WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric turbulence

  1. The Calern atmospheric turbulence station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabé, Julien; Ziad, Aziz; Fantéï-Caujolle, Yan; Aristidi, Éric; Renaud, Catherine; Blary, Flavien; Marjani, Mohammed

    2016-07-01

    From its long expertise in Atmospheric Optics, the Observatoire de la Côte d'Azur and the J.L. Lagrange Laboratory have equipped the Calern Observatory with a station of atmospheric turbulence measurement (CATS: Calern Atmospheric Turbulence Station). The CATS station is equipped with a set of complementary instruments for monitoring atmospheric turbulence parameters. These new-generation instruments are autonomous within original techniques for measuring optical turbulence since the first meters above the ground to the borders of the atmosphere. The CATS station is also a support for our training activities as part of our Masters MAUCA and OPTICS, through the organization of on-sky practical works.

  2. Helicopter response to atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riaz, J.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Schrage, D. P.; Gaonkar, G. H.

    1992-01-01

    A new time-domain method for simulating cyclostationary turbulence as seen by a translating and rotating blade element has recently been developed for the case of one-dimensional spectral distribution. This paper extends the simulation method to the cases of two- and three-dimensional spectral distributions and presents validation results for the two-dimensional case. The statistics of an isolated rigid blade flapping response to turbulence are computed using a two-dimensional spectral representation of the von Karman turbulence model, and the results are compared with those obtained using the conventional space-fixed turbulence analysis. The new turbulence simulation method is used for predicting the Black Hawk helicopter response to atmospheric turbulence.

  3. Model for Simulation Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik

    1976-01-01

    A method that produces realistic simulations of atmospheric turbulence is developed and analyzed. The procedure makes use of a generalized spectral analysis, often called a proper orthogonal decomposition or the Karhunen-Loève expansion. A set of criteria, emphasizing a realistic appearance....... The method is unique in modeling the three velocity components simultaneously, and it is found that important cross-statistical features are reasonably well-behaved. It is concluded that the model provides a practical, operational simulator of atmospheric turbulence....

  4. Expressing oceanic turbulence parameters by atmospheric turbulence structure constant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baykal, Yahya

    2016-02-20

    The parameters composing oceanic turbulence are the wavelength, link length, rate of dissipation of kinetic energy per unit mass of fluid, rate of dissipation of mean-squared temperature, Kolmogorov microscale, and the ratio of temperature to salinity contributions to the refractive index spectrum. The required physical entities such as the average intensity and the scintillation index in the oceanic medium are formulated by using the power spectrum of oceanic turbulence, which is described by oceanic turbulence parameters. On the other hand, there exists a rich archive of formulations and results for the above-mentioned physical entities in atmospheric turbulence, where the parameters describing the turbulence are the wavelength, the link length, and the structure constant. In this paper, by equating the spherical wave scintillation index solutions in the oceanic and atmospheric turbulences, we have expressed the oceanic turbulence parameters by an equivalent structure constant used in turbulent atmosphere. Such equivalent structure constant will help ease reaching solutions of similar entities in an oceanic turbulent medium by employing the corresponding existing solutions, which are valid in an atmospheric turbulent medium.

  5. Spectral Characteristics of Atmospheric Turbulence Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GuojunXINShida; LIUShikouLIU; 等

    1996-01-01

    In this paper,KdV-Burgers equation can be regarded as the normal equation of atmospheric turbulence in the stable boundary layer.On the basis of the travelling wave analytic solution of KdV-Burgers equation,the turbulent spectrum is obtained.We observe that the behavior of the spectra is consistent with actual turbulent spectra of stable atmospheric boundary layer.

  6. Clustering of Aerosols in Atmospheric Turbulent Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, T; L'vov, V; Liberman, M A; Rogachevskii, I

    2007-01-01

    A mechanism of formation of small-scale inhomogeneities in spatial distributions of aerosols and droplets associated with clustering instability in the atmospheric turbulent flow is discussed. The particle clustering is a consequence of a spontaneous breakdown of their homogeneous space distribution due to the clustering instability, and is caused by a combined effect of the particle inertia and a finite correlation time of the turbulent velocity field. In this paper a theoretical approach proposed in Phys. Rev. E 66, 036302 (2002) is further developed and applied to investigate the mechanisms of formation of small-scale aerosol inhomogeneities in the atmospheric turbulent flow. The theory of the particle clustering instability is extended to the case when the particle Stokes time is larger than the Kolmogorov time scale, but is much smaller than the correlation time at the integral scale of turbulence. We determined the criterion of the clustering instability for the Stokes number larger than 1. We discussed...

  7. Laser beam propagation in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, S. S. R.

    1979-01-01

    The optical effects of atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of low power laser beams are reviewed in this paper. The optical effects are produced by the temperature fluctuations which result in fluctuations of the refractive index of air. The commonly-used models of index-of-refraction fluctuations are presented. Laser beams experience fluctuations of beam size, beam position, and intensity distribution within the beam due to refractive turbulence. Some of the observed effects are qualitatively explained by treating the turbulent atmosphere as a collection of moving gaseous lenses of various sizes. Analytical results and experimental verifications of the variance, covariance and probability distribution of intensity fluctuations in weak turbulence are presented. For stronger turbulence, a saturation of the optical scintillations is observed. The saturation of scintillations involves a progressive break-up of the beam into multiple patches; the beam loses some of its lateral coherence. Heterodyne systems operating in a turbulent atmosphere experience a loss of heterodyne signal due to the destruction of coherence.

  8. Optical Intensity Interferometry through Atmospheric Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Peng Kian; Kurtsiefer, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrowband spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photon detectors (APDs), the Solar $g^{(2)}(\\tau)$ signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of $g^{(2)}(\\tau) = 1.693 \\pm 0.003$ from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement scheme...

  9. Optical intensity interferometry through atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, P. K.; Chan, A. H.; Kurtsiefer, C.

    2016-04-01

    Conventional ground-based astronomical observations suffer from image distortion due to atmospheric turbulence. This can be minimized by choosing suitable geographic locations or adaptive optical techniques, and avoided altogether by using orbital platforms outside the atmosphere. One of the promises of optical intensity interferometry is its independence from atmospherically induced phase fluctuations. By performing narrow-band spectral filtering on sunlight and conducting temporal intensity interferometry using actively quenched avalanche photodiodes, the Solar g(2)(τ) signature was directly measured. We observe an averaged photon bunching signal of g(2)(τ) = 1.693 ± 0.003 from the Sun, consistently throughout the day despite fluctuating weather conditions, cloud cover and elevation angle. This demonstrates the robustness of the intensity interferometry technique against atmospheric turbulence and opto-mechanical instabilities, and the feasibility to implement measurement schemes with both large baselines and long integration times.

  10. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathemat

  11. Atmospheric turbulence affects wind turbine nacelle transferfunctions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. Martin, Clara M.; Lundquist, Julie K.; Clifton, Andrew; Poulos, Gregory S.; Schreck, Scott J.

    2016-12-14

    Despite their potential as a valuable source of individual turbine power performance and turbine array energy production optimization information, nacelle-mounted anemometers have often been neglected because complex flows around the blades and nacelle interfere with their measurements. This work quantitatively explores the accuracy of and potential corrections to nacelle anemometer measurements to determine the degree to which they may be useful when corrected for these complex flows, particularly for calculating annual energy production (AEP) in the absence of other meteorological data. Using upwind meteorological tower measurements along with nacelle-based measurements from a General Electric (GE) 1.5sle model, we calculate empirical nacelle transfer functions (NTFs) and explore how they are impacted by different atmospheric and turbulence parameters. This work provides guidelines for the use of NTFs for deriving useful wind measurements from nacelle-mounted anemometers. Corrections to the nacelle anemometer wind speed measurements can be made with NTFs and used to calculate an AEP that comes within 1 % of an AEP calculated with upwind measurements. We also calculate unique NTFs for different atmospheric conditions defined by temperature stratification as well as turbulence intensity, turbulence kinetic energy, and wind shear. During periods of low stability as defined by the Bulk Richardson number (RB), the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of high stability at some wind speed bins below rated speed, leading to a more steep NTF during periods of low stability. Similarly, during periods of high turbulence, the nacelle-mounted anemometer underestimates the upwind wind speed more than during periods of low turbulence at most wind bins between cut-in and rated wind speed. Based on these results, we suggest different NTFs be calculated for different regimes of atmospheric stability

  12. General optical scintillation in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruizhong Rao

    2008-01-01

    A general expression of the scintillation index is proposed for optical wave propagating in turbulent atmosphere under arbitrary fluctuation conditions. The expression depends on extreme behaviors of the scintillation indices under both weak and strong fluctuations. The maximum scintillation index in the onset region and the corresponding Rytov index can be evaluated from the general expression. Plane and spherical waves in the cases of zero and non-zero turbulence inner scale are given as examples for illustration of the general behaviors of scintillation indices.

  13. Simulation of atmospheric turbulence layers with phase screens by JAVA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaofang; Chen, Wenqin; Yu, Xin; Yan, Jixiang

    2008-03-01

    In multiconjugate Adaptive Optics (MCAO), the phase screens are used to simulate atmospheric turbulence layers to study the optimal turbulence delamination and the determination of layer boundary position. In this paper, the method of power spectrum inversion and sub-harmonic compensation were used to simulate atmospheric turbulence layers and results can be shown by grey map. The simulation results showed that, with the increase of turbulence layers, the RMS of adaptive system decreased, but the amplitude diminished. So the atmospheric turbulence can be split into 2-3 layers and be modeled by phase screens. Otherwise, a small simulation atmospheric turbulence delamination system was realized by JAVA.

  14. Turbulence dynamics in unsteady atmospheric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momen, Mostafa; Bou-Zeid, Elie

    2016-11-01

    Unsteady pressure-gradient forcing in geophysical flows challenges the quasi-steady state assumption, and can strongly impact the mean wind and higher-order turbulence statistics. Under such conditions, it is essential to understand when turbulence is in quasi-equilibrium, and what are the implications of unsteadiness on flow characteristics. The present study focuses on the unsteady atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) where pressure gradient, Coriolis, buoyancy, and friction forces interact. We perform a suite of LES with variable pressure-gradient. The results indicate that the dynamics are mainly controlled by the relative magnitudes of three time scales: Tinertial, Tturbulence, and Tforcing. It is shown that when Tf Tt , the turbulence is no longer in a quasi-equilibrium state due to highly complex mean-turbulence interactions; consequently, the log-law and turbulence closures are no longer valid in these conditions. However, for longer and, surprisingly, for shorter forcing times, quasi-equilibrium is maintained. Varying the pressure gradient in the presence of surface buoyancy fluxes primarily influences the buoyant destruction in the stable ABLs, while under unstable conditions it mainly influences the transport terms. NSF-PDM under AGS-10266362. Cooperative Institute for Climate Science, NOAA-Princeton University under NA08OAR4320752. Simulations performed at NCAR, and Della server at Princeton University.

  15. Street canyon ventilation and atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salizzoni, P.; Soulhac, L.; Mejean, P.

    Operational models for pollutant dispersion in urban areas require an estimate of the turbulent transfer between the street canyons and the overlying atmospheric flow. To date, the mechanisms that govern this process remain poorly understood. We have studied the mass exchange between a street canyon and the atmospheric flow above it by means of wind tunnel experiments. Fluid velocities were measured with a Particle Image Velocimetry system and passive scalar concentrations were measured using a Flame Ionisation Detector. The mass-transfer velocity between the canyon and the external flow has been estimated by measuring the cavity wash-out time. A two-box model, used to estimate the transfer velocity for varying dynamical conditions of the external flow, has been used to interpret the experimental data. This study sheds new light on the mechanisms which drive the ventilation of a street canyon and illustrates the influence of the external turbulence on the transfer process.

  16. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric surface layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tagesson, Torbern [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystem Science, Lund Univ., Lund (Sweden)

    2012-04-15

    In the modelling of transport and accumulation of the radioactive isotope carbon-14 (C-14) in the case of a potential release from a future repository of radioactive waste, it is important to describe the transport of the isotope in the atmosphere. This report aims to describe the turbulent transport within the lower part of the atmosphere; the inertial surface layer and the roughness sublayer. Transport in the inertial surface layer is dependent on several factors, whereof some can be neglected under certain circumstances. Under steady state conditions, fully developed turbulent conditions, in flat and horizontal homogeneous areas, it is possible to apply an eddy diffusivity approach for estimating vertical transport of C. The eddy diffusivity model assumes that there is proportionality between the vertical gradient and the transport of C. The eddy diffusivity is depending on the atmospheric turbulence, which is affected by the interaction between mean wind and friction of the ground surface and of the sensible heat flux in the atmosphere. In this report, it is described how eddy diffusivity of the inertial surface layer can be estimated from 3-d wind measurements and measurements of sensible heat fluxes. It is also described how to estimate the eddy diffusivity in the inertial surface layer from profile measurements of temperature and wind speed. Close to the canopy, wind and C profiles are influenced by effects of the surface roughness; this section of the atmosphere is called the roughness sublayer. Its height is up to {approx}3 times the height of the plant canopy. When the mean wind interacts with the canopy, turbulence is not only produced by shear stress and buoyancy, it is additionally created by wakes, which are formed behind the plants. Turbulence is higher than it would be over a flat surface, and the turbulent transport is hereby more efficient. Above the plant canopy, but still within the roughness sublayer, a function that compensates for the effect

  17. Analyses of Aircraft Responses to Atmospheric Turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    Van Staveren, W.H.J.J.

    2003-01-01

    The response of aircraft to stochastic atmospheric turbulence plays an important role in aircraft-design (load calculations), Flight Control System (FCS) design and flight-simulation (handling qualities research and pilot training). In order to simulate these aircraft responses, an accurate mathematical model is required. Two classical models will be discussed in this thesis, that is the Delft University of Technology (DUT) model and the Four Point Aircraft (FPA) model. Although they are well...

  18. Aircraft Wake Vortex Deformation in Turbulent Atmosphere

    OpenAIRE

    Hennemann, Ingo; Holzaepfel, Frank

    2007-01-01

    Large-scale distortion of aircraft wake vortices appears to play a crucial role for aircraft safety during approach and landing. Vortex distortion is investigated based on large eddy simulations of wake vortex evolution in a turbulent atmosphere. A vortex identification method is developed that can be adapted to the vortex scales of interest. Based on the identified vortex center tracks, a statistics of vortex curvature radii is established. This statistics constitutes the basis for understan...

  19. Turbulence in the Stable Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, Harindra; Kit, Eliezer; Conry, Patrick; Hocut, Christopher; Liberzon, Dan

    2016-11-01

    During the field campaigns of the Mountain Terrain Atmospheric Modeling and Observations (MATERHORN) Program, fine-scale measurements of turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) were made using a novel sonic and hot-film anemometer dyad (a combo probe). A swath of scales, from large down to Kolmogorov scales, was covered. The hot-film was located on a gimbal within the sonic probe volume, and was automated to rotate in the horizontal plane to align with the mean flow measured by sonic. This procedure not only helped satisfy the requirement of hot-film alignment with the mean flow, but also allowed in-situ calibration of hot-films. This paper analyzes a period of nocturnal flow that was similar to an idealized stratified parallel shear flow. Some new phenomena were identified, which included the occurrence of strong bursts in the velocity records indicative of turbulence generation at finer scales that are not captured by conventional sonic anemometers. The spectra showed bottleneck effect, but its manifestation did not fit into the framework of previous bottleneck-effect theories and was unequivocally related to bursts of turbulence. The measurements were also used to evaluate the energetics of stratified shear flows typical of the environment. ONR # N00014-11-1-0709; NSF # AGS-1528451; ISF 408/15.

  20. Gaussian entanglement in the turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohmann, M.; Semenov, A. A.; Sperling, J.; Vogel, W.

    2016-07-01

    We provide a rigorous treatment of the entanglement properties of two-mode Gaussian states in atmospheric channels by deriving and analyzing the input-output relations for the corresponding entanglement test. A key feature of such turbulent channels is a nontrivial dependence of the transmitted continuous-variable entanglement on coherent displacements of the quantum state of the input field. Remarkably, this allows one to optimize the entanglement certification by modifying local coherent amplitudes using a finite, but optimal amount of squeezing. In addition, we propose a protocol which, in principle, renders it possible to transfer the Gaussian entanglement through any turbulent channel over arbitrary distances. Therefore, our approach provides the theoretical foundation for advanced applications of Gaussian entanglement in free-space quantum communication.

  1. Wind turbine wake in atmospheric turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rethore, P.-E.

    2009-10-15

    This thesis describes the different steps needed to design a steady-state computational fluid dynamics (CFD) wind farm wake model. The ultimate goal of the project was to design a tool that could analyze and extrapolate systematically wind farm measurements to generate wind maps in order to calibrate faster and simpler engineering wind farm wake models. The most attractive solution was the actuator disc method with the steady state k-epsilon turbulence model. The first step to design such a tool is the treatment of the forces. This thesis presents a computationally inexpensive method to apply discrete body forces into the finite-volume flow solver with collocated variable treatment (EllipSys), which avoids the pressure-velocity decoupling issue. The second step is to distribute the body forces in the computational domain accordingly to rotor loading. This thesis presents a generic flexible method that associates any kind of shapes with the computational domain discretization. The special case of the actuator disc performs remarkably well in comparison with Conway's heavily loaded actuator disc analytical solution and a CFD full rotor computation, even with a coarse discretization. The third step is to model the atmospheric turbulence. The standard k-epsilon model is found to be unable to model at the same time the atmospheric turbulence and the actuator disc wake and performs badly in comparison with single wind turbine wake measurements. A comparison with a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) shows that the problem mainly comes from the assumptions of the eddy-viscosity concept, which are deeply invalidated in the wind turbine wake region. Different models that intent to correct the k-epsilon model's issues are investigated, of which none of them is found to be adequate. The mixing of the wake in the atmosphere is a deeply non-local phenomenon that is not handled correctly by an eddy-viscosity model such as k-epsilon. (author)

  2. Effects of light propagation in middle intensity atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiubua YUAN; Dexiu HUANG; Bangxu LI

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to present an experimental study of the effects of light propagation through atmospheric turbulence.Free space optical communication is a line-of-sight technology that transmits a modulated beam of visible light through the atmosphere for broadband communication.The fundamental limitations of free space optical communications arise from the environment through which it propagates.However these systems are vulnerable to atmospheric turbulence, such as attenuation and scintillation, Scintillation is due to the air index variation under the temperature effects.These factors cause an attenuated receiver signal and lead to higher bit error rate (BER).An experiment of laser propagation was carried out to characterize the light intensity through turbulent air in the laboratory environment.The experimental results agree with the calculation based on Rytov for the case of weak to intermediate turbulence.Also, we show the characteristics of irradiance scintillation, intensity distribution and atmospheric turbulence strength.By means of laboratory simulated turbulence, the turbulence box is constructed with the following measurements: 0.5 m wide, 2m long and 0.5m high.The simulation box consists of three electric heaters and is well described for understanding the experimental set up.The fans and heaters are used to increase the homogeneity of turbulence and to create different scintillation indices.The received intensity scintillation and atmosphere turbulence strength were obtained and the variation of refractive index, with its corresponding structure parameter, is calculated from the experimental results.

  3. Turbulence in the Ocean, Atmosphere, Galaxy and Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1996-01-01

    Flows in natural bodies of fluid often become turbulent, with eddy-like motions dominated by inertial-vortex forces. Buoyancy, Coriolis, viscous, self-gravitational, electromagnetic, and other force constraints produce a complex phase space of wave-like hydrodynamic states that interact with turbulence eddies, masquerade as turbulence, and preserve information about previous hydrodynamic states as fossil turbulence. Evidence from the ocean, atmosphere, galaxy and universe are compared with universal similarity hypotheses of Kolmogorov (1941, 1962) for turbulence velocity u, and extensions to scalar fields q like temperature mixed by turbulence. Information about previous hydrodynamic states is preserved by Schwarz viscous and turbulence lengths and masses of self-gravitating condensates. Viscous-gravitational formation occurred 10^4-10^5 y after the Big Bang for supercluster, cluster, and then galaxy masses of the plasma, producing the first turbulence. Condensation after plasma neutralization of the H-4He ga...

  4. Causes of non-Kolmogorov turbulence in the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V P; Nosov, E V; Nosov, V V; Torgaev, A V

    2016-04-20

    In the present work, we briefly describe a model for atmospheric turbulence energy on the basis of experimental data obtained in Siberia. A series of new studies is considered and the results of our long-term experimental observations are summarized. The results of these studies form the basis for an explanation of some effects in interactions between optical waves and atmospheric turbulence. Our numerous experimental results point to the possible generation of so-called coherent turbulence in the atmosphere. When analyzing the problem, we proceeded based on our own experimental data and comprehension that the coherent turbulence is a result of the action of self-organizing nonlinear processes, which run in continuous media, including atmospheric air. The experimental data confirmed the effect of attenuation of light fluctuations in coherent turbulence.

  5. Spectrum analysis of rectangular pulse in the atmospheric turbulence propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Ni, Xiaolong; Jiang, Huilin; Wang, Junran; Liu, Zhi

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric turbulence has a great influence on the performance of the atmospheric laser communication system reducing the signal to noise ratio (SNR) and increasing the bit error rate (BER). However, there is rarely study on the effect of atmospheric turbulence on the power spectrum of the rectangular pulse. In this paper, a spectral analyzing method is used to analyze the influence of atmospheric turbulence on the signal. An experiment of laser beam propagation characteristic is carried out on a 6km horizontal atmospheric link, the wavelength is 808 nm. The signal is 100MHz rectangular pulse. The waveform of the rectangular pulse is collected by the oscilloscope, and the power spectral density of the signal is calculated and analyzed by the method of periodogram. Experimental results show that the response and noise characteristics of the laser and photoelectric detector have a great influence on the signal power spectrum distribution which can increase the noise component in the 10^6 Hz frequency range. After the atmospheric turbulence propagation, the signal power decreases in the whole frequency range. However, as the existence of atmospheric turbulence, the signal power increases in the atmospheric turbulence characteristic frequency (tens to hundreds of Hz). The noise power increases in the high frequency range (10^7 10^8 Hz).

  6. Atmospheric turbulence induced synthetic aperture lidar phase error compensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Tian-an; Li, Hong-ping

    2016-12-01

    The resolution of a conventional optical imaging radar system is constrained by the diffraction limit of the telescope's aperture. The combination of lidar and synthetic aperture processing techniques can overcome the diffraction limit and provide a higher resolution air borne remote sensor. Atmospheric turbulence is an important factor affecting lidar imaging, and the phase screen simulation method is an effective method to simulate the degradation of laser signal propagating through turbulent atmosphere. By using Monte-Carlo random factor, the randomness of phase screens can be improved. The lidar imaging with different turbulence intensity is also calculated in this paper, then the improved rank one phase estimation autofocus method is used to compensate the imaging phase errors. The results show that the method of generating phase screen is consistent with the statistics of atmospheric turbulence, which can well simulate the effect of atmospheric turbulence on synthetic aperture lidar, and the influence on synthetic aperture lidar azimuth resolution is greater when atmospheric turbulence is stronger. Improved rank one phase estimation algorithm has good autofocus effect, which can effectively compensate the phase errors and enhance the image quality degraded by turbulence.

  7. Large-eddy simulations of contrails in a turbulent atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Picot

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. This is the first paper where fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere lower stratosphere. The initial flow-field is composed by the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail decent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex break-up dominates over background turbulence at the end of the vortex regime and dominates the mixing with ambient air. This results in global microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are be slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. On the other hand, the background humidity and temperature have a first order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent and ongoing studies in the literature.

  8. Atmospheric Quantum Channels with Weak and Strong Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Vasylyev, D; Vogel, W

    2016-01-01

    The free-space transfer of high-fidelity optical signals between remote locations has many applications, including both classical and quantum communication, precision navigation, clock synchronization, etc. The physical processes that contribute to signal fading and loss need to be carefully analyzed in the theory of light propagation through the atmospheric turbulence. Here we derive the probability distribution for the atmospheric transmittance including beam-wandering, beam shape deformation, and beam broadening effects. Our model, referred to as elliptic beam approximation, applies to both weak and strong turbulence and hence to the most important regimes in atmospheric communication scenarios.

  9. Atmospheric Quantum Channels with Weak and Strong Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasylyev, D.; Semenov, A. A.; Vogel, W.

    2016-08-01

    The free-space transfer of high-fidelity optical signals between remote locations has many applications, including both classical and quantum communication, precision navigation, clock synchronization, etc. The physical processes that contribute to signal fading and loss need to be carefully analyzed in the theory of light propagation through the atmospheric turbulence. Here we derive the probability distribution for the atmospheric transmittance including beam wandering, beam shape deformation, and beam-broadening effects. Our model, referred to as the elliptic beam approximation, applies to weak, weak-to-moderate, and strong turbulence and hence to the most important regimes in atmospheric communication scenarios.

  10. Hyperspectral Image Turbulence Measurements of the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Sarah E.; West, Leanne L.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Kireev, Stanislav; Smith, William L., Sr.; Burdette, Edward M.; Daniels, Taumi; Cornman, Larry

    2012-01-01

    A Forward Looking Interferometer (FLI) sensor has the potential to be used as a means of detecting aviation hazards in flight. One of these hazards is mountain wave turbulence. The results from a data acquisition activity at the University of Colorado s Mountain Research Station will be presented here. Hyperspectral datacubes from a Telops Hyper-Cam are being studied to determine if evidence of a turbulent event can be identified in the data. These data are then being compared with D&P TurboFT data, which are collected at a much higher time resolution and broader spectrum.

  11. Speckle imaging through turbulent atmosphere based on adaptable pupil segmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loktev, Mikhail; Soloviev, Oleg; Savenko, Svyatoslav; Vdovin, Gleb

    2011-07-15

    We report on the first results to our knowledge obtained with adaptable multiaperture imaging through turbulence on a horizontal atmospheric path. We show that the resolution can be improved by adaptively matching the size of the subaperture to the characteristic size of the turbulence. Further improvement is achieved by the deconvolution of a number of subimages registered simultaneously through multiple subapertures. Different implementations of multiaperture geometry, including pupil multiplication, pupil image sampling, and a plenoptic telescope, are considered. Resolution improvement has been demonstrated on a ∼550 m horizontal turbulent path, using a combination of aperture sampling, speckle image processing, and, optionally, frame selection.

  12. Investigation of turbulent diffusion in the extreme lower atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koper, C. A., Jr.; Sadeh, W. Z.

    1978-01-01

    Turbulent diffusion in the extreme lower layer of the atmosphere (up to 5 m) has been investigated. Turbulent flow was simulated under dry, stable and calm conditions by means of a 3.04 m diameter fan installed at a field site situated on flat grassland. The ambient wind was continuously monitored by means of a cup anemometer placed outside the wake, and the temperature distribution was measured by four thermometers placed on an 18 m tower, also outside the wake. Balloons and red smoke were used to visualize the wake flow and investigate the predominant sizes of turbulent eddies and their streamwise behavior. The mean and turbulent velocities along the turbulence line were measured using an array of hot-wire anomometers. Results provide substantial verification of a recently proposed model (Koper and Sadeh, 1975; Koper et al., 1978) relating the Lagrangian to the Eulerian turbulent velocity autocorrelation. In this model the Lagrangian autocorrelation is given by a domain integral over a set of ordinary Eulerian autocorrelations acquired simultaneously at all points within the flow field in question, which is viewed as a turbulence 'box'.

  13. Laboratory simulation of atmospheric turbulence-induced optical wavefront distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Travis S.; Gregory, Don A.

    2002-11-01

    Real-time liquid crystal television-based technique for simulating optical wavefront distortion due to atmospheric turbulence is presented and demonstrated. A liquid crystal television (LCTV) operating in the "phase mostly" mode was used as an array of spatially correlated phase delays. A movie of the arrays in motion was then generated and displayed on the LCTV. The turbulence simulation system was verified by passing a collimated and doubled diode pumped Nd:YVO 4 laser beam (532 nm) through the transparent LCTV screen. The beam was then passed through a lens and the power spectra of the turbulence information carrying beam was detected as a measure of the far-field distribution. The same collimated laser beam, without the LCTV, was also transmitted down an open-air range and the power spectra detected as a measure of a real far-field distribution. Accepted turbulence parameters were measured for both arrangements and then compared.

  14. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aerospace Vehicles: Fractional Order Fit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An improved model for simulating atmospheric disturbances is disclosed. A scale Kolmogorov spectral may be scaled to convert the Kolmogorov spectral into a finite energy von Karman spectral and a fractional order pole-zero transfer function (TF) may be derived from the von Karman spectral. Fractional order atmospheric turbulence may be approximated with an integer order pole-zero TF fit, and the approximation may be stored in memory.

  15. Dynamic evolution of coherent vortex dipole in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhong; Zeng, Jun

    2017-01-01

    The analytical expression for the cross-spectral density function of Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams with coherent vortex dipole (CVD) propagating through atmospheric turbulence is derived, which enables us to study the evolution process of CVD propagating through atmospheric turbulence, where the influences of the beams parameters and atmospheric turbulence parameters on the ratio of critical off-axis distance to the waist width are stressed. It shows that the evolution process of the CVD depends on the off-axis distance. The larger the off-axis distance is, the more the number of CVD is. When the off-axis distance is zero, the position of coherent vortices with positive and negative topological charge of CVD propagating through atmospheric turbulence is always symmetry. When the off-axis distance is big enough, compared with the situation at source plane, the orientation of the positive coherent vortex of inherent CVD and negative coherent vortex of that rotates 180° in the far field. The larger the structure constant and the waist width are, as well as the smaller the spatial correlation length and the inner scale are, the smaller the ratio ac/w0 is. Besides, the ratio ac/w0 will no longer change when the spatial correlation length or the inner scale increases to a certain value, whereas the outer scale has no effect on the ratio.

  16. Atmospheric Turbulence Modeling for Aero Vehicles: Fractional Order Fits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopasakis, George

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence models are necessary for the design of both inlet/engine and flight controls, as well as for studying coupling between the propulsion and the vehicle structural dynamics for supersonic vehicles. Models based on the Kolmogorov spectrum have been previously utilized to model atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, a more accurate model is developed in its representative fractional order form, typical of atmospheric disturbances. This is accomplished by first scaling the Kolmogorov spectral to convert them into finite energy von Karman forms and then by deriving an explicit fractional circuit-filter type analog for this model. This circuit model is utilized to develop a generalized formulation in frequency domain to approximate the fractional order with the products of first order transfer functions, which enables accurate time domain simulations. The objective of this work is as follows. Given the parameters describing the conditions of atmospheric disturbances, and utilizing the derived formulations, directly compute the transfer function poles and zeros describing these disturbances for acoustic velocity, temperature, pressure, and density. Time domain simulations of representative atmospheric turbulence can then be developed by utilizing these computed transfer functions together with the disturbance frequencies of interest.

  17. Atmospheric turbulence within and above an Amazon forest

    CERN Document Server

    Ramos, F M; Sá, L D A; Rosa, R R; Ramos, Fernando M.; Bolzan, Mauricio J. A.; Sa, Leonardo D. A.; Rosa, Reinaldo R.

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the impact of a rain forest canopy on the statistical characteristics of atmospheric turbulence. This issue is of particular interest for understanding on how the Amazon terrestrial biosphere interact with the atmosphere. For this, we used a probability density function model of velocity and temperature differences based on Tsallis' non-extensive thermostatistics. We compared theoretical results with experimental data measured in a 66 m micrometeorological tower, during the wet-season campaign of the Large Scale Biosphere-Atmosphere Experiment in Amazonia (LBA). Particularly, we investigated how the value of the entropic parameter is affected when one moves into the canopy, or when one passes from day/unstable to night/stable conditions. We show that this new approach provides interesting insights on turbulence in a complex environment such as the Amazon forest.

  18. Simulation of atmospheric turbulence for optical systems with extended sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Majid; Hranilovic, Steve

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, the method of random wave vectors for simulation of atmospheric turbulence is extended to 2D×2D space to provide spatial degrees of freedom at both input and output planes. The modified technique can thus simultaneously simulate the turbulence-induced log-amplitude and phase distortions for optical systems with extended sources either implemented as a single large aperture or multiple apertures. The reliability of our simulation technique is validated in different conditions and its application is briefly investigated in a multibeam free-space optical communication scenario.

  19. Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær

    2014-01-01

    In order to design and operate a wind farm optimally it is necessary to know in detail how the wind behaves and interacts with the turbines in a farm. This not only requires knowledge about meteorology, turbulence and aerodynamics, but it also requires access to powerful computers and efficient...... software. Center for Computational Wind Turbine Aerodynamics and Atmospheric Turbulence was established in 2010 in order to create a world-leading cross-disciplinary flow center that covers all relevant disciplines within wind farm meteorology and aerodynamics....

  20. A computer-based simulator of the atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konyaev, Petr A.

    2015-11-01

    Computer software for modeling the atmospheric turbulence is developed on the basis of a time-varying random medium simulation algorithm and a split-step Fourier transform method for solving a wave propagation equation. A judicious choice of the simulator parameters, like the velocity of the evolution and motion of the medium, turbulence spectrum and scales, enables different effects of a random medium on the optical wavefront to be simulated. The implementation of the simulation software is shown to be simple and efficient due to parallel programming functions from the MKL Intel ® Parallel Studio libraries.

  1. Scattering of coherent sound waves by atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chow, P. L.; Liu, C. H.; Maestrello, L.

    1975-01-01

    An analytical study of the propagation of coherent sound waves through an atmosphere containing both mean and fluctuating flow variables is presented. The general flow problem is formulated as a time-dependent wave propagation in a half-space containing the turbulent medium. The coherent acoustic waves are analyzed by a smoothing technique, assuming that mean flow variables vary with the height only. The general equations for the coherent waves are derived, and then applied to two special cases, corresponding to uniform and shear mean flow, respectively. The results show that mean shear and turbulence introduce pronounced effects on the propagation of coherent acoustic disturbances.

  2. Scintillation index of optical wave propagating in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rao Rui-Zhong

    2009-01-01

    A concise expression of the scintillation index is proposed for a plane optical wave and a spherical optical wave both propagating in a turbulent atmosphere with a zero inner scale and a finite inner scale under an arbitrary fluc- tuation condition. The expression is based on both the results in the Rytov approximation under a weak fluctuation condition and the numerical results in a strong fluctuation regime. The maximum value of the scintillation index and its corresponding Rytov index axe evaluated. These quantities are affected by the ratio of the turbulence inner scale to the Frcsnel size.

  3. Analysis of laser beam propagation in a turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, R. H.

    1985-09-01

    The beam propagation method, based on the parabolic approximation to the wave equation, is used in conjunction with Papoulis' redefinition for optical fields of Woodward's ambiguity function. A simple derivation is given of Tatarskii's formula for the lateral coherence function, and hence the mean intensity profile, of a laser beam propagating through a turbulent atmosphere. Statistics of the received signal and the effects of spatial nonstationarity of the turbulence can also be deduced using this technique, as can the effects of very large-scale variations in refractive index and receiver directivity.

  4. A new method for simulating atmospheric turbulence for rotorcraft applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, J. V. R.; Schrage, D. P.; Gaonkar, G. H.; Riaz, J.

    1991-01-01

    Simulation of atmospheric turbulence as seen by a rotating blade element involves treatment of cyclostationary processes. Conventional filtering techniques do not lend themselves well to the generation of such turbulence sample functions as are required in rotorcraft flight dynamics simulation codes. A method to generate sample functions containing second-order statistics of mean and covariance is presented. Compared to ensemble averaging involving excessive computer time, the novelty is to exploit cycloergodicity and thereby, replace ensemble averaging by averaging over a single-path sample function of long duration. The method is validated by comparing its covariance results with the analytical and ensemble-averaged results for a widely used one-dimensional turbulence approximation.

  5. Turbulence, superrotation, and general circulation models of the atmosphere of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izakov, M. N.

    2016-09-01

    The data obtained in space-borne measurements and the findings of turbulence theory show that turbulence, of both small and large scales, has a decisive influence on the structure and dynamics of the atmosphere of Venus. The small-scale turbulence generates anomalous convection, while large-scale turbulence induces the return spectral flux of energy that is the main element of the superrotation mechanism in the atmosphere. Ways for improving the general circulation model of the atmosphere of Venus are proposed.

  6. Transport of particles in an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiongping Luo; Shiyi Chen

    2005-01-01

    A program incorporating the parallel code of large eddy simulation (LES) and particle transportation model is developed to simulate the motion of particles in an atmospheric turbulent boundary layer (ATBL). A model of particles of 100-micrometer order coupling with large scale ATBL is proposed. Two typical cases are studied, one focuses on the evolution of particle profile in the ATBL and the landing displacement of particles, whereas the other on the motion of particle stream.

  7. Outer scales of temperature turbulence and dynamic turbulence from the data of acoustic sounding of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamanaeva, L. G.; Krasnenko, N. P.; Kapegesheva, O. F.

    2014-11-01

    The outer scale of turbulence plays an important role in the theory of atmospheric turbulence. It specifies the lowfrequency boundary of the inertial subrange of fluctuation spectra of the atmospheric meteorological parameters, is used to construct models of the atmospheric turbulence and to estimate the excess turbulent attenuation of waves in the atmosphere. Outer scales of the wind velocity, temperature, humidity, and ozone concentration were previously determined, in particular, from direct airborne measurements of the spectral power density of these parameters, and their dependences on the altitude above the underlying surface, its properties, and type of the atmospheric stratification were demonstrated. For optical radiation propagating in the surface layer, the outer scale of temperature turbulence was determined from measurements of the variance of phase fluctuations of optical waves propagating along the near-ground paths. Unlike the optical waves, the acoustic wave propagation in the atmospheric boundary layer is influenced simultaneously by the temperature fluctuations caused by thermal convection and by the velocity fluctuations (dynamic turbulence caused by the wind shear). Their relative contributions depend on the ratio of the outer scales of the dynamic turbulence and temperature turbulence. In the present work, a method of simultaneous acoustic sounding of the outer scales of dynamic turbulence and temperature turbulence is suggested, and combined influence of these parameters on the acoustic wave propagation is estimated. Temporal dynamics of vertical profiles of the outer scales of dynamic turbulence and temperature turbulence is analyzed. The efficiency of the suggested method is confirmed by the results of comparison with the data of laser sensing of these parameters and their theoretical estimates, which demonstrate their good agreement.

  8. Efficient turbulent compressible convection in the deep stellar atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Lin Tian; Li-Cai Deng; Kwing-Lam Chan; Da-Run Xiong

    2009-01-01

    We report on an application of gas-kinetic BGK scheme to the computation of turbulent compressible convection in the stellar interior. After incorporating the Sub-grid Scale (SGS) turbulence model into the BGK scheme, we tested the effects of numerical parameters on the quantitative relationships among the thermodynamic variables, their fluctuations and correlations in a very deep, initially gravity-stratified stellar atmosphere. Comparison indicates that the thermal properties and dynamic properties are dominated by different aspects of numerical models separately. An adjustable Deardorff constant in the SGS model cμ = 0.25 and an amplitude of artificial viscosity in the gas-kinetic BGK scheme C2 = 0 are appropriate for the current study. We also calculated the density-weighted auto-and cross-correlation functions in Xiong's turbulent stellar convection theory based on which the gradient type of models of the non-local transport and the anisotropy of the turbulence were preliminarily studied. No universal relations or con-stant parameters were found for these models.

  9. Efficient Turbulent Compressible Convection in the Deep Stellar Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Tian, Chun-Lin; Chan, Kwing-Lam; Xiong, Da-Run

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports an application of gas-kinetic BGK scheme to the computation of turbulent compressible convection in the stellar interior. After incorporating the Sub-grid Scale (SGS) turbulence model into the BGK scheme, we tested the effects of numerical parameters on the quantitative relationships among the thermodynamic variables, their fluctuations and correlations in a very deep, initially gravity-stratified stellar atmosphere. Comparison indicates that the thermal properties and dynamic properties are dominated by different aspects of numerical models separately. An adjustable Deardorff constant in the SGS model $c_\\mu=0.25$ and an amplitude of artificial viscosity in the gas-kinetic BGK scheme $C_2=0$ are appropriate for current study. We also calculated the density-weighted auto- and cross-correlation functions in Xiong's (\\cite{xiong77}) turbulent stellar convection theories based on which the gradient type of models of the non-local transport and the anisotropy of the turbulence are preliminarily...

  10. Implementation of SLODAR atmospheric turbulence profiling to the ARGOS system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Tommaso; Busoni, Lorenzo; Bonaglia, Marco; Esposito, Simone

    2014-08-01

    ARGOS is the Ground Layer Adaptive Optics system of the Large Binocular Telescope, it uses three Laser Guide Stars at 12 km altitude, generated by Rayleigh backscattered light of pulsed Nd:YAG lasers at 532nm. The wavefront distortion in the Ground Layer is measured by three Shack-Hartmann WFS, sampling with 15×15 subaperture the three LGS arranged on a single CCD with 8×8px per square subaperture. The SLOpe Detection And Ranging (SLODAR) is a method used to measure the turbulence profiles. Cross correlation of wavefronts gradient from multiple stars is used to estimate the relative strengths of turbulent layers at different altitudes. In the ARGOS case the LGS are arranged on a triangle inscribed in a 2 arcmin radius circle, so we expect an effective slopes correlation up to 5km altitude. We present here the results of a study aimed to implement the SLODAR method on ARGOS performed with the idl-based simulation code used to characterize the ARGOS performance. Simulation implements the atmospheric turbulence on different layers with variable strength, altitude and wind speed. The algorithm performance are evaluated comparing the input turbulence with the cross-correlation of the SH slopes acquired in open loop.

  11. Highly resolved measurements of atmospheric turbulence with the new 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeromin, A.; Schaffarczyk, A. P.; Puczylowski, J.; Peinke, J.; Hölling, M.

    2014-12-01

    For the investigation of atmospheric turbulent flows on small scales a new anemometer was developed, the so-called 2d-Atmospheric Laser Cantilever Anemometer (2d-ALCA). It performs highly resolved measurements with a spatial resolution in millimeter range and temporal resolution in kHz range, thus detecting very small turbulent structures. The anemometer is a redesign of the successfully operating 2d-LCA for laboratory application. The new device was designed to withstand hostile operating environments (rain and saline, humid air). In February 2012, the 2d-ALCA was used for the first time in a test field. The device was mounted in about 53 m above ground level on a lattice tower near the German North Sea coast. Wind speed was measured by the 2d-ALCA at 10 kHz sampling rate and by cup anemometers at 1 Hz. The instantaneous wind speed ranged from 8 m/s to 19 m/s at an average turbulence level of about 7 %. Wind field characteristics were analyzed based on cup anemometer as well as 2d-ALCA. The combination of both devices allowed the study of atmospheric turbulence over several magnitudes in turbulent scales.

  12. Measurement of atmospheric surface layer turbulence using unmanned aerial vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Brandon; Smith, Lorli; Schlagenhauf, Cornelia; Bailey, Sean

    2016-11-01

    We describe measurements of the turbulence within the atmospheric surface layer using highly instrumented and autonomous unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs). Results from the CLOUDMAP measurement campaign in Stillwater Oklahoma are presented including turbulence statistics measured during the transition from stably stratified to convective conditions. The measurements were made using pre-fabricated fixed-wing remote-control aircraft adapted to fly autonomously and carry multi-hole pressure probes, pressure, temperature and humidity sensors. Two aircraft were flown simultaneously, with one flying a flight path intended to profile the boundary layer up to 100 m and the other flying at a constant fixed altitude of 50 m. The evolution of various turbulent statistics was determined from these flights, including Reynolds stresses, correlations, spectra and structure functions. These results were compared to those measured by a sonic anemometer located on a 7.5 m tower. This work was supported by the National Science Foundation through Grant #CBET-1351411 and by National Science Foundation award #1539070, Collaboration Leading Operational UAS Development for Meteorology and Atmospheric Physics (CLOUDMAP).

  13. Theoretical comparison of subgrid turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Kitsios

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Due to the massive disparity between the largest and smallest eddies in the atmosphere and ocean, it is not possible to simulate these flows by explicitly resolving all scales on a computational grid. Instead the large scales are explicitly resolved, and the interactions between the unresolved subgrid turbulence and large resolved scales are parameterised. If these interactions are not properly represented then an increase in resolution will not necessarily improve the accuracy of the large scales. This has been a significant and long standing problem since the earliest climate simulations. Historically subgrid models for the atmosphere and ocean have been developed in isolation, with the structure of each motivated by different physical phenomena. Here we solve the turbulence closure problem by determining the parameterisation coefficients (eddy viscosities from the subgrid statistics of high resolution quasi-geostrophic atmospheric and oceanic simulations. These subgrid coefficients are characterised into a set of simple unifying scaling laws, for truncations made within the enstrophy cascading inertial range. The ocean additionally has an inverse energy cascading range, within which the subgrid model coefficients have alternative scaling properties. Simulations adopting these scaling laws are shown to reproduce the statistics of the reference benchmark simulations across resolved scales, with orders of magnitude improvement in computational efficiency. This reduction in both resolution dependence and computational effort will improve the efficiency and accuracy of geophysical research and operational activities that require data generated by general circulation models, including: weather, seasonal and climate prediction; transport studies; and understanding natural variability and extreme events.

  14. Modeling of Atmospheric Turbulence Effect on Terrestrial FSO Link

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Prokes

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric turbulence results in many effects causing fluctuation in the received optical power. Terrestrial laser beam communication is affected above all by scintillations. The paper deals with modeling the influence of scintillation on link performance, using the modified Rytov theory. The probability of correct signal detection in direct detection system in dependence on many parameters such as link distance, power link margin, refractive-index structure parameter, etc. is discussed and different approaches to the evaluation of scintillation effect are compared. The simulations are performed for a horizontal-path propagation of the Gaussian-beam wave.

  15. Comparative measurements of the level of turbulence atmosphere by optical and acoustic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukin, V. P.; Botugina, N. N.; Gladkih, V. A.; Emaleev, O. N.; Konyaev, P. A.; Odintsov, S. L.; Torgaev, A. V.

    2014-11-01

    The complex measurements of level of atmospheric turbulence are conducted by the differential measurement device of turbulence (DMT), wave-front sensor (WFS), and also by ultrasonic weather-stations. Daytime measurements of structure parameters of refractive index of atmospheric turbulence carried out on horizontal optical paths on the Base Experimental Complex (BEC) of V.E. Zuev Institute of Atmospheric Optics SB RAS (IOA). A comparative analysis over of the got results is brought.

  16. Beaconless operation for optimal laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khizhnyak, Anatoliy; Markov, Vladimir

    2016-09-01

    Corruption of the wavefront, beam wondering and power density degradation at the receiving end are the effects typically observed at laser beam propagation through turbulent atmosphere. Compensation of these effects can be achieved if the reciprocal conditions for the propagating wave are satisfied along the propagation range. Practical realization of these conditions requires placing a localized beacon at the receiving end of the range and high-performance adaptive optics system (AOS). The key condition for an effective performance of AOS is a high value of the reciprocal component in the outgoing wave, since only this component is getting compensated after propagating turbulence perturbed path. The nonreciprocal components that is present in the wave directed toward the target is caused by three factors (detailed in this paper) that determine the partial restoration of the structure of the beacon beam. Thus solution of a complex problem of focusing the laser beam propagating through turbulent media can be achieved for the share of the outgoing wave that has a reciprocal component. This paper examines the ways and means that can be used in achieving the stated goal of effective laser power delivery on the distant image-resolved object.

  17. Coherent optical array receiver for PPM signals under atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela

    The performance of a coherent free-space optical communications system operating in the presence of turbulence is investigated. Maximum Likelihood Detection techniques are employed to optimally detect Pulse Position Modulated signals with a focal-plane detector array and to reconstruct the turbulence-degraded signals. Laboratory equipment and experimental setup used to carry out these experiments at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. The key components include two lasers operating at 1064 nm wavelength for use with coherent detection, a 16 element (4 X 4) InGaAs focal-plane detector array, and a data-acquisition and signal-processing assembly needed to sample and collect the data and analyze the results. The detected signals are combined using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. In the first part of the experimental results we show convergence of the algorithm for experimentally obtained signal tones in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The second part of the experimental results shows adaptive combining of experimentally obtained heterodyned pulse position modulated (PPM) signals with pulse-to-pulse coherence in the presence of simulated spatial distortions resembling atmospheric turbulence. The adaptively combined PPM signals are phased up via an LMS algorithm suitably optimized to operate with PPM in the presence of additive shot noise. A convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented, and results with both computer-simulated and experimentally obtained PPM signals are analyzed. The third part of the experimental results, in which the main goal of this thesis is achieved, includes an investigation of the performance of the Coherent Optical Receiver Experiment (CORE) at JPL. Bit Error Rate (BER) results are presented for single and multichannel optical receivers where quasi shot noise-limited performance is achieved under simulated turbulence conditions using noncoherent postdetection processing techniques. Theoretical BER expressions are

  18. Second-order statistics of Gaussian Schell-model pulsed beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Lou, Yan; Tong, Shoufeng

    2011-08-01

    Novel analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density function of a Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence are derived. Based on the cross-spectral density function, the average spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of a GSMP beam in atmospheric turbulence are in turn examined. The dependence of the spectral degree of coherence on the turbulence strength measured by the atmospheric spatial coherence length is calculated numerically and analyzed in depth. The results obtained are useful for applications involving spatially and spectrally partially coherent pulsed beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence.

  19. Some issues on modeling atmospheric turbulence experienced by helicopter rotor blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costello, Mark; Gaonkar, G. H.; Prasad, J. V. R.; Schrage, D. P.

    1992-01-01

    The atmospheric turbulence velocities seen by nonrotating aircraft components and rotating blades can be substantially different. The differences are due to the spatial motion of the rotor blades, which move fore and aft through the gust waves. Body-fixed atmospheric turbulence refers to the actual atmospheric turbulence experienced by a point fixed on a nonrotating aircraft component such as the aircraft's center of gravity or the rotor hub, while blade-fixed atmospheric turbulence refers to the atmospheric turbulence experienced by an element of the rotating rotor blade. An example is presented, which, though overly simplified, shows important differences between blade- and body-fixed rotorcraft atmospheric turbulence models. All of the information necessary to develop the dynamic equations describing the atmospheric turbulence velocity field experienced by an aircraft is contained in the atmospheric turbulence velocity correlation matrix. It is for this reason that a generalized formulation of the correlation matrix describing atmospheric turbulence that a rotating blade encounters is developed. From this correlation matrix, earlier treated cases restricted to a rotor flying straight and level directly into the mean wind can be recovered as special cases.

  20. Analysis Regarding the Effects of Atmospheric Turbulence on Aircraft Dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela STROE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyze the Gust Load Alleviation (GLA systems which can be used to reduce the effects of atmospheric turbulences generated by wind gusts on vertical acceleration of aircraft. Their purpose is to reduce airframe loads and to improve passenger comfort. The dynamic model of the aircraft is more realistic than a rigid-body model, since it includes the structural flexibility; due to its complexity, such model can make feedback control design for gust load alleviation more challenging. The gust is generated with the Dryden power spectral density model. This kind of model lends itself well to frequency-domain performance specifications in the form of the weighting functions. Two classical analytical representations for the power spectral density (PSD function of atmospheric turbulence as given by Von Kármán and Dryden, were used. The analysis is performed for a set of specified values for flight velocity and altitude (as test cases, with different gust signals that must be generated with the required intensity, scale lengths and PSD functions.

  1. Investigation of the influence of atmospheric stability and turbulence on land-atmosphere exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibanjo, O.; Holmes, H.

    2015-12-01

    Surface energy fluxes are exchanged between the surface of the earth and the atmosphere and impact weather, climate, and air quality. The radiation from the sun triggers the surface-atmosphere interaction during the day as heat is transmitted to the surface and the surface heats the air directly above generating wind (i.e., thermal turbulence) that transports heat, moisture, and momentum in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). This process is impacted by greenhouse gasses (i.e., water vapor, carbon dioxide and other trace gases) that absorb heat emitted by the earth's surface. The concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gasses are increasing leading to changes in ABL dynamics as a result of the changing surface energy balance. The ABL processes are important to characterize because they are difficult to parameterize in global and regional scale atmospheric models. Empirical data can be collected using eddy covariance micrometeorological methods to measure turbulent fluxes (e.g., sensible heat, moisture, and CO2) and quantify the exchange between the surface and the atmosphere. The objective of this work is to calculate surface fluxes using observational data collected during one week in September 2014 from a monitoring site in Echo, Oregon. The site is located in the Columbia Basin with rolling terrain, irrigated farmland, and over 100 wind turbines. The 10m tower was placed in a small valley depression to isolate nighttime cold air pools. This work will present observations of momentum, sensible heat, moisture, and carbon dioxide fluxes from data collected at a sampling frequency of 10Hz at four heights. Atmospheric stability is determined using Monin-Obukov length and flux Richardson number, and the impact of stability on surface-atmosphere exchange is investigated. This work will provide a better understanding of surface fluxes and mixing, particularly during stable ABL periods, and the results can be used to compare with numerical models.

  2. Propagation of a radial phased-locked Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoquan

    2011-11-21

    A radial phased-locked (PL) Lorentz beam array provides an appropriate theoretical model to describe a coherent diode laser array, which is an efficient radiation source for high-power beaming use. The propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere is investigated. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral and some mathematical techniques, analytical formulae for the average intensity and the effective beam size of a radial PL Lorentz beam array are derived in turbulent atmosphere. The average intensity distribution and the spreading properties of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are numerically calculated. The influences of the beam parameters and the structure constant of the atmospheric turbulence on the propagation of a radial PL Lorentz beam array in turbulent atmosphere are discussed in detail.

  3. Non-steady wind turbine response to daytime atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandi, Tarak N; Herrig, Andreas; Brasseur, James G

    2017-04-13

    Relevant to drivetrain bearing fatigue failures, we analyse non-steady wind turbine responses from interactions between energy-dominant daytime atmospheric turbulence eddies and the rotating blades of a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine using a unique dataset from a GE field experiment and computer simulation. Time-resolved local velocity data were collected at the leading and trailing edges of an instrumented blade together with generator power, revolutions per minute, pitch and yaw. Wind velocity and temperature were measured upwind on a meteorological tower. The stability state and other atmospheric conditions during the field experiment were replicated with a large-eddy simulation in which was embedded a GE 1.5 MW wind turbine rotor modelled with an advanced actuator line method. Both datasets identify three important response time scales: advective passage of energy-dominant eddies (≈25-50 s), blade rotation (once per revolution (1P), ≈3 s) and sub-1P scale (load fluctuations result in response to temporal changes in velocity vector inclination in the aerofoil plane, modulated by eddy passage at longer time scales. Generator power responds strongly to large-eddy wind modulations. We show that internal dynamics of the blade boundary layer near the trailing edge is temporally modulated by the non-steady external flow that was measured at the leading edge, as well as blade-generated turbulence motions.This article is part of the themed issue 'Wind energy in complex terrains'.

  4. Atmospheric turbulence triggers pronounced diel pattern in karst carbonate geochemistry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Roland

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available CO2 exchange between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere is key to understanding the feedbacks between climate change and the land surface. In regions with carbonaceous parent material, CO2 exchange patterns occur that cannot be explained by biological processes, such as disproportionate outgassing during daytime or nighttime CO2 uptake during periods when all vegetation is senescent. Neither of these phenomena can be attributed to carbonate weathering reactions, since their CO2 exchange rates are too small. Soil ventilation induced by high atmospheric turbulence is found to explain atypical CO2 exchange between carbonaceous systems and the atmosphere. However, by strongly altering subsurface CO2 concentrations, ventilation can be expected to influence carbonate weathering rates. By imposing ventilation-driven CO2 outgassing in a carbonate weathering model, we show here that carbonate geochemistry is accelerated and does play a surprisingly large role in the observed CO2 exchange patterns. We found that by rapidly depleting soil CO2 during daytime, ventilation disturbs soil carbonate equilibria and therefore strongly magnifies daytime carbonate precipitation and associated CO2 production. At night, ventilation ceases and the depleted CO2 concentrations increase steadily. Dissolution of carbonate is now enhanced, which consumes CO2 and largely compensates for the enhanced daytime carbonate precipitation. This is why only a relatively small effect on global carbonate weathering rates is to be expected. On the short term, however, ventilation has a drastic effect on synoptic carbonate weathering rates, resulting in a pronounced diel pattern that exacerbates the non-biological behavior of soil-atmosphere CO2 exchanges in dry regions with carbonate soils.

  5. The Mechanical Greenhouse: Burial of Heat by Turbulence in Hot Jupiter Atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Youdin, Andrew N

    2010-01-01

    The intense irradiation received by hot Jupiters suppresses convection in the outer layers of their atmospheres and lowers their cooling rates. "Inflated" hot Jupiters, i.e., those with anomalously large transit radii, require additional sources of heat or suppressed cooling. We consider the effect of forced turbulent mixing in the radiative layer, which could be driven by atmospheric circulation or by another mechanism. Due to stable stratification in the atmosphere, forced turbulence drives a downward flux of heat. Weak turbulent mixing slows the cooling rate by this process, as if the planet was irradiated more intensely. Stronger turbulent mixing buries heat into the convective interior, provided the turbulence extends to the radiative-convective boundary. This inflates the planet until a balance is reached between the heat buried into and radiated from the interior. We also include the direct injection of heat due to the dissipation of turbulence or other effects. Such heating is already known to slow pl...

  6. Beam wander relieved orbital angular momentum communication in turbulent atmosphere using Bessel beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yangsheng; Lei, Ting; Li, Zhaohui; Li, Yangjin; Gao, Shecheng; Xie, Zhenwei; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2017-02-01

    Optical beam wander is one of the most important issues for free-space optical (FSO) communication. We theoretically derive a beam wander model for Bessel beams propagating in turbulent atmosphere. The calculated beam wander of high order Bessel beams with different turbulence strengths are consistent with experimental measurements. Both theoretical and experimental results reveal that high order Bessel beams are less influenced by the turbulent atmosphere. We also demonstrate the Bessel beams based orbital angular momentum (OAM) multiplexing/demultiplexing in FSO communication with atmospheric turbulence. Under the same atmospheric turbulence condition, the bit error rates of transmitted signals carried by high order Bessel beams show smaller values and fluctuations, which indicates that the high order Bessel beams have an advantage of mitigating the beam wander in OAM multiplexing FSO communication.

