WorldWideScience

Sample records for atmospheric sulfur behavior

  1. Total Sulfur Deposition (wet+dry) from the Atmosphere

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) is emitted primarily as a by-product of coal combustion from power plants. Sulfur Dioxide reacts in the atmosphere to form other chemical such...

  2. Sulfur accumulation and atmospherically deposited sulfate in the Lake States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark B. David; George Z. Gernter; David F. Grigal; Lewis F. Ohmann

    1989-01-01

    Characterizes the mass of soil sulfur (adjusted for nitrogen), and atmospherically deposited sulfate along an acid precipitation gradient from Minnesota to Michigan. The relationship of these variables, presented graphically through contour mapping, suggests that patterns of atmospheric wet sulfate deposition are reflected in soil sulfur pools.

  3. Atmospheric sulfur and climate changes: a modelling study at mid and high-southern latitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castebrunet, H.

    2007-09-01

    The mid and high-southern latitudes are still marginally affected by anthropogenic sulfur emissions. They are the only regions in the world where the natural cycle of the atmospheric sulfur may still be observed. Sulfur aerosols are well-known for their radiative impact, and thus interact with climate. Climate can in turn affect atmospheric sulfur sources, distribution and chemistry. Antarctic ice cores provide information on the evolution of climate and sulfur deposition at the surface of the ice sheet at glacial-interglacial time scales. The aim of this thesis is to develop and use modeling towards a better understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle in antarctic and sub-antarctic regions. Ice core data are used to validate model results under glacial climate conditions. An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) coupled to a sulfur chemistry module is used: the LMD-ZTSulfur model, version 4. An update of both the physical and chemical parts of the model. The model was first performed. The impact of there changes on modelled sulfur cycle are evaluated for modern climate. Further, boundary conditions are adapted to simulate the atmospheric circulation and sulfur cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. In the model, sulfur is found to be highly sensitive to antarctic sea-ice coverage, which is still poorly known during the ice age. An original dataset of ice-age sea-ice coverage was developed. Its impact on the oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide, main precursor of sulfur aerosols at high-southern latitudes, is discussed. Using the same oceanic sulfur reservoirs as for present day climate, the model broadly reproduces the glacial deposits of sulfur aerosols on the Antarctic plateau, suggesting little impact of climate on oceanic sulfur production in the Antarctic region. Sensitivity tests were carried out to draw an up-to-date status of major uncertainties and difficulties facing future progress in understanding atmospheric

  4. Oxidation-sulfidation behavior of Ni aluminide in oxygen-sulfur mixed-gas atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natesan, K.

    1988-01-01

    Oxidation-sulfidation studies were conducted with sheet samples of nickel aluminide, containing 23.5 at. % Al, 0.5 at. % Hf, and 0.2 at. % B, in an annealed condition and after preoxidation treatments. Continuous weight-change measurements were made by a thermogravimetric technique in exposure atmospheres of air, a low-pO/sub 2/ gas mixture, and low-pO/sub 2/ gas mixtures with several levels of sulfur. The air-exposed specimens developed predominantly nickel oxide; the specimen exposed to a low-pO/sub 2/ environment developed an aluminum oxide scale. As the sulfur content of the gas mixture increased, the alumina scale exhibited spallation and the alloy tended to form nickel sulfide as the reaction phase. The results indicated that the sulfidation reaction of nickel aluminide specimens (both bare and preoxidized) was determined by the rate of transport of nickel from the substrate through the scale to the gas/alumina scale interface, the mechanical integrity of the oxide scale, and the H/sub 2/S concentration in the exposure environment

  5. Sulfur dioxide in the Venus atmosphere: I. Vertical distribution and variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandaele, A. C.; Korablev, O.; Belyaev, D.; Chamberlain, S.; Evdokimova, D.; Encrenaz, Th.; Esposito, L.; Jessup, K. L.; Lefèvre, F.; Limaye, S.; Mahieux, A.; Marcq, E.; Mills, F. P.; Montmessin, F.; Parkinson, C. D.; Robert, S.; Roman, T.; Sandor, B.; Stolzenbach, A.; Wilson, C.; Wilquet, V.

