mode of deposition in human airways. The additional effects of convective diffusion in bifurcations and axial diffusion (convective mixing) primarily affect particle transport and deposition of particles in the 1-10 nm range. Regarding total deposition, the effects of both convective mechanisms are practically compensated by the concomitant effect of molecular radial diffusion (Brownian motion). During the first hours following inhalation, 1 nm particles are predicted to be cleared much faster than particles in the size range from 10 to 100 nm, with a retained fraction of about 80% after 24 h. For 1-10 nm particles, extracellular transfer to blood is the most likely mode of clearance, while uptake and subsequent accumulation in epithelial cells are assumed to be the preferential mechanisms for 10-100 nm particles. (author)

  2. Regional impacts of ultrafine particle emissions from the surface of the Great Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Chung

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Quantifying the impacts of aerosols on climate requires a detailed knowledge of both the anthropogenic and the natural contributions to the aerosol population. Recent work has suggested a previously unrecognized natural source of ultrafine particles resulting from breaking waves at the surface of large freshwater lakes. This work is the first modeling study to investigate the potential for this newly discovered source to affect the aerosol number concentrations on regional scales. Using the WRF-Chem modeling framework, the impacts of wind-driven aerosol production from the surface of the Great Lakes were studied for a July 2004 test case. Simulations were performed for a base case with no lake surface emissions, a case with lake surface emissions included, and a default case wherein large freshwater lakes emit marine particles as if they were oceans. Results indicate that the lake surface emissions can enhance the surface-level aerosol number concentration by ~20% over the remote northern Great Lakes and by ~5% over other parts of the Great Lakes. These results were highly sensitive to the new particle formation (i.e., nucleation parameterization within WRF-Chem; when the new particle formation process was deactivated, surface-layer enhancements from the lake emissions increased to as much as 200%. The results reported here have significant uncertainties associated with the lake emission parameterization and the way ultrafine particles are modeled within WRF-Chem. Nevertheless, the magnitudes of the impacts found in this study suggest that further study to quantify the emissions of ultrafine particles from the surface of the Great Lakes is merited.

  3. A unified model for ultrafine aircraft particle emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kärcher, B.; Turco, R. P.; Yu, F.; Danilin, M. Y.; Weisenstein, D. K.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Busen, R.

    2000-12-01

    To predict the environmental impacts of commercial aviation, intensive studies have been launched to measure the properties and effects of aircraft emissions. These observations have revealed an extremely wide variance with respect to the number and sizes of the particles produced in the exhaust plumes. An analytic parameterization is presented that explains most of the observational variance. It is shown that the observed scatter in emission indices of volatile particles is due mainly to variations of plume age, the detection threshold size of the particle counters, and condensable organic emissions. The principle trend of the volatile particle concentrations with fuel sulfur content can be explained with conversion fractions of sulfur into particulate sulfuric acid at emission within the range 0.5 to 5%. A novel assessment of the perturbation of the stratospheric aerosol layer by a future supersonic aircraft fleet confirms previous estimates and puts these simulations on a sounder physical basis.

  4. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by 222Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It's major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented

  5. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  6. Facile Deposition of Ultrafine Silver Particles on Silicon Surface Not Submerged in Precursor Solutions for Applications in Antireflective Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a facile deposition method, the ultrafine silver particles are successfully deposited on the Si surface that is not submerged in precursor solutions. The ultrafine silver particles have many advantages, such as quasiround shape, uniformity in size, monodisperse distribution, and reduction of agglomeration. The internal physical procedure in the deposition is also investigated. The results show that there are more particles on the rough Si surface due to the wetting effect of solid-liquid interface. The higher concentration of ethanol solvent can induce the increase of quantity and size of particles on Si surface not in solutions. The ultrafine particles can be used to prepare porous Si antireflective layer in solar cell applications.

  7. Concurrent observations of atomic iodine, molecular iodine and ultrafine particles in a coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mahajan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of atomic iodine (I, molecular iodine (I2 and ultrafine particles were made at O Grove, Galicia (42.50° N, 8.87° W, on the northwest coast of Spain. The observations show a strong tidal signature, and indicate that the most probable sources of reactive iodine species are the exposed macroalgae during low tide. For the first time, I2 and I were concurrently measured revealing a high average I2/I ratio of ~32, which is higher than previously inferred by modelling studies. A 1-dimensional photochemical model is employed to simulate the observations showing that the high I2/I ratio can be reproduced in the presence of fast vertical mixing close to the surface, or using an extra chemical loss for I atoms with an unknown species. There is a lack of strong correlation between the I2/I and ultrafine particles, indicating that although they both have macroalgal sources, these were not at the same location. The model simulations also suggest that the source of the observed ultrafine particles is likely not very close to the measurement site, in order for the particles to form and grow, but the source for I and I2 must be local. Finally, the effect of NOx levels on iodine oxides, and the conditions under which iodine particle bursts will be suppressed, are explored.

  8. Concurrent observations of atomic iodine, molecular iodine and ultrafine particles in a coastal environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Mahajan

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Simultaneous measurements of atomic iodine (I, molecular iodine (I2 and ultrafine particles were made at O Grove, Galicia (42.50° N, 8.87° W, on the northwest coast of Spain. The observations show a strong tidal signature, and indicate that the most probable sources of reactive iodine species are the exposed macroalgae during low tide. For the first time, I2 and I were concurrently measured revealing a high average I2/I ratio of ~32, which is higher than previously inferred by modelling studies. A 1-dimensional photochemical model is employed to simulate the observations showing that the high I2/I ratio can be reproduced in the presence of fast vertical mixing close to the surface, or using an extra chemical loss for I atoms with an unknown species. There is a lack of strong correlation between the I2/I and ultrafine particles, indicating that although they both have macroalgal sources, these were not at the same location. The model simulations also suggest that the source of the observed ultrafine particles is likely not very close to the measurement site, in order for the particles to form and grow, but the source for I and I2 must be local. Finally, the effect of NOx levels on iodine oxides, and the conditions under which iodine particle bursts will be suppressed, are explored.

  9. Ultrafine Particles in Residential Indoors and Doses Deposited in the Human Respiratory System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Manigrasso

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Indoor aerosol sources may significantly contribute to the daily dose of particles deposited into the human respiratory system. Therefore, it is important to characterize the aerosols deriving from the operations currently performed in an indoor environment and also to estimate the relevant particle respiratory doses. For this aim, aerosols from indoor combustive and non-combustive sources were characterized in terms of aerosol size distributions, and the relevant deposition doses were estimated as a function of time, particle diameter and deposition site in the respiratory system. Ultrafine particles almost entirely made up the doses estimated. The maximum contribution was due to particles deposited in the alveolar region between the 18th and the 21st airway generation. When cooking operations were performed, respiratory doses per unit time were about ten-fold higher than the relevant indoor background dose. Such doses were even higher than those associated with outdoor traffic aerosol.

  10. Ultrafine particles cause cytoskeletal dysfunctions in macrophages: role of intracellular calcium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brown David M

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particulate air pollution is reported to cause adverse health effects in susceptible individuals. Since most of these particles are derived form combustion processes, the primary composition product is carbon with a very small diameter (ultrafine, less than 100 nm in diameter. Besides the induction of reactive oxygen species and inflammation, ultrafine particles (UFP can cause intracellular calcium transients and suppression of defense mechanisms of alveolar macrophages, such as impaired migration or phagocytosis. Methods In this study the role of intracellular calcium transients caused by UFP was studied on cytoskeleton related functions in J774A.1 macrophages. Different types of fine and ultrafine carbon black particles (CB and ufCB, respectively, such as elemental carbon (EC90, commercial carbon (Printex 90, diesel particulate matter (DEP and urban dust (UD, were investigated. Phagosome transport mechanisms and mechanical cytoskeletal integrity were studied by cytomagnetometry and cell viability was studied by fluorescence microscopy. Macrophages were exposed in vitro with 100 and 320 μg UFP/ml/million cells for 4 hours in serum free medium. Calcium antagonists Verapamil, BAPTA-AM and W-7 were used to block calcium channels in the membrane, to chelate intracellular calcium or to inhibit the calmodulin signaling pathways, respectively. Results Impaired phagosome transport and increased cytoskeletal stiffness occurred at EC90 and P90 concentrations of 100 μg/ml/million cells and above, but not with DEP or UD. Verapamil and W-7, but not BAPTA-AM inhibited the cytoskeletal dysfunctions caused by EC90 or P90. Additionally the presence of 5% serum or 1% bovine serum albumin (BSA suppressed the cytoskeletal dysfunctions. Cell viability showed similar results, where co-culture of ufCB together with Verapamil, W-7, FCS or BSA produced less cell dead compared to the particles only.

  11. Nanotoxicology: An Emerging Discipline Evolving from Studies of Ultrafine Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Oberdörster, Günter; Oberdörster, Eva; Oberdörster, Jan

    2005-01-01

    Although humans have been exposed to airborne nanosized particles (NSPs; < 100 nm) throughout their evolutionary stages, such exposure has increased dramatically over the last century due to anthropogenic sources. The rapidly developing field of nanotechnology is likely to become yet another source through inhalation, ingestion, skin uptake, and injection of engineered nanomaterials. Information about safety and potential hazards is urgently needed. Results of older bio-kinetic studies with N...

  12. Measurement and capture of fine and ultrafine particles from a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor with an electrostatic precipitator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Suriyawong, Achariya; Daukoru, Michael; Zhuang, Ye; Biswas, Pratim

    2009-05-01

    Experiments were carried out in a pilot-scale pulverized coal combustor at the Energy and Environmental Research Center (EERC) burning a Powder River Basin (PRB) subbituminous coal. A scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) were used to measure the particle size distributions (PSDs) in the range of 17 nm to 10 microm at the inlet and outlet of the electrostatic precipitator (ESP). At the ESP inlet, a high number concentration of ultrafine particles was found, with the peak at approximately 75 nm. A trimodal PSD for mass concentration was observed with the modes at approximately 80-100 nm, 1-2 microm, and 10 microm. The penetration of ultrafine particles through the ESP increased dramatically as particle size decreased below 70 nm, attributable to insufficient or partial charging of the ultrafine particles. Injection of nanostructured fine-particle sorbents for capture of toxic metals in the flue gas caused high penetration of the ultrafine particles through the ESP. The conventional ESP was modified to enhance charging using soft X-ray irradiation. A slipstream of flue gas was introduced from the pilot-scale facility and passed through this modified ESP. Enhancement of particle capture was observed with the soft X-ray irradiation when moderate voltages were used in the ESP, indicating more efficient charging of fine particles. PMID:19583155

  13. Worker exposure to ultrafine particles during carbon black treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Urszula Mikołajczyk; Stella Bujak-Pietrek; Irena Szadkowska-Stańczyk

    2015-01-01

    Wstęp: Celem badania była ocena uwalniania do powietrza stanowisk pracy cząstek ultradrobnych podczas przesypu i pakowania sadzy technicznej. Materiał i metody: Ocena obejmowała wyniki pomiarów przeprowadzonych w zakładzie przesypu sadzy technicznej przed rozpoczęciem procesu przesypu, w czasie wykonywania i po zakończeniu procesu. Określono stężenie liczbowe cząstek o wymiarach z zakresu 10–1000 nm i 10–100 nm z wykorzystaniem kondensacyjnego licznika cząstek (condensation particle cou...

  14. Performance assessment of adding Cu-ultrafine particles into falling film desiccant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept of dehumidification between air and liquid desiccant for the improvement of the efficiency of heating and cooling fluids in industrial applications was discussed. The use of solid/liquid desiccants has received much attention in recent years because liquid desiccants can take moisture from surrounding air at low temperature and then release the moisture at high temperature to provide a continuous process of dehumidification of air and regeneration of liquid desiccant. This process can be used with conventional vapor compression cycles. This paper presented a comparative numerical study between parallel and counter flow configurations that examined the effects of various parameters on heat and mass transfer for the dehumidification and cooling processes of air and regeneration rate of liquid desiccant. Ultrafine particles were added to the falling film desiccant to investigate heat and mass transfer enhancement for both parallel and counter flow channels. The Cu-volume fraction in the falling film desiccant and dispersion effect were the important parameters. A mathematical model was therefore developed to account for the addition of Cu-ultrafine particles into the film desiccant. The dehumidification and cooling rate processes were found to improve with an increase in the Cu-ultrafine particles and dispersion effect. The new hybrid AC system was shown to improve indoor air quality, reduce energy consumption, and be environmentally safe. It was concluded that although the volume fraction and dispersion factor improve the dehumidification and cooling processes of the air, the improvements are not significant due to the small thickness of the falling-film desiccant. The regeneration process did not improve for either controlling parameter because of the small thickness of the film desiccant. 14 refs., 10 figs

  15. Children exposure to indoor ultrafine particles in urban and rural school environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavaleiro Rufo, João; Madureira, Joana; Paciência, Inês; Slezakova, Klara; Pereira, Maria do Carmo; Aguiar, Lívia; Teixeira, João Paulo; Moreira, André; Oliveira Fernandes, Eduardo

    2016-07-01

    Extended exposure to ultrafine particles (UFPs) may lead to consequences in children due to their increased susceptibility when compared to older individuals. Since children spend in average 8 h/day in primary schools, assessing the number concentrations of UFPs in these institutions is important in order to evaluate the health risk for children in primary schools caused by indoor air pollution. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess and determine the sources of indoor UFP number concentrations in urban and rural Portuguese primary schools. Indoor and outdoor ultrafine particle (UFP) number concentrations were measured in six urban schools (US) and two rural schools (RS) located in the north of Portugal, during the heating season. The mean number concentrations of indoor UFPs were significantly higher in urban schools than in rural ones (10.4 × 10(3) and 5.7 × 10(3) pt/cm(3), respectively). Higher UFP levels were associated with higher squared meters per student, floor levels closer to the ground, chalk boards, furniture or floor covering materials made of wood and windows with double-glazing. Indoor number concentrations of ultrafine-particles were inversely correlated with indoor CO2 levels. In the present work, indoor and outdoor concentrations of UFPs in public primary schools located in urban and rural areas were assessed, and the main sources were identified for each environment. The results not only showed that UFP pollution is present in augmented concentrations in US when compared to RS but also revealed some classroom/school characteristics that influence the concentrations of UFPs in primary schools. PMID:27040535

  16. Separation of Fischer-Tropsch Wax Products from Ultrafine Iron Catalyst Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amitava Sarkar; James K. Neathery; Burtron H. Davis

    2006-12-31

    A fundamental filtration study was started to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. Slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems is the preferred mode of operation since the reaction is highly exothermic. Consequently, heavy wax products in one approach may be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. Achieving an efficient wax product separation from iron-based catalysts is one of the most challenging technical problems associated with slurry-phase iron-based FTS and is a key factor for optimizing operating costs. The separation problem is further compounded by attrition of iron catalyst particles and the formation of ultra-fine particles.

  17. Exposure to ultrafine particles in relation to indoor events and dwelling characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spilak, Michal; Frederiksen, Marie; Kolarik, Barbara;

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) in homes is associated with health risks such as cardiovascular disease and/or respiratory problems. These risks are heightened by the long time that people spend indoors. Therefore reducing the particle concentration in homes leads to improved health among its...... occupants. The use of particle filtration units may be an effective way of reducing UFP indoors. The purpose of this study was to evaluate associations between UFP concentrations and dwelling characteristics, estimate UFP removal rates indoors and to assess the effectiveness of installed particle filtration....... Furthermore, the winter season was associated significantly with high UFP levels indoors. Results of our study also indicated that owning a pet, wood-type floors and floor levels close to the ground are associated with increased UFP levels....

  18. Concurrent observations of atomic iodine, molecular iodine and ultrafine particles in a coastal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, A. S.; Sorribas, M.; J. C. Gómez Martín; MacDonald, S. M.; M. Gil; J. M. C. Plane; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2) and ultrafine particles were made at O Grove, Galicia (42.50° N, 8.87° W), on the northwest coast of Spain. The observations show a strong tidal signature, and indicate that the most probable sources of reactive iodine species are the exposed macroalgae during low tide. For the first time, I2 and I were concurrently measured revealing a high average I2/I r...

  19. Concurrent observations of atomic iodine, molecular iodine and ultrafine particles in a coastal environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mahajan, A. S.; Sorribas, M.; J. C. Gómez Martín; MacDonald, S. M.; M. Gil; J. M. C. Plane; Saiz-Lopez, A.

    2011-01-01

    Simultaneous measurements of atomic iodine (I), molecular iodine (I2) and ultrafine particles were made at O Grove, Galicia (42.50° N, 8.87° W), on the northwest coast of Spain. The observations show a strong tidal signature, and indicate that the most probable sources of reactive iodine species are the exposed macroalgae during low tide. For the first time, I2 and I were concurrently measured revealing a high average I2/I r...

  20. Urban and rural ultrafine (PM{sub 0.1}) particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, Tuomo A.; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Korhonen, Christina H.; Hillamo, Risto E. [Finnish Meteorological Inst., Helsinki (Finland); Aarnio, Paeivi; Koskentalo, Tarja [Helsinki Metropolitan Area Council, Helsinki (Finland); Maenhaut, Willy [Institute for Nuclear Sciences, Gent (Belgium)

    2001-07-01

    In June 1996-June 1997 Berner low-pressure impactors were used at an urban and at a rural site in the Helsinki area for sampling ultrafine particles (UFP, PM{sub 0.1}). Ten samples pairs, each pair measured simultaneously, were collected in the size range of 0.03-15{mu}m of particle aerodynamic diameter. More than 40 chemical components were measured. Surprisingly, the average UFP mass concentration was higher at the rural site (520ng/m{sup 3}) than at the urban site (490ng/m{sup 3}). The average chemical composition of UFP was similar at the two sites. The most abundant of the measured components were sulphate (32 and 40ng/m{sup 3} for the urban and rural sites, respectively), ammonium (22 and 25ng/m{sup 3}), nitrate (4 and 11ng/m{sup 3}) and the Ca{sup 2+} ion (5 and 7ng/m{sup 3}). The most important metals at both sites were Ca, Na, Fe, K and Zn with concentrations between 0.7 and 5ng/m{sup 3}. Of the heavy metals, Ni, V, Cu, and Pb were important with average ultrafine concentrations between about 0.1 and 0.2ng/m{sup 3}. Also the organic anions oxalate (urban 2.1ng/m{sup 3} and rural 1.9ng/m{sup 3}) and methanesulphonate (1.3 and 1.7ng/m{sup 3}) contributed similarly at both sites. The measured species accounted for only about 15-20% of the total ultrafine mass. The fraction that was not measured includes mainly carbonaceous material and water. It was estimated that the amount of water was about 10% (50ng/m{sup 3}) and that of carbonaceous material about 70% (350ng/m{sup 3}) at both sites. Aitken modes were observed for most components with the average mass mean mode diameters being between about 0.06 and 0.12{mu}m. The average concentrations in the Aitken mode differed from those in the UFP for several components. The average contributions of ultrafine mass to the fine particle mass (PM{sub 2.5}) was about 7% at the urban site and 8.5% at the rural site. At both sites the contribution of ultrafine to fine was especially high for Se, Ag, B and Ni (10-20%) and

  1. Formation of Ultrafine Metal Particles and Metal Oxide Precursor on Anodized Al by Electrolysis Deposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Nickel was deposited by ac electrolysis deposition in the pores of the porous oxide film of Al produced by anodizing in phosphoric acid. Ultrafine rod-shaped Ni particles were formed in the pores. At the same time a film of Ni oxide precursor was developed on the surface of the porous oxide film. The Ni particles and the Ni oxide precursor were examined by SEM, TEM and X-ray diffraction. The thickness of the barrier layer of the porous oxide film was thin and it attributed to the formation of the metal particles, while the formation of the oxide precursor was associated with the surface pits which were developed in the pretreatment of Al.

  2. Multi-metric measurement of personal exposure to ultrafine particles in selected urban microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinazzè, Andrea; Cattaneo, Andrea; Scocca, Damiano R.; Bonzini, Matteo; Cavallo, Domenico M.

    2015-06-01

    At the beginning of the study, our hypothesis was that visiting certain microenvironments (MEs) is one of the most important determinants of personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) and that moving between microenvironments significantly differentiates exposure. The overall aim of this study is to perform relevant exposure measurements to extend our knowledge on environmental exposure to UFP in urban environments. The UFP concentrations in different urban MEs were measured by personal monitoring in repeated sampling campaigns along a fixed route. The measurement runs were performed on one-week periods and at different times of day (AM: 08.00-10.30; PM: 16.00-18.30) and repeated in different periods of the year (winter, spring, summer, and autumn) for a total of 56 runs (>110 h). Measurements included on-line monitoring of the UFP particle number concentration (PNC), mean diameter (mean-d) and lung-deposited surface-area (LDSA). Additionally, the PNC, particle mass concentration (PMC) profiles for quasi-ultrafine particles (QUFP; PM0.25) were estimated. A significant seasonal difference in the PNC and PMC, mean diameter and surface area was observed as well as between different times of the day and days of the week. In addition, differences in the UFP concentrations were also found in each ME, and there were specific mean-diameter and surface area concentrations. In general, the mean particle diameters showed an inverse relationship with the PNC, while the LDSA had the opposite behaviour. Appreciable differences among all MEs and monitoring periods were observed; the concentration patterns and variations seemed related to the typical sources of urban pollutants (traffic), proximity to sources and time of day. The highest exposures were observed for walking or biking along high-trafficked routes and while using public buses. The UFP exposure levels in modern cars, equipped with high-efficiency filters and in air recirculation mode, were significantly lower.

  3. Ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.; Wierzbicka, Aneta;

    2013-01-01

    .3 × 105 cm-3·h/day). On average, ∼90% of this exposure occurred outside of the period from midnight to 6 a.m. Source events, especially candle burning, cooking, toasting, and unknown activities, were responsible on average for ∼65% of the residential integrated exposure (51% without the unknown activities......). Candle burning occurred in half of the homes where, on average, it was responsible for almost 60% of the integrated exposure. © 2013 American Chemical Society....

  4. Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH in Brisbane, Queensland (Australia: Study Design and Implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wafaa Nabil Ezz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles are particles that are less than 0.1 micrometres (µm in diameter. Due to their very small size they can penetrate deep into the lungs, and potentially cause more damage than larger particles. The Ultrafine Particles from Traffic Emissions and Children’s Health (UPTECH study is the first Australian epidemiological study to assess the health effects of ultrafine particles on children’s health in general and peripheral airways in particular. The study is being conducted in Brisbane, Australia. Continuous indoor and outdoor air pollution monitoring was conducted within each of the twenty five participating school campuses to measure particulate matter, including in the ultrafine size range, and gases. Respiratory health effects were evaluated by conducting the following tests on participating children at each school: spirometry, forced oscillation technique (FOT and multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW (to assess airway function, fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO, to assess airway inflammation, blood cotinine levels (to assess exposure to second-hand tobacco smoke, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP levels (to measure systemic inflammation. A pilot study was conducted prior to commencing the main study to assess the feasibility and reliably of measurement of some of the clinical tests that have been proposed for the main study. Air pollutant exposure measurements were not included in the pilot study.

  5. Personal exposure to airborne ultrafine particles in the urban area of Milan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The relevance of health effects related to ultrafine particles (UFPs; aerodynamic diameter 5 particles/cm3. UFPs measures were divided on the basis of crossed environments or micro-environments, days of the week and day time (hours). The highest measured mean concentrations and data variability were observed during walking time and moving on motorized vehicles (bus and car), indicating that the highest exposure to UFPs can be reached near motorized traffic. The lowest exposures were observed in green areas and in office microenvironments. An appreciable difference between working and non-working days was observed. Concentration patterns and variation by days of the week and time periods appears related to time trends in traffic intensity.

  6. Occupational Exposure to Ultrafine Particles among Airport Employees - Combining Personal Monitoring and Global Positioning System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Karina Lauenborg; Thygesen, Lau Caspar; Schipperijn, Jasper;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at......). METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security) at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days...... handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 25-55×103 UFP/cm3) than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5×103 UFP/cm3, 95% CI: 2-11×103 UFP/cm3). Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate...

  7. Exposure to ultrafine particles in hospitality venues with partial smoking bans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, Manfred; Moshammer, Hanns; Schietz, Armin

    2013-01-01

    Fine particles in hospitality venues with insufficient smoking bans indicate health risks from passive smoking. In a random sample of Viennese inns (restaurants, cafes, bars, pubs and discotheques) effects of partial smoking bans on indoor air quality were examined by measurement of count, size and chargeable surface of ultrafine particles (UFPs) sized 10-300 nm, simultaneously with mass of particles sized 300-2500 nm (PM2.5). Air samples were taken in 134 rooms unannounced during busy hours and analyzed by a diffusion size classifier and an optical particle counter. Highest number concentrations of particles were found in smoking venues and smoking rooms (median 66,011 pt/cm(3)). Even non-smoking rooms adjacent to smoking rooms were highly contaminated (median 25,973 pt/cm(3)), compared with non-smoking venues (median 7408 pt/cm(3)). The particle number concentration was significantly correlated with the fine particle mass (P<0.001). We conclude that the existing tobacco law in Austria is ineffective to protect customers in non-smoking rooms of hospitality premises. Health protection of non-smoking guests and employees from risky UFP concentration is insufficient, even in rooms labeled "non-smoking". Partial smoking bans with separation of smoking rooms failed. PMID:23652720

  8. Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Understanding of the emissions of coarse (PM10 ≤10 μm), fine (PM2.5 ≤2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (UFP <100 nm) from refurbishment activities and their dispersion into the nearby environment is of primary importance for developing efficient risk assessment and management strategies in the construction and demolition industry. This study investigates the release, occupational exposure and physicochemical properties of particulate matter, including UFPs, from over 20 different refurbishment activities occurring at an operational building site. Particles were measured in the 5–10,000-nm-size range using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer and a GRIMM particle spectrometer for 55 h over 8 days. The UFPs were found to account for >90 % of the total particle number concentrations and <10 % of the total mass concentrations released during the recorded activities. The highest UFP concentrations were 4860, 740, 650 and 500 times above the background value during wall-chasing, drilling, cementing and general demolition activities, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis were used to identify physicochemical characteristics of particles and attribute them to probable sources considering the size and the nature of the particles. The results confirm that refurbishment activities produce significant levels (both number and mass) of airborne particles, indicating a need to develop appropriate regulations for the control of occupational exposure of operatives undertaking building refurbishment.

  9. Physicochemical characteristics and occupational exposure to coarse, fine and ultrafine particles during building refurbishment activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azarmi, Farhad; Kumar, Prashant, E-mail: p.kumar@surrey.ac.uk, E-mail: prashant.kumar@cantab.net; Mulheron, Mike [University of Surrey, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom); Colaux, Julien L.; Jeynes, Chris [University of Surrey, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Ion Beam Centre (United Kingdom); Adhami, Siavash; Watts, John F. [University of Surrey, The Surface Analysis Laboratory, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    Understanding of the emissions of coarse (PM{sub 10} ≤10 μm), fine (PM{sub 2.5} ≤2.5 μm) and ultrafine particles (UFP <100 nm) from refurbishment activities and their dispersion into the nearby environment is of primary importance for developing efficient risk assessment and management strategies in the construction and demolition industry. This study investigates the release, occupational exposure and physicochemical properties of particulate matter, including UFPs, from over 20 different refurbishment activities occurring at an operational building site. Particles were measured in the 5–10,000-nm-size range using a fast response differential mobility spectrometer and a GRIMM particle spectrometer for 55 h over 8 days. The UFPs were found to account for >90 % of the total particle number concentrations and <10 % of the total mass concentrations released during the recorded activities. The highest UFP concentrations were 4860, 740, 650 and 500 times above the background value during wall-chasing, drilling, cementing and general demolition activities, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and ion beam analysis were used to identify physicochemical characteristics of particles and attribute them to probable sources considering the size and the nature of the particles. The results confirm that refurbishment activities produce significant levels (both number and mass) of airborne particles, indicating a need to develop appropriate regulations for the control of occupational exposure of operatives undertaking building refurbishment.

  10. Soot, unburned carbon and ultrafine particle emissions from air- and oxy-coal flames

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oxy-coal combustion is one possible solution for the mitigation of greenhouse gases. In this process coal is burned in oxygen, rather than air, and the temperatures in the boiler are mitigated by recycling flue gases, so that the inlet mixture may contain either 27 % O2 to match adiabatic flame temperatures, or 32 % O2 to match gaseous radiation heat fluxes in the combustion chamber. However, a major issue for heat transfer from coal combustion is the radiative heat transmission from soot. For this research, air and oxy coal firing were compared regarding the emission of soot. A 100 kW down-fired laboratory combustor was used to determine effects of switching from air to oxy-firing on soot, unburned carbon and ultrafine particle emissions from practical pulverized coal flames. Of interest here were potential chemical effects of substitution of the N2 in air by CO2 in practical pulverized coal flames. The oxy-coal configuration investigated used once-through CO2, simulating cleaned flue gas recycle with all contaminants and water removed. Three coals were each burned in: a) air, b) 27 % O2/ 73 % CO2, c) 32 % O2/ 68 % CO2. Tests were conducted at (nominally) 3 %, 2 %, 1 % and 0 % O2 in the exhaust (dry basis). For each condition, particulate samples were iso kinetically withdrawn far from the radiant zone, and analyzed using a photoacoustic analyzer (PA) for black carbon, a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for ultrafine particles, and a total sample loss on ignition (LOI) method for unburned carbon in ash. Data suggest that at low stoichiometric ratios, ultrafine particles consist primarily of black carbon, which, for the bituminous coal, is produced in lesser amounts under oxy-fired conditions than under the air-fired condition, even when adiabatic flame temperatures are matched. However, significant changes in mineral matter vaporization were not observed unless the flames were hotter. These and other results are interpreted in the light of available

  11. Removal of ultrafine particles from indoor environment:Experimental and computational studies of possibilities, limitations and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi

    2013-01-01

    In Denmark, people spend most of their time indoors. Therefore, indoor air quality is an important public health issue as people are exposed to pollutants indoors. Pollutants including gases and particles come from outdoors to the inside of a building. They may also be generated indoors by cooking, candle burning, emission from building material, etc. Particles are divided into coarse, fine and ultrafine particles (UFP) depending on their size. Research has indicated that UFPs with diameters ...

  12. Modelling component evaporation and composition change of traffic-induced ultrafine particles during travel from street canyon to urban background.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolova, Irina; MacKenzie, A Rob; Cai, Xiaoming; Alam, Mohammed S; Harrison, Roy M

    2016-07-18

    We developed a model (CiTTy-Street-UFP) of traffic-related particle behaviour in a street canyon and in the nearby downwind urban background that accounts for aerosol dynamics and the variable vapour pressure of component organics. The model simulates the evolution and fate of traffic generated multicomponent ultrafine particles (UFP) composed of a non-volatile core and 17 Semi-Volatile Organic Compounds (SVOC, modelled as n-alkane proxies). A two-stage modelling approach is adopted: (1) a steady state simulation inside the street canyon is achieved, in which there exists a balance between traffic emissions, condensation/evaporation, deposition, coagulation and exchange with the air above roof-level; and (2) a continuing simulation of the above-roof air parcel advected to the nearby urban park during which evaporation is dominant. We evaluate the component evaporation and associated composition changes of multicomponent organic particles in realistic atmospheric conditions and compare our results with observations from London (UK) in a street canyon and an urban park. With plausible input conditions and parameter settings, the model can reproduce, with reasonable fidelity, size distributions in central London in 2007. The modelled nucleation-mode peak diameter, which is 23 nm in the steady-state street canyon, decreases to 9 nm in a travel time of just 120 s. All modelled SVOC in the sub-10 nm particle size range have evaporated leaving behind only non-volatile material, whereas modelled particle composition in the Aitken mode contains SVOC between C26H54 and C32H66. No data on particle composition are available in the study used for validation, or elsewhere. Measurements addressing in detail the size resolved composition of the traffic emitted UFP in the atmosphere are a high priority for future research. Such data would improve the representation of these particles in dispersion models and provide the data essential for model validation. Enhanced knowledge of the

  13. Chemical Structure and Morphology of Magnetic Ultrafine Particles Synthesized from a Ternary Gaseous Mixture Involving Cobalt Tricarbonyl Nitrosyl

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Morita, H.; Hattori, K.; Murafa, Nataliya; Šubrt, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2015), s. 429-434. ISSN 0914-9244 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 7AMB14SK178 Institutional support: RVO:61388980 Keywords : gas phase photochemical reaction * magnetic ultrafine particle * cobalt tricarbonyl nitrosyl * iron pentacarbonyl Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.055, year: 2014

  14. Chemical, dimensional and morphological ultrafine particle characterization from a waste-to-energy plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Particle size distributions and total concentrations measurement at the stack and before the fabric filter of an incinerator. → Chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration through a nuclear method. → Mineralogical investigation through a Transmission Electron Microscope equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. → Heavy metal concentrations on UFPs as function of the boiling temperature. → Different mineralogical and morphological composition amongst samples collected before the fabric filter and at the stack. - Abstract: Waste combustion processes are responsible of particles and gaseous emissions. Referring to the particle emission, in the last years specific attention was paid to ultrafine particles (UFPs, diameter less than 0.1 μm), mainly emitted by combustion processes. In fact, recent findings of toxicological and epidemiological studies indicate that fine and ultrafine particles could represent a risk for health and environment. Therefore, it is necessary to quantify particle emissions from incinerators also to perform an exposure assessment for the human populations living in their surrounding areas. To these purposes, in the present work an experimental campaign aimed to monitor UFPs was carried out at the incineration plant in San Vittore del Lazio (Italy). Particle size distributions and total concentrations were measured both at the stack and before the fabric filter inlet in order to evaluate the removal efficiency of the filter in terms of UFPs. A chemical characterization of UFPs in terms of heavy metal concentration was performed through a nuclear method, i.e. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA), as well as a mineralogical investigation was carried out through a Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) equipped with an Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS) in order to evaluate shape, crystalline state and mineral compound of sampled particles. Maximum values of 2.7 x 107 part. cm-3

  15. Exposure to ultrafine particles and PM 2.5 in four Sydney transport modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knibbs, Luke D.; de Dear, Richard J.

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of ultrafine (hours throughout a working week, for a total of 40 trips. Analyses comprised one-way ANOVA to compare overall (i.e. all trips combined) geometric mean concentrations of both particle fractions measured across transport modes, and assessment of both the correlation between wind speed and individual trip means of UFPs and PM 2.5, and the correlation between the two particle fractions. Overall geometric mean concentrations of UFPs and PM 2.5 ranged from 2.8 (train) to 8.4 (bus) × 10 4 particles cm -3 and 22.6 (automobile) to 29.6 (bus) μg m -3, respectively, and a statistically significant difference ( p < 0.001) between modes was found for both particle fractions. Individual trip geometric mean concentrations were between 9.7 × 10 3 (train) and 2.2 × 10 5 (bus) particles cm -3 and 9.5 (train) to 78.7 (train) μg m -3. Estimated commuter exposures were variable, and the highest return trip mean PM 2.5 exposure occurred in the ferry mode, whilst the highest UFP exposure occurred during bus trips. The correlation between fractions was generally poor, and in keeping with the duality of particle mass and number emissions in vehicle-dominated urban areas. Wind speed was negatively correlated with, and a generally poor determinant of, UFP and PM 2.5 concentrations, suggesting a more significant role for other factors in determining commuter exposure.

  16. XRF-analysis of fine and ultrafine particles emitted from laser printing devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barthel, Mathias; Pedan, Vasilisa; Hahn, Oliver; Rothhardt, Monika; Bresch, Harald; Jann, Oliver; Seeger, Stefan

    2011-09-15

    In this work, the elemental composition of fine and ultrafine particles emitted by ten different laser printing devices (LPD) is examined. The particle number concentration time series was measured as well as the particle size distributions. In parallel, emitted particles were size-selectively sampled with a cascade impactor and subsequently analyzed by the means of XRF. In order to identify potential sources for the aerosol's elemental composition, materials involved in the printing process such as toner, paper, and structural components of the printer were also analyzed. While the majority of particle emissions from laser printers are known to consist of recondensated semi volatile organic compounds, elemental analysis identifies Si, S, Cl, Ca, Ti, Cr, and Fe as well as traces of Ni and Zn in different size fractions of the aerosols. These elements can mainly be assigned to contributions from toner and paper. The detection of elements that are likely to be present in inorganic compounds is in good agreement with the measurement of nonvolatile particles. Quantitative measurements of solid particles at 400 °C resulted in residues of 1.6 × 10(9) and 1.5 × 10(10) particles per print job, representing fractions of 0.2% and 1.9% of the total number of emitted particles at room temperature. In combination with the XRF results it is concluded that solid inorganic particles contribute to LPD emissions in measurable quantities. Furthermore, for the first time Br was detected in significant concentrations in the aerosol emitted from two LPD. The analysis of several possible sources identified the plastic housings of the fuser units as main sources due to substantial Br concentrations related to brominated flame retardants. PMID:21809840

  17. Traffic-generated emissions of ultrafine particles from pavement-tire interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahl, Andreas; Gharibi, Arash; Swietlicki, Erik; Gudmundsson, Anders; Bohgard, Mats; Ljungman, Anders; Blomqvist, Göran; Gustafsson, Mats

    In a road simulator study, a significant source of sub-micrometer fine particles produced by the road-tire interface was observed. Since the particle size distribution and source strength is dependent on the type of tire used, it is likely that these particles largely originate from the tires, and not the road pavement. The particles consisted most likely of mineral oils from the softening filler and fragments of the carbon-reinforcing filler material (soot agglomerates). This identification was based on transmission electron microscopy studies of collected ultrafine wear particles and on-line thermal treatment using a thermodesorber. The mean particle number diameters were between 15-50 nm, similar to those found in light duty vehicle (LDV) tail-pipe exhaust. A simple box model approach was used to estimate emission factors in the size interval 15-700 nm. The emission factors increased with increasing vehicle speed, and varied between 3.7×10 11 and 3.2×10 12 particles vehicle -1 km -1 at speeds of 50 and 70 km h -1. This corresponds to between 0.1-1% of tail-pipe emissions in real-world emission studies at similar speeds from a fleet of LDV with 95% gasoline and 5% diesel-fueled cars. The emission factors for particles originating from the road-tire interface were, however, similar in magnitude to particle number emission factors from liquefied petroleum gas-powered vehicles derived in test bench studies in Australia 2005. Thus the road-tire interface may be a significant contributor to particle emissions from ultraclean vehicles.

  18. NANODERM. Quality of skin as a barrier to ultra-fine particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The EU5 project carried out by a consortium of 12 European universities and research institutes under the leadership of the Faculty of Physics and Geosciences, University of Leipzig started in 2003 and ended with the publication of its final report in 2007. The main goal of the project was to get quantitative information on the penetration of ultra-fine particles in all strata of skin, on their penetration pathways as well as on their impact on human health. Details of the project can be found on the following website: http://www.uni-leipzig.de/"~nanoderm. The Hungarian team was lead by the Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, who provided human skin grafted on SCID (Severe Combined Immune Deficiency) mice as a suitable model for studying particle penetration. In the Institute of Physiology, University of Debrecen, the cellular effects of the nanoparticles were assessed. The ATOMKI group performed ion beam analytical investigations using proton induced x-ray emission and scanning transmission ion microscopy techniques to determine the particle distribution on porcine, SCID graft and human skin samples on which various nanoparticle (TiO2) formulations including commercially available sunscreens were applied. Several pre-treatments of the skin were tested, too. The skin samples were cryofixed native specimens, reducing considerably the possibility of creating artefacts. Results Titanium was only detected in the stratum corneum for healthy skin. Penetration to layers consisting of living cells was not observed. No diffusion profile was present therefore we conclude that the penetration takes place through mechanical action. Deep penetration into hair follicles was also observed, but not into vital tissue. Clearance is expected via desquamation and sebum excretion respectively for corneocyte layers and hair follicles. In conclusion, the NANODERM group does not expect any harmful effects of sunscreens containing ultra-fine

  19. Coarse and fine particles but not ultrafine particles in urban air trigger hospital admission for asthma in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iskandar, Amne; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Bønnelykke, Klaus;

    2012-01-01

    BackgroundShort-term exposure to air pollution can trigger hospital admissions for asthma in children, but it is not known which components of air pollution are most important. There are no available studies on the particular effect of ultrafine particles (UFPs) on paediatric admissions for asthma.......AimTo study whether short-term exposure to air pollution is associated with hospital admissions for asthma in children. It is hypothesised that (1) the association between asthma admissions and air pollution is stronger with UFPs than with coarse (PM(10)) and fine (PM(2.5)) particles, nitrogen oxides (NO......(x)) or nitrogen dioxide (NO(2)); and (2) infants are more susceptible to the effects of exposure to air pollution than older children.MethodDaily counts of admissions for asthma in children aged 0-18 years to hospitals located within a 15 km radius of the central fixed background urban air pollution...

  20. Traffic and nucleation events as main sources of ultrafine particles in high-insolation developed world cities

    OpenAIRE

    M. Brines; Dall'Osto, M.; Beddows, D.C.S.; R. M. Harrison; F. Gómez-Moreno; L. Núñez; Artíñano, B.; F. Costabile; G. P. Gobbi; Salimi, F.; L. Morawska; Sioutas, C.; X. Querol

    2015-01-01

    Road traffic emissions are often considered the main source of ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter smaller than 100 nm) in urban environments. However, recent studies worldwide have shown that - in high-insolation urban regions at least - new particle formation events can also contribute to UFP. In order to quantify such events we systematically studied three cities located in predominantly sunny environments: Barcelona (Spain), Madrid (Spain) and Brisbane (Australia). Three long-term data set...

  1. Air quality in the German-Czech border region: A focus on harmful fractions of PM and ultrafine particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schladitz, Alexander; Leníček, Jan; Beneš, Ivan; Kováč, Martin; Skorkovský, Jiří; Soukup, Aleš; Jandlová, Jana; Poulain, Laurent; Plachá, Helena; Löschau, Gunter; Wiedensohler, Alfred

    2015-12-01

    A comprehensive air quality study has been carried out at two urban background sites in Annaberg-Buchholz (Germany) and Ústí nad Labem (Czech Republic) in the German-Czech border region between January 2012 and June 2014. Special attention was paid to quantify harmful fractions of particulate matter (PM) and ultrafine particle number concentration (UFP) from solid fuel combustion and vehicular traffic. Source type contributions of UFP were quantified by using the daily concentration courses of UFP and nitrogen oxide. Two different source apportionment techniques were used to quantify relative and absolute mass contributions: positive matrix factorization for total PM2.5 and elemental carbon in PM2.5 and chemical mass balance for total PM1 and organic carbon in PM1. Contributions from solid fuel combustion strongly differed between the non-heating period (April-September) and the heating period (October-March). Major sources of solid fuel combustion in this study were wood and domestic coal combustion, while the proportion of industrial coal combustion was low (solid fuel combustion with enhanced concentrations during the heating period. In contrast, vehicular PAH emissions were allocated to the Aitken mode. Only in Ústí nad Labem a significant contribution of photochemical new particle formation (e.g. from sulfur dioxide) to UFP of almost 50% was observed during noontime. UFPs from traffic emissions (nucleation particles) and primary emitted soot particles dominated at both sites during the rest of the day. The methodology of a combined source apportionment of UFP and PM can be adapted to other regions of the world with similar problems of atmospheric pollution to calculate the relative risk in epidemiological health studies for different sub-fractions of PM and UFP. This will enhance the meaningfulness of published relative risks in health studies based on total PM and UFP number concentrations.

  2. Ultrafine Sm-Fe-N Particles Prepared by Planetary Ball Milling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine magnetically hard particles are needed for the bottom­up fabrication of anisotropic exchanged­coupled permanent magnets. In this study we have chosen Sm2Fe17Nx because of its high anisotropy field and large saturation magnetization. A multi­stage planetary ball milling process was used. The key is to find the right balance of energy used to mill the precursor particles; it must be high enough to break the particles and reduce their size but, not so high as to destroy the crystal structure of the nanoparticles that would lead to deterioration of the magnetic properties. First the coarse powders were subjected to a wet milling with 2.0 mm diameter media. In each subsequent stage the media size was reduced to maintain the milling balance. Using such a process produced particles in a size range from 100 - 800 nm with a coercivity as high as 10 kOe at room temperature.

  3. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kero, Ida Teresia; Jørgensen, Rikke Bramming

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI(TM)), a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPS(TM)), and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC). The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification. PMID:27598180

  4. Comparison of Three Real-Time Measurement Methods for Airborne Ultrafine Particles in the Silicon Alloy Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Teresia Kero

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the applicability and the correlation between three commercially available instruments capable of detection, quantification, and characterization of ultrafine airborne particulate matter in the industrial setting of a tapping area in a silicon alloy production plant. The number concentration of ultrafine particles was evaluated using an Electric Low Pressure Impactor (ELPITM, a Fast Mobility Particle Sizer (FMPSTM, and a Condensation Particle Counter (CPC. The results are discussed in terms of particle size distribution and temporal variations linked to process operations. The instruments show excellent temporal covariation and the correlation between the FMPS and ELPI is good. The advantage of the FMPS is the excellent time- and size resolution of the results. The main advantage of the ELPI is the possibility to collect size-fractionated samples of the dust for subsequent analysis by, for example, electron microscopy. The CPC does not provide information about the particle size distribution and its correlation to the other two instruments is somewhat poor. Nonetheless, the CPC gives basic, real-time information about the ultrafine particle concentration and can therefore be used for source identification.

  5. Environmentally persistent free radicals amplify ultrafine particle mediated cellular oxidative stress and cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balakrishna Shrilatha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Combustion generated particulate matter is deposited in the respiratory tract and pose a hazard to the lungs through their potential to cause oxidative stress and inflammation. We have previously shown that combustion of fuels and chlorinated hydrocarbons produce semiquinone-type radicals that are stabilized on particle surfaces (i.e. environmentally persistent free radicals; EPFRs. Because the composition and properties of actual combustion-generated particles are complex, heterogeneous in origin, and vary from day-to-day, we have chosen to use surrogate particle systems. In particular, we have chosen to use the radical of 2-monochlorophenol (MCP230 as the EPFR because we have previously shown that it forms a EPFR on Cu(IIO surfaces and catalyzes formation of PCDD/F. To understand the physicochemical properties responsible for the adverse pulmonary effects of combustion by-products, we have exposed human bronchial epithelial cells (BEAS-2B to MCP230 or the CuO/silica substrate. Our general hypothesis was that the EPFR-containing particle would have greater toxicity than the substrate species. Results Exposure of BEAS-2B cells to our combustion generated particle systems significantly increased reactive oxygen species (ROS generation and decreased cellular antioxidants resulting in cell death. Resveratrol treatment reversed the decline in cellular glutathione (GSH, glutathione peroxidase (GPx, and superoxide dismutase (SOD levels for both types of combustion-generated particle systems. Conclusion The enhanced cytotoxicity upon exposure to MCP230 correlated with its ability to generate more cellular oxidative stress and concurrently reduce the antioxidant defenses of the epithelial cells (i.e. reduced GSH, SOD activity, and GPx. The EPFRs in MCP230 also seem to be of greater biological concern due to their ability to induce lipid peroxidation. These results are consistent with the oxidizing nature of the CuO/silica ultrafine

  6. Chemical characterization of atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the characterisation of complex environmental materials such as atmospheric particulate matter, analytical specificity is required to account for the many dimensions of information present in the sample. These dimensions include size, morphology, elemental composition, inorganic and organic chemical speciation, all to be performed on either single particles or on the population (or bulk sample) basis. Various techniques were developed for such measurements, including a number of bulk analysis procedures, methodologies for microscopical analysis of individual particles, and a variety of procedures for organic/inorganic chemical speciation. (author)

  7. Filter performance of n99 and n95 facepiece respirators against viruses and ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eninger, Robert M; Honda, Takeshi; Adhikari, Atin; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A

    2008-07-01

    The performance of three filtering facepiece respirators (two models of N99 and one N95) challenged with an inert aerosol (NaCl) and three virus aerosols (enterobacteriophages MS2 and T4 and Bacillus subtilis phage)-all with significant ultrafine components-was examined using a manikin-based protocol with respirators sealed on manikins. Three inhalation flow rates, 30, 85, and 150 l min(-1), were tested. The filter penetration and the quality factor were determined. Between-respirator and within-respirator comparisons of penetration values were performed. At the most penetrating particle size (MPPS), >3% of MS2 virions penetrated through filters of both N99 models at an inhalation flow rate of 85 l min(-1). Inhalation airflow had a significant effect upon particle penetration through the tested respirator filters. The filter quality factor was found suitable for making relative performance comparisons. The MPPS for challenge aerosols was 0.1 mum. The filtration performance of the N95 respirator approached that of the two models of N99 over the range of particle sizes tested ( approximately 0.02 to 0.5 mum). Filter penetration of the tested biological aerosols did not exceed that of inert NaCl aerosol. The results suggest that inert NaCl aerosols may generally be appropriate for modeling filter penetration of similarly sized virions. PMID:18477653

  8. Combustion of PTFE: The Effects of Gravity and Pigmentation on Ultrafine Particle Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnon, J. Thomas; Srivastava, Rajiv; Todd, Paul

    1997-01-01

    Ultrafine particles generated during polymer thermodegradation are a major health hazard, owing to their unique pathway of processing in the lung. This hazard in manned spacecraft is poorly understood, because the particulate products of polymer thermodegradation are generated under low gravity conditions. Particulate generated from the degradation of PolyTetraFluoroEthylene (PTFE), insulation coating for 20 AWG copper wire (representative of spacecraft application) under intense ohmic heating were studied in terrestrial gravity and microgravity. Microgravity tests were done in a 1.2-second drop tower at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM). Thermophoretic sampling was used for particulate collection. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy (STEM) were used to examine the smoke particulates. Image software was used to calculate particle size distribution. In addition to gravity, the color of PTFE insulation has an overwhelming effect on size, shape and morphology of the particulate. Nanometer-sized primary particles were found in all cases, and aggregation and size distribution was dependent on both color and gravity; higher aggregation occurred in low gravity. Particulates from white, black, red and yellow colored PTFE insulations were studied. Elemental analysis of the particulates shows the presence of inorganic pigments.

  9. Impact of superplasticizer concentration and of ultra-fine particles on the rheological behaviour of dense mortar suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aims at investigating the impact of the addition of superplasticizer and of ultra-fine particles, namely of silica fume and of precipitated titania, on the rheological behaviour of water-lean mortar pastes. The pastes are characterised in terms of their spread, their flowing behaviour and by means of performing a shear test, giving access to viscosity/shear gradient correlations. Adding superplasticizer is shown to shift the onset of shear thickening of the referring pastes to higher shear rates and to attenuate its otherwise rapid evolution, possibly by means of favouring steric particle-particle interactions. The workability of these mortars, which is characterised in terms of spread values and draining, is also improved. For the case of fly ash based mortars, adding ultra-fine particles is another way of (slightly) 'retarding' shear thickening and of attenuating its evolution, possibly because of resulting in - on the average - lower hydrodynamic forces and reduced attractive Van der Waals interactions between particles. However, at the same time these mortars are characterised by a worsening in workability which is attributed to the huge amount of surface area provided by the ultra-fines

  10. Contrasting macrophage activation by fine and ultrafine titanium dioxide particles is associated with different uptake mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmidt Annette M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Inhalation of (nanoparticles may lead to pulmonary inflammation. However, the precise mechanisms of particle uptake and generation of inflammatory mediators by alveolar macrophages (AM are still poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the interactions between particles and AM and their associated pro-inflammatory effects in relation to particle size and physico-chemical properties. NR8383 rat lung AM were treated with ultrafine (uf, fine (f TiO2 or fine crystalline silica (DQ12 quartz. Physico-chemical particle properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy, elemental analysis and thermogravimetry. Aggregation and agglomeration tendency of the particles were determined in assay-specific suspensions by means of dynamic light scattering. All three particle types were rapidly taken up by AM. DQ12 and ufTiO2 , but not fTiO2 , caused increased extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS, heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 mRNA expression and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α release. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS mRNA expression was increased most strongly by ufTiO2 , while DQ12 exclusively triggered interleukin (IL 1β release. However, oscillations of intracellular calcium concentration and increased intracellular ROS were observed with all three samples. Uptake inhibition experiments with cytochalasin D, chlorpromazine and a Fcγ receptor II (FcγRII antibody revealed that the endocytosis of fTiO2 by the macrophages involves actin-dependent phagocytosis and macropinocytosis as well as clathrin-coated pit formation, whereas the uptake of ufTiO2 was dominated by FcγIIR. The uptake of DQ12 was found to be significantly reduced by all three inhibitors. Our findings suggest that the contrasting AM responses to fTiO2 , ufTiO2 and DQ12 relate to differences in the involvement of specific uptake mechanisms.

  11. Ultrafine particle and fine trace metal (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) pollution episodes induced by industrial emissions in Huelva, SW Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Camacho, R.; Rodríguez, S.; de la Rosa, J.; Sánchez de la Campa, A. M.; Alastuey, A.; Querol, X.; González-Castanedo, Y.; Garcia-Orellana, I.; Nava, S.

    2012-12-01

    Urban air quality impairment by ultrafine particles has become a matter of concern due to the adverse effects on human health. Most of the studies of ultrafine particles in urban air quality have focused on vehicle exhaust emissions. We studied how industrial emissions contribute to ultrafine particle concentrations in downwind urban ambient air. This research is based on experimental data collected in the ambient air of the industrial city of Huelva (SW Spain) over April 2008-December 2009 period (particle number, gaseous pollutants and black carbon concentrations and levels and chemical composition of PM10 and PM2.5 with daily and hourly resolution). This city is affected by emissions from the second largest Cu-smelter in Europe, phosphoric acid and fertilizer production plants and an oil refinery and petrochemical plant. Industrial emissions are the main cause of ultrafine particle episodes. When vehicle exhaust emissions are the main source, ultrafine particles typically show (24-h mean) concentrations within the range 14,700-5000 cm-3 (50th-1st), with 60% of these linked to this source and 30% to industrial emissions. In contrast, when daily mean levels of N are within the range 50,000-25,500 cm-3 (100th-70th), industrial and vehicle exhaust emissions accounted for 49 and 30%, respectively. High concentrations of toxic trace metals (As, Cu, Cd, Zn and Pb) were recorded when the study city suffered fumigations of the Cu-smelter plumes (e.g. 10-25 ng m-3 As, 1-2 ng m-3 Cd and >105 cm-3 of ultrafine particles). Because of these industrial emissions, ultrafine particle concentrations during daylight are about two times higher than those observed in other European cities. Recently, ultrafine particle emissions in vehicle exhausts have been subject to limit values in a recent stage of the EURO standards. Industrial emissions should also be considered.