  7. Setting up a liquid crystal phase screen to simulate atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giles, Michael K.; Seward, Anthony J.; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Rha, Jungtae; Jimenez, Ray

    2000-11-01

    Phase screens are often used to simulate atmospheric turbulence in systems designed to test adaptive optics techniques. This paper presents the design and implementation of a dynamic phase screen using a simple and inexpensive twisted nematic liquid crystal display taken from a video projector and placed in a pupil plane. The details of the optical system layout, the system alignment procedure, and the operating parameters of the liquid crystal display are discussed. Examples of turbulence (having strength and statistics similar to measured values of atmospheric turbulence in a variety of scenarios) are written to the phase screen, and the effects of the turbulence on image quality are measured and presented.

  8. A Dynamical model of the atmospheric turbulence from the unstable stratification to the stable stratification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShidaLIU; ZuguangZheng; 等

    1996-01-01

    We analyse the behavior of the nonlinear dynamical systems which are the truncated-spectrum model of the atmospheric turbulence equation.It shows that the chaos can appear in the Lorenz equation obtained by simple equations for the unstable stratification(Ri0),And the chaos can also appear in Burgers-Chao equations for the stable stratification(Ri>0,Ra<0),The atmospheric turbulence is intermittent in the stable stratified atmosphere.

  9. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on OAM-based FSO system with use of realistic link model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Yu, Zhongyuan; Cvijetic, Milorad

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of atmospheric turbulence on OAM-based free-space optical (FSO) communication by using the Pump turbulence spectrum model which accurately characterizes the realistic FSO link. A comprehensive comparison is made between the Pump and Kolmogorov spectrum models with respect to the turbulence impact. The calculated results show that obtained turbulence-induced crosstalk is lower, which means that a higher channel capacity is projected when the realistic Pump spectrum is used instead of the Kolmogorov spectrum. We believe that our results prove that performance of practical OAM-based FSO is better than one predicted by using the original Kolmogorov turbulence model.

  10. Atmospheric cross-wind and turbulence measurements using turbulence-induced scintillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira, J.; Porat, O.; Livneh, M.; Wies, Z.; Heflinger, D.; Fastig, S.; Glick, Y.; Engel, A.

    2010-04-01

    We report on remote measurements of cross-wind and atmospheric turbulence, using a one-station scheme. As most remote wind-sensing methods, our method is based on observing the drift of the scintillation pattern across the line of sight. The scintillations are caused by naturally-occurring turbulence-induced refractive index irregularities in the atmosphere, which drift at wind speed. Analyzing spatial-temporal cross-correlation function of the signals of two elements in the array, it is possible to obtain the cross-wind speed. We use the zero-crossings technique for measuring the cross-wind value, while the cross-wind direction is determined by comparing areas from both sides of the peak of the cross-correlation function. Here we present results obtained using these techniques in comparison to independent measurements of the anemometers. The experiments were performed along a uniform path over a flat beach parallel to the Mediterranean Sea shore. Four white-screen diffusive targets were placed at distances of 300, 600, 850 and 1200m. Five anemometers were placed along the laser beam path, one near each target and at the measurement station. Each target was illuminated with a beam from a glass fiber pulsed infrared laser with a repetition rate of several thousand Hz, and a sub-microsecond pulse-length, and output beam divergence of ~300 μrad. The receiver has an entrance aperture of 80mm, and the incoming radiation is focused onto an array of four 50×250um InGaAs detectors by a lens with f=500mm. The results show good agreement. From the fluctuations of the signal on the detector array, our system also measures the turbulence structure parameter Cn 2, using the angle-of arrival technique. The obtained results show reasonable agreement with independent scintillometer measurements of Cn2, performed with a CW He-Ne laser in a two-station setup with a detector at a distance of 60m from the laser.

  11. Turbulence velocity profiling for high sensitivity and vertical-resolution atmospheric characterization with Stereo-SCIDAR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborn, J.; Butterley, T.; Townson, M. J.; Reeves, A. P.; Morris, T. J.; Wilson, R. W.

    2017-02-01

    As telescopes become larger, into the era of ˜40 m Extremely Large Telescopes, the high-resolution vertical profile of the optical turbulence strength is critical for the validation, optimization and operation of optical systems. The velocity of atmospheric optical turbulence is an important parameter for several applications including astronomical adaptive optics systems. Here, we compare the vertical profile of the velocity of the atmospheric wind above La Palma by means of a comparison of Stereo-SCIntillation Detection And Ranging (Stereo-SCIDAR) with the Global Forecast System models and nearby balloon-borne radiosondes. We use these data to validate the automated optical turbulence velocity identification from the Stereo-SCIDAR instrument mounted on the 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope, La Palma. By comparing these data we infer that the turbulence velocity and the wind velocity are consistent and that the automated turbulence velocity identification of the Stereo-SCIDAR is precise. The turbulence velocities can be used to increase the sensitivity of the turbulence strength profiles, as weaker turbulence that may be misinterpreted as noise can be detected with a velocity vector. The turbulence velocities can also be used to increase the altitude resolution of a detected layer, as the altitude of the velocity vectors can be identified to a greater precision than the native resolution of the system. We also show examples of complex velocity structure within a turbulent layer caused by wind shear at the interface of atmospheric zones.

  12. Current status and challenges in optical turbulence simulations in various layers of the Earth's atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Ping; Nunalee, Christopher G.; Basu, Sukanta; Vorontsov, Mikhail A.; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we present a brief review on the existing approaches for optical turbulence estimation in various layers of the Earth's atmosphere. The advantages and disadvantages of these approaches are also discussed. An alternative approach, based on mesoscale modeling with parameterized turbulence, is proposed and tested for the simulation of refractive index structure parameter (C2n ) in the atmospheric boundary layer. The impacts of a few atmospheric flow phenomena (e.g., low-level jets, island wake vortices, gravity waves) on optical turbulence are discussed. Consideration of diverse geographic settings (e.g., flat terrain, coastal region, ocean islands) makes this study distinct.

  13. Turbulence Measurements in the Atmospheric Surface Layer by Means of an Ultrasonic Anemometer and Thermometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-02-01

    C., 1981: Cup , propeller, vane, and sonic anemometers in turbulence research. Annual Review of Fluid Mechanics, 13, 399–423, doi:10.1146/annurev.fl.13.010181.002151. 91 ...REPORT Turbulence measurements in the atmospheric surface layer by means of an ultrasonic anemometer and thermometer 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY...ultrasonic anemometer /thermometers ("sonics"). The system performance was quantified by comparing observed turbulence spectra with inertial-range

  14. Review of the outer scale of the atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziad, Aziz

    2016-07-01

    Outer scale is a relevant parameter for the experimental performance evaluation of large telescopes. Different techniques have been used for the outer scale estimation. In situ measurements with radiosounding balloons have given very small values of outer scale. This latter has also been estimated directly at the ground level from the wavefront analysis with High Angular Resolution (HAR) techniques using interferometric or Shack-Hartmann or more generally AO systems data. Dedicated instruments have been also developed for the outer scale monitoring such as the Generalized Seeing Monitor (GSM) and the Monitor of Outer Scale Profile (MOSP). The measured values of outer scale from HAR techniques, GSM and MOSP are somewhat coherent and are larger than the in situ results. The main explanation of this difference comes from the definition of the outer scale itself. This paper aims to give a review in a non-exhaustive way of different techniques and instruments for the measurement of the outer scale. Comparisons of outer scale measurements will be discussed in the light of the different definitions of this parameter, the associated observable quantities and the atmospheric turbulence model as well.

  15. Bridging the gap between atmospheric physics and chemistry in studies of small-scale turbulence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.

    2003-01-01

    The current understanding of the influence of atmospheric turbulence on chemical reactions is briefly reviewed. The fundamentals of this influence and the consequences for the transport and mixing of the reactants are discussed. A classification of the turbulent reacting flows is proposed in terms o

  16. Estimation of propagation losses for infrared laser beam in turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaponov, A. E.; Sakharov, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    In present work, the radiation propagation in atmosphere from laser source to the receiver is considered by taking into account deviations of optical beam due to turbulence. The photon flux density on the receiver has been evaluated.

  17. A Fast-Response Atmospheric Turbulence (FRAT) Probe with Gas-Sampling Ducts Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this proposal is to design, construct and test a high-frequency-response air-data probe, the Fast Response Atmospheric Turbulence probe (FRAT probe)...

  18. Partially Coherent cosh-Gaussian Beams in Atmospheric Turbulence with the Same Directionality as a Laser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L(U) Su-Ye; JI Xiao-Ling; L(U) Bai-Da

    2007-01-01

    Directionality of a class of partially coherent cosh-Gaussian beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence is studied. It is shown that two partially coherent cosh-Gaussian beams may generate the same angular spread,and there exist equivalent partially coherent cosh-Gaussian beams which may have the same directionality as a fully coherent Gaussian laser beam in free space and also in atmospheric turbulence. The theoretical results are interpreted physically and illustrated numerically.

  19. The Aggregate behavior of branch points--measuring the number and velocity of atmospheric turbulence layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oesch, Denis W; Sanchez, Darryl J; Matson, Charles L

    2010-10-11

    Optical waves propagating through atmospheric turbulence develop spatial and temporal variations in their phase. For sufficiently strong turbulence, these phase differences can lead to interference in the propagating wave and the formation of branch points; positions of zero amplitude. Under the assumption of a layered turbulence model, we show that these branch points can be used to estimate the number and velocities of atmospheric layers. We describe how to carry out this estimation process and demonstrate its robustness in the presence of sensor noise.

  20. Effect of turbulent atmosphere on the on-axis average intensity of Pearcey-Gaussian beam

    Science.gov (United States)

    F, Boufalah; L, Dalil-Essakali; H, Nebdi; A, Belafhal

    2016-06-01

    The propagation characteristics of the Pearcey-Gaussian (PG) beam in turbulent atmosphere are investigated in this paper. The Pearcey beam is a new kind of paraxial beam, based on the Pearcey function of catastrophe theory, which describes diffraction about a cusp caustic. By using the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral formula in the paraxial approximation and the Rytov theory, an analytical expression of axial intensity for the considered beam family is derived. Some numerical results for PG beam propagating in atmospheric turbulence are given by studying the influences of some factors, including incident beam parameters and turbulence strengths.

  1. Evolution of branch points for a laser beam propagating through an uplink turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Xiao-Lu; Liu, Xuan; Guo, Cheng-Shan

    2014-03-24

    Evolution of branch points in the distorted optical field is studied when a laser beam propagates through turbulent atmosphere along an uplink path. Two categories of propagation events are mainly explored for the same propagation height: fixed wavelength with change of the turbulence strength and fixed turbulence strength with change of the wavelength. It is shown that, when the beam propagates to a certain height, the density of the branch-points reaches its maximum and such a height changes with the turbulence strength but nearly remains constant with different wavelengths. The relationship between the density of branch-points and the Rytov number is also given. A fitted formula describing the relationship between the density of branch-points and propagation height with different turbulence strength and wavelength is found out. Interestingly, this formula is very similar to the formula used for describing the Blackbody radiation in physics. The results obtained may be helpful for atmospheric optics, astronomy and optical communication.

  2. Molecular processes and turbulent magnetic fields in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, A. I.

    2008-08-01

    Coherent scattering in the solar atmosphere leads to the formation of the linearly polarized solar spectrum, just like Rayleigh scattering leads to the polarization of the blue sky. One of the most prominent features of the linearly polarized solar spectrum is the CN violet system as it is also in the unpolarized spectrum. This thesis is devoted to the modeling and interpretation of this system in both spectra and developing it into a very sensitive tool for studying the magnetic fields and the temperature structure of the solar atmosphere. The understanding of the solar magnetic field structure is very important as it is connected with and even controls most of the solar activity phenomena. Zeeman effect diagnostics allows to measure strong directed magnetic fields which only cover about 1% of the solar atmosphere. The remaining part is occupied by weak entangled magnetic fields with mixed polarity, which might significantly contribute to the overall solar magnetic energy. These fields are invisible to the Zeeman effect due to signal cancellation. Therefore the discovery of the linearly polarized solar spectrum opened a new epoch in solar physics. The polarization due to the scattering processes is modified by weak entangled magnetic fields via the Hanle effect and thus, provides us with a unique possibility to access and study such "hidden" magnetic fields. Molecular lines are very useful for probing magnetic fields as, due to their strong temperature sensitivity, different molecules sample different, narrow layers of the solar atmosphere. Therefore the extension of the atomic Hanle effect to molecular lines can provide the 3D structure of the solar turbulent magnetic field. Moreover, due to the broad range of magnetic sensitivities within narrow spectral regions molecular lines can be used for employing the differential Hanle effect technique, which allows dramatically reduced model dependence of the obtained magnetic field. This thesis consists of two main

  3. Influence of turbulent atmosphere on the far-field coherent combined beam quality

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Zhou; Zejin Liu; Xiaojun Xu; Xiaolin Wang; Xiao Li; Zilun Chen

    2008-01-01

    Propagation of coherent combined laser beams in turbulent atmosphere is numerically studied based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle. By choosing beam propagation factor (BPF) and beam quality factor (BQ) to characterize the far-field irradiance distribution properties, the influence of turbulence on far-field coherent combined beam quality is studied in detail. The investigation reveals that with the coherence length decreasing, the irradiance distribution pattern evolves from typical non-Gaussian shape with multiple side-lobes into Gaussian shape which is seen in the incoherent combining case. In weak turbulent atmosphere, the far-field beam quality suffers less when the 1aser array gets more compact and operates at a longer wavelength. In strong turbulent atmosphere, the far-field beam quality degrades into the incoherent combining case without any relationship with the fill factor and laser wavelength.

  4. Measuring anisotropy ellipse of atmospheric turbulence by intensity correlations of laser light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Toselli, Italo; Li, Jia; Korotkova, Olga

    2017-03-15

    An experimental study has been performed of a laser beam propagating horizontally through the near-ground atmosphere above a grassy field at the University of Miami (UM) Coral Gables campus. The average intensity, scintillation index, and intensity correlation function are measured in the receiver plane for three channels with different turbulent conditions and at three different heights above the ground. Our results reveal that along short links (210 m) only the intensity correlation function captures the anisotropic information of turbulence, corresponding to the refractive index anisotropy ellipse of atmospheric fluctuations. In addition, we report an interesting phenomenon relating to turbulence eddy orientation near the ground. We confirmed that the experimental results are in agreement with the numerical simulations based on the multiple phase-screen method. Our findings provide an efficient method of determining the anisotropic parameters of atmospheric turbulence.

  5. Large Eddy Simulation of Aircraft Wake Vortices in a Homogeneous Atmospheric Turbulence: Vortex Decay and Descent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jongil; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Arya, S. Pal; Proctor, Fred H.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of ambient turbulence on decay and descent of aircraft wake vortices are studied using a validated, three-dimensional: large-eddy simulation model. Numerical simulations are performed in order to isolate the effect of ambient turbulence on the wake vortex decay rate within a neutrally-stratified atmosphere. Simulations are conducted for a range of turbulence intensities, by injecting wake vortex pairs into an approximately homogeneous and isotropic turbulence field. The decay rate of the vortex circulation increases clearly with increasing ambient turbulence level, which is consistent with field observations. Based on the results from the numerical simulations, simple decay models are proposed as functions of dimensionless ambient turbulence intensity (eta) and dimensionless time (T) for the circulation averaged over a range of radial distances. With good agreement with the numerical results, a Gaussian type of vortex decay model is proposed for weak turbulence: while an exponential type of Tortex decay model can be applied for strong turbulence. A relationship for the vortex descent based on above vortex decay model is also proposed. Although the proposed models are based on simulations assuming neutral stratification, the model predictions are compared to Lidar vortex measurements observed during stable, neutral, and unstable atmospheric conditions. In the neutral and unstable atmosphere, the model predictions appear to be in reasonable agreement with the observational data, while in the stably-stratified atmosphere, they largely underestimate the observed circulation decay with consistent overestimation of the observed vortex descent. The underestimation of vortex decay during stably-stratified conditions suggests that stratification has an important influence on vortex decay when ambient levels of turbulence are weak.

  6. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the properties of specular and antispecular beams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhaotao; Guo, Mengwen; Zhao, Daomu

    2016-08-20

    A class of optical fields with specular or antispecular properties can be generated by a Gaussian Schell-model beam passing through a wavefront-folding interferometer. Based on the generalized diffraction integral formula, an analytical expression for the cross-spectral density function of such fields propagating through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence is derived. It is revealed that the specular and antispecular properties of the beams always maintain during propagation in free space. However, the specularity and antispecularity properties of the beams become different in atmosphere, since they are quickly destroyed by the atmospheric turbulence.

  7. Diffusion of Sound Waves in a Turbulent Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, Richard H.

    1960-01-01

    The directional and frequency diffusion of a plane monochromatic 2 sound wave in statistically homogeneous, isotropic, and stationary turbulence is analyzed theoretically. The treatment is based on the diffusion equation for the energy density of sound waves, using the scattering cross section derived by Kraichnan for the type of turbulence assumed here. A form for the frequency-wave number spectrum of the turbulence is adopted which contains the pertinent parameters of the flow and is adapted to ease of calculation. A new approach to the evaluation of the characteristic period of the flow is suggested. This spectrum is then related to the scattering cross section. Finally, a diffusion equation is derived as a small-angle scattering approximation to the rigorous transport equation. The rate of spread of the incident wave in frequency and direction is calculated, as well as the power spectrum and autocorrelation for the wave.

  8. Analysis of atmospheric flow over a surface protrusion using the turbulence kinetic energy equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.; Fichtl, G. H.

    1975-01-01

    Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Mean-flow results are compared with those given in a previous paper where the same problem was attacked using a Prandtl mixing-length hypothesis. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow. They highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient.

  9. Wind Energy and the Turbulent Nature of the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    CERN Document Server

    Wächter, Matthias; Hölling, Michael; Morales, Allan; Milan, Patrick; Mücke, Tanja; Peinke, Joachim; Reinke, Nico; Rinn, Philip

    2012-01-01

    The challenge of developing a sustainable and renewable energy supply within the next decades requires collaborative efforts as well as new concepts in the fields of science and engineering. Here we give an overview on the impact of small-scale properties of atmospheric turbulence on the wind energy conversion process. Special emphasis is given to the noisy and intermittent structure of turbulence and its outcome for wind energy conversion and utilization. Experimental, theoretical, analytical, and numerical concepts and methods are presented. In particular we report on new aspects resulting from the combination of basic research, especially in the field of turbulence and complex stochastic systems, with engineering applications.

  10. Numerical simulation research on sodium laser beacon imagings through the atmosphere turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiangyuan; Qian, Xianmei; Zhang, Suimeng; Zhao, Minfu; Cui, Chaolong; Huang, Honghua

    2016-01-01

    Based on the relative intensity distributions of Sodium Laser Beacon (SLB) and analysis of the on-axis imaging of incoherent light, considering the effects of atmospheric turbulence and the changes of telescope receiving diameter on the short-exposure SLB imagings on the focal plane, imagings of an extended source SLB are simulated under the three atmospheric turbulence models. Results indicate that sharpness and peak strehl ratio of SLB imagings increase but sharpness radius decrease with the decrease of atmosphere turbulence strengths. Moreover, the changes of telescope diameter from 3.0m to 1.5m cause the decrease of sharpness and peak strehl ratio but the increase of sharpness radius.

  11. Turbulent circulation above the surface heat source in stably stratified atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbatskii, A. F.; Kurbatskaya, L. I.

    2016-10-01

    The 3-level RANS approach for simulating a turbulent circulation over the heat island in a stably stratified environment under nearly calm conditions is formulated. The turbulent kinetic energy its spectral consumption (dissipation) and the dispersion of turbulent fluctuations of temperature are found from differential equations, thus the correct modeling of transport processes in the interface layer with the counter-gradient heat flux is assured. The three-parameter turbulence RANS approach minimizes difficulties in simulating the turbulent transport in a stably stratified environment and reduces efforts needed for the numerical implementation of the 3-level RANS approach. Numerical simulation of the turbulent structure of the penetrative convection over the heat island under conditions of stably stratified atmosphere demonstrates that the three-equation model is able to predict the thermal circulation induced by the heat island. The temperature distribution, root-mean-square fluctuations of the turbulent velocity and temperature fields and spectral turbulent kinetic energy flux are in good agreement with the experimental data. The model describes such thin physical effects, as a crossing of vertical profiles of temperature of a thermal plume with the formation of the negative buoyancy area testifying to development of the dome-shaped form at the top part of a plume in the form of "hat".

  12. Influence of vortex dynamics and atmospheric turbulence on the early evolution of a contrail

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Paugam

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study describes three-dimensional numerical simulations of the evolution of an aircraft contrail during the first 30 min following the emission of exhausts. The wake is modeled as a vortex pair descending in a stratified atmosphere where turbulent fluctuations are sustained in the late dissipation regime. The focus of the study is laid on the interactions between vortex dynamics, atmospheric turbulence and contrail microphysics, and their role in determining the growth and the distribution of ice crystals. The atmospheric turbulence is synthesized using a methodology developed to force anisotropic turbulent fluctuations. The results show the feasibility of three-dimensional simulations of the early development of a contrail in supersaturated conditions before its transition into a contrail-cirrus. %(when radiative heating and sedimentation are no more negligible. It is shown that in case of strongly supersaturated and shear-free atmosphere the optical depth is maintained as the contrail spreads by turbulent diffusion in the late dissipation regime.

  13. Prediction of data stream parameters in atmospheric turbulent wireless communication links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiker, A.; Yarkoni, N.; Blaunstein, N.; Zilberman, A.; Kopeika, N.

    2007-01-01

    A unified approach for calculation of information data stream parameters in the atmospheric optical communication channel is presented based on irradiance fluctuations of optical wave propagation through turbulence and on a generalized Ricean K-parameter distribution. The effects of turbulence are described via the well-known Kolmogorov scheme of turbulent structure relaxation in terms of stochastic scintillation theory described by the gamma-gamma distribution along with measurements of the values of the refractive index structure parameter, Cn 2. The relation between the Ricean parameter K and the signal scintillation parameter σI 2 is considered to develop a unified description of the corresponding probability density function (pdf) of signal fading within an atmospheric wireless communication link. Through the corresponding pdf and parameter K, signal data stream parameters such as the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), bit error rate (BER), and capacity of the optical atmospheric channel (C) are estimated. Such an approach permits the reliable prediction of the effects of fading caused by different levels of turbulence and agrees with experimental data observed at different atmospheric levels, at the heights of both 100-200 m and above 1-2 km. It is shown that at heights of 100-200 m, effects of fading, caused by turbulence, occur much more frequently than those at the heights of 1-2 km. Data stream parameters such as channel capacity, SNR, and spectral efficiency become stronger at higher altitudes, while at the same time the BER becomes relatively negligible.

  14. Influence of Turbulent Atmosphere on Polarization Properties of Stochastic Electromagnetic Pulsed Beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DING Chao-Liang; ZHAO Zhi-Guo; LI Xiao-Feng; PAN Liu-Zhan; YUAN Xiao

    2011-01-01

    Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere. The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length. It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero. The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length.%@@ Using the coherence theory of non-stationary fields and the characterization of stochastic electromagnetic pulsed beams, the analytical expression for the spectral degree of polarization of stochastic electromagnetic Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beams in turbulent atmosphere is derived and is used to study the polarization properties of stochastic electromagnetic GSMP beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere.The results of numerical calculation are given to illustrate the dependence of spectral degree of polarization on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length.It is shown that, compared with free-space case, in turbulent atmosphere propagation there are two positions at which the on-axis spectral degree of polarization P is equal to zero.The position change depends on the pulse frequency, refraction index structure constant and spatial correlation length.

  15. Measurement of Spatial Coherence of Light Propagating in a Turbulent Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Barcik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available A lot of issues have to be taken into account when designing a reliable free space optical communication link. Among these are e.g.,beam wander, fluctuation of optical intensity and loss of spatial coherence that are caused by atmospheric turbulence. This paper presents experimental measurements of spatial coherence of a laser beam. The experimental setup is based on Young's double pinhole experiment. Fringe patterns under atmospheric turbulence for four different pinhole separations are presented. From these fringe patterns, visibility is determined and the coherence radius is estimated.

  16. Wavefront dislocations of Gaussian beams nesting optical vortices in a turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Zhang(张逸新); Chunkan Tao(陶纯堪)

    2004-01-01

    A phase singularity of the light field created by interference of two Gaussian singular beams which propagate in a weak and near ground turbulent atmosphere is analyzed by the Rytov approximation and the short-term averaging method of the dislocation-position. We demonstrate that an edge or circular dislocation may be formed by both parallel and coaxial or noncoaxial collimated beams with different or equal beam-width interfere. The edge or circular short-term wavefront dislocations of super position field depend on the atmospheric turbulence strength, beam propagation distance, amplitude ratio, dislocation of nesting vortices, and beam-width or beam-width ratio of the individual beams.

  17. Using an incoherent target-return to adaptively focus through atmospheric turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Nelson, William; Wu, Chensheng; Davis, Christopher C

    2015-01-01

    A laser beam propagating to a remote target through atmospheric turbulence acquires intensity fluctuations. If the target is cooperative and provides a coherent return beam, the phase measured near the beam transmitter and adaptive optics can, in principle, correct these fluctuations. Generally, however, the target is uncooperative. In this case, we show that an incoherent return from the target can be used instead. Using the principle of reciprocity, we derive a novel relation between the field at the target and the reflected field at a detector. We simulate an adaptive optics system that utilizes this relation to focus a beam through atmospheric turbulence onto the incoherent surface.

  18. Generalized modified atmospheric spectral model for optical wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bindang; Cui, Linyan; Xue, Wenfang; Bai, Xiangzhi; Zhou, Fugen

    2011-05-01

    A new generalized modified atmospheric spectral model is derived theoretically for wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence, which has been reported recently by increasing experimental evidence and theoretical investigation. The generalized, modified atmospheric spectrum considers finite turbulence inner and outer scales and has a spectral power law value in the range of 3 to 5 instead of the standard power law value of 11/3. When the inner scale and outer scale are set to zero and infinity, respectively, this spectral model is reduced to the classical non-Kolmogorov spectrum.

  19. Infulence of atmospheric stability on the spatial structure of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chougule, Abhijit S.

    This thesis consists of three chapters. In the first chapter, the cross-spectral phases between velocity components at two heights are analyzed from observations at the Høvsøre test site under diabatic conditions. These phases represent the degree to which turbulence sensed at one height leads (or...... lags) in time the turbulence sensed at the other height. The phase angle of the cross-wind component is observed to be significantly greater than the phase for the along-wind component, which in turn is greater than the phase for the vertical component. The cross-wind and along-wind phases increase...... predictions for vertical separations. The model coherences of all the three velocity components were overestimated for the analyzed stability classes at both the sites. The model performed better at both sites for neutral stability than slightly stable and unstable conditions. The model predictions...

  20. Modeling Turbulence Generation in the Atmospheric Surface and Boundary Layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    index. In the boundary layer, atmospheric temperature fluctuations are primarily responsible for the variations in refractive index at ultraviolet...parameterization of the atmospheric emissivity, in the early 1980s a parallel study of the SEB was conducted by the US Army Waterways Experiment Station...period of rotation of the atmosphere can be defined as TI = 2π/fc. At most mid- latitude locations this period is approximately 17 h. This quantity is

  1. BER of subcarrier MPSK and MDPSK systems in atmospheric turbulence

    KAUST Repository

    Song, Xuegui

    2015-01-01

    Bit-error rate (BER) performance of subcarrier $M$-ary phase-shift keying (MPSK) and $M$-ary differential PSK (MDPSK) is analyzed for optical wireless communications over Gamma-Gamma and lognormal turbulence channels. We study the relation between the exact BER and the approximate BER, which is obtained by dividing the symbol-error rate by the number of bits per symbol, for subcarrier MPSK and MDPSK modulations. The asymptotic BER performance gap between the exact and the approximate BERs is quantified analytically through our asymptotic analyses. The accuracy of the approximate BER of both MPSK and MDPSK depends on the channel conditions. Under weak turbulence conditions, the approximate BER expression can be used to predict the system performance with high accuracy, while under strong turbulence conditions the approximate BER becomes inaccurate and can only serve as a loose lower bound of the exact BER. The asymptotic BER performance loss of MDPSK with respect to MPSK is also quantified analytically.

  2. Off-Axis Gaussian Beams with Random Displacement in Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya Baykal

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Our recent work in which we study the propagation of the general Hermite-sinusoidal-Gaussian laser beams in wireless broadband access telecommunication systems is elaborated in this paper to cover the special case of an off-axis Gaussian beam. We mainly investigate the propagation characteristics in atmospheric turbulence of an off-axis Gaussian beam possessing Gaussian distributed random displacement parameters. Our interest is to search for different types of laser beams that will improve the performance of a wireless broadband access system when atmospheric turbulence is considered. Our formulation is based on the basic solution of the second order mutual coherence function evaluated at the receiver plane. For fixed turbulence strength, the coherence length calculated at the receiver plane is found to decrease as the variance of the random displacement is increased. It is shown that as the turbulence becomes stronger, coherence lengths due to off-axis Gaussian beams tend to approach the same value, irrespective of the variance of the random displacement. As expected, the beam spreading is found to be pronounced for larger variance of displacement parameter. Average intensity profiles when atmospheric turbulence is present are plotted for different values of the variance of the random displacement parameter of the off-axis Gaussian beam.

  3. Study of the Temperature Turbulences Effect upon Optical Beam in Atmospheric Optical Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dvorak

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the study of the effect of temperature turbulences upon the optical beam. The polarization parameters of optical radiation sources and different optical beam states of polarization have been investigated. The obtained polarization parameters are projected on the Poincare sphere by means of Stokes vectors. The optical power distribution curves of optical beams are processed into diagrams. The horizontal and vertical components of linearly and circularly polarized optical beams have been studied. The turbulence flux has vertical direction and the optical beam is propagating through an atmosphere environment with three different states of turbulence. The evaluation of the obtained data was done by means of variance and correlation functions computing. Different rates of effect of temperature turbulences upon horizontal and vertical components were found. To reduce the rate of effect the advantage of an optical beam with circular polarization has been proposed.

  4. Turbulent jet flow generated downstream of a low temperature dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Richard D.; Walsh, James L.

    2016-08-01

    Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence.

  5. Atmospheric turbulence not simply two-dimensional or three-dimensional

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    A complete mathematical description of turbulence is one of the most sought-after prizes in physics, and although the research of Pinel et al. does not provide a full account, it does aim to pin down the answer to one subset of that effort: Are two-dimensional (2-D) or 3-D the main options for atmospheric turbulence? In the earliest statistical descriptions, scientists assumed that turbulence was direction independent (isotropic) but in two separate regimes: at large scales being horizontally isotropic, while at small scales being isotropic in 3-D space. In this view, only large-scale turbulence behaves differently in the vertical and horizontal directions, that is, with horizontally stratified vortices.

  6. A consistent turbulence formulation for the dynamic wake meandering model in the atmospheric boundary layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Veldkamp, Dick; Wedel-Heinen, Jens Jakob

    capability of the dynamics wake meandering model to a level where it is sufficiently mature to be applied in industrial applications and for an augmentation of the IEC-standard for wind turbine wake modelling. Based on a comparison of capabilities of the dynamic wake meandering model to the requirement...... of the wind industry, four areas were identified as high prioritizations for further research: 1. the turbulence distribution in a single wake 2. multiple wake deficits and build-up of turbulence over a row of turbines 3. the effect of the atmospheric boundary layer on wake turbulence and wake deficit...... as a standalone flow-solver for the velocity and turbulence distribution, and power production in a wind farm. The performance of the standalone implementation is validated against field data, higher-order computational fluid dynamics models, as well as the most common engineering wake models in the wind industry...

  7. Turbulent jet flow generated downstream of a low temperature dielectric barrier atmospheric pressure plasma device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whalley, Richard D; Walsh, James L

    2016-08-26

    Flowing low temperature atmospheric pressure plasma devices have been used in many technological applications ranging from energy efficient combustion through to wound healing and cancer therapy. The generation of the plasma causes a sudden onset of turbulence in the inhomogeneous axisymmetric jet flow downstream of the plasma plume. The mean turbulent velocity fields are shown to be self-similar and independent of the applied voltage used to generate the plasma. It is proposed that the production of turbulence is related to a combination of the small-amplitude plasma induced body forces and gas heating causing perturbations in the unstable shear layers at the jet exit which grow as they move downstream, creating turbulence.

  8. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements in Support of Adaptive Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-03-01

    Champagne, F. H., C. A. Friehe, J. C. LaRue, and J. C. Wyngaard. 1977. Flux measurements, flux estimation tecniques , and fine scale turbulence measurements...Dr. C. Giuliano 3011 MaLibu Canyon Road MaLibu, CA 90265 DL-3 Lockheed Missiles and Soace Co. Document Management ATTN: Dr. R. Lytetl 3251 Hanover...Laboratory ATTN: Dr. C. Primmerman P.O. Box 73 Lexington. MA 02173 Lockheed Missiles and Space Co. Document Management L556 Mail Station c/51-40 B586 P.O. Box

  9. Characteristics of a partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beam propagating in slanted atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ya-Qing; Wu Zhen-Sen

    2012-01-01

    On the basis of the extended Huygens Fresnel principle and the model of the refractive-index structure constant in the atmospheric turbulence proposed by the International Telecommunication Union-Radio Communication Sector,the characteristics of the partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model(GSM)beams propagating in slanted atmospheric turbulence are studied.Using the cross-spectral density function(CSDF),we derive the expressions for the effective beam radius,the spreading angle,and the average intersity.The variance of the angle-of-arrival fluctuation and the wander effect of the GSM beam in the turbulence are calculated numerically.The influences of the coherence degree,the propagation distance,the propagation height,and the waist radius on the propagation characteristics of the partially coherent beams are discussed and compared with those of the fully coherent Gaussian beams.

  10. Extension of a Kolmogorov Atmospheric Turbulence Model for Time-Based Simulation Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMinn, John D.

    1997-01-01

    The development of any super/hypersonic aircraft requires the interaction of a wide variety of technical disciplines to maximize vehicle performance. For flight and engine control system design and development on this class of vehicle, realistic mathematical simulation models of atmospheric turbulence, including winds and the varying thermodynamic properties of the atmosphere, are needed. A model which has been tentatively selected by a government/industry group of flight and engine/inlet controls representatives working on the High Speed Civil Transport is one based on the Kolmogorov spectrum function. This report compares the Dryden and Kolmogorov turbulence forms, and describes enhancements that add functionality to the selected Kolmogorov model. These added features are: an altitude variation of the eddy dissipation rate based on Dryden data, the mapping of the eddy dissipation rate database onto a regular latitude and longitude grid, a method to account for flight at large vehicle attitude angles, and a procedure for transitioning smoothly across turbulence segments.

  11. The near-neutral atmospheric surface layer: turbulence and non-stationarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, M; McKeon, B J; Holmes, H

    2007-03-15

    The neutrally stable atmospheric surface layer is used as a physical model of a very high Reynolds number, canonical turbulent boundary layer. Challenges and limitations with this model are addressed in detail, including the inherent thermal stratification, surface roughness and non-stationarity of the atmosphere. Concurrent hot-wire and sonic anemometry data acquired in Utah's western desert provide insight to Reynolds number trends in the axial velocity statistics and spectra.

  12. Influence of atmospheric turbulence on the uplink propagation in an optical time transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridelance, Patricia

    1997-08-01

    The time transfer by laser link experiment T2L2 aims for a precision of 60 ps, which could be degraded by the atmospheric turbulence because of the strong variations of the photon number received by the satellite detector, from a measurement to another. The light intensity fluctuations in the satellite plane are estimated for the planned situation for which the beam radius at the atmosphere exit is significantly larger than the coherence length. Such speckle-type fluctuations are experimentally studied.

  13. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events...

  14. Simulation and fabrication of the atmospheric turbulence phase screen based on a fractal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng Jia; Sijiong Zhang

    2012-01-01

    An atmospheric turbulence phase screen generated using a fractal method is introduced.It is etched onto fused silica and tested in the laboratory.The etched screen has relatively low cost,high resolution,and can be used in the broad waveband under severe temperature conditions.Our results are shown to agree well with the theory.

  15. Spectral broadening of acoustic tones generated by unmanned aerial vehicles in a turbulent atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostashev, Vladimir E.; Wilson, D. K.; Finn, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic spectrum emitted by unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and other aircraft can be distorted by propagation through atmospheric turbulence. Since most UAVs are propeller-based, they generate a series of acoustic tones and harmonics. In this paper, spectral broadening of these tones due...

  16. Turbulent Structures and Coherence in the Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träumner, K.; Damian, Th.; Stawiarski, Ch.; Wieser, A.

    2015-01-01

    Organized structures in turbulent flow fields are a well-known and still fascinating phenomenon. Although these so-called coherent structures are obvious from visual inspection, quantitative assessment is a challenge and many aspects e.g., formation mechanisms and contribution to turbulent fluxes, are discussed controversially. During the "High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for Advancing Climate Prediction" Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE) from April to May 2013, an advanced dual Doppler lidar technique was used to image the horizontal wind field near the surface for approximately 300 h. A visual inspection method, as well as a two-dimensional integral length scale analysis, were performed to characterize the observations qualitatively and quantitatively. During situations with forcing due to shear, the wind fields showed characteristic patterns in the form of clearly bordered, elongated areas of enhanced or reduced wind speed, which can be associated with near-surface streaks. During calm situations with strong buoyancy forcing, open cell patterns in the horizontal divergence field were observed. The measurement technique used enables the calculation of integral length scales of both horizontal wind components in the streamwise and cross-stream directions. The individual length scales varied considerably during the observation period but were on average shorter during situations with compared to strongly stable situations. During unstable situations, which were dominated by wind fields with structures, the streamwise length scales increased with increasing wind speed, whereas the cross-stream length scales decreased. Consequently, the anisotropy increased from 1 for calm situations to values of 2-3 for wind speeds of 8-10. During neutral to stable situations, the eddies were on average quite isotropic in the horizontal plane.

  17. Simple method to measure effects of horizontal atmospherical turbulence at ground level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tíjaro Rojas, Omar J.; Galeano Traslaviña, Yuber A.; Torres Moreno, Yezid

    2016-09-01

    The Kolmogorov's theory has been used to explain physical phenomena like the vertical turbulence in atmosphere, others recent works have made new advances and have improved K41 theory. In addition, this theory has been applied to studying different issues associated to measure atmospheric effects, and have special interest to find answers in optics to questions as e.g. at ground level, Could it find edges of two or more close objects, from a distant observer? (Classic resolution problem). Although this subject is still open, we did a model using the statistics of the centroid and the diameter of the laser beam propagated under horizontal turbulence at ground level until the object plane. The goal is to measure efficiently the turbulence effects in the long horizontal path propagation of electromagnetic wave. Natural movement of laser beam within the cavity needs be subtracted from the total transversal displacement in order to obtain a best approach. This simple proposed method is used to find the actual statistics of the centroid and beam diameter on the object plane where the turbulence introduces an additional transversal shift. And it has been tested for different values of horizontal distances under non-controlled environment in a synchronized acquisition scheme. Finally, we show test results in open very strong turbulence with high controlled temperature. This paper presents the implemented tests mainly into laboratory and discuss issues to resolve.

  18. Black carbon solar absorption suppresses turbulence in the atmospheric boundary layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Eric M; Thomas, Rick M; Praveen, Puppala S; Pistone, Kristina; Bender, Frida A-M; Ramanathan, Veerabhadran

    2016-10-18

    The introduction of cloud condensation nuclei and radiative heating by sunlight-absorbing aerosols can modify the thickness and coverage of low clouds, yielding significant radiative forcing of climate. The magnitude and sign of changes in cloud coverage and depth in response to changing aerosols are impacted by turbulent dynamics of the cloudy atmosphere, but integrated measurements of aerosol solar absorption and turbulent fluxes have not been reported thus far. Here we report such integrated measurements made from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) during the CARDEX (Cloud Aerosol Radiative Forcing and Dynamics Experiment) investigation conducted over the northern Indian Ocean. The UAV and surface data reveal a reduction in turbulent kinetic energy in the surface mixed layer at the base of the atmosphere concurrent with an increase in absorbing black carbon aerosols. Polluted conditions coincide with a warmer and shallower surface mixed layer because of aerosol radiative heating and reduced turbulence. The polluted surface mixed layer was also observed to be more humid with higher relative humidity. Greater humidity enhances cloud development, as evidenced by polluted clouds that penetrate higher above the top of the surface mixed layer. Reduced entrainment of dry air into the surface layer from above the inversion capping the surface mixed layer, due to weaker turbulence, may contribute to higher relative humidity in the surface layer during polluted conditions. Measurements of turbulence are important for studies of aerosol effects on clouds. Moreover, reduced turbulence can exacerbate both the human health impacts of high concentrations of fine particles and conditions favorable for low-visibility fog events.

  19. Sound-wave coherence in atmospheric turbulence with intrinsic and global intermittency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, D Keith; Ostashev, Vladimir E; Goedecke, George H

    2008-08-01

    The coherence function of sound waves propagating through an intermittently turbulent atmosphere is calculated theoretically. Intermittency mechanisms due to both the turbulent energy cascade (intrinsic intermittency) and spatially uneven production (global intermittency) are modeled using ensembles of quasiwavelets (QWs), which are analogous to turbulent eddies. The intrinsic intermittency is associated with decreasing spatial density (packing fraction) of the QWs with decreasing size. Global intermittency is introduced by allowing the local strength of the turbulence, as manifested by the amplitudes of the QWs, to vary in space according to superimposed Markov processes. The resulting turbulence spectrum is then used to evaluate the coherence function of a plane sound wave undergoing line-of-sight propagation. Predictions are made by a general simulation method and by an analytical derivation valid in the limit of Gaussian fluctuations in signal phase. It is shown that the average coherence function increases as a result of both intrinsic and global intermittency. When global intermittency is very strong, signal phase fluctuations become highly non-Gaussian and the average coherence is dominated by episodes with weak turbulence.

  20. Target-in-the-loop remote sensing of laser beam and atmospheric turbulence characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorontsov, Mikhail A; Lachinova, Svetlana L; Majumdar, Arun K

    2016-07-01

    A new target-in-the-loop (TIL) atmospheric sensing concept for in situ remote measurements of major laser beam characteristics and atmospheric turbulence parameters is proposed and analyzed numerically. The technique is based on utilization of an integral relationship between complex amplitudes of the counterpropagating optical waves known as overlapping integral or interference metric, whose value is preserved along the propagation path. It is shown that the interference metric can be directly measured using the proposed TIL sensing system composed of a single-mode fiber-based optical transceiver and a remotely located retro-target. The measured signal allows retrieval of key beam and atmospheric turbulence characteristics including scintillation index and the path-integrated refractive index structure parameter.

  1. The Local Atmosphere and the Turbulent Heat Transfer in the Eastern Himalayas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZOU Han; LI Peng; MA Shupo; ZHOU Libo; ZHU Jinhuan

    2012-01-01

    To understand the local atmosphere and heat transfer and to facilitate the boundary-layer parameterization of numerical simulation and prediction,an observational campaign was conducted in the Eastern Himalayas in June 2010.The local atmospheric properties and near-surface turbulent heat transfers were analyzed.The local atmosphere in this region is warmer,more humid and less windy,with weaker solar radiation and surface radiate heating than in the Middle Himalayas.The near-surface turbulent heat transfer in the Eastern Himalayas is weaker than that in the Middle Himalayas.The total heat transfer is mainly contributed by the latent heat transfer with a Bowen ratio of 0.36,which is essentially different from that in the Middle Himalayas and the other Tibetan regions.

  2. Propagation of Gaussian Schell-model Array beams in free space and atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yonghua; Mei, Zhangrong; Gu, Juguan

    2016-12-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the evolution behavior of the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of the beam produced by a recently introduced novel class of Gaussian Schell-model Arrays (GSMA) source in free space and turbulence atmospheric are explored and comparatively analyzed. And the influence of the fractal constant of the atmospheric power spectrum and refractive-index structure constant on the spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of beams are analyzed. It is shown that the optical lattice profile is stable when beams propagate in free space, but the spectral density eventually is suppressed and transformed into a Gaussian profiles when it passes at sufficiently large distances through the turbulent atmosphere. The distributions of the spectral degree of coherence in far field eventually transformed into a shrink Gaussian profile relative to free space which means that the degree of spatial coherence turns worse.

  3. BER of flat-topped Gaussian beam in slant path turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Fang; Han, Yanyan; Han, Xiang-e.; Yang, Rui-ke

    2013-08-01

    Based on the theory of optical wave propagation in the slant path and the ITU-R turbulence structure constant model which is dependent on altitude, the on-axis scintillation index of the flat-topped Gaussian beam at the receiver plane in slant path turbulence was given by using Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence power spectrum model. The influences of the link altitudes, atmospheric refractive index structure constant C0 at the ground,the source size and the beam order on scintillation index of the flat-topped Gaussian beam are discussed in detail. The result shows that the scintillation index increased first and then decreased with the increase of the beam order. The advantage of a flat-topped Gaussian beam over a single Gaussian beam is restricted to small source sizes, which is consistent with the case of the horizontal path. To find the average bit error rate under weak slant path turbulence, the log-normal distribution model of the intensity fluctuation was used. The influence of beam order and source size on BER was discussed. The result indicates that the smaller sized flat-topped Gaussian beam will bring average bit error rate advantage over the same size Gaussian beam. Our results correctly reduce to the result of the horizontal path with atmospheric structure constant fixed.

  4. Fundamental Distinctions in Physics underlying Nonsteady Forcings of Wind Turbine Power vs. Drivetrain by Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasseur, James; Lavely, Adam; Nandi, Tarak

    2016-11-01

    Whereas the primary function of a wind turbine (WT) is the generation of electricity, wind farm profitability is decreased both by integrated losses in power and increases in premature failures of drivetrain components resulting from energetic nonsteady aerodynamic forcings of WT rotors by atmospheric and wake turbulence. Here we contrast the physics underlying dominant nonsteady atmospheric turbulence forcings of the bending moments in the WT rotor plane (torque/power) vs. the out-of-plane bending moments (OPBM) that underlie premature drivetrain component failure. Using an advanced actuator line model of the 5 MW NREL and the 1.5 MW GE wind turbine rotors embedded within a high-fidelity spectral LES of a typical daytime convective atmospheric boundary layer, we show that (1) the physics underlying large torque vs. OBPM fluctuations are associated with fundamentally different turbulence eddy characteristics and (2) nonsteady response centers on 4 characteristic time scales associated advection of eddies and load response of blades cutting through internal turbulence eddy structure. Supported by DOE. Computer resources by NSF/XSEDE.

  5. Experimental verification of the frozen flow atmospheric turbulence assumption with use of astronomical adaptive optics telemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poyneer, Lisa; van Dam, Marcos; Véran, Jean-Pierre

    2009-04-01

    We use closed-loop deformable mirror telemetry from Altair and Keck adaptive optics (AO) to determine whether atmospheric turbulence follows the frozen flow hypothesis. Using telemetry from AO systems, our algorithms (based on the predictive Fourier control framework) detect frozen flow >94% of the time. Usually one to three layers are detected. Between 20% and 40% of the total controllable phase power is due to frozen flow. Velocity vector RMS variability is less than 0.5 m/s (per axis) on 10-s intervals, indicating that the atmosphere is stable enough for predictive control to measure and adapt to prevailing atmospheric conditions before they change.

  6. A study of key features of the RAE atmospheric turbulence model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jewell, W. F.; Heffley, R. K.

    1978-01-01

    A complex atmospheric turbulence model for use in aircraft simulation is analyzed in terms of its temporal, spectral, and statistical characteristics. First, a direct comparison was made between cases of the RAE model and the more conventional Dryden turbulence model. Next the control parameters of the RAE model were systematically varied and the effects noted. The RAE model was found to possess a high degree of flexibility in its characteristics, but the individual control parameters are cross-coupled in terms of their effect on various measures of intensity, bandwidth, and probability distribution.

  7. The Influence of Convergence Movement on Turbulent Transportation in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡隐樵; 左洪超

    2003-01-01

    Classical turbulent K closure theory of the atmospheric boundary layer assumes that the verticalturbulent transport flux of any macroscopic quantity is equivalent to that quantity's vertical gradienttransport flux. But a cross coupling between the thermodynamic processes and the dynamic processesin the atmospheric system is demonstrated based on the Curier-Prigogine principle of cross coupling oflinear thermodynamics. The vertical turbulent transportation of energy and substance in the atmosphericboundary layer is related not only to their macroscopic gradient but also to the convergence and the di-vergence movement. The transportation of the convergence or divergence movement is important for theatmospheric boundary layer of the heterogeneous underlying surface and the convection boundary layer.Based on this, the turbulent transportatiou in the atmospheric boundary layer, the energy budget of theheterogeneous underlying surface and the convection boundary layer, and the boundary layer parameteri-zation of land surface processes over the heterogeneous underlying surface are studied. This research offersclues not only for establishing the atmospheric boundary layer theory about the heterogeneous underlyingsurface, but also for overcoming the difficulties encountered recently in the application of the atmosphericboundary layer theory.

  8. Investigating the effect of atmospheric turbulence on mid-IR data quality with VISIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Ancker, Mario E.; Asmus, Daniel; Hummel, Christian; Käufl, Hans-Ulrich; Kerber, Florian; Smette, Alain; Taylor, Julian; Tristram, Konrad; Vinther, Jakob; Wolff, Burkhard

    2016-07-01

    A comparison of the FWHM of standard stars observed with VISIR, the mid-IR imager and spectrometer at ESO's VLT, with expectations for the achieved mid-IR Image Quality based on the optical seeing and the wavelength-dependence of atmospheric turbulence, shows that for N-band data (7{12μm), VISIR realizes an image quality about 0.1" worse than expected based on the optical seeing. This difference is large compared to the median N-band image quality of 0.3-0.4" achieved by VISIR. We also note that other mid-IR groundbased imagers show similar image quality in the N-band. We attribute this difference to an under-estimate of the effect of the atmosphere in the mid-IR in the parameters adopted so far for the extrapolation of optical to mid-IR seeing. Adopting an average outer length-scale of the atmospheric turbulence above Paranal L0 = 46 m (instead of the previously used L0 = 23 m) improves the agreement between predicted and achieved image quality in the mid-IR while only having a modest effect on the predicted image quality at shorter wavelengths (although a significant amount of scatter remains, suggesting that l0 may not be constant in time). We therefore advocate adopting L0 = 46 m for the average outer length scale of atmospheric turbulence above Cerro Paranal for real-time scheduling of observations on VLT UT3 (Melipal).

  9. Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bailly, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the major problems of turbulence and turbulent processes, including  physical phenomena, their modeling and their simulation. After a general introduction in Chapter 1 illustrating many aspects dealing with turbulent flows, averaged equations and kinetic energy budgets are provided in Chapter 2. The concept of turbulent viscosity as a closure of the Reynolds stress is also introduced. Wall-bounded flows are presented in Chapter 3, and aspects specific to boundary layers and channel or pipe flows are also pointed out. Free shear flows, namely free jets and wakes, are considered in Chapter 4. Chapter 5 deals with vortex dynamics. Homogeneous turbulence, isotropy, and dynamics of isotropic turbulence are presented in Chapters 6 and 7. Turbulence is then described both in the physical space and in the wave number space. Time dependent numerical simulations are presented in Chapter 8, where an introduction to large eddy simulation is offered. The last three chapters of the book summarize remarka...

  10. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence: three-layer altitude model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilberman, Arkadi; Golbraikh, Ephim; Kopeika, Norman S

    2008-12-01

    Turbulence properties of communication links (optical and microwave) in terms of log-amplitude variance are studied on the basis of a three-layer model of refractive index fluctuation spectrum in the free atmosphere. We suggest a model of turbulence spectra (Kolmogorov and non-Kolmogorov) changing with altitude on the basis of obtained experimental and theoretical data for turbulence profile in the troposphere and lower stratosphere.

  11. Propagation of the off-axis superposition of partially coherent beams through atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang En-Tao; Ji Xiao-Ling; Lü Bai-Da

    2009-01-01

    The propagation properties of the off-axis superposition of partially coherent beams through atmospheric tur-bulence and their beam quality in terms of the mean-squared beam width w(z) and the power in the bucket (PIB)are studied in detail, where the effects of partial coherence, off-axis beam superposition and atmospheric turbulence are considered. The analytical expressions for the intensity, the beam width and the PIB are derived, and illustrative examples are given numerically. It is shown that the maximum intensity/max and the PIB decrease and ω(z) increases as the refraction index structure constant C2n increases. Therefore, the turbulence results in a degradation of the beam quality. However, the resulting partially coherent beam with a smaller value of spatial correlation parameter γ and larger values of separate distance Xd and beam number M is less affected by the turbulence than that with a larger value of γ and smaller values of xd and M. The main results obtained in this paper are explained physically.

  12. Numerical Simulations of Optical Turbulence Using an Advanced Atmospheric Prediction Model: Implications for Adaptive Optics Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alliss, R.

    2014-09-01

    Optical turbulence (OT) acts to distort light in the atmosphere, degrading imagery from astronomical telescopes and reducing the data quality of optical imaging and communication links. Some of the degradation due to turbulence can be corrected by adaptive optics. However, the severity of optical turbulence, and thus the amount of correction required, is largely dependent upon the turbulence at the location of interest. Therefore, it is vital to understand the climatology of optical turbulence at such locations. In many cases, it is impractical and expensive to setup instrumentation to characterize the climatology of OT, so numerical simulations become a less expensive and convenient alternative. The strength of OT is characterized by the refractive index structure function Cn2, which in turn is used to calculate atmospheric seeing parameters. While attempts have been made to characterize Cn2 using empirical models, Cn2 can be calculated more directly from Numerical Weather Prediction (NWP) simulations using pressure, temperature, thermal stability, vertical wind shear, turbulent Prandtl number, and turbulence kinetic energy (TKE). In this work we use the Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) NWP model to generate Cn2 climatologies in the planetary boundary layer and free atmosphere, allowing for both point-to-point and ground-to-space seeing estimates of the Fried Coherence length (ro) and other seeing parameters. Simulations are performed using a multi-node linux cluster using the Intel chip architecture. The WRF model is configured to run at 1km horizontal resolution and centered on the Mauna Loa Observatory (MLO) of the Big Island. The vertical resolution varies from 25 meters in the boundary layer to 500 meters in the stratosphere. The model top is 20 km. The Mellor-Yamada-Janjic (MYJ) TKE scheme has been modified to diagnose the turbulent Prandtl number as a function of the Richardson number, following observations by Kondo and others. This modification

  13. Performance Analysis of Free-Space Optical Communication Systems With Multiuser Diversity Over Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-04-01

    Free-space optical (FSO) communication has become a cost-effective method to provide high data rates. However, the turbulence-induced fading limits its application to short-range applications. To address this, we propose a multiuser diversity (MD) FSO scheme in which the Nth best user is selected and the channel fluctuations can be effectively exploited to produce a selection diversity gain. More specifically, we first present the statistics analysis for the considered system over both weak and strong atmospheric turbulence channels. Based on these statistics, the outage probability, bit-error rate performance, average capacity, diversity order, and coverage are analyzed. Results show that the diversity order for the gamma-gamma fading is N min{α, β}/2, where N is the number of users, and α and β are the channel fading parameters related to the effective atmospheric conditions of the link.

  14. Atmospheric turbulence in phase-referenced and wide-field interferometric images: Application to the SKA

    CERN Document Server

    Marti-Vidal, I; Jimenez-Monferrer, S; Marcaide, J M

    2010-01-01

    Phase referencing is a standard calibration procedure in radio interferometry. It allows to detect weak sources by using quasi-simultaneous observations of closeby sources acting as calibrators. Therefore, it is assumed that, for each antenna, the optical paths of the signals from both sources are similar. However, atmospheric turbulence may introduce strong differences in the optical paths of the signals and affect, or even waste, phase referencing for cases of relatively large calibrator-to-target separations and/or bad weather. The situation is similar in wide-field observations, since the random deformations of the images, mostly caused by atmospheric turbulence, have essentially the same origin as the random astrometric variations of phase-referenced sources with respect to the phase center of their calibrators. In this paper, we present the results of a Monte Carlo study of the astrometric precision and sensitivity of an interferometric array (a realization of the Square Kilometre Array, SKA) in phase-r...

  15. Slant path average intensity of finite optical beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Zhang; Gaogang Wang

    2006-01-01

    The average intensity of finite laser beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere is calculated from the extended Huygens Fresnel principle. Formulas are presented for the slant path average intensity from an arbitrarily truncated Gaussian beam. The new expressions are derived from the modified von Karman spectrum for refractive-index fluctuations, quadratic approximation of the structure function,and Gaussian approximation for the product of Gaussian function and Bessel function. It is shown that the form of average intensity is not a Gaussian function but a polynomial of the power of the binomial function, Gaussian function, and the incomplete gamma function. The results also show that the mean irradiance of a finite optical beam propagating in slant path turbulent atmosphere not only depends on the effective beam radius at the transmitting aperture plane, propagation distance, and long-term lateral coherence length of spherical wave, but also on the radius of emit aperture.

  16. Scintillation and aperture averaging for Gaussian beams through non-Kolmogorov maritime atmospheric turbulence channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Guo, Lixin; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-12-14

    Analytic expression of the receiver-aperture-averaged scintillation index (SI) was derived for Gaussian-beam waves propagating through non-Kolmogorov maritime atmospheric environment by establishing a generalized maritime atmospheric spectrum model. The error performance of an intensity-modulated and direct-detection (IM/DD) free-space optical (FSO) system was investigated using the derived SI and log-normal distribution. The combined effects of non-Kolmogorov power-law exponent, turbulence inner scale, structure parameter, propagation distance, receiver aperture, and wavelength were also evaluated. Results show that inner scale and power-law exponent obviously affect SI. Large wavelength and receiver aperture can mitigate the effects of turbulence. The proposed model can be evaluated ship-to-ship/shore FSO system performance.

  17. Demonstration of a Relocatable Regional Ocean Atmosphere Modeling System with Coastal Autonomous Sampling Networks: Turbulence Characterization from an AUV

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    Demonstration Of A Relocatable Regional Ocean Atmosphere Modeling System with Coastal Autonomous Sampling Networks : Turbulence Characterization from...characterization tool in combined coastal ocean observation/prediction networks . OBJECTIVES I wish to use AUV-based turbulence measurements to quantify mixing... Services , Directorate for Information Operations and Reports, 1215 Jefferson Davis Highway, Suite 1204, Arlington VA 22202-4302. Respondents should be

  18. Compensation Method of Laser Drifting by Atmosphere Turbulence in Large Shafting Aligning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Guo-hua; SU Cheng-zhi; XU Hong-ji

    2006-01-01

    Instead of the rotor shafting line, visible laser beam, as a centering and adjusting benchmark of rotor bearing groove or static components, has been used to examine and repair the high precision shafting in many industry areas. Atmosphere turbulence is one of the important factors that affect shafting alignment precision. A correcting method is proposed in this paper, which monitors the light target to measure the drift of laser direetrix in real time and compensates the error using beeline correction.