    2017-10-01

    Recent observations of sulfur containing species (SO2, SO, OCS, and H2SO4) in Venus' mesosphere have generated controversy and great interest in the scientific community. These observations revealed unexpected spatial patterns and spatial/temporal variability that have not been satisfactorily explained by models. Sulfur oxide chemistry on Venus is closely linked to the global-scale cloud and haze layers, which are composed primarily of concentrated sulfuric acid. Sulfur oxide observations provide therefore important insight into the on-going chemical evolution of Venus' atmosphere, atmospheric dynamics, and possible volcanism. This paper is the first of a series of two investigating the SO2 and SO variability in the Venus atmosphere. This first part of the study will focus on the vertical distribution of SO2, considering mostly observations performed by instruments and techniques providing accurate vertical information. This comprises instruments in space (SPICAV/SOIR suite on board Venus Express) and Earth-based instruments (JCMT). The most noticeable feature of the vertical profile of the SO2 abundance in the Venus atmosphere is the presence of an inversion layer located at about 70-75 km, with VMRs increasing above. The observations presented in this compilation indicate that at least one other significant sulfur reservoir (in addition to SO2 and SO) must be present throughout the 70-100 km altitude region to explain the inversion in the SO2 vertical profile. No photochemical model has an explanation for this behaviour. GCM modelling indicates that dynamics may play an important role in generating an inflection point at 75 km altitude but does not provide a definitive explanation of the source of the inflection at all local times or latitudes The current study has been carried out within the frame of the International Space Science Institute (ISSI) International Team entitled 'SO2 variability in the Venus atmosphere'.

  6. Sulfur Hazes in Giant Exoplanet Atmospheres: Impacts on Reflected Light Spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Peter; Marley, Mark S.; Zahnle, Kevin [NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Robinson, Tyler D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Lewis, Nikole K., E-mail: pgao@caltech.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Recent work has shown that sulfur hazes may arise in the atmospheres of some giant exoplanets, due to the photolysis of H{sub 2}S. We investigate the impact such a haze would have on an exoplanet’s geometric albedo spectrum and how it may affect the direct imaging results of the Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope ( WFIRST ), a planned NASA space telescope. For temperate (250 K <  T {sub eq} < 700 K) Jupiter-mass planets, photochemical destruction of H{sub 2}S results in the production of ∼1 ppmv of S{sub 8} between 100 and 0.1 mbar, which, if cool enough, will condense to form a haze. Nominal haze masses are found to drastically alter a planet’s geometric albedo spectrum: whereas a clear atmosphere is dark at wavelengths between 0.5 and 1 μ m, due to molecular absorption, the addition of a sulfur haze boosts the albedo there to ∼0.7, due to scattering. Strong absorption by the haze shortward of 0.4 μ m results in albedos <0.1, in contrast to the high albedos produced by Rayleigh scattering in a clear atmosphere. As a result, the color of the planet shifts from blue to orange. The existence of a sulfur haze masks the molecular signatures of methane and water, thereby complicating the characterization of atmospheric composition. Detection of such a haze by WFIRST is possible, though discriminating between a sulfur haze and any other highly reflective, high-altitude scatterer will require observations shortward of 0.4 μ m, which is currently beyond WFIRST ’s design.

  7. Identifying the change in atmospheric sulfur sources in China using isotopic ratios in mosses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Hua-Yun; Tang, Cong-Guo; Xiao, Hong-Wei; Liu, Xue-Yan; Liu, Cong-Qiang

    2009-08-01

    A considerable number of studies on rainwater sulfur isotopic ratios (δ34Srain) have been conducted to trace sulfur sources at a large number of sites in the past. If longitudinal studies on the isotope composition of precipitation sulfate were conducted, it is possible to relate that to changes in sulfur emissions. But direct measurement needs considerable labor and time. So, in this study, sulfur isotopic ratios in rainwater and mosses were analyzed at Guiyang and Nanchang to evaluate the possibility of using mosses as a substitute for rainwater. We found that present moss sulfur isotopic ratios were comparable to those of present rainwater. Additionally, we investigated the changes of atmospheric sulfur sources and sulfur concentrations using an isotopic graphic analysis at five industrial cities, two forested areas, and two remote areas in China. Mosses in industrial cities show a wide range of δ34S values, with the highest occurring at Chongqing (+3.9‰) and the lowest at Guiyang (-3.1‰). But as compared to those in forested and remote areas, δ34S values of mosses in all the five industrial cities are lower. On the basis of isotopic comparisons between past rainwater (reported in the literature) and present mosses, in the plot of δ34Smoss versus δ34Srain, six zones indicating different atmospheric sulfur change are separated by the 1:1 line and δ34S values of potential sulfur sources. Our results indicate that atmospheric sulfur pollution in most of the industrial cities decreased, while at the two forested areas, no significant changes were observed, and a new anxiousness coming from new energy sources (e.g., oil) appeared in some cities. Studies on the change of ambient SO2 concentrations support these results.