  12. Hygroscopic properties of newly formed ultrafine particles at an urban site surrounded by a deciduous forest in northern Japan during the summer of 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jung

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the hygroscopic property of ultrafine particles during the new particle formation event, hygroscopic growth factors (g(RH of size-segregated atmospheric particles were measured at an urban site in Sapporo, northern Japan, during the summer of 2011. Hygroscopic growth factors at 85% RH (g(85% of freshly formed nucleation mode particles were measured at a dry particle diameter (Dp centered at 20 nm to be 1.11 to 1.28 (average 1.16 ± 0.06, which are equivalent to 1.17 to 1.35 (1.23 ± 0.06 for a dry Dp centered at 100 nm after considering the Kelvin effect. These values are comparable with those of secondary organic aerosols, suggesting that low-volatility organic vapors are important to the burst of nucleation mode particles at the measurement site surrounded by a deciduous forest. Gradual increases in mode diameter after the burst of nucleation mode particles were obtained under southerly wind condition with a dominant contribution of intermediately-hygroscopic particles. However, sharp increases in mode diameter were obtained when wind direction shifted to northwesterly or northeasterly with a sharp increase in highly-hygroscopic particle faction in the Aitken mode particles, indicating that local wind direction is an important factor controlling the growth of newly formed particles and their hygroscopic properties. Higher g(85% values (1.27 ± 0.05 were obtained at a dry Dp of 120 nm when the air masses originated from the Asian Continent, whereas lower g(85% values (1.19 ± 0.06 were obtained when clean marine air masses arrived at the urban site. These results indicate that the hygroscopic property of large Aitken and small accumulation mode particles (80–165 nm is highly influenced by the long-range atmospheric transport of particles and their precursors.

  13. Exposure assessment of a cyclist to PM10 and ultrafine particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghmans, P; Bleux, N; Int Panis, L; Mishra, V K; Torfs, R; Van Poppel, M

    2009-02-01

    Estimating personal exposure to air pollution is a crucial component in identifying high-risk populations and situations. It will enable policy makers to determine efficient control strategies. Cycling is again becoming a favorite mode of transport both in developing and in developed countries due to increasing traffic congestion and environmental concerns. In Europe, it is also seen as a healthy sports activity. However, due to high levels of hazardous pollutants in the present day road microenvironment the cyclist might be at a higher health risk due to higher breathing rate and proximity to the vehicular exhaust. In this paper we present estimates of the exposure of a cyclist to particles of various size fractions including ultrafine particles (UFP) in the town of Mol (Flanders, Belgium). The results indicate relatively higher UFP concentration exposure during morning office hours and moderate UFP levels during afternoon. The major sources of UFP and PM(10) were identified, which are vehicular emission and construction activities, respectively. We also present a dust mapping technique which can be a useful tool for town planners and local policy makers. PMID:19036413

  14. Ventilation dependence of concentration metrics of Ultra-fine Particles in a coagulating household smoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, S; Sreekanth, B; Mayya, Y S

    2016-01-01

    Role of Ultra-fine Particles (UFPs) in causing adverse health effects among large population across the world, attributable to household smoke, is being increasingly recognized. However, there is very little theoretical perspective available on the complex behavior of the UFP metrics with respect to controlling factors, such as ventilation rate and particle emission rate from the combustion sources. This numerical study examines through coagulation dynamics, the dependence of UFP metrics, viz., number (PN), mass (PM(0.1)) and surface area (PA(0.1)) concentrations below 0.1 μm diameter, on ventilation and the number emission rate from household smoke. For strong sources, the steady-state concentrations of these metrics are found to increase initially with increasing Air Exchange Rate (AER), reach a peak value and then decrease. Counter correlations are seen between UFP metric and PM(2.5) concentrations. The concepts of Critical Air Exchange Rate (CAER) and Half-Value Air Exchange Rate (HaVAER) have been introduced which indicate a feasibility of mitigation of PM(0.1) and PA(0.1), unlike PN, by ventilation techniques. The study clearly brings forth complex differential behavior of the three UFP metrics. The results are further discussed. PMID:26795205

  15. Atmospheric discharges and particle fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chilingarian, A.; Chilingaryan, S.; Reymers, A.

    2015-07-01

    Fluxes of the electrons, gamma rays, and neutrons observed by particle detectors located on the Earth's surface during thunderstorms originate so-called Thunderstorm Ground Enhancements (TGEs). The relativistic runaway electron avalanches giving rise to TGEs originate in the thundercloud's lower dipole between the main negatively charged region in the middle of the thundercloud and transient lower positively charged region. Acceleration of electrons in the upper dipole between main negative and main positive charge regions leads to initiation of the terrestrial gamma flashes (TGFs) intensive researched during the last two decades by orbiting gamma ray observatories. TGFs are exceptionally intense, submillisecond bursts of electromagnetic radiation directed to the open space from the thunderstorm atmosphere. Unlike visible lightning, TGF beams do not create a hot plasma channel and optical flash; hence, in the literature they got name "dark lightning." We investigate the TGEs development in 1 min and 1 s time series of particle detector count rates. Synchronized time series of the near-surface electric field and lightning occurrences allows interconnecting two atmospheric phenomena. Registration of the Extensive Air Showers allows approaching problems of relation of the lightning occurrences and particle fluxes.

  16. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Štolcpartová, Jitka; Pechout, M.; Dittrich, L.; Mazač, M.; Fenkl, M.; Vrbová, Kristýna; Ondráček, Jakub; Vojtíšek-Lom, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 11 (2015), s. 1714-1735. ISSN 2073-4433 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-01438S Institutional support: RVO:68378041 ; RVO:67985858 Keywords : ultrafine particles * nanoparticles * UFP Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality; DI - Air Pollution ; Quality (UCHP-M) Impact factor: 0.226, year: 2014

  17. Ultrafine particles are not major carriers of carcinogenic PAHs and their genotoxicity in size-segregated aerosols

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topinka, Jan; Milcová, Alena; Schmuczerová, Jana; Kroužek, J.; Hovorka, J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 754, 1-2 (2013), s. 1-6. ISSN 1383-5718 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP503/11/0142; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147 Grant ostatní: MZP(CZ) SP/1A3/149/08 Institutional support: RVO:68378041 Keywords : Air pollution * Ultrafine particles * Carcinogenic PAHs Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 2.481, year: 2013

  18. Expert elicitation on ultrafine particles: likelihood of health effects and causal pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brunekreef Bert

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Exposure to fine ambient particulate matter (PM has consistently been associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The relationship between exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP and health effects is less firmly established. If UFP cause health effects independently from coarser fractions, this could affect health impact assessment of air pollution, which would possibly lead to alternative policy options to be considered to reduce the disease burden of PM. Therefore, we organized an expert elicitation workshop to assess the evidence for a causal relationship between exposure to UFP and health endpoints. Methods An expert elicitation on the health effects of ambient ultrafine particle exposure was carried out, focusing on: 1 the likelihood of causal relationships with key health endpoints, and 2 the likelihood of potential causal pathways for cardiac events. Based on a systematic peer-nomination procedure, fourteen European experts (epidemiologists, toxicologists and clinicians were selected, of whom twelve attended. They were provided with a briefing book containing key literature. After a group discussion, individual expert judgments in the form of ratings of the likelihood of causal relationships and pathways were obtained using a confidence scheme adapted from the one used by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Results The likelihood of an independent causal relationship between increased short-term UFP exposure and increased all-cause mortality, hospital admissions for cardiovascular and respiratory diseases, aggravation of asthma symptoms and lung function decrements was rated medium to high by most experts. The likelihood for long-term UFP exposure to be causally related to all cause mortality, cardiovascular and respiratory morbidity and lung cancer was rated slightly lower, mostly medium. The experts rated the likelihood of each of the six identified possible causal pathways separately. Out of these

  19. SEPARATION OF FISCHER-TROPSCH WAX PRODUCTS FROM ULTRAFINE IRON CATALYST PARTICLES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James K. Neathery; Gary Jacobs; Burtron H. Davis

    2005-03-31

    In this reporting period, a fundamental filtration study was continued to investigate the separation of Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis (FTS) liquids from iron-based catalyst particles. The overall focus of the program is with slurry-phase FTS in slurry bubble column reactor systems. Hydrocarbon products must be separated from catalyst particles before being removed from the reactor system. An efficient wax product/catalyst separation system is a key factor for optimizing operating costs for iron-based slurry-phase FTS. Previous work has focused on catalyst particle attrition and the formation of ultra-fine iron carbide and/or carbon particles. With the current study, we are investigating how the filtration properties are affected by these chemical and physical changes of the catalyst slurry during activation/synthesis. In this reporting period, a series of crossflow filtration experiments were initiated to study the effect of olefins and oxygenates on the filtration flux and membrane performance. Iron-based FTS reactor waxes contain a significant amount of oxygenates, depending on the catalyst formulation and operating conditions. Mono-olefins and aliphatic alcohols were doped into an activated iron catalyst slurry (with Polywax) to test their influence on filtration properties. The olefins were varied from 5 to 25 wt% and oxygenates from 6 to 17 wt% to simulate a range of reactor slurries reported in the literature. The addition of an alcohol (1-dodecanol) was found to decrease the permeation rate while the olefin added (1-hexadecene) had no effect on the permeation rate. A passive flux maintenance technique was tested that can temporarily increase the permeate rate for 24 hours.

  20. Preparation and Characterization of CeO2-ZrO2 Solid Solution Ultrafine Particles Using Reversed Microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    An Yuan; Li Li; Wang Jun; Shen Meiqing

    2005-01-01

    Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 solid solution ultrafine particle was prepared in the cyclohexane/water/OP-10/n-hexanol reversed microemulsion. The quasi-ternary phase diagram investigations showed that the system has narrow W/O type microemulison region, so it is the proper system to prepare Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 solid solution ultrafine particle. Some physical-chemical techniques such as TG/DTA, XRD, BET, and HRTEM are used to characterize the resultant powders. The results show that the fluorite cubic Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 solid solution is obtained at 400 ℃. The surface area is (146.7 m2·g-1), which is higher than the surface area for sol-gel prepared sample (59.5 m2·g-1). HRTEM images indicated that the Ce0.6Zr0.4O2 solid solution ultrafine particle is well-crystallized, narrow size distribution, less agglomeration, within mean size of 5~7 nm.

  1. Ultra-fine particles release from hardcopy devices: sources, real-room measurements and efficiency of filter accessories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wensing, Michael; Schripp, Tobias; Uhde, Erik; Salthammer, Tunga

    2008-12-15

    The release of ultra-fine particles (UFP, d job was about ten times slower than in the test chamber. A toxicological assessment of the emitted particles requires that their chemical composition be known. Due to the low mass of the released UFPs chemical analysis needs a prior enrichment on a feasible media. Experiments using electrostatic precipitation showed a flame retardant (tri-xylyl phosphate) whose concentration on the media was dependent on the number of pages printed. Whether this compound was particle-bound could not be determined. PMID:18809204

  2. Exposure to ultrafine and fine particles and noise during cycling and driving in 11 Dutch cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogaard, Hanna; Borgman, Frank; Kamminga, Jaap; Hoek, Gerard

    Recent studies have suggested that exposures during traffic participation may be associated with adverse health effects. Traffic participation involves relatively short but high exposures. Potentially relevant exposures include ultrafine particles, fine particles (PM 2.5) and noise. Simultaneously, detailed real time exposure of particle number concentration (PNC), PM 2.5 and noise has been measured while driving and cycling 12 predefined routes of approximately 10-20 min duration. Sampling took place in eleven medium-sized Dutch cities on eleven weekdays in August till October 2006. To investigate variability in cyclists exposure, we systematically collected information on meteorology, GPS coordinates, type of road, traffic intensity, passing vehicles and mopeds while cycling. The overall mean PNC of car drivers was 5% higher than the mean PNC of cyclists. The overall mean concentration of PM 2.5 in the car was 11% higher than during cycling. Slightly higher 1-min peak concentrations were measured in the car (PNC 14%; PM 2.5 29% for 95-percentiles). Shorter duration peaks of PNC were higher during cycling (43% for 99-percentile of 1-s averages). Peaks in PNC typically last for less than 10 s. A large variability of exposure was found within and between routes. Factors that significantly predicted PNC variability during cycling were: passing vehicles (mopeds, cars), waiting for traffic lights, passing different types of (large) intersections and bicycle lanes and bike paths close to motorized traffic. No relation was found between PM 2.5 and those predictor variables. The correlation between PNC and noise was moderate (median 0.34). PM 2.5 had very low correlations with PNC and noise. PNC and PM 2.5 exposure of car drivers was slightly higher than that of cyclists. PNC was largely uncorrelated with PM 2.5 and reflected local traffic variables more than PM 2.5. Different factors were associated with high PNC and high noise exposures.

  3. MEMS-based silicon cantilevers with integrated electrothermal heaters for airborne ultrafine particle sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasisto, Hutomo Suryo; Merzsch, Stephan; Waag, Andreas; Peiner, Erwin

    2013-05-01

    The development of low-cost and low-power MEMS-based cantilever sensors for possible application in hand-held airborne ultrafine particle monitors is described in this work. The proposed resonant sensors are realized by silicon bulk micromachining technology with electrothermal excitation, piezoresistive frequency readout, and electrostatic particle collection elements integrated and constructed in the same sensor fabrication process step of boron diffusion. Built-in heating resistor and full Wheatstone bridge are set close to the cantilever clamp end for effective excitation and sensing, respectively, of beam deflection. Meanwhile, the particle collection electrode is located at the cantilever free end. A 300 μm-thick, phosphorus-doped silicon bulk wafer is used instead of silicon-on-insulator (SOI) as the starting material for the sensors to reduce the fabrication costs. To etch and release the cantilevers from the substrate, inductively coupled plasma (ICP) cryogenic dry etching is utilized. By controlling the etching parameters (e.g., temperature, oxygen content, and duration), cantilever structures with thicknesses down to 10 - 20 μm are yielded. In the sensor characterization, the heating resistor is heated and generating thermal waves which induce thermal expansion and further cause mechanical bending strain in the out-of-plane direction. A resonant frequency of 114.08 +/- 0.04 kHz and a quality factor of 1302 +/- 267 are measured in air for a fabricated rectangular cantilever (500x100x13.5 μm3). Owing to its low power consumption of a few milliwatts, this electrothermal cantilever is suitable for replacing the current external piezoelectric stack actuator in the next generation of the miniaturized cantilever-based nanoparticle detector (CANTOR).

  4. Determinants of spikes in ultrafine particle concentration whilst commuting by bus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Shanon; Dirks, Kim N.; Salmond, Jennifer A.; Xie, Shanju

    2015-07-01

    This paper examines concentration of ultrafine particles (UFPs) based on data collected using high-resolution UFP monitors whilst travelling by bus during rush hour along three different urban routes in Auckland, New Zealand. The factors influencing in-bus UFP concentration were assessed using a combination of spatial, statistical and GIS analysis techniques to determine both spatial and temporal variability. Results from 68 bus trips showed that concentrations varied more within a route than between on a given day, despite differences in urban morphology, land use and traffic densities between routes. A number of trips were characterised by periods of very rapid increases in UFPs (concentration 'spikes'), followed by slow declines. Trips which recorded at least one spike (an increase of greater than 10,000 pt/cm3) resulted in significantly higher mean concentrations. Spikes in UFPs were significantly more likely to occur when travelling at low speeds and when passengers were alighting and boarding at bus stops close to traffic light intersections.

  5. Occupational exposure to ultrafine particles among airport employees--combining personal monitoring and global positioning system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Lauenborg Møller

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP has been linked to cardiovascular and lung diseases. Combustion of jet fuel and diesel powered handling equipment emit UFP resulting in potentially high exposure levels among employees working at airports. High levels of UFP have been reported at several airports, especially on the apron, but knowledge on individual exposure profiles among different occupational groups working at an airport is lacking. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to compare personal exposure to UFP among five different occupational groups working at Copenhagen Airport (CPH. METHOD: 30 employees from five different occupational groups (baggage handlers, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside and landside security at CPH were instructed to wear a personal monitor of particle number concentration in real time and a GPS device. The measurements were carried out on 8 days distributed over two weeks in October 2012. The overall differences between the groups were assessed using linear mixed model. RESULTS: Data showed significant differences in exposure levels among the groups when adjusted for variation within individuals and for effect of time and date (p<0.01. Baggage handlers were exposed to 7 times higher average concentrations (geometric mean, GM: 37×103 UFP/cm(3, 95% CI: 25-55 × 10(3 UFP/cm(3 than employees mainly working indoors (GM: 5 × 10(3 UFP/cm(3, 95% CI: 2-11 × 103 UFP/cm(3. Furthermore, catering drivers, cleaning staff and airside security were exposed to intermediate concentrations (GM: 12 to 20 × 10(3 UFP/cm(3. CONCLUSION: The study demonstrates a strong gradient of exposure to UFP in ambient air across occupational groups of airport employees.

  6. Long-term observations of tropospheric particle number size distributions and equivalent black carbon mass concentrations in the German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Birmili

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The German Ultrafine Aerosol Network (GUAN is a cooperative atmospheric observation network, which aims at improving the scientific understanding of aerosol-related effects in the troposphere. The network addresses research questions dedicated to both, climate and health related effects. GUAN's core activity has been the continuous collection of tropospheric particle number size distributions and black carbon mass concentrations at seventeen observation sites in Germany. These sites cover various environmental settings including urban traffic, urban background, rural background, and Alpine mountains. In association with partner projects, GUAN has implemented a high degree of harmonisation of instrumentation, operating procedures, and data evaluation procedures. The quality of the measurement data is assured by laboratory intercomparisons as well as on-site comparisons with reference instruments. This paper describes the measurement sites, instrumentation, quality assurance and data evaluation procedures in the network as well as the EBAS repository, where the data sets can be obtained (doi:10.5072/guan.

  7. Concentration levels and source apportionment of ultrafine particles in road microenvironments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argyropoulos, G.; Samara, C.; Voutsa, D.; Kouras, A.; Manoli, E.; Voliotis, A.; Tsakis, A.; Chasapidis, L.; Konstandopoulos, A.; Eleftheriadis, K.

    2016-03-01

    A mobile laboratory unit (MOBILAB) with on-board instrumentation (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer, SMPS; Ambient NOx analyzer) was used to measure size-resolved particle number concentrations (PNCs) of quasi-ultrafine particles (UFPs, 9-372 nm), along with NOx, in road microenvironments. On-road measurements were carried out in and around a large Greek urban agglomeration, the Thessaloniki Metropolitan Area (TMA). Two 2-week measurement campaigns were conducted during the warm period of 2011 and the cold period of 2012. During each sampling campaign, MOBILAB was driven through a 5-day inner-city route and a second 5-day external route covering in total a wide range of districts (urban, urban background, industrial and residential), and road types (major and minor urban roads, freeways, arterial and interurban roads). All routes were conducted during working days, in morning and in afternoon hours under real-world traffic conditions. Spatial classification of MOBILAB measurements involved the assignment of measurement points to location bins defined by the aspect ratio of adjacent urban street canyons (USCs). Source apportionment was further carried out, by applying Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) to particle size distribution data. Apportioned PMF factors were interpreted, by employing a two-step methodology, which involved (a) statistical association of PMF factor contributions with 12 h air-mass back-trajectories ending at the TMA during MOBILAB measurements, and (b) Multiple Linear Regression (MLR) using PMF factor contributions as the dependent variables, while relative humidity, solar radiation flux, and vehicle speed were used as the independent variables. The applied data analysis showed that low-speed cruise and high-load engine operation modes are the two dominant sources of UFPs in most of the road microenvironments in the TMA, with significant contributions from background photochemical processes during the warm period, explaining the reversed

  8. Measurements and predictors of on-road ultrafine particle concentrations and associated pollutants in Los Angeles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motor vehicles are the dominant source of oxides of nitrogen (NOx), particulate matter(PM), and certain air toxics (e.g., benzene, 1,3-butadiene) in urban areas. On roadways, motor vehicle-related pollutant concentrations are typically many times higher than ambient concentrations. Due to high air exchange rates typical of moving vehicles, this makes time spent in vehicles on roadways a major source of exposure. This paper presents on-road measurements for Los Angeles freeways and arterial roads taken from a zero-emission electric vehicle outfitted with real-time instruments. The objective was to characterize air pollutant concentrations on roadways and identify the factors associated with the highest concentrations. Our analysis demonstrated that on freeways, concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFPs), black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-bound polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PM-PAH) are generated primarily by diesel-powered vehicles, despite the relatively low fraction (∼6%) of diesel-powered vehicles on Los Angeles freeways. However, UFP concentrations on arterial roads appeared to be driven primarily by proximity to gasoline-powered vehicles undergoing hard accelerations. Concentrations were roughly one-third of those on freeways. By using a multiple regression model for the freeway measurements, we were able to explain 60-70% of the variability in concentrations of UFP, black carbon, nitric oxide, and PM-PAH using measures of diesel truck density and hour of day (as an indicator of wind speed). Freeway concentrations of these pollutants were also well correlated wth readily available annual average daily truck counts, potentially allowing improved population exposure estimates for epidemiology studies. Based on these roadway measurements and average driving time, it appears that 33-45% of total UFP exposure for Los Angeles residents occurs due to time spent traveling in vehicles. (author)

  9. Energetic particle influences in Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen; Harrison, R. Giles; Nicoll, Keri; Rycroft, Michael; Briggs, Aaron

    2016-04-01

    Energetic particles from outer space, known as galactic cosmic rays, constantly ionise the entire atmosphere. During strong solar storms, solar energetic particles can also reach the troposphere and enhance ionisation. Atmospheric ionisation generates cluster ions. These facilitate current flow in the global electric circuit, which arises from charge separation in thunderstorms driven by meteorological processes. Energetic particles, whether solar or galactic in origin, may influence the troposphere and stratosphere through a range of different mechanisms, each probably contributing a small amount. Some of the suggested processes potentially acting over a wide spatial area in the troposphere include enhanced scavenging of charged aerosol particles, modification of droplet or droplet-droplet behavior by charging, and the direct absorption of infra-red radiation by the bending and stretching of hydrogen bonds inside atmospheric cluster-ions. As well as reviewing the proposed mechanisms by which energetic particles modulate atmospheric properties, we will also discuss new instrumentation for measurement of energetic particles in the atmosphere.

  10. 超细颗粒卤化银的制备与稳定性%PREPARATION OF ULTRA-FINE SILVER HALIDE PARTICLES AND THEIR STABILITY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔兴品; 岳军

    1999-01-01

    With gelatin or gelatin+PVA as colloid protective medium and under proper reactive condition, ultra-fine silver iodobromide particles with average diameter of about 20 nm and better monodispersity were prepared by direct reaction of silver nitrate with mixture of potassium bromide and potassium iodide. According to TEM data, it was discovered that gelatin+PVA showed stronger colloid protective power for these ultra-fine particles, which restrained particles' coalescence and growth effectively during physical and chemical ripening, so that there was not observable change of particle size and monodispersity to be found. In the case of only gelatin as colloid protective medium to prepare ultra-fine silver iodobromide particles, particles'stability in the process of physical ripening depended on the ratio of gelatin amount to silver content as the preparing reaction. It appears that there exists a critical ratio of gelatin amount to silver content for particles′ stability. When experimental ratio of gelatin amount to silver content in the reaction was over this critical ratio, gelatin can protect ultra-fine particles against coalescence and growth to a considerable degree. On the contrary, the particle size beacme significantly large in the process of physical ripening due to decrease of gelatin protective power if the experimental ratio was lower than this critical ratio.

  11. Water-soluble ions in nano/ultrafine/fine/coarse particles collected near a busy road and at a rural site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated water-soluble ions in the sized particles (particularly nano (PM0.01-0.056)/ultrafine (PM0.01-0.1)) collected using MOUDI and Nano-MOUDI samplers near a busy road site and at a rural site. The analytical results demonstrate that nano and coarse particles exhibited the highest (16.3%) and lowest (8.37%) nitrate mass ratios, respectively. The mass ratio of NO3- was higher than that of SO42- in all the sized particles at the traffic site. The secondary aerosols all displayed trimodal distributions. The aerosols in ultrafine particles collected at the roadside site exhibited Aitken mode distributions indicating they were of local origin. This finding was not observed for those ultrafine particles collected at the rural site. The mass median diameters (MMDs) of the nano, ultrafine, and fine particles were smaller at the traffic site than at the rural site, possibly related to the contribution of mobile engine emissions. - NO3- > SO42- in mass ratio, different from common observations in rural areas, was found in (particularly the nano) traffic-associated particles

  12. Activation of endothelial cells after exposure to ambient ultrafine particles: The role of NADPH oxidase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several studies have shown that ultrafine particles (UFPs) may pass from the lungs to the circulation because of their very small diameter, and induce lung oxidative stress with a resultant increase in lung epithelial permeability. The direct effects of UFPs on vascular endothelium remain unknown. We hypothesized that exposure to UFPs leads to endothelial cell O2·- generation via NADPH oxidase and results in activation of endothelial cells. Our results showed that UFPs, at a non-toxic dose, induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation in mouse pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (MPMVEC) that was inhibited by pre-treatment with the ROS scavengers or inhibitors, but not with the mitochondrial inhibitor, rotenone. UFP-induced ROS generation in MPMVEC was abolished by p67phox siRNA transfection and UFPs did not cause ROS generation in MPMVEC isolated from gp91phox knock-out mice. UFP-induced ROS generation in endothelial cells was also determined in vivo by using a perfused lung model with imaging. Moreover, Western blot and immunofluorescence staining results showed that MPMVEC treated with UFPs resulted in the translocation of cytosolic proteins of NADPH oxidase, p47phox, p67phox and rac 1, to the plasma membrane. These results demonstrate that NADPH oxidase in the pulmonary endothelium is involved in ROS generation following exposure to UFPs. To investigate the activation of endothelial cells by UFP-induced oxidative stress, we determined the activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) in MPMVEC. Our results showed that exposure of MPMVEC to UFPs caused increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs that was blocked by pre-treatment with DPI or p67phox siRNA. Exposure of MPMVEC obtained from gp91phox knock-out mice to UFPs did not cause increased phosphorylation of p38 and ERK1/2 MAPKs. These findings confirm that UFPs can cause endothelial cells to generate ROS directly via activation of NADPH oxidase. UFP-induced ROS lead to

  13. Spatial distribution of ultrafine particles in urban settings: A land use regression model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Marcela; Basagaña, Xavier; Aguilera, Inmaculada; Agis, David; Bouso, Laura; Foraster, Maria; Medina-Ramón, Mercedes; Pey, Jorge; Künzli, Nino; Hoek, Gerard

    2012-07-01

    BackgroundThe toxic effects of ultrafine particles (UFP) are a public health concern. However, epidemiological studies on the long term effects of UFP are limited due to lacking exposure models. Given the high spatial variation of UFP, the assignment of exposure levels in epidemiological studies requires a fine spatial scale. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of a short-term measurement protocol used at a large number of locations to derive a land use regression (LUR) model of the spatial variation of UFP in Girona, Spain. MethodsWe measured UFP for 15 min on the sidewalk of 644 participants' homes in 12 towns of Girona province (Spain). The measurements were done during non-rush traffic hours 9:15-12:45 and 15:15-16:45 during 32 days between June 15 and July 31, 2009. In parallel, we counted the number of vehicles driving in both directions. Measurements were repeated on a different day for a subset of 25 sites in Girona city. Potential predictor variables such as building density, distance to bus lines and land cover were derived using geographic information systems. We adjusted for temporal variation using daily mean NOx concentrations at a central monitor. Land use regression models for the entire area (Core model) and for individual towns were derived using a supervised forward selection algorithm. ResultsThe best predictors of UFP were traffic intensity, distance to nearest major crossroad, area of high density residential land and household density. The LUR Core model explained 36% of UFP total variation. Adding sampling date and hour of the day to the Core model increased the R2 to 51% without changing the regression slopes. Local models included predictor variables similar to those in the Core model, but performed better with an R2 of 50% in Girona city. Independent LUR models for the first and second measurements at the subset of sites with repetitions had R2's of about 47%. When the mean of the two measurements was used R2 improved to

  14. Ultrafine-Particle Emission Factors as a Function of Vehicle Mode of Operation for LDVs Based on Near-Roadway Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Wenjuan; Wen, Dongqi; Xiang, Sheng; Hu, Zhice; Noll, Kenneth E

    2016-01-19

    This paper presents ultrafine-particle (UFP) emission factors (EFs) as a function of vehicle mode of operation (free flow and congestion) using (1) concurrent 5 min measurements of UFPs and carbon monoxide (CO) concentration, wind speed and direction, traffic volume and speed near a roadway that is restricted to light-duty vehicles (LDVs) and (2) inverse dispersion model calculations. Short-term measurements are required to characterize the highly variable and rapidly changing UFP concentration generated by vehicles. Under congestion conditions, the UFP vehicle EFs increased from 0.5 × 10(13) to 2 × 10(13) (particles km(-1) vehicle(-1)) when vehicle flow increased from 5500 to 7500 vehicles/h. For free-flow conditions, the EF is constant at 1.5 × 10(13) (particles km(-1) vehicle(-1)). The analysis is based on the assumption that air-quality models adequately describe the dilution process due to both traffic and atmospheric turbulence. The approach used to verify this assumption was to use an emission factor model to determine EFs for CO and then estimate dilution factors using measured CO concentrations. This procedure eliminates the need to rely only on air quality models to generate dilution factors. The EFs are suitable for fleet emissions under real-world traffic conditions. PMID:26674658

  15. Redox Dynamics of Mixed Metal (Mn, Cr, and Fe) Ultrafine Particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nico, Peter S.; Kumfer, Benjamin M.; Kennedy, Ian M.; Anastasio, Cort

    2008-08-01

    The impact of particle composition on metal oxidation state, and on changes in oxidation state with simulated atmospheric aging, are investigated experimentally in flame-generated nanoparticles containing Mn, Cr, and Fe. The results demonstrate that the initial fraction of Cr(VI) within the particles decreases with increasing total metal concentration in the flame. In contrast, the initial Mn oxidation state was only partly controlled by metal loading, suggesting the importance of other factors. Two reaction pathways, one reductive and one oxidative, were found to be operating simultaneously during simulated atmospheric aging. The oxidative pathway depended upon the presence of simulated sunlight and O{sub 3}, whereas the reductive pathway occurred in the presence of simulated sunlight alone. The reductive pathway appears to be rapid but transient, allowing the oxidative pathway to dominate with longer aging times, i.e. greater than {approx}8 hours. The presence of Mn within the particles enhanced the importance of the oxidative pathway, leading to more net Cr oxidation during aging implying that Mn can mediate oxidation by removal of electrons from other particulate metals.

  16. Response of spontaneously hypertensive rats to inhalation of fine and ultrafine particles from traffic: experimental controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dormans Jan AMA

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many epidemiological studies have shown that mass concentrations of ambient particulate matter (PM are associated with adverse health effects in the human population. Since PM is still a very crude measure, this experimental study has explored the role of two distinct size fractions: ultrafine (3 to 3613 μg/m3 for fCAP and from 269μg/m3 to 556 μg/m3 for u+fCAP. Results Ammonium, nitrate, and sulphate ions accounted for 56 ± 16% of the total fCAP mass concentrations, but only 17 ± 6% of the u+fCAP mass concentrations. Unambiguous particle uptake in alveolar macrophages was only seen after u+fCAP exposures. Neither fCAP nor u+fCAP induced significant changes of cytotoxicity or inflammation in the lung. However, markers of oxidative stress (heme oxygenase-1 and malondialdehyde were affected by both fCAP and u+fCAP exposure, although not always significantly. Additional analysis revealed heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 levels that followed a nonmonotonic function with an optimum at around 600 μg/m3 for fCAP. As a systemic response, exposure to u+fCAP and fCAP resulted in significant decreases of the white blood cell concentrations. Conclusion Minor pulmonary and systemic effects are observed after both fine and ultrafine + fine PM exposure. These effects do not linearly correlate with the CAP mass. A greater component of traffic CAP and/or a larger proportion ultrafine PM does not strengthen the absolute effects.

  17. Ultrafine particles from electric appliances and cooking pans: experiments suggesting desorption/nucleation of sorbed organics as the primary source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, L A; Ott, W R; Weschler, C J

    2015-10-01

    Ultrafine particles are observed when metal surfaces, such as heating elements in electric appliances, or even empty cooking pans, are heated. The source of the particles has not been identified. We present evidence that particles >10 nm are not emitted directly from the heating elements or the metal surfaces. Using repeated heating of an electric burner, several types of cooking pans, and a steam iron, the increase in the number of particles (>10 nm) can be reduced to 0. After the devices are exposed to indoor air for several hours or days, subsequent heating results in renewed particle production, suggesting that organic matter has sorbed on their surfaces. Also, after a pan has been heated to the point that no increase in particles is observed, washing with detergent results in copious production of particles the next time the pan is heated. These observations suggest that detergent residue and organics sorbed from indoor air are the sources of the particles. We hypothesize that organic compounds are thermally desorbed from the hot surface as gaseous molecules; as they diffuse from the hot air near the pan into cooler air, selected compounds exceed their saturation concentration and nucleation occurs. PMID:25250820

  18. Effect of Ultrafine particles on Flow Field and Transport Properties near the nterface Around a Moving Bubble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马友光; 徐世昌; 冯惠生

    2004-01-01

    Laser Doppler Anemometer has been used to measure the flow field characteristics near the interface around a moving bubble in the presence of ultrafine particles. In order to model a moving bubble, the bubble was fixed into the counter-flow liquid by a metal mesh. Experimental materials are air and water, and the particles are complex oxidate powder. Experiments were carried out under the operating conditions: the liquid flow velocity u0 is 12.6 cm/s, the equivalent diameter de is 0.6 cm, the mass concentration of particle is 0.2%,the average particle diameter is about 10 nm and the density is 2 g/cm3. The velocity profiles of both frontal and tail-vortex areas were measured respectively. The experimental results show that the velocity fields are obviously changed in the existence of particles. In the frontal area of the bubble, both tangential and normal velocities decrease due to the presence of particles, but in tail vortex area, the tangential velocities increase remarkably, and normal velocities rise gradually from the center towards the fringe in the opposite tendency to that of no particles. The influences of flow field change in the presence of particles on gas-liquid mass transfer are analyzed and discussed.

  19. Radiolytic preparation of ultrafine colloidal gold particles in aqueous solution: Optical spectrum, controlled growth, and some chemical reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orange- or yellow-orange-colored aqueous dispersions of ultrafine gold particles (approximately2 nm) result from the γ-irradiation of deaerated solutions containing hydrolyzed AuCl-4 and poly(vinyl alcohol) or poly-(vinylpyrrolidone), respectively. The particles have a weak and very broad plasmon absorption band with maximum in the 490 to 500 nm range, i.e., at substantially shorter wavelengths than expected from classical Mie theory using bulk dielectric data; moreover, the specific UV adsorption increases as the particles become smaller. The particles are used as seeds in the radiolytic reduction of added Au(CN)-2 to yield larger particles of any desired size and improved monodispersity. The particles partially react with oxygen. Chemisorption of 3-mercapto propionic acid strongly affects the electronics of the particles, as indicated by the changes in optical absorption. The early stages of AuCl-4 reduction are also investigated. The reduction occurs essentially in two steps: (1) formation, and (2) reduction of Au+. A203-nm absorption band is tentatively attributed to Au+. Without further irradiation, Au+ disappears thermally within hours to yield larger particles (20--70 nm)

  20. Hygroscopic properties of newly formed ultrafine particles at an urban site surrounded by deciduous forest (Sapporo, northern Japan) during the summer of 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, J.; Kawamura, K.

    2014-07-01

    To investigate the hygroscopic properties of ultrafine particles during new particle formation events, the hygroscopic growth factors of size-segregated atmospheric particles were measured at an urban site in Sapporo, northern Japan, during the summer of 2011. The hygroscopic growth factor at 85 % relative humidity [g(85%)] of freshly formed nucleation mode particles was 1.11 to 1.28 (average: 1.16 ± 0.06) at a dry particle diameter (Dp) centered on 20 nm, which is equivalent to 1.17 to 1.35 (1.23 ± 0.06) at a dry Dp centered on 100 nm after considering the Kelvin effect. These values are comparable with those of secondary organic aerosols, suggesting that low-volatility organic vapors are important to the burst of nucleation mode particles. The equivalent g(85%) at a dry Dp of 100 nm for nucleated particles that have grown to Aitken mode sizes (1.24 to 1.34; average: 1.30 ± 0.04) were slightly higher than those of newly formed nucleation mode particles, suggesting that the growth of freshly formed nucleation mode particles to the Aitken mode size can be subjected to condensation of not only low-volatility organic vapors, but also water-soluble inorganic species. Based on this result, and previous measurement of radiocarbon in aerosols, we suggest that the burst of nucleation mode particles and their subsequent growth were highly affected by biogenic organic emissions at this measurement site, which is surrounded by deciduous forest. Gradual increases in mode diameter after the burst of nucleation mode particles were observed under southerly wind conditions, with a dominant contribution of intermediately hygroscopic particles. However, sharp increases in mode diameter were observed when the wind direction shifted to northwesterly or northeasterly, with a sharp increase in the highly hygroscopic particle fraction of the Aitken mode particles, indicating that the hygroscopic growth factor of newly formed particles is perturbed by the local winds that deliver

  1. Aircraft observations of ultrafine particles and CCN from the boundary layer to the free troposphere in the Arctic summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, Julia; Willis, Megan; Bozem, Heiko; Hoor, Peter; Köllner, Franziska; Schneider, Johannes; Brauner, Ralf; Konrad, Christian; Herber, Andreas; Leaitch, Richard; Abbatt, Jon

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic is one of the regions most sensitive to climate change. The shrinking extent of sea ice during the Arctic summertime increases the area covered by open ocean, which likely impacts Arctic aerosol, cloud properties, and thus climate. In this context extensive aerosol measurements (aerosol composition, particle number and size, cloud condensation nuclei, and trace gases) have been made during the NETCARE 2014 summer campaign from the Polar 6 aircraft. The Polar 6 is an adopted DC-3 aircraft owned by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Bremerhaven, Germany. In July 2014 eleven flights were conducted out of Resolute Bay. Flights included vertical profiles from as low as 60 m up to 3 km, as well as several low-level flights covering diverse terrains such as open ocean, fast ice, melt ponds, and polynyas. Here we discuss the vertical distribution of ultrafine particles (UFP, dp: 5 - 20 nm), size distributions of larger particles (dp: 20 nm to 1 μm), and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) in relation to different meteorological conditions and terrains. UFPs have been observed predominantly within the boundary layer, where concentrations reached several hundreds and occasionally even a few thousand particles per cubic centimeter. Highest concentrations were observed above open ocean and at the top of low-level clouds. During such events, the dominant mode of the size distribution was below 20 nm. However, in a few cases this ultrafine mode extended to sizes larger than 40 nm, suggesting that these UFP can grow into the CCN size range and thereby impact cloud properties and become climatically relevant.

  2. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Stolcpartova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  3. Liquefaction of coals using ultra-fine particle, unsupported catalysts: In situ particle generation by rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-05-01

    The research conducted by Textron Defense Systems (TDS) represents a potential new and innovative concept for dispersed coal liquefaction. The technical approach is generation of ultra-fine catalyst particles from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst only, or mixtures of catalyst and coal material in supersaturated solvents. The process of rapid expansion of supercritical fluid solutions was developed at Battelle`s Pacific Northwest Laboratories for the intended purpose of providing a new analytical technique for characterizing supercritical fluids. The concept forming the basis of this research is that ultra-fine particles can be generated from supercritical solutions by rapid expansion of either catalyst or catalyst/coal-material mixtures in supersaturated solvents, such as carbon dioxide or water. The focal point of this technique is the rapid transfer of low vapor pressure solute (i.e., catalyst), dissolved in the supercritical fluid solvent, to the gas phase as the solution is expanded through an orifice. The expansion process is characterized by highly nonequilibrium conditions which cause the solute to undergo extremely rapid supersaturation with respect to the solvent, leading to nucleation and particle growth resulting in nanometer size catalyst particles. A supercritical expansion system was designed and built by TDS at their Haverhill facility.

  4. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    OpenAIRE

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP,

  5. Propagation of nuclear particle fluxes in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Monte Carlo model of propagation of nuclear-active particle shower initiated in the atmosphere by cosmic rays or by any other radiation source is developed. The model permits to calculate spatial distributions and energy spectra of charged and neutral particle fluxes in the air and inside the blocks

  6. Seasonality of ultrafine and sub-micron aerosols and the inferences on particle formation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. C. Cheung

    2015-08-01

    the particle number concentration (PNC and size distribution (PSD with size range of 4–736 nm. The results indicate that the mass concentration of PM1 was elevated during cold seasons with peak level of 18.5 μg m-3 in spring, whereas the highest UFPs concentration was measured in summertime with a seasonal mean of 1.62 μg m-3. Moreover, chemical analysis revealed that the UFPs and PM1 were characterized by distinct composition; UFPs were composed mostly of organics, whereas ammonium and sulfate were the major constituents in PM1. The seasonal median of total PNCs ranged from 13.9 × 103 cm-3 in autumn to 19.4 × 103 cm-3 in spring. The PSD information retrieved from the corresponding PNC measurements indicates that the nucleation mode PNC (N4–25 peaked at 11.6 × 103 cm-3 in winter, whereas the Aitken mode (N25–100 and accumulation mode (N100–736 exhibited summer maxima at 6.0 × 103 and 3.1 × 103 cm-3, respectively. The shift in PSD during summertime is attributed to the enhancement in the photochemical production of condensable organic matter that, in turn, contributes to the growth of aerosol particles in the atmosphere. In addition, remarkable photochemical production of particles was observed in spring and summer seasons, which was characterized with averaged particle growth and formation rates of 4.3 ± 0.8 nm h-1 and 1.6 ± 0.8 cm-3 s-1, respectively. The prevalence of new particle formation (NPF in summer is suggested as a result of seasonally enhanced photochemical oxidation of SO2, which contributes to the production of H2SO4, and low level of PM10 (d ≤ 10 μm that serves as the condensation sink. Regarding the sources of aerosol particles, correlation analysis upon the PNCs against NOx revealed that the local vehicular exhaust was the dominant contributor of the UFPs throughout a year. On the contrary, the Asian pollution outbreaks can have significant influence in the PNC of accumulation mode particles during the seasons of winter monsoons

  7. Ultrafine particles in four European urban environments: Results from a new continuous long-term monitoring network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofman, J.; Staelens, J.; Cordell, R.; Stroobants, C.; Zikova, N.; Hama, S. M. L.; Wyche, K. P.; Kos, G. P. A.; Van Der Zee, S.; Smallbone, K. L.; Weijers, E. P.; Monks, P. S.; Roekens, E.

    2016-07-01

    To gain a better understanding on the spatiotemporal variation of ultrafine particles (UFPs) in urban environments, this study reports on the first results of a long-term UFP monitoring network, set up in Amsterdam (NL), Antwerp (BE), Leicester (UK) and London (UK). Total number concentrations and size distributions were assessed during 1-2 years at four fixed urban background sites, supplemented with mobile trailer measurements for co-location monitoring and additional short-term monitoring sites. Intra- and interurban spatiotemporal UFP variation, associations with commonly-monitored pollutants (PM, NOx and BC) and impacts of wind fields were evaluated. Although comparable size distributions were observed between the four cities, source-related differences were demonstrated within specific particle size classes. Total and size-resolved particle number concentrations showed clear traffic-related temporal variation, confirming road traffic as the major UFP contributor in urban environments. New particle formation events were observed in all cities. Correlations with typical traffic-related pollutants (BC and NOx) were obtained for all monitoring stations, except for Amsterdam, which might be attributable to UFP emissions from Schiphol airport. The temporal variation in particle number concentration correlated fairly weakly between the four cities (rs = 0.28-0.50, COD = 0.28-0.37), yet improved significantly inside individual cities (rs = 0.59-0.77). Nevertheless, considerable differences were still obtained in terms of particle numbers (20-38% for total particle numbers and up to 49% for size-resolved particle numbers), confirming the importance of local source contributions and the need for careful consideration when allocating UFP monitoring stations in heterogeneous urban environments.

  8. Size-dependent hydroxyl radicals generation induced by SiO2 ultra-fine particles: The role of surface iron

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Oxidative stress and hydroxyl radicals (·OH) play important roles in adverse health effects caused by inhalable ambient air particles (PM10). The ultra-fine fraction of PM10 has been hypothesized as one of the critical contributors to ·OH generation. Both in vivo and in vitro studies have shown that ultra-fine particles (UFPs) or nano-particles generate more ·OH than larger particles with identical mass and composition. Both the surface area and surface-adsorbed redox-active metals have been suggested as factors to determine the oxidative capacity of UFPs. In this study, the ·OH-generating capability of dif-ferent sizes of SiO2 particles was investigated in order to determine which factor influences particle-induced ·OH generation. The amount of ·OH generated in both acellular and cellular systems was quantified using a capillary electrophoresis method following exposure to SiO2 particles with diameters of 14, 100, and 500 nm. The amount of ·OH was strongly dependent on particle size, and a significant enhancement was observed only with 14 nm particles. Further studies indicated a close association between ·OH and iron ion concentration (R2 = 0.812, p<0.01). Washed particles, with their surface iron being removed, did not generate ·OH. The iron-containing leachate from these washings was able to enhance ·OH production as untreated particles did. Therefore, the presence of adsorbed iron on the surface of the SiO2 particles is presented as a possible mechanism of UPFs-induced ·OH generation. The SiO2 acted as an inert substrate, and the surface of ultra-fine SiO2 particles acted as a carrier for iron.

  9. Source apportionment of size segregated fine/ultrafine particle by PMF in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Ji-hua; Duan, Jing-chun; Chai, Fa-he; He, Ke-bin; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2014-03-01

    Considering the adverse health effects to human body, the number concentration of atmospheric PM (particulate material) is more important than the mass concentration. CO, NO, NO2, SO2 and number concentrations of PM were obtained from a remote site (Miyun), a roadside site (North Fourth Ring Road) and an urban residential site (Tsinghua University) in Beijing in winter. The size distribution and the possible sources of number concentrations were examined using EPA PMF (positive matrix factorization) model. A data set of totally 9610 of number concentration with the size range of 0.028 μm to 0.948 μm was included in the PMF analysis. The highest total particle number, mass and area of fine particles concentrations were observed at the North Fourth Ring Road site and the lowest were observed at Miyun site. Four factors were identified at Miyun site, as Factor 1 and Factor 4 may be related to long distance transportation, and Factor 2 and Factor 3 may be assigned as coal combustion and locomotive emission nearby, respectively; three factors were identified at North Fourth Ring Road, of which Factor 1 and Factor 3 are traffic related and Factor 2 may be coal combustion related. Compared with Factor 1, the contributions of Factor 3 to NOx and SO2 were 4-5 times higher. Additionally, Factor 3 was also a major contributor to CO. It suggested that Factor 1 and Factor 3 had the same source emission of motor vehicle, but different engine types, fuel types or exhaust treatments. Three factors were identified at Tsinghua site, as Factor 1 may come from aging vehicle emission, and Factor 2 and Factor 3 may be coal combustion related.

  10. Emissions of Ultrafine Particles and Volatile Organic Compounds from Commercially Available Desktop Three-Dimensional Printers with Multiple Filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azimi, Parham; Zhao, Dan; Pouzet, Claire; Crain, Neil E; Stephens, Brent

    2016-02-01

    Previous research has shown that desktop 3D printers can emit large numbers of ultrafine particles (UFPs, particles less than 100 nm) and some hazardous volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during printing, although very few filament and 3D printer combinations have been tested to date. Here we quantify emissions of UFPs and speciated VOCs from five commercially available filament extrusion desktop 3D printers utilizing up to nine different filaments by controlled experiments in a test chamber. Median estimates of time-varying UFP emission rates ranged from ∼10(8) to ∼10(11) min(-1) across all tested combinations, varying primarily by filament material and, to a lesser extent, bed temperature. The individual VOCs emitted in the largest quantities included caprolactam from nylon-based and imitation wood and brick filaments (ranging from ∼2 to ∼180 μg/min), styrene from acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) and high-impact polystyrene (HIPS) filaments (ranging from ∼10 to ∼110 μg/min), and lactide from polylactic acid (PLA) filaments (ranging from ∼4 to ∼5 μg/min). Results from a screening analysis of potential exposure to these products in a typical small office environment suggest caution should be used when operating many of the printer and filament combinations in poorly ventilated spaces or without the aid of combined gas and particle filtration systems. PMID:26741485

  11. Dust particle dynamics in atmospheric dust devils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, Yulia; Popel, Sergey

    2016-04-01

    Dust particle dynamics is modeled in the Dust Devils (DDs). DD is a strong, well-formed, and relatively long-lived whirlwind, ranging from small (half a meter wide and a few meters tall) to large (more than 100 meters wide and more than 1000 meters tall) in Earth's atmosphere. We develop methods for the description of dust particle charging in DDs, discuss the ionization processes in DDs, and model charged dust particle motion. Our conclusions are consistent with the fact that DD can lift a big amount of dust from the surface of a planet into its atmosphere. On the basis of the model we perform calculations and show that DDs are important mechanism for dust uplift in the atmospheres of Earth and Mars. Influence of DD electric field on dynamics of dust particles is investigated. It is shown that influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is significant near the ground. At some altitude (more then a quarter of the height of DD) influence of the electric field on dust particles trajectories is negligible. For the calculation of the dynamics of dust electric field can be approximated by effective dipole located at a half of the height of DD. This work was supported by the Russian Federation Presidential Program for State Support of Young Scientists (project no. MK-6935.2015.2).

  12. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles of diesel exhaust fumes – The use of ultrafast liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The article presents the results of the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs in the fine particles fraction emitted from 3 types of diesel fuels using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Material and Methods: Samples of diesel Eco, Verwa and Bio exhaust combustion fumes were generated at the model station which consisted of a diesel engine from the 2007 Diesel TDI 2.0. Personal Cascade Sioutas Impactor (PCSI with Teflon filters was used to collect samples of exhaust fume ultrafine particles. PAHs adsorbed on particulate fractions were analyzed by ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (UHPLC/FL. Results: Phenanthrene, fluoranthene, pyrene and chrysene present the highest concentration in the particulate matter emitted by an engine. The total contents of fine particles collected during engine operation on fuels Eco, Verwa and Bio were 134.2 μg/g, 183.8 μg/g and 153.4 μg/g, respectively, which makes 75%, 90% and 83% of the total PAHs, respectively. The highest content of benzo(apyrene determined in particles emitted during the combustion of fuels Eco and Bio was 1.5 μg/g and 1 μg/g, respectively. Conclusions: The study of the PAH concentration in the particles of fine fraction below 0.25 μm emitted from different fuels designed for diesel engines indicate that the exhaust gas content of carcinogens, including PAHs deposited on particulates, is still significant, regardless of the fuel. Application of ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection for the analysis of PAHs in the particles emitted in the fine fraction of diesel exhaust allowed to shorten the analysis time from 35 min to 8 min. Med Pr 2014;65(5:601–608

  13. Intra-urban variation of ultrafine particles as evaluated by process related land use and pollutant driven regression modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassoun, Yahya; Ruths, Matthias; Löwner, Marc-Oliver; Weber, Stephan

    2015-12-01

    The microscale intra-urban variation of ultrafine particle concentrations (UFP, diameter Dp<100 nm) and particle number size distributions was studied by two statistical regression approaches. The models were applied to a 1 km2 study area in Braunschweig, Germany. A land use regression model (LUR) using different urban morphology parameters as input is compared to a multiple regression type model driven by pollutant and meteorological parameters (PDR). While the LUR model was trained with UFP concentration the PDR model was trained with measured particle number size distribution data. The UFP concentration was then calculated from the modelled size distributions. Both statistical approaches include explanatory variables that try to address the 'process chain' of particle emission, dilution and deposition. LUR explained 74% and 85% of the variance of UFP for the full data set with a root mean square error (RMSE) of 668 cm(-3) and 1639 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. PDR explained 56% and 74% of the variance with RMSE of 4066 cm(-3) and 6030 cm(-3) in summer and winter, respectively. Both models are capable to depict the spatial variation of UFP across the study area and in different outdoor microenvironments. The deviation from measured UFP concentrations is smaller in the LUR model than in PDR. The PDR model is well suited to predict urban particle number size distributions from the explanatory variables (total particle number concentration, black carbon and wind speed). The urban morphology parameters in the LUR model are able to resolve size dependent concentration variations but not as adequately as PDR. PMID:26204051

  14. Synthesis of ultrafine particles and processing of nano-structured films with inductively coupled plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) at atmospheric pressure is particularly suited for melting and evaporation of materials. The electrodeless ICP can be generated without limitation of the kind of plasma forming gases. Therefore, using an argon-oxygen gas mixture as sheath gas of the ICP nanoparticles can be processed by combustion of metal-organic liquid precursors injected in the hot plasma core. By this way, nanoparticles of alumina, titania and of a perovskite type oxide are produced. The powder particles are collected by an electrostatic filter. They are characterized by a log-normal size distribution with a median diameter of about 10 nm depending on the plasma parameters used. Interesting metastable phases and exactly doped, very pure materials can be obtained. Nanophase coatings synthesized by the ICP are made from the same precursor materials. For depositions, the plasma jet has to be supersonic. Impinging onto the substrate placed near the nozzle thin and dense coatings are obtained. The composition and the grain size of as-deposited coatings are analyzed by XRD. (author)

  15. Particle diffusion in atmospheres of CP stars

    OpenAIRE

    Aret, A.; Sapar, A.

    1998-01-01

    We give concisely the formulae governing diffusion of chemical elements and their isotopes in quiescent stellar atmospheres, due to electrostatic, gravitational and radiation fields and to impacts between particles. Isotope segregation of heavy elements due to light-induced drift is emphasized.

  16. Particle pollution changes the atmospheric circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Industrial emissions and combustion of fossil fuels create large amounts of sulfate- and carbon containing soot particles. These mix with natural particles to change the natural aerosols. Such anthropogenic changes in the aerosols may have a great impact on the climate of the earth. Altered properties of the aerosols may change the atmosphere's absorption and reflection of solar radiation and contribute to heating or cooling. This is the direct effect. Changes in the properties of aerosols may also affect the number and size of recently formed cloud droplets. This may change the ability of the clouds to reflect solar radiation and to produce precipitation. This is the indirect effect. Recent research at the University of Oslo shows that anthropogenic particles significantly change the atmospheric circulation, in particular in the tropics, but also at European latitudes

  17. Decoration of ultrafine platinum-ruthenium particles on functionalized graphene sheets in supercritical fluid and their electrocatalytic property

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report a simple and effective supercritical fluid route to uniformly load ultrafine metal nanoparticles on the hydrophobic surfaces of graphene sheets. In the presence of supercritical carbon dioxide, PtRu alloy nanoparticles are decorated evenly on functionalized graphene sheets (FGSs) upon the reduction of organic platinum (II) and ruthenium (III) precursors, and its application as an electrocatalyst for methanol oxidation is studied. Transmission electron microscopy observation shows that highly dispersed PtRu metallic nanoparticles with an average size of about 3.11 nm are uniformly and densely distributed on the hydrophobic surface of FGSs. X-ray diffraction patterns demonstrate that the particles had a face-centered cubic crystal structure, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates the existence of zero-valence metals. Compared with the widely used Vulcan XC-72 carbon black, the PtRu/FGS composites exhibit superior catalytic activity and stability for methanol oxidation. The huge surface area of graphene and uniform distribution of nanosized metal particles are two critical factors for the significantly enhanced electrocatalytic efficiency. The findings suggest that the supercritical fluid method is highly efficient in preparing graphene-supported metallic catalysts, and FGSs serve as a favorable electrocatalytic carrier for direct methanol fuel cells.