  19. The Evolving Magnetic Scales of the Outer Solar Atmosphere and Their Potential Impact on Heliospheric Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    McIntosh, Scott W; Threlfall, James; De Moortel, Ineke; Leamon, Robert J; Tian, Hui

    2013-01-01

    The presence of turbulent phenomena in the outer solar atmosphere is a given. However, because we are reduced to remotely sensing the atmosphere of a star with instruments of limited spatial and/or spectral resolution, we can only infer the physical progression from macroscopic to microscopic phenomena. Even so, we know that many, if not all, of the turbulent phenomena that pervade interplanetary space have physical origins at the Sun and so in this brief article we consider some recent measurements which point to sustained potential source(s) of heliospheric turbulence in the magnetic and thermal domains. In particular, we look at the scales of magnetism that are imprinted on the outer solar atmosphere by the relentless magneto-convection of the solar interior and combine state-of-the-art observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) which are beginning to hint at the origins of the wave/plasma interplay prevalent closer to the Earth. While linking th...

  20. Propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an optical system in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiuxiang

    2007-12-24

    The propagation of a cosh-Gaussian beam through an arbitrary ABCD optical system in turbulent atmosphere has been investigated. The analytical expressions for the average intensity at any receiver plane are obtained. As an elementary example, the average intensity and its radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens are studied. To show the effects of a lens on the average intensity and the intensity radius of the laser beam in turbulent atmosphere, the properties of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam and a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation in turbulent atmosphere are studied and numerically calculated. The average intensity profiles of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens can have a shape similar to that of the initial beam for a longer propagation distance than that of a collimated cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. With the increment in the propagation distance, the average intensity radius at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a thin lens will be smaller than that at the focal plane of a focused cosh-Gaussian beam for direct propagation. Meanwhile, the intensity distributions at the image plane of a cosh-Gaussian beam through a lens with different w(0) and Omega(0) are also studied.

  1. Optical Receiver for Coherently Detected Pulse-Position Modulated Signals in the Presence of Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, M.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    2005-05-01

    Performance analysis and experimental verification of a coherent free-space optical communications receiver in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence is presented. Bit-error rate (BER) performance of ideal coherent detection is analyzed in Section II, and the laboratory equipment and experimental setup used to carry out these experiments are described. The key components include two lasers operating at a 1064-nm wavelength for use with coherent detection, a 16-element (4 x 4) focal-plane detector array, and a data acquisition and signal processing assembly needed to sample and collect the data and analyze the results. The detected signals are combined using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. In Section III, convergence of the algorithm for experimentally obtained signal tones in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is demonstrated. In Section IV, adaptive combining of experimentally obtained heterodyned pulse-position modulated (PPM) signals with pulse-to-pulse coherence, in the presence of simulated spatial distortions resembling atmospheric turbulence, is demonstrated. The adaptively combined PPM signals are phased up via an LMS algorithm suitably optimized to operate with PPM in the presence of additive shot noise. A convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented, and results with both computer-simulated and experimentally obtained PPM signals are analyzed.

  2. Study of optimum methods of optical communication. [accounting for the effects of the turbulent atmosphere and quantum mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harger, R. O.

    1974-01-01

    Abstracts are reported relating to the techniques used in the research concerning optical transmission of information. Communication through the turbulent atmosphere, quantum mechanics, and quantum communication theory are discussed along with the results.

  3. Influence of atmospheric stratification on the integral scale and fractal dimension of turbulent flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijera, Manuel; Maqueda, Gregorio; Yagüe, Carlos

    2016-11-01

    In this work the relation between integral scale and fractal dimension and the type of stratification in fully developed turbulence is analyzed. The integral scale corresponds to that in which energy from larger scales is incoming into a turbulent regime. One of the aims of this study is the understanding of the relation between the integral scale and the bulk Richardson number, which is one of the most widely used indicators of stability close to the ground in atmospheric studies. This parameter will allow us to verify the influence of the degree of stratification over the integral scale of the turbulent flows in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The influence of the diurnal and night cycles on the relationship between the fractal dimension and integral scale is also analyzed. The fractal dimension of wind components is a turbulent flow characteristic, as has been shown in previous works, where its relation to stability was highlighted. Fractal dimension and integral scale of the horizontal (u') and vertical (w') velocity fluctuations have been calculated using the mean wind direction as a framework. The scales are obtained using sonic anemometer data from three elevations 5.8, 13 and 32 m above the ground measured during the SABLES 98 field campaign (Cuxart et al., 2000). In order to estimate the integral scales, a method that combines the normalized autocorrelation function and the best Gaussian fit (R2 ≥ 0.70) has been developed. Finally, by comparing, at the same height, the scales of u' and w' velocity components, it is found that the turbulent flows are almost always anisotropic.

  4. Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Z. Lin; R.E. Waltz

    2007-01-01

    @@ Turbulent transport driven by plasma pressure gradients [Tangl978] is one of the most important scientific challenges in burning plasma experiments since the balance between turbulent transport and the self-heating by the fusion products (a-particles) determines the performance of a fusion reactor like ITER.

  5. Turbulence in wind turbine wakes under different atmospheric conditions from static and scanning Doppler LiDARs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumer, Valerie; Reuder, Joachim

    2016-04-01

    Wake characteristics are of great importance for wind park performances and turbine loads. Wind tunnel experiments helped to validate wake model simulations under neutral atmospheric conditions. However, recent studies show strongest wake characteristics and power losses in stable atmospheric conditions. Considering all three occurring atmospheric conditions this study presents a turbulence analysis of wind turbine wake flows measured by static and scanning Doppler LiDARs at the coast of the Netherlands. We use data collected by three Windcubes v1, a scanning Windcube 100S and sonic anemometers during the Wind Turbine Wake Experiment - Wieringermeer (WINTWEX-W). Turbulence parameters such as Turbulence Intensity (TI) and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are retrieved from the collected raw data. Results show highest turbulence on the flanks of the wake where strong wind shear dominates. On average the spatial turbulence distribution becomes more homogeneous with conical areas of enhanced TI. Highest turbulence and strongest wind deficits occur during stable weather conditions. Despite the ongoing research on the reliability of turbulence retrievals of Doppler LiDAR data, the results are consistent with sonic anemometer measurements and show promising opportunities for a qualitative study of wake characteristics such as wake strength and wake peak frequencies.

  6. Large-eddy simulation of contrail evolution in the vortex phase and its interaction with atmospheric turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Picot

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the evolution of contrails in the vortex and dissipation regimes is studied by means of fully three-dimensional large-eddy simulation (LES coupled to a Lagrangian particle tracking method to treat the ice phase. In this paper, fine-scale atmospheric turbulence is generated and sustained by means of a stochastic forcing that mimics the properties of stably stratified turbulent flows as those occurring in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere. The initial flow field is composed of the turbulent background flow and a wake flow obtained from separate LES of the jet regime. Atmospheric turbulence is the main driver of the wake instability and the structure of the resulting wake is sensitive to the intensity of the perturbations, primarily in the vertical direction. A stronger turbulence accelerates the onset of the instability, which results in shorter contrail descent and more effective mixing in the interior of the plume. However, the self-induced turbulence that is produced in the wake after the vortex breakup dominates over background turbulence until the end of the vortex regime and controls the mixing with ambient air. This results in mean microphysical characteristics such as ice mass and optical depth that are slightly affected by the intensity of atmospheric turbulence. However, the background humidity and temperature have a first-order effect on the survival of ice crystals and particle size distribution, which is in line with recent studies.

  7. Propagation of partially coherent flat-topped beams through a turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Youquan; Zhang, Bin; Pan, Pingping

    2008-09-01

    Based on the modified beam model for flat-topped beams and the Schell model for partially coherent light, an expression for partially coherent flat-topped (PCFT) beams has been proposed. The propagation characteristics of PCFT beams with circular symmetry through a turbulent atmosphere have been studied. By using the generalized Huygens-Fresnel integral and Fourier transform method, the expressions for the cross-spectral density function and the average intensity have been given and the analytical expression for the root-mean-square width has been derived. The effects of the beam order, the spatial coherence, and the turbulent parameter on the intensity distributions and beam spreading have been discussed in detail. Our results show that the on-axis intensity of the beams decreases with increasing turbulence and decreasing coherence of the source, whereas the on-axis intensity of the beams in the far field decreases slightly with increasing beam order. The relative spreading of PCFT beams is smaller for beams with a higher order, a lower degree of global coherence of the source, a larger inner scale, and a smaller outer scale of the turbulence.

  8. Wind and turbulence measurements by the Middle and Upper Atmosphere Radar (MUR: comparison of techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Praskovsky

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The structure-function-based method (referred to as UCAR-STARS, a technique for estimating mean horizontal winds, variances of three turbulent velocity components and horizontal momentum flux was applied to the Middle and Upper atmosphere Radar (MUR operating in spaced antenna (SA profiling mode. The method is discussed and compared with the Holloway and Doviak (HAD correlation-function-based technique. Mean horizontal winds are estimated with the STARS and HAD techniques; the Doppler Beam Swinging (DBS method is used as a reference for evaluating the SA techniques. Reasonable agreement between SA and DBS techniques is found at heights from 5km to approximately 11km, where signal-to-noise ratio was rather high. The STARS and HAD produced variances of vertical turbulent velocity are found to be in fair agreement. They are affected by beam-broadening in a different way than the DBS-produced spectral width, and to a much lesser degree. Variances of horizontal turbulent velocity components and horizontal momentum flux are estimated with the STARS method, and strong anisotropy of turbulence is found. These characteristics cannot be estimated with correlation-function-based SA methods, which could make UCAR-STARS a useful alternative to traditional SA techniques.

  9. Implementation of a Phase Only Spatial Light Modulator as an Atmospheric Turbulence Simulator at 1550 nm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Font

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Modeling and simulating atmospheric turbulence in a controlled environment have been a focus of interest for scientists for decades. The development of new technologies allows scientists to perform this task in a more realistic and controlled environment and provides powerful tools for the study and better understanding of the propagation of light through a nonstatic medium such as the atmosphere. Free space laser communications (FSLC and studies in light propagation through the atmosphere are areas which constantly benefit from breakthroughs in technology and in the development of realistic atmospheric turbulence simulators, in particular (Santiago et al. 2011. In this paper, we present the results from the implementation of a phase only spatial light modulator (SLM as an atmospheric turbulence simulator for light propagation in the short-wave infrared (SWIR regime. Specifically, we demonstrate its efficacy for its use in an FSLC system, at a wavelength of 1550 nm.

  10. Strong intensity variations of laser feedback interferometer caused by atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yiyi Sun(孙毅义); Zhiping Li(李治平)

    2003-01-01

    The significant variation of the laser output can be caused by feedback of a small part of laser beam, whichis reflected or backscattered by a target at a long distance from laser source, into the laser cavity. Thispaper describes and analyzes theoretically and experimentally the influence of atmospheric turbulence oninterference caused by laser feedback. The influence depends upon both the energy of feedback into thelaser cavity and the strength of turbulence over a laser propagation path in the atmosphere. In the caseof stronger energy of feedback and weak turbulence variance of fluctuation of the laser output can beenhanced by hundreds to thousands times. From our measurements and theoretical analysis it shows thatthese significant enhancements can result from the change of laser-cavity-modes which can be stimulatedsimultaneously and from beat oscillations between a variety of frequencies of laser modes. This also canresult from optical chaos inside the laser resonator because a non-separable distorted external cavity canbecome a prerequisite for optical chaos.

  11. Influences of Atmospheric Turbulence on Image Resolution of Airborne and Space-Borne Optical Remote Sensing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xiao-fang; YU Xin; YAN Ji-xiang

    2006-01-01

    A new way is proposed to evaluate the influence of atmospheric turbulence on image resolution of airborne and space-borne optical remote sensing system, which is called as arrival angle-method. Applying this method, some engineering examples are selected to analyze the turbulence influences on image resolution based on three different atmospheric turbulence models quantificationally, for the air borne remote sensing system, the resolution errors caused by the atmospheric turbulence are less than 1cm, and for the space-borne remote sensing system, the errors are around 1cm. The results are similar to that obtained by the previous Fried-method. Compared with the Fried-method, the arrival angle-method is rather simple and can be easily used in engineering fields.

  12. Electro-optic testbed utilizing a dynamic range gated Rayleigh beacon for atmospheric turbulence profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuraski, Steven M.; Fiorino, Steven T.; Beecher, Elizabeth A.; Figlewski, Nathan M.; Schmidt, Jason D.; McCrae, Jack E.

    2016-10-01

    The Photometry Analysis and Optical Tracking and Evaluation System (PANOPTES) Quad Axis Telescope is a unique four axis mount Ritchey-Chretien 24 inch telescope capable of tracking objects through the zenith without axes rotation delay (no Dead Zone). This paper describes enhancement components added to the quad axis mount telescope that will enable measurements supporting novel research and field testing focused on `three-dimensional' characterization of turbulent atmospheres, mitigation techniques, and new sensing modalities. These all support research and operational techniques relating to astronomical imaging and electro-optical propagation though the atmosphere, relative to sub-meter class telescopes in humid, continental environments. This effort will use custom designed and commercial off the shelf hardware; sub-system components discussed will include a wavefront sensor system, a co-aligned beam launch system, and a fiber coupled research laser. The wavefront sensing system has the ability to take measurements from a dynamic altitude adjustable laser beacon scattering spot, a key concept that enables rapid turbulence structure parameter measurements over an altitude varied integrated atmospheric volume. The sub-components are integrated with the overall goal of measuring a height-resolved volumetric profile for the atmospheric turbulence structure parameter at the site, and developing mobile techniques for such measurements. The design concept, part selection optimization, baseline component lab testing, and initial field measurements, will be discussed in the main sections of this paper. This project is a collaborative effort between the Air Force Research Labs Sensors Directorate and the Air Force Institute of Technology Center for Directed Energy.

  13. Free-space to few-mode-fiber coupling under atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Donghao; Li, Yan; Chen, Erhu; Li, Beibei; Kong, Deming; Li, Wei; Wu, Jian

    2016-08-01

    High speed free space optical communication (FSOC) has taken advantages of components developed for fiber-optic communication systems. Recently, with the rapid development of few-mode-fiber based fiber communication systems, few-mode-fiber components might further promote their applications in FSOC system. The coupling efficiency between free space optical beam and few-mode fibers under atmospheric turbulence effect are investigated in this paper. Both simulation and experimental results show that, compared with single-mode fiber, the coupling efficiencies for a 2-mode fiber and a 4-mode fiber are improved by ~4 dB and ~7 dB respectively in the presence of medium moderate and strong turbulence. Compared with single-mode fiber, the relative standard deviation of received power is restrained by 51% and 66% respectively with a 4-mode and 2-mode fiber.

  14. LOLAS: an optical turbulence profiler in the atmospheric boundary layer with extreme altitude-resolution

    CERN Document Server

    Avila, R; Wilson, R W; Chun, M; Butterley, T; Carrasco, E

    2008-01-01

    We report the development and first results of an instrument called Low Layer Scidar (LOLAS) which is aimed at the measurement of optical-turbulence profiles in the atmospheric boundary layer with high altitude-resolution. The method is based on the Generalized Scidar (GS) concept, but unlike the GS instruments which need a 1- m or larger telescope, LOLAS is implemented on a dedicated 40-cm telescope, making it an independent instrument. The system is designed for widely separated double-star targets, which enables the high altitude-resolution. Using a 20000-separation double- star, we have obtained turbulence profiles with unprecedented 12-m resolution. The system incorporates necessary novel algorithms for autoguiding, autofocus and image stabilisation. The results presented here were obtained at Mauna Kea Observatory. They show LOLAS capabilities but cannot be considered as representative of the site. A forthcoming paper will be devoted to the site characterisation. The instrument was built as part of the ...

  15. Vortex beam generation based on a fiber array combining and propagation through a turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. P.; Dudorov, V. V.; Kolosov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    We suggest a technique for generation of optical vortex beams with a variable orbital angular momentum based on a fiber laser array. The technique uses the phase control of each single subbeam. Requirements for the number of subbeams and the spatial arrangement for the vortex beam generation are determined. The propagation dynamics of a vortex beam synthesized is compared with that of a continuous Laguerre-Gaussian beam in free space and in a turbulent atmosphere. Spectral properties of a beam synthesized, which is represented as a superposition of different azimuth modes, are determined during its free-space propagation. It is shown that energy and statistical parameters coincide for synthesized and continuous vortex beams when propagating through a turbulent medium. Probability density functions of the beam intensity fluctuations are well approximated to a gamma distribution in the cases where the scintillation index is lower than unity independently of the beam type and observation point position relative to the propagation axis.

  16. Turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer with application to wind farm dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waggy, Scott B.

    With the recent push for renewable energy sources, wind energy has emerged as a candidate to replace some of the power produced by traditional fossil fuels. Recent studies, however, have indicated that wind farms may have a direct effect on local meteorology by transporting water vapor away from the Earth's surface. Such turbulent transport could result in an increased drying of soil, and, in turn, negatively affect the productivity of land in the wind farm's immediate vicinity. This numerical study will analyze four scenarios with the goal of understanding turbulence transport in the wake of a turbine: the neutrally-stratified boundary layer with system rotation, the unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer, and wind turbine simulations of these previous two cases. For this work, the Ekman layer is used as an approximation of the atmospheric boundary layer and the governing equations are solved using a fully-parallelized direct numerical simulation (DNS). The in-depth studies of the neutrally and unstably-stratified boundary layers without introducing wind farm effects will act to provide a concrete background for the final study concerning turbulent transport due to turbine wakes. Although neutral stratification rarely occurs in the atmospheric boundary layer, it is useful to study the turbulent Ekman layer under such conditions as it provides a limiting case when unstable or stable stratification are weak. In this work, a thorough analysis was completed including turbulent statistics, velocity and pressure autocorrelations, and a calculation of the full turbulent energy budget. The unstably-stratified atmospheric boundary layer was studied under two levels of heating: moderate and vigorous. Under moderate stratification, both buoyancy and shearing contribute significantly to the turbulent dynamics. As the level of stratification increases, the role of shearing is shown to diminish and is confined to the near-wall region only. A recent, multi

  17. Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in a cross flow at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2015-07-22

    The blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in cross flows were studied, especially concerning the effect of ambient pressure, by conducting experiments at atmospheric and sub-atmospheric pressures. The combined effects of air flow and pressure were investigated by a series of experiments conducted in an especially built wind tunnel in Lhasa, a city on the Tibetan plateau where the altitude is 3650 m and the atmospheric pressure condition is naturally low (64 kPa). These results were compared with results obtained from a wind tunnel at standard atmospheric pressure (100 kPa) in Hefei city (altitude 50 m). The size of the fuel nozzles used in the experiments ranged from 3 to 8 mm in diameter and propane was used as the fuel. It was found that the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow first increased (“cross flow dominant” regime) and then decreased (“fuel jet dominant” regime) as the fuel jet velocity increased in both pressures; however, the blow-out limit of the air speed of the cross flow was much lower at sub-atmospheric pressure than that at standard atmospheric pressure whereas the domain of the blow-out limit curve (in a plot of the air speed of the cross flow versus the fuel jet velocity) shrank as the pressure decreased. A theoretical model was developed to characterize the blow-out limit of nonpremixed jet flames in a cross flow based on a Damköhler number, defined as the ratio between the mixing time and the characteristic reaction time. A satisfactory correlation was obtained at relative strong cross flow conditions (“cross flow dominant” regime) that included the effects of the air speed of the cross flow, fuel jet velocity, nozzle diameter and pressure.

  18. Implications of Stably Stratified Atmospheric Boundary Layer Turbulence on the Near-Wake Structure of Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Bhaganagar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence structure in the wake behind a full-scale horizontal-axis wind turbine under the influence of real-time atmospheric inflow conditions has been investigated using actuator-line-model based large-eddy-simulations. Precursor atmospheric boundary layer (ABL simulations have been performed to obtain mean and turbulence states of the atmosphere under stable stratification subjected to two different cooling rates. Wind turbine simulations have revealed that, in addition to wind shear and ABL turbulence, height-varying wind angle and low-level jets are ABL metrics that influence the structure of the turbine wake. Increasing stability results in shallower boundary layers with stronger wind shear, steeper vertical wind angle gradients, lower turbulence, and suppressed vertical motions. A turbulent mixing layer forms downstream of the wind turbines, the strength and size of which decreases with increasing stability. Height dependent wind angle and turbulence are the ABL metrics influencing the lateral wake expansion. Further, ABL metrics strongly impact the evolution of tip and root vortices formed behind the rotor. Two factors play an important role in wake meandering: tip vortex merging due to the mutual inductance form of instability and the corresponding instability of the turbulent mixing layer.

  19. Towards Precision LSST Weak-Lensing Measurement - I: Impacts of Atmospheric Turbulence and Optical Aberration

    CERN Document Server

    Tyson, M James Jee And J Anthony

    2010-01-01

    The weak-lensing science of the LSST project drives the need to carefully model and separate the instrumental artifacts from the intrinsic lensing signal. The dominant source of the systematics for all ground based telescopes is the spatial correlation of the PSF modulated by both atmospheric turbulence and optical aberrations. In this paper, we present a full FOV simulation of the LSST images by modeling both the atmosphere and the telescope optics with the most current data for the telescope specifications and the environment. To simulate the effects of atmospheric turbulence, we generated six-layer phase screens with the parameters estimated from the on-site measurements. For the optics, we combined the ray-tracing tool ZEMAX and our simulated focal plane data to introduce realistic aberrations and focal plane height fluctuations. Although this expected flatness deviation for LSST is small compared with that of other existing cameras, the fast f-ratio of the LSST optics makes this focal plane flatness vari...

  20. Operational condition of direct single-mode-fiber coupled FSO terminal under strong atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arimoto, Yoshinori

    2011-03-01

    This paper discusses the operational condition for direct single-mode-fiber-coupling FSO terminals under the various adverse weather conditions, such as strong atmospheric turbulences and rain falls. A good correlation between the scintillation index of the intensities of beacon receiving power and the signal fading depth has been observed, which allows us to predict the signal link quality based on the beacon scintillation index provided by the classical scintillation theory and concludes that the scintillation index for the beacon beam should be less than 0.1. This paper also reports the effect of performance enhancements provided by the new adaptive controller for the stable and robust terminal operation.

  1. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-02-23

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-off power control scheme.

  2. Low SNR Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2013-01-27

    In this paper, we study the ergodic capacity of free space optical communication systems over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence fading channels with perfect channel state information at both the transmitter and the receiver. In our framework, we mainly focus on the low signal-to-noise ratio range and show that the ergodic capacity scales proportionally to SNR log^4(1/SNR). We show also that one-bit CSI feedback at the transmitter is enough to achieve this capacity using an on-o ff power control scheme.

  3. Random wandering of laser beams with orbital angular momentum during propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, Valerii P; Kolosov, Valeriy V; Pogutsa, Cheslav E

    2014-06-10

    The propagation of laser beams having orbital angular momenta (OAM) in the turbulent atmosphere is studied numerically. The variance of random wandering of these beams is investigated with the use of the Monte Carlo technique. It is found that, among various types of vortex laser beams, such as the Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beam, modified Bessel-Gaussian beam, and hypergeometric Gaussian beam, having identical initial effective radii and OAM, the LG beam occupying the largest effective volume in space is the most stable one.

  4. Numerical Physical Mechanism and Model of Turbulent Cascades in a Barotropic Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锋; 刘式适

    2004-01-01

    In a barotropic atmosphere,new Reynolds mean momentum equations including turbulent viscosity,dispersion,and instability are used not only to derive the KdV-Burgers-Kuramoto equation but also to analyze the physical mechanism of the cascades of energy and enstrophy.It shows that it is the effects of dispersion and instability that result in the inverse cascade.Then based on the conservation laws of the energy and enstrophy,a cascade model is put forward and the processes of the cascades are described.

  5. Hybrid turbulence models for atmospheric flow: A proper comparison with RANS models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bautista Mary C.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A compromise between the required accuracy and the need for affordable simulations for the wind industry might be achieved with the use of hybrid turbulence models. Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES [1] is a hybrid technique that yields accurate results only if it is used according to its original formulation [2]. Due to its particular characteristics (i.e., the type of mesh required, the modeling of the atmospheric flow might always fall outside the original scope of DES. An enhanced version of DES called Simplify Improved Delayed Detached-Eddy Simulation (SIDDES [3] can overcome this and other disadvantages of DES. In this work the neutrally stratified atmospheric flow over a flat terrain with homogeneous roughness will be analyzed using a Reynolds-Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS model called k – ω SST (shear stress transport [4], and the hybrids k – ω SST-DES and k – ω SST-SIDDES models. An obvious test is to validate these hybrid approaches and asses their advantages and disadvantages over the pure RANS model. However, for several reasons the technique to drive the atmospheric flow is generally different for RANS and LES or hybrid models. The flow in a RANS simulation is usually driven by a constant shear stress imposed at the top boundary [5], therefore modeling only the atmospheric surface layer. On the contrary the LES and hybrid simulations are usually driven by a constant pressure gradient, thus a whole atmospheric boundary layer is simulated. Rigorously, this represents two different simulated cases making the model comparison not trivial. Nevertheless, both atmospheric flow cases are studied with the mentioned models. The results prove that a simple comparison of the time average turbulent quantities obtained by RANS and hybrid simulations is not easily achieved. The RANS simulations yield consistent results for the atmospheric surface layer case, while the hybrid model results are not correct. As for the atmospheric boundary

  6. On the Capacity of FSO Links over Gamma-Gamma Atmospheric Turbulence Channels Using OOK Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio García-Zambrana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A new upper bound on the capacity of power- and bandwidth-constrained optical wireless links over gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channels with intensity modulation and direct detection is derived when on-off keying (OOK formats are used. In this free-space optical (FSO scenario, unlike previous capacity bounds derived from the classic capacity of the well-known additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN channel with uniform input distribution, a new closed-form upper bound on the capacity is found by bounding the mutual information subject to an average optical power constraint and not only to an average electrical power constraint, showing the fact that the input distribution that maximizes the mutual information varies with the turbulence strength and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR. Additionally, it is shown that an increase of the peak-to-average optical power ratio (PAOPR provides higher capacity values. Simulation results for the mutual information are further demonstrated to confirm the analytical results under several turbulence conditions.

  7. CO2 laser doppler systems for the measurement of atmospheric winds and turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, R. M.

    1975-01-01

    Two CO2 laser doppler systems developed by NASA and some results obtained with them are discussed. A continuous wave, monostatic system for short-range wind measurement is described, and direct comparisons between the data obtained with it and with a cup-anemometer/wind vane system and a hot-wire anemometer show excellent agreement between the systems. Improvements being made in three CW, CO2 laser doppler systems, including a filter bank for optimized signal processing and a versatile scanning system, are noted. A pulsed CO2 system for measuring clear air turbulence is described, and results of test performance on board a Convair 990 are presented. It is noted that while the system was able to measure air speed and turbulence, the range of its transmitter-atmosphere-receiver was lower than predicted, and a difference of about 20 to 30 dB existed between the actual and theoretical turbulence measurements. Factors that may account for this loss are listed.

  8. Classification of coherent vortices creation and distance of topological charge conservation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jinhong; Zeng, Jun; Duan, Meiling

    2015-05-04

    The analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density function of partially coherent sinh-Gaussian (ShG) vortex beams propagating through free space and non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence are derived, and used to study the classification of coherent vortices creation and distance of topological charge conservation. With the increment of the general structure constant and the waist width, as well as the decrement of the general exponent, the inner scale of turbulence and spatial correlation length, the distance of topological charge conservation will decrease, whereas the outer scale of turbulence and the Sh-part parameter have no effect on the distance of topological charge conservation. According to the creation, the coherent vortices are grouped into three classes: the first is the inherent coherent vortices of the vortex beams, the second is created by the vortex beams when propagating through free space, and the third is created by the atmospheric turbulence inducing the vortex beams.

  9. Analysis of atmospheric flow over a surface protrusion using the turbulence kinetic energy equation with reference to aeronautical operating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Harper, W. L.

    1975-01-01

    Flow over surface obstructions can produce significantly large wind shears such that adverse flying conditions can occur for aeronautical systems (helicopters, STOL vehicles, etc.). Atmospheric flow fields resulting from a semi-elliptical surface obstruction in an otherwise horizontally homogeneous statistically stationary flow are modelled with the boundary-layer/Boussinesq-approximation of the governing equation of fluid mechanics. The turbulence kinetic energy equation is used to determine the dissipative effects of turbulent shear on the mean flow. Iso-lines of turbulence kinetic energy and turbulence intensity are plotted in the plane of the flow and highlight regions of high turbulence intensity in the stagnation zone and sharp gradients in intensity along the transition from adverse to favourable pressure gradient. Discussion of the effects of the disturbed wind field in CTOL and STOL aircraft flight path and obstruction clearance standards is given. The results indicate that closer inspection of these presently recommended standards as influenced by wind over irregular terrains is required.

  10. An Estimation of Turbulent Kinetic Energy and Energy Dissipation Rate Based on Atmospheric Boundary Layer Similarity Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jongil; Arya, S. Pal; Shaohua, Shen; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Proctor, Fred H. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Algorithms are developed to extract atmospheric boundary layer profiles for turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) and energy dissipation rate (EDR), with data from a meteorological tower as input. The profiles are based on similarity theory and scalings for the atmospheric boundary layer. The calculated profiles of EDR and TKE are required to match the observed values at 5 and 40 m. The algorithms are coded for operational use and yield plausible profiles over the diurnal variation of the atmospheric boundary layer.

  11. Turbulence Structure of the Unstable Atmospheric Surface Layer and Transition to the Outer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNaughton, K. G.

    We present a new model of the structure of turbulence in the unstable atmospheric surface layer, and of the structural transition between this and the outer layer. The archetypal element of wall-bounded shear turbulence is the Theodorsen ejection amplifier (TEA) structure, in which an initial ejection of air from near the ground into an ideal laminar and logarithmic flow induces vortical motion about a hairpin-shaped core, which then creates a second ejection that is similar to, but larger than, the first. A series of TEA structures form a TEA cascade. In real turbulent flows TEA structures occur in distorted forms as TEA-like (TEAL) structures. Distortion terminates many TEAL cascades and only the best-formed TEAL structures initiate new cycles. In an extended log layer the resulting shear turbulence is a complex, self-organizing, dissipative system exhibiting self-similar behaviour under inner scaling. Spectral results show that this structure is insensitive to instability. This is contrary to the fundamental hypothesis of Monin--Obukhov similarity theory. All TEAL cascades terminate at the top of the surface layer where they encounter, and are severely distorted by, powerful eddies of similar size from the outer layer. These eddies are products of the breakdown of the large eddies produced by buoyancy in the outer layer. When the outer layer is much deeper than the surface layer the interacting eddies are from the inertial subrange of the outer Richardson cascade. The scale height of the surface layer, zs, is then found by matching the powers delivered to the creation of emerging TEAL structures to the power passing down the Richardson cascade in the outer layer. It is zs = u* 3ks, where u*s friction velocity, k is the von Káán constant and s is the rate of dissipation of turbulence kinetic energy in the outer layer immediately above the surface layer. This height is comparable to the Obukhov length in the fully convective boundary layer. Aircraft and tower

  12. Profiles of Wind and Turbulence in the Coastal Atmospheric Boundary Layer of Lake Erie

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, H

    2014-06-16

    Prediction of wind resource in coastal zones is difficult due to the complexity of flow in the coastal atmospheric boundary layer (CABL). A three week campaign was conducted over Lake Erie in May 2013 to investigate wind characteristics and improve model parameterizations in the CABL. Vertical profiles of wind speed up to 200 m were measured onshore and offshore by lidar wind profilers, and horizontal gradients of wind speed by a 3-D scanning lidar. Turbulence data were collected from sonic anemometers deployed onshore and offshore. Numerical simulations were conducted with the Weather Research Forecasting (WRF) model with 2 nested domains down to a resolution of 1-km over the lake. Initial data analyses presented in this paper investigate complex flow patterns across the coast. Acceleration was observed up to 200 m above the surface for flow coming from the land to the water. However, by 7 km off the coast the wind field had not yet reached equilibrium with the new surface (water) conditions. The surface turbulence parameters over the water derived from the sonic data could not predict wind profiles observed by the ZephlR lidar located offshore. Horizontal wind speed gradients near the coast show the influence of atmospheric stability on flow dynamics. Wind profiles retrieved from the 3-D scanning lidar show evidence of nocturnal low level jets (LLJs). The WRF model was able to capture the occurrence of LLJ events, but its performance varied in predicting their intensity, duration, and the location of the jet core.

  13. Simplex-based wavefront control for the mitigation of dynamic distortions caused by atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Zhang, Dave

    2005-04-01

    Laser communication systems operating in the atmosphere require certain power and beam quality to establish and maintain a reliable communication link. Although such systems utilize the most advanced materials and technologies, their performance is adversely affected by optical turbulence, often posing a serious problem, even for short-range links. Atmospheric effects change optical properties of the propagation channel, causing signal fades, beam wander and scintillations. A common method of mitigating turbulence effects suggests dynamic wavefront control. In this paper the proposed technique is based on correction of the distorted beam using an electrically addressed programmable spatial light modulator (SLM). The phase profile that we impose on the distorted laser beam is described using Zernike formalism to calculate the wavefront OPD function. The Nelder-Mead simplex optimization algorithm is used as a correction procedure that provides fast results, required for real-time operation. In general, calculation of the required phase profile for an SLM with large number of pixels could be highly computationally intensive. Coupling modulator inputs to the first several Zernike coefficients allows significant reduction of the dimension of the optimization problem. The algorithm is tested in the simulation environment and its ability to compensate dynamic distortions is assessed. The results show that both dimension of the input space and the initial conditions affect the speed and convergence to a particular minimum. Recommendations for improving the system performance are also presented.

  14. Transition from geostrophic turbulence to inertia-gravity waves in the atmospheric energy spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Bühler, Oliver

    2014-12-02

    Midlatitude fluctuations of the atmospheric winds on scales of thousands of kilometers, the most energetic of such fluctuations, are strongly constrained by the Earth's rotation and the atmosphere's stratification. As a result of these constraints, the flow is quasi-2D and energy is trapped at large scales—nonlinear turbulent interactions transfer energy to larger scales, but not to smaller scales. Aircraft observations of wind and temperature near the tropopause indicate that fluctuations at horizontal scales smaller than about 500 km are more energetic than expected from these quasi-2D dynamics. We present an analysis of the observations that indicates that these smaller-scale motions are due to approximately linear inertia-gravity waves, contrary to recent claims that these scales are strongly turbulent. Specifically, the aircraft velocity and temperature measurements are separated into two components: one due to the quasi-2D dynamics and one due to linear inertia-gravity waves. Quasi-2D dynamics dominate at scales larger than 500 km; inertia-gravity waves dominate at scales smaller than 500 km.

  15. Fiber-coupling efficiency of Gaussian Schell model for optical communication through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Liying; Li, Mengnan; Yang, Qingbo; Ma, Jing

    2015-03-20

    In practice, due to the laser device and the inevitable error of the processing technique, the laser source emitted from the communication terminal is partially coherent, and is represented as a Gaussian Schell model (GSM). The cross-spectral density function based on the Gaussian model in previous research is replaced by the GSM. Thus the fiber-coupling efficiency equation of the GSM laser source through atmospheric turbulence is deduced. The GSM equation presents the effect of the source coherent parameter ζ on the fiber-coupling efficiency, which was not included previously. The effects of the source coherent parameter ζ on the spatial coherent radius and the fiber-coupling efficiency through atmospheric turbulence are numerically simulated and analyzed. The result manifests that the fiber-coupling efficiency invariably degrades with increasing ζ. The work in this paper is aimed to improve the redundancy design of fiber-coupling receiver systems by analyzing the fiber-coupling efficiency with the source coherent parameters.

  16. Study of Transitions in the Atmospheric Boundary Layer Using Explicit Algebraic Turbulence Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazeroms, W. M. J.; Svensson, G.; Bazile, E.; Brethouwer, G.; Wallin, S.; Johansson, A. V.

    2016-10-01

    We test a recently developed engineering turbulence model, a so-called explicit algebraic Reynolds-stress (EARS) model, in the context of the atmospheric boundary layer. First of all, we consider a stable boundary layer used as the well-known first test case from the Global Energy and Water Cycle Experiment Atmospheric Boundary Layer Study (GABLS1). The model is shown to agree well with data from large-eddy simulations (LES), and this agreement is significantly better than for a standard operational scheme with a prognostic equation for turbulent kinetic energy. Furthermore, we apply the model to a case with a (idealized) diurnal cycle and make a qualitative comparison with a simpler first-order model. Some interesting features of the model are highlighted, pertaining to its stronger foundation on physical principles. In particular, the use of more prognostic equations in the model is shown to give a more realistic dynamical behaviour. This qualitative study is the first step towards a more detailed comparison, for which additional LES data are needed.

  17. Investigation of anisoplanatic effect in adaptive optics for atmospheric turbulence correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinyang; Shao, Li; Hu, Shijie; Huang, Kui

    2015-02-01

    Laser Guide Star (LGS) is an artificial atmospheric turbulence probing source of adaptive optics (AO) for compensating for the wave-front error of interested object in real time, and for providing approximate diffraction-limited resolution recovery. Actually the unavoidable anisoplanatic error resulting from different light experience between the LGS and the object of interest through turbulent atmosphere will lead to an incomplete wave-front distortion compensation of the object. In this paper the statistics of anisoplanatic errors and their associated Zernike-modal variances have been systematically investigated for different LGS sources by means of numerical simulation, including Rayleigh LGS and Sodium LGS. The numerical results show that the probed wave-front expanded Zernike-modal decorrelation versus angular deviation between the LGS and the object of interest becomes much more sensitive for the higher altitude LGS. For minor angular deviations with LGS focal spots being still within the ray path from the object to the telescope, the reduction of the error from turbulence above the LGS altitude is still a leading cause to decrease the residual error variance after AO correction. However, for the greater angular deviations with LGS focal spots moving on the outside of the ray path from the object to the telescope, higher-altitude LGS could lead to an increasing residual error variance after AO complete correction with its wave-front as reference. At this point the adopted LGS operation mode and the AO system modal correction optimization should be taken into account for achieving a desired residual wave-front error.

  18. Investigation of inhomogeneity and anisotropy in near ground layers of atmospheric air turbulence using image motion monitoring method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi Razi, Ebrahim; Rasouli, Saifollah

    2017-01-01

    In this work the anisotropy and inhomogeneity of real atmospheric turbulence have been investigated using image motion monitoring and differential image motion monitoring methods. For this purpose the light beam of a point source is propagated through the atmospheric turbulence layers in horizontal path and then impinged to a telescope aperture. The telescope and point source were 350 m apart. In front of the telescope's aperture a mask consisting of four subapertures was installed. Image of the point source was formed on a sensitive CCD camera located at the focal plane of the telescope. By displacing CCD camera along the axis of telescope, four distinct images were recorded. Angle of arrival (AA) of each spot was calculated by image processing. Air turbulence causes AA to fluctuate. By comparing AA fluctuation variances of different spots in two directions isotropy and homogeneity of turbulence were studied. Results have shown that atmospheric turbulence in near ground layers is treated as an anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium. In addition, the inhomogeneity and anisotropy of turbulence decreases with the distance from earth surface.

  19. On the origin of jets and vortices in turbulent planetary atmospheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jougla, Thibault; Dritschel, David G.

    2016-04-01

    Stratified rotating fluids tend to form large scale coherent structures. These structures are present in many different geophysical fluids, for example jet streams in the Earth's atmosphere, the famous and conspicuous jets in the Jovian atmosphere, and oceanic jets like the latent jets and the well-known main currents including the Gulf stream and Kuroshio. Observations, numerical models, and laboratory experiments have sought to explain their origins and their evolutions. To investigate the coexistence, evolution and vertical structure of jets and vortices in turbulent planetary atmospheres, we make use of the widely studied two-layer quasi-geostrophic shallow water model on the β-plane. Numerical simulations at ultra-high resolution are carried out with the Combined Lagrangian Advection Method [1]. Following Panetta 1988 [2], to characterise the pole to equator heating variation on a planet, a vertical shear is imposed and maintained by thermal damping. To crudely represent convection from the bottom layer to the top layer, hetons are constantly added to the flow. Many numerical simulations covering a large range of parameters have been run. The thermal damping and vertical shear dependence has been widely studied and analysed. The baroclinicity of the flow is clearly evident in all cases studied. Moreover, the flow is strongly dependent on thermal damping. There is a competition between baroclinic instabilities trying to reduce the imposed vertical shear and thermal damping trying to maintain the vertical shear. Without any thermal damping, the imposed vertical shear quickly erodes. On the other hand if the thermal damping is very high, the flow is mainly dominated by incoherent, small-scale turbulence. For weaker thermal damping, the competition between baroclinic instability and thermal damping may lead to oscillations between stable and turbulent phases. However, thermal damping does not have a significant impact on the number of homogeneous regions and jets

  20. A mobile polar atmospheric parameter measurement system:II. First atmospheric turbulence observation at Antarctic Taishan Station

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Qiguo; JIANG Peng; WU Xiaoqing; JIN Xinmiao; LU Shan; JI Tuo; CHAI Bo; ZHANG Shaohua; ZHOU Hongyan

    2015-01-01

    This is the second paper of a series devoted to atmospheric optical turbulence Cn2 observation using a mobile polar atmospheric parameter measurement system. We present the initial results of Cn2 measurement at Antarctic Taishan Station using micro-thermal sensors and a three-dimensional sonic anemometer at height ~2.0 m above the snow surface. The site testing experiments were carried out during the 30th Chinese National Antarctic Research Expedition (CHINARE). We collected about 1 000 h of data between 30 December 2013 and 10 February 2014. The Cn2 curve exhibits clear daily structures, with two peaks around midnight and midday and two troughs around 7:30 and 17:00 local time (UTC+5). The mean Cn2 is 2.7×10−15 m−2/3 and the 25th and 75th percentiles of the Cn2 cumulative distribution are 9.6×10−16 m−2/3 and 6.2×10−15 m−2/3, respectively. Meteorological parameters such as temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and air pressure are also presented.

  1. Scaling laws of diffusion and time intermittency generated by coherent structures in atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradisi, P.; Cesari, R.; Donateo, A.; Contini, D.; Allegrini, P.

    2012-02-01

    We investigate the time intermittency of turbulent transport associated with the birth-death of self-organized coherent structures in the atmospheric boundary layer. We apply a threshold analysis on the increments of turbulent fluctuations to extract sequences of rapid acceleration events, which is a marker of the transition between self-organized structures. The inter-event time distributions show a power-law decay ψ(τ) ~ 1/τμ, with a strong dependence of the power-law index μ on the threshold. A recently developed method based on the application of event-driven walking rules to generate different diffusion processes is applied to the experimental event sequences. At variance with the power-law index μ estimated from the inter-event time distributions, the diffusion scaling H, defined by ⟨ X2⟩ ~ t2H, is independent from the threshold. From the analysis of the diffusion scaling it can also be inferred the presence of different kind of events, i.e. genuinely transition events and spurious events, which all contribute to the diffusion process but over different time scales. The great advantage of event-driven diffusion lies in the ability of separating different regimes of the scaling H. In fact, the greatest H, corresponding to the most anomalous diffusion process, emerges in the long time range, whereas the smallest H can be seen in the short time range if the time resolution of the data is sufficiently accurate. The estimated diffusion scaling is also robust under the change of the definition of turbulent fluctuations and, under the assumption of statistically independent events, it corresponds to a self-similar point process with a well-defined power-law index μD ~ 2.1, where D denotes that μD is derived from the diffusion scaling. We argue that this renewal point process can be associated to birth and death of coherent structures and to turbulent transport near the ground, where the contribution of turbulent coherent structures becomes dominant.

  2. Using Dynamically Coupled Turbine/Wind Simulations to Investigate the Influence of Atmospheric Turbulence in Turbine Wake Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, E.; Linn, R.; Bossert, J. A.; Kelley, N. D.; Lundquist, J. K.

    2011-12-01

    Ambient atmospheric turbulence interacts with spinning turbines, which modify the intensity and spectra of the turbulence. This turbine-influenced turbulent wind field creates the environment surrounding downstream turbines in a wind farm, thus controlling the amount of wind energy available for harvesting as well as the nature of aerodynamic loads on the blades which cause wear-and-tear of the wind turbines. The conditions to which downstream turbines are exposed, their productivity, and potentially their lifespan is a function of their position within the turbulent wake of upstream turbines. In order to increase our efficiency of energy capture in wind farms and optimize turbine arrangements for both off-shore and terrestrial settings where the wind conditions can be very different, it is essential to understand the influences that various environmental conditions have on the turbulence within wind farms. It is important to find ways of studying the evolution of turbulence as it interacts with turbines and as it advects downstream. It is also important to connect properties of the turbulence with the dynamic and heterogeneous nature of the loads that are applied to turbine blades. Unfortunately, full-scale wind turbine experiments are costly and it is extremely difficult to analyze the dynamic evolution of the full three-dimensional flow field upwind and downwind of wind turbines for a broad set of operating conditions. Numerical simulation tools can be used to perform preliminary investigation of turbine wake flow fields, thus guiding and helping interpret measurement schemes for the limited number of experiments that will be performed. By using numerical models to study the influence of different ambient conditions for different turbine spacing it is possible to develop a better understanding of how terrestrial experiments might relate to off-shore conditions where experiments are more difficult. A numerical technique, WindBlade, has been developed for

  3. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers – effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yahaya

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain. The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc., and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000. The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (climatology, turbulence, instruments and techniques

  4. Propagation based on second-order moments for partially coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams through atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yonggen; Li, Yude; Dan, Youquan; Du, Quan; Wang, Shijian

    2016-07-01

    The Wigner distribution function (WDF) has been used to study the propagation properties of partially coherent Laguerre Gaussian (PCLG) beams through atmospheric turbulence. Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, an analytical formula of the propagation matrixes in terms of the second-order moments of the WDF for PCLG Beams in the receiving plane is derived. And then the analytical formulae for the curvature radii of PCLG Beams propagating in turbulence are given by the second-order moments of the WDF. The numerical results indicate that the curvature radius of PCLG Beams changes more rapidly in turbulence than that in the free space. The influence of the transverse coherence width and the beam waist width on the curvature radius of PCLG Beams is obvious, while the laser wavelength and the inner scale of turbulence have a slight effect. The study results may be useful for remote sensing and free space optical communications.

  5. Hermite-cosine-Gaussian laser beam and its propagation characteristics in turbulent atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyyuboğlu, Halil Tanyer

    2005-08-01

    Hermite-cosine-Gaussian (HcosG) laser beams are studied. The source plane intensity of the HcosG beam is introduced and its dependence on the source parameters is examined. By application of the Fresnel diffraction integral, the average receiver intensity of HcosG beam is formulated for the case of propagation in turbulent atmosphere. The average receiver intensity is seen to reduce appropriately to various special cases. When traveling in turbulence, the HcosG beam initially experiences the merging of neighboring beam lobes, and then a TEM-type cosh-Gaussian beam is formed, temporarily leading to a plain cosh-Gaussian beam. Eventually a pure Gaussian beam results. The numerical evaluation of the normalized beam size along the propagation axis at selected mode indices indicates that relative spreading of higher-order HcosG beam modes is less than that of the lower-order counterparts. Consequently, it is possible at some propagation distances to capture more power by using higher-mode-indexed HcosG beams.

  6. Reduced-order FSI simulation of NREL 5 MW wind turbine in atmospheric boundary layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta-Mena, Javier; Campbell, Robert; Lavely, Adam; Jha, Pankaj

    2015-11-01

    A partitioned fluid-structure interaction (FSI) solver based on an actuator-line method solver and a finite-element modal-dynamic structural solver is used to evaluate the effect of blade deformation in the presence of a day-time, moderately convective atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The solver components were validated separately and the integrated solver was partially validated against FAST. An overview of the solver is provided in addition to results of the validation study. A finite element model of the NREL 5 MW rotor was developed for use in the present simulations. The effect of blade pitching moment and the inherent bend/twist coupling of the rotor blades are assessed for both uniform inflow and the ABL turbulence cases. The results suggest that blade twisting in response to pitching moment and the bend/twist coupling can have a significant impact on rotor out-of-plane bending moment and power generated for both the uniform inflow and the ABL turbulence cases.

  7. Turbulent mixing driven by mean-flow shear and internal gravity waves in oceans and atmospheres

    CERN Document Server

    Baumert, Helmut Z

    2012-01-01

    This study starts with balances deduced by Baumert and Peters (2004, 2005) from results of stratified-shear experiments made in channels and wind tunnels by Itsweire (1984) and Rohr and Van Atta (1987), and of free-decay experiments in a resting stratified tank by Dickey and Mellor (1980). Using a modification of Canuto's (2002) ideas on turbulence and waves, these balances are merged with an (internal) gravity-wave energy balance presented for the open ocean by Gregg (1989), without mean-flow shear. The latter was augmented by a linear (viscous) friction term. Gregg's wave-energy source is interpreted on its long-wave spectral end as internal tides, topography, large-scale wind, and atmospheric low-pressure actions. In addition, internal eigen waves, generated by mean-flow shear, and the aging of the wave field from a virginal (linear) into a saturated state are taken into account. Wave packets and turbulence are treated as particles (vortices, packets) by ensemble kinetics so that the loss terms in all thre...

  8. Study on the effect of beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence on standoff nanosecond laser induced breakdown spectroscopy measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laserna, J J; Reyes, R Fernández; González, R; Tobaria, L; Lucena, P

    2009-06-08

    We report on an experimental study of the effect of atmospheric turbulence on laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) measurements. The characteristics of the atmosphere dictate specific performance constraints to this technology. Unlike classical laboratory LIBS systems where the distance to the sample is well known and characterized, LIBS systems working at several tens of meters to the target have specific atmospheric propagation conditions that cause the quality of the LIBS signals to be affected to a significant extent. Using a new LIBS based sensor system fitted with a nanosecond laser emitting at 1064 nm, propagation effects at distances of up to 120 m were investigated. The effects observed include wander and scintillation in the outgoing laser beam and in the return atomic emission signal. Plasmas were formed on aluminium targets. Average signal levels and signal fluctuations are measured so the effect of atmospheric turbulence on LIBS measurements is quantified.

  9. Scintillation reduction for combined Gaussian-vortex beam propagating through turbulent atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, Gennady P [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gorshkov, V. N. [NATL' TECH. UNIV. OF UA; Torous, S. V. [NATL' TECH. UNIV. OF UA

    2010-12-14

    We numerically examine the spatial evolution of the structure of coherent and partially coherent laser beams (PCBs), including the optical vortices, propagating in turbulent atmospheres, The influence of beam fragmentation and wandering relative to the axis of propagation (z-axis) on the value of the scintillation index (SI) of the signal at the detector is analyzed. A method for significantly reducing the SI, by averaging the signal at the detector over a set of PCBs, is described, This novel method is to generate the PCBs by combining two laser beams - Gaussian and vortex beams, with different frequencies (the difference between these two frequencies being significantly smaller than the frequencies themselves). In this case, the SI is effectively suppressed without any high-frequency modulators.

  10. MIMO Free-Space Optical Communication Employing Subcarrier Intensity Modulation in Atmospheric Turbulence Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghassemlooy, Zabih; Popoola, Wasiu O.; Ahmadi, Vahid; Leitgeb, Erich

    In this paper, we analyse the error performance of transmitter/receiver array free-space optical (FSO) communication system employing binary phase shift keying (BPSK) subcarrier intensity modulation (SIM) in clear but turbulent atmospheric channel. Subcarrier modulation is employed to eliminate the need for adaptive threshold detector. Direct detection is employed at the receiver and each subcarrier is subsequently demodulated coherently. The effect of irradiance fading is mitigated with an array of lasers and photodetectors. The received signals are linearly combined using the optimal maximum ratio combining (MRC), the equal gain combining (EGC) and the selection combining (SelC). The bit error rate (BER) equations are derived considering additive white Gaussian noise and log normal intensity fluctuations. This work is part of the EU COST actions and EU projects.

  11. Spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianlong; Lü, Baida; Zhu, Shifu

    2009-07-06

    The formulas of the energy and energy flux density of partially coherent electromagnetic beams in atmospheric turbulence are derived by using Maxwell's equations. Expressions expressed by elements of electric cross spectral density matrixes of the magnetic and the mutual cross spectral density matrix are obtained for the partially coherent electromagnetic beams. Taken the partially coherent Cosh-Gaussian (ChG) electromagnetic beam as a typical example, the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density in atmospheric turbulence are numerically calculated. It is found that the turbulence shows a broadening effect on the spatial distributions of the energy and energy flux density. Some interesting results are obtained and explained with regard to their physical nature.

  12. Formation of extreme surface turbulent heat fluxes from the ocean to the atmosphere in the North Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilinina, N. D.; Gulev, S. K.; Gavrikov, A. V.

    2016-01-01

    The role of extreme surface turbulent fluxes in total oceanic heat loss in the North Atlantic is studied. The atmospheric circulation patterns enhancing ocean-atmosphere heat flux in regions with significant contributions of the extreme heat fluxes (up to 60% of the net heat loss) are analyzed. It is shown that extreme heat fluxes in the Gulf Stream and the Greenland and Labrador Seas occur in zones with maximal air pressure gradients, i.e., in cyclone-anticyclone interaction zones.

  13. PIV Measurements of Atmospheric Turbulence and Pollen Dispersal Above a Corn Canopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, W.; van Hout, R.; Luznik, L.; Katz, J.

    2003-12-01

    Dispersal of pollen grains by wind and gravity (Anemophilous) is one of the oldest means of plant fertilization available in nature. Recently, the growth of genetically modified foods has raised questions on the range of pollen dispersal in order to limit cross-fertilization between organically grown and transgenic crops. The distance that a pollen grain can travel once released from the anther is determined, among others, by the aerodynamic parameters of the pollen and the characteristics of turbulence in the atmosphere in which it is released. Turbulence characteristics of the flow above a pollinating corn field were measured using Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The measurements were performed on the eastern shore of the Chesapeake Bay, in Maryland, during July 2003. Two PIV systems were used simultaneously, each with an overall sample area of 18x18 cm. The spacing between samples was about equal to the field of view. The PIV instrumentation, including CCD cameras, power supply and laser sheets forming optics were mounted on a measurement platform, consisting of a hydraulic telescopic arm that could be extended up to 10m. The whole system could be rotated in order to align it with the flow. The flow was seeded with smoke generated about 30m upstream of the sample areas. Measurements were carried out at several elevations, from just below canopy height up to 1m above canopy. The local meteorological conditions around the test site were monitored by other sensors including sonic anemometers, Rotorod pollen counters and temperature sensors. Each processed PIV image provides an instantaneous velocity distribution containing 64x64 vectors with a vector spacing of ~3mm. The pollen grains (~100mm) can be clearly distinguished from the smoke particles (~1mm) based on their size difference. The acquired PIV data enables calculation of the mean flow and turbulence characteristics including Reynolds stresses, spectra, turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation rate. Data

  14. Variance Method to Determine Turbulent Fluxes of Momentum And Sensible Heat in The Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Debruin, H.A.R.; Hartogensis, O.K.

    2005-01-01

    Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, ¿u and ¿T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it yi

  15. Effects of atmospheric turbulence on microwave and millimeter wave satellite communications systems. [attenuation statistics and antenna design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devasirvatham, D. M. J.; Hodge, D. B.

    1981-01-01

    A model of the microwave and millimeter wave link in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is presented with emphasis on satellite communications systems. The analysis is based on standard methods of statistical theory. The results are directly usable by the design engineer.

  16. Tests of the higher order turbulence model for atmospheric circulations (HOTMAC) at Deseret Chemical Depot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costigan, K.R.

    1998-11-01

    Deseret Chemical Depot is one of the US Army`s storage facilities for its stockpile of chemical weapon agents. Congress has directed the Department of Defense to eliminate the aging stockpiles, which have existed since the end of World War II, and the US Army is destroying these lethal chemical munitions. Although the danger is slight, accurate predictions of the wind field in the valley are necessary for dispersion calculations in the event of an accident involving toxic chemicals at the depot. There are several small communities in Rush and Tooele valleys, including the town of Tooele, and Salt Lake City is located 65 km to the Northeast of Deseret Chemical Depot South area, at 1,300 m MSL and beyond the Oquirrh Mountains. The purpose of this report is to carry out three-dimensional numerical simulations of the atmospheric circulations in the region around Deseret Chemical Depot with the Higher Order Turbulence Model for Atmospheric Circulations (HOTMAC) and to evaluate the performance of the model. The code had been modified to assimilate local meteorological observations through the use of Newtonian nudging. The nudging scheme takes advantage of the extensive network of local observations in the valley.

  17. Monitoring atmospheric turbulence profiles with high vertical resolution using PML/PBL instrument

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blary, F.; Ziad, A.; Borgnino, J.; Fantéï-Caujolle, Y.; Aristidi, Eric; Lantéri, H.

    2014-07-01

    Wide-Field Adaptive Optics (WFAO) have been proposed for the next generation of telescopes. In order to be efficient, correction using WFAO require knowledge of atmospheric turbulence parameters. The structure constant of index-of-refraction fluctuations (C2 N ) being one of them. Indirect methods implemented in instruments as SCIDAR, MASS, SLODAR, CO-SLIDAR and MOSP have been proposed to measure C2 N (h) pro le through different layers of the atmosphere. A new monitor called the Profiler of Moon Limb (PML) is presented. In this instrument, C2 N (h) pro les are retrieved from the transverse covariance via minimization of a maximum likelihood criterion under positivity constraint using an iterative gradient method. An other approach using a regularization method (RM) is also studied. Instrument errors are mainly related to the detection of the Moon limb position and are mostly due to photon noise. Numerical simulations have been used to evaluate the error on the extracted pro le and its propagation from the detection to the inverse technique.

  18. Validation of the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolution in atmospheric sheared and turbulent inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.

    2016-09-01

    Wind energy has become cost competitive in recent years for several reasons. Among them, wind turbines have become more efficient, increasing its size, both rotor diameter and tower height. This growth in size makes the prediction of the wind flow through wind turbines more challenging. To avoid the computational cost related to resolve the blade boundary layer as well as the atmospheric boundary layer, actuator models have been proposed in the past few years. Among them, the Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow in the wake of a wind turbine with moderately computational cost. However, its use to simulate the flow through wind farms requires a spatial resolution and a time step that makes it unaffordable in some cases. The present paper aims to assess the ALM with coarser resolution and larger time step than what is generally recommended, taking into account an atmospheric sheared and turbulent inflow condition and comparing the results with the Actuator Disk Model with Rotation (ADM-R) and experimental data. To accomplish this, a well known wind tunnel campaign is considered as validation case.