  8. Tillandsia recurvata L. as a bioindicator of sulfur atmospheric pollution

    OpenAIRE

    Graciano, Corina; Fernández, L V; Caldiz, D O

    2003-01-01

    Tillandsia recurvata L. is an epiphyte that absorbs nutrients from the air, so it could be used as a bioindicator of atmospheric sulfur pollution. In order to test this idea, Tillandsia recurvata samples were seasonally collected for two years at three sites of La Plata, Buenos Aires Province, Argentina, in a suburban park and in a rural area 60 km away from the city. Macro- and microscopic observations were carried out and chlorophyll and sulfur concentrations of the tissue were measured to ...

  9. Composition and oxidation state of sulfur in atmospheric particulate matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Longo

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical speciation of atmospheric sulfur was investigated in ambient aerosol samples using a combination of sulfur near-edge x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (S-NEXFS and X-ray fluorescence (XRF microscopy. These techniques were used to determine the composition and oxidation state of sulfur in common primary emission sources and ambient particulate matter collected from the greater Atlanta area. Ambient particulate matter samples contained two oxidation states: S0 and S+VI. Ninety-five percent of the individual aerosol particles (> 1 µm analyzed contain S0. Linear combination fitting revealed that S+VI in ambient aerosol was dominated by ammonium sulfate as well as metal sulfates. The finding of metal sulfates provides further evidence for acidic reactions that solubilize metals, such as iron, during atmospheric transport. Emission sources, including biomass burning, coal fly ash, gasoline, diesel, volcanic ash, and aerosolized Atlanta soil, and the commercially available bacterium Bacillus subtilis, contained only S+VI. A commercially available Azotobacter vinelandii sample contained approximately equal proportions of S0 and S+VI. S0 in individual aerosol particles most likely originates from primary emission sources, such as aerosolized bacteria or incomplete combustion.

  10. Changes in Atmospheric Sulfur Dioxide (SO2) over the English Channel - 1.5 Years of Measurements from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas; Hopkins, Frances; Smyth, Timothy

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory near Plymouth, United Kingdom between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near near the Plymouth Sound. International Maritime Organization regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce sulfur emissions tenfold in Sulfur Emission Control Areas such as the English Channel. We observed a three-fold reduction from 2014 to 2015 in the estimated ship-emitted SO2 during southeasterly winds. Dimethylsulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from ~1/3 in 2014 to ~1/2 in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  11. Sulfur isotope studies of biogenic sulfur emissions at Wallops Island, Virginia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitchcock, D.R.; Black, M.S.; Herbst, R.P.

    1978-03-01

    This research attempted to determine whether it is possible to measure the stable sulfur isotope distributions of atmospheric particulate and gaseous sulphur, and to use this information together with measurements of the ambient levels of sulfur gases and particulate sulfate and sodium in testing certain hypotheses. Sulfur dioxide and particulate sulfur samples were collected at a coastal marine location and their delta (34)S values were determined. These data were used together with sodium concentrations to determine the presence of biogenic sulfur and the identity of the biological processes producing it. Excess (non-seasalt) sulfate levels ranged from 2 to 26 micrograms/cu m and SO2 from 1 to 9 ppb. Analyses of air mass origins and lead concentrations indicated that some anthropogenic contaminants were present on all days, but the isotope data revealed that most of the atmospheric sulfur originated locally from the metabolism of bacterial sulfate reducers on all days, and that the atmospheric reactions leading to the production of sulfate from this biogenic sulfur source are extremely rapid. Delta 34 S values of atmospheric sulfur dioxide correlated well with those of excess sulfate, and implied little or no sulfur isotope fractionation during the oxidation of sulfur gases to sulfate