  18. Assembly of ordered ZnO porous thin films by cooperative assembly method using polystyrene spheres and ultrafine ZnO particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ordered ZnO porous thin films were fabricated by cooperative assembly method using polystyrene sphere (PS) and ultrafine ZnO particles, in which ultrafine ZnO particles were directly assembled in the voids of PS while the template was being assembled by capillary forces. The influence of experimental parameters, such as evaporation temperature, ZnO concentration and the concentration ratio of PS/ZnO on morphology of the porous structure was mainly studied. The results showed that an ordered porous structure could be obtained by this method. X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectra indicated the porous ZnO thin film was wurtzite structure. The transmissivity decreased with the decrease of wavelength, but still kept above 80% beyond the wavelength of 550 nm. Optical band gap of the ZnO thin film was 3.13 eV

  19. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoides x trichocarpa 'Beaupre', Pinus nigra and x Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freer-Smith, P.H.; Beckett, K.P.; Taylor, Gail

    2005-01-01

    Trees are effective in the capture of particles from urban air to the extent that they can significantly improve urban air quality. As a result of their aerodynamic properties conifers, with their smaller leaves and more complex shoot structures, have been shown to capture larger amounts of particle matter than broadleaved trees. This study focuses on the effects of particle size on the deposition velocity of particles (Vg) to five urban tree species (coniferous and broadleaved) measured at two field sites, one urban and polluted and a second more rural. The larger uptake to conifers is confirmed, and for broadleaves and conifers Vg values are shown to be greater for ultra-fine particles (Dp<1.0 {mu}m) than for fine and coarse particles. This is important since finer particles are more likely to be deposited deep in the alveoli of the human lung causing adverse health effects. The finer particle fraction is also shown to be transported further from the emission source; in this study a busy urban road. In further sets of data the aqueous soluble and insoluble fractions of the ultra-fines were separated, indicating that aqueous insoluble particles made up only a small proportion of the ultra-fines. Much of the ultra-fine fraction is present as aerosol. Chemical analysis of the aqueous soluble fractions of coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles showed the importance of nitrates, chloride and phosphates in all three size categories at the polluted and more rural location.

  20. Optimization of micropipette fabrication by laser micromachining for application in an ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet using response surface methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Liu, Jingquan; Yang, Bin; Chen, Xiang; Wang, Xiaolin; Yang, Chunsheng

    2016-06-01

    The optimization of the laser micromachining process for special tapered micropipettes was investigated using response surface methodology. Three process parameters for the CO2 laser-based micropipette puller (P-2000, Sutter Instrument) were chosen as variables, namely heat, velocity and pull. The targeted length L TVS of the tapered variant section with a tip diameter of 10 μm was taken as a response. The optimum process parameters with L TVS of 7.3 mm were determined by analyzing the response surface three-dimension surface plots. The central composite design was selected to optimize the process variables, and the experimental data were fitted into a reduced cubic polynomial model. The high R 2 value (99.66%) and low coefficient of variation (0.73%) indicated the statistical significance of the model and good precision for the experiment. The optimization result showed that the best parameters were with the heat, velocity and pull values of 850, 53 and 170, respectively. The result was verified by a CO2 laser-based micropipette puller three times with length L TVS at 7.26 mm, 7.35 mm and 7.36 mm with the same optimized parameters. Then, the application to the ultrafine atmospheric pressure He/O2 plasma jets was carried out and micro-hole etching of the parylene-C film was realized with length L TVS at 6.29 mm, 7.35 mm and 8.02 mm. The results showed that the micro-plasma jet with an L TVS of 7.35 mm had the minimum applied voltage of 12.7 kV and the minimum micro-etching diameter of 45 μm with the deepest etching depth of 2.8 μm.

  1. Maskless localized patterning of biomolecules on carbon nanotube microarray functionalized by ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet using biotin-avidin system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuzairi, Tomy; Okada, Mitsuru; Purnamaningsih, Retno Wigajatri; Poespawati, Nji Raden; Iwata, Futoshi; Nagatsu, Masaaki

    2016-07-01

    Ultrafine plasma jet is a promising technology with great potential for nano- or micro-scale surface modification. In this letter, we demonstrated the use of ultrafine atmospheric pressure plasma jet (APPJ) for patterning bio-immobilization on vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) microarray platform without a physical mask. The biotin-avidin system was utilized to demonstrate localized biomolecule patterning on the biosensor devices. Using ±7.5 kV square-wave pulses, the optimum condition of plasma jet with He/NH3 gas mixture and 2.5 s treatment period has been obtained to functionalize CNTs. The functionalized CNTs were covalently linked to biotin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), and avidin-(fluorescein isothiocyanate) FITC, sequentially. BSA was necessary as a blocking agent to protect the untreated CNTs from avidin adsorption. The localized patterning results have been evaluated from avidin-FITC fluorescence signals analyzed using a fluorescence microscope. The patterning of biomolecules on the CNT microarray platform using ultrafine APPJ provides a means for potential application of microarray biosensors based on CNTs.

  2. Studying passive ultrafine particle dispersion in a room with a heat source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ardkapan, Siamak Rahimi; Nielsen, Peter V.; Afshari, Alireza

    2014-01-01

    The distribution of particles in a room is of great interest because of the effect of particles on human health. Using computational fluid dynamics, it is possible to study the behaviour of particles in a room. In this study, the commercial software STAR-CCM+ was used to simulate the dispersion of...... k–ω model. It is shown that, in order to have an accurate result, the simulation of radiation effect is essential. Furthermore, the results of particle simulations show that when the passive particle source is in the height of 1.5 m and the heater is at the height of 0.5 m, the average concentration...... in the room is the lowest. Depending on the particle source height and heater location, the average particle concentration profile will change. In remote areas, the concentration profile does not show any significant difference between upper zone and lower zone....

  3. Complex nanominerals and ultrafine particles assemblages in phosphogypsum of the fertilizer industry and implications on human exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Luis F.O., E-mail: felipeqma@yahoo.com.br [Catarinense Institute of Environmental Research and Human Development-IPADHC, Capivari de Baixo, Santa Catarina (Brazil); Hower, James C. [University of Kentucky Center for Applied Energy Research, Lexington, KY, 40511 (United States); Izquierdo, Maria; Querol, Xavier [Institute of Environmental Assessment and Water Research (IDAEA-CSIC) C/Lluis Sole y Sabaris s/n, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2010-10-01

    Phosphogypsum (CaSO{sub 4}.2H{sub 2}O), a by-product of phosphate-rock processing, contains high amounts of impurities such P{sub 2}O{sub 5}, F, radioactive elements, organic substances, secondary nanominerals, and ultrafine particles (UFP) enriched in metals and metalloids. In this study, we examine phosphogypsum (PG) collected from abandoned fertilizer industry facility in south Brazil (Santa Catarina state). The fragile nature of nanominerals and UFP assemblages from fertilizer industry systems required novel techniques and experimental approaches. The investigation of the geochemistry of complex nanominerals and UFP assemblages was a prerequisite to accurately assess the environmental and human health risks of contaminants and cost-effective chemical and biogeological remediation strategies. Particular emphasis was placed on the study and characterization of the complex mixed nanominerals and UFP containing potentially toxic elements. Nanometer-sized phases in PG were characterized using energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS), field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HR-TEM) images. The chemical composition and possible correlations with morphology of nanominerals and UFP, as well as aspects of nanominerals and UFP, are discussed in the context of human health exposure, as well as in relation to management of the nanominerals and UFP in PG environments.

  4. Emission, distribution and health effects of ultrafine particles by road traffic; Emissies, verspreiding en gezondheidseffecten van ultrafijnstof door wegverkeer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keuken, M.; Wilmink, I.; Tromp, P.; De Kluizenaar, Y.

    2009-02-15

    Epidemiological studies show that living in the vicinity of busy traffic routes is detrimental to health. This study quantifies the issue of ultrafine particles (UFPs). The results can be used to support technological and mobility policies for reducing exposure to UFPs. The study was conducted in three work packages: (1) WP1: emissions, distribution and health effects of UFPs by road traffic and curbing options; (2) WP2: exposure and toxicology of UFPs near the source; (3) WP3: shaping, testing and dissemination of a thorough TNO vision on the UFP theme. [Dutch] Epidemiologisch onderzoek wijst uit dat wonen nabij drukke verkeerswegen schadelijk is voor de gezondheid. In deze studie wordt het probleem van ultrafijne (UF) deeltjes gekwantificeerd en op basis daarvan kan het technologie- en mobiliteitsbeleid voor vermindering van de blootstelling aan UF worden ondersteund. Het UF-onderzoek (UFO) is uitgevoerd in drie werkpakketten: (1) WP1: emissies, verspreiding en gezondheidseffecten van UF door het wegverkeer en de mogelijkheden die te beperken; (2) WP2: blootstelling en toxicologie van UF nabij de bron; (3) WP3: vormen, toetsen en uitdragen van een gedegen TNO visie op het thema UF.

  5. A comparison of strategies for estimation of ultrafine particle number concentrations in urban air pollution monitoring networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose three estimation strategies (local, remote and mixed) for ultrafine particles (UFP) at three sites in an urban air pollution monitoring network. Estimates are obtained through Gaussian process regression based on concentrations of gaseous pollutants (NOx, O3, CO) and UFP. As local strategy, we use local measurements of gaseous pollutants (local covariates) to estimate UFP at the same site. As remote strategy, we use measurements of gaseous pollutants and UFP from two independent sites (remote covariates) to estimate UFP at a third site. As mixed strategy, we use local and remote covariates to estimate UFP. The results suggest: UFP can be estimated with good accuracy based on NOx measurements at the same location; it is possible to estimate UFP at one location based on measurements of NOx or UFP at two remote locations; the addition of remote UFP to local NOx, O3 or CO measurements improves models' performance. - Highlights: • UFP number concentrations are estimated using Gaussian process regression. • The independent variables include local and/or remote gaseous measurements. • Three modelling strategies (local, remote and mixed) used for UFP estimations. • NOx was the most important independent variable. • The best models explained >90% of the variance. - UFP can be estimated with good accuracy at one location based on NOx measurements at the same location and based on measurements of NOx or UFP at two remote locations

  6. Contribution of various microenvironments to the daily personal exposure to ultrafine particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Olsen, Yulia;

    2015-01-01

    a backpack equipped with a portable monitor, continuously recording particle number concentrations (PN), in order to measure the real-time individual exposure over a period of similar to 48 h. A GPS logger was carried along with the particle monitor and allowed us to estimate the contribution of UFP exposure...

  7. Ultrafine particles and platelet activation in patients with coronary heart disease – results from a prospective panel study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wichmann H Erich

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiological studies on health effects of air pollution have consistently shown adverse cardiovascular effects. Toxicological studies have provided evidence for thrombogenic effects of particles. A prospective panel study in a susceptible population was conducted in Erfurt, Germany, to study the effects of daily changes in ambient particles on various blood cells and soluble CD40ligand (sCD40L, also known as CD154, a marker for platelet activation that can cause increased coagulation and inflammation. Blood cells and plasma sCD40L levels were repeatedly measured in 57 male patients with coronary heart disease (CHD during winter 2000/2001. Fixed effects linear regression models were applied, adjusting for trend, weekday and meteorological parameters. Hourly data on ultrafine particles (UFP, number concentration of particles from 0.01 to 0.1 μm, mass concentration of particles less than 10 and 2.5 μm in diameter (PM10, PM2.5, accumulation mode particle counts (AP, 0.1–1.0 μm, elemental and organic carbon, gaseous pollutants and meteorological data were collected at central monitoring sites. Results An immediate increase in plasma sCD40L was found in association with UFP and AP (% change from geometric mean: 7.1; CI: [0.1, 14.5] and 6.9; CI: [0.5, 13.8], respectively. Platelet counts decreased in association with UFP showing an immediate, a three days delayed (lag 3 and a 5-day average response (% change from the mean: -1.8; CI: [-3.4,-0.2]; -2.4; CI: [-4.5,-0.3] and -2.2; CI: [-4.0,-0.3] respectively. Conclusion The increased plasma sCD40L levels support the hypothesis that higher levels of ambient air pollution lead to an inflammatory response in patients with CHD thus providing a possible explanation for the observed association between air pollution and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in susceptible parts of the population.

  8. Indoor/outdoor relationships and mass closure of quasi-ultrafine, accumulation and coarse particles in Barcelona schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, M.; Rivas, I.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; Sunyer, J.; Álvarez-Pedrerol, M.; Bouso, L.; Sioutas, C.

    2014-05-01

    The mass concentration, chemical composition and sources of quasi-ultrafine (quasi-UFP, PM0.25), accumulation (PM0.25-2.5) and coarse mode (PM2.5-10) particles were determined in indoor and outdoor air at 39 schools in Barcelona (Spain). Quasi-UFP mass concentrations measured (25.6 μg m-3 outdoors, 23.4 μg m-3 indoors) are significantly higher than those reported in other studies, and characterised by higher carbonaceous and mineral matter contents and a lower proportion of secondary inorganic ions. Results suggest that quasi-UFPs in Barcelona are affected by local sources in the schools, mainly human activity (e.g. organic material from textiles, etc., contributing 23-46% to total quasi-UFP mass) and playgrounds (in the form of mineral matter, contributing about 9% to the quasi-UFP mass). The particle size distribution patterns of toxicologically relevant metals and major aerosol components was characterised, displaying two modes for most elements and components, and one mode for inorganic salts (ammonium nitrate and sulfate) and elemental carbon (EC). Regarding metals, Ni and Cr were partitioned mainly in quasi-UFPs and could thus be of interest for epidemiological studies, given their high redox properties. Exposure of children to quasi-UFP mass and chemical species was assessed by comparing the concentrations measured at urban background and traffic areas schools. Finally, three main indoor sources across all size fractions were identified by assessing indoor / outdoor ratios (I / O) of PM species used as their tracers: human activity (organic material), cleaning products, paints and plastics (Cl- source), and a metallic mixed source (comprising combinations of Cu, Zn, Co, Cd, Pb, As, V and Cr). Our results support the need to enforce targeted legislation to determine a minimum "safe" distance between major roads and newly built schools to reduce exposure to traffic-derived metals in quasi-UFPs.

  9. Size controllable synthesis of ultrafine spherical gold particles and their simulation of plasmonic and SERS behaviors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and reproducible way was explored to synthesize quasi-spherical gold particles with different size distributions in water by rapidly adding a mixture solution of HAuCl4, sodium citrate, and a trace amount of silver nitrate. By careful tuning of the reaction parameters, mono-disperse gold particles with the diameter of 5–220 nm can be obtained controllably. The particle size of 130 nm for the particles film showed the highest SERS activity with the 632.8 nm excitation. The theoretical calculations of the UV–vis extinction spectra can be directly compared with experiments by using the discrete-dipole approximation (DDA). Control of nanostructure shape allows optimization of plasmon resonance for molecular detection and spectroscopy.

  10. Ultrafine Particles in Residential Indoors and Doses Deposited in the Human Respiratory System

    OpenAIRE

    Maurizio Manigrasso; Ettore Guerriero; Pasquale Avino

    2015-01-01

    Indoor aerosol sources may significantly contribute to the daily dose of particles deposited into the human respiratory system. Therefore, it is important to characterize the aerosols deriving from the operations currently performed in an indoor environment and also to estimate the relevant particle respiratory doses. For this aim, aerosols from indoor combustive and non-combustive sources were characterized in terms of aerosol size distributions, and the relevant deposition doses were estima...

  11. Atmospheric particle formation in spatially and temporally varying conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Lauros, Johanna

    2011-01-01

    Atmospheric particles affect the radiation balance of the Earth and thus the climate. New particle formation from nucleation has been observed in diverse atmospheric conditions but the actual formation path is still unknown. The prevailing conditions can be exploited to evaluate proposed formation mechanisms. This study aims to improve our understanding of new particle formation from the view of atmospheric conditions. The role of atmospheric conditions on particle formation was studied ...

  12. Ultrafine particle sources and in-situ formation in a European megacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pikridas

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Ambient particle number size distributions were measured in Paris, France during summer (1–31 July 2009 and winter (15 January–15 February 2010 at three fixed ground sites and using two mobile laboratories and one airplane. The campaigns were part of the MEGAPOLI project. New particle formation (NPF was observed only during summer at approximately 50% of the campaign days, assisted by the low condensation sink (about 10.7 ± 5.9 × 10−3 s−1. NPF events inside the Paris plume were also observed at 600 m altitude onboard an aircraft simultaneously with regional events identified on the ground. Increased particle number concentrations were measured aloft also outside of the Paris plume at the same altitude, and were attributed to NPF. The Paris plume was identified, based on increased particle number and black carbon concentration, up to 200 km away from Paris center during summer. The number concentration of particles with diameter exceeding 2.5 nm measured on the surface at Paris center was on average 6.9 ± 8.7 × 104 and 12.1 ± 8.6 × 104 cm−3 during summer and winter, respectively, and was found to decrease exponentially with distance from Paris. However, further than 30 km from the city center, the particle number concentration at the surface was similar during both campaigns. During summer one suburban site in the NE was not significantly affected by Paris emissions due to higher background number concentrations, while the particle number concentration at the second suburban site in the SW increased by a factor of three when it was downwind of Paris.

  13. Capture Efficiency of Cooking-Related Fine and Ultrafine Particles by Residential Exhaust Hoods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunden, Melissa M.; Delp, William W.

    2014-06-05

    Effective exhaust hoods can mitigate the indoor air quality impacts of pollutant emissions from residential cooking. This study reports capture efficiencies (CE) measured for cooking generated particles for scripted cooking procedures in a 121-m3 chamber with kitchenette. CEs also were measured for burner produced CO2 during cooking and separately for pots and pans containing water. The study used four exhaust hoods previously tested by Delp and Singer (Environ. Sci. Technol., 2012, 46, 6167-6173). For pan-frying a hamburger over medium heat on the back burner, CEs for particles were similar to those for burner produced CO2 and mostly above 80percent. For stir-frying green beans in a wok (high heat, front burner), CEs for burner CO2 during cooking varied by hood and airflow: CEs were 34-38percent for low (51?68 L s-1) and 54?72percent for high (109?138 L s-1) settings. CEs for 0.3?2.0 ?m particles during front burner stir-frying were 3?11percent on low and 16?70percent on high settings. Results indicate that CEs measured for burner CO2 are not predictive of CEs of cooking-generated particles under all conditions, but they may be suitable to identify devices with CEs above 80percent both for burner combustion products and for cooking-related particles.

  14. An electrical sensor for long-term monitoring of ultrafine particles in workplaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pegasor Oy Ltd. (Finland) has developed a diffusion charging measurement device that enables continuous monitoring of fine particle concentration at a low initial and lifecycle cost. The innovation, for which an international process and apparatus patent has been applied for, opens doors for monitoring nanoparticle concentrations in workplaces. The Pegasor Particle Sensor (PPS) operates by electrostatically charging particles passing through the sensor and then measuring the current caused by the charged particles as they leave the sensor. The particles never touch the sensor and so never accumulate on its surfaces or need to be cleaned off. The sensor uses an ejector pump to draw a constant sample flow into the sensing area where it is mixed with the clean, charged pump flow air (provided by an external source). The sample flow containing charged particles passes through the sensor. The current generated by the charge leaving the detection volume is measured and related to the particle surface area. This system is extremely simple and reliable - no contact, no moving parts, and all critical parts of the sensor are constantly cleaned by a stream of fresh, filtered air. Due to the ejector pump, the sample flow, and respectively the sensor response is independent of the flow and pressure conditions around the sampling inlet. Tests with the Pegasor Particle Sensor have been conducted in a laboratory, and at a workplace producing nanoparticles for glass coatings. A new measurement protocol has been designed to ensure that process workers are not exposed to unusually high nanoparticle concentrations at any time during their working day. One sensor is placed inside the process line, and a light alarm system indicates the worker not to open any protective shielding or ventilation systems before concentration inside has reached background levels. The benefits of PPS in industrial hygiene are that the same monitoring technology can be used at the source as well as at the

  15. Lung cancer risk in relation to traffic-related nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs exposure: a preliminary probabilistic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Chung-Min; Chio, Chia-Pin; Chen, Wei-Yu; Ju, Yun-Ru; Li, Wen-Hsuan; Cheng, Yi-Hsien; Liao, Vivian Hsiu-Chuan; Chen, Szu-Chieh; Ling, Min-Pei

    2011-06-15

    Exposures to carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) have been linked to human lung cancer. The purpose of this study was to assess lung cancer risk caused by inhalation exposure to nano/ultrafine particle-bound PAHs at the population level in Taiwan appraised with recent published data. A human respiratory tract model was linked with a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to estimate deposition fraction and internal organic-specific PAHs doses. A probabilistic risk assessment framework was developed to estimate potential lung cancer risk. We reanalyzed particle size distribution, total-PAHs, particle-bound benzo(a)pyrene (B[a]P) and PM concentrations. A dose-response profile describing the relationships between external B[a]P concentration and lung cancer risk response was constructed based on population attributable fraction (PAF). We found that 90% probability lung cancer risks ranged from 10(-5) to 10(-4) for traffic-related nano and ultrafine particle-bound PAHs, indicating a potential lung cancer risk. The particle size-specific PAF-based excess annual lung cancer incidence rate due to PAHs exposure was estimated to be less than 1 per 100,000 population, indicating a mild risk factor for lung cancer. We concluded that probabilistic risk assessment linked PAF for limiting cumulative PAHs emissions to reduce lung cancer risk plays a prominent role in future government risk assessment program. PMID:21458918

  16. Effects of Particle Filters and Accelerated Engine Replacement on Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicle Emissions of Black Carbon, Nitrogen Oxides, and Ultrafine Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirchstetter, T.; Preble, C.; Dallmann, T. R.; DeMartini, S. J.; Tang, N. W.; Kreisberg, N. M.; Hering, S. V.; Harley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Diesel particle filters have become widely used in the United States since the introduction in 2007 of a more stringent exhaust particulate matter emission standard for new heavy-duty diesel vehicle engines. California has instituted additional regulations requiring retrofit or replacement of older in-use engines to accelerate emission reductions and air quality improvements. This presentation summarizes pollutant emission changes measured over several field campaigns at the Port of Oakland in the San Francisco Bay Area associated with diesel particulate filter use and accelerated modernization of the heavy-duty truck fleet. Pollutants in the exhaust plumes of hundreds of heavy-duty trucks en route to the Port were measured in 2009, 2010, 2011, and 2013. Ultrafine particle number, black carbon (BC), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) concentrations were measured at a frequency ≤ 1 Hz and normalized to measured carbon dioxide concentrations to quantify fuel-based emission factors (grams of pollutant emitted per kilogram of diesel consumed). The size distribution of particles in truck exhaust plumes was also measured at 1 Hz. In the two most recent campaigns, emissions were linked on a truck-by-truck basis to installed emission control equipment via the matching of transcribed license plates to a Port truck database. Accelerated replacement of older engines with newer engines and retrofit of trucks with diesel particle filters reduced fleet-average emissions of BC and NOx. Preliminary results from the two most recent field campaigns indicate that trucks without diesel particle filters emit 4 times more BC than filter-equipped trucks. Diesel particle filters increase emissions of NO2, however, and filter-equipped trucks have NO2/NOx ratios that are 4 to 7 times greater than trucks without filters. Preliminary findings related to particle size distribution indicate that (a) most trucks emitted particles characterized by a single mode of approximately

  17. PAH, BTEX, carbonyl compound, black-carbon, NO2 and ultrafine particle dynamometer bench emissions for Euro 4 and Euro 5 diesel and gasoline passenger cars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louis, Cédric; Liu, Yao; Tassel, Patrick; Perret, Pascal; Chaumond, Agnès; André, Michel

    2016-09-01

    Although implementing Diesel particulate filters (DPF) and other novel aftertreatment technologies makes it possible to achieve significant reductions in particle mass emissions, it may induce the release of ultrafine particles and emissions of many other unregulated compounds. This paper focuses on (i) ultrafine particles, black carbon, BTEX, PAH, carbonyl compounds, and NO2 emissions from Euro 4 and Euro 5 Diesel and gasoline passenger cars, (ii) the influence of driving conditions (e.g., cold start, urban, rural and motorway conditions), and (iii) the impact of additive and catalysed DPF devices on vehicle emissions. Chassis dynamometer tests were conducted on four Euro 5 vehicles and two Euro 4 vehicles: gasoline vehicles with and without direct injection system and Diesel vehicles equipped with additive and catalysed particulate filters. The results showed that compared to hot-start cycles, cold-start urban cycles increased all pollutant emissions by a factor of two. The sole exception was NO2, which was reduced by a factor of 1.3-6. Particulate and black carbon emissions from the gasoline engines were significantly higher than those from the Diesel engines equipped with DPF. Moreover, the catalysed DPF emitted about 3-10 times more carbonyl compounds and particles than additive DPF, respectively, during urban driving cycles, while the additive DPF vehicles emitted 2 and 5 times more BTEX and carbonyl compounds during motorway driving cycles. Regarding particle number distribution, the motorway driving cycle induced the emission of particles smaller in diameter (mode at 15 nm) than the urban cold-start cycle (mode at 80-100 nm). The results showed a clear positive correlation between particle, black carbon, and BTEX emissions, and a negative correlation between particles and NO2.

  18. Co-formation of hydroperoxides and ultra-fine particles during the reactions of ozone with a complex VOC mixture under simulated indoor conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fan, Z.H.; Weschler, Charles J.; Han, IK;

    2005-01-01

    ) under simulated indoor conditions. The VOC mixture contained 23 compounds, including two terpenes (d-limonene and alpha-pinene), two unsaturated alkenes (1-decene and 1-octene), and 19 other saturated organic compounds. These compounds are commonly found in indoor air but their concentrations were......In this study we examined the co-formation of hydrogen peroxide and other hydroperoxides (collectively presented as H2O2*) as well as submicron particles, including ultra-fine particles (UFP), resulting from the reactions of ozone (O-3) with a complex mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs...... to achieve saturated concentrations of the condensable organics. When the 2 terpenes were removed from the O-3/23 VOCs mixture, no H2O2* or particles were formed, indicating that the reactions of O-3 With the two terpenes were the key processes contributing to the formation of H2O2* and submicron...

  19. Characterizing and predicting ultrafine particle counts in Canadian classrooms during the winter months: Model development and evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    School classrooms are potentially important micro-environments for childhood exposures owing to the large amount of time children spend in these locations. While a number of airborne contaminants may be present in schools, to date few studies have examined ultrafine particle (0.02-1 μm) (UFP) levels in classrooms. In this study, our objective was to characterize UFP counts (cm-3) in classrooms during the winter months and to develop a model to predict such exposures based on ambient weather conditions and outdoor UFPs, as well as classroom characteristics such as size, temperature, relative humidity, and carbon dioxide levels. In total, UFP count data were collected on 60 occasions in 37 occupied classrooms at one elementary school and one secondary school in Pembroke, Ontario. On average, outdoor UFP levels exceeded indoor measures by 8989 cm-3 (95% confidence interval (CI): 6382, 11 596), and classroom UFP counts were similar at both schools with a combined average of 5017 cm-3 (95% CI: 4300, 5734). Of the variables examined only wind speed and outdoor UFPs were important determinants of classrooms UFP levels. Specifically, each 10 km/h increase in wind speed corresponded to an 1873 cm-3 (95% CI: 825, 2920) decrease in classroom UFP counts, and each 10 000 cm-3 increase in outdoor UFPs corresponded to a 1550 cm-3 (95% CI: 930, 2171) increase in classroom UFP levels. However, high correlations between these two predictors meant that the independent effects of wind speed and outdoor UFPs could not be separated in multivariable models, and only outdoor UFP counts were included in the final predictive model. To evaluate model performance, classroom UFP counts were collected for 8 days at two new schools and compared to predicted values based on outdoor UFP measures. A moderate correlation was observed between measured and predicted classroom UFP counts (r=0.63) for both schools combined, but this relationship was not valid on days in which a strong indoor UFP source

  20. Atmospheric ultrafine aerosol number concentration and its correlation with vehicular flow at two sites in the western Himalayan region: Kullu-Manali, India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nand L Sharma; Jagdish C Kuniyal; Mahavir Singh; Priyanka Sharma; Kesar Chand; Ajay Kumar Negi; Manum Sharma; Harinder Kumar Thakur

    2011-04-01

    The concentration of ultrafine aerosol particles of aitken and nucleation mode having size in the range of 1–20 nm was monitored with water-based Condensation Particle Counter. The monitoring was carried out from midnight-to-midnight in every alternate day on a fortnightly basis to represent summer, monsoon and winter (autumn) seasons of 2008 at Mohal (1154 m amsl) and Kothi (2530 m amsl) in Kullu-Manali area of the northwestern Himalayan region of India. The results indicate that diurnal pattern has faint bimodal structure with two peaks, one in morning and the other in evening at both the sites but it is not as distinct as found in plains. There is rather a constant particle density pattern of large magnitude consistent with vehicular movement from morning till evening. The monthly 24 h average particle density gradually picks up from January, increases rapidly in summer months and then decreases in monsoon season at Mohal but at Kothi it keeps on rising from April to October with a slight more increase in September. The particle density is more in summer than in monsoon season at Mohal, a trend opposite to plains. It may be due to the development of warm thermal layer on valley floor while a cold layer develops along snowy hilltops in winter leading to convection of fine particle up the slopes of valley during daytime. At Kothi, the trend is same as it is in continental plains but opposite to Mohal. The relatively more value of particle density in September and October at both the sites may be due to month long International Kullu Dussehra fair in the valley. The vehicular survey conducted agrees well with entire study period averaged diurnal variations and monthly 24 h averaged value of fine particle density. The average value of ultrafine particle density at each hour of a day for entire study period is 20369 ± 1230 Ncm−3 and 14389 ± 1464 Ncm−3 at Mohal and Kothi sites, respectively. The comparison with earlier results shows a significant increase

  1. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K; Knopf, Daniel A; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-12

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions. PMID:27306308

  2. Progress in the Analysis of Complex Atmospheric Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskin, Alexander; Gilles, Mary K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Wang, Bingbing; China, Swarup

    2016-06-01

    This article presents an overview of recent advances in field and laboratory studies of atmospheric particles formed in processes of environmental air-surface interactions. The overarching goal of these studies is to advance predictive understanding of atmospheric particle composition, particle chemistry during aging, and their environmental impacts. The diversity between chemical constituents and lateral heterogeneity within individual particles adds to the chemical complexity of particles and their surfaces. Once emitted, particles undergo transformation via atmospheric aging processes that further modify their complex composition. We highlight a range of modern analytical approaches that enable multimodal chemical characterization of particles with both molecular and lateral specificity. When combined, these approaches provide a comprehensive arsenal of tools for understanding the nature of particles at air-surface interactions and their reactivity and transformations with atmospheric aging. We discuss applications of these novel approaches in recent studies and highlight additional research areas to explore the environmental effects of air-surface interactions.

  3. Microwave absorption properties of dielectric La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4} ultrafine particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tho, P.T.; Xuan, C.T.A. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang-Quoc-Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); College of Sciences, Thai-nguyen University, Thai-nguyen (Viet Nam); Quang, D.M. [Department of Physics, Hanoi National University, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Bach, T.N.; Thanh, T.D.; Le, N.T.H.; Manh, D.H.; Phuc, N.X. [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang-Quoc-Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam); Nam, D.N.H., E-mail: daonhnam@yahoo.com [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang-Quoc-Viet, Hanoi (Viet Nam)

    2014-08-01

    Highlights: • Colossal permittivity La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4} ultrafine particles are prepared. • The particles have weak paramagnetic behavior at 300 K. • La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4} particles/wax composites exhibit strong microwave absorption. • Impedance matching is responsible for the absorption resonances. - Abstract: La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4} compounds are well known dielectric materials that have colossal permittivities (ε{sub R} > 10{sup 7}). In the present work, the powder of La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4} ultrafine particles was prepared by a combinatorial method of solid-state reaction and high-energy ball milling. Magnetic measurements, M(H), show a very small magnetization and paramagnetic characteristics at room temperature. Flat layers of La{sub 2−x}Sr{sub x}NiO{sub 4}/paraffin mixture of different thicknesses (t) exhibits strong microwave absorption resonances in the 4–18 GHz range. The reflection loss (RL) decreases with t and reaches down to −36.7 dB for t = 3.0 mm. The impedance matching (|Z| = Z{sub 0} = 377 Ω), rather than the phase matching mechanism, is found responsible for the resonance for 1.5 mm ≤ t ≤ 3.0 mm. Further increase in the thickness leads to |Z| > Z{sub 0} at all frequencies and a reduced absorption. The influence of non-metal backing is also discussed. The obtained low RL suggests that La{sub 1.5}Sr{sub 0.5}NiO{sub 4} particles could be a potential filler for high performance radar absorbing material.

  4. Electrochemical behavior of copper metal core/oxide shell ultra-fine particles on mercury electrodes in aqueous dispersions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korshunov, A.; Heyrovský, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 629, 1-2 (2009), s. 23-29. ISSN 0022-0728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/07/1195; GA AV ČR IAA400400806 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : ultrafine copper powders * surface oxide layers * aqueous dispersions * voltammetry * Hg electrodes Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.580, year: 2007

  5. Endocytosis, oxidative stress and IL-8 expression in human lung epithelial cells upon treatment with fine and ultrafine TiO2: Role of the specific surface area and of surface methylation of the particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inhaled ultrafine particles show considerably stronger pulmonary inflammatory effects when tested at equal mass dose with their fine counterparts. However, the responsible mechanisms are not yet fully understood. We investigated the role of particle size and surface chemistry in initiating pro-inflammatory effects in vitro in A549 human lung epithelial cells on treatment with different model TiO2 particles. Two samples of TiO2, i.e. fine (40-300 nm) and ultrafine (20-80 nm) were tested in their native forms as well as upon surface methylation, as was confirmed by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. Radical generation during cell treatment was determined by electron paramagnetic resonance with 5,5-dimethyl-1-pyrroline-N-oxide or 4-hydroxy-2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl. Interleukin-8 mRNA expression/release was determined by RT-PCR and ELISA, whereas particle uptake was evaluated by transmission electron microscopy. TiO2 particles were rapidly taken up by the cells, generally as membrane bound aggregates and large intracellular aggregates in vesicles, vacuoles and lamellar bodies. Aggregate size tended to be smaller for the ultrafine samples and was also smaller for methylated fine TiO2 when compared to non-methylated fine TiO2. No particles were observed inside nuclei or any other vital organelle. Both ultrafine TiO2 samples but not their fine counterparts elicited significantly stronger oxidant generation and IL-8 release, despite their aggregation state and irrespective of their methylation. The present data indicate that ultrafine TiO2, even as aggregates/agglomerates, can trigger inflammatory responses that appear to be driven by their large surface area. Furthermore, our results indicate that these effects result from oxidants generated during particle-cell interactions through a yet to be elucidated mechanism(s)

  6. Consequences of Developmental Exposure to Concentrated Ambient Ultrafine Particle Air Pollution Combined with the Adult Paraquat and Maneb Model of the Parkinson’s Disease Phenotype in Male Mice

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Joshua L.; Liu, Xiufang; Weston, Douglas; Conrad, Katherine; Oberdörster, Günter; Cory-Slechta, Deborah A.

    2014-01-01

    Current evidence suggests suceptibility of both the substantia nigra and striatum to exposure to components of air pollution. Further, air pollution has been associated with increased risk of PD diagnsosis in humans or PD-like pathology in animals. This study examined whether exposure of mice to concentrated ambient ultrafine particles (CAPS;

  7. Parameterization of ionization induced in the atmosphere by precipitating particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artamonov, Anton; Usoskin, Ilya; Kovaltsov, Gennady

    We present a physical model to calculate ionization induced in the atmosphere by precipitating particles. This model is based on the Bethe-Bloch equation applied for precipitating particles such as: electrons, alpha-particles and protons. The energy range of precipitating particles is up to 5MeV and 80MeV/nuc respectively. This model provides an easy implementation with a robust realization of model calculations for a wide range of incident energies of precipitating particles. This method is limited to the upper-middle atmosphere. An ionization yield function [see, Usoskin and Kovaltsov, 2006; Usoskin, Kovaltsov, Mironova, 2010] can be also used in this model, making it possible to calculate the atmospheric ionization effect of precipitating particles for the entire atmosphere, dawn to the ground.

  8. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohiuddin, Kazi, E-mail: kazi.mohiuddin@students.mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Strezov, Vladimir; Nelson, Peter F. [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia); Stelcer, Eduard [Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, Lucas Heights, NSW (Australia); Evans, Tim [Graduate School of the Environment, Department of Environment and Geography, Faculty of Science, Macquarie University, NSW (Australia)

    2014-07-01

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  9. Mass and elemental distributions of atmospheric particles nearby blast furnace and electric arc furnace operated industrial areas in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The improved understanding of mass and elemental distributions of industrial air particles is important due to their heterogeneous atmospheric behaviour and impact on human health and the environment. In this study, particles of different size ranges were collected from three sites in Australia located in the vicinity of iron and steelmaking industries and one urban background site with very little industrial influence. In order to determine the importance of the type of industrial activity on the urban atmospheric quality, the industrial sites selected in this study were in the close proximity to two blast furnace operated and one electric arc furnace based steelmaking sites. The chemical compositions of the collected air particles were analysed using the proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) technique. This study revealed significantly higher metal concentrations in the atmospheric particles collected in the industrial sites, comparing to the background urban site, demonstrating local influence of the industrial activities to the air quality. The modality types of the particles were found to be variable between the mass and elements, and among elements in the urban and industrial areas indicating that the elemental modal distribution is as important as particle mass for particle pollution modelling. The highest elemental number distribution at all studied sites occurred with particle size of 0.1 μm. Iron was found as the main dominant metal at the industrial atmosphere in each particle size range. The industrial Fe fraction in the submicron and ultrafine size particles was estimated at up to 95% which may be released from high temperature industrial activities with the iron and steelmaking industries being one of the major contributors. Hence, these industrial elemental loadings can highly influence the atmospheric pollution at local urban and regional levels and are required to consider in the atmospheric modelling settings. - Highlights: • Urban and

  10. An improved criterion for new particle formation in diverse atmospheric environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Kuang

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A dimensionless theory for new particle formation (NPF was developed, using an aerosol population balance model incorporating recent developments in nucleation rates and measured particle growth rates. Based on this theoretical analysis, it was shown that a dimensionless parameter LΓ, characterizing the ratio of the particle scavenging loss rate to the particle growth rate, exclusively determined whether or not NPF would occur on a particular day. This parameter determines the probability that a nucleated particle will grow to a detectable size before being lost by coagulation with the pre-existing aerosol. Cluster-cluster coagulation was shown to contribute negligibly to this survival probability under conditions pertinent to the atmosphere. Data acquired during intensive measurement campaigns in Tecamac (MILAGRO, Atlanta (ANARChE, Boulder, and Hyytiälä (QUEST II, QUEST IV, and EUCAARI were used to test the validity of LΓ as an NPF criterion. Measurements included aerosol size distributions down to 3 nm and gas-phase sulfuric acid concentrations. The model was applied to seventy-seven NPF events and nineteen non-events (characterized by growth of pre-existing aerosol without NPF measured in diverse environments with broad ranges in sulfuric acid concentrations, ultrafine number concentrations, aerosol surface areas, and particle growth rates (nearly two orders of magnitude. Across this diverse data set, a nominal value of LΓ=0.7 was found to determine the boundary for the occurrence of NPF, with NPF occurring when LΓ<0.7 and being suppressed when LΓ>0.7. Moreover, nearly 45% of measured LΓ values associated with NPF fell in the relatively narrow range of 0.1<LΓ<0.3.

  11. One-step thermolysis synthesis of two-dimensional ultrafine Fe3O4 particles/carbon nanonetworks for high-performance lithium-ion batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wanqun; Li, Xiaona; Liang, Jianwen; Tang, Kaibin; Zhu, Yongchun; Qian, Yitai

    2016-02-01

    To tackle the issue of inferior cycle stability and rate capability for Fe3O4 anode materials in lithium ion batteries, ultrafine Fe3O4 nanocrystals uniformly encapsulated in two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanonetworks have been fabricated through thermolysis of a simple, low-cost iron(iii) acetylacetonate without any extra processes. Moreover, compared to the reported Fe3O4/carbon composites, the particle size of Fe3O4 is controllable and held down to ~3 nm. Benefitting from the synergistic effects of the excellent electroconductive carbon nanonetworks and uniform distribution of ultrafine Fe3O4 particles, the prepared 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetwork anode exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior cyclability. A high capacity of 1534 mA h g-1 is achieved at a 1 C rate and is maintained without decay up to 500 cycles (1 C = 1 A g-1). Even at the high current density of 5 C and 10 C, the 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetworks maintain a reversible capacity of 845 and 647 mA h g-1 after 500 discharge/charge cycles, respectively. In comparison with other reported Fe3O4-based anodes, the 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetwork electrode is one of the most attractive of those in energy storage applications.To tackle the issue of inferior cycle stability and rate capability for Fe3O4 anode materials in lithium ion batteries, ultrafine Fe3O4 nanocrystals uniformly encapsulated in two-dimensional (2D) carbon nanonetworks have been fabricated through thermolysis of a simple, low-cost iron(iii) acetylacetonate without any extra processes. Moreover, compared to the reported Fe3O4/carbon composites, the particle size of Fe3O4 is controllable and held down to ~3 nm. Benefitting from the synergistic effects of the excellent electroconductive carbon nanonetworks and uniform distribution of ultrafine Fe3O4 particles, the prepared 2D Fe3O4/carbon nanonetwork anode exhibits high reversible capacity, excellent rate capability and superior cyclability. A high capacity of 1534 mA h

  12. 微乳液法制备超细Ni-Fe复合物微粒%Preparation of Ultrafine Ni-Fe Composite Particles by Microemulsion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张朝平; 邓伟; 胡林; 罗玉萍; 胡宗超; 高翔; 申德君

    2001-01-01

    应用W/O型微乳液法制备了纳米量级超细铁-镍复合物微粒。X射线和透射、扫描电镜测试表明:它属于表面活性剂包裹型超细微粒。粒径<30nm,密度2.89g/cm3的Ni-Fe微粒,比饱和磁化强度σs=13~16Am2/kg,娇顽力Hc=87~123 Oe,剩磁Br=2.25~3.00Am2/kg,矫顽力较大,剩磁也较大,说明该超细复合微粒具有硬磁体的性质。X射线能谱分析表明,有部分Ni-Fe合金相形成。%Nanoparticles of Ni-Fe composite were prepared with the W/O microemulsion method. The investigations by XRD, IR and TEM show the ultrafine particles are coated by surfactants. Their average sizes are less than 30nm and their densities about 2.89g/cm3, the specific saturation magnetization σs=13~16Am2/kg, the coercivity Hc=87~123Oe and the residual magnetism Br=2.25~3.00Ama/kg. The coercivity and residual magnetism are much higher, it is shown that the complex supermicropowders have hard magnetic properties. The analysis by X-ray energy spectroscopy shows that part of Ni-Fe has formed alloy phases. Magneticrheological (MR) effect of the MR fluid prepared from the ultrafine particles is superior and the subsidence stability of the MRF is excellent.

  13. 惰性粒子喷动床中制备超细碳酸钙的实验与建模%Experiments and Modeling of the Preparation of Ultrafine Calcium Carbonate in Spouted Beds with Inert Particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林诚; 朱涛; 朱跃姿; 张济宇

    2003-01-01

    A novel reaction-drying process was carried out in a spouted bed reactor with inert particles and used to prepare ultrafine CaCO3 particles. Effects of concentrations of CO2 and Ca(OH)2, and reaction temperature on Ca(OH)2 conversion were experimentally investigated. The particle sizes and composition of CaCO3 produced were characterized with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The results indicated that ultrafine CaCO3 particles with mean size of 80 nm could be obtained with this novel process.By modifying the Arrhenius Equation and considering the Ca(OH)2 state, a kinetic model was established to describe the process in the spouted bed. The model parameters estimated from the reaction-drying experiments were found to fit well the experimental data, indicating the applicability of the proposed kinetic model.

  14. Removal of Atmospheric Particles in Poor Visibility Outdoor Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaseen Al-Zubaidy

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The visibility of a scene is degraded by weather phenomena such as rain drizzle, fog and haze. The degradation of image scene is due the substantial presence of particles in the atmosphere that scatter and absorb light. As the light spreads from object to the observer, the color and intensity is changed by the atmospheric particles. In this research, we suggest new methods to precisely detect airlight and correctly estimate the atmospheric veil from image that captured in bad weather. The result of suggested methods will be used in scattering atmospheric model to remove atmospheric particles namely, rain drizzle, fog and haze from a single image. Therefore a higher visibility image will be produced.

  15. Spatial and seasonal variations of the chemical, mineralogical and morphological features of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.49) at urban sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samara, Constantini; Kantiranis, Nikolaos; Kollias, Panagiotis; Planou, Styliani; Kouras, Athanasios; Besis, Athanasios; Manoli, Evangelia; Voutsa, Dimitra

    2016-05-15

    Combining chemical and physical-structural information of particles is a key issue in PM investigations. Chemical, mineralogical, and morphological characterization of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.49) was carried out at two urban sites of varying traffic-influence (roadside and urban background) in Thessaloniki, northern Greece, during the cold and the warm period of 2013. Bulk analyses of chemical species included organic and elemental carbon (OC, EC), water soluble organic carbon (WSOC), ionic species (NO3(-), SO4(2-), Cl(-), Na(+), NH4(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)) and trace elements (As, Ba, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Mn, Ni, Zn, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ru, and Ir). X-ray diffractometry (XRD) was employed for the mineralogical analysis of PM0.49 in order to identify and quantify amorphous and crystalline phases. In addition, scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS) was employed for morphological characterization and elemental microanalysis of individual particles. Findings of this work could provide the basis for designing epidemiological and toxicity studies to mitigate population exposure to UFPs. PMID:26930313

  16. Preparation of Ultra-fine Aluminum Nitride in Thermal Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    漆继红; 罗义文; 印永祥; 代晓雁

    2002-01-01

    Ultra-fine aluminum nitride has been synthesized by the evaporation of aluminum powder at atmospheric-pressure nitrogen plasma in a hot-wall reactor. The average size of aluminum nitride particle is 0.11μm measured by scanning electric mirror (SEM), and the purity is at least over 90% evaluated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD). The conversion of Al powder to aluminum nitride is strongly depended on the injection of NH3. Typical experimental parameters such as the feed rate of raw material, the flow rate of ammonia and the position of injecting aluminum powder into the reactor are given.

  17. The radiation in the atmosphere during major solar particle events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clucas, Simon N.; Dyer, Clive S.; Lei, Fan

    Major solar particle events can give rise to greatly enhanced radiation throughout the entire atmosphere including at aircraft altitudes. These particle events are very hard to predict and their effect on aircraft is difficult to calculate. A comprehensive model of the energetic radiation in the atmosphere has been developed based on a response matrix of the atmosphere to energetic particle incidence. This model has previously been used to determine the spectral form of several ground level neutron events including February 1956 and September/October 1989. Significant validation of the model has been possible using CREAM data flying onboard Concorde during the September/October 1989 events. Further work has been carried out for the current solar maximum, including estimates of the solar particle spectra during the July 2000, April 2001, and October 2003 events and comparisons of predicted atmospheric measurements with limited flight data. Further CREAM data have been obtained onboard commercial airlines and high altitude business jets during quiet time periods. In addition, the atmospheric radiation model, along with solar particle spectra, have been used to calculate the neutron flux and dose rates along several commercial aircraft flight paths including London to Los Angeles. The influence of rigidity cut-off suppression by geomagnetic storms is examined and shows that the received flight dose during disturbed periods can be significantly enhanced compared with quiet periods.

  18. SPLAT II: An Ultra-Sensitive, High Precision Instrument for the In-Situ Characterization of the Size, Composition, Density, Shape, Hygroscopicity, and Fractal Dimension of Fine and Ultrafine Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelenyuk, A.; Yang, J.; Imre, D.

    2007-12-01

    Single particle mass spectrometers (SPMS) have been developed and deployed to characterize, in real-time the size and chemical compositions of individual ambient particles. SPMS have undeniably proven to be extremely valuable, improving our understanding of the properties and evolution of atmospheric aerosols. At the same time these instruments have also persistently been subject to criticism on a number of fronts. Recently we have completed the construction of our second generation single particle mass spectrometer - SPLAT II, in which we have made significant improvements that directly address the shortcomings that are often associated with SPMS. We will present the results of instrument characterization experiments demonstrating that considerable improvements in instrument performance have been accomplished. SPLAT II offers significantly improved detection sensitivity of small particles, such that 30% of all 100 nm particles that enter the instrument are detected and characterized. This represents an improvement of nearly 2 orders of magnitude over the previous instrument. The efficiency of detection of particles larger than 150 nm is 100%. SPLAT II can measure and record the vacuum aerodynamic diameters of up to 300 particles per second and record 100 individual particle mass spectra per second - an increase of a factor of 10 in temporal resolution over the previous instrument. SPLAT II uses an IR laser to evaporate the semivolatile fraction of the particle and a time delayed UV laser to generate ions. The IR and UV lasers are configured to assure that the individual particle mass spectra represent the complete composition of each particle. The semivolatile fraction is ionized in the gas phase, while the nonvolatile fraction is concurrently ablated. This approach yields extremely reproducible, high quality mass spectral signatures while providing complete particle characterization. The two step - IR/UV - approach is particularly suitable for the

  19. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, hookah) waterpipes. These smoke constituents are associated with a variety of cancers, and heart and pulmonary diseases, and span the volatility range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  20. Comparison of carcinogen, carbon monoxide, and ultrafine particle emissions from narghile waterpipe and cigarette smoking: Sidestream smoke measurements and assessment of second-hand smoke emission factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daher, Nancy; Saleh, Rawad; Jaroudi, Ezzat; Sheheitli, Hiba; Badr, Thérèse; Sepetdjian, Elizabeth; Al Rashidi, Mariam; Saliba, Najat; Shihadeh, Alan

    2010-01-01

    The lack of scientific evidence on the constituents, properties, and health effects of second-hand waterpipe smoke has fueled controversy over whether public smoking bans should include the waterpipe. The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare emissions of ultrafine particles (UFP, range found in tobacco smoke. Sidestream cigarette and waterpipe smoke was captured and aged in a 1 m 3 Teflon-coated chamber operating at 1.5 air changes per hour (ACH). The chamber was characterized for particle mass and number surface deposition rates. UFP and CO concentrations were measured online using a fast particle spectrometer (TSI 3090 Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer), and an indoor air quality monitor. Particulate PAH and gaseous volatile aldehydes were captured on glass fiber filters and DNPH-coated SPE cartridges, respectively, and analyzed off-line using GC-MS and HPLC-MS. PAH compounds quantified were the 5- and 6-ring compounds of the EPA priority list. Measured aldehydes consisted of formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, acrolein, methacrolein, and propionaldehyde. We found that a single waterpipe use session emits in the sidestream smoke approximately four times the carcinogenic PAH, four times the volatile aldehydes, and 30 times the CO of a single cigarette. Accounting for exhaled mainstream smoke, and given a habitual smoker smoking rate of 2 cigarettes per hour, during a typical one-hour waterpipe use session a waterpipe smoker likely generates ambient carcinogens and toxicants equivalent to 2-10 cigarette smokers, depending on the compound in question. There is therefore good reason to include waterpipe tobacco smoking in public smoking bans.

  1. Estimate Total Number of the Earth Atmospheric Particle with Standard Atmosphere Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Chong-Yi

    2001-01-01

    The total number of atmospheric particle (AP) is an important datum for planetary science and geoscience.Estimating entire AP number is also a familiar question in general physics.With standard atmosphere model,considering the number difference of AP caused by rough and uneven in the earth surface below,the sum of dry clean atmosphere particle is 1.06962 × 1044.So the whole number of AP including water vapor is 1.0740 × 1044.The rough estimation for the total number of AP on other planets (or satellites) in condensed state is also discussed on the base of it.

  2. Dispersion of aerosol particles in the atmosphere: Fukushima

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haszpra, Tímea; Lagzi, István; Tél, Tamás

    2013-04-01

    Investigation of dispersion and deposition of aerosol particles in the atmosphere is an essential issue, because they have an effect on the biosphere and atmosphere. Moreover, aerosol particles have different transport properties and chemical and physical transformations in the atmosphere compared to gas phase air pollutants. The motion of a particle is described by a set of ordinary differential equations. The large-scale dynamics in the horizontal direction can be described by the equations of passive scalar advection, but in the vertical direction a well-defined terminal velocity should be taken into account as a term added to the vertical wind component. In the planetary boundary layer turbulent diffusion has an important role in the particle dispersion, which is taken into account by adding stochastic terms to the deterministic equations above. Wet deposition is also an essential process in the lower levels of the atmosphere, however, its precise parameterization is a challenge. For the simulations the wind field and other necessary data were taken from the ECMWF ERA-Interim database. In the case of the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear disaster (March-April 2011) radioactive aerosol particles were also released in the planetary boundary layer. Simulations (included the continuous and varying emission from the nuclear power plant) will be presented for the period of 14-23 March. Results show that wet deposition also has to be taken into consideration in the lower levels of the atmosphere. Furthermore, dynamical system characteristics are evaluated for the aerosol particle dynamics. The escape rate of particles was estimated both with and without turbulent diffusion, and in both cases when there was no wet deposition and also when wet deposition was taken into consideration.