  19. Investigations into the Interaction of a Wind Turbine with Atmospheric Turbulence in Complex Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, C.; Klein, L.; Weihing, P.; Lutz, Th

    2016-09-01

    This paper deals with the Delayed-Detached-Eddy-Simulations (DES) of a generic 2.4 MW wind turbine in a complex terrain site facing a turbulent atmospheric boundary layer. The boundary layer is generated based on measurement data derived at the complex terrain site. Further, the process of data preparation as well as the numerical setup are described. In the results the impact of complex terrain on the flow field is shown and estimations on the influence on the turbine performance are made. Afterwards, simulations of the turbine facing atmospheric inflow in flat and complex terrain are presented. An increase of loads resulting from a speed-up caused by the terrain as well as a clear change in the power spectrum of the turbine become visible in complex terrain compared to flat terrain. This finding is in agreement with the estimations derived previously. Moreover, the impact of inclined inflow caused by the local terrain slope can be seen in the load distribution vs. the azimuth angle, amongst others.

  20. Study of the near-wall-turbulent region of the high-Reynolds-number boundary layer using an atmospheric flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunkel, Gary J.; Marusic, Ivan

    2006-02-01

    Data from the near-wall-turbulent region of the high-Reynolds-number atmospheric surface layer are used to analyse the attached-eddy model of wall turbulence. All data were acquired during near-neutral conditions at the Surface Layer Turbulence and Environmental Science Test (SLTEST) facility located in the western Utah Great Salt Lake Desert. Instantaneous streamwise and wall-normal components of velocity were collected with a wall-normal array of two-component hot wires within the first 2 m above the surface of the salt flats. Streamwise and wall-normal turbulence intensities and spectra are directly compared to corresponding laboratory data and similarity formulations hypothesized from the attached-eddy model of wall turbulence. This affords the opportunity to compare results with Reynolds numbers varying over three orders of magnitude. The wall-normal turbulence-intensity similarity formulation is extended. The results show good support for the similarity arguments forwarded by the attached-eddy model as well as Townsend's (1956) Reynolds-number similarity hypothesis and lack of the ‘inactive’ motion influence on the wall-normal velocity component. The effects of wall roughness and the spread in the convection velocity due to this roughness are also discussed.

  1. Temperature rise in objects due to optical focused beam through atmospheric turbulence near ground and ocean surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneback, Matthew; Ishimaru, Akira; Reinhardt, Colin; Kuga, Yasuo

    2013-03-01

    We consider an optical beam propagated through the atmosphere and incident on an object causing a temperature rise. In clear air, the physical characteristics of the optical beam transmitted to the object surface are influenced primarily by the effect of atmospheric turbulence, which can be significant near the ground or ocean surface. We use a statistical model to quantify the expected power transfer through turbulent atmosphere and provide guidance toward the threshold of thermal blooming for the considered scenarios. The bulk thermal characteristics of the materials considered are used in a thermal diffusion model to determine the net temperature rise at the object surface due to the incident optical beam. These results of the study are presented in graphical form and are of particular interest to operators of high power laser systems operating over large distances through the atmosphere. Numerical examples include a CO2 laser (λ=10.6 μm) with: aperture size of 5 cm, varied pulse duration, and propagation distance of 0.5 km incident on 0.1-mm copper, 10-mm polyimide, 1-mm water, and 10-mm glass/resin composite targets. To assess the effect of near ground/ocean laser propagation, we compare turbulent (of varying degrees) and nonturbulent atmosphere.

  2. Employing circle polarization shift keying in free space optical communication with gamma-gamma atmospheric turbulence channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi; Du, Fan; Ma, Jing; Tan, Liying

    2014-12-01

    A novel theoretical model of a circular polarization shift keying (CPolSK) system for free space optical links through an atmospheric turbulence channel, is proposed. Intensity scintillation and phase fluctuation induced in atmospheric turbulence, from weak to strong levels, are specifically researched with respect to circular polarization control error caused by the system design. We derive closed form expressions of the bit error rate (BER) and outage probability for evaluating the BER performance and communication interruption in the Gamma-Gamma distributed channel model. Simulation results show that atmospheric turbulence and circular polarization control error have significant effects on the BER performance and interruption of communication in the CPolSK system. The deterioration in BER performance, caused by intensity scintillation and phase fluctuation, is augmented by the power penalty conditioned by the circular polarization control error. This consequently adds to the demand for emissive power from the CPolSK system. Furthermore, we demonstrate that controlling the circular polarization control error below 8° as well as the normalized threshold within 8 dB, 9 dB and 10 dB in turbulent scenarios from weak to strong levels can significantly reduce the probability of communication interruption occurring. This study provides reference material for further design of the CPolSK system.

  3. Measurement of atmospheric turbulence strength at high altitude with balloon-borne temperature sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bufton, J. L.

    1974-01-01

    A technique to measure a vertical profile of the optical strength of turbulence employs the measurement of a root mean square temperature difference between two microthermal probes carried aloft as part of a balloon payload. Microthermal fluctuations provide a measure for the density fluctuations of turbulence. Examination of recorded profiles of refractive-index structure coefficients reveals a turbulence structure which is organized into multiple, thin groupings of strong turbulence separated by relatively quiescent intervals of variable length.

  4. Turbulence Variance Characteristics in the Unstable Atmospheric Boundary Layer above Flat Pine Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asanuma, Jun

    Variances of the velocity components and scalars are important as indicators of the turbulence intensity. They also can be utilized to estimate surface fluxes in several types of "variance methods", and the estimated fluxes can be regional values if the variances from which they are calculated are regionally representative measurements. On these motivations, variances measured by an aircraft in the unstable ABL over a flat pine forest during HAPEX-Mobilhy were analyzed within the context of the similarity scaling arguments. The variances of temperature and vertical velocity within the atmospheric surface layer were found to follow closely the Monin-Obukhov similarity theory, and to yield reasonable estimates of the surface sensible heat fluxes when they are used in variance methods. This gives a validation to the variance methods with aircraft measurements. On the other hand, the specific humidity variances were influenced by the surface heterogeneity and clearly fail to obey MOS. A simple analysis based on the similarity law for free convection produced a comprehensible and quantitative picture regarding the effect of the surface flux heterogeneity on the statistical moments, and revealed that variances of the active and passive scalars become dissimilar because of their different roles in turbulence. The analysis also indicated that the mean quantities are also affected by the heterogeneity but to a less extent than the variances. The temperature variances in the mixed layer (ML) were examined by using a generalized top-down bottom-up diffusion model with some combinations of velocity scales and inversion flux models. The results showed that the surface shear stress exerts considerable influence on the lower ML. Also with the temperature and vertical velocity variances ML variance methods were tested, and their feasibility was investigated. Finally, the variances in the ML were analyzed in terms of the local similarity concept; the results confirmed the original

  5. Statistical distribution of the OAM states of Bessel-Gaussian-Schell infrared beams in strong turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ye; Zhang, Yixin; Wang, Donglin; Shan, Lei; Xia, Mingchao; Zhao, Yuanhang

    2016-05-01

    The effects of strong turbulence on the orbital angular momentum (OAM) states of infrared and non-diffraction beam propagation in a terrestrial atmosphere are investigated. A new probability density model for OAM states of Bessel-Gaussian-Schell beam in the paraxial and strong turbulent channel is modeled based on the modified Rytov approximation. We find that the normalization energy weight of signal OAM modes at each OAM level is approximate equivalence in strong turbulence regime, one can constitute multiple mode channels by choosing OAM modes with large energy level difference between modes to reduce mode interference, and one can utilize BGS beam with OAM modes increasing the channel capacity of optical communications.

  6. An evaluation and parameterization of stably stratified turbulence: Insights on the atmospheric boundary layer and implications for wind energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Jordan M.

    This research focuses on the dynamics of turbulent mixing under stably stratified flow conditions. Velocity fluctuations and instabilities are suppressed by buoyancy forces limiting mixing as stability increases and turbulence decreases until the flow relaminarizes. Theories that ubiquitously assume turbulence collapse above a critical value of the gradient Richardson number (e.g. Ri > Ric) are common in meteorological and oceanographic communities. However, most theories were developed from results of small-scale laboratory and numerical experiments with energetic levels several orders of magnitude less than geophysical flows. Geophysical flows exhibit strong turbulence that enhances the transport of momentum and scalars. The mixing length for the turbulent momentum field, L M, serves as a key parameter in assessing large-scale, energy-containing motions. For a stably stratified turbulent shear flow, the shear production of turbulent kinetic energy, P, is here considered to be of greater relevance than the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy, epsilon. Thus, the turbulent Reynolds number can be recast as Re ≡ k2/(nuP) where k is the turbulent kinetic energy, allowing for a new perspective on flow energetics. Using an ensemble data set of high quality direct numerical simulation (DNS) results, large-eddy simulation (LES) results, laboratory experiments, and observational field data of the stable atmospheric boundary layer (SABL), the dichotomy of data becomes apparent. High mixing rates persist to strong stability (e.g. Ri ≈ 10) in the SABL whereas numerical and laboratory results confirm turbulence collapse for Ri ˜ O(1). While this behavior has been alluded to in literature, this direct comparison of data elucidates the disparity in universal theories of stably stratified turbulence. From this theoretical perspective, a Reynolds-averaged framework is employed to develop and evaluate parameterizations of turbulent mixing based on the competing forces

  7. Outer scale and Monin-Obukhov flux relationships of atmospheric turbulence under dry convective conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Bruin, Henk; Hartogensis, Oscar

    2015-04-01

    In this study we will investigate the assumption that in the atmospheric surface layer the outer scale (L0) is proportional to the height above the surface, under dry convective conditions. For this purpose we analyzed raw sonic anemometers data collected at 3.5 m and at 9 m in a field campaign at the Santa Cruz Flats (32040.3190'N, 111032.641'W, 526 m of elevation) near Eloy, Arizona. For simplicity, we define the L0 as that separation distance at which the spatial correlation coefficient of air temperature at two points in the surface layer is 0.5. Then, according to the 2/3-Kolmogorov scaling law in the inertial sub-range, L0 is determined by the variance and the structure parameter of T . It is found that L0 does not scale with height. Possible reasons for this negative result will be discussed, by considering the methodology to determine structure parameters, Taylor's frozen turbulence hypothesis, effects of intermittency and Monin-Obukhov flux relationships for variance and structure parameter for T . The question is asked whether the concept of surface constant flux layer still holds under strong convective condition.

  8. Blow-out of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames at sub-atmospheric pressures

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Qiang

    2016-12-09

    Blow-out limits of nonpremixed turbulent jet flames in quiescent air at sub-atmospheric pressures (50–100 kPa) were studied experimentally using propane fuel with nozzle diameters ranging 0.8–4 mm. Results showed that the fuel jet velocity at blow-out limit increased with increasing ambient pressure and nozzle diameter. A Damköhler (Da) number based model was adopted, defined as the ratio of characteristic mixing time and characteristic reaction time, to include the effect of pressure considering the variations in laminar burning velocity and thermal diffusivity with pressure. The critical lift-off height at blow-out, representing a characteristic length scale for mixing, had a linear relationship with the theoretically predicted stoichiometric location along the jet axis, which had a weak dependence on ambient pressure. The characteristic mixing time (critical lift-off height divided by jet velocity) adjusted to the characteristic reaction time such that the critical Damköhler at blow-out conditions maintained a constant value when varying the ambient pressure.

  9. Flight Flutter Modal Parameters Identification with Atmospheric Turbulence Excitation Based on Wavelet Transformation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In view of the feature of flight flutter test data with atmospheric turbulence excitation, a method which combines wavelet transformation with random decrement technique for identifying flight flutter modal parameters is presented. This approach firstly uses random decrement technique to gain free decays corresponding to the acceleration response of the structure to some non-zero initial conditions. Then the continuous Morlet wavelet transformation of the free decays is performed; and the Parseval formula and residue theorem are used to simplify the transformation. The maximal wavelet transformation coefficients in different scales are searched out by means of band-filtering characteristic of Morlet wavelet, and then the modal parameters are identified according to the relationships with maximal modulus and angle of the wavelet transform. In addition, the condition of modal uncoupling is discussed according to variation trend of flight flutter modal parameters in the flight flutter state. The analysis results of simulation and flight flutter test data show that this approach is not only simple, effective and feasible, but also having good noise immunity.

  10. Performance analysis of free space optical system with spatial modulation and diversity combiners over the Gamma Gamma atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeyemi, Kehinde O.; Owolawi, Pius A.; Srivastava, Viranjay M.

    2017-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence is a major impairment that degrades the performance of free space optical (FSO) communication systems. Spatial modulation (SM) with receive spatial diversity is considered as a powerful technique to mitigate the fading effect induced by atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, the performance of free space optical spatial modulation (FSO-SM) system under Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence is presented. We studied the Average Bit Error Rate (ABER) for the system by employing spatial diversity combiners such Maximum Ratio Combining (MRC) and Equal Gain Combining (EGC) at the receiving end. In particular, we provide a theoretical framework for the system error by deriving Average Pairwise Error Probability (APEP) expression using a generalized infinite power series expansion approach and union bounding technique is applied to obtain the ABER for each combiner. Based on this study, it was found that spatial diversity combiner significantly improved the system error rate where MRC outperforms the EGC. The performance of this system is also compared with other well established diversity combiner systems. The proposed system performance is further improved by convolutional coding technique and our analysis confirmed that the system performance of MRC coded system is enhanced by approximately 20 dB while EGC falls within 17 dB.

  11. Characterization of the 222Rn family turbulent transport in the convective atmospheric boundary layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galmarini

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The combined effect of turbulent transport and radioactive decay on the distribution of 222Rn and its progeny in convective atmospheric boundary layers (CBL is investigated. Large eddy simulation is used to simulate their dispersion in steady state CBL and in unsteady conditions represented by the growth of a CBL within a pre-existing reservoir layer. The exact decomposition of the concentration and flux budget equations under steady state conditions allowed us to determine which processes are responsible for the vertical distribution of 222Rn and its progeny. Their mean concentrations are directly correlated with their half-life, e.g. 222Rn and 210Pb are the most abundant whereas 218Po show the lowest concentrations. 222Rn flux decreases linearly with height and its flux budget is similar to the one of inert emitted scalar, i.e., a balance between on the one hand the gradient and the buoyancy production terms, and on the other hand the pressure and dissipation at smaller scales which tends to destroy the fluxes. While 222Rn exhibits the typical bottom-up behavior, the maximum flux location of the daughters is moving upwards while their rank in the 222Rn progeny is increasing leading to a typical top-down behavior for 210Pb. We also found that the relevant radioactive decaying contributions of 222Rn short-lived daughters (218Po and 214Pb act as flux sources leading to deviations from the linear flux shape. In addition, while analyzing the vertical distribution of the radioactive decay contributions to the concentrations, e.g. the decaying zone, we found a variation in height of 222Rn daughters' radioactive transformations. Under unsteady conditions, the same behaviors reported under steady state conditions are found: deviation of the fluxes from the linear shape for 218Po, enhanced discrepancy in height of the radioactive transformation contributions for all the daughters. In addition, 222Rn and its progeny concentrations decrease due to the

  12. Graphical Turbulence Guidance - Composite

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Forecast turbulence hazards identified by the Graphical Turbulence Guidance algorithm. The Graphical Turbulence Guidance product depicts mid-level and upper-level...

  13. An Accurate Computational Tool for Performance Estimation of FSO Communication Links over Weak to Strong Atmospheric Turbulent Channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodore D. Katsilieris

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The terrestrial optical wireless communication links have attracted significant research and commercial worldwide interest over the last few years due to the fact that they offer very high and secure data rate transmission with relatively low installation and operational costs, and without need of licensing. However, since the propagation path of the information signal, i.e., the laser beam, is the atmosphere, their effectivity affects the atmospheric conditions strongly in the specific area. Thus, system performance depends significantly on the rain, the fog, the hail, the atmospheric turbulence, etc. Due to the influence of these effects, it is necessary to study, theoretically and numerically, very carefully before the installation of such a communication system. In this work, we present exactly and accurately approximate mathematical expressions for the estimation of the average capacity and the outage probability performance metrics, as functions of the link’s parameters, the transmitted power, the attenuation due to the fog, the ambient noise and the atmospheric turbulence phenomenon. The latter causes the scintillation effect, which results in random and fast fluctuations of the irradiance at the receiver’s end. These fluctuations can be studied accurately with statistical methods. Thus, in this work, we use either the lognormal or the gamma–gamma distribution for weak or moderate to strong turbulence conditions, respectively. Moreover, using the derived mathematical expressions, we design, accomplish and present a computational tool for the estimation of these systems’ performances, while also taking into account the parameter of the link and the atmospheric conditions. Furthermore, in order to increase the accuracy of the presented tool, for the cases where the obtained analytical mathematical expressions are complex, the performance results are verified with the numerical estimation of the appropriate integrals. Finally, using

  14. Shipboard Turbulence Measurements of the Marine Atmospheric Boundary Layer from Hires Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Bodega Bay (Fig. 1). In- situ and sodar turbulence measurements were collected onboard R/V Robert Gordon Sproul (about 35 m length and 9.5 m...Turbulence data were collected during the HiRes main experiment aboard R/V Sproul in June, 2010 offshore of Bodega Bay, California. Although two sets

  15. Scintillation index and performance analysis of wireless optical links over non-Kolmogorov weak turbulence based on generalized atmospheric spectral model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cang, Ji; Liu, Xu

    2011-09-26

    Based on the generalized spectral model for non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence, analytic expressions of the scintillation index (SI) are derived for plane, spherical optical waves and a partially coherent Gaussian beam propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence horizontally in the weak fluctuation regime. The new expressions relate the SI to the finite turbulence inner and outer scales, spatial coherence of the source and spectral power-law and then used to analyze the effects of atmospheric condition and link length on the performance of wireless optical communication links.

  16. Spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of a gliding arc discharge in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jiajian; Gao, Jinlong; Ehn, Andreas; Aldén, Marcus; Larsson, Anders; Kusano, Yukihiro; Li, Zhongshan

    2017-01-01

    A gliding arc discharge was generated in a turbulent air flow at atmospheric pressure driven by a 35 kHz alternating current (AC) electric power. The spatiotemporally resolved characteristics of the gliding arc discharge, including glow-type discharges, spark-type discharges, short-cutting events and transitions among the different types of discharges, were investigated using simultaneously optical and electrical diagnostics. The glow-type discharge shows sinusoidal-like voltage and current waveforms with a peak current of hundreds of milliamperes. The frequency of the emission intensity variation of the glow-type discharge is the same as that of the electronic power dissipated in the plasma column. The glow-type discharge can transfer into a spark discharge characterized by a sharp peak current of several amperes and a sudden increase of the brightness in the plasma column. Transitions can also be found to take place from spark-type discharges to glow-type discharges. Short-cutting events were often observed as the intermediate states formed during the spark-glow transition. Three different types of short-cutting events have been observed to generate new current paths between two plasma channel segments, and between two electrodes, as well as between the channel segment and the electrodes, respectively. The short-cut upper part of the plasma column that was found to have no current passing through can be detected several hundreds of microseconds after the short-cutting event. The voltage recovery rate, the period of AC voltage-driving signal, the flow rates and the rated input powers were found to play an important role in affecting the transitions among the different types of discharges.

  17. Validity of quadratic two-source spherical wave structure functions in analysis of beam propagation through generalized atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Tong, Shoufeng; Li, Yanfang

    2014-12-01

    Two distinct methods based on which two different quadratic-form expressions for the two-source spherical wave structure function (WSF) can be derived are reviewed. The validity of closed-form expressions for the beam-wave cross-spectral density function (CSDF) due to generalized atmospheric turbulence featuring an arbitrary spectral index ranging from 3 to 4, developed based on the quadratic two-source spherical WSFs, is examined in detail. New formulations for the conditions under which the said closed-form expressions for the beam-wave CSDF are strictly valid are developed and several novel interesting findings are elucidated. In particular, the closed-form beam-wave CSDF derived based on the small-separation asymptotic two-source spherical WSF can be considered a rigorous asymptotic solution under the strong-turbulence condition only when the separation distance between the two observation points is much smaller than the inner scale of turbulence; moreover it is also a rigorous asymptotic solution when a certain relation among the initial beam radius, initial transverse coherence width and inner scale holds, regardless of the turbulence strength and spectral index. On the other hand, the accuracy of the closed-form beam-wave CSDF derived based on the large-separation-approximation two-source spherical WSF depends on the spectral index, and a spectral index closer to 4 results in better accuracy.

  18. Simulations of sonic boom ray tube area fluctuations for propagation through atmospheric turbulence including caustics via a Monte Carlo method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Victor W.; Pierce, Allan D.

    1992-01-01

    A theory which gives statistical predictions for how often sonic booms propagating through the earth's turbulent boundary layer will encounter caustics, given the spectral properties of the atmospheric turbulence, is outlined. The theory is simple but approximately accounts for the variation of ray tube areas along ray paths. This theory predicts that the variation of ray tube areas is determined by the product of two similar area factors, psi (x) and phi (x), each satisfying a generic harmonic oscillator equation. If an area factor increases the peak acoustic pressure decreases, and if the factor decreases the peak acoustic pressure increases. Additionally, if an area factor decreases to zero and becomes negative, the ray has propagated through a caustic, which contributes a phase change of 90 degrees to the wave. Thus, it is clear that the number of times that a sonic boom wave passes through a caustic should be related to the distorted boom waveform received on the ground. Examples are given based on a characterization of atmospheric turbulence due to the structure function of Tatarski as modified by Crow.

  19. Wake Turbulence of Two NREL 5-MW Wind Turbines Immersed in a Neutral Atmospheric Boundary-Layer Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Bashioum, Jessica L; Schmitz, Sven; Duque, Earl P N

    2013-01-01

    The fluid dynamics video considers an array of two NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in a neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL). The neutral atmospheric boundary-layer flow data were obtained from a precursor ABL simulation using a Large-Eddy Simulation (LES) framework within OpenFOAM. The mean wind speed at hub height is 8m/s, and the surface roughness is 0.2m. The actuator line method (ALM) is used to model the wind turbine blades by means of body forces added to the momentum equation. The fluid dynamics video shows the root and tip vortices emanating from the blades from various viewpoints. The vortices become unstable and break down into large-scale turbulent structures. As the wakes of the wind turbines advect further downstream, smaller-scale turbulence is generated. It is apparent that vortices generated by the blades of the downstream wind turbine break down faster due to increased turbulence levels generated by the wake of the upstream wind turbine.

  20. Venusian atmospheric turbulence evaluated from cloud brightness distribution in VEX UV images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teraguchi, T.; Kasaba, Y.; Hoshino, N.; Sato, T. M.; Takahashi, Y.; Watanabe, S.; Yamada, M.; Matsuda, Y.; Kouyama, T.; Titov, D.; Markiewicz, W.

    2011-10-01

    This study suggested following points: (1) The power spectra mostly contained the inflection. The slope at lower wavenumbers was steeper than that at higher wavenumbers. Such a feature agrees with the characteristics in the kinetic energy spectra shon Earth (Nastrom et al., 1984; Nastrom and Gage, 1985). (2) The slopes at planetary wavenumbers K Matsuda (2006) suggested that the inflection point at 330 - 1000km can be a border between 2D and 3D turbulences. Our result indicates a possibility to have enstrophy forward cascade in 2D turbulence at lower wavenumbers and the energy forward cascade in 3D turbulence at higher wavenumbers.

  1. Aperture-averaging effects for weak to strong scintillations in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yixin Zhang(张逸新); Tuo Zhu(朱拓); Chunkan Tao(陶纯堪)

    2004-01-01

    Under the approximations of (1) the received irradiance fluctuations of an optical wave caused by small scale turbulent eddies are multiplicatively modulated by the fluctuations caused by large scale turbulent eddies;(2) the scintillations caused by small- and large-scale eddies, respectively, are statistically independent; (3)the Rytov method for optical scintillation collected by the finite-diameter receiving aperture is valid for light wave propagation under weak to saturation fluctuation regime, we develop the applicable apertureaveraging analytic formulas in the week-to-strong-fluctuation for the scintillations of plane and spherical waves, which include the outer- and inner-scale rules of turbulence.

  2. Synthetic atmospheric turbulence and wind shear in large eddy simulations of wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Troldborg, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    , superimposed on top of a mean deterministic shear layer consistent with that used in the IEC standard for wind turbine load calculations. First, the method is evaluated by running a series of large-eddy simulations in an empty domain, where the imposed turbulence and wind shear is allowed to reach a fully...... as input for simulations with a wind turbine, represented by an actuator line model, to evaluate the development of turbulence in a wind turbine wake. The resulting turbulence intensity and spectral distribution, as well as the meandering of the wake, are compared to field data. Overall, the performance...

  3. Non-steady dynamics of atmospheric turbulence interaction with wind turbine loadings through blade-boundary-layer-resolved CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayakumar, Ganesh

    Modern commercial megawatt-scale wind turbines occupy the lower 15-20% of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL), the atmospheric surface layer (ASL). The current trend of increasing wind turbine diameter and hub height increases the interaction of the wind turbines with the upper ASL which contains spatio-temporal velocity variations over a wide range of length and time scales. Our interest is the interaction of the wind turbine with the energetic integral-scale eddies, since these cause the largest temporal variations in blade loadings. The rotation of a wind turbine blade through the ABL causes fluctuations in the local velocity magnitude and angle of attack at different sections along the blade. The blade boundary layer responds to these fluctuations and in turn causes temporal transients in local sectional loads and integrated blade and shaft bending moments. While the integral scales of the atmospheric boundary layer are ˜ O(10--100m) in the horizontal with advection time scales of order tens of seconds, the viscous surface layer of the blade boundary layer is ˜ O(10 -- 100 mum) with time scales of order milliseconds. Thus, the response of wind turbine blade loadings to atmospheric turbulence is the result of the interaction between two turbulence dynamical systems at extremely disparate ranges of length and time scales. A deeper understanding of this interaction can impact future approaches to improve the reliability of wind turbines in wind farms, and can underlie future improvements. My thesis centers on the development of a computational framework to simulate the interaction between the atmospheric and wind turbine blade turbulence dynamical systems using a two step one-way coupled approach. Pseudo-spectral large eddy simulation (LES) is used to generate a true (equilibrium) atmospheric boundary layer over a flat land with specified surface roughness and heating consistent with the stability state of the daytime lower troposphere. Using the data from the

  4. Properties of vortex beams formed by an array of fibre lasers and their propagation in a turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aksenov, V. P.; Dudorov, V. V.; Kolosov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Using a numerical simulation, we investigate the possibility of synthesising vortex laser beams with a variable orbital angular momentum by a hexagonal array of fibre lasers under a phase control of individual subapertures of the array. We report the requirements to the parameters of the device generating a vortex beam (number and size of subapertures, as well as their mutual arrangement). The propagation dynamics of synthesised vortex beams is compared with that of conventional Laguerre-Gaussian beams in free space and in a turbulent atmosphere. The spectral properties of the synthesised beam, represented as a superposition of different azimuthal modes, are determined during its propagation in free space. The energy and statistical parameters of the synthesised and Laguerre-Gaussian vortex beams are shown to coincide with increasing propagation distance in a turbulent medium.

  5. A comparison of radar measurements of atmospheric turbulence intensities by both C sub n sup 2 and spectral width methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, W. K.; Lawry, K.; Neudegg, D.

    1989-01-01

    There are two main techniques by which turbulence intensities in the atmosphere can be measured by radars. One is to utilize the absolute backscattered power received by the radar, and use this to deduce C sub n sup 2 (refractivity turbulence structure constant). With appropriate assumptions, this parameter can then be converted to an energy dissipation rate. The second method utilizes the width of the spectrum of the signal received by the radar. Neither of these techniques have been used a great deal, and they have never been properly compared. Thus it was not possible to determine the validity of the assumptions made in applying each technique, nor was it possible to determine the limitations of each method. The first comparisons of the two techniques are presented. Measurements were made with the Adelaide VHF ST radar, and the results of the comparison are discussed.

  6. Scattering of a partially coherent Gaussian-Schell beam from a diffuse target in slant atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhen-Sen; Li, Ya-Qing

    2011-07-01

    On the basis of the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the scattering of partially coherent Gaussian-Schell-model (GSM) beams from a diffuse target in slant double-passage atmospheric turbulence is studied and compared with that of fully coherent Gaussian beams. Using the cross-spectral density function of the GSM beams, we derive the expressions of the mutual coherence function, angle-of-arrival fluctuation, and covariance and variance of the intensity of the scattered field, taking into account the fluctuations of both the log-amplitude and phase. The numerical results are presented, and the influences of the wavelength, propagation distance, and waist radius on scattering properties are discussed. The perturbation region of the normalized intensity variance of the partially coherent GSM beam is smaller than that of the fully coherent Gaussian beam at the middle turbulence level. The normalized intensity variance of long-distance beam propagation is smaller than that of beam propagation along a short distance.

  7. Performance analysis of satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications with spatial diversity over Gamma-Gamma atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kangning; Ma, Jing; Belmonte, Aniceto; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan

    2015-12-01

    The performances of satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications over Gamma-Gamma distributed turbulence are studied for a multiple-aperture receiver system. Equal gain-combining (EGC) and selection-combining (SC) techniques are considered as practical schemes to mitigate the atmospheric turbulence under thermal-noise-limited conditions. Bit-error rate (BER) performances for on-off keying-modulated direct detection and outage probabilities are analyzed and compared for SC diversity receptions using analytical results and for EGC diversity receptions through an approximation method. To show the net diversity gain of a multiple-aperture receiver system, BER performances and outage probabilities of EGC and SC receiver systems are compared with a single monolithic-aperture receiver system with the same total aperture area (same average total incident optical power) for satellite-to-ground downlink optical communications. All the numerical results are also verified by Monte-Carlo simulations.

  8. Polarization of quantization Gaussian Schell-beams through anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence of marine-atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yuanhang; Zhang, Yixin; Hu, Zhengda; Li, Ye; Wang, Donglin

    2016-07-01

    Polarization and spatial coherence of quantization Gaussian Schell-beams propagating through the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence of marine-atmosphere channel are studied based on the quantized Huygens-Fresnel principle and the degree of quantum polarization. The spatial coherence length and the polarization degree of linearly polarization quantization Gaussian Schell-beams are developed. The effects of outer scale on the lateral coherence length are not obvious as same as the effects of wavelength on the degree of polarization. The degree of polarization decreases as the source transverse coherent width, anisotropic factor, the number of received photons, spectral index, the inner scale of turbulent eddies and source transverse radius decrease or generalized refractive-index structure parameter increases. The refractive-index structure parameter, spectral index and inner scale have also effect on the changes of lateral coherence length. Those results can be used to improve the performance of a polarization-encoded quantum communication system.

  9. The effect of clear-air turbulence on a model of the general circulation of the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heck, W. J.; Panofsky, H. A.; Bender, M. A.

    1977-01-01

    Mixing coefficients due to clear-air turbulence are estimated from turbulence observations from aircraft, and from large-scale dissipation estimates from the large-scale energy budgets. Maximum coefficients occur near middle-latitude jet streams, and eddy viscosity there is of order of 10 sq m/sec; eddy conductivity is estimated to be about ten times smaller. These coefficients are introduced into the 12-layer general circulation model of the National Center of Atmospheric Research. They produce an apparently significant, though small reduction in maximum speed of the jet, and a reduction in eddy energy. Further, the stratospheric polar-night jet is produced at about the correct location with about the correct intensity.

  10. The flux tube paradigm and its role in MHD turbulence in the solar atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthaeus, W. H.; Greco, A.; Servidio, S.; Wan, M.; Osman, K.; Ruffolo, D. J.

    2011-12-01

    Descriptions of magnetic field and plasma structures in terms of flux tubes, plasmoids and other bundles of magnetic field lines are familiar in the vocabulary of observational and theoretical space physics. "Spaghetti models" and flux ropes are well known examples. Flux tubes and families of field lines can also be defined in a medium that admits magnetic fluctuations, including strong MHD turbulence, but their behavior can become complicated. In 3D fluctuations the smooth flux tube description itself becomes in some sense unstable, as nearby field lines diverge and flux surfaces shred. This lends complexity to the structure of flux tubes, and can give rise to temporarily trapped field lines and charged test particle trajectories, with immediate implications for transport, e.g., of solar energetic particles. The properties of the turbulent magnetic field can also be strongly influenced by the dynamics of turbulence. Large scale self organizing behavior, or inverse cascade, can enhance very long wavelength structure, favoring Bohm scaling of diffusion coefficients. Meanwhile smaller scale flux tube structures are integral features of the inertial range of turbulence, giving rise to a cellularization of the plasma due to rapid dynamical relaxation processes. These drive the turbulent system locally towards low-acceleration states, including Alfvenic, Beltrami and force-free states. Cell boundaries are natural positions for formation of near discontinuous boundaries, where dynamical activity can be enhanced. A primary example is appearance of numerous discontinuities and active reconnection sites in turbulence, which appear to support a wide distribution of reconnection rates associated with coherent current structures. These discontinuities are also potential sites of enhanced heating, as expected in Kolmogorov's Refined Similarity Hypothesis. All of these features are related to self organization, cascade and intermittency of the turbulence. Examples of these

  11. Atmospheric stability and turbulence fluxes at Horns Rev—an intercomparison of sonic, bulk and WRF model data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pena Diaz, Alfredo; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2012-01-01

    Direct estimations of turbulent fluxes and atmospheric stability were performed from a sonic anemometer at 50 m height on a meteorological mast at the Horns Rev wind farm in the North Sea. The stability and flux estimations from the sonic measurements are compared with bulk results from a cup...... anemometer at 15 m height and potential temperature differences between the water and the air above. Surface flux estimations from the advanced weather research and forecast (WRF) model are also validated against the sonic and bulk data. The correlation between the sonic and bulk estimates of friction...

  12. Long-distance propagation of pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams in atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qian Xian-Mei; Zhu Wen-Yue; Rao Rui-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    Propagation properties of spatially pseudo-partially coherent Gaussian Schell-model beams through the atmospheric turbulence over a long-distance uplink path are studied by numerical simulation.A linear coordination transformation is introduced to overcome the window effect and the loss-of-resolution problem.The beam spreading,beam wandering,and intensity scintillation as functions of turbulence strength,source correlation length,and change frequency of random phase that models the partial coherence of the source are analyzed. It is found that the beam spreading and the intensity scintillation of the partially coherent beam are less affected by the turbulence than those of the coherent one,but it suffers from a more severe diffractive effect,and the change frequency of random phase has no evident influence on it.The beam wandering is insensitive to the variation of source correlation length,and decreases firstly then goes to a fixed value as the change frequency increases.

  13. Acceleration of raindrops formation due to tangling-clustering instability in turbulent stratified atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, T; Krasovitov, B; Kulmala, M; Liberman, M; Rogachevskii, I; Zilitinkevich, S

    2013-01-01

    Condensation of water vapor on active cloud condensation nuclei produces micron-size water droplets. To form rain, they must grow rapidly into at least 50-100 micron-size droplets. Observations show that this process takes only 15-20 minutes. The unexplained physical mechanism of such fast growth, is crucial for understanding and modeling of rain, and known as "condensation-coalescence bottleneck in rain formation". We show that the recently discovered phenomenon of the tangling clustering instability of small droplets in temperature-stratified turbulence (Phys. Fluids 25, 085104, 2013) results in the formation of droplet clusters with drastically increased droplet number densities and strong five-orders-of-magnitude enhancement of the collision-coalescence rate inside the clusters. The mechanism of tangling clustering instability in the temperature-stratified turbulence is much more effective than the previously considered pure inertial clustering caused by the centrifugal effect of turbulent vortices. Our a...

  14. Atmospheric spectral model and theoretical expressions of irradiance scintillation index for optical wave propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang; Zheng, Shiling; Xue, Wenfang; Bai, Xiangzhi; Cao, Xiaoguang; Zhou, Fugen

    2012-06-01

    A new atmospheric spectral model and expressions of irradiance scintillation index are derived theoretically for optical wave propagating through moderate-to-strong non-Kolmogorov turbulence. They are developed under Andrews' assumption that small-scale irradiance fluctuations are modulated by large-scale irradiance fluctuations of the wave, and the geometrical optics approximation is adopted for mathematical development. A wide range of turbulence strength is considered instead of a limited range for weak turbulence. The atmospheric spectral model has a spectral power law value in the range of 3 to 4 instead of the standard power law value of 11/3. Numerical calculations are conducted to analyze the influences of spectral power law and turbulence strength.

  15. Turbulence and diffusion fossil turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2000-01-01

    Fossil turbulence processes are central to turbulence, turbulent mixing, and turbulent diffusion in the ocean and atmosphere, in astrophysics and cosmology, and in most other natural flows. George Gamov suggested in 1954 that galaxies might be fossils of primordial turbulence produced by the Big Bang. John Woods showed that breaking internal waves on horizontal dye sheets in the interior of the stratified ocean form highly persistent remnants of these turbulent events, which he called fossil turbulence. The dark mixing paradox of the ocean refers to undetected mixing that must exist somewhere to explain why oceanic scalar fields like temperature and salinity are so well mixed, just as the dark matter paradox of galaxies refers to undetected matter that must exist to explain why rotating galaxies don't fly apart by centrifugal forces. Both paradoxes result from sampling techniques that fail to account for the extreme intermittency of random variables involved in self-similar, nonlinear, cascades over a wide ra...

  16. Analysis of PolSK based FSO system using wavelength and time diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabu, K.; Cheepalli, Shashidhar; Kumar, D. Sriram

    2014-08-01

    Free space optics (FSO) or wireless optical communication systems is an evolving alternative to the current radio frequency (RF) links due to its high and secure datarates, large license free bandwidth access, ease of installation, and lower cost for shorter range distances. These systems are largely influenced by atmospheric conditions due to wireless transmission; requirement of line of sight (LOS) propagation may lead to alignment problems in turn pointing errors. In this paper, we consider atmospheric turbulence and pointing errors are the major limitations. We tried to address these difficulties by considering polarization shift keying (PolSK) modulated FSO communication system with wavelength and time diversity. We derived the closed form expressions for estimation of the average bit error rate (BER) and outage probability, which are vital system performance metrics. Analytical results are shown considering different practical cases.

  17. Experimental evaluation of a model for the influence of coherent wind lidars on their remote measurements of atmospheric boundary-layer turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Kapp, Stefan; Kristensen, Leif; Mikkelsen, Torben

    2011-11-01

    Affordable coherent wind lidars based on modern telecom components have recently emerged on the wind energy market spurred by high demand of the industry for compact and accurate remote sensing wind and turbulence profilers. Today, hundreds of ground based wind lidars that achieve the range resolution by either focusing a continuous-wave laser beam or by gating a pulsed laser beam are used for measuring mean wind and turbulence profiles in the lower atmospheric boundary-layer. However, detailed understanding of the influence of the spatial filtering of the lidars on their precise assessment of turbulence is still a challenge. For assessment of the fine structure turbulence, and in particular for the easy and fast assessment of the dissipation rate of turbulent kinetic energy from measurements in the Kolmogorov inertial subrange, we havemodeled the atmospheric velocity structure functions and spectra obtainable from fixed-orientation along-beam wind measurements by these lidars. The dissipation rate retrieval model is experimentally evaluated with data obtained with a pulsed lidar pointing horizontally into horizontally homogeneous turbulence encountered at the top level of a 125 m tall meteorological tower, equipped with an in-situ turbulence measurement device (a three-dimensional sonic anemometer) for intercomparison. Our experimental study has revealed that the easily manageable analytical model accounts well for the observed fine structure turbulent spectra and their dependence on the pointing direction of the lidar beam relative to the mean wind direction. The results demonstrate that turbulence dissipation rates, and hence boundary-layer turbulence, can easily be obtained from wind lidar-based fine structure measurements.

  18. Numerical modeling of turbulent jet diffusion flames in the atmospheric surface layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández, J.; Crespo, A.; Duijm, N.J.

    1995-01-01

    The evolution of turbulent jet diffusion flames of natural gas in air is predicted using a finite-volume procedure for solving the flow equations. The model is three dimensional, elliptic and based on the conserved-scalar approach and the laminar flamelet concept. A laminar flamelet prescription for

  19. Fine Scale Modeling and Forecasts of Upper Atmospheric Turbulence for Operational Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-30

    nonequilibrium layer dynamics at fine scales, Phys. Scr . 89 (22pp) 098001 (2014). Observation and simulation of wave breaking in the southern hemispheric...physics, turbulent mixing , rotation, ... Qm = /^d^m^ ^m = ^v’^c’^/’ -• ^rc the couplcd mixing ratios of water vapor, cloud, ice, etc. e^=6[\\^{R^lR

  20. Enhancing the prediction of turbulent kinetic energy in the marine atmospheric boundary layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, R. J.; Emeis, S.

    2010-09-01

    A recent study by Shaikh and Siddiqui (2010) has shown definitively that the turbulent structure of boundary layer flows over water is fundamentally different compared with that over a smooth surface and with that over a solid wavy surface whose wave amplitude is similar to that of dynamically wind-generated waves. In light of this new information, the constants of the Mellor-Yamada boundary layer model, which are based on laboratory data over solid walls, are re-evaluated to suit the turbulent dynamics of a dynamic, wavy surface. The constants are based on the principal that the enhanced turbulent production in the vicinity of waves is redistributed among the normal stress components by virtue of the enhanced pressure-velocity covariances also found in the vicinity of waves. There is then a feedback mechanism whereby enhanced normal stresses modify the dynamic surface. The net effect of this is that in the marine boundary layer, one can expect an enhancement of turbulent kinetic energy due to the enhancement of normal stresses at the expense of shear stresses. The constants in the Mellor-Yamada-Janjic planetary boundary layer scheme within the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model are changed to fit this principal. Simulations are then performed and compared with data (wind speed and turbulent kinetic energy) from the FINO1 platform in the North Sea. It is found that while predictions of the wind speed are barely changed, the magnitude of the tke error (RMS) is reduced by up to 50%. This is expected to be practically relevant for the estimation of blade fatigue of wind energy converters, where the tke is an important parameter in this assessment. It could also be relevant for pollution dispersion in marine boundary layers.

  1. Migration by soaring or flapping: numerical atmospheric simulations reveal that turbulence kinetic energy dictates bee-eater flight mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; Avissar, Roni; Mahrer, Yitzhak; Nathan, Ran

    2011-11-22

    Aerial migrants commonly face atmospheric dynamics that may affect their movement and behaviour. Specifically, bird flight mode has been suggested to depend on convective updraught availability and tailwind assistance. However, this has not been tested thus far since both bird tracks and meteorological conditions are difficult to measure in detail throughout extended migratory flyways. Here, we applied, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive numerical atmospheric simulations by mean of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study how meteorological processes affect the flight behaviour of migrating birds. We followed European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) over southern Israel using radio telemetry and contrasted bird flight mode (flapping, soaring-gliding or mixed flight) against explanatory meteorological variables estimated by RAMS simulations at a spatial grid resolution of 250 × 250 m(2). We found that temperature and especially turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) determine bee-eater flight mode, whereas, unexpectedly, no effect of tailwind assistance was found. TKE during soaring-gliding was significantly higher and distinct from TKE during flapping. We propose that applying detailed atmospheric simulations over extended migratory flyways can elucidate the highly dynamic behaviour of air-borne organisms, help predict the abundance and distribution of migrating birds, and aid in mitigating hazardous implications of bird migration.

  2. Migration by soaring or flapping: numerical atmospheric simulations reveal that turbulence kinetic energy dictates bee-eater flight mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapir, Nir; Horvitz, Nir; Wikelski, Martin; Avissar, Roni; Mahrer, Yitzhak; Nathan, Ran

    2011-01-01

    Aerial migrants commonly face atmospheric dynamics that may affect their movement and behaviour. Specifically, bird flight mode has been suggested to depend on convective updraught availability and tailwind assistance. However, this has not been tested thus far since both bird tracks and meteorological conditions are difficult to measure in detail throughout extended migratory flyways. Here, we applied, to our knowledge, the first comprehensive numerical atmospheric simulations by mean of the Regional Atmospheric Modeling System (RAMS) to study how meteorological processes affect the flight behaviour of migrating birds. We followed European bee-eaters (Merops apiaster) over southern Israel using radio telemetry and contrasted bird flight mode (flapping, soaring–gliding or mixed flight) against explanatory meteorological variables estimated by RAMS simulations at a spatial grid resolution of 250 × 250 m2. We found that temperature and especially turbulence kinetic energy (TKE) determine bee-eater flight mode, whereas, unexpectedly, no effect of tailwind assistance was found. TKE during soaring–gliding was significantly higher and distinct from TKE during flapping. We propose that applying detailed atmospheric simulations over extended migratory flyways can elucidate the highly dynamic behaviour of air-borne organisms, help predict the abundance and distribution of migrating birds, and aid in mitigating hazardous implications of bird migration. PMID:21471116

  3. Quantum polarization fluctuations of partially coherent dark hollow beams in non-Kolmogorov turbulence atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiang; Zhang, Peng-Fei; Zhang, Jing-Hui; Qiao, Chun-Hong; Fan, Cheng-Yu

    2016-08-01

    Non-classical polarization properties of dark hollow beams propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence are studied. The analytic equation for the polarization degree of the quantization partially coherent dark hollow beams is obtained. It is found that the polarization fluctuations of the quantization partially coherent dark hollow beams are dependent on the turbulence factors and beam parameters with the detection photon numbers. Furthermore, an investigation of the changes in the on-axis propagation point and off-axis propagation point shows that the polarization degree of the quantization partially coherent dark hollow beams presents oscillation for a short propagation distance and gradually returns to zero for a sufficiently long distance. Project supported by the Major Research Plan of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61405205).

  4. A Dropsonde UAV for Atmospheric Sensing in a Turbulent Environment Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Dropsondes are one of the primary atmospheric measurement tools available to researchers. Current dropsondes are deployed with a free fall parachute trajectory,...

  5. Characteristics of land-atmosphere energy and turbulent fluxes over the plateau steppe in central Tibetan Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MaoShan Li; ZhongBo Su; YaoMing Ma; XueLong Chen; Lang Zhang; ZeYong Hu

    2016-01-01

    The land-atmosphere energy and turbulence exchange is key to understanding land surface processes on the Tibetan Plateau (TP). Using observed data for Aug. 4 to Dec. 3, 2012 from the Bujiao observation point (BJ) of the Nagqu Plateau Climate and Environment Station (NPCE-BJ), different characteristics of the energy flux during the Asian summer monsoon (ASM) season and post-monsoon period were analyzed. This study outlines the impact of the ASM on energy fluxes in the central TP. It also demonstrates that the surface energy closure rate during the ASM season is higher than that of the post-monsoon period. Footprint modeling shows the distribution of data quality assessments (QA) and quality controls (QC) surrounding the observation point. The measured turbulent flux data at the NPCE-BJ site were highly rep-resentative of the target land-use type. The target surface contributed more to the fluxes under unstable conditions than under stable conditions. The main wind directions (180° and 210°) with the highest data density showed flux contributions reaching 100%, even under stable conditions. The lowest flux contributions were found in sectors with low data density, e.g., 90.4% in the 360° sector under stable conditions during the ASM season. Lastly, a surface energy water balance (SEWAB) model was used to gap-fill any absent or corrected turbulence data. The potential simulation error was also explored in this study. The Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficients (NSEs) of the observed fluxes with the SEWAB model runs were 0.78 for sensible heat flux and 0.63 for latent heat flux during the ASM season, but unrealistic values of−0.9 for latent heat flux during the post-monsoon period.

  6. The marine atmospheric boundary layer under strong wind conditions: Organized turbulence structure and flux estimates by airborne measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brilouet, Pierre-Etienne; Durand, Pierre; Canut, Guylaine

    2017-02-01

    During winter, cold air outbreaks take place in the northwestern Mediterranean sea. They are characterized by local strong winds (Mistral and Tramontane) which transport cold and dry continental air across a warmer sea. In such conditions, high values of surface sensible and latent heat flux are observed, which favor deep oceanic convection. The HyMeX/ASICS-MED field campaign was devoted to the study of these processes. Airborne measurements, gathered in the Gulf of Lion during the winter of 2013, allowed for the exploration of the mean and turbulent structure of the marine atmospheric boundary layer (MABL). A spectral analysis based on an analytical model was conducted on 181 straight and level runs. Profiles of characteristic length scales and sharpness parameter of the vertical wind spectrum revealed larger eddies along the mean wind direction associated with an organization of the turbulence field into longitudinal rolls. These were highlighted by boundary layer cloud bands on high-resolution satellite images. A one-dimensional description of the vertical exchanges is then a tricky issue. Since the knowledge of the flux profile throughout the entire MABL is essential for the estimation of air-sea exchanges, a correction of eddy covariance turbulent fluxes was developed taking into account the systematic and random errors due to sampling and data processing. This allowed the improvement of surface fluxes estimates, computed from the extrapolation of the stacked levels. A comparison between those surface fluxes and bulk fluxes computed at a moored buoy revealed considerable differences, mainly regarding the latent heat flux under strong wind conditions.

  7. The Flight of Flexible Aircraft in Turbulence. State-of-the-Art in the Description and Modelling of Atmospheric Turbulence. Addendum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-01

    fitting between calculated and measured transfers, spectral densities and coherence, once the adequate turbulence length scale and standart deviation...Turbulence length scale The quantities C(0,•11) and 0 (0) depend of the turbulence-" 2 length scale L and of the standart deviation a. If we want to...get easily the standart deviation. This method is however limited by the scattering of the experimental spectrum values but it gives a rough estimate

  8. Performance limits of high-rate space-to-ground optical communications through the turbulent atmospheric channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufmann, John E.

    1995-04-01

    Atmospheric turbulence corrupts both the amplitude and phase of an optical field propagating from space to an earth-based receiver. While aperture averaging can mitigate amplitude scintillation effects, the performance of single spatial-mode receiver systems such as coherent detection or preamplified direction detection can be significantly degraded by the corrupted phase when the ratio of aperture diameter D to atmospheric coherence length r0 exceeds unity. Although adaptive optics may be employed to correct the wavefront, in practice the correction is imperfect and the residual phase errors induce a communications performance loss. That loss is quantified here by Monte Carlo simulation techniques. Single-mode-receiver fade statistics for imperfect phase correction are calculated in terms of the atmospheric Greenwood frequency fg, the adaptive optic servo loop cutoff frequency fc, and the ratio D/r0. From these statistics, link bit-error rate (BER) performance is calculated. The results reveal that conventional performance measures such as Strehl ratio or mean signal-to- noise ratio loss can significantly underestimate receiver BER losses. Only when the ratio fg/fc is 0.1 or less will communications losses be small (about 0.5 dB) over a wide range of D/r0.

  9. Large-eddy simulation of stable atmospheric boundary layers to develop better turbulence closures for climate and weather models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou-Zeid, Elie; Huang, Jing; Golaz, Jean-Christophe

    2011-11-01

    A disconnect remains between our improved physical understanding of boundary layers stabilized by buoyancy and how we parameterize them in coarse atmospheric models. Most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing in such conditions to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. Using Large-eddy simulation, we revisit some of the basic challenges in parameterizing stable atmospheric boundary layers: eddy-viscosity closure is found to be more reliable due to an improved alignment of vertical Reynolds stresses and mean strains under stable conditions, but the dependence of the magnitude of the eddy viscosity on stability is not well represented by several models tested here. Thus, we propose a new closure that reproduces the different stability regimes better. Subsequently, tests of this model in the GFDL's single-column model (SCM) are found to yield good agreement with LES results in idealized steady-stability cases, as well as in cases with gradual and sharp changes of stability with time.

  10. Local motion compensation in image sequences degraded by atmospheric turbulence: a comparative analysis of optical flow vs. block matching methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Claudia S.

    2016-10-01

    As a consequence of fluctuations in the index of refraction of the air, atmospheric turbulence causes scintillation, spatial and temporal blurring as well as global and local image motion creating geometric distortions. To mitigate these effects many different methods have been proposed. Global as well as local motion compensation in some form or other constitutes an integral part of many software-based approaches. For the estimation of motion vectors between consecutive frames simple methods like block matching are preferable to more complex algorithms like optical flow, at least when challenged with near real-time requirements. However, the processing power of commercially available computers continues to increase rapidly and the more powerful optical flow methods have the potential to outperform standard block matching methods. Therefore, in this paper three standard optical flow algorithms, namely Horn-Schunck (HS), Lucas-Kanade (LK) and Farnebäck (FB), are tested for their suitability to be employed for local motion compensation as part of a turbulence mitigation system. Their qualitative performance is evaluated and compared with that of three standard block matching methods, namely Exhaustive Search (ES), Adaptive Rood Pattern Search (ARPS) and Correlation based Search (CS).

  11. Stokes parameters of phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array laser beams propagating through turbulent atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golmohammady, Sh; Ghafary, B.

    2016-06-01

    In this study, generalized Stokes parameters of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array beam based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the unified theory of coherence and polarization have been reported. Analytical formulas for 2  ×  2 cross-spectral density matrix elements, and consequently Stokes parameters of a phase-locked partially coherent flat-topped array beam propagating through the turbulent atmosphere have been formulated. Effects of many physical attributes such as wavelength, turbulence strength, flatness order and other source parameters on the Stokes parameters, and therefore spectral degree of polarization upon propagation have been studied thoroughly. The behaviour of the spectral degree of coherence of a delineated beam for different source conditions has been investigated. It can be shown that four generalized Stokes parameters increase by raising the flatness order at the same propagation distance. Increasing the number of beams leads to a decrease in the Stokes parameters to zero slowly. The results are of utmost importance for optical communications.

  12. Level crossing statistics for optical beam wander in a turbulent atmosphere with applications to ground-to-space laser communications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yura, Harold T; Fields, Renny A

    2011-06-20

    Level crossing statistics is applied to the complex problem of atmospheric turbulence-induced beam wander for laser propagation from ground to space. A comprehensive estimate of the single-axis wander angle temporal autocorrelation function and the corresponding power spectrum is used to develop, for the first time to our knowledge, analytic expressions for the mean angular level crossing rate and the mean duration of such crossings. These results are based on an extension and generalization of a previous seminal analysis of the beam wander variance by Klyatskin and Kon. In the geometrical optics limit, we obtain an expression for the beam wander variance that is valid for both an arbitrarily shaped initial beam profile and transmitting aperture. It is shown that beam wander can disrupt bidirectional ground-to-space laser communication systems whose small apertures do not require adaptive optics to deliver uniform beams at their intended target receivers in space. The magnitude and rate of beam wander is estimated for turbulence profiles enveloping some practical laser communication deployment options and suggesting what level of beam wander effects must be mitigated to demonstrate effective bidirectional laser communication systems.

  13. Variance Method to Determine Turbulent Fluxes of Momentum And Sensible Heat in The Stable Atmospheric Surface Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruin, H. A. R.; Hartogensis, O. K.

    2005-08-01

    Evidence is presented that in the stable atmospheric surface layer turbulent fluxes of heat and momentum can be determined from the standard deviations of longitudinal wind velocity and temperature, σ u and σ T respectively, measured at a single level. An attractive aspect of this method is that it yields fluxes from measurements that can be obtained with two-dimensional sonic anemometers. These instruments are increasingly being used at official weather stations, where they replace the standard cup anemometer wind vane system. With methods such as the one described in this note, a widespread, good quality, flux network can be established, which would greatly benefit the modelling community. It is shown that a ‘variance’ dimensionless height (ζ σ) defined from σ u and σ T is highly related to the ‘conventional’ dimensionless stability parameter ζ=z/L, where z is height and L is the Obukhov length. Empirical functions for ζ σ are proposed that allow direct calculation of heat and momentum fluxes from σ u and σ T. The method performs fairly well also during a night of intermittent turbulence.

  14. Photon-counting chip-interleaved iterative PIC detector over atmospheric turbulence channels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Zhou; Yandong Yang; Yufeng Shao; Jun Liu

    2012-01-01

    A photon-counting-based iterative parallel interference cancellation (PIC) scheme for free-space optical communications in the presence of multiple-access interference,shot noise,background radiation,and turbulence fading is designed.An efficient chip-level iterative equivalent noise estimation algorithm is also derived.Simulation results show that the proposed scheme can achieve a single-user performance,bound with the fast convergence property.More importantly,it can eliminate the bit-error rate floor of the conventional optical code-division multiple-access system with the aid of a relatively short spreading code length.

  15. Optimization of structures undergoing harmonic or stochastic excitation. Ph.D. Thesis; [atmospheric turbulence and white noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, E. H.

    1975-01-01

    The optimal design was investigated of simple structures subjected to dynamic loads, with constraints on the structures' responses. Optimal designs were examined for one dimensional structures excited by harmonically oscillating loads, similar structures excited by white noise, and a wing in the presence of continuous atmospheric turbulence. The first has constraints on the maximum allowable stress while the last two place bounds on the probability of failure of the structure. Approximations were made to replace the time parameter with a frequency parameter. For the first problem, this involved the steady state response, and in the remaining cases, power spectral techniques were employed to find the root mean square values of the responses. Optimal solutions were found by using computer algorithms which combined finite elements methods with optimization techniques based on mathematical programming. It was found that the inertial loads for these dynamic problems result in optimal structures that are radically different from those obtained for structures loaded statically by forces of comparable magnitude.

  16. Performance analysis of relay-assisted all-optical FSO networks over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with pointing errors

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Liang

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we consider a relay-assisted free-space optical communication scheme over strong atmospheric turbulence channels with misalignment-induced pointing errors. The links from the source to the destination are assumed to be all-optical links. Assuming a variable gain relay with amplify-and-forward protocol, the electrical signal at the source is forwarded to the destination with the help of this relay through all-optical links. More specifically, we first present a cumulative density function (CDF) analysis for the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio. Based on this CDF, the outage probability, bit-error rate, and average capacity of our proposed system are derived. Results show that the system diversity order is related to the minimum value of the channel parameters.