  12. Attribution of atmospheric sulfur dioxide over the English Channel to dimethyl sulfide and changing ship emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Mingxi; Bell, Thomas G.; Hopkins, Frances E.; Smyth, Timothy J.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric sulfur dioxide (SO2) was measured continuously from the Penlee Point Atmospheric Observatory (PPAO) near Plymouth, United Kingdom, between May 2014 and November 2015. This coastal site is exposed to marine air across a wide wind sector. The predominant southwesterly winds carry relatively clean background Atlantic air. In contrast, air from the southeast is heavily influenced by exhaust plumes from ships in the English Channel as well as near Plymouth Sound. A new International Maritime Organization (IMO) regulation came into force in January 2015 to reduce the maximum allowed sulfur content in ships' fuel 10-fold in sulfur emission control areas such as the English Channel. Our observations suggest a 3-fold reduction in ship-emitted SO2 from 2014 to 2015. Apparent fuel sulfur content calculated from coincidental SO2 and carbon dioxide (CO2) peaks from local ship plumes show a high level of compliance to the IMO regulation (> 95 %) in both years (˜ 70 % of ships in 2014 were already emitting at levels below the 2015 cap). Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) is an important source of atmospheric SO2 even in this semi-polluted region. The relative contribution of DMS oxidation to the SO2 burden over the English Channel increased from about one-third in 2014 to about one-half in 2015 due to the reduction in ship sulfur emissions. Our diel analysis suggests that SO2 is removed from the marine atmospheric boundary layer in about half a day, with dry deposition to the ocean accounting for a quarter of the total loss.

  13. Composition of atmospheric precipitation. II. Sulfur, chloride, iodine compounds. Bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, E

    1952-01-01

    Atmospheric precipitation invariably contains insoluble substances of different origin. A large scale study was conducted to determine the content of sulfur, chloride, and iodine in rainwater from various places around the world. The origin of these elements in rainwater is discussed. Several meteorological factors influence the Cl-content of rainwater. They include: rainfall, wind direction and wind strength, altitude, and seasonal variation.

  14. Effect of Sulfur and Chlorine on Fireside Corrosion Behavior of Inconel 740 H Superalloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin-tao, Lu; Yan, Li; Zhen, Yang; Jin-yang, Huang; Ming, Zhu; Gu, Y.

    2018-03-01

    Fireside corrosion behavior of Inconel 740H superalloy was studied at 750 °C in simulated coal ash/flue gas environments by means of XRD, SEM and EDS. The results indicated that the corrosion behavior was strongly related to the SO2 levels and was significantly affected by NaCl additions. In presence of the atmospheres with 0.1 % SO2, the alloy exhibited the highest corrosion resistance due to formation of a stable and dense Cr2O3 film. In presence of the atmosphere with 1.5 % SO2, however, a non-coherent and porous Cr2O3 film was formed. The thickness of film and internal sulfides were substantially increased. The NaCl additions significantly accelerated the corrosion process. A non-protective outer oxide film was formed, composed by multiple layers with serious inner sulfide and spallation. The depths of internal oxidizing and sulfuration zones were significantly increased. The mechanism of ash corrosion formation was also discussed.

  15. Ahead of his time: Jacob Lipman's 1930 estimate of atmospheric sulfur deposition for the conterminous United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landa, Edward R.; Shanley, James B.

    2015-01-01

    A 1936 New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin provided an early quantitative assessment of atmospheric deposition of sulfur for the United States that has been compared in this study with more recent assessments. In the early 20th century, anthropogenic sulfur additions from the atmosphere to the soil by the combustion of fossil fuels were viewed as part of the requisite nutrient supply of crops. Jacob G. Lipman, the founding editor of Soil Science, and his team at Rutgers University, made an inventory of such additions to soils of the conterminous United States during the economic depression of the 1930s as part of a federally funded project looking at nutrient balances in soils. Lipman's team gathered data compiled by the US Bureau of Mines on coal and other fuel consumption by state and calculated the corresponding amounts of sulfur emitted. Their work pioneered a method of assessment that became the norm in the 1970s to 1980s—when acid rain emerged as a national issue. Lipman's estimate of atmospheric sulfur deposition in the 1930 is in reasonable agreement with recent historic reconstructions.