  3. Ultrafine particles derived from mineral processing: A case study of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore with emphasis on lead-bearing colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhlin, Yuri; Vorobyev, Sergey; Romanchenko, Alexander; Karasev, Sergey; Karacharov, Anton; Zharkov, Sergey

    2016-03-01

    Although mining and mineral processing industry is a vast source of heavy metal pollutants, the formation and behavior of micrometer- and nanometer-sized particles and their aqueous colloids entered the environment from the technological media has received insufficient attention to date. Here, the yield and characteristics of ultrafine mineral entities produced by routine grinding of the Pb-Zn sulfide ore (Gorevskoe ore deposit, Russia) were studied using laser diffraction analysis (LDA), dynamic light scattering (DLS) and zeta potential measurement, microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, with most attention given to toxic lead species. It was revealed, in particular, that the fraction of particles less that 1 μm in the ground ore typical reaches 0.4 vol. %. The aquatic particles in supernatants were micrometer size aggregates with increased content of zinc, sulfur, calcium as compared with the bulk ore concentrations. The hydrodynamic diameter of the colloidal species decreased with time, with their zeta potentials remaining about -12 mV. The colloids produced from galena were composed of 20-50 nm PbS nanoparticles associated with lead sulfate and thiosulfate, while the surface oxidation products at precipitated galena were largely lead oxyhydroxides. The size and zeta potential of the lead-bearing colloids decreased with time down to about 100 nm and from -15 mV to -30 mV, respectively. And, conversely, lead sulfide nanoparticles were mobilized before the aggregates during redispersion of the precipitates in fresh portions of water. The potential environmental impact of the metal-bearing colloids, which is due to the large-scale production and relative stability, is discussed. PMID:26761598

  4. Seasonal Variations of Number Size Distributions and Mass Concentrations of Atmospheric Particles in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Jianhua; Benjamin GUINOT; YU Tong; WANG Xin; LIU Wenqing

    2005-01-01

    Particle number and mass concentrations were measured in Beijing during the winter and summer periods in 2003, together with some other parameters including black carbon (BC) and meteorological conditions. Particle mass concentrations exhibited low seasonality, and the ratio of PM2.5/PM10 in winter was higher than that in summer. Particle number size distribution (PSD) was characterized by four modes and exhibited low seasonality. BC was well correlated with the number and mass concentrations of accumulation and coarse particles, indicating these size particles are related to anthropogenic activities.Particle mass and number concentrations (except ultra-fine and nucleation particles) followed well the trends of BC concentration for the majority of the day, indicating that most particles were associated with primary emissions. The diurnal number distributions of accumulation and coarse mode particles were characterized by two peaks.

  5. A land use regression model for ambient ultrafine particles in Montreal, Canada: A comparison of linear regression and a machine learning approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weichenthal, Scott; Ryswyk, Keith Van; Goldstein, Alon; Bagg, Scott; Shekkarizfard, Maryam; Hatzopoulou, Marianne

    2016-04-01

    Existing evidence suggests that ambient ultrafine particles (UFPs) (mobile monitoring data collected from 414 road segments during the summer and winter months between 2011 and 2012. Two different approaches were examined for model development including standard multivariable linear regression and a machine learning approach (kernel-based regularized least squares (KRLS)) that learns the functional form of covariate impacts on ambient UFP concentrations from the data. The final models included parameters for population density, ambient temperature and wind speed, land use parameters (park space and open space), length of local roads and rail, and estimated annual average NOx emissions from traffic. The final multivariable linear regression model explained 62% of the spatial variation in ambient UFP concentrations whereas the KRLS model explained 79% of the variance. The KRLS model performed slightly better than the linear regression model when evaluated using an external dataset (R(2)=0.58 vs. 0.55) or a cross-validation procedure (R(2)=0.67 vs. 0.60). In general, our findings suggest that the KRLS approach may offer modest improvements in predictive performance compared to standard multivariable linear regression models used to estimate spatial variations in ambient UFPs. However, differences in predictive performance were not statistically significant when evaluated using the cross-validation procedure. PMID:26720396

  6. Application of a high-efficiency cabin air filter for simultaneous mitigation of ultrafine particle and carbon dioxide exposures inside passenger vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eon S; Zhu, Yifang

    2014-02-18

    Modern passenger vehicles are commonly equipped with cabin air filters but their filtration efficiency for ultrafine particle (UFP) is rather low. Although setting the vehicle ventilation system to recirculation (RC) mode can reduce in-cabin UFPs by ∼ 90%, passenger-exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) can quickly accumulate inside the cabin. Using outdoor air (OA) mode instead can provide sufficient air exchange to prevent CO2 buildup, but in-cabin UFP concentrations would increase. To overcome this dilemma, we developed a simultaneous mitigation method for UFP and CO2 using high-efficiency cabin air (HECA) filtration in OA mode. Concentrations of UFP and other air pollutants were simultaneously monitored in and out of 12 different vehicles under 3 driving conditions: stationary, on local roadways, and on freeways. Under each experimental condition, data were collected with no filter, in-use original equipment manufacturer (OEM) filter, and two types of HECA filters. The HECA filters offered an average in-cabin UFP reduction of 93%, much higher than the OEM filters (∼ 50% on average). Throughout the measurements, the in-cabin CO2 concentration remained in the range of 620-930 ppm, significantly lower than the typical level of 2500-4000 ppm observed in the RC mode. PMID:24471775

  7. Aggregation/dispersion of ultrafine silica in flotagent solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The aggregation/dispersion of ultrafine particles is of interest for both fundamental and practical perspective. These behaviors of ultrafine silica in flotagent solution and the heter-coagulation of silica and alumina were examined using particle size analyzer, electrokinetic potential, contact angle measurements. The flotation reagents have a pronounced effect on the aggregation or dispersion behaviors of ultrafine silica suspensions. Collector dodecylamine chloride renders silica surfaces hydrophobic and the aggregation between silica particles takes place. Modifier tripolyphosphate makes the silica surface completely hydrophilic and enhances the stability of silica suspension. These experimental results can be explained based on the extended DLVO theory by considering polar interfacial interaction between particle surfaces.

  8. Investigations of percutaneous uptake of ultrafine TiO2 particles at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Micronised TiO2 particles with a diameter of about 15 nm are used in sunscreens as physical UV filter. Due to the small particle size it may be supposed that TiO2 particles can pass through the uppermost horny skin layer (stratum corneum) via intercellular channels and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. Accumulations of TiO2 particles in the skin can decrease the threshold for allergies of the immune system or cause allergic reactions directly. Spatially resolved ion beam analysis (PIXE, RBS, STIM and secondary electron imaging) was carried out on freeze-dried cross-sections of biopsies of pig skin, on which four different formulations containing TiO2 particles were applied. The investigations were carried out at the high energy ion nanoprobe LIPSION in Leipzig with a 2.25 MeV proton beam, which was focused to a diameter of 1 μm. The analysis concentrated on the penetration depth and on pathways of the TiO2 particles into the skin. In these measurements a penetration of TiO2 particles through the s. corneum into the underlying stratum granulosum via intercellular space was found. Hair follicles do not seem to be important penetration pathways because no TiO2 was detected inside. The TiO2 particle concentration in the stratum spinosum was below the minimum detection limit of about 1 particle/μm2. These findings show the importance of coating the TiO2 particles in order to prevent damage of RNA and DNA of skin cells by photocatalytic reactions of the penetrated particles caused by absorption of UV light

  9. Impact of primary and secondary organic sources on the oxidative potential of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.25) at three contrasting locations in the Los Angeles Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, Arian; Hasheminassab, Sina; Wang, Dongbin; Shafer, Martin M.; Schauer, James J.; Sioutas, Constantinos

    2015-11-01

    To investigate the changing contribution of primary and secondary sources on the oxidative potential of particulate matter (PM) in a real-world urban atmosphere, 7 sets of quasi-ultrafine particles (PM0.25) were collected at three contrasting locations in the Los Angeles Basin, California, USA. Samples were collected in the coastal area of Long Beach during the morning rush hour period, representing fresh primary emissions from nearby freeways and the LA port; in central Los Angeles during midday, representing a mixture of fresh primary emissions and early products of photochemical secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation; and at a downwind site (Upland) during afternoon, when the impacts of photochemically aged secondary PM are significant. Chemical composition showed distinctive trends, with the lowest fraction of water soluble organic carbon (WSOC) and other organic tracers of SOA formation (e.g. organic acids) at Long Beach, and the lowest abundance of organic tracers of primary vehicular emissions (such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and hopanes) at Upland. A molecular marker-based chemical mass balance (MM-CMB) model indicated that 72% of the total organic carbon at Long Beach was comprised of primary vehicular sources (combined heavy duty and light duty vehicles), while the vehicular fraction was found to be 50% and 39% at Los Angeles and Upland, respectively. Regression analysis suggested that at Long Beach, the variation in oxidative potential of PM0.25 (quantified using a macrophage-based reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay) was mainly driven by mobile vehicular emissions and the water-insoluble fraction of the organic carbon. In contrast, at Upland, where photochemical processing and secondary aerosol formation was the highest, WSOC and secondary organics were the major drivers of the oxidative potential variation. The multivariate regression analysis also indicated that as much as 58% of the overall spatial and temporal variation in the oxidative

  10. Observation of nitrate coatings on atmospheric mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Li

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate compounds have recently received much attention because of their ability to alter the hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere. However, very little is known about specific characteristics of nitrate-coated mineral particles in an individual particle scale in field study. The sample collection was conducted during brown haze and dust episodes occurred between 24 May and 21 June 2007 in Beijing, northern China. The sizes, morphologies, and compositions of mineral dust particles together with their coatings were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM. 92% of the internally mixed mineral particles analyzed are covered with Ca-, Mg-, and Na-rich coatings, and 8% are associated with K- and S-rich coatings. The major coatings contain Ca, Mg, O, and N with minor amounts of S and Cl, suggesting that they are possibly nitrates mixed with less sulfates and chlorides. These nitrate coatings strongly relate with the presence of alkaline mineral components (e.g., calcite and dolomite within individual mineral particles. Calcium sulfate particles with the diameter from 10 to 500 nm were also detected within Ca(NO32 and Mg(NO32 coatings. Our results indicate that mineral particles in brown haze episodes were involved in atmospheric heterogeneous reactions with two or more acidic gases (e.g., SO2, NO2, HCl, and HNO3. Mineral particles that acquire hygroscopic coatings tend to be more spherical and larger. Such changes enhance their light scattering and CCN activity, both of which have cooling effects on the climate.

  11. Solar energetic particle interactions with the Venusian atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plainaki, Christina; Paschalis, Pavlos; Grassi, Davide; Mavromichalaki, Helen; Andriopoulou, Maria

    2016-07-01

    In the context of planetary space weather, we estimate the ion production rates in the Venusian atmosphere due to the interactions of solar energetic particles (SEPs) with gas. The assumed concept for our estimations is based on two cases of SEP events, previously observed in near-Earth space: the event in October 1989 and the event in May 2012. For both cases, we assume that the directional properties of the flux and the interplanetary magnetic field configuration would have allowed the SEPs' arrival at Venus and their penetration to the planet's atmosphere. For the event in May 2012, we consider the solar particle properties (integrated flux and rigidity spectrum) obtained by the Neutron Monitor Based Anisotropic GLE Pure Power Law (NMBANGLE PPOLA) model (Plainaki et al., 2010, 2014) applied previously for the Earth case and scaled to the distance of Venus from the Sun. For the simulation of the actual cascade in the Venusian atmosphere initiated by the incoming particle fluxes, we apply the DYASTIMA code, a Monte Carlo (MC) application based on the Geant4 software (Paschalis et al., 2014). Our predictions are afterwards compared to other estimations derived from previous studies and discussed. Finally, we discuss the differences between the nominal ionization profile due to galactic cosmic-ray-atmosphere interactions and the profile during periods of intense solar activity, and we show the importance of understanding space weather conditions on Venus in the context of future mission preparation and data interpretation.

  12. Mixing state of atmospheric particles over the North China Plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, S. L.; Ma, N.; Kecorius, S.; Wang, P. C.; Hu, M.; Wang, Z. B.; Größ, J.; Wu, Z. J.; Wiedensohler, A.

    2016-01-01

    In this unique processing study, the mixing state of ambient submicron aerosol particles in terms of hygroscopicity and volatility was investigated with a Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer and a Volatility Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer. The measurements were conducted at a regional atmospheric observational site in the North China Plain (NCP) from 8 July to 9 August, 2013. Multimodal patterns were observed in the probability density functions of the hygroscopicity parameter κ and the shrink factor, indicating that ambient particles are mostly an external mixture of particles with different hygroscopicity and volatility. Linear relationships were found between the number fraction of hydrophobic and non-volatile populations, reflecting the dominance of soot in hydrophobic and non-volatile particles. The number fraction of non-volatile particles is lower than that of hydrophobic particles in most cases, indicating that a certain fraction of hydrophobic particles is volatile. Distinct diurnal patterns were found for the number fraction of the hydrophobic and non-volatile particles, with a higher level at nighttime and a lower level during the daytime. The result of air mass classification shows that aerosol particles in air masses coming from north with high moving speed have a high number fraction of hydrophobic/non-volatile population, and are more externally mixed. Only minor differences can be found between the measured aerosol properties for the rest of the air masses. With abundant precursor in the NCP, no matter where the air mass originates, as far as it stays in the NCP for a certain time, aerosol particles may get aged and mixed with newly emitted particles in a short time.

  13. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Huan; Shen, Henggen; Shui, Tiantian; Li, Qing; Zhou, Liuke

    2016-01-01

    Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE) medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE) medium in the 0.3-3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 10⁴ m³/m². The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC) with the pre-filter (PR) or the active carbon granule filter (CF) was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE) showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%), PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4-0.65 μm) exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in school

  14. Experimental Study on Ultrafine Particle Removal Performance of Portable Air Cleaners with Different Filters in an Office Room

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Ma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Size- and time-dependent aerodynamic behaviors of indoor particles, including PM1.0, were evaluated in a school office in order to test the performance of air-cleaning devices using different filters. In-situ real-time measurements were taken using an optical particle counter. The filtration characteristics of filter media, including single-pass efficiency, volume and effectiveness, were evaluated and analyzed. The electret filter (EE medium shows better initial removal efficiency than the high efficiency (HE medium in the 0.3–3.5 μm particle size range, while under the same face velocity, the filtration resistance of the HE medium is several times higher than that of the EE medium. During service life testing, the efficiency of the EE medium decreased to 60% with a total purifying air flow of 25 × 104 m3/m2. The resistance curve rose slightly before the efficiency reached the bottom, and then increased almost exponentially. The single-pass efficiency of portable air cleaner (PAC with the pre-filter (PR or the active carbon granule filter (CF was relatively poor. While PAC with the pre-filter and the high efficiency filter (PR&HE showed maximum single-pass efficiency for PM1.0 (88.6%, PAC with the HE was the most effective at removing PM1.0. The enhancement of PR with HE and electret filters augmented the single-pass efficiency, but lessened the airflow rate and effectiveness. Combined with PR, the decay constant of large-sized particles could be greater than for PACs without PR. Without regard to the lifetime, the electret filters performed better with respect to resource saving and purification improvement. A most penetrating particle size range (MPPS: 0.4–0.65 μm exists in both HE and electret filters; the MPPS tends to become larger after HE and electret filters are combined with PR. These results serve to provide a better understanding of the indoor particle removal performance of PACs when combined with different kinds of filters in

  15. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in ultrafine particles of diesel exhaust fumes – The use of ultrafast liquid chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Małgorzata Szewczyńska; Małgorzata Pośniak

    2014-01-01

    Background: The article presents the results of the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the fine particles fraction emitted from 3 types of diesel fuels using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography. Material and Methods: Samples of diesel Eco, Verwa and Bio exhaust combustion fumes were generated at the model station which consisted of a diesel engine from the 2007 Diesel TDI 2.0. Personal Cascade Sioutas Impactor (PCSI) with Teflon filters was used to collect sampl...

  16. Observation of nitrate coatings on atmospheric mineral dust particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. Li

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nitrate compounds have received much attention because of their ability to alter the hygroscopic properties and cloud condensation nuclei (CCN activity of mineral dust particles in the atmosphere. However, very little is known about specific characteristics of ambient nitrate-coated mineral particles on an individual particle scale. In this study, sample collection was conducted during brown haze and dust episodes between 24 May and 21 June 2007 in Beijing, northern China. Sizes, morphologies, and compositions of 332 mineral dust particles together with their coatings were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX microanalyses. Structures of some mineral particles were verified using selected-area electron diffraction (SAED. TEM observation indicates that approximately 90% of the collected mineral particles are covered by visible coatings in haze samples whereas only 5% are coated in the dust sample. 92% of the analyzed mineral particles are covered with Ca-, Mg-, and Na-rich coatings, and 8% are associated with K- and S-rich coatings. The majority of coatings contain Ca, Mg, O, and N with minor amounts of S and Cl, suggesting that they are possibly nitrates mixed with small amounts of sulfates and chlorides. These nitrate coatings are strongly correlated with the presence of alkaline mineral components (e.g., calcite and dolomite. CaSO4 particles with diameters from 10 to 500 nm were also detected in the coatings including Ca(NO32 and Mg(NO32. Our results indicate that mineral particles in brown haze episodes were involved in atmospheric heterogeneous reactions with two or more acidic gases (e.g., SO2, NO2, HCl, and HNO3. Mineral particles that acquire hygroscopic nitrate coatings tend to be more spherical and larger, enhancing their light scattering and CCN activity, both of which have cooling effects on

  17. Study on Varied Types of Ultrafine Powder Used in Refractory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIXiaoming; WUQingshun

    1997-01-01

    The properties and low and medium tem-perature bonding mechanisms of varied types of SiO2 ultrafine powder used in ceramic and refractory and the temperature at which SiO2 ultrafine powder began to react with Al2O3 were studied,And initial researches on effects of ultrafine powders of Al2O3,SiC,3Al2o3·2SiO2,MgO·Al2O3 and ZrSiO4 on promoting sintering were made. The results indicated that among various types of SiO2 ultrafine powder ,non-crystal sil-ica ultrafine powder wa characterized by its structure and properties,It could yield consid-erable silica gel on its surface at low tempera-ture,which then dehydrated and formed Si-O-Si bond,thereby developing a netty structure that caused higher bond strength at low and medium temperature since the netty structure basically remperature since the netty structure basically reained as termperture rising.SiO2 ultrafine powder began to react with Al2O3 at 700℃, All of other types of ultrafine powder had effects on stimulating sintering ,but the effects were significant only when the particle size of ultrafine powder was less than 5μm。

  18. Aliphatic and aromatic amines in atmospheric aerosol particles: comparison of three ionization techniques in liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and method development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Jiménez, José; Hautala, Sanna; Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Laitinen, Totti; Hartonen, Kari; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2012-08-15

    A complete methodology was developed for the determination of ten aliphatic and nine aromatic amines in atmospheric aerosol particles. Before the liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometric separation and determination, the derivatization reaction of the analytes using dansyl chloride was accelerated by ultrasounds. From three different ionization techniques studied electrospray ionization was superior in terms of sensitivity, linearity, repeatability and reproducibility over atmospheric pressure chemical ionization and photoionization for the target analytes. The method developed was validated for the gas phase, 30 nm and total suspended atmospheric aerosol particles. The method quantification limits ranged between 1.8 and 71.7 pg. The accuracy and the potential matrix effects were evaluated using a standard addition methodology. Recoveries from 92.1% to 109.1%, the repeatability from 0.6% to 8.4% and the reproducibility from 2.3% to 9.8% were obtained. The reliability of the methodology was proved by the statistical evaluation. Finally, the developed methodology was applied to the determination of the target analytes in eight size separated ultrafine particulate (Dp=30±4 nm) samples and in eight total suspended particulate samples collected at the SMEAR II station. The mean concentrations for aliphatic amines were between 0.01 and 42.67 ng m(-3) and for aromatic amines between 0.02 and 1.70 ng m(-3). Thirteen amines were quantified for the first time in 30 nm aerosol particles. PMID:22841047

  19. A marine biogenic source of atmospheric ice-nucleating particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, T. W.; Ladino, L. A.; Alpert, Peter A.; Breckels, M. N.; Brooks, I. M.; Browse, J.; Burrows, Susannah M.; Carslaw, K. S.; Huffman, J. A.; Judd, C.; Kilthau, W. P.; Mason, R. H.; McFiggans, Gordon; Miller, L. A.; Najera, J.; Polishchuk, E. A.; Rae, S.; Schiller, C. L.; Si, M.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Whale, Thomas; Wong, J P S; Wurl, O.; Yakobi-Hancock, J. D.; Abbatt, JPD; Aller, Josephine Y.; Bertram, Allan K.; Knopf, Daniel A.; Murray, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-09

    The formation of ice in clouds is facilitated by the presence of airborne ice nucleating particles1,2. Sea spray is one of the major global sources of atmospheric particles, but it is unclear to what extent these particles are capable of nucleating ice3–11. Here we show that material in the sea surface microlayer, which is enriched in surface active organic material representative of that found in sub-micron sea- spray aerosol12–21, nucleates ice under conditions that occur in mixed-phase clouds and high-altitude ice clouds. The ice active material is likely biogenic and is less than ~0.2 ?m in size. We also show that organic material (exudate) released by a common marine diatom nucleates ice when separated from cells and propose that organic material associated with phytoplankton cell exudates are a candidate for the observed ice nucleating ability of the microlayer samples. By combining our measurements with global model simulations of marine organic aerosol, we show that ice nucleating particles of marine origin are dominant in remote marine environments, such as the Southern Ocean, the North Pacific and the North Atlantic.

  20. Quality of skin as a barrier to ultra-fine particles. Contribution of the IBA group to the NANODERM EU-5 project in 2003-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Micronised titanium-, zinc- or silicon-oxide is a widely used physical photoprotective agent as a component of various cosmetic products. Due to the small particle size (down to 15 nm) it is supposed, that the particles may pass through the uppermost horny skin layer, and penetrate into deeper vital skin layers. However, only a few experiments have been carried out on its penetration through the human epidermal barrier and its possible biological effects in vivo and in vitro, using the tape stripping method which has no lateral and limited depth resolution. A consortium consisting of 12 European universities and scientific institutes has been established under the leadership of the Fakultat fuer Physik und Geowissenchaft Universitat Leipzig, whose goal is to get quantitative information on the penetration of ultrafine particles in all strata of skin, on their penetration pathways as well as on their impact on human health [1]. The IBA group of the Atomki takes part in this project as a subcontractor of the Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Hungary. Ion microscopy, electron microscopy and autoradiography are used to trace the penetration of the nanoparticles into the skin layers, molecular and cell-biological methods are applied to assess the skin response and activation of dermal cells. The IBA group of the Atomki takes part in WP3: Ion Microscopy Work Package together with five other nuclear microprobe laboratories. The participants provide quantitative elemental composition in all strata of skin with detection limits of about 1 μg/g and lateral resolution of 1-2 μm by applying various ion beam analytical techniques. Samples investigated by ion microscopy are 14-16 μm thick cryo-fixed freeze-dried sections of porcine and human skin. Since the sample preparation requires completely different treatment for ion microscopy than for conventional microscopy, the members of the IBA group, who already have

  1. Solar particle effects on minor components of the Polar atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Damiani

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Solar activity can influence the Earth's environment, and in particular the ozone layer, by direct modulation of the e.m. radiation or through variability of the incoming cosmic ray flux (solar and galactic particles. In particular, solar energetic particles (SEPs provide additional external energy to the terrestrial environment; they are able to interact with the minor constituents of the atmospheric layer and produce ionizations, dissociations, dissociative ionizations and excitations. This paper highlights the SEP effects on the chemistry of the upper atmosphere by analysing some SEP events recorded during 2005 in the descending phase of the current solar cycle. It is shown that these events can lead to short- (hours and medium- (days term ozone variations through catalytic cycles (e.g. HOx and NOx increases. We focus attention on the relationship between ozone and OH data (retrieved from MLS EOS AURA for four SEP events: 17 and 20 January, 15 May and 8 September. We confirm that SEP effects are different on the night and day hemispheres at high latitudes.

  2. Solar particle effects on minor components of the Polar atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Damiani, A. [ICES - International Center for Earth Sciences c/o Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Acustica ' O.M. Corbino' ; INAF, Roma (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario; Storini, M.; Laurenza, M. [INAF, Roma (Italy). Ist. di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario; Rafanelli, C. [ICES - International Center for Earth Sciences c/o Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Rome (Italy). Ist. di Acustica ' O.M. Corbino'

    2008-07-01

    Solar activity can influence the Earth's environment, and in particular the ozone layer, by direct modulation of the e.m. radiation or through variability of the incoming cosmic ray flux (solar and galactic particles). In particular, solar energetic particles (SEPs) provide additional external energy to the terrestrial environment; they are able to interact with the minor constituents of the atmospheric layer and produce ionizations, dissociations, dissociative ionizations and excitations. This paper highlights the SEP effects on the chemistry of the upper atmosphere by analysing some SEP events recorded during 2005 in the descending phase of the current solar cycle. It is shown that these events can lead to short- (hours) and medium- (days) term ozone variations through catalytic cycles (e.g. HO{sub x} and NO{sub x} increases). We focus attention on the relationship between ozone and OH data (retrieved from MLS EOS AURA) for four SEP events: 17 and 20 January, 15 May and 8 September. We confirm that SEP effects are different on the night and day hemispheres at high latitudes. (orig.)

  3. Particle hygroscopicity during atmospheric new particle formation events: implications for the chemical species contributing to particle growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Wu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the hygroscopicity of newly formed particles (diameters range 25–45 nm during two atmospheric new particle formation (NPF events in the German mid-level mountains during the Hill Cap Cloud Thuringia 2010 (HCCT-2010 field experiment. At the end of the NPF event involving clear particle growth, we measured an unusually high soluble particle fraction of 58.5% at 45 nm particle size. The particle growth rate contributed through sulfuric acid condensation only accounts for around 6.5% of the observed growth rate. Estimations showed that sulfuric acid condensation explained, however, only around 10% of that soluble particle fraction. Therefore, the formation of additional water-soluble matter appears imperative to explain the missing soluble fraction. Although direct evidence is missing, we consider water-soluble organics as candidates for this mechanism. For the case with clear growth process, the particle growth rate was determined by two alternative methods based on tracking the mode diameter of the nucleation mode. The mean particle growth rate obtained from the inter-site data comparison using Lagrangian consideration is 3.8 (± 2.6 nm h−1. During the same period, the growth rate calculated based on one site data is 5.0 nm h−1 using log-normal distribution function method. In light of the fact that considerable uncertainties could be involved in both methods, we consider both estimated growth rates consistent.

  4. Oxidation Products of Biogenic Emissions Contribute to Nucleation of Atmospheric Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Riccobono, F.; Schobesberger, S.; Scott, CE; Dommen, J; Ortega, IK; L. Rondo; Almeida, J; Amorim, A.; BIANCHI, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; David, A.(CERN, European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva, Switzerland); Downard, A.; Dunne, EM; J. Duplissy; S. Ehrhart

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in ...

  5. Modelling the Role of Charge in Atmospheric Particle Formation Using Quantum Chemical Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Ruusuvuori, Kai

    2015-01-01

    New particle formation is an important process in the atmosphere. As ions are constantly produced in the atmosphere, the behaviour and role of charged particles in atmospheric processes needs to be understood. In order to gain insight on the role of charge in atmospheric new particle formation, the electron structure of the molecules taking part in this process needs to be taken into account using quantum chemical methods. Quantum chemical density functional theory was employed in an eff...

  6. Inverse problem for particle size distributions of atmospheric aerosols using stochastic particle swarm optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of resolving optical properties in atmosphere radiative transfer calculations, this paper focuses on obtaining aerosol optical thicknesses (AOTs) in the visible and near infrared wave band through indirect method by gleaning the values of aerosol particle size distribution parameters. Although various inverse techniques have been applied to obtain values for these parameters, we choose a stochastic particle swarm optimization (SPSO) algorithm to perform an inverse calculation. Computational performances of different inverse methods are investigated and the influence of swarm size on the inverse problem of computation particles is examined. Next, computational efficiencies of various particle size distributions and the influences of the measured errors on computational accuracy are compared. Finally, we recover particle size distributions for atmospheric aerosols over Beijing using the measured AOT data (at wavelengths λ=0.400, 0.690, 0.870, and 1.020 μm) obtained from AERONET at different times and then calculate other AOT values for this band based on the inverse results. With calculations agreeing with measured data, the SPSO algorithm shows good practicability.

  7. Atmospheric aerosol particle analysis at the Debrecen Nuclear Microprobe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Characterisation of atmospheric aerosol is in the focus of several national and international research programs due to their health impact and effects on the radiative balance of Earth. Bulk elemental analytical techniques, like macro-PIXE, are extensively used for analysing atmospheric aerosol. However more detailed and reliable data can be obtained if individual aerosol particles are analysed. Nuclear microscopy is a powerful tool which enables the quantitative determination of trace element distribution in complex samples with a sensitivity of μg/g on micrometer scale. In the frame of an OTKA and a Coordinated Research Project of the IAEA, an experimental setup based on the simultaneous use of different ion beam analytical techniques was developed at the Debrecen scanning nuclear microprobe facility, which enables the total quantitative analysis of microparticles. This measurement, data collection and evaluation setup was already applied successfully in various studies: (1) ion beam microanalysis of desert dust particles originating from Saharan dust intrusions, (2) characterization of urban aerosol sources by single particle analysis, (3) characterization of indoor aerosols. As an example, nuclear microprobe study of indoor aerosol particles containing toxic metals is presented. Aerosol samples were collected in the IBA Lab of ATOMKI in the frame of a laboratory practice for undergraduate students. At the same time mechanical repair work was carried out on the heating system in the corridor outside the Laboratory. In order to demonstrate the monitoring of air pollution for the students, aerosol samples were collected with a 2-stage filter unit on Nuclepore polycarbonate filters. The samples were analysed by bulk-PIXE. Concentration of Zn, Cd and Pb were found to be exceeding the national air quality limit. Therefore single particle analysis was carried out on the coarse mode samples to find out the origin of the toxic

  8. The effects of solar particle events on the middle atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solar particle events (SPEs) have been investigated since the late 1960's for possible effects on the middle atmosphere. Solar protons from SPEs produce ionizations, dissociations, dissociative ionizations, and excitations in the middle atmosphere. The production of HO(x) and NO(x) and their subsequent effects on ozone can also be computed using energy deposition and photochemical models. The effects of SPE-produced HO(x) species on the odd nitrogen abundance of the middle atmosphere as well as the SPE-produced long term effects on ozone. Model computations indicate fairly good agreement with ozone data for the SPE-induced ozone depletion caused by NO(y) species connected with the August 1972 SPE. The model computations indicate that NO(y) will not be substantially changed over a solar cycle by SPEs. The changes are mainly at high latitudes and are on time scales of several months, after which the NO(y) drifts back to its ambient levels

  9. Gas-particle partitioning of pesticides in atmospheric samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanusi, Astrid; Millet, Maurice; Mirabel, Philippe; Wortham, Henri

    A filter-XAD-2 resin plug high-volume air sampler was used to collect the particle (P) and vapour (V) phases of 11 pesticides. The atmospheric concentrations were measured simultaneously at three sites characterised as remote (Aubure in the Vosges mountains), rural (Colmar, in the upper Rhine Valley), and urban (Strasbourg, in the upper Rhine Valley). The measured concentrations, which agree with those of literature, were used to study the influence of the physico-chemical parameters on the V/P partitioning. The behaviour observed on two organochlorine pesticides ( α-HCH and HCB), carbaryl, and trifluraline corresponds to the one presented in literature for organochlorine and PAH. Therefore, the V/P partitioning is mainly controlled by temperature, total suspended particle (TSP), and vapour pressure. Nevertheless, the slope of the regression line of log( A.TSP/ F ) against log P° l (where A and F are, respectively, the gas and particulate concentrations and P° l is the subcooled liquid-vapour pressure) is less compared with that presented in literature (0.36 against approximately 0.85). This difference could possibly result from the low TSP concentrations measured in our study. For some pesticides (trifluraline, γ-HCH, mecoprop, carbofuran and atrazine) the description of the V/P partitioning is improved by using relative humidity in addition to the three previous environmental parameters (temperature, TSP and vapour pressure). There seems to exist a competition mechanism between water molecules in gas phase and pesticides to adsorb on the receiving sites of the particles. By this mechanism increase in the atmospheric relative humidity induces a simultaneous increase of pesticides in the gas phase.

  10. Images reveal that atmospheric particles can undergo liquid–liquid phase separations

    OpenAIRE

    You, Yuan; Renbaum-Wolff, Lindsay; Carreras-Sospedra, Marc; Hanna, Sarah J.; Hiranuma, Naruki; Kamal, Saeid; Smith, Mackenzie L.; Zhang, Xiaolu; Weber, Rodney J.; Shilling, John E.; Dabdub, Donald; Martin, Scot T.; Bertram, Allan K.

    2012-01-01

    A large fraction of submicron atmospheric aerosol particles contains both organic material and inorganic salts. As the relative humidity cycles in the atmosphere and the water content of the particles correspondingly changes, these mixed particles can undergo a range of phase transitions, possibly including liquid–liquid phase separation. If liquid–liquid phase separation occurs, the gas-particle partitioning of atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds, the scattering and absorption of sola...

  11. Applicability of condensation particle counters to measure atmospheric clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sipilä

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ambient and laboratory molecular and ion clusters were investigated. Here we present data on the ambient concentrations of both charged and uncharged molecular clusters as well as the performance of a pulse height condensation particle counter (PH-CPC and an expansion condensation particle counter (E-CPC. The ambient molecular cluster concentrations were measured using both instruments, and they were deployed in conjunction with ion spectrometers and other aerosol instruments in Hyytiälä, Finland at the SMEAR II station during 1 March to 30 June 2007. The observed cluster concentrations varied and were from ca. 1000 to 100 000 cm−3. Both instruments showed similar concentrations. The average size of detected clusters was approximately 1.8 nm. As the atmospheric measurements at sub 2-nm particles and molecular clusters are a challenging task, and we were most likely unable to detect the smallest clusters, the reported concentrations are our best estimates for minimum cluster concentrations in boreal forest environment.

  12. Energetic particle energy deposition in Titan's upper atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westlake, J. H.; Smith, H. T.; Mitchell, D. G.; Paranicas, C. P.; Rymer, A. M.; Bell, J. M.; Waite, J. H., Jr.; Mandt, K. E.

    2012-04-01

    Titan’s upper atmosphere has been observed to be variable on a pass-by-pass basis. During the nominal mission where the Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) only sampled the northern hemisphere this variability was initially believed to be tied to solar drivers manifest in latitudinal variations in the thermal structure of the upper atmosphere. However, when Cassini delved into the southern hemisphere the latitudinal dependence was not present in the data. Recently, Westlake et al. (2011) showed that the pass-by-pass variability is correlated with the deviations in the plasma environment as identified by Rymer et al. (2009) and Simon et al. (2010). Furthermore, the studies of Westlake et al. (2011) and Bell et al. (2011) showed that Titan’s upper atmosphere responds to changes in the ambient magnetospheric plasma on timescales of roughly one Titan day (16 Earth days). We report on recent studies of energy deposition in Titan’s upper atmosphere. Previous studies by Smith et al. (2009), Cravens et al. (2008), Tseng et al. (2008), and Shah et al. (2009) reported on energetic proton and oxygen ion precipitation. Back of the envelope calculations by Sittler et al. (2009) showed that magnetospheric energy inputs are expected to be of the order of or greater than the solar processes. We report on further analysis of the plasma environment around Titan during the flybys that the INMS has good data. We utilize data from the Magnetospheric Imaging Instrument to determine how the magnetospheric particle population varies from pass to pass and how this influences the net magnetospheric energy input prior to the flyby. We also report on enhanced energetic neutral atom emissions during select highly energetic passes. References: Bell, J., et al.: “Simulating the time-dependent response of Titan's upper atmosphere to periods of magnetospheric forcing”. Geophys. Res. Lett., Vol. 38, L06202, 2011. Rymer, A. M., et al.: “Discrete classification and electron

  13. Erosion Behaviors of 45 Steel by Ultrafine SiC Particles Under Normal Impact Condition%45钢在超细SiC颗粒作用下的正向冲蚀行为

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吉小超; 张伟; 于鹤龙; 魏敏; 汪勇; 郭永明

    2012-01-01

    选用超细SiC颗粒作为磨料,研究了韧性材料45钢在正向冲击条件下的冲蚀行为并与7075-T6铝合金对比.使用高强度磁铁捕获了45钢冲蚀磨屑,利用扫描电子显微镜(SEM)对冲蚀磨损后试样表面以及磨屑形貌进行观测;采用质量分析法,分析45钢在不同冲蚀条件下的失重情况与材料去除率;利用X射线应力测定仪,分析45钢在不同冲蚀条件下的表层及深度方向的残余压应力分布情况.结果表明,正向冲击条件下,韧性材料表面主要发生塑性变形,偏向堆积脊部还存在片层剥落的材料去除形式,超细磨料产生的材料去除率相对较小,材料去除率随磨料量的增加呈先增加后减小的趋势;表层应力随磨料量呈先增加后降低的趋势,微磨料冲蚀残余压应力的影响深度约为10μm.%This paper studies the erosion behaviors of ductile materials such as 45 steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy impacted by ultrafine SiC particles. Abrasive dusts of 45 steel were captured by magnet. Abrasive dusts and the eroded surfaces of 45 steel and 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), The weight loss of 45 steel was measured, and the variance of erosion rate under different conditions was analyzed to give a clear understanding of the solid particle erosion of ductile material. X-ray diffraction method was adopted to measure and analyze the compressive residual stress on the surface and along the depth. Results show that deformation dominates the eroded surface and deformation level is related to the hardness of the target surface. The abrasive dusts are extruded by successive impact of the particle. The erosion rate caused by ultrafine SiC particles is found to be relatively small, and the erosion rate increases with increasing SiC particles amount, and then decreases. The surface residual stress caused by ultrafine SiC increases with increasing SiC particles amount, and then decreases

  14. Effect of atmospheric electricity on dry deposition of airborne particles from atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tammet, H.; Kimmel, V.; Israelsson, S.

    The electric mechanism of dry deposition is well known in the case of unattached radon daughter clusters that are unipolar charged and of high mobility. The problematic role of the electric forces in deposition of aerosol particles is theoretically examined by comparing the fluxes of particles carried by different deposition mechanisms in a model situation. The electric mechanism of deposition appears essential for particles of diameter 10-200 nm in conditions of low wind speed. The electric flux of fine particles can be dominant on the tips of leaves and needles even in a moderate atmospheric electric field of a few hundred V m -1 measured over the plane ground surface. The electric deposition is enhanced under thunderclouds and high voltage power lines. Strong wind suppresses the relative role of the electric deposition when compared with aerodynamic deposition. When compared with diffusion deposition the electric deposition appears less uniform: the precipitation particulate matter on the tips of leaves and especially on needles of top branches of conifer trees is much more intensive than on the ground surface and electrically shielded surfaces of plants. The knowledge of deposition geometry could improve our understanding of air pollution damage to plants.

  15. Biological particles capable of triggering ice nucleation in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felgitsch, Laura; Bichler, Magdalena; Vogel, André; Häusler, Thomas; Grothe, Hinrich

    2016-04-01

    Ice-nucleating particles (INPs) have a huge impact on atmospheric processes, since they can trigger ice cloud formation. In general, ice clouds interfere with the radiation balance of planet Earth effectively at high altitudes. Since ambient matter of biological origin tends to have rather large aerodynamic diameters, it exhibits a fast sinking velocity and can only reach limited altitudes. Therefore, research focused on materials found in higher quantities in the upper atmosphere. However, recent findings indicate that the role of biological INPs has been underestimated in the past. In 2012 Pummer and colleagues found that the INPs from birch pollen can be washed off and constitute of macromolecules in the size-range of a few nanometres. With such a small diameter, they show a much longer life span in the upper atmosphere than expected. Further, Huffman and colleagues showed in 2013 a burst of biological INPs over woodlands triggered by rain events, which matches the finding of Pummer et al. well. Plants originating from the northern timberline experience harsh conditions with night frost even during the warm seasons. To prevent frost damages, those plants developed coping mechanisms. Many plant species, which are domestic in cold weather zones, exhibit ice nucleation activity. Therefore, it is important to examine those plants to understand the scale at which biological INPs can be emitted. For the presented results we focus on two types of samples: Berries and tree pollen. Both belong to plants domestic at the northern timberline. With our results we are able to show that INPs are spread vastly throughout different species. Furthermore, all those INPs show certain similarities to each other, most importantly, all of the found INPs seem to be associated to macromolecules in the nano-particulate size range. We examined the INPs from birch pollen more closely. Results indicate that proteins play a major role. Pummer, B., Bauer, H., Bernardi, J., Bleicher, S

  16. Comparison of quartz and Teflon filters for simultaneous collection of size-separated ultrafine aerosol particles and gas-phase zero samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshintsev, Jevgeni; Ruiz-Jimenez, Jose; Petäjä, Tuukka; Hartonen, Kari; Kulmala, Markku; Riekkola, Marja-Liisa

    2011-07-01

    In this research, the two most common filter media, quartz and Teflon, were tested to obtain information about the possible adsorption of gas-phase compounds onto filters during long sample collection of atmospheric aerosols. Particles of nanometer-size for off-line chemical characterization were collected using a recently introduced differential mobility analyzer for size separation. Samples were collected at an urban site (Helsinki, SMEARIII station) during spring 2010. Sampling time was 4 to 10 days for particles 50, 40, or 30 nm in diameter. Sample air flow was 4 L/min. The sampling setup was arranged so that two samples were obtained for each sampling period almost simultaneously: one containing particles and adsorbed gas-phase compounds and one containing adsorbed gas-phase compounds only. Filters were extracted and analyzed for the presence of selected carboxylic acids, polyols, nitrogen-containing compounds, and aldehydes. The results showed that, in quartz filter samples, gas-phase adsorption may be responsible for as much as 100% of some compound masses. Whether quartz or Teflon, simultaneous collection of gas-phase zero samples is essential during the whole sampling period. The dependence of the adsorption of gas-phase compounds on vapor pressure and the effect of adsorption on the deposited aerosol layer are discussed. PMID:21533796

  17. Microstructure and properties of liquid-phase sintered tungsten heavy alloys by using ultra-fine tungsten powders

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于洋; 王尔德

    2004-01-01

    The microstructure and properties of liquid-phase sintered 93W-4.9Ni-2.1Fe tungsten heavy alloys using ultra-fine tungsten powders (medium particle size of 700 nm) and original tungsten powders (medium particle size of 3 μm) were investigated respectively. Commercial tungsten powders (original tungsten powders) were mechanically milled in a high-energy attritor mill for 35 h. Ultra-fine tungsten powders and commercial Ni, Fe powders were consolidated into green compacts by using CIP method and liquid-phase sintering at 1 465 ℃ for 30 min in the dissociated ammonia atmosphere. Liquid-phase sintered tungsten heavy alloys using ultra-fine tungsten powders exhibit full densification (above 99% in relative density) and higher strength and elongation compared with conventional liquidphase sintered alloys using original tungsten powders due to lower sintering temperature at 1 465 ℃ and short sintering time. The mechanical properties of sintered tungsten heavy alloy are found to be mainly dependent on the particles size of raw tungsten powders and liquid-phase sintering temperature.

  18. Ultra fined-grained atmospheric particulate studied by magnetic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saragnese, F.; Lanci, L.; Lanza, R.

    2009-04-01

    We present the result of an investigation on the presence of ultrafine atmospheric particulate in the urban area of Turin by magnetic methods. Magnetic minerals are a common component of atmospheric particulate, mostly arising from a number of anthropogenic activities. Atmospheric particulate is well known to represent a serious health problem in urban area and recently the attention focused especially on fine (traffic area also support the previous finding that anthropogenic particulate has a large concentration of magnetic minerals compared to natural sources. Moreover the low temperature measurements have shown the presence of a relevant amount of ultrafine particles which are superparamagnetic at room temperature, their concentration increase in areas of high traffic and also appear to be related to anthropogenic sources. The magnetization carried by of ultrafine particles is site dependent but always larger than room temperature magnetization suggesting that about 60-70% of the particulate matter in urban area is made of ultrafine particles of nanometric size (< 30 nm). At given environmental conditions (site) the ratio between superparamagnetic and stable single domain magnetizations was found to remain fairly constant over time, thus allowing effortless predictions.

  19. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-ha; Yiacoumi, Sotira; Nenes, Athanasios; Tsouris, Costas

    2016-03-01

    Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM) to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 0.04 micrometers and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and an atmospheric system containing radioactive particles. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  20. Mixing state of particles with secondary species by single particle aerosol mass spectrometer in an atmospheric pollution event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lingling; Chen, Jinsheng

    2016-04-01

    Single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS) was used to characterize size distribution, chemical composition, and mixing state of particles in an atmospheric pollution event during 20 Oct. - 5 Nov., 2015 in Xiamen, Southeast China. A total of 533,012 particle mass spectra were obtained and clustered into six groups, comprising of industry metal (4.5%), dust particles (2.6%), carbonaceous species (70.7%), K-Rich particles (20.7%), seasalt (0.6%) and other particles (0.9%). Carbonaceous species were further divided into EC (70.6%), OC (28.5%), and mixed ECOC (0.9%). There were 61.7%, 58.3%, 4.0%, and 14.6% of particles internally mixed with sulfate, nitrate, ammonium and C2H3O, respectively, indicating that these particles had undergone significant aging processing. Sulfate was preferentially mixed with carbonaceous particles, while nitrate tended to mix with metal-containing and dust particles. Compared to clear days, the fractions of EC-, metal- and dust particles remarkably increased, while the fraction of OC-containing particles decreased in pollution days. The mixing state of particles, excepted for OC-containing particles with secondary species was much stronger in pollution days than that in clear days, which revealed the significant influence of secondary particles in atmospheric pollution. The different activity of OC-containing particles might be related to their much smaller aerodynamic diameter. These results could improve our understanding of aerosol characteristics and could be helpful to further investigate the atmospheric process of particles.

  1. Particle concentration and flux dynamics in the atmospheric boundary layer as the indicator of formation mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lauros

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available We carried out column model simulations to study particle fluxes and deposition and to evaluate different particle formation mechanisms at a boreal forest site in Finland. We show that kinetic nucleation of sulphuric acid cannot be responsible for new particle formation alone as the vertical profile of particle number distribution does not correspond to observations. Instead organic induced nucleation leads to good agreement confirming the relevance of the aerosol formation mechanism including organic compounds emitted by biosphere.

    Simulation of aerosol concentration inside the atmospheric boundary layer during nucleation days shows highly dynamical picture, where particle formation is coupled with chemistry and turbulent transport. We have demonstrated suitability of our turbulent mixing scheme in reproducing most important characteristics of particle dynamics inside the atmospheric boundary layer. Deposition and particle flux simulations show that deposition affects noticeably only the smallest particles at the lowest part of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  2. Observations of aminium salts in atmospheric nanoparticles and possible climatic implications

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, J. N.; Barsanti, K. C.; H. R. Friedli; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; D. R. Collins; Scheckman, J. H.; B J Williams; McMurry, P. H.

    2010-01-01

    We present laboratory studies and field observations that explore the role of aminium salt formation in atmospheric nanoparticle growth. These measurements were performed using the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS) and Ultrafine Hygroscopicity Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzers. Laboratory measurements of alkylammonium—carboxylate salt nanoparticles show that these particles exhibit lower volatilities and only slightly lower hygroscopicities than ammonium s...

  3. Formation of ultra-fine grained TiC-dispersed SUS316L by ball-milling and their consolidation by hot isostatic pressing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to overcome the irradiation embrittlement in austenitic stainless steels, ultra-fine grained SUS316L steels with very fine TiC particles have been developed. The SUS316-TiC nanocomposite powders having 1.0 to 2.0 mass%TiC were prepared by ball-milling SUS316-TiC powder mixtures for 125h in an argon gas atmosphere. The milled powders were consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) under a pressure of 200 MPa at temperature between 700-1000degC, and the bulk materials with crystallite size ranging between 100-400 nm have been produced. The possibility of using fine-grained TiC particles for pinning grain boundaries and thereby to maintain the ultra-fine grained structures has been discussed. (author)

  4. Charging and coagulation of radioactive and nonradioactive particles in the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y.-H. Kim

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Charging and coagulation influence one another and impact the particle charge and size distributions in the atmosphere. However, few investigations to date have focused on the coagulation kinetics of atmospheric particles accumulating charge. This study presents three approaches to include mutual effects of charging and coagulation on the microphysical evolution of atmospheric particles such as radioactive particles. The first approach employs ion balance, charge balance, and a bivariate population balance model (PBM to comprehensively calculate both charge accumulation and coagulation rates of particles. The second approach involves a much simpler description of charging, and uses a monovariate PBM and subsequent effects of charge on particle coagulation. The third approach is further simplified assuming that particles instantaneously reach their steady-state charge distributions. It is found that compared to the other two approaches, the first approach can accurately predict time-dependent changes in the size and charge distributions of particles over a wide size range covering from the free molecule to continuum regimes. The other two approaches can reliably predict both charge accumulation and coagulation rates for particles larger than about 40 nm and atmospherically relevant conditions. These approaches are applied to investigate coagulation kinetics of particles accumulating charge in a radioactive neutralizer, the urban atmosphere, and a radioactive plume. Limitations of the approaches are discussed.

  5. Oxidation Products of Biogenic Emissions Contribute to Nucleation of Atmospheric Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobono, Francesco; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Wimmer, Daniela; Wex, Heike; Weingartner, Ernest; Wagner, Paul E; Vrtala, Aron; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vaattovaara, Petri; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, Antonio; Stratmann, Frank; Stozhkov, Yuri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Sipilä, Mikko; Praplan, Arnaud P; Petäjä, Tuukka; Onnela, Antti; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mathot, Serge; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Laaksonen, Ari; Kvashin, Alexander N.; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Keskinen, Helmi; Kajos, Maija; Junninen, Heikki; Hansel, Armin; Franchin, Alessandro; Flagan, Richard C; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Duplissy, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear M; Downard, Andrew; David, André; Breitenlechner, Martin; Bianchi, Federico; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, João; Rondo, Linda; Ortega, Ismael K; Dommen, Josef; Scott, Catherine E; Vrtala, Aron; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Seinfeld, John H; Sipila, Mikko; Donahue, Neil M; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations.

  6. Ultrafine-grained, high-strength NiAl with Al2O3 and Al4C3 nanosized particles dispersed via mechanical alloying in toluene with spark plasma sintering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 50:50 atomic ratio of elemental Ni and Al powders were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) in a toluene medium and were consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that the ultra-fine grains (226±107 nm and 307±150 nm) and nanometre-sized Al2O3 and Al4C3 particles dispersed in the NiAl samples sintered at 900 and 1000 °C. A high hardness of 670 HV and a compressive yield strength of 2251 MPa were obtained in the NiAl sintered at 900 °C. A maximum plastic strain of ∼16.5% with a compressive yield strength of 2041 MPa was realised for the NiAl sample sintered at 1000 °C. The contributions of the grain size and particles to the strength were calculated using the appropriate strengthening models, and the calculated theoretical yield strength of the synthesised NiAl was found to closely match the experimental values

  7. Ultrafine-grained, high-strength NiAl with Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} nanosized particles dispersed via mechanical alloying in toluene with spark plasma sintering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udhayabanu, V., E-mail: udhaya2k1@yahoo.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Department of Metallurgical Engineering, PSG College of Technology, Coimbatore (India); Ravi, K.R., E-mail: krravi.psgias@gmail.com [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India); Structural Nanomaterials Lab, PSG Institute of Advanced Studies, Coimbatore (India); Murty, B.S. [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)

    2013-11-15

    A 50:50 atomic ratio of elemental Ni and Al powders were subjected to mechanical alloying (MA) in a toluene medium and were consolidated via spark plasma sintering (SPS). The transmission electron microscopy (TEM) results indicated that the ultra-fine grains (226±107 nm and 307±150 nm) and nanometre-sized Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} particles dispersed in the NiAl samples sintered at 900 and 1000 °C. A high hardness of 670 HV and a compressive yield strength of 2251 MPa were obtained in the NiAl sintered at 900 °C. A maximum plastic strain of ∼16.5% with a compressive yield strength of 2041 MPa was realised for the NiAl sample sintered at 1000 °C. The contributions of the grain size and particles to the strength were calculated using the appropriate strengthening models, and the calculated theoretical yield strength of the synthesised NiAl was found to closely match the experimental values.

  8. Catalytic activity and selectivity of potassium-promoted ultrafine particles of iron for liquid phase fischer-tropsch synthesis. Ekisoho fischer-Tropsch gosei ni okeru kariumu shushoku tetsu biryushi shokubai no kassei oyobi sentakusei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Ono, Tomoyuki; Nagano, Shin' ichi; Kikuchi, Eiichi (Waseda Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Science and Engineering)

    1989-11-01

    In the previous work, ultrafine particles (UFP) of Fe were used as catalyst for liquid phase Fischer-Tropsh synthesis, then it was found that the catalytic activity of Fe UFP was greater than that of ordinary precipitated Fe catalyst. In the present work, the catalytic activity and selectivity of K-promoted Fe UFP at a high temperature (300 centigrade) were investigated. The reaction was conducted in a slurry-bed high pressure flow type recycling reactor, and the addition of potassium was carried out using suspension of potassium metal. Using catalyst was Fe UFP, which were prepared by the gas evaporation method and had an average particle size of about 20nm. In the reaction at 300 centigrade and 30 atm, the activity of promoted Fe UFP catalyst remarkably increased with time on stream, in contrast to the deactivation of unpromoted Fe UFP catalyst and the precipitated Fe catalysts. From the results of the X-ray diffraction analysis of used catalysts, it is deduced that the enhancement of the activity of promoted catalyst is attributed to the formation of iron carbide which is promoted by potassium. It is considered that the modification effect of potassium is shown at higher temperature and the high selectivity is given even at a high temperature. 6 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. A study on mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive particles released from nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three dimensional sea-land breeze model and lagrangian particle dispersion model have been employed for the study on the mesoscale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive materials released from Wolsung NPPs. In this study, atmospheric dispersion simulations are carried out under two synoptic weather conditions: the geostrophic flow is a weak northerly wind (CASE 1) and a strong northerly wind (CASE 2) on a clear day in spring. The results show that atmospheric dispersion is affected by sea-land breeze and the recirculation of particles by the change of wind direction between sea breeze and land breeze plays an important role in atmospheric concentration distribution of radioactive materials

  10. Sublimation of ice particles from rocket exhausts in the upper atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Platov, Y. V.; Kosch, Mike J.

    2003-01-01

    The process of sublimation of ice particles from a rocket exhaust in the upper atmosphere is examined. Heating by solar radiation and losses of energy by means thermal radiation and sublimation are taken into account in the thermal balance of the ice particles. The time dependences of size and temperature of the ice particles are obtained. An estimation of water vapor concentration around the rocket trajectory is made. The process of sublimation of the rocket exhaust ice particles may be impo...