  17. Effects of source spatial partial coherence on temporal fade statistics of irradiance flux in free-space optical links through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Zhou, Zhou; Zhang, Weizhi; Kavehrad, Mohsen; Tong, Shoufeng; Wang, Tianshu

    2013-12-01

    The temporal covariance function of irradiance-flux fluctua-tions for Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence is theoretically formulated by making use of the method of effective beam parameters. Based on this formulation, new expressions for the root-mean-square (RMS) bandwidth of the irradiance-flux temporal spectrum due to GSM beams passing through atmospheric turbulence are derived. With the help of these expressions, the temporal fade statistics of the irradiance flux in free-space optical (FSO) communication systems, using spatially partially coherent sources, impaired by atmospheric turbulence are further calculated. Results show that with a given receiver aperture size, the use of a spatially partially coherent source can reduce both the fractional fade time and average fade duration of the received light signal; however, when atmospheric turbulence grows strong, the reduction in the fractional fade time becomes insignificant for both large and small receiver apertures and in the average fade duration turns inconsiderable for small receiver apertures. It is also illustrated that if the receiver aperture size is fixed, changing the transverse correlation length of the source from a larger value to a smaller one can reduce the average fade frequency of the received light signal only when a threshold parameter in decibels greater than the critical threshold level is specified.

  18. Overestimation of soil CO2 fluxes from closed chamber measurements at low atmospheric turbulence biases the diurnal pattern and the annual soil respiration budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braendholt, Andreas; Steenberg Larsen, Klaus; Ibrom, Andreas; Pilegaard, Kim

    2016-04-01

    Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic effect of low atmospheric turbulence on continuous hourly Rs measurements with closed chambers throughout one year in a temperate Danish beech forest. Using friction velocity (u⋆) measured at the site above the canopy, we filtered out chamber flux data measured at low atmospheric turbulence. The non-filtered data showed a clear diurnal pattern of Rs across all seasons with highest fluxes during night time suggesting an implausible negative temperature sensitivity of Rs. When filtering out data at low turbulence, the annually averaged diurnal pattern changed, such that the highest Rs fluxes were seen during day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when including all data and it decreased with an increasing u⋆ filter threshold. Our results show that Rs was overestimated at low atmospheric turbulence throughout the year and that this overestimation considerably biased the diurnal pattern of Rs and led to an overestimation of the annual Rs budget. Thus we recommend that that any analysis of the diurnal pattern of Rs must consider overestimation of Rs at low atmospheric turbulence, to yield unbiased diurnal patterns. This is crucial when investigating temperature responses and potential links between CO2 production and Rs on a short time scale, but also for correct estimation of annual Rs budgets. Acknowledgements: This study was funded by the free Danish Ministry for Research, Innovation and higher Education, the free Danish Research

  19. 大气光学湍流模型研究进展%A Review of Atmospheric Optical Turbulence Modeling Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红帅; 姚永强; 刘立勇

    2012-01-01

    综述大气光学湍流模型方法的发展历程和最新进展.大气光学湍流模型方法利用气象数据和光学湍流参数化模型,能同时获得台址的全面大气光学湍流参数,包括C2n廓线、大气相干长度、相干时间、视宁度、等晕角和湍流外尺度.介绍了利用气象参数来计算光学湍流的各种方法及其特点,回顾了国际国内进行光学湍流模型研究的主要研究单位与工作内容,提出大气光学湍流模型方法国内研究的发展方向.%Atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast for astronomy is a relatively recent discipline, but has played important role in site survey for astronomical observatories and optimization of large telescope observing scheduling, and in the applications of adaptive optics technique and atmospheric optical transportation. The numerical approach, by use of meteorological parameters and according to parameterization of optical turbulence, can provide all the optical turbulence parameters, such as C2n profile, coherent length, coherent time., seeing, isoplanatic angle, and, outer scale of turbulence. .This paper reviews the development and recent progress in atmospheric optical turbulence modeling and forecast. The main methods and models to calculate optical turbulence state by meteorological parameters are summarized, including average profile, physical model(AFGL and C-V), analytical model, and numerical model. The main teams of international institutes in this field, including ForOT in Italy. MKWC at Hawaii University, ABL of American Air Force and Fizeau Lab at Nice University, and their contributions to the research are introduced. The ability of the modeling optical turbulence above Cerro Paranal, Roque de los Muchachos, San Pedro Martir, Mt Graham, Dome C, Dome A, South Pole, and Mauna Kea have been confirmed using the measurements of the optical turbulence vertical distribution. The related works by Chinese institutes, including Shanghai

  20. Characteristics of layers, waves and turbulence in the atmosphere and ionosphere as estimated by GPS space radio-holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavelyev, Alexander; Gubenko, Vladimir; Matyugov, Stanislav; Pavelyev, Alexey

    The spatial, seasonal and geographical distrubutions of the intensity of layers, turbulence and internal waves at different altitudes in the atmosphere and ionosphere of the Earth are presented. The results have been obtained on the base of locality principle using a new phase acceleration-intensity method for analysis of the GPS radio occultation signals. This methodology has been applied to mesearements of the inclination and altitude of ionospheric layers. Obtained information has been used for estimation of the front orientation, internal frequency and phase speed of the internal waves in the ionosphere and neutral atmosphere. A new index of the ionospheric activity as measured from the phase of radio waves passed through the ionosphere is introduced and its high correlation with S4 scintillation index is established. This correlation indicates the significant influence of ionospheric layers on variations of characteristics of radio waves in transionospheric communication links. Specially for the troposphere the geographical distribution of the weak total absorption (about of 1-2 db) of the radio waves at GPS frequencies in the Earth atmosphere corresponding to influence of the oxygen and water vapor in the troposphere is measured with accuracy better than 0.1 db. Obtained results expanded the applicable domain of the GPS space radio-holography for global investigation of the natural processes in the atmosphere and ionosphere as function of solar activity and space weather effects. The new phase acceleration-intensity method is also a basic tool which can be applied for data analysis of future planetary radio occultation missions

  1. Impact of storm-induced cooling of sea surface temperature on large turbulent eddies and vertical turbulent transport in the atmospheric boundary layer of Hurricane Isaac

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ping; Wang, Yuting; Chen, Shuyi S.; Curcic, Milan; Gao, Cen

    2016-01-01

    Roll vortices in the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are important to oil operation and oil spill transport. This study investigates the impact of storm-induced sea surface temperature (SST) cooling on the roll vortices generated by the convective and dynamic instability in the ABL of Hurricane Isaac (2012) and the roll induced transport using hindcasting large eddy simulations (LESs) configured from the multiply nested Weather Research & Forecasting model. Two experiments are performed: one forced by the Unified Wave INterface - Coupled Model and the other with the SST replaced by the NCEP FNL analysis that does not include the storm-induced SST cooling. The simulations show that the roll vortices are the prevalent eddy circulations in the ABL of Isaac. The storm-induced SST cooling causes the ABL stability falls in a range that satisfies the empirical criterion of roll generation by dynamic instability, whereas the ABL stability without considering the storm-induced SST cooling meets the criterion of roll generation by convective instability. The ABL roll is skewed and the increase of convective instability enhances the skewness. Large convective instability leads to large vertical transport of heat and moisture; whereas the dominant dynamic instability results in large turbulent kinetic energy but relatively weak heat and moisture transport. This study suggests that failure to consider roll vortices or incorrect initiation of dynamic and convective instability of rolls in simulations may substantially affect the transport of momentum, energy, and pollutants in the ABL and the dispersion/advection of oil spill fume at the ocean surface.

  2. Software-based mitigation of image degradation due to atmospheric turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebner, Claudia S.; Scheifling, Corinne

    2010-10-01

    Motion-Compensated Averaging (MCA) with blind deconvolution has proven successful in mitigating turbulence effects like image dancing and blurring. In this paper an image quality control according to the "Lucky Imaging" principle is combined with the MCA-procedure, weighting good frames more heavily than bad ones, skipping a given percentage of extremely degraded frames entirely. To account for local isoplanatism, when image dancing will effect local displacements between consecutive frames rather than global shifts only, a locally operating MCA variant with block matching, proposed in earlier work, is employed. In order to reduce loss of detail due to normal averaging, various combinations of temporal mode, median and mean are tested as reference image. The respective restoration results by means of a weighted blind deconvolution algorithm are presented and evaluated.

  3. Influence of leads widths distribution on turbulent heat transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Leads are linear-like structures of open water within the sea ice cover that develop as the result of fracturing due to divergence or shear. Through leads, air and water come into contact and directly exchange latent and sensible heat through convective processes driven by the large temperature and moisture differences between them. In the central Arctic, leads only cover 1 to 2% of the ocean during winter, but account for more than 80% of the heat fluxes. Furthermore, narrow leads (several meters are more than twice as efficient at transmitting turbulent heat than larger ones (several hundreds of meters. We show that lead widths are power law distributed, P(X~X−a with a>1, down to very small spatial scales (20 m or below. This implies that the open water fraction is by far dominated by very small leads. Using two classical formulations, which provide first order turbulence closure for the fetch-dependence of heat fluxes, we find that the mean heat fluxes (sensible and latent over open water are up to 55 % larger when considering the lead width distribution obtained from a SPOT satellite image of the ice cover, compared to the situation where the open water fraction constitutes one unique large lead and the rest of the area is covered by ice, as it is usually considered in climate models at the grid scale. This difference may be even larger if we assume that the power law scaling of lead widths extents down to smaller (~1 m scales. Such estimations may be a first step towards a subgrid scale parameterization of the spatial distribution of open water for heat fluxes calculations in ocean/sea ice coupled models.

  4. Instrumental intercomparison investigating vertical profiles of optical turbulence and wind speed in the lower atmospheric boundary layer during frontal passages in northwestern Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprung, Detlev; Stein, Karin; Sucher, Erik; Englander, Abraham; Fastig, Salomon; Porat, Omar

    2016-10-01

    The German-Israeli intercomparison experiment on the investigation of vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed and optical turbulence in the lower atmospheric boundary layer from 4th to 7th May 2015 was characterized by frontal activity in the atmosphere. The newly developed remote LIDAR-device of the Soreq institute for the investigation of the vertical wind and turbulence field was compared to the routinely performed measurements at the VerTurM (Vertical Turbulence Measurements) field site in Meppen, Germany. The long-term experiment VerTurM is focused on measurements of the optical turbulence and comprises scintillometer measurements close to the ground (1.15 m height), sonic anemometer measurements on a tall tower at 4 m, 8 m, 32 m, and 64 m and a SODAR-RASS-system. The temporal development of the vertical profiles of horizontal wind speed and optical turbulence Cn 2 during the frontal passage is investigated. Additional radiosonde measurements were performed to characterize the boundary layer height during the day.

  5. Atmospheric Turbulence Measurements With the Automatic Mini UAV 'M2AV Carolo'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bange, J.; van den Kroonenberg, A. C.; Spieß, T.; Buschmann, M.; Krüger, L.; Heindorf, A.; Vörsmann, P.

    2007-05-01

    The limitations of manned airborne meteorological measurements led to the development of an autonomously operating mini aircraft, the Meteorological Mini-UAV (M2AV), at the Institute of Aerospace Systems, Technical University of Braunschweig, Germany. The task was to develop, test and verify a meteorological sensor package as payload for an already available automatic carrier aircraft, the UAV 'Carolo T200', which operates autonomously i.e. without remote control. The M2AV is a self constructed model aircraft with two electrically powered engines and a wingspan of two meters. The maximum take-off weight is 4.5~kg (the M2AV is therefore classified as an model plane which simplifies authority issues), including 1.5~kg of payload. It is hand-launched which makes operation of the aircraft easy. With an endurance of approximately 50 minutes, the range accounts for 60 km at a cruising speed of 20~m/s. The M2AV is capable of performing turbulence measurements (wind vector, temperature and humidity) within the troposphere and offers an economic component during meteorological campaigns. The meteorological sensors are mounted on a noseboom to minimise the aircraft's influence on the measurements and to position the sensors closely to each other. Wind is measured via a small five-hole probe, an inertia measurement unit and GPS. The flight mission (waypoints, altitudes, airspeed) is planned and assigned to the aircraft before the semi- automatic launch. The flight is only controlled by the on-board autopilot system which only communicates with a ground station (laptop PC) for the exchange of measured data and command updates like new waypoints etc. The talk gives details on the technical items, calibration and first missions. Results from first field experiments like the LAUNCH-2005 campaign near Berlin are used for data quality assessment by comparison with simultaneous lidar and sodar measurements. An in situ comparison with the highly accurate helicopter-borne turbulence

  6. Temporal coherence of a soundfield in the turbulent atmosphere near the ground

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arranz, Marta Galindo; Havelock, Dave I.

    1996-01-01

    A sound field propagating through the atmosphere changes with time due to the dynamics of the inhomogeneous medium. The coherence time, defined as the time lag beyond which the auto correlation is less than 1/e, is a time scale for dynamics of the medium as well as design criteria for coherent...... the temporal coherence for individual tones at various ranges. The source and the receivers were positioned near the ground. Both upward and downward refracting conditions are considered. The characteristics of the data observed during the different conditions are related to simple models of the corresponding...

  7. The influence of vegetation and relief heterogeneity on turbulent exchange of CO2 between land surface and the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhartova, Juliya; Levashova, Natalia; Volkova, Elena; Olchev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    vegetation and land-use types are situated far enough from the domain boundaries. It enabled us to assume that near these boundaries the values of vertical and horizontal wind components are independent on x coordinate. To quantify the possible effects of relief and vegetation heterogeneity on CO2 fluxes the three transects crossing the study area were chosen. For each transect the 2D patterns of wind speed components, turbulent exchange coefficients, CO2 concentrations and fluxes were calculated. The modeled vertical CO2 fluxes were compared with the fluxes calculated without allowing for turbulent disturbances due to relief and vegetation heterogeneity. All modeling experiments were provided for different weather conditions. The results of modeling experiments for different transects under various meteorological conditions showed that relief and vegetation heterogeneity have a significant impact on CO2 fluxes within the atmospheric surface layer and their ignoring can results in uncertainties in flux estimations. This study was supported by the Russian Science Foundation (Grant 14-14-00956).

  8. Modeling of power spectral density of modified von Karman atmospheric phase turbulence and acousto-optic chaos using scattered intensity profiles over discrete time intervals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Monish R.; Mohamed, Fathi H. A.

    2014-10-01

    In recent research, propagation of plane electromagnetic (EM) waves through a turbulent medium with modified von Karman phase characteristics was modeled and numerically simulated using transverse planar apertures representing narrow phase turbulence along the propagation path. The case for extended turbulence was also studied by repeating the planar phase screens multiple times over the propagation path and incorporating diffractive effects via a split-step algorithm. The goal of the research reported here is to examine two random phenomena: (a) atmospheric turbulence due to von Karman-type phase fluctuations, and (b) chaos generated in an acousto-optic (A-O) Bragg cell under hybrid feedback. The latter problem has been thoroughly examined for its nonlinear dynamics and applications in secure communications. However, the statistical characteristics (such as the power spectral density (PSD)) of the chaos have not been estimated in recent work. To that end, treating the chaos phenomena as a random process, the time waveforms of the chaos intensity and their spectra are numerically evaluated over a (large) number of time iterations. These spectra are then averaged to derive the equivalent PSD of the A-O chaos. For the turbulence problem, an optical beam passing through an input pinhole is propagated through a random phase screen (placed at different locations) to a desired distance (typically near-field) under different levels of turbulence strength. The resulting spatial intensity profile is then averaged and the process repeated over a (large) number of pre-specified time intervals. From this data, once again, the turbulence PSD is calculated via the Fourier spectra of the average intensity snapshots. The results for the two systems are compared.

  9. A new first-order turbulence mixing model for the stable atmospheric boundary-layer: development and testing in large-eddy and single column models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J.; Bou-Zeid, E.; Golaz, J.

    2011-12-01

    Parameterization of the stably-stratified atmospheric boundary-layer is of crucial importance to different aspects of numerical weather prediction at regional scales and climate modeling at global scales, such as land-surface temperature forecasts, fog and frost prediction, and polar climate. It is well-known that most operational climate models require excessive turbulence mixing of the stable boundary-layer to prevent decoupling of the atmospheric component from the land component under strong stability, but the performance of such a model is unlikely to be satisfactory under weakly and moderately stable conditions. In this study we develop and test a general turbulence mixing model of the stable boundary-layer which works under different stabilities and for steady as well as unsteady conditions. A-priori large-eddy simulation (LES) tests are presented to motivate and verify the new parameterization. Subsequently, an assessment of this model using the GFDL single-column model (SCM) is performed. Idealized test cases including continuously varying stability, as well as stability discontinuity, are used to test the new SCM against LES results. A good match of mean and flux profiles is found when the new parameterization is used, while other traditional first-order turbulence models using the concept of stability function perform poorly. SCM spatial resolution is also found to have little impact on the performance of the new turbulence closure, but temporal resolution is important and a numerical stability criterion based on the model time step is presented.

  10. Turbulent characteristics of a semiarid atmospheric surface layer from cup anemometers A~é effects of soil tillage treatment (Northern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahaya, S.; Frangi, J. P.; Richard, D. C.

    2003-10-01

    This paper deals with the characteristics of turbulent flow over two agricultural plots with various tillage treatments in a fallow, semiarid area (Central Aragon, Spain). The main dynamic characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer (ASL) measured over the experimental site (friction velocity, roughness length, etc.), and energy budget, have been presented previously (Frangi and Richard, 2000). The current study is based on experimental measurements performed with cup anemometers located in the vicinity of the ground at 5 different levels (from 0.25 to 4 m) and sampled at 1 Hz. It reveals that the horizontal wind variance, the Eulerian integral scales, the frequency range of turbulence and the turbulent kinetic energy dissipation rate are affected by the surface roughness. In the vicinity of the ground surface, the horizontal wind variance logarithmically increases with height, directly in relation to the friction velocity and the roughness length scale. It was found that the time integral scale (and subsequently the length integral scale) increased with the surface roughness and decreased with the anemometer height. These variations imply some shifts in the meteorological spectral gap and some variations of the spectral peak length scale. The turbulent energy dissipation rate, affected by the soil roughness, shows a z-less stratification behaviour under stable conditions. In addition to the characterization of the studied ASL, this paper intends to show which turbulence characteristics, and under what conditions, are accessible through the cup anemometer.

  11. 大气湍流模糊图像的高分辨力复原算法%High resolution restoration algorithm of atmospheric turbulence blurred image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李思雯; 徐超; 刘广荣; 金伟其

    2013-01-01

    大气湍流是大气中的一种重要运动形式,它的存在使大气中的动量、热量、水气和污染物的垂直和水平交换作用明显增强,这种干扰作用极大地影响了光电成像系统对于目标的分辨能力。由于湍流影响而退化的图像中同时存在着“幸运区域”,用适当的算法可以获得高分辨力复原图像。为了获取包含“幸运区域”的大气湍流模糊图像,在实验室使用人造湍流,并结合短曝光技术拍摄了大气湍流干扰的序列图像。文中应用矩形交叠分块方法,改进了基于偏微分方程(PDE′s)的序列图像复原算法,对获取的序列短曝光图像进行处理。结果表明,经该算法处理得到的合成图像质量有明显的提升,该算法对大气湍流造成的图像质量退化有较好的复原作用。%Atmospheric turbulence is an important form of movement in the atmosphere, which makes the vertical and horizontal′s exchange interaction of momentum, heat, water vapor and pollutants significantly enhanced, and this interference has a great impact on the target resolution of optical imaging system. There also have "lucky regions" in the degraded images because of turbulence, so the appropriate algorithm can obtain high resolution restored image. To obtain the atmospheric turbulence blurred images which contains "lucky regions", the artificial turbulence was used in the laboratory and combined with the short-exposure technique to take a serial of atmospheric turbulence blurred images. The rectangle overlapped partition method was used and the image restoration algorithm was improved based on nonlinear partial-derivative equations (PDE′s), to process the obtained short exposure serial images. The results show that, the image quality of the composite image is improved obviously, this algorithm has great restoration effect on images′ quality degradation caused by atmospheric turbulence.

  12. Parallel implementation of high-speed, phase diverse atmospheric turbulence compensation method on a neural network-based architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrasmith, William W.; Sullivan, Sean F.

    2008-04-01

    Phase diversity imaging methods work well in removing atmospheric turbulence and some system effects from predominantly near-field imaging systems. However, phase diversity approaches can be computationally intensive and slow. We present a recently adapted, high-speed phase diversity method using a conventional, software-based neural network paradigm. This phase-diversity method has the advantage of eliminating many time consuming, computationally heavy calculations and directly estimates the optical transfer function from the entrance pupil phases or phase differences. Additionally, this method is more accurate than conventional Zernike-based, phase diversity approaches and lends itself to implementation on parallel software or hardware architectures. We use computer simulation to demonstrate how this high-speed, phase diverse imaging method can be implemented on a parallel, highspeed, neural network-based architecture-specifically the Cellular Neural Network (CNN). The CNN architecture was chosen as a representative, neural network-based processing environment because 1) the CNN can be implemented in 2-D or 3-D processing schemes, 2) it can be implemented in hardware or software, 3) recent 2-D implementations of CNN technology have shown a 3 orders of magnitude superiority in speed, area, or power over equivalent digital representations, and 4) a complete development environment exists. We also provide a short discussion on processing speed.

  13. Optical Spatial Filter to Suppress Beam Wander and Spatial Noise Induced by Atmospheric Turbulence in Free-Space Optical Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ucuk Darusalam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose an optical spatial filter (OSF method to suppress beam wander and spatial noise effects. Signal from random displacements of the focus spot around the optical axis within the constricted area is collected. This method advantageously suppresses fluctuations in signal intensity. The OSF consists of a pinhole and cone reflector. The pinhole produces Fresnel diffraction on the focus spot. The cone reflector provides directed reflectance onto the pinhole for random focus spot displacements due to beam wander. The calculations of signal power are based on fluctuations of signal intensity that are minimized by the circular aperture function of the pinhole and the cosine of the reflectance angle from the cone reflector. The method is applied to free-space optical communications at a wavelength of 1.55 μm with an atmospheric chamber to provide optical propagation media. Based on calculations, the beam wander angles that can be received by the OSF are from 14.0° to 28.0°. Moreover, based on experiment, the OSF with a pinhole diameter of 20.0 μm and cone reflector diameter of 1.5 mm produces signal power of −15.3 dBm. Both calculations and experiment show that the OSF enhances the received signal power in the presence of turbulence.

  14. Fluid-structure interaction simulation of floating structures interacting with complex, large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Calderer, Antoni; Shen, Lian; Sotiropoulos, Fotis

    2016-01-01

    We develop a numerical method for simulating coupled interactions of complex floating structures with large-scale ocean waves and atmospheric turbulence. We employ an efficient large-scale model to develop offshore wind and wave environmental conditions, which are then incorporated into a high resolution two-phase flow solver with fluid-structure interaction (FSI). The large-scale wind-wave interaction model is based on the two-fluid dynamically-coupled approach of Yang and Shen (2011), which employs a high-order spectral method for simulating the water motion and a viscous solver with undulatory boundaries for the air motion. The two-phase flow FSI solver, developed by Calderer, Kang, and Sotiropoulos (2014), is based on the level set method and is capable of simulating the coupled dynamic interaction of arbitrarily complex bodies with airflow and waves. The large-scale wave field solver is coupled with the near-field FSI solver by feeding into the latter waves via the pressure-forcing method of Guo and Shen...

  15. Fixed-wing MAV attitude stability in atmospheric turbulence-Part 2: Investigating biologically-inspired sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, A.; Watkins, S.; Clothier, R.; Abdulrahim, M.; Massey, K.; Sabatini, R.

    2014-11-01

    Challenges associated with flight control of agile fixed-wing Micro Air Vehicles (MAVs) operating in complex environments is significantly different to any larger scale vehicle. The micro-scale of MAVs can make them particularly sensitive to atmospheric disturbances thus limiting their operation. As described in Part 1, current conventional reactive attitude sensing systems lack the necessary response times for attitude control in high turbulence environments. This paper reviews in greater detail novel and emerging biologically inspired sensors, which can sense the disturbances before a perturbation is induced. A number of biological mechanoreceptors used by flying animals are explored for their utility in MAVs. Man-made attempts of replicating mechanoreceptors have thus been reviewed. Bio-inspired flow and pressure-based sensors were found to be the most promising for complementing or replacing current inertial-based reactive attitude sensors. Achieving practical implementations that meet the size, weight and power constraints of MAVs remains a significant challenge. Biological systems were found to rely on multiple sensors, potentially implying a number of research opportunities in the exploration of heterogeneous bio-inspired sensing solutions.

  16. Influence and impact of the parametrization of the turbulent air-sea fluxes on atmospheric moisture and convection in the tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Olivier; Braconnot, Pascale; Gainusa-Bogdan, Alina; Hourdin, Frédéric; Marti, Olivier; Pelletier, Charles

    2016-04-01

    The turbulent fluxes across the ocean/atmosphere interface represent one of the principal driving forces of the global atmospheric and oceanic circulation and are also responsible for various phenomena like the water supply to the atmospheric column, which itself is extremely important for atmospheric convection. Although the representation of these fluxes has been the subject of major studies, it still remains a very challenging problem. Our aim is to better understand the role of these fluxes in climate change experiments and in the equator-pole redistribution of heat and water by the oceanic and atmospheric circulation. For this, we are developing a methodology starting from idealized 1D experiments and going all the way up to fully coupled ocean-atmosphere simulations of past and future climates. The poster will propose a synthesis of different simulations we have performed with a 1D version of the LMDz atmosphere model towards a first objective of understanding how different parameterizations of the turbulent fluxes affect the moisture content of the atmosphere and the feedback with the atmospheric boundary layer and convection schemes. Air-sea fluxes are not directly resolved by the models because they are subgrid-scale phenomena and are therefore represented by parametrizations. We investigate the differences between several 1D simulations of the TOGA-COARE campaign (1992-1993, Pacific warm pool region), for which 1D boundary conditions and observations are available to test the results of atmospheric models. Each simulation considers a different version of the LMDz model in terms of bulk formula (four) used to compute the turbulent fluxes. We also consider how the representation of gustiness in these parameterizations affects the results. The use of this LMDz test case (very constrained within an idealized framework) allows us to determine how the response of surface fluxes helps to reinforce or damp the atmospheric water vapor content or cloud feedbacks

  17. Derivation of turbulent energy dissipation rate with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar System (MAARSY) and radiosondes at Andøya, Norway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiang; Rapp, Markus; Schrön, Anne; Schneider, Andreas; Stober, Gunter

    2016-12-01

    We present the derivation of turbulent energy dissipation rate ɛ from a total of 522 days of observations with the Middle Atmosphere Alomar Radar SYstem (MAARSY) mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar running tropospheric experiments during the period of 2010-2013 as well as with balloon-borne radiosondes based on a campaign in the summer 2013. Spectral widths are converted to ɛ after the removal of the broadening effects due to the finite beam width of the radar. With the simultaneous in situ measurements of ɛ with balloon-borne radiosondes at the MAARSY radar site, we compare the ɛ values derived from both techniques and reach an encouraging agreement between them. Using all the radar data available, we present a preliminary climatology of atmospheric turbulence in the UTLS (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) region above the MAARSY site showing a variability of more than 5 orders of magnitude inherent in turbulent energy dissipation rates. The derived ɛ values reveal a log-normal distribution with a negative skewness, and the ɛ profiles show an increase with height which is also the case for each individual month. Atmospheric turbulence based on our radar measurements reveals a seasonal variation but no clear diurnal variation in the UTLS region. Comparison of ɛ with the gradient Richardson number Ri shows that only 1.7 % of all the data with turbulence occur under the condition of Ri 1. Further, there is a roughly negative correlation between ɛ and Ri that is independent of the scale dependence of Ri. Turbulence under active dynamical conditions (velocity of horizontal wind U > 10 m s-1) is significantly stronger than under quiet conditions (U < 10 m s-1). Last but not least, the derived ɛ values are compared with the corresponding vertical shears of background wind velocity showing a linear relation with a corresponding correlation coefficient r = 58 % well above the 99.9 % significance level. This implies that wind shears play an

  18. A unified parameterization of clouds and turbulence using CLUBB and subcolumns in the Community Atmosphere Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Thayer-Calder

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Most global climate models parameterize separate cloud types using separate parameterizations. This approach has several disadvantages, including obscure interactions between parameterizations and inaccurate triggering of cumulus parameterizations. Alternatively, a unified cloud parameterization uses one equation set to represent all cloud types. Such cloud types include stratiform liquid and ice cloud, shallow convective cloud, and deep convective cloud. Vital to the success of a unified parameterization is a general interface between clouds and microphysics. One such interface involves drawing Monte Carlo samples of subgrid variability of temperature, water vapor, cloud liquid, and cloud ice, and feeding the sample points into a microphysics scheme. This study evaluates a unified cloud parameterization and a Monte Carlo microphysics interface that has been implemented in the Community Atmosphere Model (CAM version 5.3. Results describing the mean climate and tropical variability from global simulations are presented. The new model shows a degradation in precipitation skill but improvements in short-wave cloud forcing, liquid water path, long-wave cloud forcing, precipitable water, and tropical wave simulation. Also presented are estimations of computational expense and investigation of sensitivity to number of subcolumns.

  19. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  20. A comparison between energy transfer and atmospheric turbulent exchanges over alpine meadow and banana plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zhangwei; Ma, Yaoming; Wen, Zhiping; Ma, Weiqiang

    2016-04-01

    Banana plantation and alpine meadow ecosystems in southern China and the Tibetan Plateau are unique in the underlying surfaces they exhibit. In this study, we used eddy covariance and a micrometeorological tower to examine the characteristics of land surface energy exchanges over a banana plantation in southern China and an alpine meadow in the Tibetan Plateau from May 2010 to August 2012. The results showed that the diurnal and seasonal variations in upward shortwave radiation flux and surface soil heat flux were larger over the alpine meadow than over the banana plantation surface. Dominant energy partitioning varied with season. Latent heat flux was the main consumer of net radiation flux in the growing season, whereas sensible heat flux was the main consumer during other periods. The Monin-Obukhov similarity theory was employed for comparative purposes, using sonic anemometer observations of flow over the surfaces of banana plantations in the humid southern China monsoon region and the semi-arid areas of the TP, and was found to be applicable. Over banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, the average surface albedo and surface aerodynamic roughness lengths under neutral atmospheric conditions were ~0.128 and 0.47m, and ~0.223 and 0.01m, respectively. During the measuring period, the mean annual bulk transfer coefficients for momentum and sensible heat were 1.47×10-2 and 7.13×10-3, and 2.91×10-3 and 1.96×10-3, for banana plantation and alpine meadow areas, respectively. This is the first time in Asia that long-term open field measurements have been taken with the specific aim of making comparisons between banana plantation and alpine meadow surfaces.

  1. From the Clasic Theory of Turbulence to the Nonequilibrium Thermodynamic Theory of Atmospheric Turbulence%从湍流经典理论到大气湍流非平衡态热力学理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡隐樵; 陈晋北; 吕世华

    2012-01-01

    The turbulence is one of the ubiquitous natural phenomena in everyday experience,and a puzzle that is not yet fully resolved in classical physics.All the more so,it is a basic characteristic of the atmospheric motion.This paper reviews by the numbers the develop history of classic theory of atmospheric turbulence,further more introduces detailedly the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory of atmospheric turbulence.In the nonequilibrium thermodynamic theory of atmospheric turbulence,the entropy equilibrium equation of atmospheric system with dynamic processes is introduced,and then Fourier′s and Flick′s laws,Newton′s Law deducted by,and both the Dufour and the Soret effects,the cross coupling effect between the dynamic and turbulent transport processes in the atmosphere,and the turbulent intensity theorem are uniformly proved by atmospheric nonequilibrium thermodynamics.These laws and theorem are partially validated by using observed data,further to determine their phenomenological coefficients.The turbulent intensity theorem reveals that the macroscopic cause of the development of fluid turbulence is a result of the shearing effects of velocity together with temperature and proves that both Reynolds turbulence and Rayleigh-Bé nard turbulence coexist in the atmosphere.The discovery of the coupling effect phenomenon between the thermodynamic and dynamic processes breaks through the viewpoint of the theories of traditional turbulent transport,Fourier′s and Flick′s laws,and Newton′s Law,i.e.,the transport flux of one kind of macroscopic quantity is equivalent to the gradient turbulent transport flux of this macroscopic quantity.Moreover,the coupling principle between the thermodynamic and dynamic processes deems that the transport flux of one kind of macroscopic quantity should include the velocity coupling transport in addition to the gradient turbulent transport flux of this macroscopic quantity.Consequently,the vertical transport flux of energy and matter

  2. On the Performance of Free-Space Optical Systems over Generalized Atmospheric Turbulence Channels with Pointing Errors

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-03-01

    Generalized fading has been an imminent part and parcel of wireless communications. It not only characterizes the wireless channel appropriately but also allows its utilization for further performance analysis of various types of wireless communication systems. Under the umbrella of generalized fading channels, a unified performance analysis of a free-space optical (FSO) link over the Malaga (M) atmospheric turbulence channel that accounts for pointing errors and both types of detection techniques (i.e. indirect modulation/direct detection (IM/DD) as well as heterodyne detection) is presented. Specifically, unified exact closed-form expressions for the probability density function (PDF), the cumulative distribution function (CDF), the moment generating function (MGF), and the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single link FSO transmission system are presented, all in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function except for the moments that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Then capitalizing on these unified results, unified exact closed-form expressions for various performance metrics of FSO link transmission systems are offered, such as, the outage probability (OP), the higher-order amount of fading (AF), the average error rate for binary and M-ary modulation schemes, and the ergodic capacity (except for IM/DD technique, where closed-form lower bound results are presented), all in terms of Meijer\\'s G functions except for the higher-order AF that is in terms of simple elementary functions. Additionally, the asymptotic results are derived for all the expressions derived earlier in terms of the Meijer\\'s G function in the high SNR regime in terms of simple elementary functions via an asymptotic expansion of the Meijer\\'s G function. Furthermore, new asymptotic expressions for the ergodic capacity in the low as well as high SNR regimes are derived in terms of simple elementary functions via utilizing moments. All the presented results are

  3. Overestimation of soil CO2 fluxes from closed chamber measurements at low atmospheric turbulence biases the diurnal pattern and the annual soil respiration budget

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brændholt, Andreas; Larsen, Klaus Steenberg; Ibrom, Andreas;

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Precise quantification of the diurnal and seasonal variation of soil respiration (Rs) is crucial to correctly estimate annual soil carbon fluxes as well as to correctly interpret the response of Rs to biotic and abiotic factors on different time scale. In this study we found a systematic...... day time, i.e. following the course of soil temperatures. This effect on the diurnal pattern was due to low turbulence primarily occurring during night time. We calculated different annual Rs budgets by filtering out fluxes for different levels of u⋆. The highest annual Rs budget was found when...... recommend that that any analysis of the diurnal pattern of Rs must consider overestimation of Rs at low atmospheric turbulence, to yield unbiased diurnal patterns. This is crucial when investigating temperature responses and potential links between CO2 production and Rs on a short time scale, but also...

  4. Aviation turbulence processes, detection, prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Lane, Todd

    2016-01-01

    Anyone who has experienced turbulence in flight knows that it is usually not pleasant, and may wonder why this is so difficult to avoid. The book includes papers by various aviation turbulence researchers and provides background into the nature and causes of atmospheric turbulence that affect aircraft motion, and contains surveys of the latest techniques for remote and in situ sensing and forecasting of the turbulence phenomenon. It provides updates on the state-of-the-art research since earlier studies in the 1960s on clear-air turbulence, explains recent new understanding into turbulence generation by thunderstorms, and summarizes future challenges in turbulence prediction and avoidance.

  5. Real time mitigation of atmospheric turbulence in long distance imaging using the lucky region fusion algorithm with FPGA and GPU hardware acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher Robert

    "Lucky-region" fusion (LRF) is a synthetic imaging technique that has proven successful in enhancing the quality of images distorted by atmospheric turbulence. The LRF algorithm selects sharp regions of an image obtained from a series of short exposure frames, and fuses the sharp regions into a final, improved image. In previous research, the LRF algorithm had been implemented on a PC using the C programming language. However, the PC did not have sufficient sequential processing power to handle real-time extraction, processing and reduction required when the LRF algorithm was applied to real-time video from fast, high-resolution image sensors. This thesis describes two hardware implementations of the LRF algorithm to achieve real-time image processing. The first was created with a VIRTEX-7 field programmable gate array (FPGA). The other developed using the graphics processing unit (GPU) of a NVIDIA GeForce GTX 690 video card. The novelty in the FPGA approach is the creation of a "black box" LRF video processing system with a general camera link input, a user controller interface, and a camera link video output. We also describe a custom hardware simulation environment we have built to test the FPGA LRF implementation. The advantage of the GPU approach is significantly improved development time, integration of image stabilization into the system, and comparable atmospheric turbulence mitigation.

  6. Statistics of photoelectrons in the reception of radiation which has passed through a turbulent atmosphere with a scattering region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazarian, R.A.; Oganesian, A.V.

    1979-10-01

    An expression is obtained for the stationary distribution of photoelectrons at the output of a photodetector operating in the photon-counting mode when receiving radiation whose fluctuations are due to the combined activity of a turbulent layer (before and after scattering) and to a scattering region. The analytical relations obtained are shown to be correct by the use of probabilistic digital simulation.

  7. Turbulent Transfer Coefficients and Calculation of Air Temperature inside Tall Grass Canopies in Land Atmosphere Schemes for Environmental Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovic, D. T.; Alapaty, K.; Lalic, B.; Arsenic, I.; Rajkovic, B.; Malinovic, S.

    2004-10-01

    A method for estimating profiles of turbulent transfer coefficients inside a vegetation canopy and their use in calculating the air temperature inside tall grass canopies in land surface schemes for environmental modeling is presented. The proposed method, based on K theory, is assessed using data measured in a maize canopy. The air temperature inside the canopy is determined diagnostically by a method based on detailed consideration of 1) calculations of turbulent fluxes, 2) the shape of the wind and turbulent transfer coefficient profiles, and 3) calculation of the aerodynamic resistances inside tall grass canopies. An expression for calculating the turbulent transfer coefficient inside sparse tall grass canopies is also suggested, including modification of the corresponding equation for the wind profile inside the canopy. The proposed calculations of K-theory parameters are tested using the Land Air Parameterization Scheme (LAPS). Model outputs of air temperature inside the canopy for 8 17 July 2002 are compared with micrometeorological measurements inside a sunflower field at the Rimski Sancevi experimental site (Serbia). To demonstrate how changes in the specification of canopy density affect the simulation of air temperature inside tall grass canopies and, thus, alter the growth of PBL height, numerical experiments are performed with LAPS coupled with a one-dimensional PBL model over a sunflower field. To examine how the turbulent transfer coefficient inside tall grass canopies over a large domain represents the influence of the underlying surface on the air layer above, sensitivity tests are performed using a coupled system consisting of the NCEP Nonhydrostatic Mesoscale Model and LAPS.

  8. The structure of turbulence in the middle and lower atmosphere seen by and deduced from MF, HF and VHF radar, with special emphasis on small-scale features and anisotropy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. K. Hocking

    Full Text Available An overview of the turbulent structures seen by MF, HF and VHF radars in the troposphere, stratosphere and mesosphere is presented, drawing on evidence from previous radar measurements, in situ studies, laboratory observations, observations at frequencies other than those under focus, and modelling studies. We are particularly interested in structures at scales less than one radar pulse length, and smaller than the beam width, and especially the degree of anisotropy of turbulence at these scales. Previous radar observations are especially important in regard to the degree of anisotropy, and we highlight the role that these studies have had in furthering our understanding in this area. The contrasts and similarities between the models of anisotropic turbulence and specular reflection are considered. The need for more intense studies of anisotropy at MF, HF and VHF is especially highlighted, since this is an area in which these radars can make important contributions to the understanding of atmospheric turbulence.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (turbulenceAtmospheric composition and structure (instruments and techniques – History of geophysics (atmospheric sciences

  9. The aurora as a source of planetary-scale waves in the middle atmosphere. [atmospheric turbulence caused by auroral energy absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Y. T.; Straus, J. M.

    1974-01-01

    Photographs of global scale auroral forms taken by scanning radiometers onboard weather satellites in 1972 show that auroral bands exhibit well organized wave motion with typical zonal wave number of 5 or so. The scale size of these waves is in agreement with that of well organized neutral wind fields in the 150- to 200-km region during the geomagnetic storm of May 27, 1967. Further, the horizontal scale size revealed by these observations are in agreement with that of high altitude traveling ionospheric disturbances. It is conjectured that the geomagnetic storm is a source of planetary and synoptic scale neutral atmospheric waves in the middle atmosphere. Although there is, at present, no observation of substorm related waves of this scale size at mesospheric and stratospheric altitudes, the possible existence of a new source of waves of the proper scale size to trigger instabilities in middle atmospheric circulation systems may be significant in the study of lower atmospheric response to geomagnetic activity.

  10. On structural similarity in wall turbulence organization under weak thermal effects: from the wind tunnel to the atmospheric surface layer (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guala, M.

    2013-12-01

    Reproducing the different thermal stability regimes of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) in wind tunnel experiments requires accurate control of the free stream air and wall temperatures and a test section long enough to ensure the establishment of fully developed conditions. Such requirements are met in the SAFL atmospheric wind tunnel, with some limitations on the achievable range of z/L, confined between the weakly stratified and weakly convective boundary layers. A number of statistical checks based on Reynolds, Monin-Obukhov similarities, Kolmogorov small scale universality, temperature and velocity variance balance equations, are available to assess the quality of the measurements, flow and estimate of the scaling parameters. However, limited work has been devoted to the comparison of the spatio-temporal structure of turbulent flows from the laboratory to the field scale. Specifically, the vertical extent, scaling and statistical relevance of different structural types pose some scalability issues and deserve further investigation. PIV and triple wire measurements from the SAFL Wind Tunnel will be presented and compared with measurements in the atmospheric surface layer. Particular care is devoted to the contributions of large and very-large scale motions to the momentum and heat fluxes, and to their role in near-surface processes and wind energy.

  11. Bit error rate analysis of free-space optical system with spatial diversity over strong atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing errors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Prabu; Sriram Kumar, D.

    2014-12-01

    Free-space optical communication (FSO) is emerging as a captivating alternative to work out the hindrances in the connectivity problems. It can be used for transmitting signals over common lands and properties that the sender or receiver may not own. The performance of an FSO system depends on the random environmental conditions. The bit error rate (BER) performance of differential phase shift keying FSO system is investigated. A distributed strong atmospheric turbulence channel with pointing error is considered for the BER analysis. Here, the system models are developed for single-input, single-output-FSO (SISO-FSO) and single-input, multiple-output-FSO (SIMO-FSO) systems. The closed-form mathematical expressions are derived for the average BER with various combining schemes in terms of the Meijer's G function.

  12. Influence of sea ice lead-width distribution on turbulent heat transfer between the ocean and the atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Marcq

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Leads are linear-like structures of open water within the sea ice cover that develop as the result of fracturing due to divergence or shear. Through leads, air and water come into contact and directly exchange latent and sensible heat through convective processes driven by the large temperature and moisture differences between them. In the central Arctic, leads only cover 1 to 2% of the ocean during winter, but account for more than 70% of the upward heat fluxes. Furthermore, narrow leads (several meters are more than twice as efficient at transmitting turbulent heat than larger ones (several hundreds of meters. We show that lead widths are power law distributed, P(X~X−a with a>1, down to very small spatial scales (20 m or below. This implies that the open water fraction is by far dominated by very small leads. Using two classical formulations, which provide first order turbulence closure for the fetch-dependence of heat fluxes, we find that the mean heat fluxes (sensible and latent over open water are up to 55% larger when considering the lead-width distribution obtained from a SPOT satellite image of the ice cover, compared to the situation where the open water fraction constitutes one unique large lead and the rest of the area is covered by ice, as it is usually considered in climate models at the grid scale. This difference may be even larger if we assume that the power law scaling of lead widths extends down to smaller (~1 m scales. Such estimations may be a first step towards a subgrid scale parameterization of the spatial distribution of open water for heat fluxes calculations in ocean/sea ice coupled models.

  13. Investigating the Effects of Grid Resolution of WRF Model for Simulating the Atmosphere for use in the Study of Wake Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Alyssa; Trout, Joseph; di Mercurio, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) Model is a nested-grid, mesoscale numerical weather prediction system maintained by the Developmental Testbed Center. The model simulates the atmosphere by integrating partial differential equations, which use the conservation of horizontal momentum, conservation of thermal energy, and conservation of mass along with the ideal gas law. This research investigated the possible use of WRF in investigating the effects of weather on wing tip wake turbulence. This poster shows the results of an investigation into the accuracy of WRF using different grid resolutions. Several atmospheric conditions were modeled using different grid resolutions. In general, the higher the grid resolution, the better the simulation, but the longer the model run time. This research was supported by Dr. Manuel A. Rios, Ph.D. (FAA) and the grant ``A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Richard Stockton College of NJ and the FAA'' (13-G-006). Dr. Manuel A. Rios, Ph.D. (FAA), and the grant ``A Pilot Project to Investigate Wake Vortex Patterns and Weather Patterns at the Atlantic City Airport by the Richard Stockton College of NJ and the FAA''

  14. 森林近地层大气湍流特性观测分析%Observational Analysis on Turbulent Characteristics of the Atmospheric Surface Layer Above Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许俊卿; 陈蓓莹; 隋晓霞

    2014-01-01

    The measurement and observation for this study were carried out by using a three-dimensional (u,v,w)sonic anemometer (IAP-SA 485 )at the Forest Ecosystem Opened Research Station of Changbaishan Mountains.Some micrometeorological characteris-tics of wind speed,wind direction,atmospheric stability,and turbulent intensity,variance similarity,scalar fluxes in the near-sur-face layer were analyzed and compared on the basis of the observational data acquired by using the eddy correlation method in August and September 2003.The main results are as follows:(1)Atmospheric stability in August and September was basically concentrated in the vicinity of 0.(2)Turbulence was very active when wind speed was less than 2 m·s-1 and decreased rapidly with wind speed in-creasing.When the wind speed reached 3 m·s-1 ,the turbulence intensity deviated from 0 and got larger,and continued to increase untill a certain wind speed,then turbulence intensity didn’t change with wind speed basically.(3)The normalized variance of three-dimensional wind and z/L satisfied the similarity law under both unstable and stable stratification.Their universal functions also could be fitted according to the“law of 1/3 fractional power”.(4)The diurnal variations of surface fluxes were evident,and latent heat flux was leading in August and September.Latent heat flux in September was significantly less than that in August.Sensible heat flux var-ied little in August and September.%利用长白山森林生态系统定位研究站观测资料,及2003年8月和9月涡旋相关资料,分析和比较了该地区近地层包括风速、风向、大气稳定度在内的平均场特征,以及湍流强度、无量纲化风脉动方差相似性和地表通量变化特征。结果表明:(1)8月和9月稳定度都基本集中在0附近;(2)风速<2 m·s-1的环境中,湍流发展最为旺盛,随着风速的增大湍流强度先迅速减小,当风速增大到3 m· s-1后,湍流强度偏离0

  15. Low-frequency variability of Western Boundary Currents in the turbulent ocean: intrinsic modes and atmospheric forcing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sérazin, Guillaume; Penduff, Thierry; Terray, Laurent; Grégorio, Sandy; Barnier, Bernard; Molines, Jean-Marc

    2015-04-01

    Ocean-atmosphere heat fluxes are particularly strong in Western Boundary Current (WBC) regions where SST front variations influence basin-scale climate variability. Observed low-frequency fluctuations in latitude and strength of these oceanic jets are classically thought to be essentially atmospherically-driven by wind stress curl variability via the oceanic Rossby wave adjustment. Yet academic eddy-resolving process-oriented models with double-gyre configurations have revealed that an idealized WBC may exhibit low-frequency intrinsic fluctuations without low-frequency external forcing (e.g. Berloff et al., 2007, Dijkstra and Ghil, 2005, etc). Experiments with eddying Ocean General Circulation Models (OGCMs) have also shown that the amount of low-frequency Sea Level Anomaly (SLA) variability is largely intrinsic in WBCs (Penduff et al. 2011; Sérazin et al 2014) and that the frontal-scale (<10°) pattern of the Kuroshio Extension (KE) variability is similar to intrinsic modes (Taguchi et al. 2010). Based on a pair of atmospherically-forced 1/12° OGCM experiments that simulate with accuracy either the intrinsic variability (seasonally-forced) or the observed total variability (forced with the full range of atmospheric timescales), Empirical Orthogonal Function analysis is performed on zonally-averaged SLA fields of four main WBCs (e.g. Gulf Stream, Kuroshio Extension, Agulhas Current and East Australian Current). The first two modes of the KE and GS exhibit a similar spatial structure that is shaped by oceanic intrinsic processes. The frequency content is however different between the intrinsic and total Principal Components, the former containing a wide range of timescales similar to a red noise and the latter being more autocorrelated at interannual-to-decadal timescales. These modes are compared with those obtained from the 20 years of altimetry observation and relationships with low-frequency westward propagative features in the respective oceanic basin are

  16. Improving Multiple Surface Range Estimation of a 3-Dimensional FLASH LADAR in the Presence of Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    through clouds among others. Multi-surface ranging with the use of 3-D FLASH LADAR can also be useful in accurately discriminating camouflaged targets of...Unfortunately, as a consequence of nonuniform heating and cooling of the Earth’s atmosphere, the temperature-induced inhomogeneities of the refractive index...optical sensing applications, and especially in the case of 3-D FLASH LADAR. The complexity of the electronics coupled with conventional optics often

  17. 混沌与湍流大气中的光通信∗%Optical communication in turbid and turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冒添逸; 陈钱; 何伟基; 庄佳衍; 邹云浩; 戴慧东; 顾国华

    2016-01-01

    目前,光无线通信的质量主要受到大气信道环境的制约,大气信道中混沌介质与湍流的强烈扰动使得通信质量很差,甚至通信中断。提出了一种面到点的光无线通信机理:利用面阵各单元的光信号在混沌介质中传输通道的空间非相干性,通过桶探测器收集通过混沌介质的光信号的能量和,平均各传输通道的交叉干扰,降低混沌介质对光无线通信的影响;利用随机噪声与随机编码的空间非相干性,经过二阶相关运算,构建新的信号传输方程,减弱大气湍流及背景光对信号解码的干扰,使得接收端并不需要窄带光学滤波器。数值仿真和演示实验表明,该光无线通信机理在混沌与湍流大气中的误码率为10−4—10−2,能够实现复杂大气环境中的光通信,在军事、抢险救援等方面具有重要应用价值。%Free space optical-communication (FSO) has gained significant importance due to its unique features: large band-width, license free spectrum, high data rate, easy and quick deployability, less power and low mass requirement. However, the performance of FSO is degraded in the turbid and turbulent atmosphere, dramatically. Various techniques are pro-posed to cope with the turbid media and turbulence in atmosphere, e. g. aperture averaging, diversity, adaptive optics, modulation and coding and orbital angular momentum. However, in the above systems with point-to-point optical communication structure, there exist obvious drawbacks or they are complex and expensive, and thus difficult to use in practice. In this article, array-to-point optical communication (APOC) with good performance in turbid and turbulent atmosphere is demonstrated. The strongly disturbed communication channel can be expressed as a circular complex Gaussian transmission matrix, and the transmitted field is described as a linear combination of the fields coming from different and independent segments of the digital micro

  18. Comparison of different models for ground-level atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) prediction with a new model according to local weather data for FSO applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arockia Bazil Raj, A; Arputha Vijaya Selvi, J; Durairaj, S

    2015-02-01

    Atmospheric parameters strongly affect the performance of free-space optical communication (FSOC) systems when the optical wave is propagating through the inhomogeneous turbulence transmission medium. Developing a model to get an accurate prediction of the atmospheric turbulence strength (C(n)(2)) according to meteorological parameters (weather data) becomes significant to understand the behavior of the FSOC channel during different seasons. The construction of a dedicated free-space optical link for the range of 0.5 km at an altitude of 15.25 m built at Thanjavur (Tamil Nadu) is described in this paper. The power level and beam centroid information of the received signal are measured continuously with weather data at the same time using an optoelectronic assembly and the developed weather station, respectively, and are recorded in a data-logging computer. Existing models that exhibit relatively fewer prediction errors are briefed and are selected for comparative analysis. Measured weather data (as input factors) and C(n)(2) (as a response factor) of size [177,147×4] are used for linear regression analysis and to design mathematical models more suitable in the test field. Along with the model formulation methodologies, we have presented the contributions of the input factors' individual and combined effects on the response surface and the coefficient of determination (R(2)) estimated using analysis of variance tools. An R(2) value of 98.93% is obtained using the new model, model equation V, from a confirmatory test conducted with a testing data set of size [2000×4]. In addition, the prediction accuracies of the selected and the new models are investigated during different seasons in a one-year period using the statistics of day, week-averaged, month-averaged, and seasonal-averaged diurnal Cn2 profiles, and are verified in terms of the sum of absolute error (SAE). A Cn2 prediction maximum average SAE of 2.3×10(-13)  m(-2/3) is achieved using the new model in

  19. 大气湍流畸变对空间目标清晰干涉成像仿真研究%Simulation for space target interference imaging system distorted by atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘扬阳; 吕群波; 张文喜

    2012-01-01

    Interference imaging system for space target has close relation with atmospheric environment, and atmospheric turbulence disturbance distorts terribly the wavefront phase of any transmission optics launched from any optics system. In the space target interference imaging system the phase-closure-principle is adopted, in order to eliminate possible effects of atmospheric turbulence on the target image. Based on the power spectrum method and the Fourier transform method, the numerical simulation of wavefront phase screen, which is distorted by atmospheric turbulence conforming to the statistical rules of kolmogonov model and modified Von Karmen model, is respectively implemented. Various images by several different phase-screen models on the interference imaging system are obtained. Simulation results show that, with the advantage of adopting phase-closure-principle, the possible effects of atmospheric turbulence imaging can be eliminated basically.%本文利用功率谱反演法分别展开对符合Kolmogonov统计规律和修正后的VonKarmen统计规律的大气湍流畸变波前相位屏进行了数值模拟研究.得到各种模型下相位屏对该成像系统干涉成像图.仿真结果表明,采用闭合相位原理,基本可以消除大气湍流对光束波前的影响,验证了采用相位闭合技术的优势.

  20. Non-gaussian turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoejstrup, J. [NEG Micon Project Development A/S, Randers (Denmark); Hansen, K.S. [Denmarks Technical Univ., Dept. of Energy Engineering, Lyngby (Denmark); Pedersen, B.J. [VESTAS Wind Systems A/S, Lem (Denmark); Nielsen, M. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The pdf`s of atmospheric turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour is being investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-Gaussianity. Models for non-Gaussian turbulence have been developed, by which artificial turbulence can be generated with specified distributions, spectra and cross-correlations. The artificial time series will then be used in load models and the resulting loads in the Gaussian and the non-Gaussian cases will be compared. (au)

  1. Investigation Of The Influence Of Temperature Inversions And Turbulence On Land-Atmosphere Interactions For Rolling Terrain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osibanjo, Olabosipo O.

    The objectives of this work are to calculate surface fluxes for rolling terrain using observational data collected during one week in September 2014 from a monitoring site in Echo, Oregon and to investigate the log law in the ABL. The site is located in the Columbia Basin with rolling terrain, irrigated farmland, and over 100 wind turbines. The 10 m tower was placed in a small valley depression to isolate nighttime temperature inversions. This thesis presents observations of momentum, sensible heat, moisture, and CO2 fluxes from data collected at a sampling frequency of 10Hz at four heights. Results show a strong correlation between temperature inversions and CO 2 flux. The log layer could not be achieved as the value of the estimated von Karman constant (˜0.62) is not close to that of the accepted value of 0.41. The impact of the irrigated farmland near the measurement site was observed in the latent heat flux, where the advection of moisture was evident in the tower moisture gradient. A strong relationship was also observed between fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, CO2, and atmospheric stability. The average nighttime CO2 concentration observed was ˜407 ppm, and daytime ˜388 ppm compared to the 2013 global average CO2 concentration of 395 ppm. The maximum CO2 concentration (˜485 ppm) was observed on the strongest temperature inversion night. There are few uncertainties in the measurements. The manufacturer for the eddy covariance instruments (EC 150) quotes uncertainty of +/- 0.1°C for temperature between -0°C-40°C. Error bars were generated on the estimated surface sensible heat flux using the standard deviation and mean values. Under the most stable atmospheric conditions, uncertainty (assumed to be the variability in the flux estimates) was close to the minimum (˜+/- 5 W m-2). (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Modeling turbulent flows in the atmospheric boundary layer of Mars: application to Gale crater, Mars, landing site of the Curiosity rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, William; Day, Kenzie; Kocurek, Gary

    2016-11-01

    Mars is a dry planet with a thin atmosphere. Aeolian processes - wind-driven mobilization of sediment and dust - are the exclusive mode of landscape variability on Mars. Craters are common topographic features on the surface of Mars, and many craters on Mars contain a prominent central mound (NASA's Curiosity rover was landed in Gale crater). Using density-normalized large-eddy simulations, we have modeled turbulent flows over crater-like topographies that feature a central mound. We have also run one simulation of flow over a digital elevation map of Gale crater. Resultant datasets suggest a deflationary mechanism wherein vortices shed from the upwind crater rim are realigned to conform to the crater profile via stretching and tilting. This was accomplished using three-dimensional datasets (momentum and vorticity) retrieved from LES. As a result, helical vortices occupy the inner region of the crater and, therefore, are primarily responsible for aeolian morphodynamics in the crater. We have also used the immersed-boundary method body force distribution to compute the aerodynamic surface stress on the crater. These results suggest that secondary flows - originating from flow separation at the crater - have played an important role in shaping landscape features observed in craters (including the dune fields observed on Mars, many of which are actively evolving). None.

  3. Simulation of equilibrium atmosphere boundary layer with SST k-ω turbulence model%基于SST k-ω湍流模型的平衡大气边界层模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡朋; 李永乐; 廖海黎

    2012-01-01

    To achieve the equilibrium atmosphere boundary layer in an empty flow field with SST k-w turbulence model, the method of adding source terms to the turbulent kinetic energy transport equation and the specific dissipation rate transport equation respectively was adopted to make the inlet profiles of average wind and turbulence wind consistent with the turbulence model, the consistency of the average wind profiles, turbulent kinetic energy profiles and specific dissipation rate profiles at several different positions with and with-out considering the source terms were investigated respectively according to the corresponding CFD numerical example. The numerical result shows that when considering the source terms in the turbulence model, the average wind profiles, turbulent kinetic energy profiles and specific dissipation rate profiles at several different positions along the flow field are all maintained very well, which indicates that the equilibrium atmosphere boundary layer in the empty flow field is achieved satisfactorily. The study conclusion proposes a new idea or research method for modeling the equilibrium atmosphere boundary layer and also provides the further CFD simulations in structural wind engineering with theoretical and actual values.%为实现SST k-ω湍流模型下空流场大气边界层的平衡,提出通过在湍动能输送方程与比耗散率输送方程中添加源项的方法使来流边界条件与湍流模型相协调,并通过相应的CFD数值算例分别考察了不考虑源项与考虑源项时沿流场不同位置处的平均速度、湍动能及比耗散率剖面的一致性.计算结果表明,当考虑源项时沿流场不同位置处的平均速度剖面、湍动能剖面及比耗散率剖面均有较高程度的一致性,较好地实现了大气边界层的平衡.研究结论为平衡大气边界层的研究提供了新的思路和研究方法,对结构风工程中CFD数值模拟有一定的理论及应用价值.