  16. Air Quality Criteria for Sulfur Oxides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Air Pollution Control Administration (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    Included is a literature review which comprehensively discusses knowledge of the sulfur oxides commonly found in the atmosphere. The subject content is represented by the 10 chapter titles: Physical and Chemical Properties and the Atmospheric Reactions of the Oxides of Sulfur; Sources and Methods of Measurements of Sulfur Oxides in the Atmosphere;…

  17. Is climate influenced by biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds. Beeinflussen biogene atmosphaerische Schwefelverbindungen das Klima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H W

    1990-01-01

    About 10 years ago, traces of gaseous sulfur compounds were detected in the atmosphere which are of mainly biogenic origin and are formed in large areas in the oceans by phytoplankton. Continental sources, too, are important. These gases - dimethyl sulfide, carbon bisulfide and carbonyl sulfide - provide an important, if not the main, part to the natural sulfur budget of the atmosphere. While dimethyl sulfide and carbon bisulfide are quickly oxidized in the lower atmosphere forming sulfate particles in the process, carbonyl sulfide is an inert gas which is oxidized only after reaching the stratosphere. Lately, the relevance of these trace components to climate is being discussed. Conceivably, they might influence the radiation budget of the earth via the formation of aerosol particles: While, in the case of dimethyl sulfide, these would change the microphysical parameters of maritime clouds, an increase in the production of carbonyl sulfide would entail a strengthening of the stratospheric sulfate particle layer. Both processes might have a stabilizing effect on the climate as they act in opposite direction to the much discussed greenhouse effect. (orig.).

  18. Use of liquid chromatography for measuring atmospheric sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benova, E

    1973-02-01

    A literature search to ascertain the applicability of liquid chromatography to the analysis of atmospheric sulfur dioxide and various oxides of nitrogen is reported. Simple or enriched samples can be analyzed. Plastic bags are recommended for preparation of simple samples; and a table of 18 plastic materials, their manufacturers, and pollutants to which they are inert is provided. Enriched samples can be prepared in chromatographic columns by adsorption methods. Tables are provided listing carriers, stationary phase materials, temperatures, carrier liquids (helium or nitrogen), column dimensions, and other data recommended for chromatographic tests of SO/sub 2/ and NOx. Because of its reactivity and tendency to polymerize, sulfur trioxide should be reduced to SO/sub 2/ prior to analysis.

  19. Control of emissions from stationary combustion sources: Pollutant detection and behavior in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Licht, W.; Engel, A.J.; Slater, S.M.

    1979-01-01

    Stationary combustion resources continue to be significant sources of NOx and SOx pollutants in the ambient atmosphere. This volume considers four problem areas: (1) control of emissions from stationary combustion sources, particularly SOx and NOx (2) pollutant behavior in the atmosphere (3) advances in air pollution analysis and (4) air quality management. Topics of interest include carbon slurries for sulfur dioxide abatement, mass transfer in the Kellogg-Weir air quality control system, oxidation/inhibition of sulfite ion in aqueous solution, some micrometeorological methods of measuring dry deposition rates, Spanish moss as an indicator of airborne metal contamination, and air quality impacts from future electric power generation in Texas

  20. Atmospheric sulfur and climate changes: a modelling study at mid and high-southern latitudes; Soufre atmospherique et changements climatiques: une etude de modelisation pour les moyennes et hautes latitudes Sud