  11. Aprovechamiento de partículas de ultrafinos de carbón de una planta lavadora en la producción de coque metalúrgico Using ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant in metallurgical coke production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Díaz Velásquez José de Jesús

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available

    Se estudió el aprovechamiento en mezclas de ultrafinos provenientes de una planta de lavado de carbón para la producción de coque por el proceso de briquetación, utilizando 6% en peso de alquitrán de carbón como aglomerante. Se caracterizaron las materias primas y se realizó una prueba piloto de coquización en un horno tipo Koppers. Se determinó la calidad del coque por pruebas de análisis próximo, estabilidad (Micum 10, M10 y Micum 40, M40, índice de reactividad del coque al CO2 (CRI y de resistencia después de la reacción con dióxido de carbono (CSR. Los resultados mostraron que la briquetación permite obtener un coque con un CRI de 19,0% y un CSR de 75,6%, características requeridas en los procesos metalúrgicos.

    Blending ultrafine particles from a coal washing plant was studied for coke production by briquetting using 6%w coal tar as binder. The ultrafine coal particles were characterised and a pilot coking test was made in a Koppers’ furnace. Coke quality was evaluated by proximate analysis, stability (micum 10 and micum 40, coke reactivity index (CRI with CO2 and the coke’s mechanical strength after reaction with carbon dioxide (CSR index. Briquetting results showed that was possible to obtain coke having 19.0 % CRI and 75.6% CSR, these being the characteristics required in metallurgical processes.

  12. Atmospheric gas-particle partitioning versus gaseous/particle-bound deposition of SVOCs: Why they are not equivalent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glüge, Juliane; Bogdal, Christian; Scheringer, Martin; Hungerbühler, Konrad

    2015-08-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) can be particle-bound or in the gas phase in the atmosphere, depending on the (temperature dependent) gas-particle partitioning of the chemicals and the fraction of particles in air. Several studies linked gas-particle partitioning of SVOCs in the atmosphere directly to the gaseous/particle-bound deposition of these chemicals, i.e. in cases of compounds occurring mainly in the gas phase, the deposition was also assumed to be mainly in gaseous form. In this study, we apply a multi-media fate model to point out that gas-particle partitioning of SVOCs in air and gaseous/particle-bound deposition of SVOCs are driven by different mechanism and, thus, cannot be deduced from each other. We apply our calculations to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), as model SVOCs. We show that the fraction of particle-bound deposition to deciduous forest is 1.5-190 times higher in winter and between 5 and 1000 times higher in summer than the particle-bound fraction of these chemicals in air. The fraction of particle-bound deposition to coniferous forest is 1.5-172 times higher in winter and between 5 and 1000 times higher in summer than the particle-bound fraction of PCBs in air. In addition to the fractions of particle-bound SVOCs in air and particle-bound deposition, we recalculated particle-bound and gaseous deposition velocities to coniferous and deciduous forest for PCBs. The deposition velocities obtained for dry gaseous deposition (PCBs occurring predominantly in the gas phase, interception was also completely due to dry gaseous deposition.

  13. Behavior of alumina particles in atmospheric pressure plasma jets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The distribution of Al2O3 particle size, velocity and temperature was mapped over the flow field of a 31.5 kW plasma torch. The effects of varying the powder loading were studied. The powder feed rate was varied between .45 and 2.05 kg/hr independent of the carrier gas flow rate. The particle flow field was non-symmetric due to the method of particle injection. The data indicate that powder feed rate does not significantly affect either the temperature or velocity of the particles, for typical plasma spray conditions, and that the assumption of a dilute particle flow field is valid. 1 ref., 7 figs

  14. Concentrations of PAHs in atmospheric particles (PM-10) and roadside soil particles collected in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nasr Yousef M. J.; Abas, M. Radzi Bin; Ketuly, Kamal Aziz; Tahir, Norhayati Mohd

    The concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were measured at eight locations in the city center and the suburb of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Atmospheric particles were collected using high-volume PM-10 sampler on glass fiber filters over 24 h average sampling period. Both types of samples were extracted with dichloromethane by ultrasonic agitation. The extracts were then fractionated on an alumina-silica column and the aromatic fraction was subjected to gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis. Total PAH concentrations in the atmospheric particles and roadside soil particles were found to be 6.28±4.35 ng m -3 and 0.22±0.11 μg g -1, respectively. Benzo[ g, h, i]perylene and coronene were found to be the most abundant PAHs in airborne particles at all locations. The most abundant PAHs in the roadside soil particles were fluoranthene, pyrene and phenanthrene.

  15. [Atmospheric particle formation events in Nanjing during summer 2010].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong-Lei; Zhu, Bin; Shen, Li-Juan; Kang, Han-Qing; Diao, Yi-Wei

    2012-03-01

    Feature of aerosol particle number concentration, condition and impact factor of new particle formation (NPF) were investigated in Nanjing during summer. In this study, aerosol particle number concentration and gaseous pollutants (O3, SO2 and NO2) measurements were carried out by Wide-Range Particle Spectrometer (WPS) and Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (DOAS) in July 2010. Combining with observations from Automatic Weather Station and Backward Trajectory Simulation, the condition and impact factor of NPF were discussed. Results showed that the averaged 10-500 nm particle number concentration was 1.7 x 10(4) cm(-3), similar to some typical observation values in North American and Europe; the 10-25 nm particle number concentration accounted for 25% of the total number concentration. Six NPF events occurred during observation. We analyzed that stable wind speed and direction, strong solar radiation promoted the NPF. The humidity during NPF event varied from 50% to 70%. Results indicated that clean ocean air mass brought from easterly and southerly wind promoted the NPF by Backward Trajectory Model Simulation. During the NPF event, the 10 - 25 nm particle number concentration positively correlated with the concentration of SO2, and negatively correlated with O3, whereas poorly correlated with NO2. PMID:22624358

  16. The interaction between air ions and aerosol particles in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Aplin, KL

    2012-01-01

    Charged particles are continually generated in atmospheric air, and the interaction between natural ionisation and atmospheric particles is complicated. It is of some climatic importance to establish if ions are implicated in particle formation. Atmospheric ion concentrations have been investigated here at high temporal resolution, using Gerdien ion analysers at a site where synchronous meteorological measurements were also made. The background ionisation rate was also monitored with a Geiger counter, enabling ion production from natural radioactivity to be distinguished from other effects. Measurements at 1Hz offer some promise in establishing the atmospheric electrical influences in ionic nucleation bursts, although combinations of other meteorological factors are also known to be significant. High time resolution meteorological and ion measurements are therefore clearly necessary in advancing basic understanding in the behaviour of atmospheric aerosol.

  17. Molecular understanding of sulphuric acid-amine particle nucleation in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Almeida, João; Kürten, Andreas; Ortega, Ismael K; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Praplan, Arnaud P; Adamov, Alexey; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Henschel, Henning; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kurtén, Theo; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Leppä, Johannes; Loukonen, Ville; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; McGrath, Matthew J; Nieminen, Tuomo; Olenius, Tinja; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Riccobono, Francesco; Riipinen, Ilona; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Sarnela, Nina; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Seinfeld, John H; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjo; Virtanen, Annele; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Curtius, Joachim; Baltensperger, Urs; Vehkamaki, Hanna; Kirkby, Jasper

    2013-01-01

    Nucleation of aerosol particles from trace atmospheric vapours is thought to provide up to half of global cloud condensation nuclei. Aerosols can cause a net cooling of climate by scattering sunlight and by leading to smaller but more numerous cloud droplets, which makes clouds brighter and extends their lifetimes. Atmospheric aerosols derived from human activities are thought to have compensated for a large fraction of the warming caused by greenhouse gases. However, despite its importance for climate, atmospheric nucleation is poorly understood. Recently, it has been shown that sulphuric acid and ammonia cannot explain particle formation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. It is thought that amines may enhance nucleation, but until now there has been no direct evidence for amine ternary nucleation under atmospheric conditions. Here we use the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN and find that dimethylamine above three parts per trillion by volume can enhance particle formation rates ...

  18. Atmosphere turbulence effect on the hot particle charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The charging of hot beta-active aerosol articles of the micron size range in the turbulent current has been studied experimentally . For this purpose hot particles, obtained by the neutron activation of gold placed on the surface of glass microspheres by the cathode spraying method, were introduced into the turbulent current with the Reynolds number of 104 - 105. Results of the determination of particle charges within the current velocity range from 0.5 to 3 m/s confirm the reliability of the previously obtained model of the charging of hot particles in the turbulent current of the near - ground atmospere layer which is described by the function directly proportional to the radius of particles and the half-cube of the wind velocity, and inversely proportional to the square root of the height. The scheme is suggested and specific features are described of experimental installations used in the process of studies

  19. Applicability of condensation particle counters to measure atmospheric clusters

    OpenAIRE

    Sipilä, M.; Lehtipalo, K.; M. Kulmala; T. Petäjä; Junninen, H.; Aalto, P.P.; Manninen, H. E.; E.-M. Kyrö; Asmi, E.; Riipinen, I; J. Curtius; A. Kürten; S. Borrmann; C. D. O'Dowd

    2008-01-01

    The ambient and laboratory molecular and ion clusters were investigated. Here we present data on the ambient concentrations of both charged and uncharged molecular clusters as well as the performance of a pulse height condensation particle counter (PH-CPC) and an expansion condensation particle counter (E-CPC). The ambient molecular cluster concentrations were measured using both instruments, and they were deployed in conjunction with ion spectrometers and other aerosol instruments in Hyytiäl...

  20. A method for detecting the presence of organic fraction in nucleation mode sized particles

    OpenAIRE

    Vaattovaara, P.; Räsänen, M.; Kühn, T.; Joutsensaari, J.; Laaksonen, a

    2005-01-01

    New particle formation and growth has a very important role in many climate processes. However, the overall knowlegde of the chemical composition of atmospheric nucleation mode (particle diameter, d<20 nm) and the lower end of Aitken mode particles (d≤50 nm) is still insufficient. In this work, we have applied the UFO-TDMA (ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer) method to shed light on the presence of organic fraction in the nucleation mode size class in differ...

  1. Particle-size distribution and gas/particle partitioning of atmospheric polybrominated diphenyl ethers in urban areas of Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mandalakis, Manolis; Besis, Athanasios [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion-Voutes (Greece); Stephanou, Euripides G. [Environmental Chemical Processes Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion-Voutes (Greece)], E-mail: stephanou@chemistry.uoc.gr

    2009-04-15

    Ambient concentrations, gas/particle partitioning and particle-size distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in two urban areas (Athens and Heraklion) of Greece. Atmospheric (gas + particle) concentrations of {sigma}PBDE varied from 21 to 30 pg m{sup -3} in the center of Athens and from 4 to 44 pg m{sup -3} in the suburbs of Heraklion. A predominance of particulate PBDEs was observed in Athens (71-76% in particles), whereas the opposite was evident in Heraklion (69-92% in gas phase). In both urban areas, PBDE particle-size distribution featured a distinct enrichment in smaller particles. A similar trend was also observed in aerosols of a background marine site. For all sampling sites, more than 46% of {sigma}PBDE was associated with particles of <0.57 {mu}m in diameter. Our results imply that particulate PBDEs may have long atmospheric residence time and they may be capable of reaching the deeper parts of the human respiratory system. - Analysis of size-segregated aerosol samples indicates a predominance of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in the small particle-size fraction.

  2. The role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin B.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Bondo, T.;

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol nucleation has been studied experimentally in purified, atmospheric air, containing trace amounts of water vapor, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The results are compared with model calculations. It is found that an increase in ionization by a factor of 10 increases the production rate of stable...

  3. Number concentration and chemical composition of ultrafine and nanoparticles from WTE (waste to energy) plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernuschi, Stefano; Giugliano, Michele; Ozgen, Senem; Consonni, Stefano

    2012-03-15

    Stack field testing at four municipal waste-to-energy (WTE) plants was conducted to investigate total number concentrations and size distributions in a size range extended towards the evaluation of ultrafine (UFP) and nanoparticle (NP) fractions with diameters smaller than 100nm and 50nm, respectively. Measurements were performed with a specifically designed sampling line, equipped with a dilution system and a particle counting device for measuring both primary particles in raw flue gases at stack conditions and the contributions of condensable origin, arising from their cooling and dilution immediately following stack release into the atmosphere. Average concentration levels detected ranged between 5×10(3)-6×10(5)cm(-3): for all sampling conditions, ultrafine fractions largely prevailed in number size distributions, with average diameters constantly located in the nanoparticle size range. Stack concentrations appeared to be influenced by the design and process configuration of flue gas cleaning systems, with most significant effects related to the presence of wet scrubbing units and the baghouse operating temperature of dry removal processes. Chemical speciation (i.e., trace metals, anions and cations, carbonaceous compounds) of size-resolved particulate fractions was performed on one of the plants. NP and UFP composition was essentially in accordance with the most important fuel and combustion process characteristics: in particular, the presence of chlorides and metal species was consistent with the respective waste feed content and their expected behavior during combustion and flue gas cleaning processes. PMID:22326138

  4. Fine particles measurement techniques. Application to some atmospheric phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continous flow condensation nuclei counter (CNC) was first studied, this device being used for counting submicronic aerosol particles. A model describing heat and mass transfers inside a cooled pipe and the simultaneous condensational growth was developed; a comparison with experimental results showed excellent agreement. This model accounts for the defaults already observed with this type of apparatus. A new method for measuring the size distribution of aerosols with diameter ranging from 0.008 to 0.3 micron m is described. This technique is based upon particles bipolar charging, by contact with ions emitted from a beta source, and a subsequent differential electrical mobility analysis. The selected particles are detected by means of the CNC. A numerical inversion procedure is needed to recover the original aerosol size distribution. This method was compared with those currently in use: Electrical Mobility Analyser and Diffusion Battery

  5. Preparation of Ultra-fine Salbutamol Sulfate Particles by Reactive Precipitation and Characterization of Dry Powder Inhalant%反应沉淀法制备超细硫酸沙丁胺醇颗粒及其粉雾剂的表征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    续京; 刘晓林; 陈建峰

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of ultra.fine particles of salbutamol sulphate(SS)was accomplished with a reactive precipitation pathway,in Which salbutamo]and sulphuric acid were used as reactants wlth the solvents of ethanol.The effects of sulphuric acid concentration.reaction temperature,stirring rate,and reaction time on the Size of the particle were investigated.A binary mixture composed of lactose and SS was prepared to evaluate SS.The results showed that ultra-fine SS particles with controlled diameters ranging between 3 grn and 0.8 μm and with a narrow distribution could be achieyed.The morphology consisting of clubbed particles was successfully obtained.The pu-fity of the particles reached above 98%with UV detection.The dose of dry powder inhalation was obtained by blending the particles with recrystallized lactose.which acted as a carrier.The deposition quantity of the drug in breathing tract was estimated using a twin impinger apparatus.Compared wlth the Shapuer powder(purchased in the market),the results showed that SS particles had more quantines subsided in simulative lung.

  6. Modelling the fate of ultrafine particles from exhaust pipe to rural background: an analysis of time scales for dilution, coagulation and deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ketzel, Matthias; Berkowicz, Ruwim

    We investigate the time scales of various dynamic processes during the evolution of the particle size distribution from its emission from a vehicle exhaust pipe through its dilution at kerbside and urban level. In addition, the situation in a road tunnel or near a highway is discussed. The derived formula framework allows the estimation of approximated time scales based on a given particle size distribution for the processes dilution with background air, coagulation, deposition and condensation. The variation of the time scales for these processes with "lifetime" of the exhaust particles and the dependence of the time scales on the particle size is shown. We identify the spatial or temporal scales under which the discussed processes are important and have to be included in operational particle pollution models.

  7. Bronchiolitis caused by occupational and ambient atmospheric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churg, Andrew; Wright, Joanne L

    2003-10-01

    Occupationally encountered mineral dusts such as asbestos, silica, silicates (talc, mica), and metals can produce a distinctive pattern of fibrosis and distortion of the small airways, particularly the distal membranous bronchioles (MB) and the respiratory bronchioles (RB). Recent reports show that the same types of changes, accompanied by considerable muscle hyperplasia, are found in individuals living in regions with high levels of particulate air pollutants (PM). Models and actual measurements suggest that these changes occur because the small airways are sites of high particle deposition, and inhaled and deposited particulates, including PM, enter the airway walls. Studies from our laboratory using a tracheal explant model have shown that, for many types of particles, entry into the airway wall causes expression of mediators that lead to airway wall fibrosis and airway wall smooth muscle hyperplasia, probably through oxidant mechanisms. These reactions are intrinsic properties of the particles and do not require exogenous inflammatory cells. There is considerable evidence that individuals with occupational exposure to a wide variety of mineral dusts, as well as individuals with chronic exposure to high levels of PM, develop chronic airflow obstruction. The type of small airway remodeling seen in particle-induced bronchiolitis appears to be one cause of chronic airflow obstruction in this setting. PMID:16088574

  8. Strong atmospheric disturbances as a possible origin of inner zone particle diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Pokhotelov

    Full Text Available A new mechanism of the atmosphere-magnetosphere interaction, which might be called "acoustic-magnetospheric cyclotron accelerator", is proposed. The idea of this mechanism stems from the fact that strong acoustical perturbations in the ionosphere (e.g., due to earthquakes, thunderstorms, etc. may generate magnetic disturbances in the magnetosphere. Then, the latter will induce local resonant acceleration and subsequent inward diffusion of trapped particles. This idea may be fruitful in the interpretation of some occasional increases in inner zone particle fluxes which do not correlate with the solar or magnetospheric activities.

    Key words. Ionosphere (active experiments; ionosphere-atmosphere interactions; particle acceleration

  9. Microcomputer-controlled system for measuring atmospheric particle fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenz, R.; Murphy, C.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A Hiac/Royco Model 4102 optical airborne particle counter equipped with the Model 1200 sensor was interfaced to an existing data acquisition system. Due to the location of the instruments and data transmission problems, special interfaces and software solutions were required to achieve data transmission and instrument control integrity. System design, instrument operation, and the software and hardware solutions required for operation are described.

  10. Effects of atmospheric particles from Southern California on the optical properties of seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stramska, Malgorzata; Stramski, Dariusz; Cichocka, Marta; Cieplak, Agnieszka; Woźniak, SłAwomir B.

    2008-08-01

    The role of particles deposited from the atmosphere to the ocean is poorly understood in ocean optics. We examined the light absorption and scattering properties of atmospheric particulate matter, which was collected by dry deposition near the Pacific coastline in La Jolla, Southern California, and then suspended in particle-free seawater for subsequent laboratory measurements. Within these suspensions, we measured the spectral absorption and beam attenuation coefficients, particle size distribution, and particle mass concentration of atmospheric particles. We also determined the 4-week average aerosol deposition rates at the experimental site over a period of 9 months. The mass-specific particle absorption ap*(λ) and scattering bp*(λ) coefficients showed considerable variability among the samples because of the variations in particle size distribution and composition. For example, ap*(440) was on average 0.042 m2 g-1 but exhibited over fivefold range among the samples. At near-infrared wavelengths (750-800 nm), the magnitude of ap* was significant (>0.02 m2 g-1 for a number of samples) and is likely attributable to the presence of black carbon. The bp*(λ) values were virtually wavelength-independent because of the significant presence of relatively large particles (>10 μm) in our samples. The magnitude of bp*(λ) varied within a 3.5-fold range, with an average value of ˜0.27 m2 g-1. Our determinations of absorption and scattering by atmospheric particles coupled with radiative transfer simulations suggest that aerosol deposition may have sizable effect on ocean optical properties, including remote sensing reflectance under certain scenarios of deposition events, residence time of deposited particles within the water column, and particle properties.

  11. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends consistent with these predictions. The analysis also suggests, owing to larger observed CN reductions at remote sites than can be explained by the basic nucleation mechanism, that dimethylsulphide (DMS emissions may be decreasing worldwide with increasing global temperatures, implying a positive DMS-based cloud feedback forcing of the climate ("CLAW". The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates, and possibly on DMS emissions, may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  12. Decreasing particle number concentrations in a warming atmosphere and implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Yu

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available New particle formation contributes significantly to the number concentration of condensation nuclei (CN as well as cloud CN (CCN, a key factor determining aerosol indirect radiative forcing of the climate system. Using a physics-based nucleation mechanism that is consistent with a range of field observations of aerosol formation, it is shown that projected increases in global temperatures could significantly inhibit new particle, and CCN, formation rates worldwide. An analysis of CN concentrations observed at four NOAA ESRL/GMD baseline stations since the 1970s and two other sites since 1990s reveals long-term decreasing trends that are consistent in sign with, but are larger in magnitude than, the predicted temperature effects. The possible reasons for larger observed long-term CN reductions at remote sites are discussed. The combined effects of rising temperatures on aerosol nucleation rates and other chemical and microphysical processes may imply substantial decreases in future tropospheric particle abundances associated with global warming, delineating a potentially significant feedback mechanism that increases Earth's climate sensitivity to greenhouse gas emissions. Further research is needed to quantify the magnitude of such a feedback process.

  13. Occurrence and photostability of 3-nitrobenzanthrone associated with atmospheric particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feilberg, A.; Ohura, T.; Nielsen, T.; Poulsen, M.W.B.; Amagai, T.

    2002-01-01

    nitrated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (nitro-PAHs) and other air pollution components, it is suggested that 3-nitrobenzanthrone is a directly emitted primary pollutant and that it is not formed in the atmosphere to a significant degree. The photodegradation of 3-nitrobenzanthrone was studied in order...... to understand the low levels of this compound in ambient air. In the presence of a radical sensitizer, anthraquinone, the degradation rate of 3-nitrobenzanthrone is comparable to that of 1-nitropyrene (NP), a directly emitted nitro-PAH present in ambient air in significantly higher levels than 3...

  14. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Gordon, Hamish; Heinritzi, Martin; Yan, Chao; Molteni, Ugo; Ahlm, Lars; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Wagner, Robert; Simon, Mario; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Williamson, Christina; Craven, Jill S; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, Joao; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, Antònio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Möhler, Ottmar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piel, Felix M; Miettinen, Pasi; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomè, Antònio; Virtanen, Annele; Wagner, Andrea C; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-01-01

    About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelv...

  15. Microstructure of atmospheric particles revealed by TXM and a new mode of influenza virus transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, L. M.; Zhang, G. L.; Lei, Q. T.; Li, Y.; Li, X. L.; Hwu, Y. K.; Yi, J. M.

    2015-09-01

    For control of influenza, firstly it is important to find the real virus transmission media. Atmospheric aerosol particles are presumably one of the media. In this study, three typical atmospheric inhaled particles in Shanghai were studied by the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM). Three dimensional microstructure of the particles reveals that there are many pores contained in, particularly the coal combustion fly particles which may be possible virus carrier. The particles can transport over long distance and cause long-range infections due to its light weight. We suggest a mode which is droplet combining with aerosol mode. By this mode the transmission of global and pandemic influenzas and infection between inland avian far from population and poultry or human living in cities along coast may be explained.

  16. Microstructure of atmospheric particles revealed by TXM and a new mode of influenza virus transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For control of influenza, firstly it is important to find the real virus transmission media. Atmospheric aerosol particles are presumably one of the media. In this study, three typical atmospheric inhaled particles in Shanghai were studied by the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM). Three dimensional microstructure of the particles reveals that there are many pores contained in, particularly the coal combustion fly particles which may be possible virus carrier. The particles can transport over long distance and cause long-range infections due to its light weight. We suggest a mode which is droplet combining with aerosol mode. By this mode the transmission of global and pandemic influenzas and infection between inland avian far from population and poultry or human living in cities along coast may be explained

  17. Microstructure of atmospheric particles revealed by TXM and a new mode of influenza virus transmission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M., E-mail: baoliangman@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zhang, G.L., E-mail: zhangguilin@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Lei, Q.T.; Li, Y.; Li, X.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hwu, Y.K. [Institute of Physics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 11529, Taiwan (China); Yi, J.M. [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne 60439 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    For control of influenza, firstly it is important to find the real virus transmission media. Atmospheric aerosol particles are presumably one of the media. In this study, three typical atmospheric inhaled particles in Shanghai were studied by the synchrotron based transmission X-ray microscopes (TXM). Three dimensional microstructure of the particles reveals that there are many pores contained in, particularly the coal combustion fly particles which may be possible virus carrier. The particles can transport over long distance and cause long-range infections due to its light weight. We suggest a mode which is droplet combining with aerosol mode. By this mode the transmission of global and pandemic influenzas and infection between inland avian far from population and poultry or human living in cities along coast may be explained.

  18. Flow and compaction behaviour of ultrafine coated ibuprofen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    More, Parth K; Khomane, Kailas S; Bansal, Arvind K

    2013-01-30

    Good flow and compaction properties are prerequisites for successful compaction process. Apart from initial profile, mechanical properties of pharmaceutical powders can get modified during unit processes like milling. Milled powders can exhibit a wide range of particle size distribution. Further downstream processing steps like compaction can be affected by this differential particle size distribution. This has greatest implications for formulations like high dose drugs wherein the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) contributes the maximum bulk in the final formulation. The present study assesses the impact of dry coating with ultrafine particles of same material, on the flow and compaction properties of the core material. Ibuprofen was selected as model drug as it has been reported to have poor mechanical properties. Ultrafine ibuprofen (average size 1.75 μm) was generated by Dyno(®) milling and was dry coated onto the core ibuprofen particles (average size 180 μm). Compaction studies were performed using a fully instrumented rotary tablet press. Compaction data was analyzed for compressibility, tabletability, compactibility profiles and Heckel plot. Dry coating of the ibuprofen exhibited greater compressibility and tabletability, at lower compaction pressure. However, at compaction pressure above 220 MPa, compressibility and tabletability of coated as well as uncoated materials were found to be similar. Heckel analysis also supported the above findings, as P(y) value of uncoated ibuprofen was found to be 229.49 MPa and for 2.0% ultrafine coated ibuprofen was found to be 158.53 MPa. Lower P(y) value of ultrafine coated ibuprofen indicated ease of plastic deformation. Superior compressibility and deformation behaviour of ultrafine coated ibuprofen attributed to increased interparticulate bonding area. This strategy can also be explored for improving tabletability of high dose poorly compressible drugs. PMID:23142495

  19. Characterization of size distributions of elemental mass concentrations in atmospheric aerosols derived from different sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The atmospheric aerosol samples were collected at six representative sites with an 8-stage cascade impactor sampler and analyzed for their elemental mass concentrations by the PIXE analytic method. Based on some indicator elements, the characteristic of size distributions of particles from different sources were obtained. According to these characteristics, we inferred the origins of the ultrafine particles around the Great Wall Station in the Antarctic. (orig.)

  20. Heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by field-collected atmospheric particles below 273 K

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Bingbing; Laskin, Alexander; Roedel, Tobias; Gilles, Mary K.; Moffet, Ryan C.; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Knopf, Daniel A.

    2012-09-01

    Ice formation induced by atmospheric particles through heterogeneous nucleation is not well understood. Onset conditions for heterogeneous ice nucleation and water uptake by particles collected in Los Angeles and Mexico City were determined as a function of temperature (200-273 K) and relative humidity with respect to ice (RHice). Four dominant particle types were identified including soot associated with organics, soot with organic and inorganics, inorganic particles of marine origin coated with organic material, and Pb/Zn-containing particles apportioned to emissions relevant to waste incineration. Single particle characterization was provided by micro-spectroscopic analyses using computer controlled scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (CCSEM/EDX) and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy with near edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (STXM/NEXAFS). Above 230 K, significant differences in onsets of water uptake and immersion freezing of different particle types were observed. Below 230 K, particles exhibited high deposition ice nucleation efficiencies and formed ice atRHicewell below homogeneous ice nucleation limits. The data suggest that water uptake and immersion freezing are more sensitive to changes in particle chemical composition compared to deposition ice nucleation. The data demonstrate that anthropogenic and marine influenced particles, exhibiting various chemical and physical properties, possess distinctly different ice nucleation efficiencies and can serve as efficient IN at atmospheric conditions typical for cirrus and mixed-phase clouds.

  1. Toxicological studies of ultrafine particles: development and application of a close-to-reality in vitro lung model; Zur toxikologischen Untersuchung ultrafeiner Partikel: Entwicklung und Einsatz eines realitaetsnahen in vitro Lungenmodells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wottrich, R.

    2003-08-01

    The aim of the present study was the development of a close-to-reality human cell culture model of the air/blood barrier. Therefore, different human cell lines were evaluated regarding their response after exposure to fine and ultrafine model particles (hematite, silicasol and quartz particles). The cell lines under study were the bronchial epithelial cells BEAS-2B, the alveolar epithelial cells A549, the endothelial cells ECV304 and the macrophage-like cells THP-1 and Mono Mac 6. The uptake of hematite particles into A549 alveolar epithelial cells and the basolateral directed transport could be documented by use of light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results from extensive cytotoxicity studies support the hypothesis, that decreasing diameters of the used particles increase the intensity of the cytotoxic effects. However, the chemical composition determines the fundamental toxic impact of the particles. Each cell line showed a characteristic sensitivity to particle exposure in a dose-dependent manner. After exposure to particles, the cells released the inflammatory mediators Interleukin-6 and Interleukin-8 in dependence of the cell line. The co-cultures of alveolar epithelial cells (A549) and macrophage-like cells (differentiated THP-1 or Mono Mac 6) showed an increased sensitivity to particles concerning the cytokine release in comparison to the mono-cultures of each cell line. These results point out the significance of the interactions between the different cell types for inflammatory responses after exposure to particles at the air/blood barrier. First studies using the triple-cell culture system support these findings. Furthermore, transmission electron micrographs of the triple-cell culture system indicate translocation of hematite particles through the cell layers. (orig.) [German] Das Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Entwicklung eines realitaetsnahen humanen Zellkulturmodells der Luft/Blut-Schranke. Dazu wurde die Wirkung von

  2. A new method for assessing the contribution of Primary Biological Atmospheric Particles to the mass concentration of the atmospheric aerosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrino, Cinzia; Marcovecchio, Francesca

    2016-02-01

    Primary Biologic Atmospheric Particles (PBAPs) constitute an interesting and poorly investigated component of the atmospheric aerosol. We have developed and validated a method for evaluating the contribution of overall PBAPs to the mass concentration of atmospheric particulate matter (PM). The method is based on PM sampling on polycarbonate filters, staining of the collected particles with propidium iodide, observation at epifluorescence microscope and calculation of the bioaerosol mass using a digital image analysis software. The method has been also adapted to the observation and quantification of size-segregated aerosol samples collected by multi-stage impactors. Each step of the procedure has been individually validated. The relative repeatability of the method, calculated on 10 pairs of atmospheric PM samples collected side-by-side, was 16%. The method has been applied to real atmospheric samples collected in the vicinity of Rome, Italy. Size distribution measurements revealed that PBAPs was mainly in the coarse fraction of PM, with maxima in the range 5.6-10 μm. 24-h samples collected during different period of the year have shown that the concentration of bioaerosol was in the range 0.18-5.3 μg m(-3) (N=20), with a contribution to the organic matter in PM10 in the range 0.5-31% and to the total mass concentration of PM10 in the range 0.3-18%. The possibility to determine the concentration of total PBAPs in PM opens up interesting perspectives in terms of studying the health effects of these components and of increasing our knowledge about the composition of the organic fraction of the atmospheric aerosol. PMID:26680730

  3. Atmospheric fate and transport of fine volcanic ash: Does particle shape matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, C. M.; Allard, M. P.; Klewicki, J.; Proussevitch, A. A.; Mulukutla, G.; Genareau, K.; Sahagian, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    Volcanic ash presents hazards to infrastructure, agriculture, and human and animal health. In particular, given the economic importance of intercontinental aviation, understanding how long ash is suspended in the atmosphere, and how far it is transported has taken on greater importance. Airborne ash abrades the exteriors of aircraft, enters modern jet engines and melts while coating interior engine parts causing damage and potential failure. The time fine ash stays in the atmosphere depends on its terminal velocity. Existing models of ash terminal velocities are based on smooth, quasi-spherical particles characterized by Stokes velocity. Ash particles, however, violate the various assumptions upon which Stokes flow and associated models are based. Ash particles are non-spherical and can have complex surface and internal structure. This suggests that particle shape may be one reason that models fail to accurately predict removal rates of fine particles from volcanic ash clouds. The present research seeks to better parameterize predictive models for ash particle terminal velocities, diffusivity, and dispersion in the atmospheric boundary layer. The fundamental hypothesis being tested is that particle shape irreducibly impacts the fate and transport properties of fine volcanic ash. Pilot studies, incorporating modeling and experiments, are being conducted to test this hypothesis. Specifically, a statistical model has been developed that can account for actual volcanic ash size distributions, complex ash particle geometry, and geometry variability. Experimental results are used to systematically validate and improve the model. The experiments are being conducted at the Flow Physics Facility (FPF) at UNH. Terminal velocities and dispersion properties of fine ash are characterized using still air drop experiments in an unconstrained open space using a homogenized mix of source particles. Dispersion and sedimentation dynamics are quantified using particle image

  4. Vascular and lung function related to ultrafine and fine particles exposure assessed by personal and indoor monitoring: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Yulia; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Jensen, Ditte Marie; Bekö, Gabriel; Kjeldsen, Birthe Uldahl; Clausen, Geo; Hersoug, Lars-Georg; Holst, Gitte Juel; Wierzbicka, Aneta; Sigsgaard, Torben; Linneberg, Allan; Møller, Peter; Loft, Steffen

    2014-01-01

    -related effects. Methods: Associations between vascular and lung function, inflammation markers and exposure in terms of particle number concentration (PNC; d = 10-300 nm) were studied in a cross-sectional design with personal and home indoor monitoring in the Western Copenhagen Area, Denmark. During 48-h, PNC...

  5. Non-volatile residuals of newly formed atmospheric particles in the boreal forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ehn

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The volatility of sub-micrometer atmospheric aerosol particles was studied in a rural background environment in Finland using a combination of a heating tube and a scanning mobility particle sizer. The analysis focused on nanoparticles formed through nucleation which were subsequently observed during their growth in the diameter range between 5 and 60 nm. During the 6 days of new particle formation shown in detail, the concentrations of newly formed particles increased up to 10 000 cm−3. The number of nucleation mode particles measured after volatilization in the heating tube at 280°C was up to 90% of the total number under ambient conditions. Taking into account the absolute accuracy of the size distribution measurements, all ambient particles found in the rural atmosphere could have a non-volatile core after volatilization at 280°C. As the regional new particle formation events developed over time as a result of further vapor condensation, the newly formed particles grew at an average growth rate of 2.4±0.3 nm h−1. Importantly, the non-volatile cores of nucleation mode particles were also observed to grow over time, however, at a lower average growth rate of 0.6±0.3 nm h−1. One implication of the volatility analysis is that the newly formed particles, which have reached ambient diameters of 15 nm, are unlikely to consist of sulfuric acid, ammonium sulfate, and water alone. A relatively constant ratio between the growth rate of the ambient particles as well as their non-volatile cores indicates that non-volatile matter is formed only gradually in the growing particles. The non-volatile fraction of the particles showed some correlation with the ambient temperature. The composition and formation mechanism of this non-volatile material in nucleation mode particles are, to date, not known.

  6. A review of solar wind and high energy particle influence on the middle atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the middle atmosphere there are several external sources of energy connected with solar wind and high energy particles. Some of them affect the basic state of the middle atmosphere, e.g. galactic cosmic rays are responsible for the ionization in the stratosphere. However, they are responsible mainly for various disturbances in the middle atmosphere. One can identify effects caused by geomagnetic storms (and substorms in high latitudes), solar cosmic ray and relativistic electron precipitation events, Forbush decreases of galactic cosmic rays, interplanetary magnetic field and its sector boundary, high speed streams, interaction regions and other phenomena in the solar wind. Their mechanisms often partly overlap and are usually associated with high-energy particle penetration. Most of the effects are reasonably well understood in the lower ionosphere, but our knowledge concerning the neutral middle atmosphere is still rather poor

  7. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi; Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen; Chang, Hui-Hsien; Cheng, Tsun-Jen

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO(4); a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO(4) and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO(4) on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO(4), induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. PMID:23261976

  8. Estimation of health risks and safety margins due to inhalation of ultrafine particles and nanoparticles in selected occupational, consumer and environmental settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nanoparticles exhibit properties different from those of the same bulk materials leading to unknown toxicological implications that have evoked concern for (1) occupational, (2) consumer and (3) environmental safety. The current work utilizes epidemiological and toxicological data for screening level assessment of these risks using various suggested health relevant dose metrics (mass, particle number and surface area) to (i) quantify the potential risk levels and to (ii) compare the properties of these alternative risk assessment methods.

  9. Estimation of health risks and safety margins due to inhalation of ultrafine particles and nanoparticles in selected occupational, consumer and environmental settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hänninen, Otto; Brüske-Hohlfeld, Irene; Loh, Miranda; Stoeger, Tobias; Kreyling, Wolfgang; Schmid, Otmar; Peters, Annette

    2009-05-01

    Nanoparticles exhibit properties different from those of the same bulk materials leading to unknown toxicological implications that have evoked concern for (1) occupational, (2) consumer and (3) environmental safety. The current work utilizes epidemiological and toxicological data for screening level assessment of these risks using various suggested health relevant dose metrics (mass, particle number and surface area) to (i) quantify the potential risk levels and to (ii) compare the properties of these alternative risk assessment methods.

  10. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Schobesberger, S.; Junninen, H.; BIANCHI, F.; Lonn, G.; M. Ehn; Lehtipalo, K.; Dommen, J; S. Ehrhart; Ortega, I.K.; A. Franchin; Nieminen, T.; Riccobono, F.; Hutterli, M.; J. Duplissy; Almeida, J

    2013-01-01

    The formation of nanoparticles by condensable vapors in the atmosphere influences radiative forcing and therefore climate. We explored the detailed mechanism of particle formation, in particular the role of oxidized organic molecules that arise from the oxidation of monoterpenes, a class of volatile organic compounds emitted from plants. We mimicked atmospheric conditions in a well-controlled laboratory setup and found that these oxidized organics form initial clusters directly with single su...

  11. Impact of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the Earth’s ionosphere and atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Mateev Lachezar; Lastovicka Jan; Kudela Karel; Asenovski Simeon; Velinov Peter I.Y.; Mishev Alexander; Tonev Peter

    2013-01-01

    A brief review of the study during COST Action ES0803 of effects due to cosmic rays (CR) and solar energetic particles (SEP) in the ionosphere and atmosphere is presented. Models CORIMIA (COsmic Ray Ionization Model for Ionosphere and Atmosphere) and application of CORSIKA (COsmic Ray SImulations for KAscade) code are considered. They are capable to compute the cosmic ray ionization profiles at a given location, time, solar and geomagnetic activity. Intercomparison of the models, as well as c...

  12. Characterizing Biological Particles in the Atmosphere at two Sites in Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, E.; Prenni, A. J.; Prenni, J.; Rivest, J.; Demott, P. J.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2010-12-01

    The composition and distribution of primary biological aerosol particles (PBAPs) in the atmosphere is constantly changing due to both natural and anthropogenic activities. In this presentation, we will describe measurements aimed at better characterizing this population at Manitou Experimental Forest, in Pike National Forest in Colorado and in Fort Collins, CO. This work is part of the larger Biosphere-atmosphere Exchange of Aerosols within Cloud, Carbon and Hydrologic cycles, including Organics and Nitrogen (BEACHON) field study program, which is aimed at studying the connections between the biogeochemical cycling of carbon and water in semi-arid regions of the Western U.S. To this end, we are collecting PBAP with SKC impingers into water, which are subsequently analyzed by flow cytometery to determine the atmospheric biological particle concentration. Further, we are generating a gene library of the small subunit RNA genes to speciate the PBAPs in our collected samples using Sanger sequencing. These experiments are performed throughout the year to better understand seasonal variability of atmospheric microbial communities at the selected sites. A small handful of PBAPs have been found to be some of the best ice nucleators in the atmosphere, inducing ice nucleation as high as -2oC; these particles may play pivotal roles in influencing ice formation in cold clouds and, thereby, climate. Preliminary data will be presented aimed at better characterizing this important subset of biological particles.

  13. High energy cosmic ray particles and the most powerful discharges in thunderstorm atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The runaway breakdown-extensive atmospheric shower discharge (RB-EAS) excited in thunderstorm atmosphere by high energy cosmic ray particles (εp>1017-1019 eV) generate very powerful radio pulse. The RB-EAS theory is compared with observations of radio pulses. An agreement between the theory and experiment is established. The existence of nowaday satellite and ground based systems which obtain regularly a large amount of observational radio data could allow to use them in combination with other methods for effective study of high energy cosmic ray particles

  14. High energy cosmic ray particles and the most powerful new type discharges in thunderstorm atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Gurevich, A V

    2004-01-01

    The runaway breakdown -- extensive atmospheric shower discharge (RB - EAS) excited in thunderstorm atmosphere by high energy cosmic ray particles ($\\epsilon_p>10^{17} - 10^{19}$ eV) generate very powerful radio pulse. The RB - EAS theory is compared with observations of radio pulses. An agreement between the theory and experiment is established. The existence of nowaday satellite and ground based systems which obtain regularly a large amount of observational radio data could allow to use them in combination with other methods for effective study of high energy cosmic ray particles

  15. Studying Close Approaches for a Cloud of Particles Considering Atmospheric Drag

    OpenAIRE

    Vivian Martins Gomes; Jorge Formiga; Rodolpho Vilhena de Moraes

    2013-01-01

    The present paper has the goal of studying close approaches between a planet and a group of particles. The mathematical model includes the presence of the atmosphere of the planet. This cloud is assumed to be created by the passage of the spacecraft in the atmosphere of the planet, which can cause the explosion of the spacecraft. The system is assumed to be formed by the Sun, the planet, and the spacecraft that explodes and becomes a cloud of particles. The Sun and the planet are assumed to b...

  16. Size distribution of radon daughter particles in uranium mine atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An investigation of the particle size distribution and other properties of radon daughters in uranium mines was reported earlier but only summaries of the data were presented. This report consists mainly of tables of detailed measurements that were omitted in the original article. The tabulated data include the size distributions, uncombined fractions and ratios of radon daughters as well as the working levels, radon concentrations, condensation nuclei concentrations, temperature, and relative humidity. The measurements were made in 27 locations in four large underground mines in New Mexico during typical mining operations. The size distributions of the radon daughters were log normal. The activity median diameters ranged from 0.09 μm to 0.3 μm with a mean of 0.17 μm. Geometric standard deviations were from 1.3 to 4 with a mean of 2.7. Uncombined fractions expressed in accordance with the ICRP definition ranged from 0.004 to 0.16 with a mean of 0.04

  17. The link between atmospheric radicals and newly formed particles at a spruce forest site in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Sun, T. S.; Bingemer, H.; Rondo, L.; Javed, U.; Li, J.; Axinte, R.; Li, X.; Brauers, T.; Sonderfeld, H.; Koppmann, R.; Sogachev, Andrey; Jacobi, S.; Spracklen, D. V.

    2013-01-01

    controlled by HO2 and NO we conclude that peroxy radicals and NO seem to play an important role for ambient radical chemistry not only with respect to oxidation capacity but also for the activation process of new particle formation. This is supposed to have significant impact of atmospheric radical species......It has been claimed for more than a century that atmospheric new particle formation is primarily influenced by the presence of sulphuric acid. However, the activation process of sulphuric acid related clusters into detectable particles is still an unresolved topic. In this study we focus on the...... theories, evaluating their ability to simulate measured particle formation rates at 3 nm in diameter (J3) for a variety of different conditions. Nucleation mechanisms involving only sulphuric acid tentatively captured the observed noon-time daily maximum in J3, but displayed an increasing difference to J3...

  18. Source apportionment of single aerosol particles in the atmosphere of Shanghai city

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analytical sensitivity was applied to analyze atmospheric aerosol at five monitoring sites in Shanghai city. Meantime, a new pattern recognition technique, which used the micro-PIXE spectrum of a single aerosol particle as its fingerprint, was developed to identify the origin of the particle. The results showed that the major contributors to the atmosphere pollution were soil dust (31.6%), building dust (30.8%), and the next were vehicle exhaust (13.7%), metallurgic industry excrements (5.6%), oil combustion (5%) and coal combustion (2.3%). Besides these, about 10% of the particles could not be identified. Based on the cluster analysis of these particles, they could be divided into soil dust, building dust and metallurgic industry excrements. Moreover, some new pollution sources from tyres and chemical plants were also revealed

  19. Influence of Ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 Powder on Hydration Properties of Reactive Powder Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongfang Sun

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we assessed the influence of an ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder on the hydration properties of a reactive powder concrete system. The ultrafine powder was manufactured through chemical combustion method. The morphology of ultrafine powder and the development of hydration products in the cement paste prepared with ultrafine powder were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, mineralogical composition were determined by X-ray diffraction, while the heat release characteristics up to the age of 3 days were investigated by calorimetry. Moreover, the properties of cementitious system in fresh and hardened state (setting time, drying shrinkage, and compressive strength with 5% ordinary Portland cement replaced by ultrafine powder were evaluated. From SEM micrographs, the particle size of ultrafine powder was found to be up to several hundred nanometers. The hydration product started formulating at the age of 3 days due to slow reacting nature of belitic 2CaO·SiO2. The initial and final setting times were prolonged and no significant difference in drying shrinkage was observed when 5% ordinary Portland cement was replaced by ultrafine powder. Moreover, in comparison to control reactive powder concrete, the reactive powder concrete containing ultrafine powder showed improvement in compressive strength at and above 7 days of testing. Based on above, it can be concluded that the manufactured ultrafine 2CaO·SiO2 powder has the potential to improve the performance of a reactive powder cementitious system.

  20. Evaluation of the accuracy of analysis tools for atmospheric new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, H.; S.-L. Sihto; V.-M. Kerminen; Lehtinen, K. E. J.

    2010-01-01

    Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to ...

  1. Evaluation of the accuracy of analysis tools for atmospheric new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, H.; Sihto, S.-L.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Lehtinen, K. E. J.

    2011-01-01

    Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3) showed significant sensitivity to...

  2. Analyses on the formation of atmospheric particles and stabilized sulphuric acid clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paasonen, P.

    2012-11-01

    Aerosol particles have various effects on our life. They affect the visibility and have diverse health effects, but are also applied in various applications, from drug inhalators to pesticides. Additionally, aerosol particles have manifold effects on the Earths' radiation budget and thus on the climate. The strength of the aerosol climate effect is one of the factors causing major uncertainties in the global climate models predicting the future climate change. Aerosol particles are emitted to atmosphere from various anthropogenic and biogenic sources, but they are also formed from precursor vapours in many parts of the world in a process called atmospheric new particle formation (NPF). The uncertainties in aerosol climate effect are partly due to the current lack of knowledge of the mechanisms governing the atmospheric NPF. It is known that gas phase sulphuric acid most certainly plays an important role in atmospheric NPF. However, also other vapours are needed in NPF, but the exact roles or even identities of these vapours are currently not exactly known. In this thesis I present some of the recent advancements in understanding of the atmospheric NPF in terms of the roles of the participating vapours and the meteorological conditions. Since direct measurements of new particle formation rate in the initial size scale of the formed particles (below 2 nm) are so far infrequent in both spatial and temporal scales, indirect methods are needed. The work presented on the following pages approaches the NPF from two directions: by analysing the observed formation rates of particles after they have grown to sizes measurable with widely applied instruments (2 nm or larger), and by measuring and modelling the initial sulphuric acid cluster formation. The obtained results can be summarized as follows. (1) The observed atmospheric new particle formation rates are typically connected with sulphuric acid concentration to the power close to two. (2) Also other compounds, most

  3. Real-world PM, NO x, CO, and ultrafine particle emission factors for military non-road heavy duty diesel vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dongzi; Nussbaum, Nicholas J.; Kuhns, Hampden D.; Chang, M.-C. Oliver; Sodeman, David; Moosmüller, Hans; Watson, John G.

    2011-05-01

    Training on US military bases involves nonroad diesel vehicles with emissions that can affect base personnel, nearby communities, and attainment of air quality standards. Nonroad diesel engines contribute 44% of diesel PM and 12% of total NO x emissions from mobile sources nationwide. Although military sector fuel use accounts for only ≈0.4% of distillate fuel use in US, emissions factors measured for these engines improve the representation of the relatively small (as compared to onroad sources) database of nonroad emission factors. Heavy-duty multi-axle, all-wheel drive military trucks are not compatible with regular single-axle dynamometers and their emissions cannot be measured under standard laboratory conditions. We have developed a novel in-plume technique to measure in-use emissions from vehicles with elevated stack. Real-world gaseous and particulate matter (PM) emission factors (EFs) from ten 7-ton 6-wheel drive trucks and two 8-wheel drive heavy tactical Logistics Vehicle System (LVS) vehicles were measured using in-plume sampling. The EFs of these trucks are comparable to those of onroad trucks while the PM EFs of 2-stroke LVS are ≈10 times higher than those of onroad vehicles. Lower EC/PM ratio was observed for LVS compared with MTVR. PM number emission factors were 5.9 × 10 14 particles km -1 for the trucks and 2.5 × 10 16 particles km -1 for the LVSs, three orders of magnitude higher than the proposed European Union standard of 6 × 10 11 particles km -1. The EFs sampled can be extended to engines used in the broader nonroad sector including agriculture and mining and used as inputs to the NONROAD model.

  4. Size distribution and total number concentration of ultrafine and accumulation mode particles and hospital admissions in children and the elderly in Copenhagen, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Wåhlin, Peter; Raaschou-Nielsen, O;

    2008-01-01

    in diameter, respectively) and ambient gasses. We utilised data on size distribution to calculate NC(tot) for four modes with median diameters 12, 23, 57 and 212 nm, and NC(100) (number concentration of particles <100 nm in diameter) and examined their associations with health outcomes. We used a...... time series Poisson generalised additive model adjusted for overdispersion, season, day of the week, public holidays, school holidays, influenza, pollen and meteorology, with up to 5 days' lagged exposure. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: The adverse health effects of particulate matter on CVD and RD hospital...

  5. Nuclear microprobe analysis and source apportionment of individual atmospheric aerosol particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In atmospheric aerosol reserach, one key issue is to determine the sources of the airborne particles. Bulk PIXE analysis coupled with receptor modeling provides a useful, but limited view of the aerosol sources influencing one particular site or sample. The scanning nuclear microprobe (SNM) technique is a microanalytical technique that gives unique information on individual aerosol particles. In the SNM analyses a 1.0 μm size 2.4 MeV proton beam from the Oxford SNM was used. The trace elements with Z>11 were measured by the particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) method with detection limits in the 1-10 ppm range. Carbon, nitrogen and oxygen are measured simultaneously using Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS). Atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at the Brazilian Antarctic Station and at biomass burning sites in the Amazon basin tropical rain forest in Brazil. In the Antarctic samples, the sea-salt aerosol particles were clearly predominating, with NaCl and CaSO4 as major compounds with several trace elements as Al, Si, P, K, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Sr, and Pb. Factor analysis of the elemental data showed the presence of four components: 1) Soil dust particles; 2) NaCl particles; 3) CaSO4 with Sr; and 4) Br and Mg. Strontium, observed at 20-100 ppm levels, was always present in the CaSO4 particles. The hierarchical cluster procedure gave results similar to the ones obtained through factor analysis. For the tropical rain forest biomass burning aerosol emissions, biogenic particles with a high organic content dominate the particle population, while K, P, Ca, Mg, Zn, and Si are the dominant elements. Zinc at 10-200 ppm is present in biogenic particles rich in P and K. The quantitative aspects and excellent detection limits make SNM analysis of individual aerosol particles a very powerful analytical tool. (orig.)

  6. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    OpenAIRE

    McFiggans, G.; Coe, H.; Burgess, R.; Allan, J; Cubison, M.; M. R. Alfarra; Saunders, R.; Saiz-Lopez, A.; J. M. C. Plane; Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; A. R. Rickard; Monks, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2I2),...

  7. Phase transitions of aqueous atmospheric particles: Crystallization of ammonium salts promoted by oxide mineral constituents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jeong-Ho

    2001-09-01

    Knowledge of the hygroscopic response of aerosols is a fundamental factor necessary for the accurate quantitative modeling of visibility degradation, global warming, PM-10 health issues, cloud microphysics, and the oxidizing capacity of the troposphere. At the present time, however, our current understanding of phase transitions is insufficient to develop accurate quantitative models. The discrepancy between current atmospheric models and field measurements originates mainly from a lack of understanding of the efflorescence of real atmospheric particles. While there have been many studies on the homogeneous nucleation of the soluble organic, inorganic, or multi-component materials, many recent in situ field measurements with single-particle mass spectrometry reveal that the individual particles in the troposphere are primarily composed of more than one component. One of the common mixed component particle types contains both water- soluble and insoluble components. Through atmospheric processes, the soluble component can be expected to form a coating around the insoluble constituents. This type of atmospheric particles is very important because the insoluble constituent can play a role as a template for the crystallization of the soluble components by heterogeneous nucleation. In the atmosphere, the most prevalent insoluble constituents are mineral dusts, which have their origin from Saharan and Gobbi deserts. The existence of these coated particles has been supported by several field measurements as well as model studies. Therefore, it becomes imperative to simulate more realistic atmospheric particles for more exact (or realistic) understanding the phase transition of the ambient aerosol particles in the real world. In this context, a series of studies has been completed to solve the aforementioned problems in the phase transition study and to better understand the heterogeneous nucleation of these internally mixed particles. An in-line tube furnace has been

  8. The generation of diesel exhaust particle aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Cooney

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Daniel J Cooney1, Anthony J Hickey21Department of Biomedical Engineering; 2School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USAAbstract: The influence of diesel exhaust particles (DEP on the lungs and heart is currently a topic of great interest in inhalation toxicology. Epidemiological data and animal studies have implicated airborne particulate matter and DEP in increased morbidity and mortality due to a number of cardiopulmonary diseases including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder, and lung cancer. The pathogeneses of these diseases are being studied using animal models and cell culture techniques. Real-time exposures to freshly combusted diesel fuel are complex and require significant infrastructure including engine operations, dilution air, and monitoring and control of gases. A method of generating DEP aerosols from a bulk source in an aerodynamic size range similar to atmospheric DEP would be a desirable and useful alternative. Metered dose inhaler technology was adopted to generate aerosols from suspensions of DEP in the propellant hydrofluoroalkane 134a. Inertial impaction data indicated that the particle size distributions of the generated aerosols were trimodal, with count median aerodynamic diameters less than 100 nm. Scanning electron microscopy of deposited particles showed tightly aggregated particles, as would be expected from an evaporative process. Chemical analysis indicated that there were no major changes in the mass proportion of 2 specific aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene and benzo[k]fluoranthene in the particles resulting from the aerosolization process.Keywords: diesel exhaust particles, aerosol, inhalation toxicology

  9. The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    OpenAIRE

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rondo, Linda; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at su...