  4. Identification of Coherent Structures of Turbulence at the Atmospheric Surface Layer%大气边界层湍流相干结构的识别

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昕; M.H.Al-Jiboori; 等

    2002-01-01

    A parameter-free method based on orthonormal wavelet transforms is recommended for calculating the principal time scale of coherent structures in atmospheric boundary-layer measurements. First, the atmospheric turbulent signal is decomposed into the small scate vortex that has approximate isotropy and the large scale vortex with the digital filter. Then, the large scale vortex is used to detect colterent structures with this method. The principal time scale and profile of coherent structures for velocity components (u, v, w)above rice fields are obtained. In order to testify the validity of this method, the correlation of coherent structures and non-coherent structures are also calculated.%首先利用数字滤波方法对淮河流域试验的大气边界层湍流观测资料进行三项分解,将大气边界层湍流的风速信号分解为近似各项同性的小尺度涡和各向异性的大尺度涡.然后再将大尺度涡信号进行离散正交小波分解,寻找相干结构的主要特征尺度.对于大气边界层湍流垂直脉动风速来说,其相干结构的主要特征尺度为16 s;对径向与纬向脉动风速来说,其相干结构的主要特征尺度为32~64 s.在此基础上,利用小波的反变换提取出相干结构的信号与非相干结构的信号,并计算两者间的相关系数,最大仅有0.02.此外,对原始大气湍流观测信号不进行数字滤波,直接利用本文中子波分析法提取湍流相干结构所得结果作比较研究;并探讨了采用对称或似对称离散正交小波对此研究的影响.

  5. 湍流大气光通信系统误码率分析与实验研究%Analysis and Experimental Research on Bit Error Rate for Free-Space Optical Communication Systems through Turbulent Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李菲; 吴毅; 侯再红

    2012-01-01

    自由空间光通信(FSO)系统的性能由于受大气湍流影响会产生剧烈波动.根据系统和大气参数评估系统差错性能的研究具有现实意义.以大气湍流信道和光电探测两个模型为基础,建立了FSO系统差错性能的数学仿真模型,提出了湍流条件下系统误码率计算公式.对仿真结果与弱湍流条件下获得的实验数据进行了比较,并依据此模型对光强起伏和背景噪声等因素的影响进行仿真.仿真结果表明,基于该模型的仿真结果与实验数据一致,光强起伏是引起系统性能波动的主要因素,最优判决阈值需根据实际大气条件进行调整.该模型可有效评估湍流条件下FSO系统性能,并为相关理论研究提供参考.%Performance of free-space optical communication (FSO) system fluctuates greatly due to influence by atmospheric turbulence. Research about evaluating system error performance according to parameters of system and atmosphere is a subject of current interest. Based on both optical turbulence channel and photoelectric detection model, a ma thematic simulation model of error performance for FSO system is established, and an expression of bit error rate for FSO system through turbulent atmosphere is proposed. Results of simulation are compared with experimental data obtained under weak turbulence condition and the model is used to characterize factors in turbulence, such as intensity fluctuation and background noise, etc. Simulation results are shown to be consistent with experimental data, intensity fluctuation is a chief factor of system performance fluctuation, and optimized threshold should be adjusted according to pratical atmosphere. The presented model can lead to an efficient performance evaluation and provide reference to correlative theoretical researches.

  6. Transmission of Vortex Beams Nested Gaussian Beams in Turbulent Atmosphere%涡旋光束嵌套高斯光束在湍流大气中的传输

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵艮春; 庄其仁; 陈唐荣; 戴文海

    2013-01-01

    研究大气湍流波像差中的散焦和像散两种低阶像差对聚焦涡旋光束嵌套高斯光束焦面光强的影响,并用数值模拟的方法分析接收焦面平均光强分布随光束聚焦距离、拓扑荷数、湍流强度等参数的变化特性.结果表明:随着传输距离和大气折射率结构常数的增大,复合光束焦面光强峰值降低,光斑半径增大,光斑漂移现象明显,而接收焦面内的光强分布仍保持其高斯分布规律.说明涡旋光束和高斯光束经大气湍流后具有相同的强度起伏,有利于接收端的相干检测.%The paper investigates the effects of two low-order aberrations, i. e. atmospheric turbulence defocusing aberration and astigmatism, on the focal plane intensity of vortex beams nested Gaussian beam. The variation of the focal plane intensity with atmospheric turbulence intensity, transmission distance and the topological charge are analyzed by the numerical simulation methed. The results show that: as the transmission distance and the atmospheric refractive index structure constant increasing, the composite beam focal plane intensity peak reduced, facula radius increased, and the laser spot drift phenomenon is obvious, but the intensity distribution in the receiving focal plane still maintains its Gauss distribution law. It demonstrate that the vortex beam and Gauss beam have the same intensity fluctuation when they passing through atmospheric turbulence, therefore it is helpful to the coherent detection of the receiving end.

  7. Two improvements to the dynamic wake meandering model: including the effects of atmospheric shear on wake turbulence and incorporating turbulence build-up in a row of wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keck, Rolf-Erik; de Mare, Martin Tobias; Churchfield, Matthew J.;

    2015-01-01

    agreement with the reference data. A quantitative comparison between the mean flow field of the DWM model with and without the suggested improvements, to that of the AL model, shows that the root-mean-square difference in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity is reduced on the order of 30% and 40......%, respectively, by including the proposed corrections for a row of eight turbines. Furthermore, it is found that the root-mean-square difference between the AL model and the modified DWM model in terms of wind speed and turbulence intensity does not increase over a row of turbines compared with the root-mean-square...

  8. Large Eddy Simulations of an Airfoil in Turbulent Inflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilling, Lasse; Sørensen, Niels

    2008-01-01

    Wind turbines operate in the turbulent boundary layer of the atmosphere and due to the rotational sampling effect the blades experience a high level of turbulence [1]. In this project the effect of turbulence is investigated by large eddy simulations of the turbulent flow past a NACA 0015 airfoil...

  9. Bending and turbulent enhancement phenomena of neutral gas flow containing an atmospheric pressure plasma by applying external electric fields measured by schlieren optical method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Hiromasa; Yamagishi, Yusuke; Sakakita, Hajime; Tsunoda, Syuichiro; Kasahara, Jiro; Fujiwara, Masanori; Kato, Susumu; Itagaki, Hirotomo; Kim, Jaeho; Kiyama, Satoru; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Ikehara, Yuzuru; Ikehara, Sanae; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    To understand the mechanism of turbulent enhancement phenomena of a neutral gas flow containing plasma ejected from the nozzle of plasma equipment, the schlieren optical method was performed to visualize the neutral gas behavior. It was confirmed that the turbulent starting point became closer to the nozzle exit, as the amplitude of discharge voltage (electric field) increased. To study the effect of electric field on turbulent enhancement, two sets of external electrodes were arranged in parallel, and the gas from the nozzle was allowed to flow between the upper and lower electrodes. It was found that the neutral gas flow was bent, and the bending angle increased as the amplitude of the external electric field increased. The results obtained using a simple model analysis roughly coincide with experimental data. These results indicate that momentum transport from drifted ions induced by the electric field to neutral particles is an important factor that enhances turbulence.

  10. Time-varying phase diversity turbulence compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, A.W.M. van; Schutte, K.; Dijk, J.; Schwering, P.B.W.

    2011-01-01

    Long range object identification needs visual identification over large distances. However, atmospheric turbulence does hinder long range imaging. Therefore it is crucial to compensate the visual artifacts due to atmospheric turbulence. In this paper we propose a new method to compensate these turbu

  11. Focal shift and facular dimension of focused flat beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere%湍流大气中聚焦平台光束焦移及光斑尺度

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张建柱; 李有宽; 张飞舟; 安建祝

    2011-01-01

    Through theoretic analysis and numerical simulation, the focal shift of a focused flat beam propagating in turbulent atmosphere is studied. When a focused flat beam propagates in turbulent atmosphere, the effect of turbulence will induce the focal spot to move toward the transmitter. The turbulence is stronger and the diameter of transmitter is smaller, the measure of focal shift is larger. When adjusting the focus of transmitter and letting the focal spot of beam locate on detector, the laser intensity received by detector is not the strongest. The laser intensity will be the strongest if the focus of transmitter equals to the distance from transmitter to detector.%通过理论分析和数值模拟,对聚焦平台光束大气传输的焦移问题进行了研究.聚焦平台光束在湍流大气中传输时,湍流将导致光束的束腰向发射点移动,且湍流越强移动的幅度越大;大气湍流强度相同时,聚焦平台光束发射口径越小,其束腰移动的幅度越大.另外,通过调节发射系统的焦距,使聚焦平台光束的束腰正好位于接收探测器处时,接收探测器上的激光功率密度并非最大,只有当发射系统的焦距等于激光的传输距离时,接收探测器上的激光功率密度才会最大.

  12. 高阶贝塞尔高斯光束在非柯尔莫哥诺夫大气中的传输特性%Properties of High Order Bessel Gaussian Beam Propagation in Non-Kolmogorov Atmosphere Turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈斐楠; 陈晶晶; 赵琦; 陈延如; 王勇清; 辛煜

    2012-01-01

    利用广义惠更斯菲涅耳原理计算高阶贝塞尔高斯光束(BGB)在非柯尔莫哥诺夫湍流模型下传输的横向光强分布特性.该模型中,湍流对相位干扰的大小与距离和幂律有关.在远距离处,幂律对干扰大小的影响较为明显.通过Matlab进行数值计算的结果表明,远距离处(10 kmn)的各阶BGB光束光强分布形式均有很大展宽,同时它们随幂律的变化也相对于短距离时更为剧烈.高阶BGB光束受到湍流干扰的影响要小于低阶光束.对于同阶光束来说,横向参数越大的光源在湍流中传输的展宽现象也越为明显.%Extended Huygens-Fresnel principle is used to analyze the optical intensity transverse distribution of higher-order Bessel Gaussian beam (BGB) propagation through non-Kolmogorov (NoK) atmosphere turbulence model. In NoK turbulence model, the distance and power law effect the strength at phase perturbed by turbulence. So the result by numerical integral shows that the intensity distribution of BGB beam gets more severe changes at large distance. The higher order beam is less effected by turbulence than lower order beam. The lager transverse parameter of the source can get more spreads when it propagates through turbulence.

  13. Measured In Situ Atmospheric Ambient Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal, AL, April-May 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan Gurton, Stephanie Cunningham, and...Aerosol Size-Distributions, Particle Concentrations, and Turbulence Data for RSA TA-6 Test Range, Redstone Arsenal , AL, April–May 2015 by Kristan...Redstone Arsenal , AL Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. ii REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form Approved OMB No. 0704-0188

  14. 大气湍流中部分相干聚焦涡旋光束的传输特性%Propagation Properties of Focused Partially Coherent Vortex Beams in Turbulent Atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仓吉; 张逸新

    2009-01-01

    The propagation properties of focused partially coherent Gauss-Schell model vortex beams in the turbulent atmosphere were investigated based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the quadratic approximation of phase structure function. Optical intensity expression on the focal plane was obtained. By use of the expression, the intensity distribution of such kind of beam on the focal plane in the turbulent atmosphere was studied. The results show that in the turbulent atmosphere, the singularity of the vortex beam lows down with the propagation distance increasing. The maintenance of singularity is better for the vortex beams with larger topological charge and longer spatially coherent length. When the focal length and turbulent strength are fixed, the topological charge and coherent length of the source can be adjusted to control the behavior of intensity distribution on the focal plane and size of the focal spot. Vortex beams with larger topological charge can be resistant to the turbulent effects on the intensity distribution on the focal plane to some extent.%基于广义惠更斯-菲涅耳原理和相位结构函数的平方近似,研究了部分相干高斯-谢尔模型涡旋光束被聚焦后在大气湍流中的传输特性,得到了焦平面上光强解析表达式.利用该表达式,详细研究了该类光束在大气湍流中传输焦平面上的光强分布特性.结果表明:在大气湍流中,随着传输距离的增加,涡旋光束的奇异性逐渐降低.对于拓扑荷大的以及空间相干长度较长的涡旋光束,光束奇异性的保持相对要好.在一定的焦距长度和湍流大气条件下,我们可以通过调整光源的拓扑荷和相干长度控制焦面光强分布和焦斑大小.另外,有一定拓扑荷的涡旋光束可以在一定程度上降低大气湍流对传输光束焦面光强分布的影响.

  15. Spreading and wander of Gaussian-Schell model beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence%部分相干高斯-谢尔光束在大气湍流中的展宽与漂移

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向宁静; 吴振森; 王明军

    2013-01-01

    Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel integral, the cross-spectral density and Rytov's phase structure function, average intensity was derived by a formula for the Fourier transform of Gaussian function. Then mean squared root beam width, beam wander of a partially coherent Gaussian-Schell-model (GSM) beam in turbulent atmosphere were found out. It shows that beam spread and beam wander have relation with initial beam radius, initial coherence width, wavelength and transmitter hight in the atmospheric turbulence. At last, some measures were brought to decrease the effect of atmospheric turbulence.%  基广义惠更斯-菲涅耳理,交叉密度函数以及Rytov's相位结构函数二次近似,利用傅里高斯变换推导出部分相干高斯-谢尔(GSM)光束在大气湍流中的强度分布表达式,并在此基础上分析了大气湍流对光束展宽、以及光束漂移的影响。数值模拟表明:光束展宽和光束漂移与光束的初始半径、波长、光的相干宽度以及发射机的位置高度有关,并提出了减小湍流影响的措施。

  16. Simulation of atmospheric dispersion of NOX over complex terrain region of Ranchi with FLEXPART-WRF by incorporation of improved turbulence intensity relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madala, Srikanth; Satyanarayana, A. N. V.; Srinivas, C. V.

    2015-12-01

    Accurate representation of air pollutant dispersion is essential for environmental management and planning purposes. In this study, semi-empirical relationships of turbulence intensity (σu/u*, σv/u* and σw/u*) as a function of surface layer scaling and local stability are developed following boundary layer similarity concepts at Ranchi, a complex terrain in Jharkhand, Eastern India for various seasons. The impact of the new turbulence parameterization for air pollution dispersion simulation is studied by incorporating the same in the Hanna scheme of FLEXPART-WRF Lagrangian Particle dispersion model over study region. The model is used to estimate the ground level concentrations of nitrogen oxides (NOx) due to industrial and vehicular sources in study region. The meteorological parameters needed in air-quality simulation are simulated using the Advanced Research WRF (ARW) mesoscale model at high resolution (3 km). Three turbulence schemes (YSU, MYNN2 and ACM2) in ARW are alternatively tested in dispersion simulation and comparisons are made with available air quality data for eight days in different seasons (winter, pre-monsoon, monsoon and post-monsoon). Simulations with FLEXPART revealed distinct seasonal variation of dispersion patterns. It has been found that the new turbulence intensity relationships in FLEXPART improved the NOx concentration estimates by reducing the negative bias seen with default Hanna scheme. Further, the ARW simulated meteorological parameters using ACM2 and MYNN2 significantly reduced the bias in modeled pollutant concentrations. The study demonstrates the utility of high quality seasonal turbulence measurements in pollution dispersion model for better diffusion parameterization needed in air quality modeling.

  17. Theorem of turbulent intensity and macroscopic mechanism of the turbulence development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Turbulence is one of the most common nature phenomena in everyday experience, but that is not adequately understood yet. This article reviews the history and present state of development of the turbulence theory and indicates the necessity to probe into the turbulent features and mechanism with the different methods at different levels. Therefore this article proves a theorem of turbulent transpor- tation and a theorem of turbulent intensity by using the theory of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics, and that the Reynolds turbulence and the Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence are united in the theorems of the turbulent intensity and the turbulent transportation. The macroscopic cause of the development of fluid turbulence is a result from shearing effect of the velocity together with the temperature, which is also the macroscopic cause of the stretch and fold of trajectory in the phase space of turbulent field. And it is proved by the observed data of atmosphere that the phenomenological coefficient of turbulent in- tensity is not only a function of the velocity shear but also a function of temperature shear, viz the sta- bility of temperature stratification, in the atmosphere. Accordingly, authenticity of the theorem, which is proved by the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, of turbulent intensity is testified by the facts of observational experiment.

  18. Plasma turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, W. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Inst. for Fusion Studies; Hu, G. [Globalstar LP, San Jose, CA (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The origin of plasma turbulence from currents and spatial gradients in plasmas is described and shown to lead to the dominant transport mechanism in many plasma regimes. A wide variety of turbulent transport mechanism exists in plasmas. In this survey the authors summarize some of the universally observed plasma transport rates.

  19. High Turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    EuHIT, Collaboration

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.

  20. 高斯-谢尔模型阵列光束在湍流大气中的空间相干性%Spatial coherence properties of GSM array beams in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢芳; 韩香娥

    2015-01-01

    基于广义Huygens- Fresnel原理和Rytov相位结构函数二次近似的方法,推导出了径向分布高斯-谢尔模(GSM)阵列光束在湍流大气中传输时的交叉谱密度函数解析表达式,并利用表征光束相干性的空间复相干度系数,详细分析了GSM阵列光束在大气湍流中传输时的空间相干性变化规律。研究结果表明:径向分布GSM阵列光束的空间相干性由子光束空间相干长度、传输距离、大气折射率结构常数及相对径向填充因子等因素共同确定;径向分布GSM阵列光束通过湍流大气时,其空间相干度在传输过程中会出现多峰值现象,但是随着传输距离增大,多峰值现象逐渐消失并趋向于高斯分布,并且随着距离增大空间相干度宽度逐渐减小,光束空间相干性变差。%Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the quadratic approximation of Rytov's phase structure function, the analytical expression for the cross-spectral density function of the Gaussian Schell-Model (GSM) array beams propagating in atmospheric turbulence was derived. The degree of spatial coherence of GSM array beams in atmospheric turbulence was investigated numerically. The result shows that the spatial coherence properties of the GSM array beams are determined by the coherent length of beamlets, the transmission distance, the refractive index structure constant of atmospheric turbulence and the relative radial fill factor of the source in common. It also shows that the spatial coherence of the GSM array beams ends as Gaussian distribution, but multiple peaks are existed during the transmission, the width of the degree of coherence becomes smaller with the transmission distance continues increase which means that the degree of spatial coherence turns worse.

  1. Coherence in Turbulence: New Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levich, Eugene

    2009-07-01

    It is claimed that turbulence in fluids is inherently coherent phenomenon. The coherence shows up clearly as strongly correlated helicity fluctuations of opposite sign. The helicity fluctuations have cellular structure forming clusters that are actually observed as vorticity bands and coherent structures in laboratory turbulence, direct numerical simulations and most obviously in atmospheric turbulence. The clusters are named BCC - Beltrami Cellular Clusters - because of the observed nearly total alignment of the velocity and vorticity fields in each particular cell, and hence nearly maximal possible helicity in each cell; although when averaged over all the cells the residual mean helicity in general is small and does not play active dynamical role. The Beltrami like fluctuations are short-lived and stabilize only in small and generally contiguous sub-domains that are tending to a (multi)fractal in the asymptotic limit of large Reynolds numbers, Re → ∞. For the model of homogeneous isotropic turbulence the theory predicts the leading fractal dimension of BCC to be: DF = 2.5. This particular BCC is responsible for generating the Kolmogorov -5/3 power law energy spectrum. The most obvious role that BCC play dynamically is that the nonlinear interactions in them are relatively reduced, due to strong spatial alignment between the velocity field v(r, t) and the vorticity field ω(r, t) = curlv(r, t), while the physical quantities typically best characterizing turbulence intermittency, such as entrophy, vorticity stretching and generation, and energy dissipation are maximized in and near them. The theory quantitatively relates the reduction of nonlinear inter-actions to the BCC fractal dimension DF and subsequent turbulence intermittency. It is further asserted that BCC is a fundamental feature of all turbulent flows, e.g., wall bounded turbulent flows, atmospheric and oceanic flows, and their leading fractal dimension remains invariant and universal in these flows

  2. INTERSTELLAR TURBULENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Falceta-Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The Interstellar Medium (ISM is a complex, multi-phase system, where the history of the stars occurs. The processes of birth and death of stars are strongly coupled to the dynamics of the ISM. The observed chaotic and diffusive motions of the gas characterize its turbulent nature. Understanding turbulence is crucial for understanding the star-formation process and the energy-mass feedback from evolved stars. Magnetic fields, threading the ISM, are also observed, making this effort even more difficult. In this work, I briefly review the main observations and the characterization of turbulence from these observable quantities. Following on, I provide a review of the physics of magnetized turbulence. Finally, I will show the main results from theoretical and numerical simulations, which can be used to reconstruct observable quantities, and compare these predictions to the observations.

  3. Wall Turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanratty, Thomas J.

    1980-01-01

    This paper gives an account of research on the structure of turbulence close to a solid boundary. Included is a method to study the flow close to the wall of a pipe without interferring with it. (Author/JN)

  4. Time change and universality in turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    We discuss a unifying description of the probability densities of turbulent velocity increments for a large number of turbulent data sets that include data from low temperature gaseous helium jet experiments, a wind tunnel experiment, an atmospheric boundary layer experiment and a free air jet...

  5. GEOMETRIC TURBULENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trunev A. P.

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this article we have investigated the solutions of Maxwell's equations, Navier-Stokes equations and the Schrödinger associated with the solutions of Einstein's equations for empty space. It is shown that in some cases the geometric instability leading to turbulence on the mechanism of alternating viscosity, which offered by N.N. Yanenko. The mechanism of generation of matter from dark energy due to the geometric turbulence in the Big Bang has been discussed

  6. Statistical model of the efficiency for spatial light coupling into a single-mode fiber in the presence of atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Ma, Lie; Yang, Qingbo; Ran, Qiwen

    2015-11-01

    The average efficiency of spatial light coupling into a single-mode optical fiber is widely used but cannot estimate the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and bit error rate (BER) in free-space optical communication. We provide a statistical model for coupling efficiency and derive the exact expression of the probability density function (PDF). The simulation results confirm that the model is reasonable in the condition of different turbulence intensities and wavefront compensation terms, which is also consistent with our outdoor experiment. We also estimate the average SNR and BER using the PDF. The model is quite useful in a satellite-to-ground laser communication downlink.

  7. Detector of Optical Vortices as the Main Element of the System of Data Transfer: Principles of Operation, Numerical Model, and Influence of Noise and Atmospheric Turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerii Aksenov

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The method is proposed of optical vortex topological charge detection along with a design of a corresponding detector. The developed technique is based on measurements of light field intensity. Mathematical model simulating performance of the detector is described in the paper, and results of numerical experiments are presented which illustrate recognition of a vortex in a turbulent medium and in the presence of amplitude and phase noise in the registered radiation. Influence of shifts of the system optical axis on precision of registration is also considered in the paper.

  8. 偏振部分相干激光在大气传输中的退偏特性%Depolarization characteristics of polarized and partially coherent laser beam propagated in turbulent atmosphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 王菲

    2012-01-01

    基于广义Huygens-Fresnel原理,利用Collins公式,讨论了偏振部分相干激光波束在湍流大气中传输的交叉谱密度函数,推导出经过偏振后的高斯-谢尔模型光束(GSM)在外场不同距离水平传输时波束偏振度的解析表达式.对偏振激光在大气湍流中传输时光束的退偏变化进行数值仿真,得到相同传输距离下,不同的偏振角和初始束腰宽度对光束偏振度的影响;同时分析了不同波长激光的退偏现象以及相同的偏振角度下,不同的初始束腰宽度对波束偏振度的影响.研究结果表明,不同的偏振角对波束的退偏不产生影响;波长越大,波束在大气湍流中传输出现退偏的现象越迟缓;初始束腰越大,大气湍流对波束的退偏影响越快.由此得出:偏振部分相干激光波束比部分相干激光波束在大气湍流中传输的退偏变化更具有规律性和稳定性,退偏现象表现得更加持久,并且初始束腰宽度的变化对偏振部分相干激光偏振度产生影响,但对部分相干波束偏振度的变化几乎不产生任何影响.%Cross-spectral density function of polarized and partially coherent laser beam propagated in turbulent atmosphere was discussed based on the generalized Huygens-Fresnel Principle and Collins Formula. Analytical expressions for polarization degree of polarized Gaussian-shell model (GSM) beam under horizontal transmission at different distances of external fields were obtained. Changes in polarization degree of polarized laser propagated in turbulent atmosphere were simulated under the same propagation distance with different polarization angles and different initial waist widths. Similar simulation was also done by using the different wavelengths and the same polarization angles but with different propagation distances. The results indicate that depolarization of the beam is not affected by the different polarization angles; depolarization caused by turbulent

  9. A Miniaturized Design of Optical Antenna for Smoothing the Effect of Atmospheric Turbulence%一种平滑大气湍流效应的小型化光学天线设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志勇; 邱仁和; 莫海涛

    2011-01-01

    大气湍流严重影响着无线光通信链路的可靠性和稳定性,已经成为无线光通信设备面向工程化应用的瓶颈。文章通过对比分析用来平滑、克服大气湍流效应的不同方法与手段,提出了一种基于空间分集技术的光学天线设计方案,以期满足工程化应用的需要。%Atmospheric turbulence affects seriously the wireless optical communication link reliability and stability,which has become the bottleneck of wireless optical communication devices for the engineering application.In this paper,through the contrastive anal

  10. High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory conducted the High Altitude Clear Air Turbulence Project in the mid 1960s with the intention of better understanding air...

  11. Theorem of turbulent intensity and macroscopic mechanism of the turbulence development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YinQiao; CHEN JinBei; ZUO HongChao

    2007-01-01

    Turbulence is one of the most common nature phenomena in everyday experience, but that is not adequately understood yet. This article reviews the history and present state of development of the turbulence theory and indicates the necessity to probe into the turbulent features and mechanism with the different methods at different levels. Therefore this article proves a theorem of turbulent transportation and a theorem of turbulent intensity by using the theory of the nonequilibrium thermodynamics,turbulent intensity and the turbulent transportation. The macroscopic cause of the development of fluid turbulence is a result from shearing effect of the velocity together with the temperature, which is also the macroscopic cause of the stretch and fold of trajectory in the phase space of turbulent field. And it is proved by the observed data of atmosphere that the phenomenological coefficient of turbulent intensity is not only a function of the velocity shear but also a function of temperature shear, viz the stability of temperature stratification, in the atmosphere. Accordingly, authenticity of the theorem, which is proved by the theory of nonequilibrium thermodynamics, of turbulent intensity is testified by the facts of observational experiment.

  12. Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2010-01-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begins with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretion on a spinning pair releases 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscosity and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, creating mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until a quark-gluon strong-force SF freeze-out. Gluon-viscosity anti-gravity ({\\Lambda}SF) exponentially inflates the fireball to preserve big bang turbulence information at scales larger than ct as the first fossil turbulence. Cosmic microwave background CMB temperature anisotropies show big bang turbulence fossils along with fossils of weak plasma turbulence triggered (10^12 s) as plasma viscous forces permit gravitational fragmentation on supercluster to galaxy mass scales (10^13 s). Turbulent morphologies and viscous-turbulent lengths a...

  13. Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Turbulence and turbulent mixing in natural fluids begins with big bang turbulence powered by spinning combustible combinations of Planck particles and Planck antiparticles. Particle prograde accretions on a spinning pair releases 42% of the particle rest mass energy to produce more fuel for turbulent combustion. Negative viscous stresses and negative turbulence stresses work against gravity, extracting mass-energy and space-time from the vacuum. Turbulence mixes cooling temperatures until str...

  14. Remote detection and diagnosis of thunderstorm turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John K.; Sharman, Robert; Craig, Jason; Blackburn, Gary

    2008-08-01

    This paper describes how operational radar, satellite and lightning data may be used in conjunction with numerical weather model data to provide remote detection and diagnosis of atmospheric turbulence in and around thunderstorms. In-cloud turbulence is measured with the NEXRAD Turbulence Detection Algorithm (NTDA) using extensively qualitycontrolled, ground-based Doppler radar data. A real-time demonstration of the NTDA includes generation of a 3-D turbulence mosaic covering the CONUS east of the Rocky Mountains, a web-based display, and experimental uplinks of turbulence maps to en-route commercial aircraft. Near-cloud turbulence is inferred from thunderstorm morphology, intensity, growth rate and environment data provided by (1) satellite radiance measurements, rates of change, winds, and other derived features, (2) lightning strike measurements, (3) radar reflectivity measurements and (4) weather model data. These are combined via a machine learning technique trained using a database of in situ turbulence measurements from commercial aircraft to create a predictive model. This new capability is being developed under FAA and NASA funding to enhance current U.S. and international turbulence decision support systems, allowing rapid-update, highresolution, comprehensive assessments of atmospheric turbulence hazards for use by pilots, dispatchers, and air traffic controllers. It will also contribute to the comprehensive 4-D weather information database for NextGen.

  15. Mesospheric turbulence during PMWE-conducive conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Strong radar returns at VHF known as Polar Mesospheric Winter Echoes (PMWE seem to occur during periods of intense ionisation of the mesosphere. Apart from a mechanism to produce such ionisation, viz. solar proton precipitation, other prerequisites have been proposed, such as neutral air turbulence. Here, we employ a medium frequency radar to examine whether the atmospheric state is conducive to the appearance of PMWE; echo power signatures (isolated lower mesospheric echoes – "ILME" are indicators of the necessary ionisation at sufficient depth in the middle atmosphere, and also echo fading times give information on turbulence. We fail to find evidence for causal relationship between ILME and turbulence but suggest that on occasion turbulence may be enhanced related to proton precipitation. The results presented provide a basis for investigating whether turbulence is a prerequisite for PMWE.

  16. Submerged turbulence detection with optical satellites

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H; Bondur, Valery G; Leung, Pak T; Prandke, H; Vithanage, D

    2007-01-01

    During fall periods in 2002, 2003 and 2004 three major oceanographic expeditions were carried out in Mamala Bay, Hawaii. These were part of the RASP Remote Anthropogenic Sensing Program. Ikonos and Quickbird optical satellite images of sea surface glint revealed ~100 m spectral anomalies in km^2 averaging patches in regions leading from the Honolulu Sand Island Municipal Outfall diffuser to distances up to 20 km. To determine the mechanisms behind this phenomenon, the RASP expeditions monitored the waters adjacent to the outfall with an array of hydrographic, optical and turbulence microstructure sensors in anomaly and ambient background regions. Drogue tracks and mean turbulence parameters for 2x10^4 microstructure patches were analyzed to understand complex turbulence, fossil turbulence and zombie turbulence near-vertical internal wave transport processes. The dominant mechanism appears to be generic to stratified natural fluids including planet and star atmospheres and is termed beamed zombie turbulence ma...

  17. Localization of angular momentum in optical waves propagating through turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez, Darryl J; Oesch, Denis W

    2011-12-01

    This is the first in a series of papers demonstrating that photons with orbital angular momentum can be created in optical waves propagating through distributed turbulence. The scope of this first paper is much narrower. Here, we demonstrate that atmospheric turbulence can impart non-trivial angular momentum to beams and that this non-trivial angular momentum is highly localized. Furthermore, creation of this angular momentum is a normal part of propagation through atmospheric turbulence.

  18. Large eddy simulation of stably stratified turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Stable stratification turbulence, as a common phenomenon in atmospheric and oceanic flows, is an important mechanism for numerical prediction of such flows. In this paper the large eddy simulation is utilized for investigating stable stratification turbulence numerically. The paper is expected to provide correct statistical results in agreement with those measured in the atmosphere or ocean. The fully developed turbulence is obtained in the stable stratification fluid by large eddy simulation with different initial velocity field and characteristic parameters, i.e. Reynolds number Re and Froude number Fr. The evolution of turbulent kinetic energy, characteristic length scales and parameters is analyzed for investigating the development of turbulence in stable stratification fluid. The three-dimensional energy spectra, horizontal and vertical energy spectrum, are compared between numerical simulation and real observation in the atmosphere and ocean in order to test the reliability of the numerical simulation. The results of numerical cases show that the large eddy simulation is capable of predicting the properties of stable stratification turbulence in consistence with real measurements at less computational cost. It has been found in this paper that the turbulence can be developed under different initial velocity conditions and the internal wave energy is dominant in the developed stable stratification turbulence. It is also found that the characteristic parameters must satisfy certain conditions in order to have correct statistical property of stable stratification turbulence in the atmosphere and ocean. The Reynolds number and Froude number are unnecessarily equal to those in atmosphere or ocean, but the Reynolds number must be large enough, say, greater than 10 2 , and Froude number must be less than 0.1. The most important parameter is ReFr 2 which must be greater than 10.

  19. On turbulence in a stratified environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sutanu

    2015-11-01

    John Lumley, motivated by atmospheric observations, made seminal contributions to the statistical theory (Lumley and Panofsky 1964, Lumley 1964) and second-order modeling (Zeman and Lumley 1976) of turbulence in the environment. Turbulent processes in the ocean share many features with the atmosphere, e.g., shear, stratification, rotation and rough topography. Results from direct and large eddy simulations of two model problems will be used to illustrate some of the features of turbulence in a stratified environment. The first problem concerns a shear layer in nonuniform stratification, a situation typical of both the atmosphere and the ocean. The second problem, considered to be responsible for much of the turbulent mixing that occurs in the ocean interior, concerns topographically generated internal gravity waves. Connections will be made to data taken during observational campaigns in the ocean.

  20. Burgers turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bec, Jeremie [Laboratoire Cassiopee UMR6202, CNRS, OCA, BP4229, 06304 Nice Cedex 4 (France)]. E-mail: jeremie.bec@obs-nice.fr; Khanin, Konstantin [Department of Mathematics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ont., M5S 3G3 (Canada)]. E-mail: khanin@math.toronto.edu

    2007-08-15

    The last decades witnessed a renewal of interest in the Burgers equation. Much activities focused on extensions of the original one-dimensional pressureless model introduced in the thirties by the Dutch scientist J.M. Burgers, and more precisely on the problem of Burgers turbulence, that is the study of the solutions to the one- or multi-dimensional Burgers equation with random initial conditions or random forcing. Such work was frequently motivated by new emerging applications of Burgers model to statistical physics, cosmology, and fluid dynamics. Also Burgers turbulence appeared as one of the simplest instances of a nonlinear system out of equilibrium. The study of random Lagrangian systems, of stochastic partial differential equations and their invariant measures, the theory of dynamical systems, the applications of field theory to the understanding of dissipative anomalies and of multiscaling in hydrodynamic turbulence have benefited significantly from progress in Burgers turbulence. The aim of this review is to give a unified view of selected work stemming from these rather diverse disciplines.

  1. Turbulence Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    and complexity of thermochemistry . Accordingly a practical viewpoint is required to meet near-term work required for use in advanced CFD codes...teachers the opportunity to learn/explore/ teach turbulence issues. While such a product could be an invaluable eductaional tool (university), it also

  2. Turbulent combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talbot, L.; Cheng, R.K. [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, CA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    Turbulent combustion is the dominant process in heat and power generating systems. Its most significant aspect is to enhance the burning rate and volumetric power density. Turbulent mixing, however, also influences the chemical rates and has a direct effect on the formation of pollutants, flame ignition and extinction. Therefore, research and development of modern combustion systems for power generation, waste incineration and material synthesis must rely on a fundamental understanding of the physical effect of turbulence on combustion to develop theoretical models that can be used as design tools. The overall objective of this program is to investigate, primarily experimentally, the interaction and coupling between turbulence and combustion. These processes are complex and are characterized by scalar and velocity fluctuations with time and length scales spanning several orders of magnitude. They are also influenced by the so-called {open_quotes}field{close_quotes} effects associated with the characteristics of the flow and burner geometries. The authors` approach is to gain a fundamental understanding by investigating idealized laboratory flames. Laboratory flames are amenable to detailed interrogation by laser diagnostics and their flow geometries are chosen to simplify numerical modeling and simulations and to facilitate comparison between experiments and theory.

  3. Light propagation through anisotropic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Italo; Agrawal, Brij; Restaino, Sergio

    2011-03-01

    A wealth of experimental data has shown that atmospheric turbulence can be anisotropic; in this case, a Kolmogorov spectrum does not describe well the atmospheric turbulence statistics. In this paper, we show a quantitative analysis of anisotropic turbulence by using a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum with an anisotropic coefficient. The spectrum we use does not include the inner and outer scales, it is valid only inside the inertial subrange, and it has a power-law slope that can be different from a Kolmogorov one. Using this power spectrum, in the weak turbulence condition, we analyze the impact of the power-law variations α on the long-term beam spread and scintillation index for several anisotropic coefficient values ς. We consider only horizontal propagation across the turbulence cells, assuming circular symmetry is maintained on the orthogonal plane to the propagation direction. We conclude that the anisotropic coefficient influences both the long-term beam spread and the scintillation index by the factor ς(2-α).

  4. Turbulent heat fluxes by profile and inertial dissipation methods: analysis of the atmospheric surface layer from shipboard measurements during the SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Dupuis

    Full Text Available Heat flux estimates obtained using the inertial dissipation method, and the profile method applied to radiosonde soundings, are assessed with emphasis on the parameterization of the roughness lengths for temperature and specific humidity. Results from the inertial dissipation method show a decrease of the temperature and humidity roughness lengths for increasing neutral wind speed, in agreement with previous studies. The sensible heat flux estimates were obtained using the temperature estimated from the speed of sound determined by a sonic anemometer. This method seems very attractive for estimating heat fluxes over the ocean. However allowance must be made in the inertial dissipation method for non-neutral stratification. The SOFIA/ASTEX and SEMAPHORE results show that, in unstable stratification, a term due to the transport terms in the turbulent kinetic energy budget, has to be included in order to determine the friction velocity with better accuracy. Using the profile method with radiosonde data, the roughness length values showed large scatter. A reliable estimate of the temperature roughness length could not be obtained. The humidity roughness length values were compatible with those found using the inertial dissipation method.

  5. Turbulence Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Peter; Shui, Wan; Johansson, Jens

    2011-01-01

    In this report a new turbulence model is presented.In contrast to the bulk of modern work, the model is a classical continuum model with a relatively simple constitutive equation. The constitutive equation is, as usual in continuum mechanics, entirely empirical. It has the usual Newton or Stokes...... term with stresses depending linearly on the strain rates. This term takes into account the transfer of linear momentum from one part of the fluid to another. Besides there is another term, which takes into account the transfer of angular momentum. Thus the model implies a new definition of turbulence....... The model is in a virgin state, but a number of numerical tests have been carried out with good results. It is published to encourage other researchers to study the model in order to find its merits and possible limitations....

  6. Optical Turbulence Characterization at LAMOST Site: Observations and Models

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, L -Y; Yao, Y -Q; Vernin, J; Chadid, M; Wang, H -S; Yin, J; Wang, Y -P

    2015-01-01

    Atmospheric optical turbulence seriously limits the performance of high angular resolution instruments. An 8-night campaign of measurements was carried out at the LAMOST site in 2011, to characterize the optical turbulence. Two instruments were set up during the campaign: a Differential Image Motion Monitor (DIMM) used to measure the total atmospheric seeing, and a Single Star Scidar (SSS) to measure the vertical profiles of the turbulence C_n^2(h) and the horizontal wind velocity V(h). The optical turbulence parameters are also calculated with the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model coupled with the Trinquet-Vernin model, which describes optical effects of atmospheric turbulence by using the local meteorological parameters. This paper presents assessment of the optical parameters involved in high angular resolution astronomy. Its includes seeing, isoplanatic angle, coherence time, coherence etendue, vertical profiles of optical turbulence intensity _n^2(h)$ and horizontal wind speed V(h). The median...

  7. Controlling turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kühnen, Jakob; Hof, Björn

    2015-11-01

    We show that a simple modification of the velocity profile in a pipe can lead to a complete collapse of turbulence and the flow fully relaminarises. The annihilation of turbulence is achieved by a steady manipulation of the streamwise velocity component alone, greatly reducing control efforts. Several different control techniques are presented: one with a local modification of the flow profile by means of a stationary obstacle, one employing a nozzle injecting fluid through a small gap at the pipe wall and one with a moving wall, where a part of the pipe is shifted in the streamwise direction. All control techniques act on the flow such that the streamwise velocity profile becomes more flat and turbulence gradually grows faint and disappears. In a smooth straight pipe the flow remains laminar downstream of the control. Hence a reduction in skin friction by a factor of 8 and more can be accomplished. Stereoscopic PIV-measurements and movies of the development of the flow during relaminarisation are presented.

  8. De-trending of turbulence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Schaldemose; Larsen, Gunner Chr.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparison between long term raw and de-trended turbulence intensity values recorded at offshore and coastal sites under different weather systems. Within the traditional framework of turbulence interpretation, where turbulence is considered as a stationary...... process imposed on a given constant mean wind speed, measured raw turbulence intensities consist of contributions from the atmospheric turbulence as well as from the change in mean wind speed levels. The change in mean wind speed will appear as a trend in the wind speed time series. Wind resource...... measurements usually include statistics of ten-minute mean and standard deviation, and it is not possible to calculate the trend contribution afterwards, because this requires access to the time-series. A huge amount of time-series, stored in the database WindData.com, are used to calculate the trend...

  9. Formation of turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struminskii, V.V. (Sektor Mekhaniki Neodnorodnykh Sred, Moscow (USSR))

    1989-01-01

    Two essentially different forms of turbulence are identified in liquids and gases: (1) turbulent flow in the vicinity of solid or liquid boundaries and (2) turbulent flows evolving far from the walls. The generation mechanisms and principal characteristics of the two types of turbulent flows are discussed. It is emphasized that the two types of turbulent flows are caused by different physical mechanisms and should be considered separately in turbulence studies. 14 refs.

  10. Explosive turbulent magnetic reconnection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashimori, K; Yokoi, N; Hoshino, M

    2013-06-21

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This fast turbulent reconnection is achieved by the localization of turbulent diffusion. Additionally, localized structure forms through the interaction of the mean field and turbulence.

  11. Modulation Transfer Function of a Gaussian Beam Based on the Generalized Modified Atmospheric Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the modulation transfer function of a Gaussian beam propagating through a horizontal path in weak-fluctuation non-Kolmogorov turbulence. Mathematical expressions are obtained based on the generalized modified atmospheric spectrum, which includes the spectral power law value of non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the finite inner and outer scales of turbulence, and other optical parameters of the Gaussian beam. The numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence would produce less negative effects on the wireless optical communication system with an increase in the inner scale of turbulence. Additionally, the increased outer scale of turbulence makes a Gaussian beam influenced more seriously by the atmospheric turbulence.

  12. Using random forests to diagnose aviation turbulence

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric turbulence poses a significant hazard to aviation, with severe encounters costing airlines millions of dollars per year in compensation, aircraft damage, and delays due to required post-event inspections and repairs. Moreover, attempts to avoid turbulent airspace cause flight delays and en route deviations that increase air traffic controller workload, disrupt schedules of air crews and passengers and use extra fuel. For these reasons, the Federal Aviation Administration and the N...

  13. Existence of a persistent background of turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanzandt, T. E.

    1983-01-01

    A plausible scenario for the existence of a persistent back-ground of turbulence in the free atmosphere is described. The MST radar technique is the only existing technique that can be used to describe the morphology of occurrence of turbulence as a function of altitude, wind speed, shear, weather conditions, geographical location, etc. This technique was used also to assess the degree of universality of shape and amplitude of the buoyancy wave spectrum and the relation between the buoyancy wave spectrum and turbulence.

  14. Large-eddy simulation and Lagrangian stochastic modelling of solid particle and droplet dispersion and mixing. Application to atmospheric pollution; Dispersion et melange turbulents de particules solides et de gouttelettes par une simulation des grandes echelles et une modelisation stochastique lagrangienne. Application a la pollution de l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinkovic, I.

    2005-07-15

    In order to study atmospheric pollution and the dispersion of industrial stack emissions, a large eddy simulation with the dynamic Smagorinsky-Germano sub-grid-scale model is coupled with Lagrangian tracking of fluid particles containing scalar, solid particles and droplets. The movement of fluid particles at a sub-grid level is given by a three-dimensional Langevin model. The stochastic model is written in terms of sub-grid-scale statistics at a mesh level. By introducing a diffusion model, the coupling between the large-eddy simulation and the modified three-dimensional Langevin model is applied to passive scalar dispersion. The results are validated by comparison with the wind-tunnel experiments of Fackrell and Robins (1982). The equation of motion of a small rigid sphere in a turbulent flow is introduced. Solid particles and droplets are tracked in a Lagrangian way. The velocity of solid particles and droplets is considered to have a large scale component (directly computed by the large-eddy simulation) and a sub-grid scale part. Because of inertia and gravity effects, solid particles and droplets, deviate from the trajectories of the surrounding fluid particles. Therefore, a modified Lagrangian correlation timescale is introduced into the Langevin model previously developed for the sub-grid velocity of fluid particles. Two-way coupling and collisions are taken into account. The results of the large-eddy simulation with solid particles are compared with the wind-tunnel experiments of Nalpanis et al. (1993) and of Taniere et al. (1997) on sand particles in saltation and in modified saltation, respectively. A model for droplet coalescence and breakup is implemented which allows to predict droplet interactions under turbulent flow conditions in the frame of the Euler/Lagrange approach. Coalescence and breakup are considered as a stochastic process with simple scaling symmetry assumption for the droplet radius, initially proposed by Kolmogorov (1941). At high

  15. Ribbon Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Venaille, Antoine; Vallis, Geoffrey K

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the non-linear equilibration of a two-layer quasi-geostrophic flow in a channel forced by an imposed unstable zonal mean flow, paying particular attention to the role of bottom friction. In the limit of low bottom friction, classical theory of geostrophic turbulence predicts an inverse cascade of kinetic energy in the horizontal with condensation at the domain scale and barotropization on the vertical. By contrast, in the limit of large bottom friction, the flow is dominated by ribbons of high kinetic energy in the upper layer. These ribbons correspond to meandering jets separating regions of homogenized potential vorticity. We interpret these result by taking advantage of the peculiar conservation laws satisfied by this system: the dynamics can be recast in such a way that the imposed mean flow appears as an initial source of potential vorticity levels in the upper layer. The initial baroclinic instability leads to a turbulent flow that stirs this potential vorticity field while conserving the...

  16. Statistical turbulence theory and turbulence phenomenology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    The application of deductive turbulence theory for validity determination of turbulence phenomenology at the level of second-order, single-point moments is considered. Particular emphasis is placed on the phenomenological formula relating the dissipation to the turbulence energy and the Rotta-type formula for the return to isotropy. Methods which deal directly with most or all the scales of motion explicitly are reviewed briefly. The statistical theory of turbulence is presented as an expansion about randomness. Two concepts are involved: (1) a modeling of the turbulence as nearly multipoint Gaussian, and (2) a simultaneous introduction of a generalized eddy viscosity operator.

  17. Seasonality in submesoscale turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callies, Jörn; Ferrari, Raffaele; Klymak, Jody M; Gula, Jonathan

    2015-04-21

    Although the strongest ocean surface currents occur at horizontal scales of order 100 km, recent numerical simulations suggest that flows smaller than these mesoscale eddies can achieve important vertical transports in the upper ocean. These submesoscale flows, 1-100 km in horizontal extent, take heat and atmospheric gases down into the interior ocean, accelerating air-sea fluxes, and bring deep nutrients up into the sunlit surface layer, fueling primary production. Here we present observational evidence that submesoscale flows undergo a seasonal cycle in the surface mixed layer: they are much stronger in winter than in summer. Submesoscale flows are energized by baroclinic instabilities that develop around geostrophic eddies in the deep winter mixed layer at a horizontal scale of order 1-10 km. Flows larger than this instability scale are energized by turbulent scale interactions. Enhanced submesoscale activity in the winter mixed layer is expected to achieve efficient exchanges with the permanent thermocline below.

  18. Explosive Turbulent Magnetic Reconnection

    OpenAIRE

    Higashimori, Katsuaki; Yokoi, Nobumitsu; Hoshino, Masahiro

    2013-01-01

    We report simulation results for turbulent magnetic reconnection obtained using a newly developed Reynolds-averaged magnetohydrodynamics model. We find that the initial Harris current sheet develops in three ways, depending on the strength of turbulence: laminar reconnection, turbulent reconnection, and turbulent diffusion. The turbulent reconnection explosively converts the magnetic field energy into both kinetic and thermal energy of plasmas, and generates open fast reconnection jets. This ...

  19. Average intensity and spreading of a partially coherent Gaussian Schell- model beam propagation through atmospheric turbulence%部分相干高斯-谢尔光束在大气湍流中的平均强度与展宽

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向宁静; 王明军; 王太荣

    2012-01-01

    基于广义惠更斯-菲涅耳原理,交叉密度函数以及Rytov’s相位结构函数二次近似,利用傅里叶高斯变换推导出部分相干高斯-谢尔光束在大气湍流中的强度分布表达式,并在此基础上分析了大气湍流对角展宽、桶中功率以及光束漂移的影响。数值结果表明:角展宽和光束漂移与光束的初始半径、光源的相干长度有关;远场能量集中度随湍流强度增加、光源相干宽度减小而减小。%Based on the extended Huygens - Fresnel integral, the cross - spectral density and Rytov ' s phase structure function, average intensity is derived by a formula for the Fourier transform of Ganssian function. Angular spread , PIB, beam wander of a partially coherent Gaussian - Schell - model ( GSM ) beam in turbulent atmosphere are found out. It shows that angular spread and beam wander have relation with initial beam radius, initial coherence width in the atmospheric turbulence, The energy centrality will decrease as the turbulence intensity increases, spatial correlation length decreases.

  20. Fossil turbulence revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    1999-01-01

    A theory of fossil turbulence presented in the 11th Liege Colloquium on Marine turbulence is "revisited" in the 29th Liege Colloquium "Marine Turbulence Revisited". The Gibson (1980) theory applied universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as it is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Towed oceanic microstructure measurements of Schedvin (1979) confirmed the predicted universal constants. Universal constants, spectra, hydrodynamic phase diagrams (HPDs) and other predictions of the theory have been reconfirmed by a wide variety of field and laboratory observations. Fossil turbulence theory has many applications; for example, in marine biology, laboratory and field measurements suggest phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies differently by pattern recognition of several days of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times above thres...

  1. Odor Landscapes in Turbulent Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, Antonio; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Vergassola, Massimo

    2014-10-01

    The olfactory system of male moths is exquisitely sensitive to pheromones emitted by females and transported in the environment by atmospheric turbulence. Moths respond to minute amounts of pheromones, and their behavior is sensitive to the fine-scale structure of turbulent plumes where pheromone concentration is detectible. The signal of pheromone whiffs is qualitatively known to be intermittent, yet quantitative characterization of its statistical properties is lacking. This challenging fluid dynamics problem is also relevant for entomology, neurobiology, and the technological design of olfactory stimulators aimed at reproducing physiological odor signals in well-controlled laboratory conditions. Here, we develop a Lagrangian approach to the transport of pheromones by turbulent flows and exploit it to predict the statistics of odor detection during olfactory searches. The theory yields explicit probability distributions for the intensity and the duration of pheromone detections, as well as their spacing in time. Predictions are favorably tested by using numerical simulations, laboratory experiments, and field data for the atmospheric surface layer. The resulting signal of odor detections lends itself to implementation with state-of-the-art technologies and quantifies the amount and the type of information that male moths can exploit during olfactory searches.

  2. Mechanics of Turbulence of Multicomponent Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marov, Mikhail Ya.; Kolesnichenko, Aleksander V.

    2002-02-01

    Turbulence in multicomponent reacting gas mixtures is an important mechanism underlying numerous natural phenomena closely related to the study of our space environment. This book develops a new mathematical approach for modelling multicomponent gas turbulence that adequately describes the combined processes of dynamics and heat and mass transfer when chemical kinetics and turbulent mixing are equally important. The developed models include the evolutionary transfer equations for the single-point second correlation moments of turbulent fluctuations of thermohydrodynamical parameters. The phenomenological approach to the closure problem in hydrodynamic equations of mean motion at the level of the first order moments is based on the thermodynamics of irreversible processes and enables defining relationships in a more general form as compared to those conventionally deduced using the mixing path concept. Based on the developed approach, turbulent exchange factors for a planetary upper atmosphere are evaluated, and a turbulent model of a protoplanetary accretion gas-dust disk involving heat and mass transfer and coagulation is also considered. As compared to previously published books on the problem of turbulence, this book deals, for the first time, with the complicated models of reacting gas mixtures. It is intended for graduate and postgraduate students in the fields of fluid gas dynamics, astrophysics, space physics, planetary sciences, and aeronomy, and especially for those dealing with computer modelling of the processes in such natural media. The book may also be of interest to specialists in the relevant fields of ecology, engineering, and material processing.

  3. Computational fluid dynamics incompressible turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Kajishima, Takeo

    2017-01-01

    This textbook presents numerical solution techniques for incompressible turbulent flows that occur in a variety of scientific and engineering settings including aerodynamics of ground-based vehicles and low-speed aircraft, fluid flows in energy systems, atmospheric flows, and biological flows. This book encompasses fluid mechanics, partial differential equations, numerical methods, and turbulence models, and emphasizes the foundation on how the governing partial differential equations for incompressible fluid flow can be solved numerically in an accurate and efficient manner. Extensive discussions on incompressible flow solvers and turbulence modeling are also offered. This text is an ideal instructional resource and reference for students, research scientists, and professional engineers interested in analyzing fluid flows using numerical simulations for fundamental research and industrial applications. • Introduces CFD techniques for incompressible flow and turbulence with a comprehensive approach; • Enr...

  4. Pair separation in high Reynolds number turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bourgoin, M O; Xu, H; Joergensen, J B; Bodenschatz, E; Bourgoin, Mickael; Ouellette, Nicholas T.; Xu, Haitao; Joergensen, Jacob B.; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2005-01-01

    The separation of two nearby particles in a turbulent flow is fundamental in our everyday lives. Turbulent mixing is important everywhere from mundane applications like stirring milk into a cup of tea to technological processes such as the mixing of chemicals in reactors, combustion engines, or jet turbines. Environmental problems such as the spread of pollutants or bioagents in the atmosphere and oceans are fundamentally turbulent mixing processes. Even biological organisms use it to survive in marine ecosystems. Despite intense scientific inquiry, however, no convincing agreement has been found with the Richardson and Batchelor two-particle dispersion predictions over a wide range of timescales. Here we report measurements in a laboratory water flow at very high turbulence intensities (Taylor microscale Reynolds numbers of R_lambda = 690 and 815) that show excellent agreement with a refinement of Batchelor's prediction. We find that even for large initial spatial separations Batchelor scaling is fulfilled. ...

  5. Optical Turbulence above the Internal Antarctic Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; Moigne, P Le; Noilhan, J

    2010-01-01

    The internal antarctic plateau revealed in the last years to be a site with interesting potentialities for the astronomical applications due to the extreme dryness and low temperatures, the typical high altitude of the plateau, the weak level of turbulence in the free atmosphere down to a just few tens of meters from the ground and the thin optical turbulence layer developed at the ground. The main goal of a site testing assessment above the internal antarctic plateau is to characterize the site (optical turbulence and classical meteorological parameters) and to quantify which is the gain we might obtain with respect to equivalent astronomical observations done above mid-latitude sites to support plans for future astronomical facilities. Our group is involved, since a few years, in studies related to the assessment of this site for astronomical applications that include the characterization of the meteorological parameters and optical turbulence provided by general circulation models as well as mesoscale atmo...

  6. Long-distance Bessel beam propagation through Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Philip; Ituen, Iniabasi; Young, Rupert; Chatwin, Chris

    2015-11-01

    Free-space optical communication has the potential to transmit information with both high speed and security. However, since it is unguided it suffers from losses due to atmospheric turbulence and diffraction. To overcome the diffraction limits the long-distance propagation of Bessel beams is considered and compared against Gaussian beam properties. Bessel beams are shown to have a number of benefits over Gaussian beams when propagating through atmospheric turbulence.

  7. 部分相干双曲正弦-Gauss涡旋光束叠加形成的合成相干涡旋在非Kolmogorov大气湍流中的动态演化%Dynamic evolution of composite coherence vortices by superimpositions of partially coherent hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何雪梅; 吕百达

    2012-01-01

    一些实验表明,实际大气会偏离理想Kolmogorov模型.本文基于广义Huygens-Fresnel原理和Toselli等提出的非Kolmogorov湍流模型,推导出部分相干双曲正弦-Gauss(HSG)涡旋光束通过非Kolmogorov大气湍流的解析传输公式,并用以对两束部分相干HSG涡旋光束相干叠加和非相干叠加形成的合成相干涡旋在非Kolmogorov大气湍流中的动态演化进行了研究.结果表明,合成光束平均光强的演化过程与非Kolmogorov湍流的广义指数α,源平面上叠加涡旋光束拓扑电荷的符号,以及叠加方式有关.合成相干涡旋在非Kolmogorov大气湍流中传输时会出现移动、产生和湮灭.广义指数α,拓扑电荷符号,以及叠加方式都会影响其演化行为.最后,将本文所得结果与相关文献做了比较.%Some experiments show that the practical atmosphere deviates from ideal Kolmogorov model. In this paper, based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle and the non-Kolmogorov turbulence model proposed by Toselli et al., the analytical expression for the propagation of partially coherent hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian vortex beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence is derived and used to study the dynamic evolutions of composite coherence vortices formed by coherent and incoherent superpositions of two partially coherent hyperbolic-sine-Gaussian vortex beams in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. It is shown that the evolution process of the average intensity of the superimposed beam depends on the general exponent c~ of the non-Kolmogorov turbulence, the sign of the topological charge of the superimposed vortex beam in the source plane, and superposition scheme. The motion, the creation and the annihilation of composite coherence vortices may take place upon propagation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence, and the general exponent a, sign of the topological charge and superposition scheme affect the evolution behavior. Finally, the results are

  8. Anomalous diffusion in geophysical and laboratory turbulence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Tsinober

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available We present an overview and some new results on anomalous diffusion of passive scalar in turbulent flows (including those used by Richardson in his famous paper in 1926. The obtained results are based on the analysis of the properties of invariant quantities (energy, enstrophy, dissipation, enstrophy generation, helicity density, etc. - i.e. independent of the choice of the system of reference as the most appropriate to describe physical processes - in three different turbulent laboratory flows (grid-flow, jet and boundary layer, see Tsinober et al. (1992 and Kit et al. (1993. The emphasis is made on the relations between the asymptotic properties of the intermittency exponents of higher order moments of different turbulent fields (energy, dissipation, helicity, spontaneous breaking of isotropy and reflexional symmetry and the variability of turbulent diffusion in the atmospheric boundary layer, in the troposphere and in the stratosphere. It is argued that local spontaneous breaking of isotropy of turbulent flow results in anomalous scaling laws for turbulent diffusion (as compared to the scaling law of Richardson which are observed, as a rule, in different atmospheric layers from the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL to the stratosphere. Breaking of rotational symmetry is important in the ABL, whereas reflexional symmetry breaking is dominating in the troposphere locally and in the stratosphere globally. The results are of speculative nature and further analysis is necessary to validate or disprove the claims made, since the correspondence with the experimental results may occur for the wrong reasons as happens from time to time in the field of turbulence.