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castebrunet, H

    2007-09-15

    The mid and high-southern latitudes are still marginally affected by anthropogenic sulfur emissions. They are the only regions in the world where the natural cycle of the atmospheric sulfur may still be observed. Sulfur aerosols are well-known for their radiative impact, and thus interact with climate. Climate can in turn affect atmospheric sulfur sources, distribution and chemistry. Antarctic ice cores provide information on the evolution of climate and sulfur deposition at the surface of the ice sheet at glacial-interglacial time scales. The aim of this thesis is to develop and use modeling towards a better understanding of the atmospheric sulfur cycle in antarctic and sub-antarctic regions. Ice core data are used to validate model results under glacial climate conditions. An Atmospheric General Circulation Model (AGCM) coupled to a sulfur chemistry module is used: the LMD-ZTSulfur model, version 4. An update of both the physical and chemical parts of the model. The model was first performed. The impact of there changes on modelled sulfur cycle are evaluated for modern climate. Further, boundary conditions are adapted to simulate the atmospheric circulation and sulfur cycle at the Last Glacial Maximum, approximately 20,000 years ago. In the model, sulfur is found to be highly sensitive to antarctic sea-ice coverage, which is still poorly known during the ice age. An original dataset of ice-age sea-ice coverage was developed. Its impact on the oceanic emissions of dimethyl sulfide, main precursor of sulfur aerosols at high-southern latitudes, is discussed. Using the same oceanic sulfur reservoirs as for present day climate, the model broadly reproduces the glacial deposits of sulfur aerosols on the Antarctic plateau, suggesting little impact of climate on oceanic sulfur production in the Antarctic region. Sensitivity tests were carried out to draw an up-to-date status of major uncertainties and difficulties facing future progress in understanding atmospheric

  1. Photochemical modification of diamond powder with sulfur functionalities and its behavior on gold surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, T; Ohana, T; Hagiwara, Y; Tsubota, T

    2010-01-01

    A useful method of modifying the surface of diamond powders with sulfur-containing functionalities was developed by the use of the photolysis of elemental sulfur. The introduction of sulfur-containing functional groups on the diamond surfaces was confirmed by means of XPS, DRIFT and mass spectroscopy analyses. The sulfur-modified diamond powders exhibited surface-attachment behavior to gold surfaces through the sulfur-containing linkage. In brief, exposure of the modified diamond powders to gold colloids resulted in gold nanoparticles being attached to the diamond powders. Treatment of the modified diamond powders with gold thin film on Si substrate afforded alignment of surface-attached diamond powders through sulfur linkages by self-assembly.

  2. Geological Sulfur Isotopes Indicate Elevated OCS in the Archean Atmosphere, Solving the Faint Young Sun Paradox

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ueno, Yuichiro; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Danielache, Sebastian Oscar

    2009-01-01

    Distributions of sulfur isotopes in geological samples would provide a record of atmospheric composition if the mechanism producing the isotope effects could be described quantitatively. We determined the UV absorption spectra of 32SO2, 33SO2, and 34SO2 and use them to interpret the geological re......-rich, reducing Archean atmosphere. The radiative forcing, due to this level of OCS, is able to resolve the faint young sun paradox. Further, the decline of atmospheric OCS may have caused the late Archean glaciation....

  3. Application of Atmospheric Pressure Photoionization H/D-exchange Mass Spectrometry for Speciation of Sulfur-containing Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acter, Thamina; Kim, Donghwi; Ahmed, Arif; Ha, Ji-Hyoung; Kim, Sunghwan

    2017-08-01

    Herein we report the observation of atmospheric pressure in-source hydrogen-deuterium exchange (HDX) of thiol group for the first time. The HDX for thiol group was optimized for positive atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) mass spectrometry (MS). The optimized HDX-MS was applied for 31 model compounds (thiols, thiophenes, and sulfides) to demonstrate that exchanged peaks were observed only for thiols. The optimized method has been successfully applied to the isolated fractions of sulfur-rich oil samples. The exchange of one and two thiol hydrogens with deuterium was observed in the thiol fraction; no HDX was observed in the other fractions. Thus, the results presented in this study demonstrate that the HDX-MS method using APPI ionization source can be effective for speciation of sulfur compounds. This method has the potential to be used to access corrosion problems caused by thiol-containing compounds. Graphical Abstract ᅟ.