  10. Internal composition of atmospheric dust particles from focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conny, Joseph M

    2013-08-01

    Use of focused ion-beam scanning electron microscopy (FIB-SEM) to investigate the internal composition of atmospheric particles is demonstrated for assessing particle optical properties. In the FIB-SEM instrument equipped with an X-ray detector, a gallium-ion beam mills the particle, while the electron beam images the slice faces and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy provides element maps of the particle. Differences in assessments of optical behavior based on FIB-SEM and conventional SEM were shown for five selected urban dust particles. The benefit of FIB-SEM for accurately determining the depth and size of optically important phases within particles was shown. FIB-SEM revealed that iron oxide grains left undetected by conventional SEM could potentially shift the single-scattering albedo of the particle from negative to positive radiative forcing. Analysis of a coke-like particle showed that 73% of the light-scattering inclusion went undetected with conventional SEM, causing the bulk absorption coefficient to vary by as much as 25%. Optical property calculations for particles as volume-equivalent spheres and as spheroids that approximated actual particle shapes revealed that the largest effect between conventional SEM and FIB-SEM analyses was on backscattering efficiency, in some cases varying several-fold. PMID:23763344

  11. Utility of an alternative bicycle commute route of lower proximity to motorised traffic in decreasing exposure to ultra-fine particles, respiratory symptoms and airway inflammation – a structured exposure experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Bicycle commuting in an urban environment of high air pollution is known to be a potential health risk, especially for susceptible individuals. While risk management strategies aimed to reduce exposure to motorised traffic emissions have been suggested, only limited studies have assessed the utility of such strategies in real-world circumstances. Objectives The potential to lower exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP; < 0.1 μm) during bicycle commuting by reducing proximity to motorised traffic was investigated with real-time air pollution and intermittent acute inflammatory measurements in healthy individuals using their typical higher proximity, and an alternative lower proximity, bicycle commute route. Methods Thirty-five healthy adults (mean ± SD: age = 39 ± 11 yr; 29% female) completed two return trips, one each in the condition of their typical route (HIGH) and a pre-determined alternative route of lower proximity to motorised traffic (LOW); proximity being determined by the proportion of on-road cycle paths. Particle number concentration (PNC) and diameter (PD) were monitored in-commute in real-time. Acute inflammatory indices of respiratory symptoms (as a scalar of frequency from very low to very high / 1 to 5), lung function and spontaneous sputum (for inflammatory cell analyses) were collected immediately pre-commute, and immediately and three hours post-commute. Results In the condition of LOW, compared to in the condition of HIGH, there was a significant decrease in mean PNC (1.91 x e4 ± 0.93 × e4 ppcc vs. 2.95 × e4 ± 1.50 × e4 ppcc; p ≤ 0.001), and the mean frequency of in-commute offensive odour detection (2.1 vs. 2.8; p = 0.019), dust and soot observation (1.7 vs. 2.3; p = 0.038) and nasopharyngeal irritation (1.5 vs. 1.9; p = 0.007). There were no significant differences between LOW and HIGH in the commute distance and duration (12.8 ± 7.1 vs. 12.0 ± 6.9 km and 44 ± 17 vs. 42 ± 17 min, respectively), or other indices of

  12. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poellaenen, R

    2002-05-01

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has

  13. Nuclear fuel particles in the environment - characteristics, atmospheric transport and skin doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present thesis, nuclear fuel particles are studied from the perspective of their characteristics, atmospheric transport and possible skin doses. These particles, often referred to as 'hot' particles, can be released into the environment, as has happened in past years, through human activities, incidents and accidents, such as the Chernobyl nuclear power plant accident in 1986. Nuclear fuel particles with a diameter of tens of micrometers, referred to here as large particles, may be hundreds of kilobecquerels in activity and even an individual particle may present a quantifiable health hazard. The detection of individual nuclear fuel particles in the environment, their isolation for subsequent analysis and their characterisation are complicated and require well-designed sampling and tailored analytical methods. In the present study, the need to develop particle analysis methods is highlighted. It is shown that complementary analytical techniques are necessary for proper characterisation of the particles. Methods routinely used for homogeneous samples may produce erroneous results if they are carelessly applied to radioactive particles. Large nuclear fuel particles are transported differently in the atmosphere compared with small particles or gaseous species. Thus, the trajectories of gaseous species are not necessarily appropriate for calculating the areas that may receive large particle fallout. A simplified model and a more advanced model based on the data on real weather conditions were applied in the case of the Chernobyl accident to calculate the transport of the particles of different sizes. The models were appropriate in characterising general transport properties but were not able to properly predict the transport of the particles with an aerodynamic diameter of tens of micrometers, detected at distances of hundreds of kilometres from the source, using only the current knowledge of the source term. Either the effective release height has been higher

  14. Experimental evidence for the role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensmark, Henrik; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke; Marsh, N.D.;

    2007-01-01

    Experimental studies of aerosol nucleation in air, containing trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide and water vapour at concentrations relevant for the Earth's atmosphere, are reported. The production of new aerosol particles is found to be proportional to the negative ion density and yields nu...

  15. Atmospheric data over a solar cycle: no connection between galactic cosmic rays and new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate predictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cosmic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driving force behind aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Later, the enhancement of atmospheric aerosol particle formation by ions generated from cosmic rays was proposed as a physical mechanism explaining this correlation. Here, we report unique observations on atmospheric aerosol formation based on measurements at the SMEAR II station, Finland, over a solar cycle (years 1996–2008 that shed new light on these presumed relationships. Our analysis shows that none of the quantities related to aerosol formation correlates with the cosmic ray-induced ionisation intensity (CRII. We also examined the contribution of ions to new particle formation on the basis of novel ground-based and airborne observations. A consistent result is that ion-induced formation contributes typically less than 10% to the number of new particles, which would explain the missing correlation between CRII and aerosol formation. Our main conclusion is that galactic cosmic rays appear to play a minor role for atmospheric aerosol formation, and so for the connected aerosol-climate effects as well.

  16. Atmospheric data over a solar cycle: no connection between galactic cosmic rays and new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kulmala

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate predictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cosmic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driving force behind aerosol-cloud-climate interactions. Later, the enhancement of atmospheric aerosol particle formation by ions generated from cosmic rays was proposed as a physical mechanism explaining this correlation. Here, we report unique observations on atmospheric aerosol formation based on measurements at the SMEAR II station, Finland, over a solar cycle (years 1996–2008 that shed new light on these presumed relationships. Our analysis shows that none of the quantities related to aerosol formation correlates with the cosmic ray-induced ionisation intensity (CRII. We also examined the contribution of ions to new particle formation on the basis of novel ground-based and airborne observations. A consistent result is that ion-induced formation contributes typically significantly less than 10% to the number of new particles, which would explain the missing correlation between CRII and aerosol formation. Our main conclusion is that galactic cosmic rays appear to play a minor role for atmospheric aerosol formation events, and so for the connected aerosol-climate effects as well.

  17. Depletion of total ozone content of the atmosphere due to solar particle events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The depletion of total ozone in the atmosphere due to major solar particle events during the past decade and a half is investigated. The daily data for a number of stations situated above 40deg N for several days before and after each particle event, are analyzed and superimposed. The seasonal variation is taken into consideration and corrected for. The percentage variation curves for a number of particle events are superimposed to obtain a consolidated curve which shows a detectable depletion of ozone after such occurrences. The depletion of ground ozone due to extra-terrestrial energetic particles has not been definitely identified before. The percentage reduction of O3 so obtained agrees well with observed Nimbus-4 satellite data of 3.3% after 8 days of 4 Aug. 1972 event. Different mechanisms of ozone depletion due to particle flux are discussed. (auth.)

  18. Pollution characteristics of atmospheric fine particles and their secondary components in the atmosphere of Shenzhen in summer and in winter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIU Yuwen; HE Lingyan; HU Min; ZHANG Jing; ZHAO Yunliang

    2006-01-01

    Two field measurements for atmospheric fine particles were conducted in Baoan district of Shenzhen during the summer and winter in 2004. Totally 30 sets of 24 h samples were collected, and then the mass concentrations and chemical compositions were determined. The seasonal variations and secondary pollution characteristics of fine particles during the sampling periods were discussed with meteorological factors. The results show that seasonal variations of atmospheric particles are significant in Shenzhen. The average mass concentrations of PM2.5 and PM10 in summer were 35 μg·m-3 and 57 μg·m-3, respectively, and those in winter were 99 μg·m-3 and 135 μg·m-3, respectively. The concentrations of both PM2.5 and PM10 in winter increased 184% and 137%, respectively, compared to those in summer. PM2.5 accounted for 61% and 75% of PM10 in summer and in winter, respectively, indicating severe fine particle pollution in Shenzhen. During the summer and winter sampling periods, the mean OC/EC ratios were 3.4 and 1.6, respectively. The estimated secondary organic carbon (SOC) averagely accounted for 56% and 6% of the total OC in summer and in winter, respectively, which implies a major contribution of SOC to OC in summer. During the continuous high temperature period in summer, both the concentrations and fractions of secondary aerosol components in PM2.5 were highly elevated, suggesting severe secondary pollution again. The prevailing wind was from South China Sea in summer, and the air quality was good. The prevailing wind in winter was from Mainland China to the north, and the polluted air mass led to poor air quality.

  19. Aqueous Processing of Atmospheric Organic Particles in Cloud Water Collected via Aircraft Sampling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boone, Eric J.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Wirth, Christopher; Shepson, Paul B.; Stirm, Brian H.; Pratt, Kerri A.

    2015-07-21

    Cloud water and below-cloud atmospheric particle samples were collected onboard a research aircraft during the Southern Oxidant and Aerosol Study (SOAS) over a forested region of Alabama in June 2013. The organic molecular composition of the samples was studied to gain insights into the aqueous-phase processing of organic compounds within cloud droplets. High resolution mass spectrometry with nanospray desorption electrospray ionization and direct infusion electrospray ionization were utilized to compare the organic composition of the particle and cloud water samples, respectively. Isoprene and monoterpene-derived organosulfates and oligomers were identified in both the particles and cloud water, showing the significant influence of biogenic volatile organic compound oxidation above the forested region. While the average O:C ratios of the organic compounds were similar between the atmospheric particle and cloud water samples, the chemical composition of these samples was quite different. Specifically, hydrolysis of organosulfates and formation of nitrogen-containing compounds were observed for the cloud water when compared to the atmospheric particle samples, demonstrating that cloud processing changes the composition of organic aerosol.

  20. Catalytic oxidation of CS2 over atmospheric particles and oxide catalysts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The catalytic oxidization of CS2 over atmospheric particles and some oxide catalysts was explored through FT-IR, MS and a fixed-bed stainless steel reactor. The results show that at mospheric particles and some oxide catalysts exhibited considerable oxidizing activities for CS2 at ambient temperature. The reaction products are mainly COS and elemental sulfur, even CO2 on some catalysts. Among the catalysts, CaO has the strongest catalytic activity for oxidizing CS2. Fe2O3 is weaker than CaO. The catalytic activity for AI2O3 reduces considerably compared with the former two catalysts, and SiO2 the weakest. Atmospheric particle samples' catalytic activity is be tween Fe2O3's and AI2O3's. The atmospheric particle sample collected mainly consists of Ca(AI2Si2O8)· 4H2O, which is also the main component of cement. COS, the main product, is formed by the catalytic oxidization of CS2 with adsorbed “molecular” oxygen over the catalysts' surfaces. The concentration of adsorbed oxygen over catalysts' surfaces may be the key factor contributed to the oxidizing activity. It is indicated that CS2 could be catalytically oxidized over at mospheric particles, which induced that this reaction may be another important source of atmos pheric COS from CS2.

  1. Nonlinear acoustic-gravity waves and dust particle redistribution in earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izvekova, Yu. N.; Popel, S. I.; Chen, B. B.

    2015-11-01

    A continuously stratified model of nonadiabatic terrestrial atmosphere with taking into account the temperature profile is developed to study a possibility of instability development of acoustic-gravity (AG-) waves. It is shown that the existence of the regions in the atmosphere where the instability conditions are satisfied is due to the cooperation of thermal flow of solar radiation, infrared emission of the atmosphere, water vapor condensation, as well as thermal conductivity. Large-amplitude vortices in Earth's troposphere and ionosphere and their possible structure as well as redistribution of dust particles in the ionosphere as a result of vortical motions are discussed. The following possibilities for the dust particle redistribution are studied: capture and evolution of dust particles in AG-vortices, formation of dust vortices as a result of involving a great number of dust particles into vortex motions, and formation of vertical and horizontal dust flows (streamers and zonal flows). It is shown that excitation of AG-vortices at the ionospheric altitudes as a result of development of AG-wave instability leads to a substantial transportation of dust particles and their mixing. Layers of dust particles with a thickness of about a kilometer, forming at the altitudes less than 120 km, distribute within the region of the existence of AG-vortical structures. As a result, at altitudes of 110-120 km, dust vortices can appear, and transportation of particles up to altitudes of 130 km becomes possible. One of the ways of transportation of dust particles in the ionosphere is dust flows, which are generated by dust vortices as a result of development of parametric instability.

  2. Utilitarian Opacity Model for Aggregate Particles in Protoplanetary Nebulae and Exoplanet Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Cuzzi, Jeffrey N; Davis, Sanford S

    2013-01-01

    As small solid grains grow into larger ones in protoplanetary nebulae, or in the cloudy atmospheres of exoplanets, they generally form porous aggregates rather than solid spheres. A number of previous studies have used highly sophisticated schemes to calculate opacity models for irregular, porous particles with size much smaller than a wavelength. However, mere growth itself can affect the opacity of the medium in far more significant ways than the detailed compositional and/or structural differences between grain constituents once aggregate particle sizes exceed the relevant wavelengths. This physics is not new; our goal here is to provide a model that provides physical insight and is simple to use in the increasing number of protoplanetary nebula evolution, and exoplanet atmosphere, models appearing in recent years, yet quantitatively captures the main radiative properties of mixtures of particles of arbitrary size, porosity, and composition. The model is a simple combination of effective medium theory with...

  3. Field and laboratory studies of atmospheric reactive mercury: Gas-particle partitioning and sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew Philip

    Certain aspects of atmospheric reactive mercury (RM) source-receptor relationships are not well understood. The objective of this dissertation was to improve the understanding of these relationships in the following areas: (i) gas-particle partitioning, and; (ii) the local impacts of RM source emissions. A novel aerosol reactor was developed to study gas-particle partitioning of RM using synthetic atmospheric aerosol containing picogram concentrations of RM. The RM in the aerosol was collected in an offline mode with filters and sorbent, and analyzed with Thermal Desorption Analysis (TDA). The offline-TDA collection and analysis method was compared with a commercial real time ambient mercury analyzer and two wet analysis methods using ambient measurements. The offline-TDA method performed well in comparison to the established techniques. The dependencies of gas-particle partitioning coefficients upon temperature and particle composition were determined and parameterized from field studies and laboratory experiments. The volatility of RM increased with ambient temperature in urban aerosol and laboratory aerosol of ammonium sulfate and adipic acid. The dependence of RM gas-particle partitioning on particle composition were determined using synthetic atmospheric aerosol generated in the laboratory. RM partitioned predominantly to the particle phase in particles of sodium nitrate, sodium chloride and potassium chloride, but was much more volatile in particles made of ammonium sulfate, levoglucosan and adipic acid. The impacts of RM sources on local receptors were studied in southern Wisconsin and Mexico City. RM measurements were made over a year in Milwaukee, WI (urban) and Devil's Lake State Park, WI (rural). An urban excess of all three mercury species was detected in Milwaukee, WI. The urban excess was attributed to a higher density of mercury emissions in the Milwaukee, WI-Chicago, IL area. The impact of local sources of RM on both sites was found to dominate the

  4. The role of low-volatility organic compounds in initial particle growth in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tröstl, Jasmin; Chuang, Wayne K; Gordon, Hamish; Heinritzi, Martin; Yan, Chao; Molteni, Ugo; Ahlm, Lars; Frege, Carla; Bianchi, Federico; Wagner, Robert; Simon, Mario; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Williamson, Christina; Craven, Jill S; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, Joao; Bernhammer, Anne-Kathrin; Breitenlechner, Martin; Brilke, Sophia; Dias, Antònio; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Fuchs, Claudia; Guida, Roberto; Gysel, Martin; Hansel, Armin; Hoyle, Christopher R; Jokinen, Tuija; Junninen, Heikki; Kangasluoma, Juha; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Krapf, Manuel; Kürten, Andreas; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Möhler, Ottmar; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Piel, Felix M; Miettinen, Pasi; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomè, Antònio; Virtanen, Annele; Wagner, Andrea C; Weingartner, Ernest; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Ye, Penglin; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Riipinen, Ilona; Worsnop, Douglas R; Donahue, Neil M; Baltensperger, Urs

    2016-05-26

    About half of present-day cloud condensation nuclei originate from atmospheric nucleation, frequently appearing as a burst of new particles near midday. Atmospheric observations show that the growth rate of new particles often accelerates when the diameter of the particles is between one and ten nanometres. In this critical size range, new particles are most likely to be lost by coagulation with pre-existing particles, thereby failing to form new cloud condensation nuclei that are typically 50 to 100 nanometres across. Sulfuric acid vapour is often involved in nucleation but is too scarce to explain most subsequent growth, leaving organic vapours as the most plausible alternative, at least in the planetary boundary layer. Although recent studies predict that low-volatility organic vapours contribute during initial growth, direct evidence has been lacking. The accelerating growth may result from increased photolytic production of condensable organic species in the afternoon, and the presence of a possible Kelvin (curvature) effect, which inhibits organic vapour condensation on the smallest particles (the nano-Köhler theory), has so far remained ambiguous. Here we present experiments performed in a large chamber under atmospheric conditions that investigate the role of organic vapours in the initial growth of nucleated organic particles in the absence of inorganic acids and bases such as sulfuric acid or ammonia and amines, respectively. Using data from the same set of experiments, it has been shown that organic vapours alone can drive nucleation. We focus on the growth of nucleated particles and find that the organic vapours that drive initial growth have extremely low volatilities (saturation concentration less than 10(-4.5) micrograms per cubic metre). As the particles increase in size and the Kelvin barrier falls, subsequent growth is primarily due to more abundant organic vapours of slightly higher volatility (saturation concentrations of 10(-4.5) to 10

  5. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine aerosols in urban air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Osto, M.; Querol, X.; Alastuey, A.; O'Dowd, C.; Harrison, R. M.; Wenger, J.; Gómez-Moreno, F. J.

    2012-07-01

    Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles (5nm) are highly correlated with black carbon (BC) at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under clean atmospheric conditions (low condensation sinks, CS) such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. This is also evident in the urban background annual mean diurnal trend of N/BC, showing a midday peak in all seasons. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10-500) as well as particle number concentrations (N>5nm) allow us to identify two types of nucleation and growth events: a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding background area; and an urban type which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the best compromise between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated particles. By contrast, within stagnant polluted atmospheric conditions, higher N and BC concentrations are always measured at ground level relative to tower level at all sites. Our study suggests that the city centre is a source of both non-volatile traffic primary (29-39%) and secondary freshly nucleated particles (up to 61-71%) at all sites. We suggest that organic compounds evaporating from freshly emitted traffic particles are a possible candidate for new particle formation within the city and urban plume.

  6. Effectiveness of the Top-Down Nanotechnology in the Production of Ultrafine Cement (~220 nm)

    OpenAIRE

    Byung-Wan Jo; Sumit Chakraborty; Ki Heon Kim; Yun Sung Lee

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation is dealing with the communition of the cement particle to the ultrafine level (~220 nm) utilizing the bead milling process, which is considered as a top-down nanotechnology. During the grinding of the cement particle, the effect of various parameters such as grinding time (1–6 h) and grinding agent (methanol and ethanol) on the production of the ultrafine cement has also been investigated. Performance of newly produced ultrafine cement is elucidated by the chemical c...

  7. UTILITARIAN OPACITY MODEL FOR AGGREGATE PARTICLES IN PROTOPLANETARY NEBULAE AND EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As small solid grains grow into larger ones in protoplanetary nebulae, or in the cloudy atmospheres of exoplanets, they generally form porous aggregates rather than solid spheres. A number of previous studies have used highly sophisticated schemes to calculate opacity models for irregular, porous particles with sizes much smaller than a wavelength. However, mere growth itself can affect the opacity of the medium in far more significant ways than the detailed compositional and/or structural differences between grain constituents once aggregate particle sizes exceed the relevant wavelengths. This physics is not new; our goal here is to provide a model that provides physical insight and is simple to use in the increasing number of protoplanetary nebula evolution and exoplanet atmosphere models appearing in recent years, yet quantitatively captures the main radiative properties of mixtures of particles of arbitrary size, porosity, and composition. The model is a simple combination of effective medium theory with small-particle closed-form expressions, combined with suitably chosen transitions to geometric optics behavior. Calculations of wavelength-dependent emission and Rosseland mean opacity are shown and compared with Mie theory. The model's fidelity is very good in all comparisons we have made except in cases involving pure metal particles or monochromatic opacities for solid particles with sizes comparable to the wavelength

  8. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Purqon, Acep; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2016-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of altitude also meets atmosphere's hydrostatic theory.

  9. Tight coupling of particle size, number and composition in atmospheric cloud droplet activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. O. Topping

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The substantial uncertainty in the indirect effect of aerosol particles on radiative forcing in large part arises from the influences of atmospheric aerosol particles on (i the brightness of clouds, exerting significant shortwave cooling with no appreciable compensation in the long wave, and on (ii their ability to precipitate, with implications for cloud cover and lifetime.

    Predicting the ambient conditions at which aerosol particles may become cloud droplets is largely reliant on an equilibrium relationship derived by Köhler (1936. However, the theoretical basis of the relationship restricts its application to particles solely comprising involatile compounds and water, whereas a substantial fraction of particles in the real atmosphere will contain potentially thousands of semi-volatile organic compounds in addition to containing semi-volatile inorganic components such as ammonium nitrate.

    We show that equilibration of atmospherically reasonable concentrations of organic compounds with a growing particle as the ambient humidity increases has potentially larger implications on cloud droplet formation than any other equilibrium compositional dependence, owing to inextricable linkage between the aerosol composition, a particles size and concentration under ambient conditions.

    Whilst previous attempts to account for co-condensation of gases other than water vapour have been restricted to one inorganic condensate, our method demonstrates that accounting for the co-condensation of any number of organic compounds substantially decreases the saturation ratio of water vapour required for droplet activation. This effect is far greater than any other compositional dependence; more so even than the unphysical effect of surface tension reduction in aqueous organic mixtures, ignoring differences in bulk and surface surfactant concentrations.

  10. Processing of atmospheric particles caught in the act via STXM/NEXAFS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimer, S.; Lampimäki, M.; Grzinic, G.; Coz, E.; Watts, B.; Raabe, J.; Ammann, M.

    2012-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols are an important focus of environmental research due to their effect on climate and human health. Among their main constituents are mineral dust and organic particles. Both types of particles directly and indirectly affect our climate through scattering and absorption of radiation and through acting as cloud condensation nuclei respectively. Organic particles are also of significant concern with respect to their health effects. Mineral dust particles in addition serve as a primary external iron source to the open ocean and the bioavailability of iron from these particles is highly dependent on the oxidation state of the metal. The environmental impact of atmospheric particles depends on their physical and chemical properties, which might change upon chemical ageing. In this study we therefore investigated the changes in chemical composition and morphology of mineral dust and organic particle proxies (Arizona test dust and shikimic acid, respectively) upon in situ exposure to ozone or nitrogen oxides in presence of humidity. This was achieved by monitoring changes at the C and O K-edges as well as the metal L-edges via scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) and near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. Measurements were conducted at the PolLux beamline at Swiss Light Source. All experiments were conducted in an environmental micro reactor, designed specifically for the end station, to enable the investigation in situ. We observed oxidation of shikimic acid particles in situ during exposure to ozone at different humidities, whereby humidity was found to be a critical factor controlling the rate of the reaction. We also obtained well resolved iron distribution maps from the individual submicrometer size mineral dust particles before and after exposure to nitrogen oxides.

  11. Characterization of Atmospheric Aerosol Particles from a Mining City in Southwest China Using Electron Probe microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, X.; Huang, Y.; Lu, H., III; Liu, Z., IV; Wang, N. V.

    2015-12-01

    Xin Cheng1, Yi Huang1*, Huilin Lu2, Zaidong Liu2, Ningming Wang21 Key Laboratory of Geological Nuclear Technology of Sichuan Province, College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; E-mail:chengxin_cdut@163.com 2 College of Earth Science, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059, China. ; *Corresponding author: E-mail: huangyi@cdut.cn Panzhihua is a mining city located at Pan-Xi Rift valley, southwest China. It has a long industrial history of vanadium-titanium magnetite mining, iron and steel smelting, and coal-fired power plants. Atomospheric environment has been seriously contaminated with airborne paticles, which is threatening human health.The harmful effects of aerosols are dependent on certain characteristics such as microphysical properties. However, few studsies have been carried out on morphological information contained on single atmospheric particles in this area. In this study, we provide a detailed morphologically and chemically characterization of airborne particles collected at Panzhihua city in October, 2014, using a quantitative single particle analysis based on EPXMA. The results indicate that based on their chemical composition, five major types of particles were identified. Among these, aluminosilicate particles have typical spherical shapes and are produced during the high-temperature combustion; Fe-containing particles contains high level of Mn, and more likely originated from mineralogical and steel industry; Si-containing particles can originate from mineralogical source; V-Ti-Mn-containing particles are also produced by steel industry; Ca-containing particles,these particles are CaCO3, mainly from the mining of limestone mine. The results help us on tracing and partitioning different sources of atomospheric particles in the industrial area. Fig.1 Fe-rich shperical particles

  12. Dry-grinded ultrafine cements hydration. physicochemical and microstructural characterization

    OpenAIRE

    Foteini Kontoleontos; Petros Tsakiridis; Apostolos Marinos; Nikolaos Katsiotis; Vasileios Kaloidas; Margarita Katsioti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present research work was the evaluation of the physicochemical and microstructural properties of two ultrafine cements, produced by dry grinding of a commercial CEM I 42.5N cement. The effect of grinding on particle size distribution was determined by laser scattering analyzer. All cements were tested for initial and final setting times, consistency of standard paste, soundness, flow of normal mortar and compressive strengths after 1, 2, 7 and 28 days. The effect of the finene...

  13. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO4; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO4 and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO4 on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO4, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO4 and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings suggest that ELF has a protective

  14. Protective effects of pulmonary epithelial lining fluid on oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breaks caused by ultrafine carbon black, ferrous sulphate and organic extract of diesel exhaust particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuang, Hsiao-Chi [School of Respiratory Therapy, College of Medicine, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Shuang Ho Hospital, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Yi-Ling; Lei, Yu-Chen [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Hui-Hsien [Institute of Environmental Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Cheng, Tsun-Jen, E-mail: tcheng@ntu.edu.tw [Institute of Occupational Medicine and Industrial Hygiene, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Public Health, College of Public Health, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (China)

    2013-02-01

    Pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) is the first substance to make contact with inhaled particulate matter (PM) and interacts chemically with PM components. The objective of this study was to determine the role of ELF in oxidative stress, DNA damage and the production of proinflammatory cytokines following physicochemical exposure to PM. Ultrafine carbon black (ufCB, 15 nm; a model carbonaceous core), ferrous sulphate (FeSO{sub 4}; a model transition metal) and a diesel exhaust particle (DEP) extract (a model organic compound) were used to examine the acellular oxidative potential of synthetic ELF and non-ELF systems. We compared the effects of exposure to ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract on human alveolar epithelial Type II (A549) cells to determine the levels of oxidative stress, DNA single-strand breaks and interleukin-8 (IL-8) production in ELF and non-ELF systems. The effects of ufCB and FeSO{sub 4} on the acellular oxidative potential, cellular oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated significantly by the addition of ELF, whereas there was no decrease following treatment with the DEP extract. There was no significant effect on IL-8 production following exposure to samples that were suspended in ELF/non-ELF systems. The results of the present study indicate that ELF plays an important role in the initial defence against PM in the pulmonary environment. Experimental components, such as ufCB and FeSO{sub 4}, induced the production of oxidative stress and led to DNA single-strand breaks, which were moderately prevented by the addition of ELF. These findings suggest that ELF plays a protective role against PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA damage. -- Highlights: ► To determine the role of ELF in ROS, DNA damage and IL-8 after exposure to PM. ► ufCB, FeSO{sub 4} and DEP extract were used to examine the protective effects of ELF. ► PM-driven oxidative stress and DNA single-strand breakage were mitigated by ELF. ► The findings

  15. Effects of sintering atmosphere and initial particle size on sintering of gadolinia-doped ceria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of the sintering atmosphere and initial particle size on the sintering of ceria containing 10 mol% gadolinia (GdO1.5) were systematically investigated. The main physical parameter was the specific surface area of the initial powders. Nanometric powders with three different specific surface areas were utilized, 210 m2/g, 36,2 m2/g e 7,4 m2/g. The influence on the densification, and micro structural evolution were evaluated. The starting sintering temperature was verified to decrease with increasing on the specific surface area of raw powders. The densification was accelerated for the materials with smaller particle size. Sintering paths for crystallite growth were obtained. Master sintering curves for gadolinium-doped ceria were constructed for all initial powders. A computational program was developed for this purpose. The results for apparent activation energy showed noticeable dependence with specific surface area. In this work, the apparent activation energy for densification increased with the initial particle size of powders. The evolution of the particle size distributions on non isothermal sintering was investigated by WPPM method. It was verified that the grain growth controlling mechanism on gadolinia doped ceria is the pore drag for initial stage and beginning of intermediate stage. The effects of the sintering atmosphere on the stoichiometry deviation of ceria, densification, microstructure evolution, and electrical conductivity were analyzed. Inert, oxidizing, and reducing atmospheres were utilized on this work. Deviations on ceria stoichiometry were verified on the bulk materials. The deviation verified was dependent of the specific surface area and sintering atmosphere. Higher reduction potential atmospheres increase Ce3+ bulk concentration after sintering. Accelerated grain growth and lower electrical conductivities were verified when reduction reactions are significantly present on sintering. (author)

  16. A computer programmed model for calculation of fall and dispersion of particles in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An atmospheric model has been designed and developed to provide estimates of air concentrations or ground deposit densities of particles released in the atmosphere up to 90-km altitude. Particle density and diameter may range from 1 to 10 g/cm3 and about 3 to 300μ, respectively, for given instantaneous point or line sources. The particle cloud is allowed to move horizontally in accordance with analytically simulated winds and to fall at terminal velocity plus vertical air velocity. Small-scale cloud growth rate is specified empirically at values based on past instantaneous tracer experiments while large-scale growth results from trajectory subdivision and divergence of new particle trajectories. Some specific computer runs at Sandia were done to assess hazards resulting from possible rocket abort situations and atmospheric re-entry from improper orbits of isotopic or reactor power supplies. The results have been compared with other modes of estimation derived from simpler models of world-wide contaminant spread. While existing data are insufficient for full verification, it is felt that the present model is one of the most comprehensive and realistic available. (author)

  17. Effect of typhoon on atmospheric aerosol particle pollutants accumulation over Xiamen, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jinpei; Chen, Liqi; Lin, Qi; Zhao, Shuhui; Zhang, Miming

    2016-09-01

    Great influence of typhoon on air quality has been confirmed, however, rare data especially high time resolved aerosol particle data could be used to establish the behavior of typhoon on air pollution. A single particle aerosol spectrometer (SPAMS) was employed to characterize the particles with particle number count in high time resolution for two typhoons of Soulik (2013) and Soudelor (2015) with similar tracks. Three periods with five events were classified during the whole observation time, including pre - typhoon (event 1 and event 2), typhoon (event 3 and event 4) and post - typhoon (event 5) based on the meteorological parameters and particle pollutant properties. First pollutant group appeared during pre-typhoon (event 2) with high relative contributions of V - Ni rich particles. Pollution from the ship emissions and accumulated by local processes with stagnant meteorological atmosphere dominated the formation of the pollutant group before typhoon. The second pollutant group was present during typhoon (event 3), while typhoon began to change the local wind direction and increase wind speed. Particle number count reached up to the maximum value. High relative contributions of V - Ni rich and dust particles with low value of NO3(-)/SO4(2-) was observed during this period, indicating that the pollutant group was governed by the combined effect of local pollutant emissions and long-term transports. The analysis of this study sheds a deep insight into understand the relationship between the air pollution and typhoon. PMID:27295441

  18. Nanometer and ultrafine aerosols from radon radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ability of ionizing radiation to produce condensation nuclei aerosols in filtered air is well known. Recent studies have indicated that radiolysis results initially in the production of highly diffusive, nanometer-sized (5 nm) can then evolve by coagulation and growth processes. The nanometer nuclei are, however, poorly detected by condensation nuclei counters (CNCs) since CNC efficiencies drop sharply for particle sizesx molecular cluster aerosols from the decay of radon, and sulfuric acid nanometer nuclei and ultrafine aerosols from the radiolytic oxidation of SO2 in radon-air mixtures, were studied through wire screen-based size distribution measurements of the 218Po radioactivity associated with the aerosols. Comparisons with conventional diffusion battery-CNC derived number size distributions are also presented. (author)

  19. Source apportionment of single aerosol particles in the atmosphere of Shanghai city

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A nuclear microprobe with high spatial resolution and high analyti cal sensitivity was applied to analyze atmospheric aerosol at five monitoring sites in Shanghai city. Meantime, a new pattern recognition technique, which used the micro PIXE spectrum of a single aerosol particle as its fingerprint, was developed to identify the origin of the particle. The results showed that the major contributors to the at mosphere pollution were soil dust (31.6%), building dust (30.8%), and the next were vehicle exhaust (13.7%), metallurgic industry excrements (5.6%), oil combustion (5%) and coal combustion (2.3%). Besides these, about 10% of the particles could not be identified. Based on the cluster analysis of these particles, they could be divided into eight groups. By inference, they might belong to some sub-pollution sources from soil dust, building dust and metallurgic industry excrements. Moreover, some new pollution sources from tyres and chemical plants were also revealed.

  20. Effect of surface moisture on dielectric behavior of ultrafine BaTiO3 particulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mountvala, A. J.

    1971-01-01

    The effects of adsorbed H2O on the dielectric properties of ultrafine BaTiO3 particulates of varying particle size and environmental history were determined. The dielectric behavior depends strongly on surface hydration. No particle size dependence of dielectric constant was found for dehydroxylated surfaces in ultrafine particulate (unsintered) BaTiO3 materials. For equivalent particle sizes, the ac conductivity is sensitive to surface morphology. Reactions with H2O vapor appear to account for the variations in dielectric properties. Surface dehydration was effectively accomplished by washing as-received powders in isopropanol.

  1. Kinetic study of the thermal decomposition process of calcite particles in air and CO2 atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Escardino Benlloch, Agustín; García Ten, Francisco Javier; Feliu Mingarro, Carlos; Saburit Llaudis, Alejandro; Cantavella Soler, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    The thermal decomposition process of calcite particles (0.45–3.60 mm average diameter), made up of porous agglomerates of very small CaCO3 microcrystals, was studied in the 975–1216 K temperature range. The experiments were carried out under isothermal conditions in air atmosphere, in CO2 atmosphere, as well as in a gas stream comprising different concentrations of air and CO2. An equation is proposed that relates the calcite conversion degree to both reaction time and operating condition...

  2. Direct evidence for coastal iodine particles from Laminaria macroalgae – linkage to emissions of molecular iodine

    OpenAIRE

    Wevill, D.; Carpenter, L.; J. M. C. Plane; Saiz-Lopez, A.; Saunders, R.; Rami Alfarra, M.; Cubison, M.; Allan, J; Burgess, R.; Coe, H.; McFiggans, G.; A. R. Rickard; Monks, P. S.

    2004-01-01

    Renewal of ultrafine aerosols in the marine boundary layer may lead to repopulation of the marine distribution and ultimately determine the concentration of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN). Thus the formation of nanometre-scale particles can lead to enhanced scattering of incoming radiation and a net cooling of the atmosphere. The recent demonstration of the chamber formation of new particles from the photolytic production of condensable iodine-containing compounds from diiodomethane (CH2...

  3. Treatment of airborne asbestos and asbestos-like microfiber particles using atmospheric microwave air plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We use atmospheric microwave air plasma to treat ceramic fiber and stainless fiber as asbestos alike micro fiber particle. → Spheroidization of certain type of ceramic fiber and stainless fiber particle. → The evaluation of the treated particles by the fiber vanishing rate. → Good fiber vanishing rate is observed for fiber particle with diameter below 10 μm. → The treatment of pure asbestos and a suggestion of the use of this method for the treatment airborne asbestos. - Abstract: Atmospheric microwave air plasma was used to treat asbestos-like microfiber particles that had two types of ceramic fiber and one type of stainless fiber. The treated particles were characterized via scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experiment results showed that one type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica = 1:1) and the stainless fiber were spheroidized, but the other type of ceramic fiber (Alumina:Silica = 7:3) was not. The conversion of the fibers was investigated by calculating the equivalent diameter, the aspect ratio, and the fiber content ratio. The fiber content ratio in various conditions showed values near zero. The relationship between the normalized fiber vanishing rate and the energy needed to melt the particles completely per unit surface area of projected particles, which is defined as η, was examined and seen to indicate that the normalized fiber vanishing rate decreased rapidly with the increase in η. Finally, some preliminary experiments for pure asbestos were conducted, and the analysis via XRD and phase-contrast microscopy (PCM) showed the availability of the plasma treatment.

  4. Arsenic speciation in total contents and bioaccessible fractions in atmospheric particles related to human intakes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Speciation of inorganic trivalent arsenicals (iAsIII), inorganic pentavalent arsenicals (iAsV), monomethylarsonic acid (MMA) and dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) in total arsenic (As) content and its bioaccessible fractions contained in road dust, household air-conditioning (AC) filter dust and PM2.5 was investigated. Inorganic As, especially iAsV, was observed as the dominant species. Physiologically based extraction test (PBET), an in-vitro gastrointestinal method, was used to estimate the oral As bioaccessibility in coarse particles and the species present in the oral bioaccessible fraction. A composite lung simulating serum was used to mimic the pulmonary condition to extract the respiratory bioaccessible As and its species in PM2.5. Reduction of iAsV to iAsIII occurred in both in-vitro gastrointestinal and lung simulating extraction models. The inorganic As species was the exclusive species for absorption through ingestion and inhalation of atmospheric particles, which was an important exposure route to inorganic As, in addition to drinking water and food consumption. - Highlights: • Inorganic As species was the predominant species in dust and airborne particles. • Existence of iAsIII in dust and airborne particles increases human health risks. • Reduction from iAsV to iAsIII occurred through in-vitro gastrointestinal model. • Reduction from iAsV to iAsIII occurred in the simulating pulmonary region. • Atmospheric particles were important exposure sources of inorganic As. - Atmospheric particles are important exposure sources of inorganic As, of which the bioaccessibility is dependent on the extraction phases and models used

  5. Particle densities of the pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Jie; Li, Li

    2015-02-01

    Pulsed dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have become a promising solution to generate atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is carried out to research particle densities of the pulsed nitrogen DBDs at atmospheric pressure. Averaged particle densities, time evolutions of axial distributions of particle densities and influences of discharge gap distance dg on the particle densities are systematically illustrated and discussed. The calculation results show that averaged electron densities are lower than averaged N2+ densities, but higher than other averaged ion densities. Time evolutions of axial distributions of electron, N+ and N2+ densities show two peaks during rising and falling phases of applied voltage when dg is 0.2 cm but present gradual increases during pulse width when dg is 0.6 cm, which are similar to those of N2(a‧) and N2(B). Maximums of N3+ densities are close to the momentary cathode under dg of 0.2 cm but locate near the grounded electrode under dg of 0.6 cm, which are alike to those of N2(A) and N2(C). Besides, N4+ densities nearby the momentary anode are higher than those nearby the momentary cathode when dg is 0.2 cm. N(2D) has low averaged particle densities and complex time evolutions compared to N.

  6. Vertical concentration profiles of dust particles in the atmospheric surface layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza Freire Grion, Livia; Chamecki, Marcelo

    2013-11-01

    The study of the emission of dust particles from soil surfaces into the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) has important applications to different environmental problems, from local air quality to large-scale aerosol transport and its interaction with climate. Due to the difficulty of measuring surface dust flux, a model relating it to the vertical profile of mean concentration is needed. In this study, we use Large-Eddy Simulation of the ABL to evaluate the effects of particle size and turbulence on the relationship between dust flux and concentration profiles. Results show that for very small particles (less than 5 micrometers) the settling velocity is usually negligible and the mean concentration displays a logarithmic profile. For large particles (more than 30 micrometers), there is an approximate balance between vertical turbulent diffusion and gravitational settling, so that Prandtl's power-law solution holds. However, a more general solution including non-zero net fluxes and gravitational settling exists, and it is in agreement with LES results for all particle sizes. Effects of atmospheric stability are also investigated. Funding from the Science Without Borders program (CNPq, Brazil) is gratefully acknowledged.

  7. Particle densities of the pulsed dielectric barrier discharges in nitrogen at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pulsed dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) have become a promising solution to generate atmospheric-pressure non-equilibrium plasmas. In this work, a one-dimensional fluid model is carried out to research particle densities of the pulsed nitrogen DBDs at atmospheric pressure. Averaged particle densities, time evolutions of axial distributions of particle densities and influences of discharge gap distance dg on the particle densities are systematically illustrated and discussed. The calculation results show that averaged electron densities are lower than averaged N2+ densities, but higher than other averaged ion densities. Time evolutions of axial distributions of electron, N+ and N2+ densities show two peaks during rising and falling phases of applied voltage when dg is 0.2 cm but present gradual increases during pulse width when dg is 0.6 cm, which are similar to those of N2(a′) and N2(B). Maximums of N3+ densities are close to the momentary cathode under dg of 0.2 cm but locate near the grounded electrode under dg of 0.6 cm, which are alike to those of N2(A) and N2(C). Besides, N4+ densities nearby the momentary anode are higher than those nearby the momentary cathode when dg is 0.2 cm. N(2D) has low averaged particle densities and complex time evolutions compared to N. (paper)

  8. Escape probability of Martian atmospheric particles: controlling effects of the electromagnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, X.; Liemohn, M. W.; Nagy, A. F.; Luhmann, J. G.; Ma, Y.

    2009-12-01

    This study quantifies several factors controlling the probability of a pickup oxygen ion to escape from the Mars upper atmosphere. Our Monte Carlo model releases billions of test particles through the electromagnetic fields of a magnetohydrodynamic model solution, monitoring their motion due to gravity and the Lorentz force throughout the simulation domain, which extends from the 200 km exobase altitude to 5 Martian radii from the center. We focus on the escape chances of the ions created at low altitudes on the dayside, where most ion production is located. The simulation results show that the electromagnetic fields are the dominant factor, surpassing the deceleration of gravity, in controlling ion transport and thus determine whether particles ultimately escape Mars or return to the planet. In a simulation case in which the strongest crustal fields face the Sun at nominal solar minimum conditions, on average only 45% of isotropically distributed new-born particles at ~400 km altitude are able to escape, even with a relatively high initial energy of ~10 eV. The percentage value slightly increases to 47%, if the velocity distribution is assumed to be half-isotropic without downward moving particles. The particle kinetic energy and the local time of the crustal fields are also important factors greatly influencing the escape probability. Furthermore, there is a distinct hemispheric asymmetry in the escape probability distribution, as defined by the upstream convection electric field direction. These findings imply that electromagnetic field effects are crucial in estimating Martian atmospheric loss for comparison with photochemical escape rates

  9. Flux induced growth of atmospheric nano-particles by organic vapors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Wang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric aerosols play critical roles in air quality, public health, and visibility. In addition, they strongly influence climate by scattering solar radiation and by changing the reflectivity and lifetime of clouds. One major but still poorly understood source of atmospheric aerosol is new particle formation, which consists of the formation of thermodynamically stable clusters from trace gas molecules (homogeneous nucleation followed by growth of these clusters to a detectable size (~3 nm. Because freshly nucleated clusters are most susceptible to loss due to high rate of coagulation with pre-existing aerosol population, the initial growth rate strongly influences the rate of new particle formation and ambient aerosol population. Whereas many field observations and modeling studies indicate that organics enhance the initial growth of the clusters and therefore new particle formation, thermodynamic considerations would suggest that the strong increase of equilibrium vapor concentration due to cluster surface curvature (Kelvin effect may prevent ambient organics from condensing on these small clusters. Here the initial condensational growth of freshly nucleated clusters is described as heterogeneous nucleation of organic molecules onto these clusters. We find that the strong gradient in cluster population with respect to its size lead to positive cluster number flux, and therefore driving the growth of clusters substantially smaller than the Kelvin diameter, conventionally considered as the minimum particle size that can be grown through condensation. The conventional approach neglects this contribution from the cluster concentration gradient, and underestimates the rate of new particle formation by a factor of up to 60.

  10. Approximation for the absorption coefficient of airborne atmospheric aerosol particles in terms of measurable bulk properties

    OpenAIRE

    HÄNEL, GOTTFRIED; Dlugi, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The absorption coefficient of airborne atmospheric aerosol particles can be approximated by where λ is the wavelength of radiation, n — ik is the mean complex refractive index, ρ the mean bulk density, and M/Vk the mass of the particles per unit volume of air. This approximation gives good results at relative humidities between 0 and 0.95 for the wavelengths of radiation between 0.55 μm and 2.0 μm and between 9.25 μm and 12.0 μm. Basing on this approximation it is possible to determine the s...

  11. Solar wind and high energy particle effects in the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lastovicka, Jan

    1989-01-01

    The solar wind variability and high energy particle effects in the neutral middle atmosphere are not much known. These factors are important in the high latitude upper mesosphere, lower thermosphere energy budget. They influence temperature, composition (minor constituents of nitric oxide, ozone), circulation (wind system) and airflow. The vertical and latitudinal structures of such effects, mechanisms of downward penetration of energy and questions of energy abundance are largely to be solved. The most important recent finding seems to be the discovery of the role of highly relativistic electrons in the middle atmosphere at L = 3 - 8 (Baker et al., 1987). The solar wind and high energy particle flux variability appear to form a part of the chain of possible Sun-weather (climate) relationships. The importance of such studies in the nineties is emphasized by their role in big international programs STEP and IGBP - Global Change.

  12. Laboratory Studies of Hydrocarbon Nucleation on Tholin Particles and Thin Organic Films: Application to Titan's Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Daniel B.; Glandorf, David L.; Toon, Owen B.; Tolbert, Margaret A.; McKay, Christopher P.; Khare, Bishun N.

    2001-01-01

    Titan, Saturn's largest satellite, has a thick nitrogen/methane atmosphere. In Titan's lower atmosphere, methane is saturated or supersaturated with respect to nucleation and may form clouds. To better characterize the properties of Titan's methane clouds we have measured the saturation ratio required to obtain butane nucleation, S (sub crit), on Titan tholin material and organic films. We find a critical saturation ratio for butane on tholin particles of S (sub crit) = 1.40, suggesting high supersaturations are required for nucleation. If methane is similar to butane, we expect high supersaturations of methane as well. This could favor the formation of a small number of large particles, consistent with recent measurements of methane rain on Titan.

  13. Optical propagation in linear media atmospheric gases and particles, solid-state components, and water

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Michael E

    2006-01-01

    PART I: Background Theory and Measurement. 1. Optical Electromagnetics I. 2. Optical Electromagnetics II. 3. Spectroscopy of Matter. 4. Electrodynamics I: Macroscopic Interaction of Light and Matter. 5. Electrodynamics II: Microscopic Interaction of Light and Matter. 6. Experimental Techniques. PART II: Practical Models for Various Media. 7. Optical Propagation in Gases and the Atmosphere of the Earth. 8. Optical Propagation in Solids. 9. Optical Propagation in Liquids. 10. Particle Absorption and Scatter. 11. Propagation Background and Noise

  14. In situ measurements of gas/particle-phase transitions for atmospheric semivolatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, Brent J.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Hering, Susanne V.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the gas/particle-phase partitioning of semivolatile compounds is critical in determining atmospheric aerosol formation processes and growth rates, which in turn affect global climate and human health. The Study of Organic Aerosol at Riverside 2005 campaign was performed to gain a better understanding of the factors responsible for aerosol formation and growth in Riverside, CA, a region with high concentrations of secondary organic aerosol formed through the phase transfer ...

  15. Atmospheric data over a solar cycle: no connection between galactic cosmic rays and new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    M. Kulmala; Riipinen, I; Nieminen, T.; Hulkkonen, M.; Sogacheva, L.; Manninen, H. E.; Paasonen, P.; T. Petäjä; Dal Maso, M.; Aalto, P.P.; Viljanen, A.; Usoskin, I.; Vainio, R.; Mirme, S.; Mirme, A.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol particles affect the Earth's radiative balance by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation and, indirectly, through their activation into cloud droplets. Both effects are known with considerable uncertainty only, and translate into even bigger uncertainties in future climate predictions. More than a decade ago, variations in galactic cosmic rays were suggested to closely correlate with variations in atmospheric cloud cover and therefore constitute a driving force behind aeros...

  16. Pesticides in the atmosphere: a comparison of gas-particle partitioning and particle size distribution of legacy and current-use pesticides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degrendele, C.; Okonski, K.; Melymuk, L.; Landlová, L.; Kukučka, P.; Audy, O.; Kohoutek, J.; Čupr, P.; Klánová, J.

    2016-02-01

    This study presents a comparison of seasonal variation, gas-particle partitioning, and particle-phase size distribution of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) and current-use pesticides (CUPs) in air. Two years (2012/2013) of weekly air samples were collected at a background site in the Czech Republic using a high-volume air sampler. To study the particle-phase size distribution, air samples were also collected at an urban and rural site in the area of Brno, Czech Republic, using a cascade impactor separating atmospheric particulates according to six size fractions. Major differences were found in the atmospheric distribution of OCPs and CUPs. The atmospheric concentrations of CUPs were driven by agricultural activities while secondary sources such as volatilization from surfaces governed the atmospheric concentrations of OCPs. Moreover, clear differences were observed in gas-particle partitioning; CUP partitioning was influenced by adsorption onto mineral surfaces while OCPs were mainly partitioning to aerosols through absorption. A predictive method for estimating the gas-particle partitioning has been derived and is proposed for polar and non-polar pesticides. Finally, while OCPs and the majority of CUPs were largely found on fine particles, four CUPs (carbendazim, isoproturon, prochloraz, and terbuthylazine) had higher concentrations on coarse particles ( > 3.0 µm), which may be related to the pesticide application technique. This finding is particularly important and should be further investigated given that large particles result in lower risks from inhalation (regardless the toxicity of the pesticide) and lower potential for long-range atmospheric transport.

  17. Intercomparison of Impactors for Ultrafine Particle Sampling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fonseca, A.S.; Talbot, Nicholas; Viana, M.; Querol, X.; Kozáková, Jana; Ondráček, Jakub; Ždímal, Vladimír; Schwarz, Jaroslav; Vu, T.; Harrison, R.; Delgado-Saborit, J.M.

    -: Italian Aerosol Society, 2015. ISBN N. [European Aerosol Conference EAC 2015. Milano (IT), 06.09.2015-11.09.2015] EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 315760 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : mass concentration * size distribution * chemical characterization Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  18. Atmospheric Effects of Solar Energetic Particle Events In Magnetized and Non-Magnetized Regions of Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jolitz, R.; Dong, C.; Lillis, R. J.; Curry, S.; Brain, D. A.; Larson, D. E.

    2015-12-01

    Solar and shock-accelerated heliospheric energetic charged particles represent an important if irregular source of energy to the Martian upper atmosphere. A Monte Carlo code has been developed to track a population of protons in an atmosphere and account for energy loss to collisional processes including heating, ionization, excitation, and charge transfer. The model framework is open to multiple planetary-specific inputs (e.g. three-dimensional neutral densities, electric and magnetic fields) and uses an adaptive trace algorithm to accurately model collisions in dense and sparse atmospheric regions. Applying 3-D models of electric and magnetic fields from the Michigan Mars MHD code and 1-D neutral densities from the Mars Global Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (M-GITM), we use this model to calculate volume rates of relevant proton-mediated energy loss processes in the Martian upper atmosphere. The model will be improved to generate ionization and heating rates in areas of strong and weak crustal magnetic fields for solar energetic particle events observed by the SEP instrument on MAVEN. Ultimately this will form part of a comprehensive model of solar wind interactions with Mars.

  19. Elemental composition of aerosol particles from two atmospheric monitoring stations in the Amazon Basin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One key region for the study of processes that are changing the composition of the global atmosphere is the Amazon Basin tropical rain forest. The high rate of deforestation and biomass burning is emitting large amounts of gases and fine-mode aerosol particles to the global atmosphere. Two background monitoring stations are operating continuously measuring aerosol composition, at Cuiaba, and Serra do Navio. Fine- and coarse-mode aerosol particles are being collected using stacked filter units. Particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE) was used to measure concentrations of up to 21 elements: Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Se, Br, Rb, Sr, Zr, and Pb. The elemental composition was measured at the new PIXE facility from the University of Sao Paulo, using a dedicated 5SDH tandem Pelletron nuclear accelerator. Absolute principal factor analysis (APFA) has derived absolute elemental source profiles. At the Serra do Navio sampling site a very clean background aerosol is being observed. Biogenic aerosol dominates the fine-mode mass concentration, with the presence of K, P, S, Cl, Zn, Br, and FPM. Three components dominate the aerosol composition: Soil dust particles, the natural biogenic release by the forest, and a marine aerosol component. At the Cuiaba site, during the dry season, a strong component of biomass burning is observed. An aerosol mass concentration up to 120 μg/m3 was measured. APFA showed three components: Soil dust (Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe), biomass burning (soot, FPM, K, Cl) and natural biogenic particles (K, S, Ca, Mn, Zn). The fine-mode biogenic component of both sites shows remarkable similarities, although the two sampling sites are 3000 km apart. Several essential plant nutrients like P, K, S, Ca, Ni and others are transported in the atmosphere as a result of biomass burning processes. (orig.)