  9. Atmospheric Circulation of Exoplanets

    CERN Document Server

    Showman, Adam P; Menou, Kristen

    2009-01-01

    We survey the basic principles of atmospheric dynamics relevant to explaining existing and future observations of exoplanets, both gas giant and terrestrial. Given the paucity of data on exoplanet atmospheres, our approach is to emphasize fundamental principles and insights gained from Solar-System studies that are likely to be generalizable to exoplanets. We begin by presenting the hierarchy of basic equations used in atmospheric dynamics, including the Navier-Stokes, primitive, shallow-water, and two-dimensional nondivergent models. We then survey key concepts in atmospheric dynamics, including the importance of planetary rotation, the concept of balance, and scaling arguments to show how turbulent interactions generally produce large-scale east-west banding on rotating planets. We next turn to issues specific to giant planets, including their expected interior and atmospheric thermal structures, the implications for their wind patterns, and mechanisms to pump their east-west jets. Hot Jupiter atmospheric d...

  10. Comparative study of partially coherent vortex beam propagations through atmospheric turbulence along a uplJnk path and a downlink path%部分相干涡旋光束通过大气湍流上行和下行传输的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晋红; 吕百达

    2011-01-01

    基于广义惠更斯一菲涅耳原理,以高斯-谢尔模型(GSM)涡旋光束作为典型的部分相干涡旋光束,推导出GSM涡旋光束通过大气湍流斜程传输的平均光强、均方根束宽和交叉谱密度函数的解析表达式,并用以研究了大气湍流中上行和下行对GSM涡旋光束传输和对相干涡旋的影响.结果表明,在相同条件下,GSM涡旋光束下行传输受大气湍流的影响要小于上行传输,下行传输时相干涡旋拓扑电荷守恒距离要长于上行传输.对所得结果做了物理解释.%Based on the extended Huygens-Fresnel principle, the propagations of a partially coherent vortex beam through atmospheric turbulence along an uplink path and a downlink path are studied, where the Gaussian Schell-model (GSM) vortex beam is taken as a typical example of partially coherent vortex beam. The analytical expressions for the average intensity, rms width and cross-spectral density function of GSM vortex beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence along a slant path are derived and used to study the influence of atmospheric turbulence along an uplink path and a downlink path on GSM vortex beam propagation and on coherence vortex. It is shown that under the same conditions the influence of atmospheric turbulence along a downlink path on GSM vortex beam propagation is smaller than that along a uplink path, and the conservation distance of the topological charge of GSM vortex beam along a downlink path is longer than that along a uplink path. The results are explained in physics.

  11. Turbulence and wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Arno J.; Peinke, Joachim; Mann, Jakob

    2011-01-01

    The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed.......The nature of turbulent flow towards, near and behind a wind turbine, the effect of turbulence on the electricity production and the mechanical loading of individual and clustered wind turbines, and some future issues are discussed....

  12. MHD Turbulence, Turbulent Dynamo and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Beresnyak, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    MHD Turbulence is common in many space physics and astrophysics environments. We first discuss the properties of incompressible MHD turbulence. A well-conductive fluid amplifies initial magnetic fields in a process called small-scale dynamo. Below equipartition scale for kinetic and magnetic energies the spectrum is steep (Kolmogorov -5/3) and is represented by critically balanced strong MHD turbulence. In this paper we report the basic reasoning behind universal nonlinear small-scale dynamo and the inertial range of MHD turbulence. We measured the efficiency of the small-scale dynamo $C_E=0.05$, Kolmogorov constant $C_K=4.2$ and anisotropy constant $C_A=0.63$ for MHD turbulence in high-resolution direct numerical simulations. We also discuss so-called imbalanced or cross-helical MHD turbulence which is relevant for in many objects, most prominently in the solar wind. We show that properties of incompressible MHD turbulence are similar to the properties of Alfv\\'enic part of MHD cascade in compressible turbul...

  13. Turbulent Soret Effect

    CERN Document Server

    Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Rogachevskii, Igor

    2016-01-01

    We show, by direct numerical simulations, that heavy inertial particles (with Stokes number ${\\rm St}$) in inhomogeneously forced statistically stationary turbulent flows cluster at the minima of turbulent kinetic energy. We further show that two turbulent transport processes, turbophoresis and turbulent diffusion together determine the spatial distribution of the particles. The ratio of the corresponding transport coefficient -- the turbulent Soret coefficient -- increases with ${\\rm St}$ for small ${\\rm St}$, reaches a maxima for ${\\rm St}\\approx 10$ and decreases as $\\sim {\\rm St}^{-0.33}$ for large ${\\rm St}$.

  14. New perspectives on superparameterization for geophysical turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majda, Andrew J. [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States); Center for Prototype Climate Modelling, NYU Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Grooms, Ian, E-mail: grooms@cims.nyu.edu [Center for Atmosphere Ocean Science, Courant Institute of Mathematical Sciences, New York University, 251 Mercer St., New York, NY 10012 (United States)

    2014-08-15

    This is a research expository paper regarding superparameterization, a class of multi-scale numerical methods designed to cope with the intermittent multi-scale effects of inhomogeneous geophysical turbulence where energy often inverse-cascades from the unresolved scales to the large scales through the effects of waves, jets, vortices, and latent heat release from moist processes. Original as well as sparse space–time superparameterization algorithms are discussed for the important case of moist atmospheric convection including the role of multi-scale asymptotic methods in providing self-consistent constraints on superparameterization algorithms and related deterministic and stochastic multi-cloud parameterizations. Test models for the statistical numerical analysis of superparameterization algorithms are discussed both to elucidate the performance of the basic algorithms and to test their potential role in efficient multi-scale data assimilation. The very recent development of grid-free seamless stochastic superparameterization methods for geophysical turbulence appropriate for “eddy-permitting” mesoscale ocean turbulence is presented here including a general formulation and illustrative applications to two-layer quasigeostrophic turbulence, and another difficult test case involving one-dimensional models of dispersive wave turbulence. This last test case has randomly generated solitons as coherent structures which collapse and radiate wave energy back to the larger scales, resulting in strong direct and inverse turbulent energy cascades.

  15. Broadband Phase Spectroscopy over Turbulent Air Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetta, Fabrizio R; Rieker, Gregory B; Baumann, Esther; Swann, William C; Sinclair, Laura C; Kofler, Jon; Coddington, Ian; Newbury, Nathan R

    2015-09-01

    Broadband atmospheric phase spectra are acquired with a phase-sensitive dual-frequency-comb spectrometer by implementing adaptive compensation for the strong decoherence from atmospheric turbulence. The compensation is possible due to the pistonlike behavior of turbulence across a single spatial-mode path combined with the intrinsic frequency stability and high sampling speed associated with dual-comb spectroscopy. The atmospheric phase spectrum is measured across 2 km of air at each of the 70,000 comb teeth spanning 233  cm(-1) across hundreds of near-infrared rovibrational resonances of CO(2), CH(4), and H(2)O with submilliradian uncertainty, corresponding to a 10(-13) refractive index sensitivity. Trace gas concentrations extracted directly from the phase spectrum reach 0.7 ppm uncertainty, demonstrated here for CO(2). While conventional broadband spectroscopy only measures intensity absorption, this approach enables measurement of the full complex susceptibility even in practical open path sensing.

  16. Optimal beam focusing through turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charnotskii, Mikhail

    2015-11-01

    Beam spread and beam wandering are the most perceptible effects of atmospheric turbulence on propagating laser beams. The width of the mean irradiance profile is typically used to characterize the beam spread. This so-called long-term (LT) statistic allows for a relatively simple theoretical description. However, the LT beam size is not a very practical measure of the beam spread because its measurements are sensitive to the movements of the source and detector, and to the large-scale variations of the refractive index that are not associated with turbulence. The short-term (ST) beam spread is measured relative to the instantaneous position of the beam center and is free of these drawbacks, but has not been studied as thoroughly as the LT spread. We present a theoretical model for the ST beam irradiance that is based on the parabolic equation for the beam wave propagation in random media, and the Markov approximation for calculation of the statistics of the optical field, and discuss an approximation that allows introduction of the isoplanatic ST point spread function (PSF). Unlike the LT PSF, the ST PSF depends on the overall beam geometry. This allows optimization of the initial beam field in terms of minimizing the ST beam size at the observation plane. Calculations supporting this conjecture are presented for the simple case of the coherent Gaussian beam, and Kolmogorov turbulence.

  17. The effects of forward speed on fan inlet turbulence and its relation to tone noise generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, B. K.

    1974-01-01

    The effect of forward speed on fan inlet turbulence was studied to determine the feasibility of using a wind tunnel to simulate various flight conditions where turbulence of atmospheric origin enters the engine inlet. The investigation was conducted in the Ames 7- by 10-foot Wind Tunnel with a small-scale low pressure-ratio fan. Results indicate that a wind tunnel of this size does produce large turbulence scale appropriate for simulation of atmospheric scale. But the tunnel's low turbulence intensity seems to cause results contrary to existing theories on the effects of fan inlet velocity ratio on turbulence scale. Limited results with artificially increased turbulence intensity removed this contradiction. Acoustic measurements showed the impact of inlet turbulence on fantone noise.

  18. The Flight of Flexible Aircraft in Turbulence - State-of-the-Art in the Description and Modelling of Atmospheric Turbulence: Meeting of the Structures and Materials Panel of AGARD (64th) Held in Athens (Greece) on 28 September-3 October 1986

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-12-01

    Flights. Le Groupe de I’AGARD charge de I’etude des Structures et des Materiaux etudie actuellement le vol des avions flexibles dans les turbulences...D.O.F. FORCED OSC. ANGULAR OSCILLATION TRANSL. OSCILLATION SINGLE D.O.F. FREE OSC. FREE FLIGHT SEMI-FREE CONTROLLED MAGNETIC SUSPENSION

  19. The first turbulent combustion

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2005-01-01

    The first turbulent combustion arises in a hot big bang cosmological model Gibson (2004) where nonlinear exothermic turbulence permitted by quantum mechanics, general relativity, multidimensional superstring theory, and fluid mechanics cascades from Planck to strong force freeze out scales with gravity balancing turbulent inertial-vortex forces. Interactions between Planck scale spinning and non-spinning black holes produce high Reynolds number turbulence and temperature mixing with huge Reynolds stresses driving the rapid inflation of space. Kolmogorovian turbulent temperature patterns are fossilized as strong-force exponential inflation stretches them beyond the scale of causal connection ct where c is light speed and t is time. Fossil temperature turbulence patterns seed nucleosynthesis, and then hydro-gravitational structure formation in the plasma epoch, Gibson (1996, 2000). Evidence about formation mechanisms is preserved by cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies. CMB spectra indicate hydr...

  20. Planck-Kerr Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, C H

    2003-01-01

    A quantum gravitational instability is identified at Planck scales between non-spinning extreme Schwarzschild black holes and spinning extreme Kerr black holes, which produces a turbulent Planck particle gas. Planck inertial vortex forces balance gravitational forces as the Planck turbulence cascades to larger scales and the universe expands and cools. Turbulent mixing of temperature fluctuations and viscous dissipation of turbulent kinetic energy provide irreversibilities necessary to sustain the process to the strong force freeze out temperature where inflation begins. Turbulent temperature fluctuations are fossilized when they are stretched by inflation beyond the horizon scale of causal connection. As the horizon of the expanding universe grows, the fluctuations seed patterns of nucleosynthesis, and these seed the formation of structure in the plasma epoch. Fossil big bang turbulence is supported by extended self similarity coefficients computed for cosmic microwave background temperature anisotropies tha...

  1. One-dimensional turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerstein, A.R. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-12-31

    One-Dimensional Turbulence is a new turbulence modeling strategy involving an unsteady simulation implemented in one spatial dimension. In one dimension, fine scale viscous and molecular-diffusive processes can be resolved affordably in simulations at high turbulence intensity. The mechanistic distinction between advective and molecular processes is thereby preserved, in contrast to turbulence models presently employed. A stochastic process consisting of mapping {open_quote}events{close_quote} applied to a one-dimensional velocity profile represents turbulent advection. The local event rate for given eddy size is proportional to the velocity difference across the eddy. These properties cause an imposed shear to induce an eddy cascade analogous in many respects to the eddy cascade in turbulent flow. Many scaling and fluctuation properties of self-preserving flows, and of passive scalars introduced into these flows, are reproduced.

  2. Turbulence generation by waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaftori, D.; Nan, X.S.; Banerjee, S. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The interaction between two-dimensional mechanically generated waves, and a turbulent stream was investigated experimentally in a horizontal channel, using a 3-D LDA synchronized with a surface position measuring device and a micro-bubble tracers flow visualization with high speed video. Results show that although the wave induced orbital motion reached all the way to the wall, the characteristics of the turbulence wall structures and the turbulence intensity close to the wall were not altered. Nor was the streaky nature of the wall layer. On the other hand, the mean velocity profile became more uniform and the mean friction velocity was increased. Close to the free surface, the turbulence intensity was substantially increased as well. Even in predominantly laminar flows, the introduction of 2-D waves causes three dimensional turbulence. The turbulence enhancement is found to be proportional to the wave strength.

  3. Buoyancy driven turbulence and distributed chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2016-01-01

    It is shown, using results of recent direct numerical simulations, laboratory experiments and atmospheric measurements, that buoyancy driven turbulence exhibits a broad diversity of the types of distributed chaos with its stretched exponential spectrum $\\exp(-k/k_{\\beta})^{\\beta}$. The distributed chaos with $\\beta = 1/3$ (determined by the helicity correlation integral) is the most common feature of the stably stratified turbulence (due to the strong helical waves presence). These waves mostly dominate spectral properties of the vertical component of velocity field, while the horizontal component is dominated by the diffusive processes both for the weak and strong stable stratification ($\\beta =2/3$). For the last case influence of the low boundary can overcome the wave effects and result in $\\beta =1/2$ for the vertical component of the velocity field (the spontaneous breaking of the space translational symmetry - homogeneity). For the unstably stratified turbulence in the Rayleigh-Taylor mixing zone the di...

  4. Turbulence-noise in infrared lidar sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferdinandov, E. S.; Tsanev, V. I.; Todorov, B. O.

    1995-01-01

    An analytical description of the laser location (lidar) systems for investigation of two-dimensional distributions of the scattering properties of aerosol fields (natural or anthropogenic) in the infrared range has been made on the basis of the heuristic concept for the influence of the atmospheric turbulence (AT) on the transverse spatial structure of optical radiations. It has been shown that the influence of AT on the information carried by the lidar images is negative. It acts along the path "laser-sounded aerosol layer" only, i.e. when there is utter initial transverse coherency of the optical radiation. Explicit results for the stratifications of the coherency radii, the dispersion and contrast of the transverse spatial fluctuations of the intensity, the averaging action of the apertures of matrix photodetector elements on the corresponding radiant fluxes' turbulent fluctuations and the "signal-to-turbulence-noise" ratio have been derived.

  5. Comparative study of laminar and turbulent flow model with different operating parameters for radio frequency-inductively coupled plasma torch working at 3  MHz frequency at atmospheric pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, Sangeeta B., E-mail: p.sangeeta@gmail.com [Electrical Engineering Department, V.J.T.I., Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India); Sahasrabudhe, S. N.; Das, A. K. [Laser and Plasma Technology Division, BARC, Mumbai 400085 (India); Joshi, N. K. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, MITS, Lakshmangarh (Sikar), Rajasthan 332311 (India); Mangalvedekar, H. A. [Electrical Engineering Department, V.J.T.I., Matunga, Mumbai 400019 (India); Kothari, D. C. [Department of Physics, University of Mumbai, Kalina, Santacruz (E), Mumbai 400098 (India)

    2014-01-15

    This paper provides 2D comparative study of results obtained using laminar and turbulent flow model for RF (radio frequency) Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) torch. The study was done for the RF-ICP torch operating at 50 kW DC power and 3 MHz frequency located at BARC. The numerical modeling for this RF-ICP torch is done using ANSYS software with the developed User Defined Function. A comparative study is done between laminar and turbulent flow model to investigate how temperature and flow fields change when using different operating conditions such as (a) swirl and no swirl velocity for sheath gas flow rate, (b) variation in sheath gas flow rate, and (c) variation in plasma gas flow rate. These studies will be useful for different material processing applications.

  6. The dependence of optical turbulence on thermal and mechanical forces over the sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijk, Alexander M. J.; Sprung, Detlev; Sucher, Erik; Eisele, Christian; Seiffer, Dirk; Stein, Karin

    2016-09-01

    Optical turbulence for over-water conditions was investigated in a long-term experiment over False Bay near Cape Town, South Africa. A sonic anemometer and two boundary-layer scintillometers were deployed to access in-situ turbulence as well as the integrated turbulence over two 1.8 and 8.7 km paths. Statistical analysis reveals spatial temporal variations of the turbulence conditions over False Bay, which might be related to differences in the atmospheric conditions and/or the surface (water) temperatures. An analysis in terms of mechanical and thermal forcing reveals that the latter factor is more dominant in determining the turbulence strength.

  7. Gaussian vs non-Gaussian turbulence: impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Jacob; Natarajan, Anand; Mann, Jakob;

    2016-01-01

    From large-eddy simulations of atmospheric turbulence, a representation of Gaussian turbulence is constructed by randomizing the phases of the individual modes of variability. Time series of Gaussian turbulence are constructed and compared with its non-Gaussian counterpart. Time series from the two...... types of turbulence are then used as input to wind turbine load simulations under normal operations with the HAWC2 software package. A slight increase in the extreme loads of the tower base fore-aft moment is observed for high wind speeds when using non-Gaussian turbulence but is insignificant when...

  8. The VLA Atmospheric Phase Interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Keith

    2014-05-01

    The Atmospheric Phase Interferometer (API) is a two-element atmospheric seeing monitor located at the Very Large Array (VLA) site. The instrument measures turbulent refractive index variation through the atmosphere by examining phase differences in a satellite beacon signal detected at two (or more) antennas. With this measurement, the VLA scheduling software is able to consider atmospheric stability when determining which frequency observation to schedule next. We are in the process of extending this two-element interferometer to four elements, which will allow us to measure the turbulence in two dimensions and at multiple length scales. This thesis will look at some statistical properties of turbulence, the effects of atmospheric stability on radio interferometric observations, and discuss details of the instrument and the data that it collects. The thesis will also cover some techniques and principles of signal processing, and an analysis of some data from the instrument. The results demonstrate that other surface atmospheric variables (e.g. windspeed, water vapor pressure) show the same structure function exponent as the atmospheric phase fluctuations. In particular, the structure functions of water vapor partial pressure and wind speed show the same exponent as the phase. Though the agreement between meteorological variables and atmospheric phase is scientifically satisfying, these surface measurements are not nearly as sensitive as the API saturation phase measurement, and therefore cannot be used to schedule telescope time in its stead. What is informative about these results is that the similar structure functions for API and meteorological data are detecting reinforce the claim that both measurements represent turbulent transport, and not instrumental noise. Data from the instrument reveals that measurements are consistent with both Kolmogorov turbulence theory, and with prior observations. The API predominately measures three-dimensional isotropic

  9. Snowflakes as inertial particles in turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coletti, Filippo; Nemes, Andras; Dasari, Teja; Hong, Jiarong; Guala, Michele

    2016-11-01

    We report on the first direct measurements of trajectories and settling velocity of snow particles in the atmospheric surface layer. During a nocturnal snowfall we deploy an imaging system consisting of a searchlight and high speed cameras to illuminate and track thousands of snowflakes over a 7 m by 4 m vertical plane. We simultaneously characterize their shape and size using digital holography, while recording the air turbulence properties via sonic anemometry. We show that, in the meteorological conditions in object, the snowflake motion exhibits hallmark features identified by fundamental studies of particle-laden turbulence in both the Lagrangian and the Eulerian framework. The acceleration distribution displays stretched exponential tails, and by comparing with previous laboratory and computational studies we infer the Stokes number and aerodynamic response time of the snowflakes. The fall speed is found to be much greater than the expected value in still air, indicating that turbulence enhances settling according to the preferential sweeping mechanism. These observations demonstrate the major role of turbulence in determining the snow fall speed, and create the basis for leveraging results from particle-laden turbulence research towards improved snow precipitation models.

  10. PREFACE: Turbulent Mixing and Beyond Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Rosner, Robert

    2008-10-01

    The goals of the International Conference `Turbulent Mixing and Beyond' are to expose the generic problem of Turbulence and Turbulent Mixing in Unsteady Flows to a wide scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the non-canonical turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together scientists from the areas which include, but are not limited to, high energy density physics, plasmas, fluid dynamics, turbulence, combustion, material science, geophysics, astrophysics, optics and telecommunications, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task. The Turbulent Mixing and Turbulence in Unsteady Flows, including multiphase flows, plays a key role in a wide variety of phenomena, ranging from astrophysical to nano-scales, under either high or low energy density conditions. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, properties of materials under high strain rates, strong shocks, explosions, blast waves, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, oceanography, atmospheric flows, unsteady boundary layers, hypersonic and supersonic flows, are a few examples to list. A grip on unsteady turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser-micromachining and free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in aeronautics. Unsteady Turbulent Processes are anisotropic, non-local and multi-scale, and their fundamental scaling, spectral and invariant properties depart from the classical Kolmogorov scenario. The singular aspects and similarity of the

  11. Turbulence modelling; Modelisation de la turbulence isotherme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurence, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), Direction des Etudes et Recherches, 92 - Clamart (France)

    1997-12-31

    This paper is an introduction course in modelling turbulent thermohydraulics, aimed at computational fluid dynamics users. No specific knowledge other than the Navier Stokes equations is required beforehand. Chapter I (which those who are not beginners can skip) provides basic ideas on turbulence physics and is taken up in a textbook prepared by the teaching team of the ENPC (Benque, Viollet). Chapter II describes turbulent viscosity type modelling and the 2k-{epsilon} two equations model. It provides details of the channel flow case and the boundary conditions. Chapter III describes the `standard` (R{sub ij}-{epsilon}) Reynolds tensions transport model and introduces more recent models called `feasible`. A second paper deals with heat transfer and the effects of gravity, and returns to the Reynolds stress transport model. (author). 37 refs.

  12. Average capacity for optical wireless communication systems over exponentiated Weibull distribution non-Kolmogorov turbulent channels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Mingjian; Zhang, Yixin; Gao, Jie; Wang, Fei; Zhao, Fengsheng

    2014-06-20

    We model the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems for cases of weak to strong turbulence channels, using the exponentiation Weibull distribution model. The joint effects of the beam wander and spread, pointing errors, atmospheric attenuation, and the spectral index of non-Kolmogorov turbulence on system performance are included. Our results show that the average capacity decreases steeply as the propagation length L changes from 0 to 200 m and decreases slowly down or tends to a stable value as the propagation length L is greater than 200 m. In the weak turbulence region, by increasing the detection aperture, we can improve the average channel capacity and the atmospheric visibility as an important issue affecting the average channel capacity. In the strong turbulence region, the increase of the radius of the detection aperture cannot reduce the effects of the atmospheric turbulence on the average channel capacity, and the effect of atmospheric visibility on the channel information capacity can be ignored. The effect of the spectral power exponent on the average channel capacity in the strong turbulence region is higher than weak turbulence region. Irrespective of the details determining the turbulent channel, we can say that pointing errors have a significant effect on the average channel capacity of optical wireless communication systems in turbulence channels.

  13. Effect of particle clustering on radiative transfer in turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Liberman, M; Rogachevskii, I; Haugen, N E L

    2016-01-01

    The effect of particle clustering on the radiation penetration length in particle laden turbulent flows is studied using a mean-field approach. Particle clustering in temperature stratified turbulence implies the formation of small-scale clusters with a high concentration of particles, exceeding the mean concentration by a few orders of magnitude. We show that the radiative penetration length increases by several orders of magnitude due to the particle clustering in a turbulent flow. Such strong radiative clearing effect plays a key role in a number of atmospheric and astrophysical phenomena, and can be of fundamental importance for understanding the origin of dust explosions.

  14. Turbulence and dynamo interlinks

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Gouveia Dal Pino, E. M.; Santos-Lima, R.; Kowal, G.; Falceta-Gonçalves, D.

    2013-07-01

    The role of turbulence in astrophysical environments and its interplay with magnetic fields is still highly debated. In this lecture, we will discuss this issue in the framework of dynamo processes. We will first present a very brief summary of turbulent dynamo theories, then will focus on small scale turbulent dynamos and their particular relevance on the origin and maintenance of magnetic fields in the intra-cluster media (ICM) of galaxies. In these environments, the very low density of the flow requires a collisionless-MHD treatment. We will show the implications of this approach in the turbulent amplification of the magnetic fields in these environments. To finalize, we will also briefly address the connection between MHD turbulence and fast magnetic reconnection and its possible implications in the diffusion of magnetic flux in the dynamo process.

  15. Turbulence and Dynamo Interlinks

    CERN Document Server

    Pino, E M de Gouveia Dal

    2013-01-01

    The role of turbulence in astrophysical environments and its interplay with magnetic fields is still highly debated. In this lecture, we will discuss this issue in the framework of dynamo processes. We will first present a very brief summary of turbulent dynamo theories, then will focus on small scale turbulent dynamos and their particular relevance on the origin and maintenance of magnetic fields in the intra-cluster media (ICM) of galaxies. In these environments, the very low density of the flow requires a collisionless-MHD treatment. We will show the implications of this approach in the turbulent amplification of the magnetic fields in these environments. To finalize, we will also briefly address the connection between MHD turbulence and fast magnetic reconnection and its possible implications in the diffusion of magnetic flux in the dynamo process.

  16. Atmospheric Boundary Layers: Modeling and Parameterization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holtslag, A.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this contribution we deal with the representation of the atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) for modeling studies of weather, climate, and air quality. As such we review the major characteristics of the ABL, and summarize the basic parameterizations for the description of atmospheric turbulence and

  17. Effect of free-stream turbulence on film cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marek, C. J.; Tacina, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    Film-cooling experiments were conducted at four levels of free-stream turbulence to test the hypothesis that the film-cooling effectiveness is inversely related to the free-stream turbulence level. The hot-gas operating conditions were held constant at a temperature of 590 K, a pressure of 1 atmosphere, and a velocity of 62 m/sec. The film-cooling air was at ambient inlet temperature, and the film-cooling flow rates were 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10.0 percent of the total airflow. Blockage plates with blockage areas of 0, 52, 72, and 90 percent were placed upstream of the film-cooling slot and produced axial turbulence intensities of 7, 14, 23, and 35 percent, respectively. The film-cooling effectiveness decreased as much as 50 percent as the freestream turbulence intensity was increased from 7 to 35 percent. The value of the turbulent mixing coefficient used in previous work was compared with the axial turbulence intensity. The turbulent mixing coefficient was found to be 10 to 40 percent of the axial turbulence intensity.

  18. Swell impact on wind stress and atmospheric mixing in a regional coupled atmosphere-wave model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Lichuan; Rutgersson, Anna; Sahlée, Erik;

    2016-01-01

    Over the ocean, the atmospheric turbulence can be significantly affected by swell waves. Change in the atmospheric turbulence affects the wind stress and atmospheric mixing over swell waves. In this study, the influence of swell on atmospheric mixing and wind stress is introduced into an atmosphere......-wave-coupled regional climate model, separately and combined. The swell influence on atmospheric mixing is introduced into the atmospheric mixing length formula by adding a swell-induced contribution to the mixing. The swell influence on the wind stress under wind-following swell, moderate-range wind, and near......-neutral and unstable stratification conditions is introduced by changing the roughness length. Five year simulation results indicate that adding the swell influence on atmospheric mixing has limited influence, only slightly increasing the near-surface wind speed; in contrast, adding the swell influence on wind stress...

  19. Edge turbulence in tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedospasov, A. V.

    1992-12-01

    Edge turbulence is of decisive importance for the distribution of particle and energy fluxes to the walls of tokamaks. Despite the availability of extensive experimental data on the turbulence properties, its nature still remains a subject for discussion. This paper contains a review of the most recent theoretical and experimental studies in the field, including mainly the studies to which Wootton (A.J. Wooton, J. Nucl. Mater. 176 & 177 (1990) 77) referred to most in his review at PSI-9 and those published later. The available theoretical models of edge turbulence with volume dissipation due to collisions fail to fully interpret the entire combination of experimental facts. In the scrape-off layer of a tokamak the dissipation prevails due to the flow of current through potential shifts near the surface of limiters of divertor plates. The different origins of turbulence at the edge and in the core plasma due to such dissipation are discussed in this paper. Recent data on the electron temperature fluctuations enabled one to evaluate the electric probe measurements of turbulent flows of particles and heat critically. The latest data on the suppression of turbulence in the case of L-H transitions are given. In doing so, the possibility of exciting current instabilities in biasing experiments (rather than only to the suppression of existing turbulence) is given some attention. Possible objectives of further studies are also discussed.

  20. Turbulence new approaches

    CERN Document Server

    Belotserkovskii, OM; Chechetkin, VM

    2005-01-01

    The authors present the results of numerical experiments carried out to examine the problem of development of turbulence and convection. On the basis of the results, they propose a physical model of the development of turbulence. Numerical algorithms and difference schema for carrying out numerical experiments in hydrodynamics, are proposed. Original algorithms, suitable for calculation of the development of the processes of turbulence and convection in different conditions, even on astrophysical objects, are presented. The results of numerical modelling of several important phenomena having both fundamental and applied importance are described.

  1. Homogeneous turbulence theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bershadskii, A.G.

    1985-06-01

    An exact solution for the nonlinear problem of the spectral energy function of a homogeneous turbulence is derived under the assumption that energy transfer under the effect of inertial forces is determined mainly by the interactions among vortices whose wavenumbers are only slightly different from each other. The results are experimentally verified for turbulence behind grids. Similar problems are solved for MHD turbulence and for a nonstationary spectral energy function. It is shown that at the initial stage of degeneration, the spectral energy function is little influenced by the Stewart number; this agrees with experimental data for the damping of longitudinal velocity pulsations behind a grid in a longitudinal magnetic field. 15 references.

  2. Modeling of turbulent chemical reaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J.-Y.

    1995-01-01

    Viewgraphs are presented on modeling turbulent reacting flows, regimes of turbulent combustion, regimes of premixed and regimes of non-premixed turbulent combustion, chemical closure models, flamelet model, conditional moment closure (CMC), NO(x) emissions from turbulent H2 jet flames, probability density function (PDF), departures from chemical equilibrium, mixing models for PDF methods, comparison of predicted and measured H2O mass fractions in turbulent nonpremixed jet flames, experimental evidence of preferential diffusion in turbulent jet flames, and computation of turbulent reacting flows.

  3. Turbulence mitigation methods for sea scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijk, Judith; Schutte, Klamer; Nieuwenhuizen, Robert P. J.

    2016-10-01

    Visual and infrared imagery is degraded by turbulence caused by atmospheric conditions. Because the degradation gets worse for longer distances, turbulence especially hampers long range observation. At sea this turbulence affects classification and identification of ships and other objects. State of the art software based processing algorithms assuming a static background assumption will fail in such conditions because of the non-static sea background. Therefore, we propose an adapted processing chain aiming to provide optimal turbulence correction for ships seen in the camera view. First we propose to use standard object detection and tracking methods for an indication of the location of the ship. Subsequently, image registration is performed within the ship's region of interest, covering only the ship of interest. After this region of interest registration, standard turbulence mitigation software can be applied to the region of interest. For ships with other movement than translation only we propose a two-step motion estimation using local optical flow. In this paper we show results of this processing chain for sea scenarios using our TNO turbulence mitigation method. Ship data is processed using the algorithm proposed above and the results are analyzed by both human observation and by image analysis. The improvement of the imagery is qualitatively shown by examining details which cannot be seen without processing and can be seen with processing. Quantitatively, the improvement is related to the energy per spatial frequency in the original and processed images and the signal to noise improvement. This provides a model for the improvement of the results, and is related to the improvement of the classification and identification range. The results show that with this novel approach the classification and identification range of ships is improved.

  4. Cumulant expansions for atmospheric flows

    CERN Document Server

    Ait-Chaalal, Farid; Meyer, Bettina; Marston, J B

    2015-01-01

    The equations governing atmospheric flows are nonlinear, and consequently the hierarchy of cumulant equations is not closed. But because atmospheric flows are inhomogeneous and anisotropic, the nonlinearity may manifests itself only weakly through interactions of mean fields with disturbances such as thermals or eddies. In such situations, truncations of the hierarchy of cumulant equations hold promise as a closure strategy. We review how truncations at second order can be used to model and elucidate the dynamics of turbulent atmospheric flows. Two examples are considered. First, we study the growth of a dry convective boundary layer, which is heated from below, leading to turbulent upward energy transport and growth of the boundary layer. We demonstrate that a quasilinear truncation of the equations of motion, in which interactions of disturbances among each other are neglected but interactions with mean fields are taken into account, can successfully capture the growth of the convective boundary layer. Seco...

  5. Turbulent buoyant jets and plumes

    CERN Document Server

    Rodi, Wolfgang

    The Science & Applications of Heat and Mass Transfer: Reports, Reviews, & Computer Programs, Volume 6: Turbulent Buoyant Jets and Plumes focuses on the formation, properties, characteristics, and reactions of turbulent jets and plumes. The selection first offers information on the mechanics of turbulent buoyant jets and plumes and turbulent buoyant jets in shallow fluid layers. Discussions focus on submerged buoyant jets into shallow fluid, horizontal surface or interface jets into shallow layers, fundamental considerations, and turbulent buoyant jets (forced plumes). The manuscript then exami

  6. Color of turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Zare, Armin; Georgiou, Tryphon T

    2016-01-01

    Second-order statistics of turbulent flows can be obtained either experimentally or via direct numerical simulations. Statistics reflect fundamentals of flow physics and can be used to develop low-complexity turbulence models. Due to experimental or numerical limitations it is often the case that only partial flow statistics can be reliably known, i.e., only certain correlations between a limited number of flow field components are available. Thus, it is of interest to complete the statistical signature of the flow field in a way that is consistent with the known dynamics. This is an inverse problem and our approach utilizes stochastically-forced linearization around turbulent mean velocity profile. In general, white-in-time stochastic forcing is not sufficient to explain turbulent flow statistics. In contrast, colored-in-time forcing of the linearized equations allows for exact matching of available correlations. To accomplish this, we develop dynamical models that generate the required stochastic excitation...

  7. Turbulence of swarming sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creppy, Adama; Praud, Olivier; Druart, Xavier; Kohnke, Philippa L.; Plouraboué, Franck

    2015-09-01

    Collective motion of self-sustained swarming flows has recently provided examples of small-scale turbulence arising where viscous effects are dominant. We report the first observation of universal enstrophy cascade in concentrated swarming sperm consistent with a body of evidence built from various independent measurements. We found a well-defined k-3 power-law decay of a velocity field power spectrum and relative dispersion of small beads consistent with theoretical predictions in 2D turbulence. Concentrated living sperm displays long-range, correlated whirlpool structures of a size that provides an integral scale of turbulence. We propose a consistent explanation for this quasi-2D turbulence based on self-structured laminated flow forced by steric interactions and alignment, a state of active matter that we call "swarming liquid crystal." We develop scaling arguments consistent with this interpretation.

  8. Scrambled and Unscrambled Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ramaprabhu, P; Lawrie, A G W

    2013-01-01

    The linked fluid dynamics videos depict Rayleigh-Taylor turbulence when driven by a complex acceleration profile involving two stages of acceleration interspersed with a stage of stabilizing deceleration. Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability occurs at the interface separating two fluids of different densities, when the lighter fluid is accelerated in to the heavier fluid. The turbulent mixing arising from the development of the miscible RT instability is of key importance in the design of Inertial Confinement Fusion capsules, and to the understanding of astrophysical events, such as Type Ia supernovae. By driving this flow with an accel-decel-accel profile, we have investigated how structures in RT turbulence are affected by a sudden change in the direction of the acceleration first from destabilizing acceleration to deceleration, and followed by a restoration of the unstable acceleration. By studying turbulence under such highly non-equilibrium conditions, we hope to develop an understanding of the response and ...

  9. Stochastic modelling of turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil Hedevang Lohse

    This thesis addresses stochastic modelling of turbulence with applications to wind energy in mind. The primary tool is ambit processes, a recently developed class of computationally tractable stochastic processes based on integration with respect to Lévy bases. The subject of ambit processes...... stochastic turbulence model based on ambit processes is proposed. It is shown how a prescribed isotropic covariance structure can be reproduced. Non-Gaussian turbulence models are obtained through non-Gaussian Lévy bases or through volatility modulation of Lévy bases. As opposed to spectral models operating...... is dissipated into heat due to the internal friction caused by viscosity. An existing stochastic model, also expressed in terms of ambit processes, is extended and shown to give a universal and parsimonious description of the turbulent energy dissipation. The volatility modulation, referred to above, has...

  10. Inflow Turbulence Generation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaohua

    2017-01-01

    Research activities on inflow turbulence generation methods have been vigorous over the past quarter century, accompanying advances in eddy-resolving computations of spatially developing turbulent flows with direct numerical simulation, large-eddy simulation (LES), and hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes–LES. The weak recycling method, rooted in scaling arguments on the canonical incompressible boundary layer, has been applied to supersonic boundary layer, rough surface boundary layer, and microscale urban canopy LES coupled with mesoscale numerical weather forecasting. Synthetic methods, originating from analytical approximation to homogeneous isotropic turbulence, have branched out into several robust methods, including the synthetic random Fourier method, synthetic digital filtering method, synthetic coherent eddy method, and synthetic volume forcing method. This article reviews major progress in inflow turbulence generation methods with an emphasis on fundamental ideas, key milestones, representative applications, and critical issues. Directions for future research in the field are also highlighted.

  11. Influence of asymmetry turbulence cells on the angle of arrival fluctuations of optical waves in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linyan; Xue, Bindang

    2015-09-01

    Theoretical and experimental investigations have shown that the atmospheric turbulence exhibits both anisotropic and non-Kolmogorov properties. Very recent analyses of angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations of an optical wave in anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence have adopted the assumption that the propagation path was in the z-direction with circular symmetry of turbulence cells maintained in the orthogonal xy-plane throughout the path, and one single anisotropy factor was adopted in the orthogonal xy-plane to parameterize the asymmetry of turbulence cells or eddies in both horizontal and vertical directions. In this work, the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence cells or eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane is no longer required, and two anisotropy parameters are introduced in the orthogonal xy-plane to investigate the AOA fluctuations. In addition, deviations from the classic 11/3 spectral power law behavior for Kolmogorov turbulence are allowed by assuming spectral power law value variations between 3 and 4. With the Rytov approximation theory, new theoretical models for the variance of AOA fluctuations are developed for optical plane and spherical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. When the two anisotropic parameters are equal to each other, they reduce correctly to the recently published results (the circular symmetry assumption of turbulence cells or eddies in the orthogonal xy-plane was adopted). Furthermore, when these two anisotropic parameters equal one, they reduce correctly to the previously published analytic expressions for the cases of optical wave propagation through weak isotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

  12. Spatial averaging-effects on turbulence measured by a continuous-wave coherent lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjöholm, Mikael; Mikkelsen, Torben; Mann, Jakob;

    2009-01-01

    The influence of spatial volume averaging of a focused continuous-wave coherent Doppler lidar on observed wind turbulence in the atmospheric surface layer is described and analysed. For the first time, comparisons of lidar-measured turbulent spectra with spectra simultaneously obtained from a mast...

  13. The Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence 2011 field experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lothon, M.; Lohou, F.; Durand, P.; Couvreux, F.; Hartogensis, O.K.; Legain, D.; Pardyjak, E.; Pino, D.; Vilà-Guerau de Arellano, J.; Boer, van de A.; Moene, A.F.; Steeneveld, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    BLLAST (Boundary Layer Late Afternoon and Sunset Turbulence) aims at better understanding the thermodynamical processes that occur during the late afternoon in the lower troposphere. In direct contact with the Earth surface, the atmospheric boundary layer is governed by buoyant and mechanical turbul

  14. Stochastic tools in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Lumey, John L

    2012-01-01

    Stochastic Tools in Turbulence discusses the available mathematical tools to describe stochastic vector fields to solve problems related to these fields. The book deals with the needs of turbulence in relation to stochastic vector fields, particularly, on three-dimensional aspects, linear problems, and stochastic model building. The text describes probability distributions and densities, including Lebesgue integration, conditional probabilities, conditional expectations, statistical independence, lack of correlation. The book also explains the significance of the moments, the properties of the

  15. Dissipation in unsteady turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Bos, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    Recent experiments and simulations have shown that unsteady turbulent flows, before reaching a dynamic equilibrium state, display a universal behaviour. We show that the observed universal non-equilibrium scaling can be explained using a non-equilibrium correction of Kolmogorov's energy spectrum. Given the universality of the experimental and numerical observations, the ideas presented here lay the foundation for the modeling of a wide class of unsteady turbulent flows.

  16. Preliminary assessment of the importance of turbulent coagulation in the Kuwaiti oil fires. Final report, April 1992-June 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohlberg, I.

    1993-06-01

    This study provides a mathematical determination of the spatial distribution of aerosols due to turbulent shear coagulation and turbulent inertial coagulation, as applied to the conditions of the Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF) of 1991. Using an approximation from a forest fire for the normalized size distribution of aerosols, the downstream particle concentration is found by the concurrent solution of the coagulations' kinetics combined with turbulent atmospheric diffusion. The result shows the explicit dependence of the concentration on the following principal parameters: turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent diffusion constant, average wind speed, mass ejection from a well, Kolmorogov time scale for turbulence, and Kolmorogov length scale for turbulence. For very large values of turbulent energy dissipation rate, turbulent inertial coagulation is more effective than turbulent shear coagulation in particle growth. The spatial dependence of concentration attributed to turbulent coagulation may vary considerably. Depending on the choice of parameters, the importance of turbulent coagulation in particle transport processes may extend from less than a kilometer to tens of kilometers. Kuwaiti Oil Fires (KOF), Particle transport, Turbulent inertial coagulation, Turbulent shear coagulation.

  17. Turbulent Plasmoid Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Widmer, Fabien; Yokoi, Nobumitsu

    2016-01-01

    The plasmoid instability may lead to fast magnetic reconnection through long current sheets(CS). It is well known that large-Reynolds-number plasmas easily become turbulent. We address the question whether turbulence enhances the energy conversion rate of plasmoid-unstable current sheets. We carry out appropriate numerical MHD simulations, but resolving simultaneously the relevant large-scale (mean-) fields and the corresponding small-scale, turbulent, quantities by means of direct numerical simulations (DNS) is not possible. Hence we investigate the influence of small scale turbulence on large scale MHD processes by utilizing a subgrid-scale (SGS) turbulence model. We verify the applicability of our SGS model and then use it to investigate the influence of turbulence on the plasmoid instability. We start the simulations with Harris-type and force-free CS equilibria in the presence of a finite guide field in the direction perpendicular to the reconnection plane. We use the DNS results to investigate the growt...

  18. Fiber coupling efficiency for a Gaussian-beam wave propagating through non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Chao; Tan, Liying; Yu, Siyuan; Ma, Jing

    2015-06-15

    Nowadays it has been accepted that the Kolmogorov model is not the only possible turbulent one in the atmosphere, which has been confirmed by the increasing experimental evidence and some results of theoretical investigation. This has prompted the scientist community to study optical propagation in non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In this paper, using the method of effective beam parameters and a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum which has a more general power law instead of standard Kolmogorov power law value 11/3 and a more general amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033, the fiber coupling efficiency for a Gaussian-beam wave has been derived for a horizontal path in both weak and strong fluctuation regimes. And then the influence of spectral power law variations on the fiber coupling efficiency has been analyzed. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of atmospheric turbulence and optical wave propagation in the atmospheric turbulence.

  19. Turbulence and Fossil Turbulence in Oceans and Lakes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pak-Tao Leung; Carl H. Gibson

    2004-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than any of the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Energy cascades of irrotational flows from large scales to small are non-turbulent, even if they supply energy to turbulence. Turbulent flows are rotational and cascade from small scales to large, with feedback. Viscous forces limit the smallest turbulent eddy size to the Kolmogorov scale. In stratified fluids, buoyancy forces limit large vertical overturns to the Ozmidov scale and convert the largest turbulent eddies into a unique class of saturated, non-propagating, internal waves, termed fossil-vorticity-turbulence. These waves have the same energy but different properties and spectral forms than the original turbulence patch. The Gibson (1980, 1986) theory of fossil turbulence applies universal similarity theories of turbulence and turbulent mixing to the vertical evolution of an isolated patch of turbulence in a stratified fluid as its growth is constrained and fossilized by buoyancy forces. Quantitative hydrodynamic-phase-diagrams (HPDs) from the theory are used to classify microstructure patches according to their hydrodynamic states. When analyzed in HPD space, previously published oceanic datasets showed their dominant microstructure patches are fossilized at large scales in all layers. Laboratory and field measurements suggested phytoplankton species with different swimming abilities adjust their growth strategies by pattern recognition of turbulence-fossil-turbulence dissipation and persistence times that predict survival-relevant surface layer sea changes. New data collected near a Honolulu waste-water outfall showed the small-to-large evolution of oceanic turbulence microstructure from active to fossil states, and revealed the ability of fossil-density-turbulence patches to absorb, and vertically radiate, internal wave energy, information, and enhanced turbulent

  20. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing VI: Turbulence Profiles

    CERN Document Server

    Els, S G; Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Seguel, J; Bustos, E; Walker, D

    2009-01-01

    The results on the vertical distribution of optical turbulence above the five mountains which were investigated by the site testing for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) are reported. On San Pedro Martir in Mexico, the 13 North site on Mauna Kea and three mountains in northern Chile Cerro Tolar, Cerro Armazones and Cerro Tolonchar, MASS-DIMM turbulence profilers have been operated over at least two years. Acoustic turbulence profilers - SODARs - were also operated at these sites. The obtained turbulence profiles indicate that at all sites the lowest 200m are the main source of the total seeing observed, with the Chilean sites showing a weaker ground layer than the other two sites. The two northern hemisphere sites have weaker turbulence at altitudes above 500m, with 13N showing the weakest 16km turbulence, being responsible for the large isoplanatic angle at this site. The influence of the jetstream and wind speeds close to the ground on the clear sky turbulence strength throughout the atmosphere are discussed...

  1. Turbulence-induced persistence in laser beam wandering

    CERN Document Server

    Zunino, Luciano; Funes, Gustavo; Pérez, Darío G

    2015-01-01

    We have experimentally confirmed the presence of long-memory correlations in the wandering of a thin Gaussian laser beam over a screen after propagating through a turbulent medium. A laboratory-controlled experiment was conducted in which coordinate fluctuations of the laser beam were recorded at a sufficiently high sampling rate for a wide range of turbulent conditions. Horizontal and vertical displacements of the laser beam centroid were subsequently analyzed by implementing detrended fluctuation analysis. This is a very well-known and widely used methodology to unveil memory effects from time series. Results obtained from this experimental analysis allow us to confirm that both coordinates behave as highly persistent signals for strong turbulent intensities. This finding is relevant for a better comprehension and modeling of the turbulence effects in free-space optical communication systems and other applications related to propagation of optical signals in the atmosphere.

  2. On the influence of neutral turbulence on ambipolar diffusivities deduced from meteor trail expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Hall

    Full Text Available By measuring fading times of radar echoes from underdense meteor trails, it is possible to deduce the ambipolar diffusivities of the ions responsible for these radar echoes. It could be anticipated that these diffusivities increase monotonically with height akin to neutral viscosity. In practice, this is not always the case. Here, we investigate the capability of neutral turbulence to affect the meteor trail diffusion rate.

    Key words. Meteorology and atmospheric dynamics (middle atmosphere dynamics; turbulence

  3. Unsteady turbulence cascades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Susumu; Vassilicos, J. C.

    2016-11-01

    We have run a total of 311 direct numerical simulations (DNSs) of decaying three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in a periodic box with values of the Taylor length-based Reynolds number up to about 300 and an energy spectrum with a wide wave-number range of close to -5 /3 power-law dependence at the higher Reynolds numbers. On the basis of these runs, we have found a critical time when (i) the rate of change of the square of the integral length scale turns from increasing to decreasing, (ii) the ratio of interscale energy flux to high-pass filtered turbulence dissipation changes from decreasing to very slowly increasing in the inertial range, (iii) the signature of large-scale coherent structures disappears in the energy spectrum, and (iv) the scaling of the turbulence dissipation changes from the one recently discovered in DNSs of forced unsteady turbulence and in wind tunnel experiments of turbulent wakes and grid-generated turbulence to the classical scaling proposed by G. I. Taylor [Proc. R. Soc. London, Ser. A 151, 421 (1935), 10.1098/rspa.1935.0158] and A. N. Kolmogorov [Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 31, 538 (1941)]. Even though the customary theoretical basis for this Taylor-Kolmogorov scaling is a statistically stationary cascade where large-scale energy flux balances dissipation, this is not the case throughout the entire time range of integration in all our DNS runs. The recently discovered dissipation scaling can be reformulated physically as a situation in which the dissipation rates of the small and large scales evolve together. We advance two hypotheses that may form the basis of a theoretical approach to unsteady turbulence cascades in the presence of large-scale coherent structures.

  4. A controlled laboratory environment to study EO signal degradation due to underwater turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt, Silvia; Hou, Weilin; Goode, Wesley; Liu, Guigen; Han, Ming; Kanaev, Andrey; Restaino, Sergio

    2015-05-01

    Temperature microstructure in the ocean can lead to localized changes in the index of refraction and can distort underwater electro-optical (EO) signal transmission. A similar phenomenon is well-known from atmospheric optics and generally referred to as "optical turbulence". Though turbulent fluctuations in the ocean distort EO signal transmission and can impact various underwater applications, from diver visibility to active and passive remote sensing, there have been few studies investigating the subject. To provide a test bed for the study of impacts from turbulent flows on underwater EO signal transmission, and to examine and mitigate turbulence effects, we set up a laboratory turbulence environment allowing the variation of turbulence intensity. Convective turbulence is generated in a large Rayleigh- Bénard tank and the turbulent flow is quantified using high-resolution Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter profilers and fast thermistor probes. The turbulence measurements are complemented by computational fluid dynamics simulations of convective turbulence emulating the tank environment. These numerical simulations supplement the sparse laboratory measurements. The numerical data compared well to the laboratory data and both conformed to the Kolmogorov spectrum of turbulence and the Batchelor spectrum of temperature fluctuations. The controlled turbulence environment can be used to assess optical image degradation in the tank in relation to turbulence intensity, as well as to apply adaptive optics techniques. This innovative approach that combines optical techniques, turbulence measurements and numerical simulations can help understand how to mitigate the effects of turbulence impacts on underwater optical signal transmission, as well as advance optical techniques to probe oceanic processes.

  5. Turbulent large-scale structure effects on wake meandering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Y.-A.; Masson, C.; Aubrun, S.

    2015-06-01

    This work studies effects of large-scale turbulent structures on wake meandering using Large Eddy Simulations (LES) over an actuator disk. Other potential source of wake meandering such as the instablility mechanisms associated with tip vortices are not treated in this study. A crucial element of the efficient, pragmatic and successful simulations of large-scale turbulent structures in Atmospheric Boundary Layer (ABL) is the generation of the stochastic turbulent atmospheric flow. This is an essential capability since one source of wake meandering is these large - larger than the turbine diameter - turbulent structures. The unsteady wind turbine wake in ABL is simulated using a combination of LES and actuator disk approaches. In order to dedicate the large majority of the available computing power in the wake, the ABL ground region of the flow is not part of the computational domain. Instead, mixed Dirichlet/Neumann boundary conditions are applied at all the computational surfaces except at the outlet. Prescribed values for Dirichlet contribution of these boundary conditions are provided by a stochastic turbulent wind generator. This allows to simulate large-scale turbulent structures - larger than the computational domain - leading to an efficient simulation technique of wake meandering. Since the stochastic wind generator includes shear, the turbulence production is included in the analysis without the necessity of resolving the flow near the ground. The classical Smagorinsky sub-grid model is used. The resulting numerical methodology has been implemented in OpenFOAM. Comparisons with experimental measurements in porous-disk wakes have been undertaken, and the agreements are good. While temporal resolution in experimental measurements is high, the spatial resolution is often too low. LES numerical results provide a more complete spatial description of the flow. They tend to demonstrate that inflow low frequency content - or large- scale turbulent structures - is

  6. Propagation properties of partially coherent Hermite-Gaussian beams through non-Kolmogorov turbulence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Xue-Mei; L(u) Bai-Da

    2011-01-01

    The propagation properties of partially coherent Hermite-Gaussian beams through non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence are studied. The effects of non-Kolmogorov turbulence and beam nonparaxiality on the average intensity evolution and the beam-width spreading are stressed. It is found that the evolution of the average intensity distribution and the beam-width spreading depends on the generalized exponent factor,namely,on the non-Kolmogorov turbulence strength for the paraxial case. For the non-paraxial case the effect of the turbulence is negligible,while the beamwidth spreading becomes very large. The analytical results are illustrated numerically and interpreted physically.

  7. General scale-dependent anisotropic turbulence and its impact on free space optical communication system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toselli, Italo; Korotkova, Olga

    2015-06-01

    We generalize a recently introduced model for nonclassic turbulent spatial power spectrum involving anisotropy along two mutually orthogonal axes transverse to the direction of beam propagation by including two scale-dependent weighting factors for these directions. Such a turbulent model may be pertinent to atmospheric fluctuations in the refractive index in stratified regions well above the boundary layer and employed for air-air communication channels. When restricting ourselves to an unpolarized, coherent Gaussian beam and a weak turbulence regime, we examine the effects of such a turbulence type on the OOK FSO link performance by including the results on scintillation flux, probability of fade, SNR, and BERs.

  8. Multifluid magnetohydrodynamic turbulent decay

    CERN Document Server

    Downes, Turlough P

    2011-01-01

    It is generally believed that turbulence has a significant impact on the dynamics and evolution of molecular clouds and the star formation which occurs within them. Non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic effects are known to influence the nature of this turbulence. We present the results of a suite of 512-cubed resolution simulations of the decay of initially super-Alfvenic and supersonic fully multifluid MHD turbulence. We find that ambipolar diffusion increases the rate of decay of the turbulence while the Hall effect has virtually no impact. The decay of the kinetic energy can be fitted as a power-law in time and the exponent is found to be -1.34 for fully multifluid MHD turbulence. The power spectra of density, velocity and magnetic field are all steepened significantly by the inclusion of non-ideal terms. The dominant reason for this steepening is ambipolar diffusion with the Hall effect again playing a minimal role except at short length scales where it creates extra structure in the magnetic field. Interestingl...

  9. Turbulence and Stochastic Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celani, Antonio; Mazzino, Andrea; Pumir, Alain

    sec:08-1In 1931 the monograph Analytical Methods in Probability Theory appeared, in which A.N. Kolmogorov laid the foundations for the modern theory of Markov processes [1]. According to Gnedenko: "In the history of probability theory it is difficult to find other works that changed the established points of view and basic trends in research work in such a decisive way". Ten years later, his article on fully developed turbulence provided the framework within which most, if not all, of the subsequent theoretical investigations have been conducted [2] (see e.g. the review by Biferale et al. in this volume [3]. Remarkably, the greatest advances made in the last few years towards a thorough understanding of turbulence developed from the successful marriage between the theory of stochastic processes and the phenomenology of turbulent transport of scalar fields. In this article we will summarize these recent developments which expose the direct link between the intermittency of transported fields and the statistical properties of particle trajectories advected by the turbulent flow (see also [4], and, for a more thorough review, [5]. We also discuss the perspectives of the Lagrangian approach beyond passive scalars, especially for the modeling of hydrodynamic turbulence.

  10. PREFACE Turbulent Mixing and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abarzhi, Snezhana I.; Gauthier, Serge; Niemela, Joseph J.

    2010-12-01

    The goals of the International Conference 'Turbulent Mixing and Beyond', TMB-2009, are to expose the generic problem of non-equilibrium turbulent processes to a broad scientific community, to promote the development of new ideas in tackling the fundamental aspects of the problem, to assist in the application of novel approaches in a broad range of phenomena, where the turbulent processes occur, and to have a potential impact on technology. The Conference provides the opportunity to bring together researchers from different areas, which include but are not limited to fluid dynamics, plasmas, high energy density physics, astrophysics, material science, combustion, atmospheric and Earth sciences, nonlinear and statistical physics, applied mathematics, probability and statistics, data processing and computations, optics and telecommunications, and to have their attention focused on the long-standing formidable task of non-equilibrium processes. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes play a key role in a broad variety of phenomena spanning astrophysical to atomistic scales and high or low energy density regimes. Inertial confinement and magnetic fusion, light-matter interaction and non-equilibrium heat transfer, strong shocks and explosions, material transformation under high strain rate, supernovae and accretion disks, stellar non-Boussinesq and magneto-convection, planetary interiors and mantle-lithosphere tectonics, premixed and non-premixed combustion, non-canonical wall-bounded flows, hypersonic and supersonic boundary layers, dynamics of atmosphere and oceanography, are just a few examples. A grip on non-equilibrium turbulent processes is crucial for cutting-edge technology such as laser micro-machining, nano-electronics, free-space optical telecommunications, and for industrial applications in the areas of aeronautics and aerodynamics. Non-equilibrium turbulent processes are anisotropic, non-local, multi-scale and multi-phase, and often are driven by shocks or

  11. Turbulence introduction to theory and applications of turbulent flows

    CERN Document Server

    Westerweel, Jerry; Nieuwstadt, Frans T M

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a general introduction to the topic of turbulent flows. Apart from classical topics in turbulence, attention is also paid to modern topics. After studying this work, the reader will have the basic knowledge to follow current topics on turbulence in scientific literature. The theory is illustrated with a number of examples of applications, such as closure models, numerical simulations and turbulent diffusion, and experimental findings. The work also contains a number of illustrative exercises.