  4. The molecular physics of photolytic fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes in planetary atmospheres (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Schmidt, J. A.; Hattori, S.; Danielache, S.; Meusinger, C.; Schinke, R.; Ueno, Y.; Nanbu, S.; Kjaergaard, H. G.; Yoshida, N.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric photochemistry is able to produce large mass independent anomalies in atmospheric trace gases that can be found in geological and cryospheric records. This talk will present theoretical and experimental investigations of the molecular mechanisms producing photolytic fractionation of isotopes with special attention to sulfur and oxygen. The zero point vibrational energy (ZPE) shift and reflection principle theories are starting points for estimating isotopic fractionation, but these models ignore effects arising from isotope-dependent changes in couplings between surfaces, excited state dynamics, line densities and hot band populations. The isotope-dependent absorption spectra of the isotopologues of HCl, N2O, OCS, CO2 and SO2 have been examined in a series of papers and these results are compared with experiment and ZPE/reflection principle models. Isotopic fractionation in planetary atmospheres has many interesting applications. The UV absorption of CO2 is the basis of photochemistry in the CO2-rich atmospheres of the ancient Earth, and of Mars and Venus. For the first time we present accurate temperature and isotope dependent CO2 absorption cross sections with important implications for photolysis rates of SO2 and H2O, and the production of a mass independent anomaly in the Ox reservoir. Experimental and theoretical results for OCS have implications for the modern stratospheric sulfur budget. The absorption bands of SO2 are complex with rich structure producing isotopic fractionation in photolysis and photoexcitation.

  5. The impact of particle size, relative humidity, and sulfur dioxide on iron solubility in simulated atmospheric marine aerosols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cartledge, Benton T; Marcotte, Aurelie R; Herckes, Pierre; Anbar, Ariel D; Majestic, Brian J

    2015-06-16

    Iron is a limiting nutrient in about half of the world's oceans, and its most significant source is atmospheric deposition. To understand the pathways of iron solubilization during atmospheric transport, we exposed size segregated simulated marine aerosols to 5 ppm sulfur dioxide at arid (23 ± 1% relative humidity, RH) and marine (98 ± 1% RH) conditions. Relative iron solubility increased as the particle size decreased for goethite and hematite, while for magnetite, the relative solubility was similar for all of the fine size fractions (2.5-0.25 μm) investigated but higher than the coarse size fraction (10-2.5 μm). Goethite and hematite showed increased solubility at arid RH, but no difference (p > 0.05) was observed between the two humidity levels for magnetite. There was no correlation between iron solubility and exposure to SO2 in any mineral for any size fraction. X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) measurements showed no change in iron speciation [Fe(II) and Fe(III)] in any minerals following SO2 exposure. SEM-EDS measurements of SO2-exposed goethite revealed small amounts of sulfur uptake on the samples; however, the incorporated sulfur did not affect iron solubility. Our results show that although sulfur is incorporated into particles via gas-phase processes, changes in iron solubility also depend on other species in the aerosol.

  6. Decoding mass-independent fractionation of sulfur isotopes in modern atmosphere using cosmogenic 35S: A five-isotope approach and possible implications for Archean sulfur isotope records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, M.; Thiemens, M. H.; Shen, Y.; Zhang, X.; Huang, X.; Chen, K.; Zhang, Z.; Tao, J.

    2017-12-01

    The signature of sulfur isotopic mass-independent fractionation (S-MIF) observed in Archean sediments have been interpreted as a proxy of the origins and evolution of atmospheric oxygen and early life on Earth [1]. Photochemistry of SOx in the short (negative Δ36S. After eliminating combustion impacts, the obtained Δ36S/Δ33S slope of -4.0 in the modern atmosphere is close to the Δ36S/Δ33S slope (-3.6) in some records from Paleoarchean [4], an era probably with active volcanism [5]. The significant role of volcanic OCS in the Archean atmosphere has been called for in terms of its ability to provide a continual SO2 high altitude source for photolysis [2]. The strong but previously underappreciated stratospheric signature of S-MIF in tropospheric sulfates suggests that a more careful investigation of wavelength-dependent sulfur isotopic fractionation at different altitudes are required. The combustion-induced negative Δ36S may be linked to recombination reactions of elemental sulfur [6], and relevant experiments are being conducted to test the isotope effect. Although combustion is unlikely in Archean, recombination reactions may occur in other previously unappreciated processes such as volcanism and may contribute in part to the heavily depleted 36S in some Paleoarchean records [5,7]. The roles of both photochemical and non-photochemical reactions in the variability of Archean S-MIF records require further analysis in the future. Refs: [1] Farquhar et al., Science 2000; [2] Shaheen et al., PNAS 2014; [3] Lin et al., PNAS 2016; [4] Wacey et al., Precambrian Res 2015; [5] Muller et al., PNAS 2016; [6] Babikov, PNAS 2017; [7] Shen et al., EPSL, 2009.