  20. Comparison between ultrafine and fine particulate matter collected in Lebanon: Chemical characterization, in vitro cytotoxic effects and metabolizing enzymes gene expression in human bronchial epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During the last few years, the induction of toxicological mechanisms by atmospheric ultrafine particles (UFP) has become one of the most studied topics in toxicology and a subject of huge debates. Fine particles (FP) and UFP collected at urban and rural sites in Lebanon were studied for their chemical composition and toxicological effects. UFP were found more enriched in trace elements, secondary inorganic ions, total carbon and organic compounds than FP. For toxicological analysis, BEAS-2B cells were exposed for 24, 48 and 72 h to increasing concentrations of FP, water-UFP suspension (UFPw) and UFP organic extract (UFPorg). Our findings showed that UFP caused earlier alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and membrane integrity from the lowest concentrations. Moreover, a significant induction of CYP1A1, CYP1B1 and AhRR genes expression was showed after cells exposure to UFPorg and to a lesser extent to UFPw and FP samples. - Highlights: • The main source of air pollution in Beirut is road traffic and generator sets. • More trace elements, secondary inorganic ions and organic compounds are found in UFP. • UFP cause early alterations of mitochondrial metabolism and membrane integrity. • PM induce XME gene expression leading to the formation of PAHs-reactive metabolites. • All the results evidenced a higher toxicity of UFP compared to FP. - Ultrafine particles collected in Lebanon: higher organic compounds contents than in fine particles and therefore higher induction of xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes genes expression leading to more DNA damages

  1. The effect of acid-base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rondo, Linda; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J.; Dunne, Eimear M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J.; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K.; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D.; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N.; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E.; Wagner, Paul E.; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-05-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a coherent framework and discuss their significance in the atmosphere.

  2. Heterogeneous nucleation as a potential sulphate-coating mechanism of atmospheric mineral dust particles and implications of coated dust on new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Korhonen, H.; Napari, I.; Timmreck, C.; Vehkamaki, H.; Pirjola, L.; Lehtinen, K.; Lauri, A.; Kulmala, M.

    2003-01-01

    The plausibility of heterogeneous conucleation of water, sulphuric acid, and ammonia as a pathway leading to soluble coating of atmospheric mineral dust is investigated. In addition, the effect of such sulphate-coated dust on the formation and growth of atmospheric aerosol particles is addressed. The simulated new particle formation mechanism is ternary nucleation of water, sulphuric acid, and ammonia vapors, while in the condensational growth process the effect of condensable organic vapor i...

  3. Morphological and chemical composition characteristics of summertime atmospheric particles collected at Tokchok Island, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Hong; Jung, Hae-Jin; Park, YooMyung; Hwang, HeeJin; Kim, HyeKyeong; Kim, Yoo Jung; Sunwoo, Young; Ro, Chul-Un

    Determination of the chemical compositions of atmospheric single particles in the Yellow Sea region is critical for evaluating the environmental impact caused by air pollutants emitted from mainland China and the Korean peninsula. After ambient aerosol particles were collected by the Dekati PM10 cascade impactor on July 17-23, 2007 at Tokchok Island (approximately 50 km west of the Korean coast nearby Seoul), Korea, overall 2000 particles (on stage 2 and 3 with cut-off diameters of 2.5-10 μm and 1.0-2.5 μm, respectively) in 10 samples were determined by using low- Z particle electron probe X-ray microanalysis. X-ray spectral and secondary electron image (SEI) data showed that soil-derived and sea-salt particles which had reacted or were mixed with SO 2 and NO x (or their acidic products) outnumbered the primary and "genuine" ones (59.2% vs. 19.2% in the stage 2 fraction and 41.3% vs. 9.9% in the stage 3 fraction). Moreover, particles containing nitrate in the secondary soil-derived species greatly outnumbered those containing sulfate. Organic particles, mainly consisting of marine biogenic species, were more abundant in the stage 2 fraction than in the stage 3 fraction (11.6% vs. 5.1%). Their relative abundance was greater than the sum of carbon-rich, K-containing, Fe-containing, and fly ash particles, which exhibited low frequencies in all the samples. In addition, many droplets rich in C, N, O, and S were observed. They tended to be small, exhibiting a dark round shape on SEI, and generally included 8-20 at.% C, 0-12 at.% N, 60-80 at.% O, and 4-10 at.% S (sometimes with secondary aerosol particles.

  4. Size-dependent atmospheric deposition and inhalation exposure of particle-bound organophosphate flame retardants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Pei; Bao, Lian-Jun; Guo, Ying; Li, Shao-Meng; Zeng, Eddy Y

    2016-01-15

    Atmospheric size-fractionated particles were collected at different heights in an e-waste recycling zone (QY) and urban Guangzhou (GZ), China and analyzed for organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs). The total air concentrations of eight OPFRs were 130±130 and 138±127 ng m(-3) in QY and GZ, respectively. Compositional profiles of chlorinated OPFRs were different between QY and GZ, but the size distribution patterns of all OPFRs were not significantly different at different heights. Estimated atmospheric deposition fluxes of OPFRs were 51±67 and 55±13 μg m(-2) d(-1) in QY and GZ, respectively, and the coarse particles (Dp>1.8 μm) dominated both the dry and wet deposition fluxes. Moreover, not all particle-bound OPFRs were inhalable and deposited in the human respiratory tract. The calculated inhalation doses of OPFRs were much lower than the reference doses, suggesting that potential health risk due to inhalation exposure to particle-bound OPFRs in the e-waste recycling zone and urban site was low. PMID:26414926

  5. Probing new physics with long-lived charged particles produced by atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As suggested by some extensions of the standard model of particle physics, dark matter may be a super-weakly-interacting lightest stable particle, while the next-to-lightest particle (NLP) is charged and metastable. One could test such a possibility with neutrino telescopes, by detecting the charged NLPs produced in high-energy neutrino collisions with Earth matter. We study the production of charged NLPs by both atmospheric and astrophysical neutrinos; only the latter, which is largely uncertain and has not been detected yet, was the focus of previous studies. We compute the resulting fluxes of the charged NLPs, compare those of different origins and analyze the dependence on the underlying particle physics set-up. We point out that, even if the astrophysical neutrino flux is very small, atmospheric neutrinos, especially those from the prompt decay of charmed mesons, may provide a detectable flux of NLP pairs at neutrino telescopes such as IceCube. We also comment on the flux of charged NLPs expected from proton–nucleon collisions and show that, for theoretically motivated and phenomenologically viable models, it is typically subdominant and below detectable rates

  6. Hydrostatic Simulation of Earth's Atmospheric Gas Using Multi-particle Collision Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Pattisahusiwa, Asis; Virid, Sparisoma

    2015-01-01

    Multi-particle collision dynamics (MPCD) is a mesoscopic simulation method to simulate fluid particle-like flows. MPCD has been widely used to simulate various problems in condensed matter. In this study, hydrostatic behavior of gas in the Earth's atmospheric layer is simulated by using MPCD method. The simulation is carried out by assuming the system under ideal state and is affected only by gravitational force. Gas particles are homogeneous and placed in 2D box. Interaction of the particles with the box is applied through implementation of boundary conditions (BC). Periodic BC is applied on the left and the right side, specular reflection on the top side, while bounce-back on the bottom side. Simulation program is executed in Arch Linux and running in notebook with processor Intel i5 @2700 MHz with 10 GB DDR3 RAM. The results show behaviors of the particles obey kinetic theory for ideal gas when gravitational acceleration value is proportional to the particle mass. Density distribution as a function of alti...

  7. Evaluation of correlating factors between 238U concentration measured in fine and course atmospheric particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Air quality is ever more important in function of the enormous proportion of human actions that have affected the environment over the last two centuries. Particulate material is one among many pollutants that can cause great risk to human health and the environment. It can be classified as: Total Suspended Particles (TSP), defined simply as particles with less than 50 μm aerodynamic diameter (one group of these particles can be inhaled and may cause health problems, while others may unfavorably affect the population's quality of life, interfering in environmental conditions and impairing normal community activities); and Inhalable Particles (PM10), defined as those particles with less than 10 μm aerodynamic diameter. These particles penetrate the respiratory system and can reach pulmonary alveoli due to their small size, causing serious health damage. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has monitored air quality around its installations since 2000. CDTN's Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) includes monitoring radioactivity levels contained in atmospheric TSP. In order to optimize its program, CDTN is carrying out a study to estimate the correlation between concentrations of particulate material measured in TSP and those measured in PM10, PI2.5 and PI1, as well as determination of activity concentration for each controlled radionuclide in all parts. The objective of this study is to present preliminary results and report 238U activity concentration results. (author)

  8. Evaluation of correlating factors between {sup 238}U concentration measured in fine and course atmospheric particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peixoto, Claudia Marques; Jacomino, Vanusa Maria Feliciano; Barreto, Alberto Avelar; Dias, Vagner Silva, E-mail: cmp@cdtn.b, E-mail: vmfj@cdtn.b, E-mail: aab@cdtn.b [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Dias, Fabiana Ferrari, E-mail: fdias@cnen.gov.b [Brazilian Nuclear Energy Commission (CNEN-/MG), Pocos de Caldas, MG (Brazil). Lab. de Pocos de Caldas (LAPOC)

    2009-07-01

    Air quality is ever more important in function of the enormous proportion of human actions that have affected the environment over the last two centuries. Particulate material is one among many pollutants that can cause great risk to human health and the environment. It can be classified as: Total Suspended Particles (TSP), defined simply as particles with less than 50 mum aerodynamic diameter (one group of these particles can be inhaled and may cause health problems, while others may unfavorably affect the population's quality of life, interfering in environmental conditions and impairing normal community activities); and Inhalable Particles (PM{sub 10}), defined as those particles with less than 10 mum aerodynamic diameter. These particles penetrate the respiratory system and can reach pulmonary alveoli due to their small size, causing serious health damage. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has monitored air quality around its installations since 2000. CDTN's Environmental Monitoring Program (EMP) includes monitoring radioactivity levels contained in atmospheric TSP. In order to optimize its program, CDTN is carrying out a study to estimate the correlation between concentrations of particulate material measured in TSP and those measured in PM{sub 10}, PI{sub 2.5} and PI{sub 1}, as well as determination of activity concentration for each controlled radionuclide in all parts. The objective of this study is to present preliminary results and report {sup 238}U activity concentration results. (author)

  9. Assessment of the Atmospheric Suspended Particles Pollution in the Madrid Air Quality Networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suspended particles are a very complex type of atmospheric pollution because of their chemical composition and size. In fact, there are a quite high number of particles sources which are linked to different physicochemical processes that determine their size. At present particles smaller than 10 μm are considered the most dangerous, as has been recently pointed out by numerous epidemiologic studies. In this way, more restrictive concentration limit values have been approved in the EU countries, so an assessment of present airborne concentration values and the sources apportionment in their most representative areas is needed. In the Madrid Community a first approaching of these and other aims, has been carried out from an analysis of the Madrid Air Quality networks data. This will contribute to the establishment of concentration levels abatement strategies. (Author) 111 refs

  10. Quantifying the kinetic limitations of atmospheric gas-to-particle conversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A.; Murphy, B.; Riipinen, I.; Percival, C.; Topping, D. O.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles, from anthropogenic and biogenic sources, remain a major uncertainty in the Earth system: they impact the climate by directly scattering and absorbing solar radiation, as well as regulating the properties of clouds. On regional scales, aerosols are among the main pollutants deteriorating air quality, their impacts on both poorly quantified. Reducing these uncertainties requires accurate knowledge on the composition, concentrations and size distributions of these particles as they reside in the atmosphere. Unfortunately, there are currently huge uncertainties in many fundamental parameters that are required to predict their environmental impacts. This is largely down to the fact that a significant fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles are comprised of organic material (20-90% of particle mass), containing potentially thousands of compounds with largely uncertain properties It is becoming increasingly evident that aerosols exist as metastable amorphous states, rather than simple liquid/solid mixtures. Empirical evidence suggests that particles can form glass like substances. As the glass transition temperature is approached, an increase in viscosity leads to a reduced rate of molecular diffusion and an arrested non-equilibrium structure. Partitioning between the gas and condensed phase is kinetically limited in such amorphous states. Traditional organic aerosol models do not account for this, they assume that 1) the aerosol phase is a well-mixed non-viscous liquid; 2) the aerosol phase instantaneously equilibrates with the gas phase constituents. This adds significant uncertainty to predictions of gas/particle mass transfer as mixing timescales are ultimately governed by the diffusion coefficients of the aerosol constituents in the aerosol, which, on the other hand, are connected to the viscosity of the particulate matter. For typical aerosol sizes, the characteristic time for mixing could increase from a few milliseconds to hours or

  11. Impact of cosmic rays and solar energetic particles on the Earth’s ionosphere and atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateev Lachezar

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A brief review of the study during COST Action ES0803 of effects due to cosmic rays (CR and solar energetic particles (SEP in the ionosphere and atmosphere is presented. Models CORIMIA (COsmic Ray Ionization Model for Ionosphere and Atmosphere and application of CORSIKA (COsmic Ray SImulations for KAscade code are considered. They are capable to compute the cosmic ray ionization profiles at a given location, time, solar and geomagnetic activity. Intercomparison of the models, as well as comparison with direct measurements of the atmospheric ionization, validates their applicability for the entire atmosphere and for the different levels of the solar activity. The effects of CR and SEP can be very strong locally in the polar cap regions, affecting the physical-chemical and electrical properties of the ionosphere and atmosphere. Contributions here were also made by the anomalous CR, whose ionization is significant at high geomagnetic latitudes (above 65°–70°. Several recent achievements and application of CR ionization models are briefly presented. This work is the output from the SG 1.1 of the COST ES0803 action (2008–2012 and the emphasis is given on the progress achieved by European scientists involved in this collaboration.

  12. Energy Transport Effects in Flaring Atmospheres Heated by Mixed Particle Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zharkova, Valentina; Zharkov, Sergei; Macrae, Connor; Druett, Malcolm; Scullion, Eamon

    2016-07-01

    We investigate energy and particle transport in the whole flaring atmosphere from the corona to the photosphere and interior for the flaring events on the 1st July 2012, 6 and 7 September 2011 by using the RHESSI and SDO instruments as well as high-resolution observations from the Swedish 1-metre Solar Telescope (SST3) CRISP4 (CRisp Imaging Spectro-polarimeter). The observations include hard and soft X-ray emission, chromospheric emission in both H-alpha 656.3 nm core and continuum, as well as, in the near infra-red triplet Ca II 854.2 nm core and continuum channels and local helioseismic responses (sunquakes). The observations are compared with the simulations of hard X-ray emission and tested by hydrodynamic simulations of flaring atmospheres of the Sun heated by mixed particle beams. The temperature, density and macro-velocity variations of the ambient atmospheres are calculated for heating by mixed beams and the seismic response of the solar interior to generation of supersonic shocks moving into the solar interior. We investigate the termination depths of these shocks beneath the quiet photosphere levels and compare them with the parameters of seismic responses in the interior, or sunquakes (Zharkova and Zharkov, 2015). We also present an investigation of radiative conditions modelled in a full non-LTE approach for hydrogen during flare onsets with particular focus on Balmer and Paschen emission in the visible, near UV and near IR ranges and compare them with observations. The links between different observational features derived from HXR, optical and seismic emission are interpreted by different particle transport models that will allow independent evaluation of the particle transport scenarios.

  13. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Haspel, Carynelisa; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven H; Rudich, Yinon

    2013-12-17

    The cycling of atmospheric aerosols through clouds can change their chemical and physical properties and thus modify how aerosols affect cloud microphysics and, subsequently, precipitation and climate. Current knowledge about aerosol processing by clouds is rather limited to chemical reactions within water droplets in warm low-altitude clouds. However, in cold high-altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and midlatitudes, humidified aerosols freeze to form ice, which upon exposure to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. Here we simulate an atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols in laboratory experiments using proxies for atmospheric aerosols. We find that aerosols that contain organic material that undergo such a process can form highly porous aerosol particles with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogeneous aerosol. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure after ice sublimation. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. We find that highly porous aerosol particles scatter solar light less efficiently than nonporous aerosol particles. Using a combination of satellite and radiosonde data, we show that highly porous aerosol formation can readily occur in highly convective clouds, which are widespread in the tropics and midlatitudes. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges. PMID:24297908

  14. Particle number size distribution and new particle formation:New characteristics during the special pollution control period in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Gao; Fahe Chai; Tao Wang; Shulan Wang; Wenxing Wang

    2012-01-01

    New particle formation is a key process in shaping the size distribution of aerosols in the atmosphere.We present here the measurement results of number and size distribution of aerosol particles (10-10000 nm in diameter) obtained in the summer of 2008,at a suburban site in Beijing,China.We firstly reported the pollution level,particle number size distribution,diurnal variation of the particle number size distribution and then introduced the characteristics of the particle formation processes.The results showed that the number concentration of ultrafine particles was much lower than the values measured in other urban or suburban areas in previous studies.Sharp increases of ultrafine particle count were frequently observed at noon.An examination of the diurnal pattern suggested that the burst of ultrafine particles was mainly due to new particle formation promoted by photochemical processes.In addition,high relative humidity was a key factor driving the growth of the particles in the afternoon.During the 2-month observations,new particle formation from homogeneous nucleation was observed for 42.7% of the study period.The average growth rate of newly formed particles was 3.2 nm/hr,and varied from 1.2 to 8.0 nm/hr.The required concentration of condensable vapor was 4.4 × 107 cm-3,and its source rate was 1.2 × 106 cm-3sec-1.Further calculation on the source rate of sulphuric acid vapor indicated that the average participation of sulphuric acid to particle growth rates was 28.7%.

  15. On the formation of sulphuric acid – amine clusters in varying atmospheric conditions and its influence on atmospheric new particle formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Sulphuric acid is a key component in atmospheric new particle formation. However, sulphuric acid alone does not form stable enough clusters to initiate particle formation in atmospheric conditions. Strong bases, such as amines, have been suggested to stabilize sulphuric acid clusters and thus participate in particle formation. We modelled the formation rate of clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules (JA2B2 at varying atmospherically relevant conditions with respect to concentrations of sulphuric acid ([H2SO4], dimethylamine ([DMA] and trimethylamine ([TMA], temperature and relative humidity (RH. We also tested how the model results change if we assume that the clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules would act as seeds for heterogeneous nucleation of organic vapours (other than amines with higher atmospheric concentrations than sulphuric acid. The modelled formation rates JA2B2 were functions of sulphuric acid concentration with close to quadratic dependence, which is in good agreement with atmospheric observations of the connection between the particle formation rate and sulphuric acid concentration. The coefficients KA2B2 connecting the cluster formation rate and sulphuric acid concentrations as JA2B2=KA2B2[H2SO4]2 turned out to depend also on amine concentrations, temperature and relative humidity. We compared the modelled coefficients KA2B2 with the corresponding coefficients calculated from the atmospheric observations (Kobs from environments with varying temperatures and levels of anthropogenic influence. By taking into account the modelled behaviour of JA2B2 as a function of [H2SO4], temperature and RH, the atmospheric particle formation rate was reproduced more closely than with the traditional semi-empirical formulae based on sulphuric acid concentration only. The formation rates of clusters with two sulphuric acid and two amine molecules with different amine compositions (DMA or TMA or one of both had

  16. Simulation of cold atmospheric plasma component composition and particle densities in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsanov, Gennady; Chirtsov, Alexander; Kudryavtsev, Anatoliy

    2015-11-01

    Recently discharges in air at atmospheric pressure were the subject of numerous studies. Of particular interest are the cold streams of air plasma, which contains large amounts of chemically active species. It is their action can be decisive in the interaction with living tissues. Therefore, in addition to its physical properties, it is important to know the component composition and particle densities. The goal was to develop a numerical model of atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge in air with the definition of the component composition of plasma. To achieve this goal the task was divided into two sub-tasks, in the first simulated microdischarge atmospheric pressure in air using a simplified set of plasma chemical reactions in order to obtain the basic characteristics of the discharge, which are the initial approximations in the problem of the calculation of the densities with detailed plasma chemistry, including 53 spices and over 600 chemical reactions. As a result of the model was created, which can be adapted for calculating the component composition of plasma of various sources. Calculate the density of particles in the glow microdischarges and dynamics of their change in time.

  17. Dispersion of aerosol particles in the free atmosphere using ensemble forecasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Haszpra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The dispersion of aerosol particle pollutants is studied using 50 members of an ensemble forecast in the example of a hypothetical free atmospheric emission above Fukushima over a period of 2.5 days. Considerable differences are found among the dispersion predictions of the different ensemble members, as well as between the ensemble mean and the deterministic result at the end of the observation period. The variance is found to decrease with the particle size. The geographical area where a threshold concentration is exceeded in at least one ensemble member expands to a 5–10 times larger region than the area from the deterministic forecast, both for air column "concentration" and in the "deposition" field. We demonstrate that the root-mean-square distance of any particle from its own clones in the ensemble members can reach values on the order of one thousand kilometers. Even the centers of mass of the particle cloud of the ensemble members deviate considerably from that obtained by the deterministic forecast. All these indicate that an investigation of the dispersion of aerosol particles in the spirit of ensemble forecast contains useful hints for the improvement of risk assessment.

  18. Influence of complex component and particle polydispersity on radiative properties of soot aggregate in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of morphological structure, water coating, dust mixing and primary particle size distribution on the radiative properties of soot fractal aggregates in atmosphere are investigated using T-matrix method. These fractal aggregates are numerically generated using a combination of the particle-cluster and cluster-cluster aggregation algorithms with fractal parameters representing soot aggregate in atmosphere. The radiative properties of compact aggregate notably deviate from that of the branched one, and the effect of morphology changes on the radiative properties in wet air cannot be neglected. However it is reasonable to use realization-averaged radiative properties to represent that of the aggregates with certain morphology. In wet air, the scattering, absorption and extinction cross-section and symmetry parameter of soot aggregates coated with water notably increase with water shell thickness. The mixing structures of dust have little effect on radiative properties of aggregates, but the volume fraction of dust has an obvious effect on extinction, scattering and absorption cross-section of aggregates when the size parameters are above the Rayleigh limit. Although the primary particle size distribution of soot aggregate has mild effect on the scattering albedo and asymmetry parameter, the deviations of the extinction, scattering, absorption cross-section among the three size distributions are significant in this study. The size distribution has a significant effect on forward scattering of phase function, while the effect can be neglected as the size parameter approaches to the Rayleigh limit.

  19. Atmospheric particle characterization, distribution, and deposition in Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, Central China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Physical characterization and chemical analysis of settled dusts collected in Xi'an from November 2007 to December 2008 show that (1) dust deposition rates ranged from 14.6 to 350.4 g m-2 yr-1. The average deposition rate (76.7 g m-2 yr-1) ranks the 11th out of 56 dust deposition rates observed throughout the world. The coal-burning power was the major particle source; (2) on average (except site 4), ∼10% of the settled dusts having size 70% having size <30 μm; (3) the concentrations for 20 out of 27 elements analyzed were upto 18 times higher than their soil background values in China. With such high deposition rates of dusts that contain elevated levels of toxic elements, actions should be taken to reduce emission and studies are needed to assess the potential impacts of settled particles on surface ecosystem, water resource, and human health in the area. - Research highlights: → High atmospheric dust deposition rate in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China. → Coal-burning power plan being a major source of particulate matter in Xi'an area. → High levels of toxic elements in the settled dusts. → Enrichment of heavy metals (e.g., Pb, Ni, Cu) in fine particles. - Atmospheric dust deposition rate is high and the levels of toxic elements associated with the settled dusts are elevated in Xi'an, Shaanxi, China.

  20. Impact of dust storm on chemical species of S, Cl and Ca in Shanghai atmosphere particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Dust storm originated from the northwest region of China brought dust particles for Shanghai every spring, which resulted in serious particulate pollution. However, the studies of the impact of dust storm on the Shanghai atmospheric aerosols were limited to the concentrations of ions and elements. It is considered that the chemical species of atmospheric aerosols were much more necessary for the evaluation of the impact of dust storm on the particulate pollution in Shanghai. Purpose: Based on the elements concentration variations, backward trajectories of air masses and chlorine, calcium, sulfur species in aerosols during the dust event, the impact of dust storm on the chemical species of aerosols in Shanghai was studied. Methods: Elements concentrations of the samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based on synchrotron radiation. To identify the potential importance of different source regions on aerosol composition during dust events, the air mass trajectories were calculated by using the model HYSPLIT version 4 developed by NOAA/ARL. Chemical species of S, Cl, Ca were analyzed by synchrotron radiation X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES). Sulfur K-edge XANES is capable of distinguishing various sulfate species in a non-destructive way and we used linear combination fitting procedure to quantify the concentrations of sulfate species in PM. Results: Elements concentration variations during the dust storm period showed that crust elements (Si, Al, Ca, K, Mg, Fe, Ti) in particles increased substantially during dust storm. However, pollution elements (S, Zn, Pb, Cu, V, Cr, As) from local region decreased by the clean effect of dust storm. Combined XANES of S, Cl, Ca in particulate samples with backward trajectories, the possible sources and reasons of their chemical species were studied. During dust storm, sulfur mainly existed as CaSO4·2H2O, Cl existed as organic chloride and Cl-, Ca existed as CaCO3. In the samples of other days

  1. Numerical study of the auroral particle transport in the polar upper atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Starting from the Boltzmann equation and with some reasonable assumptions, a one-dimensional transport equation of charged energetic particles is derived by taking account of major interactions with neutral species in the upper atmosphere, including the processes of elastic scattering, the excitation, the ionization and the secondary electron production. The transport equation is numerically solved, for a simplified atmosphere consisting only of nitrogen molecules (N2), to obtain the variations of incident electron fluxes as a function of altitude, energy and pitch angle. The model results can describe fairly the transport characteristics of pre-cipitating auroral electron spectra in the polar upper atmosphere; meanwhile the N2 ionization rates calculated from the modeled differential flux spectra also exhibit good agreements with existing empirical models in terms of several key parameters. Taking the energy flux spectra of precipitating electrons observed by FAST satellite flying over EISCAT site on May 15, 1997 as model inputs, the model-calculated ionization rate profile of neutral atmosphere consists reasonably with that recon-structed from electron density measurements by the radar.

  2. Particle size distribution of halogenated flame retardants and implications for atmospheric deposition and transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okonski, Krzysztof; Degrendele, Céline; Melymuk, Lisa; Landlová, Linda; Kukučka, Petr; Vojta, Šimon; Kohoutek, Jiří; Čupr, Pavel; Klánová, Jana

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates the distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), hexabromocyclododecane (HBCD) and a group of novel flame retardants (NFRs) on atmospheric aerosols. Two high volume cascade impactors were used to collect particulate fractions of ambient air over a one year period at urban and rural sites. The majority of FRs were found on the finest aerosols (<0.95 μm). Concentrations of HBCD were higher than those of ΣPBDEs. Moreover, we noted seasonality and spatial differences in particle size distributions, yet a large portion of the observed differences were due to differences in particulate matter (PM) itself. When normalized by PM, the size distributions of the FRs exhibited much greater heterogeneity. Differences existed between the FR distributions by molecular weight, with the higher molecular weight FRs (e.g., BDE-209, Dechlorane Plus) distributed more uniformly across all particulate size fractions. The seasonal, spatial, and compound-specific differences are of crucial importance when estimating dry and wet deposition of FRs as smaller aerosols have longer atmospheric residence times. Estimated wet and dry deposition of four representative FRs (BDE-47, BDE-209, HBCD, and Dechlorane Plus) using size-segregated aerosol data resulted in lower deposition estimates than when bulk aerosol data were used. This has implications for estimates of long-range atmospheric transport and atmospheric residence times, as it suggests that without size-specific distributions, these parameters could be underestimated for FRs. PMID:25380095

  3. Lung cancer mortality and exposure to atmospheric aerosol particles in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tie, Xuexi; Wu, Dui; Brasseur, Guy

    In recent years, China and other emerging countries have been experiencing severe air pollution problems with high concentrations of atmospheric aerosol particles. Satellite measurements indicate that the aerosol loading of the atmosphere in highly populated regions of China is about 10 times higher than, for example, in Europe and in the Eastern United States. The exposure to extremely high aerosol concentrations might lead to important human health effects, including respiratory and cardiovascular diseases as well as lung cancers. Here, we analyze 52-year historical surface measurements of haze data in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, and show that the dramatic increase in the occurrence of air pollution events between 1954 and 2006 has been followed by a large enhancement in the incidence of lung cancer.

  4. New Ion-Nucleation Mechanism Relevant for the Earth's Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, N.D.; Svensmark, Henrik; Pedersen, Jens Olaf Pepke;

    Experimental studies of ultra-fine aerosol nucleation in clean atmospheric air, containing trace amounts of ozone, sulphur dioxide, and water vapour suggest that the production rate of critical clusters is sensitive to ionisation. To assess this sensitivity numerical simulations of the initial...... stages of particle coagulation and condensation have been performed and compared with the experimental results. The simulations indicate that a stable distribution of sub 3nm particles exists that cannot be detected using standard techniques for measuring atmospheric aerosol, and that the nucleation rate...... particles with the potential to influence the transparency of Earth's atmosphere. This is consistent with a number of recent studies indicating that variations in the density of cosmic rays arriving at Earth have affected climate over a wide range of time scales....

  5. Effectiveness of the Top-Down Nanotechnology in the Production of Ultrafine Cement (~220 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byung-Wan Jo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation is dealing with the communition of the cement particle to the ultrafine level (~220 nm utilizing the bead milling process, which is considered as a top-down nanotechnology. During the grinding of the cement particle, the effect of various parameters such as grinding time (1–6 h and grinding agent (methanol and ethanol on the production of the ultrafine cement has also been investigated. Performance of newly produced ultrafine cement is elucidated by the chemical composition, particle size distribution, and SEM and XRD analyses. Based on the particle size distribution of the newly produced ultrafine cement, it was assessed that the size of the cement particle decreases efficiently with increase in grinding time. Additionally, it is optimized that the bead milling process is able to produce 90% of the cement particle <350 nm and 50% of the cement particle < 220 nm, respectively, after 6.3 h milling without affecting the chemical phases. Production of the ultrafine cement utilizing this method will promote the construction industries towards the development of smart and sustainable construction materials.

  6. A method for the direct measurement of surface tension of atmospherically relevant aerosol particles using atomic force microscopy

    OpenAIRE

    Hritz, A. D.; Raymond, T. M.; Dutcher, D. D.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate estimates of particle surface tension are required for models concerning atmospheric aerosol nucleation and activation. However, it is difficult to collect sufficiently large volumes of atmospheric aerosol for use in typical instruments that measure surface tension, such as goniometers or Wilhelmy plates. In this work, a method that measures the surface tension of collected liquid nanoparticles using atomic force microscopy is presented. A...

  7. The link between atmospheric radicals and newly formed particles at a spruce forest site in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Bonn

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available It has been claimed for more than a century that atmospheric new particle formation is primarily influenced by the presence of sulphuric acid. However, the activation process of sulphuric acid related clusters into detectable particles is still an unresolved topic. In this study we focus on the PARADE campaign measurements conducted during August/September 2011 at Mt. Kleiner Feldberg in central Germany. During this campaign a set of radicals, organic and inorganic compounds and oxidants and aerosol properties were measured or calculated. We compared a range of organic and inorganic nucleation theories, evaluating their ability to simulate measured particle formation rates at 3 nm in diameter (J3 for a variety of different conditions. Nucleation mechanisms involving only sulphuric acid tentatively captured the observed noon-time daily maximum in J3, but displayed an increasing difference to J3 measurements during the rest of the diurnal cycle. Including large organic radicals, i.e. organic peroxy radicals (RO2 deriving from monoterpenes and their oxidation products in the nucleation mechanism improved the correlation between observed and simulated J3. This supports a recently proposed empirical relationship for new particle formation that has been used in global models. However, the best match between theory and measurements for the site of interest was found for an activation process based on large organic peroxy radicals and stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCI. This novel laboratory derived algorithm simulated the daily pattern and intensity of J3 observed in the ambient data. In this algorithm organic derived radicals are involved in activation and growth and link the formation rate of smallest aerosol particles with OH during daytime and NO3 during nighttime. Because of the RO2s lifetime is controlled by HO2 and NO we conclude that peroxy radicals and NO seem to play an important role for ambient radical chemistry not only with respect to

  8. COMPASS - COMparative Particle formation in the Atmosphere using portable Simulation chamber Study techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonn, B.; Sun, S.; Haunold, W.; Sitals, R.; van Beesel, E.; dos Santos, L.; Nillius, B.; Jacobi, S.

    2013-12-01

    In this study we report the set-up of a novel twin chamber technique that uses the comparative method and establishes an appropriate connection of atmospheric and laboratory methods to broaden the tools for investigations. It is designed to study the impact of certain parameters and gases on ambient processes, such as particle formation online, and can be applied in a large variety of conditions. The characterisation of both chambers proved that both chambers operate identically, with a residence time xT (COMPASS1) = 26.5 ± 0.3 min and xT (COMPASS2) = 26.6 ± 0.4 min, at a typical flow rate of 15 L min-1 and a gas leak rate of (1.6 ± 0.8) × 10-5 s-1. Particle loss rates were found to be larger (due to the particles' stickiness to the chamber walls), with an extrapolated maximum of 1.8 × 10-3 s-1 at 1 nm, i.e. a hundredfold of the gas leak rate. This latter value is associated with sticky non-volatile gaseous compounds, too. Comparison measurement showed no significant differences. Therefore operation under atmospheric conditions is trustworthy. To indicate the applicability and the benefit of the system, a set of experiments was conducted under different conditions, i.e. urban and remote, enhanced ozone and terpenes as well as reduced sunlight. In order to do so, an ozone lamp was applied to enhance ozone in one of two chambers; the measurement chamber was protected from radiation by a first-aid cover and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were added using a small additional flow and a temperature-controlled oven. During the elevated ozone period, ambient particle number and volume increased substantially at urban and remote conditions, but by a different intensity. Protection of solar radiation displayed a clear negative effect on particle number, while terpene addition did cause a distinct daily pattern. E.g. adding β pinene particle number concentration rose by 13% maximum at noontime, while no significant effect was observable during darkness. Therefore

  9. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  10. Requirements for low density riming and two stage growth on atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Laura; Castellano, Nesvit E.; Nasello, Olga B.; Prodi, Franco

    A theoretical study is carried out of the conditions that can be expected to determine low density riming on atmospheric ice particles. Using a growth simulation model, critical liquid water contents Lwc and air temperatures Ta are calculated, which correspond to a density ρ=0.5 g/cm 3 for rime deposit on ice particles with radii varying from 1 to 10 mm. Their dependence on the used laws for the ice density as a function of Macklin's parameter and for the drag coefficient as a function of Reynolds number, is discussed. The evolution of the density and related parameters for free falling particles growing by accretion from initial values of the radius R and density ρ is studied in different environmental conditions. It is shown that the temperature of the deposit Ts increases with R, up to the transition to wet growth, represented by Ts=0°C. Only for Lwc≥2 g/m 3 the transition from low density ice to wet growth is found to occur rapidly, at a distance from the center R≤1 cm. This distance is considered to represent the maximum radius of regions where two-stage growth, due to water penetration and freezing into pores of low-density layers, can be responsible for rapid variations of the particle density and consequently of its free-fall speed, which would characterize the effect of hail growth via microphysical recycling.

  11. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Junninen, Heikki; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K.; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J.; Dunne, Eimear M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P.; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D.; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M.; Worsnop, Douglas R.

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molecules and then form growing clusters of one to three sulfuric acid molecules plus one to four oxidized organics. Most of these organic compounds retain 10 carbon atoms, and some of them are remarkably highly oxidized (oxygen-to-carbon ratios up to 1.2). The average degree of oxygenation of the organic compounds decreases while the clusters are growing. Our measurements therefore connect oxidized organics directly, and in detail, with the very first steps of new particle formation and their growth between 1 and 2 nm in a controlled environment. Thus, they confirm that oxidized organics are involved in both the formation and growth of particles under ambient conditions. PMID:24101502

  12. Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Zhen, Naijia; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The abundance, behavior, and source of chemical species in size-fractionated atmospheric particle were studied with a 13-stage low pressure impactor (ELPI) during high polluted winter episode in Beijing. Thirty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) and eight water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +) were determined by ICP/MS and IC, respectively. The size distribution of TC (OC + EC) was reconstructed. Averagely, 51.5 ± 5.3% and 74.1 ± 3.7% of the total aerosol mass was distributed in the sub-micron (PM1) and fine particle (PM2.5), respectively. A significant shift to larger fractions during heavy pollution episode was observed for aerosol mass, NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The mass size distributions of NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, and K were dominated by accumulation mode. Size distributions of elements were classified into four main types: (I) elements were enriched within the accumulation mode (water soluble ions. Dust, vehicle, aged coal combustion, and sea salt were identified, and the size resolved source apportionments were discussed. Aged coal combustion was the important source of fine particles and dust contributed most to coarse particle.

  13. Quantitative energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis for single-particle analysis and its application for characterizing atmospheric aerosol particles

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shila Maskey; Chul-Un Ro

    2011-02-01

    An energy-dispersive electron probe X-ray microanalysis (ED-EPMA) technique using an energy-dispersive X-ray detector with an ultra-thin window, designated as low-Z particle EPMA, has been developed. The low-Z particle EPMA allows the quantitative determination of concentrations of low-Z elements such as C, N and O, as well as higher-Z elements that can be analysed by conventional ED-EPMA. The quantitative determination of low-Z elements (using full Monte Carlo simulations, from the electron impact to the X-ray detection) in individual particles has improved the applicability of single-particle analysis, especially in atmospheric environmental aerosol research; many environmentally important atmospheric particles, e.g. sulphates, nitrates, ammonium and carbonaceous particles, contain low-Z elements. To demonstrate its practical applicability, the application of the low-Z particle EPMA for the characterization of Asian Dust, urban and subway aerosol particles is shown herein. In addition, it is demonstrated that the Monte Carlo calculation can also be applied in a quantitative single-particle analysis using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX), showing that the technique is useful and reliable for the characterization of submicron aerosol particles

  14. Sources and chemical composition of atmospheric fine and coarse particles in the Helsinki area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pakkanen, T.A.; Loukkola, K.; Korhonen, C.H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (FI)] (and others)

    2001-07-01

    During April 1996 - June 1997 size-segregated atmospheric aerosol particles were collected at an urban and a rural site in the Helsinki area by utilising virtual impactors (VI) and Berner low-pressure impactors (BLPI). In addition, VI samples were collected at a semi-urban site during October 1996 - May 1997. The average PM{sub 2.3} (fine particle) concentrations at the urban and rural sites were 11.8 and 8.4 {mu}g/m{sup 3}, and the PM{sub 2.3}-{sub 15} (coarse particle) concentrations were 12.8 and about 5{mu}g/m{sup 3}, respectively. The difference in fine particle mass concentrations suggests that on average, more than one third of the fine mass at the urban site is of local origin. Evaporation of fine particle nitrate from the VI Teflon filters during sampling varied similarly at the three sites, the average evaporation being about 50-60 per cent. The average fine particle concentrations of the chemical components (25 elements and 13 ions) appeared to be fairly similar at the three sites for most components, which suggests that despite the long-range transport, the local emissions of these components were relatively evenly distributed in the Helsinki area. Exceptions were the average fine particles Ba, Fe, Sb and V concentrations that were clearly highest at the urban site pointing to traffic (Ba, Fe, Sb) and to combustion of heavy fuel oil (V) as the likely sources. The average coarse particle concentrations for most components were highest at the urban site and lowest at the rural site. Average chemical composition of fine particles was fairly similar at the urban and rural sites: non-analysed fraction (mainly carbonaceous material and water) 43 per cent and 37 per cent, sulphate 21 per cent and 25 per cent, crustal matter 12 per cent and 13 per cent, nitrate 12 per cent and 11 per cent, ammonium 9 per cent and 10 per cent and sea-salt 2.5 per cent and 3.2 per cent, respectively. At the semi-urban site also, the average fine particle composition was similar

  15. Sub-micron atmospheric aerosols in the surroundings of Marseille and Athens: physical characterization and new particle formation

    OpenAIRE

    Petäjä, T.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Maso, M; Junninen, H.; I. K. Koponen; Hussein, T.; Aalto, P. P.; Andronopoulos, S.; Robin, D.; Hämeri, K.; Bartzis, J. G.; Kulmala, M.

    2007-01-01

    The properties of atmospheric aerosol particles in Marseille and Athens were investigated. The studies were performed in Marseille, France, during July 2002 and in Athens, Greece, during June 2003. The aerosol size distribution and the formation and growth rates of newly formed particles were characterized using Differential Mobility Particle Sizers. Hygroscopic properties were observed using a Hygroscopic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer setup. During both campaigns, t...

  16. Effect of reaction atmosphere on particle morphology of TiO{sub 2} produced by thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jae Gil; Park, Kyun Young [Kongju National University, Department of Chemical Engineering (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: kypark@kongju.ac.kr

    2006-04-15

    Thermal decomposition of titanium tetraisopropoxide (TTIP) was carried out in varying reaction atmospheres: nitrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen plus water vapor. The effect of reaction atmosphere on the morphology, size, and crystalline structure of produced TiO{sub 2} particles was studied. The reactor used was similar to the microreactor proposed earlier by Park et al. (2001, J. Nanopart. Res., 3, 309-319), but for a modification in the precursor evaporator. The reactor temperature was varied from 300 to 700 deg. C and the TTIP concentration in the evaporator from 1.0 to 7.0 mol%, holding the reactor residence time at 0.7 s. The primary-particle size was in the range 25-250 nm, varying with operating condition. The crystalline structure was amorphous in nitrogen, a mixture of rutile and anatase in nitrogen plus water vapor, and anatase in oxygen atmospheres. In nitrogen, agglomerates composed of very small particles whose individual boundaries are not clearly distinguished were produced. In oxygen, the particles composing an agglomerate became larger and were clearly spherical. As the atmosphere was varied to the nitrogen plus water vapor, the particle size increased further. The variation of primary particle size with reaction atmosphere was discussed in comparison with previous experimental data.

  17. Comparison of isolation and quantification methods to measure humic-like substances (HULIS) in atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xingjun; Song, Jianzhong; Peng, Ping'an

    2012-12-01

    Humic-like Substances (HULIS) comprise a significant fraction of the water-soluble organic aerosol mass and influence the cloud microphysical properties and climate effects of aerosols in the atmosphere. In this work, the most frequently used HULIS isolation and quantification methods including ENVI-18, HLB, XAD-8 and DEAE were comparatively characterized with two model standards, ten interfering compounds, and five ambient aerosol samples. Quantification of HULIS is performed with a TOC analyzer, complemented by an investigation of the chemical structure of the extracted fractions by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The results show that the four isolation methods were all characterized by high reliability, high reproducibility, and low limit of detection (LOD), indicating that each method can be used to efficiently recover Suwannee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) and be applied to the quantification of the lower amount of HULIS in atmospheric particles. The analytical results of the UV-Vis spectra of HULIS fractions isolated also indicate that they are all favorable for extraction of compounds of high UV absorbance, high MW, and high aromaticity and that the DEAE protocol is the most significant one. Compared with the DEAE method that favors extraction of highly UV-absorbing and more aromatic compounds, SRFA isolated by the ENVI-18, HLB, and XAD-8 protocols were more representative of the global matrix. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages and is suitable for a particular application. No single method is ideal for both isolation and quantification of HULIS in atmospheric samples.

  18. Particle/vapor concentrations and distributions of PAHs in the atmosphere of southern Chesapeake Bay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atmospheric PAH concentrations were measured at four sites characterized as rural (Haven Beach), semiurban (York River), urban (Hampton), and industrialized (Elizabeth River) areas as part of a study to quantify gaseous exchange fluxes across the air-water interface of southern Chesapeake Bay. Aerosol particle-associated PAH concentrations were similar at all sites; however, PAH vapor concentrations in the urban areas were as much as a factor of 50 greater than those at the rural site. Mean total PAH concentrations ranged from 7.87 ng/m3 at the rural site to 92.8 ng/m3 at the urban site. Daily total PAH concentrations ranged from 1.60 to 198 ng/m3. Exponential increases in PAH vapor concentrations with temperature were observed at the non-rural sites, suggesting volatilization from contaminated surfaces during warmer weather; whereas PAH vapor concentrations at the rural Haven Beach site exhibited little seasonal variability. Aerosol particle-associated PAH levels were similar at all sites and increased in winter due to the temperature dependence of vapor-particle partitioning, increased sources from combustion of fossil fuel and wood for home heating, and cold condensation of source vapors to background aerosols as air masses are dispersed to remote regions. Plots of log Kd vs. log Psat,SC1 indicate PAH partitioning is not at equilibrium in rural areas of Southern Chesapeake Bay. In addition, plots of log Kd vs. 1/T for individual PAHs indicate difference particle characteristics or partitioning processes influence particle/vapor distributions at the urban and rural sites

  19. Magnetic characterization of non-interacting ultrafine ferrimagnetic nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Ultrafine ferrimagnetic particles are vital not only for understanding fundamental fine-grain rock magnetism theory but also for applications in industrial and biomedical technology. However, magnetic properties of ultrafine ferrimagnetic grains are very poorly understood due to rarity of samples and ambiguity caused by magnetostatic interactions and size distributions. Magnetoferritin is usually composed of a spherical protein cage and a magnetite/maghemite core. Because the protein impose strictly controls on the core formation, magnetoferritin may provide an ideal system to study magnetic properties of ultrafine ferrimagnetic particles and biomineralization process. We successfully synthesized ferrimagnetic iron oxide cores (magnetite and/or maghemite) with theoretically 2300 Fe loading in highly controlled conditions (pH, 8.5; T, 65 deg C) using recombinant human H chain ferritin (HFn). These synthesized ferrimagnetic HFn were examined by various low-temperature magnetic measurements in conjunction with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. TEM revealed that their averaged core diameter is about 4 nm. Selected area electron diffraction (SAED) analysis indicated that the ferrimagnetic HFn cores are probably magnetite (maghemite). Acquisition of isothermal remanent magnetization (IRM) and corresponding dc field demagnetization measured at 5K show a crossing point value of 0.5, and Henkel plot has nice linearity; both indicated no magnetostatic interactions of these ferrimagnetic HFn cores. The saturated IRM acquired at 5 K decreased rapidly with increasing temperature, suggesting a median blocking temperature of 8 K. The Neel frequency factor f0 determined from AC susceptibility is 1011 Hz. The calculated magnetic anisotropy constant K, 1.15 x 105 J/m3, is larger than that of bulk magnetite/maghemite and other magnetoferritins, indicating larger surface anisotropy contribution. These experimental data of non

  20. Formation of highly porous aerosol particles by atmospheric freeze-drying in ice clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudich, Yinon; Adler, Gabriela; Koop, Thomas; Taraniuk, Ilya; Moise, Tamar; Koren, Ilan; Heiblum, Reuven; Haspel, Carynelisa

    2014-05-01

    In cold high altitude cirrus clouds and anvils of high convective clouds in the tropics and mid-latitudes, ice partciles that are exposed to subsaturation conditions with respect to ice can sublimate, leaving behind residual modified aerosols. This freeze-drying process can occur in various types of clouds. In this talk we will describe experiements that simulate the atmospheric freeze-drying cycle of aerosols. We find that aerosols with high organic content can form highly porous particles (HPA) with a larger diameter and a lower density than the initial homogenous aerosol following ice subliation. We attribute this morphology change to phase separation upon freezing followed by a glass transition of the organic material that can preserve a porous structure follwoing ice sublimation. We find that the highly porous aerosol scatter solar light less efficiently than non-porous aerosol particles. A porous structure may explain the previously observed enhancement in ice nucleation efficiency of glassy organic particles. These observations may have implications for subsequent cloud formation cycles and aerosol albedo near cloud edges.

  1. Characterization of individual atmospheric aerosol particles with SIMS and laser-SNMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, R. E.; Nair, A.; Dambach, S.; Arlinghaus, H. F.; Tyler, B. J.

    2006-07-01

    The surface chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles is important in determining how these particles will effect human health, visibility, climate and precipitation chemistry. In previous work, it has been shown that ToF-SIMS can provide significant valuable information on both organic and inorganic constituents of the aerosol. It has been found, however, that ToF-SIMS with a Ga + primary ion beam offers very low sensitivity to poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, two important classes of pollutants. In this work the utility of laser-SNMS for detection of these pollutants has been explored. Two laser systems, a 193 nm excimer laser and a 157 nm excimer laser have been utilized. Each approach has advantages. ToF-SIMS has the highest sensitivity to alkali metals and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The 193 nm laser provides very high sensitivity to lead and other metals. The 157 nm laser greatly enhances sensitivity to PAHs which has enabled detection of PAHs on the surface of individual particles.

  2. Characterization of individual atmospheric aerosol particles with SIMS and laser-SNMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, R.E. [Department of Chemical Engineering, 50 S Central Campus Dr. Rm. 3290, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9203 (United States); Nair, A. [Department of Chemical Engineering, 50 S Central Campus Dr. Rm. 3290, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9203 (United States); Dambach, S. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Arlinghaus, H.F. [Physikalisches Institute der Universitaet Muenster, Wilhelm-Klemm-Strasse 10, 48149 Muenster (Germany); Tyler, B.J. [Department of Chemical Engineering, 50 S Central Campus Dr. Rm. 3290, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112-9203 (United States)]. E-mail: bonniet@eng.utah.edu

    2006-07-30

    The surface chemistry of atmospheric aerosol particles is important in determining how these particles will effect human health, visibility, climate and precipitation chemistry. In previous work, it has been shown that ToF-SIMS can provide significant valuable information on both organic and inorganic constituents of the aerosol. It has been found, however, that ToF-SIMS with a Ga{sup +} primary ion beam offers very low sensitivity to poly-aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals, two important classes of pollutants. In this work the utility of laser-SNMS for detection of these pollutants has been explored. Two laser systems, a 193 nm excimer laser and a 157 nm excimer laser have been utilized. Each approach has advantages. ToF-SIMS has the highest sensitivity to alkali metals and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The 193 nm laser provides very high sensitivity to lead and other metals. The 157 nm laser greatly enhances sensitivity to PAHs which has enabled detection of PAHs on the surface of individual particles.

  3. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szikszai, Z., E-mail: szikszai@atomki.h [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Kertesz, Zs. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Bodnar, E. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary); Major, I. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Borbiro, I. [Abiol Ltd., Debrecen (Hungary); Kiss, A.Z. [Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Debrecen (Hungary); Hunyadi, J. [Department of Dermatology, University of Debrecen, Medical and Health Science Center, Debrecen (Hungary)

    2010-06-15

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  4. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szikszai, Z.; Kertész, Zs.; Bodnár, E.; Major, I.; Borbíró, I.; Kiss, Á. Z.; Hunyadi, J.

    2010-06-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  5. Nuclear microprobe investigation of the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ultrafine metal oxides, such as titanium dioxide and zinc oxide are widely used in cosmetic and health products like sunscreens. These oxides are potent UV filters and the small particle size makes the product more transparent compared to formulations containing coarser particles. In the present work the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide into intact and tape-stripped human skin was investigated using nuclear microprobe techniques, such as proton induced X-ray spectroscopy and scanning transmission ion microscopy. Our results indicate that the penetration of ultrafine zinc oxide, in a hydrophobic basis gel with 48 h application time, is limited to the stratum corneum layer of the intact skin. Removing the stratum corneum partially or entirely by tape-stripping did not cause the penetration of the particles into the deeper dermal layers; the zinc particles remained on the surface of the skin.

  6. A new and superior ultrafine cementitious grout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sealing fractures in nuclear waste repositories concerns all programs investigating deep burial as a means of disposal. Because the most likely mechanism for contaminant migration is by dissolution and movement through groundwater, sealing programs are seeking low-viscosity sealants that are chemically, mineralogically, and physically compatible with the host rock. This paper presents the results of collaborative work directed by Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and supported by Whiteshell Laboratories, operated by Atomic Energy of Canada, Ltd. The work was undertaken in support of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), an underground nuclear waste repository located in a salt formation east of Carlsbad, NM. This effort addresses the technology associated with long-term isolation of nuclear waste in a natural salt medium. The work presented is part of the WIPP plugging and sealing program, specifically the development and optimization of an ultrafine cementitious grout that can be injected to lower excessive, strain-induced hydraulic conductivity in the fractured rock termed the Disturbed Rock Zone (DRZ) surrounding underground excavations. Innovative equipment and procedures employed in the laboratory produced a usable cement-based grout; 90% of the particles were smaller than 8 microns and the average particle size was 4 microns. The process involved simultaneous wet pulverization and mixing. The grout was used for a successful in situ test underground at the WIPP. Injection of grout sealed microfractures as small as 6 microns (and in one rare instance, 3 microns) and lowered the gas transmissivity of the DRZ by up to three orders of magnitude. Following the WIPP test, additional work produced an improved version of the grout containing particles 90% smaller than 5 microns and averaging 2 microns. This grout will be produced in dry form, ready for the mixer

  7. Modelling the contribution of biogenic volatile organic compounds to new particle formation in the Jülich plant atmosphere chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldin, P.; Liao, L.; Mogensen, D.; Dal Maso, M.; Rusanen, A.; Kerminen, V.-M.; Mentel, T. F.; Wildt, J.; Kleist, E.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Tillmann, R.; Ehn, M.; Kulmala, M.; Boy, M.

    2015-09-01

    We used the Aerosol Dynamics gas- and particle-phase chemistry model for laboratory CHAMber studies (ADCHAM) to simulate the contribution of BVOC plant emissions to the observed new particle formation during photooxidation experiments performed in the Jülich Plant-Atmosphere Chamber and to evaluate how well smog chamber experiments can mimic the atmospheric conditions during new particle formation events. ADCHAM couples the detailed gas-phase chemistry from Master Chemical Mechanism with a novel aerosol dynamics and particle phase chemistry module. Our model simulations reveal that the observed particle growth may have either been controlled by the formation rate of semi- and low-volatility organic compounds in the gas phase or by acid catalysed heterogeneous reactions between semi-volatility organic compounds in the particle surface layer (e.g. peroxyhemiacetal dimer formation). The contribution of extremely low-volatility organic gas-phase compounds to the particle formation and growth was suppressed because of their rapid and irreversible wall losses, which decreased their contribution to the nano-CN formation and growth compared to the atmospheric situation. The best agreement between the modelled and measured total particle number concentration (R2 > 0.95) was achieved if the nano-CN was formed by kinetic nucleation involving both sulphuric acid and organic compounds formed from OH oxidation of BVOCs.