  12. DPSK调制/自差动零差相干探测技术克服星地激光通信中大气湍流效应的研究%Research of DPSK Modulation and Self-Differential Homodyne Coherent Detection Technology to Overcome Atmospheric Turbulence Effect in the Satellite-to-Ground Laser Communication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马小平; 孙建锋; 职亚楠; 鲁伟; 刘立人; 许倩; 卢栋

    2013-01-01

    In the satellite-to-ground laser communication,atmospheric turbulence influences the wave-front and increases bit error rate.The data information is got by an unequal arm-length interferometer based on differential phase shift key (DPSK),with the interference between the former code and the latter code of signal light.Generally,atmospheric turbulence makes the same influence on the wave-fronts of the front and rear codes in high speed rate communication,so differential information is obtained by the subtraction of the two successive wave-front phases when interference occurs.On the basis of theoretical foundation above,the diffraction propagation of incident signal light in the structure of the free-space differential interference is analyzed with Fresnel diffraction theory.In numerical simulation,the impact of detected optical wave aberrations on the performance of differential interference system is discussed.It is proved that free-space differential interference structure can overcome the disturbance of optical phase information of atmospheric turbulence effects.In addition,the applications and conclusions of optical signal demodulation with free-space differential interference structures are given.%在星地激光通信中,大气湍流影响光接收波面,增加通信误码率.采用差分相移键控(DPSK)体制,通过当前码元信号光与延时1 bit的码元信号光干涉得到数据信息.在高码率通信的情况下,由于大气扰动对前后码元信号光的波面影响基本相同,可以通过干涉时波面相位相减得到差分信息.在此基础上,用菲涅耳衍射理论,分析入射光信号在自由空间差分干涉结构中的衍射传输过程.数值模拟仿真过程中,模拟探测波前像差对干涉系统性能的影响,通过对探测端零差效率的分析,验证了自由空间差分干涉结构解调光信号可以在一定程度上克服大气湍流效应对光信号相位信息的扰动.从理论上给出了自由空间差

  13. Effect of source parameters on p olarization characteristics of electromagnetic b eam propagating in atmospheric turbulence%光源参数及大气湍流对电磁光束传输偏振特性的影响∗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李成强; 王挺峰; 张合勇; 谢京江; 刘立生; 郭劲

    2014-01-01

    According to the theory of beam spreading and taking electromagnetic Gaussian Shell-model beam as an object of research, the change in its spectral degree of polarization is studied by numerical analysis. Based on the numerical results, the mechanism that governs the change in polarization of an electromagnetic beam on propagation is discussed. The results show that the beam spreading of two components of an electromagnetic beam results in the change in polarization of beam directly, and the beam spreading is determined by source parameters and atmospheric turbulence. The difference between beam spreading of two components induced by coherence leads to the change in polarization in free space. The change in degree of polarization is influenced by source parameters and turbulence on propagation in atmosphere. The result is similar to that in free space over relatively short distance, which is mainly governed by source parameters. With the enhancement of turbulence over a sufficiently long distance, the change in polarization in atmosphere is different from that in free space.%根据光束扩展理论,以部分相干的电磁高斯-谢尔光束为研究对象,分析了电磁光束传输时其偏振特性的变化机理。结果表明,光源参数和大气湍流对电磁光束分量扩展的影响是导致传输过程中电磁光束偏振特性变化的原因。在真空中传输时,电磁光束两分量的相干性存在差异,导致传输时电磁光束两分量扩展快慢不同,从而引起传输路径上光束谱偏振度的变化。在大气湍流中,电磁光束两分量扩展的快慢与光源参数和大气湍流强度均有关,当传输路径较短时,电磁光束偏振变化主要与光源参数有关,变化特性与在真空中传输时的情况类似,而传输距离较远时,电磁光束偏振变化受大气湍流的影响明显,变化特性与在真空中传输时的情形存在不同。

  14. Wave propagation in turbulent media: use of convergence acceleration methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baram, A; Tsadka, S; Azar, Z; Tur, M

    1988-06-01

    We propose the use of convergence acceleration methods for the evaluation of integral expressions of an oscillatory nature, often encountered in the study of optical wave propagation in the turbulent atmosphere. These techniques offer substantial savings in computation time with appreciable gain in accuracy. As an example, we apply the Levin u acceleration scheme to the problem of remote sensing of transversal wind profiles.

  15. Turbulence in complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mann, Jakob [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmosheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop a model of the spectral velocity-tensor in neutral flow over complex terrain. The resulting equations are implemented in a computer code using the mean flow generated by a linear mean flow model as input. It estimates turbulence structure over hills (except on the lee side if recirculation is present) in the so-called outer layer and also models the changes in turbulence statistics in the vicinity roughness changes. The generated turbulence fields are suitable as input for dynamic load calculations on wind turbines and other tall structures and is under implementation in the collection of programs called WA{sup s}P Engineering. (au) EFP-97; EU-JOULE-3. 15 refs.

  16. Turbulent black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Zimmerman, Aaron; Lehner, Luis

    2015-02-27

    We demonstrate that rapidly spinning black holes can display a new type of nonlinear parametric instability-which is triggered above a certain perturbation amplitude threshold-akin to the onset of turbulence, with possibly observable consequences. This instability transfers from higher temporal and azimuthal spatial frequencies to lower frequencies-a phenomenon reminiscent of the inverse cascade displayed by (2+1)-dimensional fluids. Our finding provides evidence for the onset of transitory turbulence in astrophysical black holes and predicts observable signatures in black hole binaries with high spins. Furthermore, it gives a gravitational description of this behavior which, through the fluid-gravity duality, can potentially shed new light on the remarkable phenomena of turbulence in fluids.

  17. Turbulence in the Interstellar Medium

    CERN Document Server

    Falceta-Goncalves, D; Falgarone, E; Chian, A C -L

    2014-01-01

    Turbulence is ubiquitous in the insterstellar medium and plays a major role in several processes such as the formation of dense structures and stars, the stability of molecular clouds, the amplification of magnetic fields, and the re-acceleration and diffusion of cosmic rays. Despite its importance, interstellar turbulence, alike turbulence in general, is far from being fully understood. In this review we present the basics of turbulence physics, focusing on the statistics of its structure and energy cascade. We explore the physics of compressible and incompressible turbulent flows, as well as magnetized cases. The most relevant observational techniques that provide quantitative insights of interstellar turbulence are also presented. We also discuss the main difficulties in developing a three-dimensional view of interstellar turbulence from these observations. Finally, we briefly present what could be the the main sources of turbulence in the interstellar medium.

  18. Analysis of temporal power spectra for optical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Linyan

    2015-06-01

    Analytic expressions for the temporal power spectra of irradiance fluctuations and angle of arrival (AOA) fluctuations are derived for optical waves propagating through weak anisotropic non-Kolmogorov atmospheric turbulence. In the derivation, the anisotropic non-Kolmogorov spectrum is adopted, which adopts the assumption of circular symmetry in the orthogonal plane throughout the path and the same degree of anisotropy along the propagation direction for all the turbulence cells. The final expressions consider simultaneously the anisotropic factor and general spectral power law values. When the anisotropic factor equals one (corresponding to the isotropic turbulence), the derived temporal power spectral models have good consistency with the known results for the isotropic turbulence. Numerical calculations show that the increased anisotropic factor alleviates the atmospheric turbulence's influence on the final expressions.

  19. Turbulence Measurements in Swirling Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Domkundwar

    1981-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation have been conducted to find out the region of high turbulent intensities in a swirling jet passing through a divergent passage. A hot wire anemometer is used to measure the turbulence intensity using a four position method. It has been concluded that the jet spreads with increasing diffuser angle and the region of high turbulent intensity also spreads. The high turbulence intensity region lies around the recirculation zone and it decays rapidly along the main flow direction.

  20. Joint Agency Turbulence Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-21

    Time Series of Aircraft Longitudinal Gust Data For Penetration 1 on 1 July 1981 63 C5. Time Series of Turbulence Severity Estimates Derived From 400 m...spectral analysis of aircraft longitudinal gust data is shown in Figure B1. Figure B2 shows a modeled turbulence field. The model displays the expected...centered about Location C o %-. -. °,4 0- S E - oo -12 -4 - to 20 so O so s 7D -U. TIME (sec) Figure C4. Time Series of Aircraft Longitudinal Gust Data

  1. Large-eddy simulation of atmospheric flow over complex terrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bechmann, A.

    2006-11-15

    The present report describes the development and validation of a turbulence model designed for atmospheric flows based on the concept of Large-Eddy Simulation (LES). The background for the work is the high Reynolds number k - epsilon model, which has been implemented on a finite-volume code of the incompressible Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations (RANS). The k - epsilon model is traditionally used for RANS computations, but is here developed to also enable LES. LES is able to provide detailed descriptions of a wide range of engineering flows at low Reynolds numbers. For atmospheric flows, however, the high Reynolds numbers and the rough surface of the earth provide difficulties normally not compatible with LES. Since these issues are most severe near the surface they are addressed by handling the near surface region with RANS and only use LES above this region. Using this method, the developed turbulence model is able to handle both engineering and atmospheric flows and can be run in both RANS or LES mode. For LES simulations a time-dependent wind field that accurately represents the turbulent structures of a wind environment must be prescribed at the computational inlet. A method is implemented where the turbulent wind field from a separate LES simulation can be used as inflow. To avoid numerical dissipation of turbulence special care is paid to the numerical method, e.g. the turbulence model is calibrated with the specific numerical scheme used. This is done by simulating decaying isotropic and homogeneous turbulence. Three atmospheric test cases are investigated in order to validate the behavior of the presented turbulence model. Simulation of the neutral atmospheric boundary layer, illustrates the turbulence model ability to generate and maintain the turbulent structures responsible for boundary layer transport processes. Velocity and turbulence profiles are in good agreement with measurements. Simulation of the flow over the Askervein hill is also

  2. Turbulent diffusion and galactic magnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Brandenburg, Axel

    2009-01-01

    Using the test-field method for nearly irrotational turbulence driven by spherical expansion waves it is shown that the turbulent magnetic diffusivity increases with magnetic Reynolds numbers. Its value levels off at several times the rms velocity of the turbulence multiplied by the typical radius of the expansion waves. This result is discussed in the context of the galactic mean-field dynamo.

  3. Localized turbulence in pipe flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuik, D.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis the transition to turbulence in pipe flow is investigated. At low Reynolds numbers, the flow returns to the laminar state spontaneously. At high Reynolds number a small perturbation causes the flow to suddenly become turbulent. In the intermediate regime localized turbulence is observ

  4. Formation of Large-Scale Semi-Organized Structures in Turbulent Convection

    CERN Document Server

    Elperin, T; Rogachevskii, I; Zilitinkevich, S

    2002-01-01

    A new mean-field theory of turbulent convection is developed. This theory predicts the convective wind instability in a shear-free turbulent convection which causes formation of large-scale semi-organized fluid motions in the form of cells or rolls. Spatial characteristics of these motions, such as the minimum size of the growing perturbations and the size of perturbations with the maximum growth rate, are determined. This study predicts also the existence of the convective shear instability in a sheared turbulent convection which results in generation of convective shear waves with a nonzero hydrodynamic helicity. Increase of shear promotes excitation of the convective shear instability. Applications of the obtained results to the atmospheric turbulent convection and the laboratory experiments on turbulent convection are discussed. This theory can be applied also for the describing a mesogranular turbulent convection in astrophysics.

  5. Experimental detection of turbulent thermaldiffusion of aerosols in non-isothermal flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eidelman

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We studied experimentally a new phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion of particles which can cause formation of the large-scale aerosol layers in the vicinity of the atmospheric temperature inversions. This phenomenon was detected experimentally in oscillating grids turbulence in air flow. Three measurement techniques were used to study turbulent thermal diffusion in strongly inhomogeneous temperature fields, namely Particle Image Velocimetry to determine the turbulent velocity field, an image processing technique to determine the spatial distribution of aerosols, and an array of thermocouples for the temperature field. Experiments are presented for both, stably and unstably stratified fluid flows, by using both directions of the imposed mean vertical temperature gradient. We demonstrated that even in strongly inhomogeneous temperature fields particles in turbulent fluid flow accumulate at the regions with minimum of mean temperature of surrounding fluids due to the phenomenon of turbulent thermal diffusion.

  6. A six-beam method to measure turbulence statistics using ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Vasiljevic, Nikola

    2015-01-01

    A so-called six-beam method is proposed to measure atmospheric turbulence using a ground-based wind lidar. This method requires measurement of the radial velocity variances at five equally spaced azimuth angles on the base of a scanning cone and one measurement at the centre of the scanning circle...... lidar (WindScanner), and the derived turbulence statistics (using both methods) such as the u and v variances are compared with those obtained from a reference cup anemometer and a wind vane at 89m height under different atmospheric stabilities. The measurements show that in comparison to the reference...... cup anemometer, depending on the atmospheric stability and the wind field component, the six-beam method measures between 85 and 101% of the reference turbulence, whereas the VAD method measures between 66 and 87% of the reference turbulence....

  7. A six-beam method to measure turbulence statistics using ground-based wind lidars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sathe, Ameya; Mann, Jakob; Vasiljevic, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    A so-called six-beam method is proposed to measure atmospheric turbulence using a ground-based wind lidar. This method requires measurement of the radial velocity variances at five equally spaced azimuth angles on the base of a scanning cone and one measurement at the center of the scanning circle...... lidar (WindScanner), and the derived turbulence statistics (using both methods) such as the u and v variances are compared with those obtained from a reference cup anemometer and a wind vane at 89m height under different atmospheric stabilities. The measurements show that in comparison to the reference...... cup anemometer, depending on the atmospheric stability and the wind field component, the six-beam method measures between 85–101% of the reference turbulence, whereas the VAD method measures between 66–87% of the reference turbulence....

  8. Chemically Reacting Turbulent Flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-04-14

    two stages of gen I tubes equipped with P-47 phosphor screens The detector chosen for the camera was a Reticon RL128S* line detectoI- .,hich consists...the Stud’, of Turbulent Mixing," William M. Pitts, Nuclear Engineering Seminar of the Department of Chemical and Nuclear Engineering, University of

  9. Spirituality in Turbulent Times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheatley, Margaret J.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the importance of spiritual leadership in turbulent, uncertain times. Describes several spiritual principles--for example, life is cyclical; all life is interconnected. Offers six suggestions for personal health: Start day peacefully, learn to be mindful, slow things down, create own measures, expect surprise, practice gratefulness. (PKP)

  10. Turbulence, bubbles and drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, van der Roeland Cornelis Adriaan

    2016-01-01

    In this thesis, several questions related to drop impact and Taylor-Couette turbulence are answered. The deformation of a drop just before impact can cause a bubble to be entrapped. For many applications, such as inkjet printing, it is crucial to control the size of this entrapped bubble. To study t

  11. Non-Gaussian turbulence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højstrup, Jørgen; Hansen, Kurt S.; Pedersen, Bo Juul;

    1999-01-01

    The pdf's of atmosperic turbulence have somewhat wider tails than a Gaussian, especially regarding accelerations, whereas velocities are close to Gaussian. This behaviour has been investigated using data from a large WEB-database in order to quantify the amount of non-gaussianity. Models for non-...

  12. Multilevel turbulence simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tziperman, E. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors propose a novel method for the simulation of turbulent flows, that is motivated by and based on the Multigrid (MG) formalism. The method, called Multilevel Turbulence Simulations (MTS), is potentially more efficient and more accurate than LES. In many physical problems one is interested in the effects of the small scales on the larger ones, or in a typical realization of the flow, and not in the detailed time history of each small scale feature. MTS takes advantage of the fact that the detailed simulation of small scales is not needed at all times, in order to make the calculation significantly more efficient, while accurately accounting for the effects of the small scales on the larger scale of interest. In MTS, models of several resolutions are used to represent the turbulent flow. The model equations in each coarse level incorporate a closure term roughly corresponding to the tau correction in the MG formalism that accounts for the effects of the unresolvable scales on that grid. The finer resolution grids are used only a small portion of the simulation time in order to evaluate the closure terms for the coarser grids, while the coarse resolution grids are then used to accurately and efficiently calculate the evolution of the larger scales. The methods efficiency relative to direct simulations is of the order of the ratio of required integration time to the smallest eddies turnover time, potentially resulting in orders of magnitude improvement for a large class of turbulence problems.

  13. OH* imager response to turbulence-induced temperature fluctuations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Chester S.; Vargas, Fabio A.

    2016-12-01

    The layer of the excited state hydroxyl radical (OH*) is formed in the mesopause region by the reaction of ozone (O3) and atomic hydrogen (H). We derive the theoretical expressions for the OH* brightness and rotational temperature (T*) responses to high-frequency atmospheric temperature perturbations. The theory is used to calculate the 1-D and 2-D horizontal wave number spectra of the OH* and T* image fluctuations induced by atmospheric turbulence. By applying the theory to images of a breaking gravity wave packet, acquired by the Utah State University Advanced Mesospheric Temperature Mapper, we show that existing infrared OH* imager technology can observe the evolution of gravity wave breakdown and characterize the resulting turbulent eddies in the source region and in the inertial subrange of the turbulence spectrum. For the example presented here, the RMS OH* brightness fluctuations induced by the gravity wave packet was 2.90% and by the associated turbulence was 1.07%. Unfortunately, the T* fluctuations induced by turbulence are usually too small to be observed in the OH* rotational temperature maps.

  14. Lidar Turbulence Measurements for Wind Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mann, Jakob; Sathe, Ameya; Gottschall, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Modeling of the systematic errors in the second-order moments of wind speeds measured by continuous-wave (ZephIR) and pulsed (WindCube) lidars is presented. These lidars use the velocity azimuth display technique to measure the velocity vector. The model is developed for the line-of-sight averaging......, whereas they are up to 70% for the horizontal velocity variances. The systematic errors also vary with atmospheric stability, being lowest for the very unstable conditions. It is concluded that with the current measurement configuration, these lidars cannot be used to measure turbulence precisely....

  15. Analysis of turbulent boundary layers

    CERN Document Server

    Cebeci, Tuncer

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of Turbulent Boundary Layers focuses on turbulent flows meeting the requirements for the boundary-layer or thin-shear-layer approximations. Its approach is devising relatively fundamental, and often subtle, empirical engineering correlations, which are then introduced into various forms of describing equations for final solution. After introducing the topic on turbulence, the book examines the conservation equations for compressible turbulent flows, boundary-layer equations, and general behavior of turbulent boundary layers. The latter chapters describe the CS method for calculati

  16. Rpt Analysis of Turbulent Flows With Stable Stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukoriansky, S.; Galperin, B.

    The Renormalized Perturbation Technique of successive small scales elimination is applied to turbulent flows with stable stratification. This procedure results in derivation of scale-dependent anisotropic viscosities and diffusivities that naturally incorporate the combined effect of turbulence and internal waves. In addition, this procedure ren- ders means to analyze the fundamentals of the turbulence-internal waves interaction, derive the criterion of the threshold of the internal waves generation that fully accounts for the spectral anisotropy, and derive the dispersion relation for internal waves with turbulence. A closure assumption is then introduced relating the renormalized param- eters to global flow characteristics such as the gradient Richardson number (Ri) or local Froude number. Anisotropic turbulent Prandtl numbers are compared with lab- oratory and numerical experiments. The agreement is good in the entire range of Ri, from very small to large indicating that our model captures the physics of strongly stratified turbulent flows. This result has immediate application value for modeling of atmospheric and oceanic boundary layers.

  17. Turbulence within variable-size wind turbine arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamorro, L. P.; Arndt, R. E. A.; Sotiropoulos, F.

    2014-12-01

    A wind tunnel experiment was performed to study turbulence processes within a model wind turbine array of 3 by 8 model wind turbines of alternating sizes placed aligned with the mean flow. The model wind farm was placed in a boundary layer developed over both smooth and rough surfaces under neutrally stratified conditions. Turbulence statistics, TKE budget terms, and the spectral structure of the turbulence generated within and above the wind farm reveal relevant information about the processes modulating the turbulent energy transfer from the boundary layer to the turbines. The results of the experiment suggest that heterogeneity in turbine size within a wind farm introduce complex flow interactions not seen in a homogeneous farm, and may have positive effects on turbulent loading on the turbines and turbulent exchange with the atmosphere. In general, large scale motions are heavily dampened behind the first row of turbines but a portion of such structures are generated far inside the wind farm, and the scale of the most energetic eddy motions was relatively consistent at different elevations. Overall, the experiment revealed the possibility that heterogeneity of wind turbine size within wind farms have the potential to change the overall potential to harvest energy from the wind, and alter the economics of a project.

  18. Static magnetic fields enhance turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Pothérat, Alban

    2015-01-01

    More often than not, turbulence occurs under the influence of external fields, mostly rotation and magnetic fields generated either by planets, stellar objects or by an industrial environment. Their effect on the anisotropy and the dissipative behaviour of turbulence is recognised but complex, and it is still difficult to even tell whether they enhance or dampen turbulence. For example, externally imposed magnetic fields suppress free turbulence in electrically conducting fluids (Moffatt 1967), and make it two-dimensional (2D) (Sommeria & Moreau 1982); but their effect on the intensity of forced turbulence, as in pipes, convective flows or otherwise, is not clear. We shall prove that since two-dimensionalisation preferentially affects larger scales, these undergo much less dissipation and sustain intense turbulent fluctuations. When higher magnetic fields are imposed, quasi-2D structures retain more kinetic energy, so that rather than suppressing forced turbulence, external magnetic fields indirectly enha...

  19. A hierarchy of energy- and flux-budget (EFB) turbulence closure models for stably stratified geophysical flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zilitinkevich, S S; Kleeorin, N; Rogachevskii, I; Esau, I

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we advance physical background of the EFB turbulence closure and present its comprehensive description. It is based on four budget equations for the second moments: turbulent kinetic and potential energies (TKE and TPE) and vertical turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy; a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time-scale; and advanced concept of the inter-component exchange of TKE. The EFB closure is designed for stratified, rotating geophysical flows from neutral to very stable. In accordance to modern experimental evidence, it grants maintaining turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at Ri 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr_T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri that implies strong suppressing of the heat transfer compared to momentum transfer. For use in different applications, the EFB turbulence closure is formulated a...

  20. Long-range transport of terrain-induced turbulence from high-resolution numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katurji

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Over complex terrain, an important question is how various topographic features may generate or alter wind turbulence and how far the influence can be extended downstream. Current measurement technology limits the capability in providing a long-range snapshot of turbulence as atmospheric eddies travel over terrain, interact with each other, change their productive and dissipative properties, and are then observed tens of kilometers downstream of their source.In this study, we investigate through high-resolutionnumerical simulations the atmospheric transport of terrain-generated turbulence in an atmosphere that is neutrally stratified. The simulations are two-dimensional with an isotropic spatial resolution of 15 m and run to a quasi-steady state. They are designed in such a way to allow an examination of the effects of a bell-shaped experimental hill with varying height and aspect ratio on turbulence properties generated by another hill 20 km upstream. Averaged fields of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE implythat terrain could have a large influence on velocity perturbations at least 30 H (H is the terrain height upstream and downstream of the terrain, with the largest effect happening in the area of the largest pressure perturbations. The results also show that downstream of the terrain the TKE fields are sensitive to the terrain's aspect ratio with larger enhancement in turbulence by higher aspect ratio, while upstream there is a suppression of turbulence that does not appear to be sensitive to the terrain aspect ratio. Instantaneous vorticity fields shows very detailed flow structures that resemble a multitude of eddy scales dynamically interacting while shearing oppositely paired vortices. The knowledge of the turbulence production and modifications by topography from these high-resolutionsimulationscan be helpful in understanding long-range terrain-induced turbulence and improving turbulence parameterizations used in lower

  1. Long-range transport of terrain-induced turbulence from high-resolution numerical simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Katurji

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Over complex terrain, an important question is how various topographic features may generate or alter wind turbulence and how far the influence can be extended downstream. Current measurement technology limits the capability in providing a long-range snapshot of turbulence as atmospheric eddies travel over terrain, interact with each other, change their productive and dissipative properties, and are then observed tens of kilometers downstream of their source. In this study, we investigate through high-resolution numerical simulations the atmospheric transport of terrain-generated turbulence in an atmosphere that is neutrally stratified. The simulations are two-dimensional with an isotropic spatial resolution of 15 m and run to a quasi-steady state. They are designed in such a way to allow an examination of the effects of a bell-shaped experimental hill with varying height and aspect ratio on turbulence properties generated by another hill 20 km upstream. Averaged fields of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE imply that terrain could have a large influence on velocity perturbations at least 30H (H is the terrain height upstream and downstream of the terrain, with the largest effect happening in the area of the largest pressure perturbations. The results also show that downstream of the terrain the TKE fields are sensitive to the terrain's aspect ratio with larger enhancement in turbulence by higher aspect ratio, while upstream there is a suppression of turbulence that does not appear to be sensitive to the terrain aspect ratio. Instantaneous vorticity fields shows very detailed flow structures that resemble a multitude of eddy scales dynamically interacting while shearing oppositely paired vortices. The knowledge of the turbulence production and modifications by topography from these high-resolution simulations can be helpful in understanding long-range terrain-induced turbulence and improving turbulence parameterizations used in

  2. Turbulence characterization and image processing data sets from a NATO RTO SET 165 trial in Dayton, Ohio, USA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velluet, M.-T.; Vorontsov, M.; Schwering, P.B.W.; Marchi, G.; Nicolas, S.; Riker, J.

    2012-01-01

    The performance of optical systems is degraded by atmospheric turbulence. Over propagation distances that exceed several kilometers, it is difficult to evaluate its impact because of terrain variability - a factor that should be taken into account. However, to optimize performance, the turbulence ch

  3. Oscillating grids turbulence generator for turbulent transport studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Eidelman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available An oscillating grids turbulence generator was constructed for studies of two new effects associated with turbulent transport of particles, turbulent thermal diffusion and clustering instability. These effects result in formation of large-scale and small-scale inhomogeneities in the spatial distribution of particles. The advantage of this experimental set-up is the feasibility to study turbulent transport in mixtures with controllable composition and unlimited observation time. For flow measurements we used Particle Image Velocimetry with the adaptive multi-pass algorithm to determine a turbulent velocity field and its statistical characteristics. Instantaneous velocity vector maps, flow streamlines and probability density function of velocity field demonstrate properties of turbulence generated in the device.

  4. A turbulent premixed flame on fractal-grid generated turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Soulopoulos, Nikos; Beyrau, Frank; Hardalupas, Yannis; Taylor, A M K P; Vassilicos, J Christos

    2010-01-01

    A space-filling, low blockage fractal grid is used as a novel turbulence generator in a premixed turbulent combustion experiment. In contrast to the power law decay of a standard turbulence grid, the downstream turbulence intensity of the fractal grid increases until it reaches a peak at some distance from the grid before it finally decays. The effective mesh size and the solidity are the same as those of a standard square mesh grid with which it is compared. It is found that, for the same flow rate and stoichiometry, the fractal generated turbulence enhances the burning rate and causes the flame to further increase its area. Using a flame fractal model, an attempt is made to highlight differences between the flames established at the two different turbulent fields.

  5. Area of turbulence

    CERN Multimedia

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2015-01-01

    As a member of the EuHIT (European High-Performance Infrastructures in Turbulence - see here) consortium, CERN is participating in fundamental research on turbulence phenomena. To this end, the Laboratory provides European researchers with a cryogenic research infrastructure (see here), where the first tests have just been performed.   The last day of data collection, tired but satisfied after seven intense days of measurements. Around the cryostat, from left to right: Philippe-E. Roche, Éléonore Rusaouen (CNRS),
Olivier Pirotte, Jean-Marc Quetsch (CERN), Nicolas Friedlin (CERN),
Vladislav Benda (CERN). Not in the photo: Laurent Le Mao (CERN), Jean-Marc Debernard (CERN), 
Jean-Paul Lamboy (CERN), Nicolas Guillotin (CERN), Benoit Chabaud (Grenoble Uni), and Gregory Garde (CNRS). CERN has a unique cryogenic facility in hall SM18, consisting of 21 liquid-helium-cooled test stations. While this equipment was, of course, designed for testing parts of CERN's acce...

  6. Controlled-Turbulence Bioreactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David A.; Schwartz, Ray; Trinh, Tinh

    1989-01-01

    Two versions of bioreactor vessel provide steady supplies of oxygen and nutrients with little turbulence. Suspends cells in environment needed for sustenance and growth, while inflicting less damage from agitation and bubbling than do propeller-stirred reactors. Gentle environments in new reactors well suited to delicate mammalian cells. One reactor kept human kidney cells alive for as long as 11 days. Cells grow on carrier beads suspended in liquid culture medium that fills cylindrical housing. Rotating vanes - inside vessel but outside filter - gently circulates nutrient medium. Vessel stationary; magnetic clutch drives filter cylinder and vanes. Another reactor creates even less turbulence. Oxygen-permeable tubing wrapped around rod extending along central axis. Small external pump feeds oxygen to tubing through rotary coupling, and oxygen diffuses into liquid medium.

  7. Random functions and turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Panchev, S

    1971-01-01

    International Series of Monographs in Natural Philosophy, Volume 32: Random Functions and Turbulence focuses on the use of random functions as mathematical methods. The manuscript first offers information on the elements of the theory of random functions. Topics include determination of statistical moments by characteristic functions; functional transformations of random variables; multidimensional random variables with spherical symmetry; and random variables and distribution functions. The book then discusses random processes and random fields, including stationarity and ergodicity of random

  8. Polymer Stretching by Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Chertkov, M

    2000-01-01

    The stretching of a polymer chain by a large scale chaotic flow is considered. The steady state which emerges as a balance of the turbulent stretching and anharmonic resistance of the chain is quantitatively described, i.e. the dependency on the flow parameters (Lyapunov exponent statistics) and the chain characteristics (the number of beads and the inter-bead elastic potential) is made explicit. Implications for the drag reduction theory are discussed.

  9. Turbulent General Magnetic Reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Eyink, Gregory L

    2014-01-01

    Plasma flows with an MHD-like turbulent inertial range, such as the solar wind, require a generalization of General Magnetic Reconnection (GMR) theory. We introduce the slip-velocity source vector, which gives the rate of development of slip velocity per unit arc length of field line. The slip source vector is the ratio of the curl of the non ideal electric field in the Generalized Ohm's Law and the magnetic field strength. It diverges at magnetic nulls, unifying GMR with magnetic null-point reconnection. Only under restrictive assumptions is the slip velocity related to the gradient of the quasi potential (integral of parallel electric field along field lines). In a turbulent inertial range the curl becomes extremely large while the parallel component is tiny, so that line slippage occurs even while ideal MHD becomes accurate. The resolution of this paradox is that ideal MHD is valid for a turbulent inertial-range only in a weak sense which does not imply magnetic line freezing. The notion of weak solution i...

  10. Controllability of flow turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Shuguang; Wei, G W; Lai, C-H

    2004-06-01

    In this paper, we study the controllability of real-world flow turbulence governed by the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, using strategies developed in chaos control. A case of control/synchronization of turbulent dynamics is observed when only one component of the velocity field vector is unidirectionally coupled to a target state, while the other component is uncoupled. Unlike previous results, it is shown that the dynamics of the whole velocity field cannot be completely controlled/synchronized to the target, even in the limit of long time and strong coupling strength. It is further revealed that the controlled component of the velocity field can be fully controlled/synchronized to the target, but the other component, which is not directly coupled to the target, can only be partially controlled/synchronized to the target. By extending an auxiliary method to distributed dynamic systems, the partial synchronization of two turbulent orbits in the present study can be categorized in the domain of generalized synchronization of spatiotemporal dynamics.

  11. Statistical properties of turbulence: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit; Prasad Perlekar; Samriddhi Sankar Ray

    2009-07-01

    We present an introductory overview of several challenging problems in the statistical characterization of turbulence. We provide examples from fluid turbulence in three and two dimensions, from the turbulent advection of passive scalars, turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation, and fluid turbulence in the presence of polymer additives.

  12. Statistical Properties of Turbulence: An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Pandit, Rahul; Ray, Samriddhi Sankar

    2009-01-01

    We present an introductory overview of several challenging problems in the statistical characterisation of turbulence. We provide examples from fluid turbulence in three and two dimensions, from the turbulent advection of passive scalars, turbulence in the one-dimensional Burgers equation, and fluid turbulence in the presence of polymer additives.

  13. Non-line-of-sight ultraviolet single-scatter propagation model in random turbulent medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Houfei; Zuo, Yong; Wu, Jian; Li, Yan; Lin, Jintong

    2013-09-01

    Non-line-of-sight (NLOS) ultraviolet communication (UVC) uses the atmosphere as a propagation medium. In previous literature, various scatter propagation models have been derived based on the premise that atmospheric turbulence was ignored and the atmosphere was considered as a turbid medium, also called random scatterers. In this Letter, a NLOS single-scatter propagation model is proposed to describe the singly scattered radiation in a turbulent medium, also called a random continuum, such as the clear atmosphere. The model is established based on the relationship between the scattered power and the characteristics of the random turbulent medium. The scattering cross section is further investigated in terms of different correlation distances and wavelengths. The received power dependence for NLOS UVC is also analyzed for different factors, including refractive-index structure parameter and transceiver range.

  14. Suppression of turbulent resistivity in turbulent Couette flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Si, Jiahe, E-mail: jsi@nmt.edu; Sonnenfeld, Richard G.; Colgate, Arthur S.; Westpfahl, David J.; Romero, Van D.; Martinic, Joe [New Mexico Institute of Mining and Technology, Socorro, New Mexico 87801 (United States); Colgate, Stirling A.; Li, Hui [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87544 (United States); Nornberg, Mark D. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Turbulent transport in rapidly rotating shear flow very efficiently transports angular momentum, a critical feature of instabilities responsible both for the dynamics of accretion disks and the turbulent power dissipation in a centrifuge. Turbulent mixing can efficiently transport other quantities like heat and even magnetic flux by enhanced diffusion. This enhancement is particularly evident in homogeneous, isotropic turbulent flows of liquid metals. In the New Mexico dynamo experiment, the effective resistivity is measured using both differential rotation and pulsed magnetic field decay to demonstrate that at very high Reynolds number rotating shear flow can be described entirely by mean flow induction with very little contribution from correlated velocity fluctuations.

  15. Turbulence and fossil turbulence lead to life in the universe

    CERN Document Server

    Gibson, Carl H

    2012-01-01

    Turbulence is defined as an eddy-like state of fluid motion where the inertial-vortex forces of the eddies are larger than all the other forces that tend to damp the eddies out. Fossil turbulence is a perturbation produced by turbulence that persists after the fluid ceases to be turbulent at the scale of the perturbation. Because vorticity is produced at small scales, turbulence must cascade from small scales to large, providing a consistent physical basis for Kolmogorovian universal similarity laws. Oceanic and astrophysical mixing and diffusion are dominated by fossil turbulence and fossil turbulent waves. Observations from space telescopes show turbulence and vorticity existed in the beginning of the universe and that their fossils persist. Fossils of big bang turbulence include spin and the dark matter of galaxies: clumps of ~ 10^12 frozen hydrogen planets that make globular star clusters as seen by infrared and microwave space telescopes. When the planets were hot gas, they hosted the formation of life i...

  16. Turbulent Flame Propagation Characteristics of High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seitzman, Jerry [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lieuwen, Timothy [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2014-09-30

    This final report describes the results of an effort to better understand turbulent flame propagation, especially at conditions relevant to gas turbines employing fuels with syngas or hydrogen mixtures. Turbulent flame speeds were measured for a variety of hydrogen/carbon monoxide (H2/CO) and hydrogen/methane (H2/CH4) fuel mixtures with air as the oxidizer. The measurements include global consumption speeds (ST,GC) acquired in a turbulent jet flame at pressures of 1-10 atm and local displacement speeds (ST,LD) acquired in a low-swirl burner at atmospheric pressure. The results verify the importance of fuel composition in determining turbulent flame speeds. For example, different fuel-air mixtures having the same unstretched laminar flame speed (SL,0) but different fuel compositions resulted in significantly different ST,GC for the same turbulence levels (u'). This demonstrates the weakness of turbulent flame speed correlations based simply on u'/SL,0. The results were analyzed using a steady-steady leading points concept to explain the sensitivity of turbulent burning rates to fuel (and oxidizer) composition. Leading point theories suggest that the premixed turbulent flame speed is controlled by the flame front characteristics at the flame brush leading edge, or, in other words, by the flamelets that advance farthest into the unburned mixture (the so-called leading points). For negative Markstein length mixtures, this is assumed to be close to the maximum stretched laminar flame speed (SL,max) for the given fuel-oxidizer mixture. For the ST,GC measurements, the data at a given pressure were well-correlated with an SL,max scaling. However the variation with pressure was not captured, which may be due to non-quasi-steady effects that are not included in the current model. For the ST,LD data, the leading points model again faithfully captured the variation of turbulent flame speed over a wide range of fuel-compositions and turbulence intensities. These

  17. The turbulent decay of trailing vortex pairs in stably stratified environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holzaepfel, F.; Gerz, T.; Baumann, R.

    2000-03-01

    The decay of trailing vortex pairs in thermally stably stratified environments is investigated by means of large eddy simulations. Results of in-situ measurements in the wakes of different aircraft are used to find appropriate intitializations for the simulation of wake turbulence in the quiescent atmosphere. Furthermore, cases with weak atmospheric turbulence are investigated. It is shown that the early development of the vortices is not affected by turbulence and develops almost identically as in 2D simulations. In a quiescent atmosphere the subsequent vortex decay is controlled by the interaction of short-wave disturbances, owing to the aircraft induced turbulence, and baroclinic vorticity, owing to stable stratification. As a consequence, vertical vorticity streaks between the vortices are induced which are substantially intensified by vortex stretching and finally lead to rapid turbulent wake-vortex decay. When in addition also atmospheric turbulence is present, the long-wave instability is dominantly promoted. For very strong stratification (Fr < 1) it is observed that wake vortices may rebound but lose most of their strength before reaching the flight level. Finally, the simulation results are compared to the predictive capabilities of Greene's approximate model. (orig.)

  18. Toward Better Modeling of Supercritical Turbulent Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selle, Laurent; Okongo'o, Nora; Bellan, Josette; Harstad, Kenneth

    2008-01-01

    study was done as part of an effort to develop computational models representing turbulent mixing under thermodynamic supercritical (here, high pressure) conditions. The question was whether the large-eddy simulation (LES) approach, developed previously for atmospheric-pressure compressible-perfect-gas and incompressible flows, can be extended to real-gas non-ideal (including supercritical) fluid mixtures. [In LES, the governing equations are approximated such that the flow field is spatially filtered and subgrid-scale (SGS) phenomena are represented by models.] The study included analyses of results from direct numerical simulation (DNS) of several such mixing layers based on the Navier-Stokes, total-energy, and conservation- of-chemical-species governing equations. Comparison of LES and DNS results revealed the need to augment the atmospheric- pressure LES equations with additional SGS momentum and energy terms. These new terms are the direct result of high-density-gradient-magnitude regions found in the DNS and observed experimentally under fully turbulent flow conditions. A model has been derived for the new term in the momentum equation and was found to perform well at small filter size but to deteriorate with increasing filter size. Several alternative models were derived for the new SGS term in the energy equation that would need further investigations to determine if they are too computationally intensive in LES.

  19. Transition to turbulence in ferrofluids

    CERN Document Server

    Altmeyer, Sebastian; Lai, Ying-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    It is known that in classical fluids turbulence typically occurs at high Reynolds numbers. But can turbulence occur at low Reynolds numbers? Here we investigate the transition to turbulence in the classic Taylor-Couette system in which the rotating fluids are manufactured ferrofluids with magnetized nanoparticles embedded in liquid carriers. We find that, in the presence of a magnetic field turbulence can occur at Reynolds numbers that are at least one order of magnitude smaller than those in conventional fluids. This is established by extensive computational ferrohydrodynamics through a detailed bifurcation analysis and characterization of behaviors of physical quantities such as the energy, the wave number, and the angular momentum through the bifurcations. A striking finding is that, as the magnetic field is increased, the onset of turbulence can be determined accurately and reliably. Our results imply that experimental investigation of turbulence can be greatly facilitated by using ferrofluids, opening up...

  20. Turbulence measurements in fusion plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, G. D.

    2008-12-01

    Turbulence measurements in magnetically confined toroidal plasmas have a long history and relevance due to the detrimental role of turbulence induced transport on particle, energy, impurity and momentum confinement. The turbulence—the microscopic random fluctuations in particle density, temperature, potential and magnetic field—is generally driven by radial gradients in the plasma density and temperature. The correlation between the turbulence properties and global confinement, via enhanced diffusion, convection and direct conduction, is now well documented. Theory, together with recent measurements, also indicates that non-linear interactions within the turbulence generate large scale zonal flows and geodesic oscillations, which can feed back onto the turbulence and equilibrium profiles creating a complex interdependence. An overview of the current status and understanding of plasma turbulence measurements in the closed flux surface region of magnetic confinement fusion devices is presented, highlighting some recent developments and outstanding problems.

  1. 4th European Turbulence Conference

    CERN Document Server

    1993-01-01

    The European Turbulence Conferences have been organized under the auspices of the European Mechanics Committee (Euromech) to provide a forum for discussion and exchange of recent and new results in the field of turbulence. The first conference was organized in Lyon in 1986 with 152 participants. The second and third conferences were held in Berlin (1988) and Stockholm (1990) with 165 and 172 participants respectively. The fourth was organized in Delft from 30 June to 3 July 1992 by the J.M. Burgers Centre. There were 214 participants from 22 countries. This steadily growing number of participants demonstrates both the success and need for this type of conference. The main topics of the Fourth European Turbulence Conference were: Dynamical Systems and Transition; Statistical Physics and Turbulence; Experiments and Novel Experimental Techniques; Particles and Bubbles in Turbulence; Simulation Methods; Coherent Structures; Turbulence Modelling and Compressibility Effects. In addition a special session was held o...

  2. Turbulence in the solar wind

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an overview of solar wind turbulence from both the theoretical and observational perspective. It argues that the interplanetary medium offers the best opportunity to directly study turbulent fluctuations in collisionless plasmas. In fact, during expansion, the solar wind evolves towards a state characterized by large-amplitude fluctuations in all observed parameters, which resembles, at least at large scales, the well-known hydrodynamic turbulence. This text starts with historical references to past observations and experiments on turbulent flows. It then introduces the Navier-Stokes equations for a magnetized plasma whose low-frequency turbulence evolution is described within the framework of the MHD approximation. It also considers the scaling of plasma and magnetic field fluctuations and the study of nonlinear energy cascades within the same framework. It reports observations of turbulence in the ecliptic and at high latitude, treating Alfvénic and compressive fluctuations separately in...

  3. Experimental Investigation of Turbulence-Chemistry Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Partially Premixed Flames

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-23

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0277 Experimental Investigation of Turbulence- Chemistry Interaction in High-Reynolds-Number Turbulent Partially Premixed...4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE [U] Experimental investigation of turbulence- chemistry interaction in high-Reynolds-number 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER turbulent...flames. Mixture fraction is an important variable in understanding and modeling turbulent mixing and turbulence- chemistry interaction, two key

  4. Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Pandit, Rahul

    2016-01-01

    We present the first study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.

  5. Turbulent wakes of fractal objects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staicu, Adrian; Mazzi, Biagio; Vassilicos, J C; van de Water, Willem

    2003-06-01

    Turbulence of a windtunnel flow is stirred using objects that have a fractal structure. The strong turbulent wakes resulting from three such objects which have different fractal dimensions are probed using multiprobe hot-wire anemometry in various configurations. Statistical turbulent quantities are studied within inertial and dissipative range scales in an attempt to relate changes in their self-similar behavior to the scaling of the fractal objects.

  6. Dynamic multiscaling in magnetohydrodynamic turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Samriddhi Sankar; Sahoo, Ganapati; Pandit, Rahul

    2016-11-01

    We present a study of the multiscaling of time-dependent velocity and magnetic-field structure functions in homogeneous, isotropic magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence in three dimensions. We generalize the formalism that has been developed for analogous studies of time-dependent structure functions in fluid turbulence to MHD. By carrying out detailed numerical studies of such time-dependent structure functions in a shell model for three-dimensional MHD turbulence, we obtain both equal-time and dynamic scaling exponents.

  7. Quantum Ghost Imaging through Turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Dixon, P Ben; Chan, Kam Wai Clifford; O'Sullivan-Hale, Colin; Rodenburg, Brandon; Hardy, Nicholas D; Shapiro, Jeffrey H; Simon, D S; Sergienko, A V; Boyd, R W; Howell, John C

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of turbulence on quantum ghost imaging. We use entangled photons and demonstrate that for a novel experimental configuration the effect of turbulence can be greatly diminished. By decoupling the entangled photon source from the ghost imaging central image plane, we are able to dramatically increase the ghost image quality. When imaging a test pattern through turbulence, this method increased the imaged pattern visibility from V = 0.14 +/- 0.04 to V = 0.29 +/- 0.04.

  8. Galactic turbulence and paleoclimate variability

    CERN Document Server

    Bershadskii, A

    2010-01-01

    The wavelet regression detrended fluctuations of the reconstructed temperature for the past three ice ages: approximately 340000 years (Antarctic ice cores isotopic data), exhibit clear evidences of the galactic turbulence modulation up to 2500 years time-scales. The observed strictly Kolmogorov turbulence features indicates the Kolmogorov nature of galactic turbulence, and provide explanation to random-like fluctuations of the global temperature on the millennial time scales.

  9. Metallicity dependence of turbulent pressure and macroturbulence in stellar envelopes

    CERN Document Server

    Grassitelli, Luca; Langer, Norbert; Simon-Diaz, Sergio; Castro, Norberto; Sanyal, Debashis

    2016-01-01

    Macroturbulence, introduced as a fudge to reproduce the width and shape of stellar absorption lines, reflects gas motions in stellar atmospheres. While in cool stars, it is thought to be caused by convection zones immediately beneath the stellar surface, the origin of macroturbulence in hot stars is still under discussion. Recent works established a correlation between the turbulent-to-total pressure ratio inside the envelope of stellar models and the macroturbulent velocities observed in corresponding Galactic stars. To probe this connection further, we evaluated the turbulent pressure that arises in the envelope convective zones of stellar models in the mass range 1-125 Msun based on the mixing-length theory and computed for metallicities of the Large and Small Magellanic Cloud. We find that the turbulent pressure contributions in models with these metallicities located in the hot high-luminosity part of the Hertzsprung-Russel (HR) diagram is lower than in similar models with solar metallicity, whereas the ...

  10. Excess attenuation of an acoustic beam by turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Naixian

    2003-12-01

    A theory based on the concept of a spatial sinusoidal diffraction grating is presented for the estimation of the excess attenuation in an acoustic beam. The equation of the excess attenuation coefficient shows that the excess attenuation of acoustic beam not only depends on the turbulence but also depends on the application parameters such as the beam width, the beam orientation and whether for forward propagation or back scatter propagation. Analysis shows that the excess attenuation appears to have a frequency dependence of cube-root. The expression for the excess attenuation coefficient has been used in the estimations of the temperature structure coefficient, C(T)2, in sodar sounding. The correction of C(T)2 values for excess attenuation reduces their errors greatly. Published profiles of temperature structure coefficient and the velocity structure coefficient in convective conditions are used to test our theory, which is compared with the theory by Brown and Clifford. The excess attenuation due to scattering from turbulence and atmospheric absorption are both taken into account in sodar data processing for deducing the contribution of the lower atmosphere to seeing, which is the sharpness of a telescope image determined by the degree of turbulence in the Earth's atmosphere. The comparison between the contributions of the lowest 300-m layer to seeing with that of the whole atmosphere supports the reasonableness of our estimation of excess attenuation.

  11. Unraveling the Mysteries of Turbulence Transport in a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj K. Jha

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A true physical understanding of the mysteries involved in the recovery process of the wake momentum deficit, downstream of utility-scale wind turbines in the atmosphere, has not been obtained to date. Field data are not acquired at sufficient spatial and temporal resolutions to dissect some of the mysteries of wake turbulence. It is here that the actuator line method has evolved to become the technology standard in the wind energy community. This work presents the actuator line method embedded into an Open source Field Operation and Manipulation (OpenFOAM large-eddy simulation solver and applies it to two small wind farms, the first one consisting of an array of two National Renewable Energy Laboratory 5 Megawatt (NREL 5-MW turbines separated by seven rotor diameters in neutral and unstable atmospheric boundary-layer flow and the second one consisting of five NREL 5-MW wind turbines in unstable atmospheric conditions arranged in two staggered arrays of two and three turbines, respectively. Detailed statistics involving power spectral density (PSD of turbine power along with standard deviations reveal the effects of atmospheric turbulence and its space and time scales. High-resolution surface data extracts provide new insight into the complex recovery process of the wake momentum deficit governed by turbulence transport phenomena.

  12. Staging atmospheres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Mikkel; Bjerregaard, Peter; Sørensen, Tim Flohr

    2015-01-01

    The article introduces the special issue on staging atmospheres by surveying the philosophical, political and anthropological literature on atmosphere, and explores the relationship between atmosphere, material culture, subjectivity and affect. Atmosphere seems to occupy one of the classic...... localities of tensions between matter and the immaterial, the practical and the ideal, and subject and object. In the colloquial language there can, moreover, often seem to be something authentic or genuine about atmosphere, juxtaposing it to staging, which is implied to be something simulated or artificial....... This introduction seeks to outline how a number of scholars have addressed the relationship between staged atmospheres and experience, and thus highlight both the philosophical, social and political aspects of atmospheres...

  13. Wave turbulence in magnetized plasmas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Galtier

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the recent progress on wave turbulence for magnetized plasmas (MHD, Hall MHD and electron MHD in the incompressible and compressible cases. The emphasis is made on homogeneous and anisotropic turbulence which usually provides the best theoretical framework to investigate space and laboratory plasmas. The solar wind and the coronal heating problems are presented as two examples of application of anisotropic wave turbulence. The most important results of wave turbulence are reported and discussed in the context of natural and simulated magnetized plasmas. Important issues and possible spurious interpretations are also discussed.

  14. Turbulent Dynamos and Magnetic Helicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Hantao

    1999-04-01

    It is shown that the turbulent dynamo alpha-effect converts magnetic helicity from the turbulent field to the mean field when the turbulence is electromagnetic while the magnetic helicity of the mean-field is transported across space when the turbulence is elcetrostatic or due to the elcetron diamagnetic effect. In all cases, however, the dynamo effect strictly conserves the total helicity expect for a battery effect which vanishes in the limit of magnetohydrodynamics. Implications for astrophysical situations, especially for the solar dynamo, are discussed.

  15. A stability condition for turbulence model: From EMMS model to EMMS-based turbulence model

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Lin; Wang, Limin; Li, Jinghai

    2013-01-01

    The closure problem of turbulence is still a challenging issue in turbulence modeling. In this work, a stability condition is used to close turbulence. Specifically, we regard single-phase flow as a mixture of turbulent and non-turbulent fluids, separating the structure of turbulence. Subsequently, according to the picture of the turbulent eddy cascade, the energy contained in turbulent flow is decomposed into different parts and then quantified. A turbulence stability condition, similar to the principle of the energy-minimization multi-scale (EMMS) model for gas-solid systems, is formulated to close the dynamic constraint equations of turbulence, allowing the heterogeneous structural parameters of turbulence to be optimized. We call this model the `EMMS-based turbulence model', and use it to construct the corresponding turbulent viscosity coefficient. To validate the EMMS-based turbulence model, it is used to simulate two classical benchmark problems, lid-driven cavity flow and turbulent flow with forced con...

  16. Influence of wind speed on free space optical communication performance for Gaussian beam propagation through non Kolmogorov strong turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng Peng; Yuan Xiuhua; Zeng Yanan; Zhao Ming; Luo Hanjun, E-mail: yuanxh@mail.hust.edu.cn [Wuhan National Laboratory for Optoelectronics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan, Hubei (China)

    2011-02-01

    In free-space optical communication links, atmospheric turbulence causes fluctuations in both the intensity and the phase of the received signal, affecting link performance. Most theoretical treatments have been described by Kolmogorov's power spectral density model through weak turbulence with constant wind speed. However, several experiments showed that Kolmogorov theory is sometimes incomplete to describe atmospheric turbulence properly, especially through the strong turbulence with variable wind speed, which is known to contribute significantly to the turbulence in the atmosphere. We present an optical turbulence model that incorporates into variable wind speed instead of constant value, a non-Kolmogorov power spectrum that uses a generalized exponent instead of constant standard exponent value 11/3, and a generalized amplitude factor instead of constant value 0.033. The free space optical communication performance for a Gaussian beam wave of scintillation index, mean signal-to-noise ratio, and mean bit error rate , have been derived by extended Rytov theory in non-Kolmogorov strong turbulence. And then the influence of wind speed variations on free space optical communication performance has been analyzed under different atmospheric turbulence intensities. The results suggest that the effects of wind speed variation through non-Kolmogorov turbulence on communication performance are more severe in many situations and need to be taken into account in free space optical communication. It is anticipated that this work is helpful to the investigations of free space optical communication performance considering wind speed under severe weather condition in the strong atmospheric turbulence.

  17. A Hierarchy of Energy- and Flux-Budget (EFB) Turbulence Closure Models for Stably-Stratified Geophysical Flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilitinkevich, S. S.; Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Esau, I.

    2013-03-01

    Here we advance the physical background of the energy- and flux-budget turbulence closures based on the budget equations for the turbulent kinetic and potential energies and turbulent fluxes of momentum and buoyancy, and a new relaxation equation for the turbulent dissipation time scale. The closure is designed for stratified geophysical flows from neutral to very stable and accounts for the Earth's rotation. In accordance with modern experimental evidence, the closure implies the maintaining of turbulence by the velocity shear at any gradient Richardson number Ri, and distinguishes between the two principally different regimes: "strong turbulence" at {Ri ≪ 1} typical of boundary-layer flows and characterized by the practically constant turbulent Prandtl number Pr T; and "weak turbulence" at Ri > 1 typical of the free atmosphere or deep ocean, where Pr T asymptotically linearly increases with increasing Ri (which implies very strong suppression of the heat transfer compared to the momentum transfer). For use in different applications, the closure is formulated at different levels of complexity, from the local algebraic model relevant to the steady-state regime of turbulence to a hierarchy of non-local closures including simpler down-gradient models, presented in terms of the eddy viscosity and eddy conductivity, and a general non-gradient model based on prognostic equations for all the basic parameters of turbulence including turbulent fluxes.

  18. Mesospheric turbulence detection and characterization with AMISR-class radars under consistent meteorological conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Collins, R. L.; Newman, D.; Nicolls, M. J.; Varney, R. H.; Thurairajah, B.

    2015-12-01

    A recent study has shown the ability of the Advanced Modular Incoherent Scatter Radar (AMISR) at Poker Flat Research Range (PFRR, PFISR) to characterize turbulence in the mesosphere (D-Region) [Nicolls et. al, 2011]. We present case studies of AMISR measurements of turbulence where the meteorological conditions are defined by the presence of persistent Mesospheric Inversion Layers (MILs). We consider MILs that are detected by satellite over a day and are also detected by Rayleigh lidar at PFRR [Irving et. al, 2014]. MILs are a signature of large-scale planetary wave breaking in the upper atmosphere, where a region with a temperature inversion lies below a region with an adiabatic lapse rate. The region with the inversion allows small-scale waves to become unstable, break, and generate turbulence. The region with the adiabatic lapse rate is indicative of a well-mixed layer and the presence of turbulence. AMISR-class radars have a steerable narrow beam (1°) and high vertical resolution (750 m). We review the principles and practices of incoherent scatter radar with a focus on detection of D-region turbulence using radar spectra. We present the geometry of the turbulence and the radar, comparing the turbulent, plasma, and radar spatial scales. We develop a turbulence retrieval algorithm using a Voigt function spectral line. We fit the spectra to a Voigt function using the Levenberg-Marquardt method and use the Gaussian component of the Voigt spectra to calculate the RMS velocity, and hence the turbulent energy dissipation rate. With the environmental conditions characterized by satellite and lidar and the turbulence characterized by radar data, we can test the ability of PFISR to characterize mesospheric turbulence under consistent meteorological conditions and develop robust technique for turbulence measurements.

  19. Turbulence closure: turbulence, waves and the wave-turbulence transition – Part 1: Vanishing mean shear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Z. Baumert

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends a turbulence closure-like model for stably stratified flows into a new dynamic domain in which turbulence is generated by internal gravity waves rather than mean shear. The model turbulent kinetic energy (TKE, K balance, its first equation, incorporates a term for the energy transfer from internal waves to turbulence. This energy source is in addition to the traditional shear production. The second variable of the new two-equation model is the turbulent enstrophy (Ω. Compared to the traditional shear-only case, the Ω-equation is modified to account for the effect of the waves on the turbulence time and space scales. This modification is based on the assumption of a non-zero constant flux Richardson number in the limit of vanishing mean shear when turbulence is produced exclusively by internal waves. This paper is part 1 of a continuing theoretical development. It accounts for mean shear- and internal wave-driven mixing only in the two limits of mean shear and no waves and waves but no mean shear, respectively.

    The new model reproduces the wave-turbulence transition analyzed by D'Asaro and Lien (2000b. At small energy density E of the internal wave field, the turbulent dissipation rate (ε scales like ε~E2. This is what is observed in the deep sea. With increasing E, after the wave-turbulence transition has been passed, the scaling changes to ε~E1. This is observed, for example, in the highly energetic tidal flow near a sill in Knight Inlet. The new model further exhibits a turbulent length scale proportional to the Ozmidov scale, as observed in the ocean, and predicts the ratio between the turbulent Thorpe and Ozmidov length scales well within the range observed in the ocean.

  20. Self-recovery effect of orbital angular momentum mode of circular beam in weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Yi-Dong; Wang, Jiandong; Liu, Pusheng; Yang, Yuanjie

    2016-09-01

    It is generally true that the orbital angular momentum (OAM) mode persistently degenerate when a vortex beam propagates in the atmospheric turbulence. Here, however, we unveil an interesting self-recovery effect of OAM mode of the circular beam (CiB) in weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence. We show that the CiB displays the self-focusing effect and has clear focus in the weak non-Kolmogorov turbulence if we choose proper complex parameters, and the detection probability of the original OAM mode reaches the maximum at the focus. Our study proposes a method to alleviate the turbulent effects on OAM-based communication.