  8. Atmospheric new particle formation and the potential role of organic peroxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trawny, Katrin; Bonn, Boris; Jacobi, Stefan

    2010-05-01

    New particle formation in the atmosphere belongs to the currently most discussed aspects of atmospheric aerosols with significant implications for cloud formation and microphysics, once these particles have grown beyond about 50 nm in particle diameter. If these particles act as cloud condensation or ice nuclei they can affect the radiation budget at the Earths surface and cause climate couplings important to understand when aiming to predict climate change scenarios. One aspect widely discussed is the potential contribution of organic trace gases from anthropogenic and biogenic sources. In this study we analysed datasets from a Central European measurement station in Germany in a spruce forest approximately 800 m above sea level and a distance of about 20 km to Frankfurt (southeast). Continuous particle size distribution measurements were classified in nucleation-event or not and unidentified and intercompared to meteorological and basic trace gas observations. Additionally meteorological backtrajektories calculated by the German Weather Service for the station every 12 hours have been considered. These led to the following conclusions: Nucleation was most likely if (A) the air has not get significantly into touch with the surface within the last days, or if (B) at least human impact was minor and the air faced forest surfaces mainly (northwest). As observed already in Hyytiälä (Finland) nucleation appeared, when the relative humidity and ambient water vapour mixing ratio were low, ozone was high and the condensation sink was small. A further important point was the amount of global radiation measured at the Taunus Observatory (Mt. Kleiner Feldberg). The higher the radiation, the more likely a nucleation event and the more intense. Temperature impacted on the intensity of nucleation, i.e. the higher the temperature the more intense the event, but did not directly affect the occurrence of an event or not, if a threshold value of ca. -6 °C was exceeded. This

  9. On the spatial distribution and evolution of ultrafine aerosols in urban air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Dall'Osto

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Sources and evolution of ultrafine particles (<0.1 μ m diameter were investigated both horizontally and vertically in the large urban agglomerate of Barcelona, Spain. Within the SAPUSS project (Solving Aerosol Problems by Using Synergistic Strategies, a large number of instruments was deployed simultaneously at different monitoring sites (road, two urban background, regional background, urban tower 150 μa.s.l., urban background tower site 80 m a.s.l. during a 4 week period in September-October 2010. Particle number concentrations (N>5nm are highly correlated with black carbon (BC at all sites only under strong vehicular traffic influences. By contrast, under clean atmospheric conditions (low condensation sinks, CS such correlation diverges towards much higher N/BC ratios at all sites, indicating additional sources of particles including secondary production of freshly nucleated particles. This is also evident in the urban background annual mean diurnal trend of N/BC, showing a midday peak in all seasons. Size-resolved aerosol distributions (N10-500 as well as particle number concentrations (N>5nm allow us to identify two types of nucleation and growth events: a regional type event originating in the whole study region and impacting almost simultaneously the urban city of Barcelona and the surrounding background area; and an urban type which originates only within the city centre but whose growth continues while transported away from the city to the regional background. Furthermore, during these clean air days, higher N are found at tower level than at ground level only in the city centre whereas such a difference is not so pronounced at the remote urban background tower. In other words, this study suggests that the column of air above the city ground level possesses the best compromise between low CS and high vapour source, hence enhancing the concentrations of freshly nucleated particles. By contrast, within

  10. Preparation of an ultra-fine, slightly dispersed silver iodide aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A silver iodide aerosol was prepared under clean conditions. The method was to react iodine vapor with a silver aerosol in an inert dry atmosphere and in darkness. Great care was taken to avoid contamination from atmosphere air. The ice nucleating properties of the ultrafine AgI aerosol obtained were studied in a cloud mixing chamber: the aerosol was found to be strangely inactive. (author)

  11. Defect structure of ultrafine MgB{sub 2} nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bateni, Ali; Somer, Mehmet, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: msomer@ku.edu.tr [Department of Chemistry, Koc University, Rumelifeneri Yolu, Sariyer, Istanbul (Turkey); Repp, Sergej; Erdem, Emre, E-mail: emre.erdem@physchem.uni-freiburg.de, E-mail: msomer@ku.edu.tr [Institut für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Albertstr. 21 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Thomann, Ralf [Freiburger Materialforschungzentrum (FMF) für Physikalische Chemie, Universität Freiburg, Stefan-Meier Str. 21 79104 Freiburg (Germany); Acar, Selçuk [Pavezyum Chemicals, Orhanlı Mah. Ulu Sokak, No. 3, 34956 Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkey)

    2014-11-17

    Defect structure of MgB{sub 2} bulk and ultrafine particles, synthesized by solid state reaction route, have been investigated mainly by the aid of X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometer. Two different amorphous Boron (B) precursors were used for the synthesis of MgB{sub 2}, namely, boron 95 (purity 95%–97%, <1.5 μm) and nanoboron (purity >98.5%, <250 nm), which revealed bulk and nanosized MgB{sub 2}, respectively. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrate uniform and ultrafine morphology for nanosized MgB{sub 2} in comparison with bulk MgB{sub 2}. Powder X-ray diffraction data show that the concentration of the by-product MgO is significantly reduced when nanoboron is employed as precursor. It is observed that a significant average particle size reduction for MgB{sub 2} can be achieved only by using B particles of micron or nano size. The origin and the role of defect centers were also investigated and the results proved that at nanoscale MgB{sub 2} material contains Mg vacancies. Such vacancies influence the connectivity and the conductivity properties which are crucial for the superconductivity applications.

  12. Chemical characteristics and source of size-fractionated atmospheric particle in haze episode in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jihua; Duan, Jingchun; Zhen, Naijia; He, Kebin; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-01

    The abundance, behavior, and source of chemical species in size-fractionated atmospheric particle were studied with a 13-stage low pressure impactor (ELPI) during high polluted winter episode in Beijing. Thirty three elements (Al, Ca, Fe, K, Mg, Na, Si, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, Ge, As, Se, Sr, Zr, Mo, Ag, Cd, In, Sn, Sb, Cs, Ba, Hg, Tl, and Pb) and eight water soluble ions (Cl-, NO3-, SO42 -, NH4+, Na+, K+, Ca2 +, and Mg2 +) were determined by ICP/MS and IC, respectively. The size distribution of TC (OC + EC) was reconstructed. Averagely, 51.5 ± 5.3% and 74.1 ± 3.7% of the total aerosol mass was distributed in the sub-micron (PM1) and fine particle (PM2.5), respectively. A significant shift to larger fractions during heavy pollution episode was observed for aerosol mass, NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, K, Fe, Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb. The mass size distributions of NH4+, SO42 -, NO3-, and K were dominated by accumulation mode. Size distributions of elements were classified into four main types: (I) elements were enriched within the accumulation mode (fine, intermediate, and coarse modes; and (IV) those which were mainly found within particles larger than 2.7 μm (Al, Mg, Si, Ca, Sc, Tl, Fe, Sr, Zr, and Ba). [H+]cor showed an accumulation mode at 600-700 nm and the role of Ca2 + should be fully considered in the estimation of acidity. The acidity in accumulation mode particles suggested that generally gaseous NH3 was not enough to neutralize sulfate completely. PMF method was applied for source apportionment of elements combined with water soluble ions. Dust, vehicle, aged coal combustion, and sea salt were identified, and the size resolved source apportionments were discussed. Aged coal combustion was the important source of fine particles and dust contributed most to coarse particle.

  13. Atmospheric particles retrieval using satellite remote sensing: Applications for sandstorms and volcanic clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yingxin

    This thesis is concerned with atmospheric particles produced by sandstorms and volcanic eruptions. Three studies were conducted in order to examine particle retrieval methodology, and apply these towards an improved understanding of large-scale sandstorms. A thermal infrared remote sensing retrieval method developed by Wen and Rose [1994], which retrieves particle sizes, optical depth, and total masses of silicate particles in the volcanic cloud, was applied to an April 07, 2001 sandstorm over northern China, using MODIS. Results indicate that the area of the dust cloud observed was 1.34 million km2, the mean particle radius of the dust was 1.44 mum, and the mean optical depth at 11 mum was 0.79. The mean burden of dust was approximately 4.8 tons/km2 and the main portion of the dust storm on April 07, 2001 contained 6.5 million tons of dust. The results are supported by both independent remote sensing data (TOMS) and in-situ data for a similar event in 1998, therefore suggesting that the technique is appropriate for quantitative analysis of silicate dust clouds. This is the first quantitative evaluation of annual and seasonal dust loading in 2003 produced by Saharan dust storms by satellite remote sensing analysis. The retrieved mean particle effective radii of 2003 dust events are between 1.7--2.6 mum which is small enough to be inhaled and is hazardous to human health. The retrieved yearly dust mass load is 658--690 Tg, which is ˜45% of the annual global mineral dust production. Winter is the heaviest dust loading season in the year 2003, which is more than 5 times larger than that in the summer season in 2003.The mean optical depths at 11 mum in the winter season (around 0.7) are higher than those in the summer season (around 0.5). The results could help both meteorologists and environmental scientists to evaluate and predict the hazard degree caused by Saharan dust storms. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  14. Origin of nitrocatechols and alkylated-nitrocatechols in atmospheric aerosol particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchand, Nicolas; Sylvestre, Alexandre; Ravier, Sylvain; Detournay, Anais; Bruns, Emily; Temime-Roussel, Brice; Slowik, Jay; El Haddad, Imad; Prevot, Andre

    2013-04-01

    Biomass burning constitutes one of the major sources of aerosol particles in most of the environments during winter. If a lot of information is available in the literature on the primary fraction of biomass burning aerosol particles, almost nothing is known regarding the formation of Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) from the chemical mixture emitted by this source. Recently methylated nitrocatechol have been identified in atmospheric particles collected in winter. These compounds are strongly associated with biomass burning tracers such as levoglucosan and are suspected to be of secondary origin since they can be formed through the oxidation of cresol significantly emitted by biomass burning. However, nitrocatechols are particularly difficult to analyze using classical techniques like HPLC-MS or GC-MS. In the present study, we adopt a new analytical approach. Direct analysis in real time (DART), introduced by Cody et al. (2005), allows direct analysis of gases, liquids, solids and materials on surfaces. Thus, for particles collected onto filters, the sample preparation step is simplified as much as possible, avoiding losses and reducing to the minimum the analytical procedure time. Two analytic modes can be used. In positive mode, [MH]+ ions are formed by proton transfer reaction ; whereas in negative ionization mode, [MH]-, M- and [MO2]- ions are formed. DART source enables soft ionization and produces simple mass spectra suitable for analysis of complex matrices, like organic aerosol, in only a few seconds. For this study, the DART source was coupled to a Q-ToF mass spectrometer (Synapt G2 HDMS, Waters), with a mass resolution up to 40 000. The analysis of atmospheric aerosol samples, collected in Marseille during winter 2011 (APICE project), with the DART/Q-ToF approach highlighted the abundance of nitrocatechols and alkylated nitrocatechols. Their temporal trends were also very similar to those of levoglucosan or dihydroabietic acid well known tracers of biomass

  15. Application of Atmospheric Plasma-Sprayed Ferrite Layers for Particle Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Caspers, F; Federmann, S; Taborelli, M; Schulz, C; Bobzin, K; Wu, J

    2013-01-01

    A common problem in all kinds of cavity-like structures in particle accelerators is the occurrence of RF-resonances. Typically, ferrite plates attached to the walls of such structures as diagnostic devices, kickers or collimators, are used to dampen those undesired modes. However, the heat transfer rate from these plates to the walls is rather limited. Brazing ferrite plates to the walls is not possible in most cases due to the different thermal expansion coefficients. To overcome those limitations, atmospheric plasma spraying techniques have been investigated. Ferrite layers with a thickness from 50 μm to about 300 μm can be deposited on metallic surfaces like stainless steel exhibiting good thermal contact and still reasonable absorption properties. In this paper the technological aspects of plasma deposition are discussed and results of specifically developed RF loss measurement procedures for such thin magnetically lossy layers on metal are presented.

  16. Future monitoring of charged particle energy deposition into the upper atmosphere and comments on possible relationships between atmospheric phenomena and solar and/or geomagnetic activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, D. J.; Grubb, R. N.; Evans, D. S.; Sauer, H. H.

    1975-01-01

    Monitoring of earth's atmosphere was conducted for several years utilizing the ITOS series of low-altitude, polar-orbiting weather satellites. A space environment monitoring package was included in these satellites to perform measurements of a portion of earth's charged particle environment. The charged particle observations proposed for the low-altitude weather satellite TIROS N, are described which will provide the capability of routine monitoring of the instantaneous total energy deposition into the upper atmosphere by the precipitation of charged particles from higher altitudes. Such observations may be of use in future studies of the relationships between geomagnetic activity and atmospheric weather pattern developments. Estimates are given to assess the potential importance of this type of energy deposition. Discussion and examples are presented illustrating the importance of distinguishing between solar and geomagnetic activity as possible causative sources. Such differentiation is necessary because of the widely different spatial and time scales involved in the atmospheric energy input resulting from these various sources of activity.

  17. Health risk assessment for residents exposed to atmospheric diesel exhaust particles in southern region of Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chio, Chia-Pin; Liao, Chung-Min; Tsai, Ying-I.; Cheng, Man-Ting; Chou, Wei-Chun

    2014-03-01

    Evidence shows a strong association among air pollution, oxidative stress (OS), deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage, and diseases. Recent studies indicated that the aging, human neurodegenerative diseases and cancers resulted from mitochondrial dysfunction and OS. The purpose of this study is to provide a probabilistic risk assessment model to quantify the atmospheric diesel exhaust particles (DEP)-induced pre-cancer biomarker response and cancer incidence risk for residents in south Taiwan. We conducted entirely monthly particulate matter sampling data at five sites in Kaohsiung of south Taiwan in the period 2002-2003. Three findings were found: (i) the DEP dose estimates and cancer risk quantification had heterogeneously spatiotemporal difference in south Taiwan, (ii) the pre-cancer DNA damage biomarker and cancer incidence estimates had a positive yet insignificant association, and (iii) all the estimates of cancer incidence in south Taiwan populations fell within and slight lower than the values from previous cancer epidemiological investigations. In this study, we successfully assessed the tumor incidence for residents posed by DEP exposure in south Taiwan compared with the epidemiological approach. Our approach provides a unique way for assessing human health risk for residences exposed to atmospheric DEP depending on specific combinations of local and regional conditions. Our work implicates the importance of incorporating both environmental and health risk impacts into models of air pollution exposure to guide adaptive mitigation strategies.

  18. Effect of atmospheric aging on volatility and reactive oxygen species of biodiesel exhaust nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourkhesalian, A. M.; Stevanovic, S.; Rahman, M. M.; Faghihi, E. M.; Bottle, S. E.; Masri, A. R.; Brown, R. J.; Ristovski, Z. D.

    2015-08-01

    In the prospect of limited energy resources and climate change, effects of alternative biofuels on primary emissions are being extensively studied. Our two recent studies have shown that biodiesel fuel composition has a significant impact on primary particulate matter emissions. It was also shown that particulate matter caused by biodiesels was substantially different from the emissions due to petroleum diesel. Emissions appeared to have higher oxidative potential with the increase in oxygen content and decrease of carbon chain length and unsaturation levels of fuel molecules. Overall, both studies concluded that chemical composition of biodiesel is more important than its physical properties in controlling exhaust particle emissions. This suggests that the atmospheric aging processes, including secondary organic aerosol formation, of emissions from different fuels will be different as well. In this study, measurements were conducted on a modern common-rail diesel engine. To get more information on realistic properties of tested biodiesel particulate matter once they are released into the atmosphere, particulate matter was exposed to atmospheric oxidants, ozone and ultra-violet light; and the change in their properties was monitored for different biodiesel blends. Upon the exposure to oxidative agents, the chemical composition of the exhaust changes. It triggers the cascade of photochemical reactions resulting in the partitioning of semi-volatile compounds between the gas and particulate phase. In most of the cases, aging lead to the increase in volatility and oxidative potential, and the increment of change was mainly dependent on the chemical composition of fuels as the leading cause for the amount and the type of semi-volatile compounds present in the exhaust.

  19. The stable isotope compositions of mercury in atmospheric particles (PM10) from Paris (France) and vicinity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widory, D.; Petelet-Giraud, E.; Johnson, T.; Quétel, C.; Snell, J.; van Bocxstaele, M.; Bullen, T. D.

    2010-12-01

    Solid mercury (Hg) in atmospheric particles in the environment can be derived from a variety of primary sources and cycled through numerous secondary processes, complicating identification of its origin. Using the PM10 fraction of aerosols from Paris and vicinity, we investigated the possibility that Hg stable isotope compositions could help identify the origins of atmospheric Hg and processes affecting the atmospheric Hg budget. Characterization of Hg isotope compositions of emissions from the different potential sources (e.g. waste incinerators, coal-fired power plants, metal refining plants, road traffic, heating sources and volcanic gases) shows that those containing Hg are clearly discriminated by specific Hg isotope signatures. PM10 were sampled in three different locations: A) downtown Paris, characterized by diffuse pollution, B) nearby suburb of the city, close to suspected Hg emitters, and C) in distant suburb of the city, having only a few industrial activities in the area. Results indicate that Hg in most of the PM10 samples is explained by binary mixings. The mixing end-members include at least two distinct sources at low Hg concentrations in the aerosols, compatible with industrial activity. At high Hg concentration in the aerosols, the isotopes may likewise indicate two distinct sources with δ202Hg compositions of -4.1 and -11.4 ‰. This range is significantly less than that measured on the potential sources of Hg pollution, and may indicate secondary processes, such as gas to solid phase transfers. The occurrence of post-emission processes is reinforced by the strong correlations existing between these low δ202Hg and MIF Δ201Hg values.

  20. Influence of Ionization Degrees on the Evolutions of Charged Particles in Atmospheric Plasma at Low Altitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A zero-dimensional model which includes 56 species of reactants and 427 reactions is used to study the behavior of charged particles in atmospheric plasmas with different ionization degrees at low altitude (near 0 km). The constant coefficient nonlinear equations are solved by using the Quasi-steady-state approximation method. The electron lifetimes are obtained for afterglow plasma with different initial values, and the temporal evolutions of the main charged species are presented, which are dominant in reaction processes. The results show that the electron number density decays quickly. The lifetimes of electrons are shortened by about two orders with increasing ionization degree. Electrons then attach to neutral particles and produce negative ions. When the initial electron densities are in the range of 1010 ∼ 1014 cm−3, the negative ions have sufficiently high densities and long lifetimes for air purification, disinfection and sterilization. Electrons, O2−, O4−, CO4− and CO3− are the dominant negative species when the initial electron density ne0 ≤ 1013 cm−3, and only electrons and CO3− are left when ne0 ≥ 1015 cm−3 · N+2, N+4 and O+2 are dominant in the positive charges for any ionization degree. Other positive species, such as O+4, N+3, NO+, NO+2, Ar+2 and H3O+·H2O, are dominant only for a certain ionization degree and in a certain period. (low temperature plasma)

  1. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, Janaka; Ziyath, Abdul M; Bostrom, Thor E; Bekessy, Lambert K; Ayoko, Godwin A; Egodawatta, Prasanna; Goonetilleke, Ashantha

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. PMID:23712117

  2. An Overview of Energetic Particle Precipitation Effects on the Earth's Atmosphere and (Potentially) Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Charles H.

    2012-01-01

    Energetic precipitating particles (EPPs) can cause significant constituent changes in the polar mesosphere and stratosphere (middle atmosphere) during certain periods. Both protons and electrons can influence the polar middle atmosphere through ionization and dissociation processes. EPPs can enhance HOx (H, OH, HO2) through the formation of positive ions followed by complex ion chemistry and NOx (N, NO, NO2) through the dissociation of molecular nitrogen. The solar EPP-created HOx increases can lead to ozone destruction in the mesosphere and upper stratosphere via several catalytic loss cycles. Such middle atmospheric HOx-caused ozone loss is rather short-lived due to the relatively short lifetime (hours) of the HOx constituents. The HOx-caused ozone depletion of greater than 30% has been observed during several large solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 50 years. HOx enhancements due to SPEs were confirmed by observations in solar cycle 23. A number of modeling studies have been undertaken over this time period that show predictions of enhanced HOx accompanied by decreased ozone due to energetic particles. The solar EPP-created NOx family has a longer lifetime than the HOx family and can also lead to catalytic ozone destruction. EPP-caused enhancements of the NOx family can affect ozone promptly, if produced in the stratosphere, or subsequently, if produced in the lower thermosphere or mesosphere and transported to the stratosphere. NOx enhancements due to auroral electrons, medium and high energy electrons, relativistic electron precipitation (REP) events, and SPEs have been measured and/or modeled for decades. Model predictions and measurements show that certain years have significant winter-time meteorological events, which result in the transport of EPP-caused NOx enhancements in the upper mesosphere and lower thermosphere to lower altitudes. The NOx-caused ozone depletion has also been observed during several solar proton events (SPEs) in the past 50 years

  3. Investigation of particle sizes in Pluto's atmosphere from the 29 June 2015 occultation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sickafoose, Amanda A.; Bosh, A. S.; Person, M. J.; Zuluaga, C. A.; Levine, S. E.; Pasachoff, J. M.; Babcock, B. A.; Dunham, E. W.; McLean, I.; Wolf, J.; Abe, F.; Bida, T. A.; Bright, L. P.; Brothers, T.; Christie, G.; Collins, P. L.; Durst, R. F.; Gilmore, A. C.; Hamilton, R.; Harris, H. C.; Johnson, C.; Kilmartin, P. M.; Kosiarek, M. R.; Leppik, K.; Logsdon, S.; Lucas, R.; Mathers, S.; Morley, C. J. K.; Natusch, T.; Nelson, P.; Ngan, H.; Pfüller, E.; de, H.-P.; Sallum, S.; Savage, M.; Seeger, C. H.; Siu, H.; Stockdale, C.; Suzuki, D.; Thanathibodee, T.; Tilleman, T.; Tristam, P. J.; Van Cleve, J.; Varughese, C.; Weisenbach, L. W.; Widen, E.; Wiedemann, M.

    2015-11-01

    The 29 June 2015 observations of a stellar occultation by Pluto, from SOFIA and ground-based sites in New Zealand, indicate that haze was present in the lower atmosphere (Bosh et al., this conference). Previously, slope changes in the occultation light curve profile of Pluto’s lower atmosphere have been attributed to haze, a steep thermal gradient, and/or a combination of the two. The most useful diagnostic for differentiating between these effects has been observing occultations over a range of wavelengths: haze scattering and absorption are functions of particle size and are wavelength dependent, whereas effects due to a temperature gradient should be largely independent of observational wavelength. The SOFIA and Mt. John data from this event exhibit obvious central flashes, from multiple telescopes observing over a range of wavelengths at each site (Person et al. and Pasachoff et al., this conference). SOFIA data include Red and Blue observations from the High-speed Imaging Photometer for Occultations (HIPO, at ~ 500 and 850 nm), First Light Infrared Test Camera (FLITECAM, at ~1800 nm), and the Focal Plan Imager (FPI+, at ~ 600 nm). Mt. John data include open filter, g', r', i', and near infrared. Here, we analyze the flux at the bottom of the light curves versus observed wavelength. We find that there is a distinct trend in flux versus wavelength, and we discuss applicable Mie scattering models for different particle size distributions and compositions (as were used to characterize haze in Pluto's lower atmosphere in Gulbis et al. 2015).SOFIA is jointly operated by the Universities Space Research Association, Inc. (USRA), under NASA contract NAS2-97001, and the Deutsches SOFIA Institut (DSI) under DLR contract 50 OK 0901 to the University of Stuttgart. Support for this work was provided by the National Research Foundation of South Africa, NASA SSO grants NNX15AJ82G (Lowell Observatory), PA NNX10AB27G (MIT), and PA NNX12AJ29G (Williams College), and the NASA

  4. Mobility particle size spectrometers: harmonization of technical standards and data structure to facilitate high quality long-term observations of atmospheric particle number size distributions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Wiedensohler

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Mobility particle size spectrometers often referred to as DMPS (Differential Mobility Particle Sizers or SMPS (Scanning Mobility Particle Sizers have found a wide range of applications in atmospheric aerosol research. However, comparability of measurements conducted world-wide is hampered by lack of generally accepted technical standards and guidelines with respect to the instrumental set-up, measurement mode, data evaluation as well as quality control. Technical standards were developed for a minimum requirement of mobility size spectrometry to perform long-term atmospheric aerosol measurements. Technical recommendations include continuous monitoring of flow rates, temperature, pressure, and relative humidity for the sheath and sample air in the differential mobility analyzer.

    We compared commercial and custom-made inversion routines to calculate the particle number size distributions from the measured electrical mobility distribution. All inversion routines are comparable within few per cent uncertainty for a given set of raw data.

    Furthermore, this work summarizes the results from several instrument intercomparison workshops conducted within the European infrastructure project EUSAAR (European Supersites for Atmospheric Aerosol Research and ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace gases Research InfraStructure Network to determine present uncertainties especially of custom-built mobility particle size spectrometers. Under controlled laboratory conditions, the particle number size distributions from 20 to 200 nm determined by mobility particle size spectrometers of different design are within an uncertainty range of around ±10% after correcting internal particle losses, while below and above this size range the discrepancies increased. For particles larger than 200 nm, the uncertainty range increased to 30%, which could not be explained. The network reference mobility spectrometers with identical design agreed within ±4% in the

  5. Highly time-resolved chemical characterization of atmospheric fine particles during 2010 Shanghai World Expo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X.-F. Huang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shanghai, with a population of over 20 million, is the largest mega-city in China. Rapidly increasing industrial and metropolitan emissions have deteriorated its air quality in the past decades, with fine particle pollution as one of the major issues. However, systematic characterization of atmospheric fine particles with advanced measurement techniques has been very scarce in Shanghai. During 2010 Shanghai World Expo, we deployed a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS and a single particle soot photometer (SP2 in urban Shanghai between 15 May and 10 June 2010 to measure fine particles with a high time resolution. The 4-min resolution PM1 mass concentration ranged from 5.5 to 155 μg m−3, with an average of 29.2 μg m−3. On average, sulfate and organic matter (OM were the most abundant PM1 components, accounting for 33.3 and 28.7% of the total mass, respectively, while the fraction of nitrate showed an increasing trend with the increasing PM1 loading, indicating the photochemical nature of high fine particle pollution in Shanghai. Taking advantage of HR-ToF-AMS and SP2, OM was found to have an average OM/OC ratio (organic matter mass/organic carbon mass of 1.55 and black carbon (BC had an average number fraction of internally mixed BC of 41.2%. Positive matrix factorization (PMF analysis on the high resolution organic mass spectral dataset identified a hydrocarbon-like (HOA, a semi-volatile oxygenated (SV-OOA, and a low-volatility oxygenated (LV-OOA organic aerosol component, which on average accounted for 24.0, 46.8, and 29.2% of the total organic mass, respectively. The diurnal patterns of them with interesting time delay possibly implied a photochemical oxidizing process from HOA (and/or its concurrently emitted gaseous organic pollutants to SV-OOA to LV-OOA. Back trajectory analysis indicated that the northwesterly continental air mass represented the

  6. Atmospheric heteroseneous reaction of acetone: Adsorption and desorption kinetics and mechanisms on SiO2 particles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIE ChongYu; CHEN ZhongMing; WANG HongLi; HUA Wei; WANG CaiXia; LI Shuang

    2008-01-01

    Acetone plays an important role in photooxidation processes in the atmosphere. Up to date, little is known regarding the heterogeneous fate of acetone. In this study, the adsorption and desorption processes of acetone on SiO2 particles, which are the major constituent of mineral dust in the atmos-phere, have been investigated for the first time under the simulated atmospheric conditions, using in situ transmission Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. It is found that acetone molecules are ad-sorbed on the surfaces of SiO2 particles by van der Waals forces and hydrogen bonding forces in a nonreactive and reversible state. The rates of initial adsorption and initial desorption, initial uptake coefficients and adsorption concentrations at equilibrium have been determined at different relative humidity. The presence of water vapor cannot result in the formation of new substances, but can de-crease the adsorption ability by consuming or overlapping the isolated OH groups on the surfaces of SiO2 particles. In the desorption process, a considerable amount of acetone molecules will remain on SiO2 particles in dry air, whereas acetone molecules are almost completely desorbed at a high relative humidity. In order to evaluate the role of heterogeneous reactions of acetone and other carbonyl compounds in the atmosphere, a new model fitting the atmospheric conditions is needed.

  7. The effect of acid-base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rondo, Linda; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E; Wagner, Paul E; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a coherent framework and discuss their significance in the atmosphere. PMID:27197574

  8. The effect of acid–base clustering and ions on the growth of atmospheric nano-particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Rondo, Linda; Kontkanen, Jenni; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Jokinen, Tuija; Sarnela, Nina; Kürten, Andreas; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Sipilä, Mikko; Yli-Juuti, Taina; Duplissy, Jonathan; Adamov, Alexey; Ahlm, Lars; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Downard, Andrew J.; Dunne, Eimear M.; Flagan, Richard C.; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Jud, Werner; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kerminen, Veli-Matti; Keskinen, Helmi; Kim, Jaeseok; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kupiainen-Määttä, Oona; Laaksonen, Ari; Lawler, Michael J.; Leiminger, Markus; Mathot, Serge; Olenius, Tinja; Ortega, Ismael K.; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud; Rissanen, Matti P.; Ruuskanen, Taina; Santos, Filipe D.; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Simon, Mario; Smith, James N.; Tröstl, Jasmin; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, António; Vaattovaara, Petri; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Vrtala, Aron E.; Wagner, Paul E.; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M.; Virtanen, Annele; Donahue, Neil M.; Carslaw, Kenneth S.; Baltensperger, Urs; Riipinen, Ilona; Curtius, Joachim; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-01-01

    The growth of freshly formed aerosol particles can be the bottleneck in their survival to cloud condensation nuclei. It is therefore crucial to understand how particles grow in the atmosphere. Insufficient experimental data has impeded a profound understanding of nano-particle growth under atmospheric conditions. Here we study nano-particle growth in the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoors Droplets) chamber, starting from the formation of molecular clusters. We present measured growth rates at sub-3 nm sizes with different atmospherically relevant concentrations of sulphuric acid, water, ammonia and dimethylamine. We find that atmospheric ions and small acid-base clusters, which are not generally accounted for in the measurement of sulphuric acid vapour, can participate in the growth process, leading to enhanced growth rates. The availability of compounds capable of stabilizing sulphuric acid clusters governs the magnitude of these effects and thus the exact growth mechanism. We bring these observations into a coherent framework and discuss their significance in the atmosphere. PMID:27197574

  9. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunawardena, Janaka, E-mail: j.gunawardena@qut.edu.au; Ziyath, Abdul M., E-mail: mohamed.ziyath@qut.edu.au; Bostrom, Thor E., E-mail: t.bostrom@qut.edu.au; Bekessy, Lambert K., E-mail: l.bekessy@qut.edu.au; Ayoko, Godwin A., E-mail: g.ayoko@qut.edu.au; Egodawatta, Prasanna, E-mail: p.egodawatta@qut.edu.au; Goonetilleke, Ashantha, E-mail: a.goonetilleke@qut.edu.au

    2013-09-01

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources.

  10. Characterisation of atmospheric deposited particles during a dust storm in urban areas of Eastern Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The characteristics of dust particles deposited during the 2009 dust storm in the Gold Coast and Brisbane regions of Australia are discussed in this paper. The study outcomes provide important knowledge in relation to the potential impacts of dust storm related pollution on ecosystem health in the context that the frequency of dust storms is predicted to increase due to anthropogenic desert surface modifications and climate change impacts. The investigated dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to the environment with an increased amount of total suspended solids, compared to dry deposition under ambient conditions. Although the dust storm passed over forested areas, the organic carbon content in the dust was relatively low. The primary metals present in the dust storm deposition were aluminium, iron and manganese, which are common soil minerals in Australia. The dust storm deposition did not contain significant loads of nickel, cadmium, copper and lead, which are commonly present in the urban environment. Furthermore, the comparison between the ambient and dust storm chromium and zinc loads suggested that these metals were contributed to the dust storm by local anthropogenic sources. The potential ecosystem health impacts of the 2009 dust storm include, increased fine solids deposition on ground surfaces resulting in an enhanced capacity to adsorb toxic pollutants as well as increased aluminium, iron and manganese loads. In contrast, the ecosystem health impacts related to organic carbon and other metals from dust storm atmospheric deposition are not considered to be significant. - Highlights: • The dust storm contributed a large fraction of fine particles to pollutant build-up. • The dust storm increased TSS, Al, Fe and Mn loads in build-up on ground surfaces. • Dust storm did not significantly increase TOC, Ni, Cu, Pb and Cd loads in build-up. • Cr and Zn in dust storm deposition were contributed by local anthropogenic sources

  11. Aerosol and Cloud-Nucleating Particle Observations during an Atmospheric River Event

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMott, P. J.; McCluskey, C. S.; Petters, M.; Suski, K. J.; Levin, E. J.; Hill, T. C. J.; Atwood, S. A.; Schill, G. P.; Rocci, K.; Boose, Y.; Martin, A.; Cornwell, G.; Al-Mashat, H.; Moore, K.; Prather, K. A.; Rothfuss, N.; Taylor, H.; Leung, L. R.; Tomlinson, J. M.; Mei, F.; Hubbe, J. M.; Rosenfeld, D.; Spackman, J. R.; Fairall, C. W.; Creamean, J.; White, A. B.; Kreidenweis, S. M.

    2015-12-01

    The multi-agency CalWater 2015 project occurred over North Central CA and the Eastern Pacific during January to March 2015 (Spackman et al., this session). The goals of the campaign were to document the structure of atmospheric rivers (ARs) that deliver much of the water vapor associated with major winter storms along the U.S. West Coast and to investigate the modulating effect of aerosols on precipitation. Aerosol sources that may influence orographic cloud properties for air lifted over the mountains in California in winter include pollution, biomass burning, soil dusts and marine aerosols, but their roles will also be influenced by transport, vertical stratification, and scavenging processes. We present results from a comprehensive study of aerosol distributions, compositions, and cloud nucleating properties during an intense winter storm during February 2015, including data from an NSF-supported measurement site at Bodega Bay, from the DOE-ARM Cloud Aerosol Precipitation Experiment that included sampling on the NOAA RV Ron Brown offshore and the G-1 aircraft over ocean and land, and with context provided by other NOAA aircraft and remote sensing facilities. With a special focus on the coastal site, we discuss changes in aerosol distributions, aerosol hygroscopicity, and number concentrations of fluorescent particles, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), and ice nucleating particles (INPs) during the AR event. We compare with periods preceding and following the event. For example, total aerosol number and surface area concentrations at below 0.5 μm diameter decreased from typical values of a few thousand cm-3 and 100 μm2 cm-3, respectively, to a few hundred cm-3 and 10 μm2cm-3 at Bodega Bay during the AR event. CCN concentrations were similarly lower, but hygroscopicity parameter (kappa) increased from typical values of 0.2 to values > 0.5 during the AR.INP and fluorescent particle number concentrations were generally lower during the AR event than at any other

  12. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - fluorescent biomolecules, biological standard particles and potential interferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöhlker, C.; Huffmann, J. A.; Pöschl, U.

    2012-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) such as pollen, fungal spores, bacteria, biogenic polymers and debris from larger organisms are known to influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere and public health. PBAP account for up to ~30% of fine and up to ~70% of coarse particulate matter in urban, rural and pristine environment and are released with estimated emission rates of up to ~1000 Tg/a [1]. Continuous measurements of the abundance, variability and diversity of PBAP have been difficult until recently, however. The application of on-line instruments able to detect autofluorescence from biological particles in real-time has been a promising development for the measurement of PBAP concentrations and fluxes in different environments [2,3]. The detected fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) can be regarded as a subset of PBAP, although the exact relationship between PBAP and FBAP is still being investigated. Autofluorescence of FBAP is usually a superposition of fluorescence from a mixture of individual fluorescent molecules (fluorophores). Numerous biogenic fluorophores such as amino acids (e.g., tryptophan, tyrosine), coenzymes (e.g., NAD(P)H, riboflavin) and biopolymers (e.g., cellulose) emit fluorescent light due to heterocyclic aromatic rings or conjugated double bonds within their molecular structures. The tryptophan emission peak is a common feature of most bioparticles because the amino acid is a constituent of many proteins and peptides. The influence of the coenzymes NAD(P)H and riboflavin on the autofluorescence of bacteria can be regarded as an indicator for bacterial metabolism and has been utilized to discriminate between viable and non-viable organisms [4]. However, very little information is available about other essential biofluorophores in fungal spores and pollen. In order to better understand the autofluorescence behavior of FBAP, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy to analyze standard

  13. Size distribution of natural aerosols and radioactive particles issued from radon, in marine and hardly polluted urban atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    With a view to studying the natural radioactive particles produced by atttachment of 222Rn daughters on environmental aerosol particles, the behaviours of CASELLA MK2 and ANDERSEN cascade impactors were first investigated. Their characteristic stage diameters were determined and size distributions of airborne particles were obtained in various situations. Moreover, an experimental and automatic equipment for measuring radon was devised and a method was developed in order to evaluate RaA, RaB, RaC concentrations in the free atmosphere. A degree of radioactive desequilibrium between 222Rn and its daughters, more important than that in other locations was thus demonstrated. Furthermore, by means of various aerosol collection systems (ion tubes, diffusion batteries, cascade impactors, filters), the cumulative size distribution of natural radioactivity was established in the air, at ground level. Finally, from a theory of attachment of small radioactive ions on atmospheric particles, a tentative explanation of experimental results was made

  14. Particle hygroscopicity and its link to chemical composition in the urban atmosphere of Beijing, China, during summertime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z. J.; Zheng, J.; Shang, D. J.; Du, Z. F.; Wu, Y. S.; Zeng, L. M.; Wiedensohler, A.; Hu, M.

    2016-02-01

    Simultaneous measurements of particle number size distribution, particle hygroscopic properties, and size-resolved chemical composition were made during the summer of 2014 in Beijing, China. During the measurement period, the mean hygroscopicity parameters (κs) of 50, 100, 150, 200, and 250 nm particles were respectively 0.16 ± 0.07, 0.19 ± 0.06, 0.22 ± 0.06, 0.26 ± 0.07, and 0.28 ± 0.10, showing an increasing trend with increasing particle size. Such size dependency of particle hygroscopicity was similar to that of the inorganic mass fraction in PM1. The hydrophilic mode (hygroscopic growth factor, HGF > 1.2) was more prominent in growth factor probability density distributions and its dominance of hydrophilic mode became more pronounced with increasing particle size. When PM2.5 mass concentration was greater than 50 μg m-3, the fractions of the hydrophilic mode for 150, 250, and 350 nm particles increased towards 1 as PM2.5 mass concentration increased. This indicates that aged particles dominated during severe pollution periods in the atmosphere of Beijing. Particle hygroscopic growth can be well predicted using high-time-resolution size-resolved chemical composition derived from aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements using the Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson (ZSR) mixing rule. The organic hygroscopicity parameter (κorg) showed a positive correlation with the oxygen to carbon ratio. During the new particle formation event associated with strongly active photochemistry, the hygroscopic growth factor or κ of newly formed particles is greater than for particles with the same sizes not during new particle formation (NPF) periods. A quick transformation from external mixture to internal mixture for pre-existing particles (for example, 250 nm particles) was observed. Such transformations may modify the state of the mixture of pre-existing particles and thus modify properties such as the light absorption coefficient and cloud condensation nuclei activation.

  15. Characteristics of atmospheric particulate mercury in size-fractionated particles during haze days in Shanghai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojia; Balasubramanian, Rajasekhar; Zhu, Qiongyu; Behera, Sailesh N.; Bo, Dandan; Huang, Xian; Xie, Haiyun; Cheng, Jinping

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric particulate mercury (PHg) is recognized as a global pollutant that requires regulation because of its significant impacts on both human health and wildlife. The haze episodes that occur frequently in China could influence the transport and fate of PHg. To examine the characteristics of PHg during haze and non-haze days, size-fractioned particles were collected using thirteen-stage Nano-MOUDI samplers (10 nm-18 μm) during a severe haze episode (from December 2013 to January 2014) in Shanghai. The PHg concentration on haze days (4.11 ± 0.53 ng m-3) was three times higher than on non-haze days (1.34 ± 0.15 ng m-3). The ratio of the PHg concentration to total gaseous mercury (TGM) ranged from 0.42 during haze days to 0.21 during non-haze days, which was possibly due to the elevated concentration of particles for gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) adsorption, elevated sulfate and nitrate contributing to GEM oxidation, and the catalytic effect of elevated water-soluble inorganic metal ions. PHg/PM10 during haze days (0.019 ± 0.004 ng/μg) was lower than during non-haze days (0.024 ± 0.002 ng/μg), and PHg/PM10 was significantly reduced with an increasing concentration of PM10, which implied a relatively lower growth velocity of mercury than other compositions on particles during haze days, especially in the diameter range of 0.018-0.032 μm. During haze days, each size-fractioned PHg concentration was higher than the corresponding fraction on non-haze days, and the dominant particle size was in the accumulation mode, with constant accumulation to a particle size of 0.56-1.0 μm. The mass size distribution of PHg was bimodal with peaks at 0.32-0.56 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on non-haze days, and 0.56-1.0 μm and 3.1-6.2 μm on haze days. There was a clear trend that the dominant size for PHg in the fine modes shifted from 0.32-0.56 μm during non-haze days to 0.56-1.0 μm on haze days, which revealed the higher growth velocity of PHg on haze days due to the

  16. Real time analysis of lead-containing atmospheric particles in Beijing during springtime by single particle aerosol mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Li; Li, Mei; Huang, Zhengxu; Li, Lei; Gao, Wei; Nian, Huiqing; Zou, Lilin; Fu, Zhong; Gao, Jian; Chai, Fahe; Zhou, Zhen

    2016-07-01

    Using a single particle aerosol mass spectrometer (SPAMS), the chemical composition and size distributions of lead (Pb)-containing particles with diameter from 0.1 μm to 2.0 μm in Beijing were analyzed in the spring of 2011 during clear, hazy, and dusty days. Based on mass spectral features of particles, cluster analysis was applied to Pb-containing particles, and six major classes were acquired consisting of K-rich, carboneous, Fe-rich, dust, Pb-rich, and Cl-rich particles. Pb-containing particles accounted for 4.2-5.3%, 21.8-22.7%, and 3.2% of total particle number during clear, hazy and dusty days, respectively. K-rich particles are a major contribution to Pb-containing particles, varying from 30.8% to 82.1% of total number of Pb-containing particles, lowest during dusty days and highest during hazy days. The results reflect that the chemical composition and amount of Pb-containing particles has been affected by meteorological conditions as well as the emissions of natural and anthropogenic sources. K-rich particles and carbonaceous particles could be mainly assigned to the emissions of coal combustion. Other classes of Pb-containing particles may be associated with metallurgical processes, coal combustion, dust, and waste incineration etc. In addition, Pb-containing particles during dusty days were first time studied by SPAMS. This method could provide a powerful tool for monitoring and controlling of Pb pollution in real time. PMID:27085059

  17. Stabilization of ultrafine metal nanocatalysts on thin carbon sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaofang; Cui, Xinrui; Liu, Yiding; Yin, Yadong

    2015-10-01

    A novel strategy was proposed to anchor ultrafine metal nanoparticles (NPs) on thin carbon sheets for highly stable and efficient heterogeneous catalysts. In this facile approach, a dense monolayer of ultrafine AuNPs was sandwiched between a silica core and a resin shell, followed by carbonization of the shell at a high temperature and then selective removal of the silica core. The shrinkage of the shells during carbonization facilitates partial embedment of the AuNPs on the carbon shell surface and provides superior stability against particle sintering during high temperature/mechanical post-treatments and catalytic reactions. It was also found that diffusion of reactants to the surface of AuNPs could be maximized by reducing the thickness of the hollow shells or simply by cracking the shells into thin carbon sheets, both significantly benefiting the catalytic efficiency. The advantages of this ultra-stable architecture together with the densely dispersed catalytic sites were demonstrated by their high stability and superior catalytic activity in reducing hydrophilic 4-nitrophenol and hydrophobic nitrobenzene.A novel strategy was proposed to anchor ultrafine metal nanoparticles (NPs) on thin carbon sheets for highly stable and efficient heterogeneous catalysts. In this facile approach, a dense monolayer of ultrafine AuNPs was sandwiched between a silica core and a resin shell, followed by carbonization of the shell at a high temperature and then selective removal of the silica core. The shrinkage of the shells during carbonization facilitates partial embedment of the AuNPs on the carbon shell surface and provides superior stability against particle sintering during high temperature/mechanical post-treatments and catalytic reactions. It was also found that diffusion of reactants to the surface of AuNPs could be maximized by reducing the thickness of the hollow shells or simply by cracking the shells into thin carbon sheets, both significantly benefiting the

  18. Source reconciliation of atmospheric gas-phase and particle-phase pollutants during a severe photochemical smog episode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schauer, James J; Fraser, Matthew P; Cass, Glen R; Simoneit, Bernd R T

    2002-09-01

    A comprehensive organic compound-based receptor model is developed that can simultaneously apportion the source contributions to atmospheric gas-phase organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, fine particle organic compounds, and fine particle mass. The model is applied to ambient data collected at four sites in the south coast region of California during a severe summertime photochemical smog episode, where the model determines the direct primary contributions to atmospheric pollutants from 11 distinct air pollution source types. The 11 sources included in the model are gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, whole gasoline vapors, gasoline headspace vapors, organic solvent vapors, whole diesel fuel, paved road dust, tire wear debris, meat cooking exhaust, natural gas leakage, and vegetative detritus. Gasoline engine exhaust plus whole gasoline vapors are the predominant sources of volatile organic gases, while gasoline and diesel engine exhaust plus diesel fuel vapors dominate the emissions of semivolatile organic compounds from these sources during the episode studied at all four air monitoring sites. The atmospheric fine particle organic compound mass was composed of noticeable contributions from gasoline-powered motor vehicle exhaust, diesel engine exhaust, meat cooking, and paved road dust with smaller but quantifiable contributions from vegetative detritus and tire wear debris. In addition, secondary organic aerosol, which is formed from the low-vapor pressure products of gas-phase chemical reactions, is found to be a major source of fine particle organic compound mass under the severe photochemical smog conditions studied here. The concentrations of secondary organic aerosol calculated in the present study are compared with previous fine particle source apportionment results for less intense photochemical smog conditions. It is shown that estimated secondary organic aerosol concentrations correlate fairly well with the

  19. Health Impacts Estimation of Mineralogical and Chemical Characterization of Suspended Atmospheric Particles over the East Desert

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    U. A. Rahoma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The small size fraction of aerosols, measured as PM10 and PM2.5, rather than the larger particles, is considered to be responsible for most of the health effects. Such particles have a relatively long residence time in the atmosphere and can therefore travel over long distances. Hence, a large portion of ambient concentrations of PM10 and in particular of particles with an aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 µm (PM2.5, can be attributed to long range trans boundary air pollution or to other remote sources. The estimates of exposure and of health effects are based on a number of uncertain assumptions and data sets, as described in previous article. Approach: In industrialized Middle East countries, the daily deposition of PM10 particles in the lungs is roughly 250 µg day-1, which represents a small dose in terms of traditional toxicology studies. Studies of PM10 have considered this total material but have not asked how much its chemical or physical characteristics contribute to its total toxicity. Results: This article focuses on the description of the present knowledge on PM10 concentration fields and predominant sources contributing to PM10 from long range transport of pollution. PM10 is a complex mixture of many known and unknown components; therefore, a short introduction on the composition of PM10 is given. The studies denote to the African dust from mean PM10 levels background levels are still 5-10 mg m3 higher in the Eastern Basin (EMB when compared with those in the Western (WMB, mainly due to the higher anthropogenic and sea spray loads. Conclusion: As regards for the seasonal trends, these are largely driven by the occurrence of African dust events, resulting in a spring-early summer maximum over the EMB and a clear summer maximum in the WMB, although in this later region the recirculation of aged air masses play an important role. Furthermore, a marked seasonal trend is still evident when subtracting the African

  20. Autofluorescence of atmospheric bioaerosols - Biological standard particles and the influence of environmental conditions

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    Pöhlker, Christopher; Huffman, J. Alex; Förster, Jan-David; Pöschl, Ulrich

    2013-04-01

    Primary biological aerosol particles (PBAP) such as pollen, fungal spores, bacteria, biogenic polymers and debris from larger organisms are known to influence atmospheric chemistry and physics, the biosphere and public health. PBAP can account for up to ~30% of fine and up to ~70% of coarse particulate matter in urban, rural and pristine environment and are released with estimated emission rates of up to ~1000 Tg/a [1]. Continuous measurements of the abundance, variability and diversity of PBAP have been difficult until recently, however. The application of on-line instruments able to detect autofluorescence from biological particles in real-time has been a promising development for the measurement of PBAP concentrations and fluxes in different environments [2,3]. The detected fluorescent biological aerosol particles (FBAP) can be regarded as a subset of PBAP, although the exact relationship between PBAP and FBAP is still being investigated. Autofluorescence of FBAP is usually a superposition of fluorescence from a mixture of individual fluorescent molecules (fluorophores). Numerous biogenic fluorophores such as amino acids (e.g., tryptophan, tyrosine), coenzymes (e.g., NAD(P)H, riboflavin) and biopolymers (e.g., cellulose) emit fluorescent light due to heterocyclic aromatic rings or conjugated double bonds within their molecular structures. The tryptophan emission peak is a common feature of most bioparticles because the amino acid is a constituent of many proteins and peptides. The influence of the coenzymes NAD(P)H and riboflavin on the autofluorescence of bacteria can be regarded as an indicator for bacterial metabolism and has been utilized to discriminate between viable and non-viable organisms [4]. However, very little information is available about other essential biofluorophores in fungal spores and pollen. In order to better understand the autofluorescence behavior of FBAP, we have used fluorescence spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy to analyze

  1. Organic and inorganic decomposition products from the thermal desorption of atmospheric particles

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    Williams, Brent J.; Zhang, Yaping; Zuo, Xiaochen; Martinez, Raul E.; Walker, Michael J.; Kreisberg, Nathan M.; Goldstein, Allen H.; Docherty, Kenneth S.; Jimenez, Jose L.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric aerosol composition is often analyzed using thermal desorption techniques to evaporate samples and deliver organic or inorganic molecules to various designs of detectors for identification and quantification. The organic aerosol (OA) fraction is composed of thousands of individual compounds, some with nitrogen- and sulfur-containing functionality and, often contains oligomeric material, much of which may be susceptible to decomposition upon heating. Here we analyze thermal decomposition products as measured by a thermal desorption aerosol gas chromatograph (TAG) capable of separating thermal decomposition products from thermally stable molecules. The TAG impacts particles onto a collection and thermal desorption (CTD) cell, and upon completion of sample collection, heats and transfers the sample in a helium flow up to 310 °C. Desorbed molecules are refocused at the head of a gas chromatography column that is held at 45 °C and any volatile decomposition products pass directly through the column and into an electron impact quadrupole mass spectrometer. Analysis of the sample introduction (thermal decomposition) period reveals contributions of NO+ (m/z 30), NO2+ (m/z 46), SO+ (m/z 48), and SO2+ (m/z 64), derived from either inorganic or organic particle-phase nitrate and sulfate. CO2+ (m/z 44) makes up a major component of the decomposition signal, along with smaller contributions from other organic components that vary with the type of aerosol contributing to the signal (e.g., m/z 53, 82 observed here for isoprene-derived secondary OA). All of these ions are important for ambient aerosol analyzed with the aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), suggesting similarity of the thermal desorption processes in both instruments. Ambient observations of these decomposition products compared to organic, nitrate, and sulfate mass concentrations measured by an AMS reveal good correlation, with improved correlations for OA when compared to the AMS oxygenated OA (OOA

  2. A critical evaluation of proxy methods used to estimate the acidity of atmospheric particles

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    C. J. Hennigan

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Given significant challenges with available measurements of aerosol acidity, proxy methods are frequently used to estimate the acidity of atmospheric particles. In this study, four of the most common aerosol acidity proxies are evaluated and compared: (1 the ion balance method, (2 the molar ratio method, (3 thermodynamic equilibrium models, and (4 the phase partitioning of ammonia. All methods are evaluated against predictions of thermodynamic models and against direct observations of aerosol-gas equilibrium partitioning acquired in Mexico City during the MILAGRO study. The ion balance and molar ratio methods assume that any deficit in inorganic cations relative to anions is due to the presence of H+; and that a higher H+ loading and lower cation/anion ratio both correspond to increasingly acidic particles (i.e., lower pH. Based on the MILAGRO measurements, no correlation is observed between H+ levels inferred with the ion balance and aerosol pH predicted by the thermodynamic models and ammonia–ammonium (NH3–NH4+ partitioning. Similarly, no relationship is observed between the cation / anion molar ratio and predicted aerosol pH. Using only measured aerosol chemical composition as inputs without any constraint for the gas phase, the Extended Aerosol Inorganics Model (E-AIM and ISORROPIA-II thermodynamic equilibrium models tend to predict aerosol pH levels that are inconsistent with the observed NH3–NH4+ partitioning. The modeled pH values from both models run with gas + aerosol inputs agreed well with the aerosol pH predicted by the phase partitioning of ammonia. It appears that (1 thermodynamic models constrained by gas + aerosol measurements, and (2 the phase partitioning of ammonia provide the best available predictions of aerosol pH. Furthermore, neither the ion balance nor the molar ratio can be used as surrogates for aerosol pH, and published studies to date with conclusions based on such acidity proxies may need to be reevaluated

  3. Insitu measurements of laser-induced-fluorescence spectra of single atmospheric organic carbon aerosol particles for their partial classification. (Invited)

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    Pinnick, R. G.; Pan, Y.; Hill, S.; Rosen, J. M.; Chang, R. K.

    2009-12-01

    Aerosols are ubiquitous in the earth’s atmosphere. Within the last two decades, the importance of organic carbon aerosols (OCAs) has been widely recognized. OCAs have both natural and anthropogenic sources and have effects ranging from atmospheric radiative forcing to human health. Improved methods for measuring and classifying OCAs are needed for better understanding their sources, transformation, and fate. In this talk we focus on the use of a relatively new technique for characterization of single OCA particles in atmospheric aerosol: ultraviolet laser-induced-fluorescence (UV-LIF). UV-LIF spectra of atmospheric aerosols measured at multiple sites with different regional climate (Adelphi, MD, New Haven, CT, and Las Cruces, NM) are reported. A hierarchical clustering method was used to cluster (approximately 90%) of the single-particle UV-LIF spectra into 8-10 groups (clusters). Some of these clusters have spectra that are similar to spectra of some important classes of atmospheric aerosol, such as humic/fulvic acids and humic-like substances, bacteria, cellulose, marine aerosol, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. The most highly populated clusters, and some of the less populated ones, appear at all sites. On average, spectra characteristic of humic/fulvic acids and humic-like-substances (HULIS) comprise 28-43% of fluorescent particles at all three sites; whereas cellulose-like spectra contribute only 1-3%.

  4. Evaluation of the accuracy of analysis tools for atmospheric new particle formation

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    H. Korhonen

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Several mathematical tools have been developed in recent years to analyze new particle formation rates and to estimate nucleation rates and mechanisms at sub-3 nm sizes from atmospheric aerosol data. Here we evaluate these analysis tools using 1239 numerical nucleation events for which the nucleation mechanism and formation rates were known exactly. The accuracy of the estimates of particle formation rate at 3 nm (J3 showed significant sensitivity to the details of the analysis, i.e. form of equations used and assumptions made about the initial size of nucleating clusters, with the fraction of events within a factor-of-two accuracy ranging from 43–97%. In general, the estimates of the actual nucleation rate at 1.5 nm (J1.5 were less accurate, and even the most accurate analysis set-up estimated only 59% of the events within a factor of two of