  7. Improved method for minimizing sulfur loss in analysis of particulate organic sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Ki-Tae; Lee, Kitack; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Jeong, Hae Jin; Kim, Kwang Young

    2014-02-04

    The global sulfur cycle depends primarily on the metabolism of marine microorganisms, which release sulfur gas into the atmosphere and thus affect the redistribution of sulfur globally as well as the earth's climate system. To better quantify sulfur release from the ocean, analysis of the production and distribution of organic sulfur in the ocean is necessary. This report describes a wet-based method for accurate analysis of particulate organic sulfur (POS) in the marine environment. The proposed method overcomes the considerable loss of sulfur (up to 80%) that occurs during analysis using conventional methods involving drying. Use of the wet-based POS extraction procedure in conjunction with a sensitive sulfur analyzer enabled accurate measurements of cellular POS. Data obtained using this method will enable accurate assessment of how rapidly sulfur can transfer among pools. Such information will improve understanding of the role of POS in the oceanic sulfur cycle.

  8. Direct night-time ejection of particle-phase reduced biogenic sulfur compounds from the ocean to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J; Furutani, Hiroshi; Guazzotti, Sergio A; Coffee, Keith R; Jung, Jinyoung; Uematsu, Mitsuo; Prather, Kimberly A

    2015-04-21

    The influence of oceanic biological activity on sea spray aerosol composition, clouds, and climate remains poorly understood. The emission of organic material and gaseous dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the ocean represents well-documented biogenic processes that influence particle chemistry in marine environments. However, the direct emission of particle-phase biogenic sulfur from the ocean remains largely unexplored. Here we present measurements of ocean-derived particles containing reduced sulfur, detected as elemental sulfur ions (e.g., (32)S(+), (64)S2(+)), in seven different marine environments using real-time, single particle mass spectrometry; these particles have not been detected outside of the marine environment. These reduced sulfur compounds were associated with primary marine particle types and wind speeds typically between 5 and 10 m/s suggesting that these particles themselves are a primary emission. In studies with measurements of seawater properties, chlorophyll-a and atmospheric DMS concentrations were typically elevated in these same locations suggesting a biogenic source for these sulfur-containing particles. Interestingly, these sulfur-containing particles only appeared at night, likely due to rapid photochemical destruction during the daytime, and comprised up to ∼67% of the aerosol number fraction, particularly in the supermicrometer size range. These sulfur-containing particles were detected along the California coast, across the Pacific Ocean, and in the southern Indian Ocean suggesting that these particles represent a globally significant biogenic contribution to the marine aerosol burden.

  9. Molecular understanding of atmospheric particle formation from sulfuric acid and large oxidized organic molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, Siegfried; Bianchi, Federico; Lönn, Gustaf; Ehn, Mikael; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Dommen, Josef; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Ortega, Ismael K; Franchin, Alessandro; Nieminen, Tuomo; Riccobono, Francesco; Hutterli, Manuel; Duplissy, Jonathan; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Breitenlechner, Martin; Downard, Andrew J; Dunne, Eimear M; Flagan, Richard C; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kirkby, Jasper; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kurtén, Theo; Laaksonen, Ari; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Praplan, Arnaud P; Rondo, Linda; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Schnitzhofer, Ralf; Sipilä, Mikko; Tomé, António; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vehkamäki, Hanna; Wimmer, Daniela; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Hansel, Armin; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku; Donahue, Neil M; Worsnop, Douglas R

    2013-01-01

    Atmospheric aerosols formed by nucleation of vapors affect radiative forcing and therefore climate. However, the underlying mechanisms of nucleation remain unclear, particularly the involvement of organic compounds. Here, we present high-resolution mass spectra of ion clusters observed during new particle formation experiments performed at the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research. The experiments involved sulfuric acid vapor and different stabilizing species, including ammonia and dimethylamine, as well as oxidation products of pinanediol, a surrogate for organic vapors formed from monoterpenes. A striking resemblance is revealed between the mass spectra from the chamber experiments with oxidized organics and ambient data obtained during new particle formation events at the Hyytiälä boreal forest research station. We observe that large oxidized organic compounds, arising from the oxidation of monoterpenes, cluster directly with single sulfuric acid molec...

  10. Mechanism of Early Stage Corrosion for Boric-sulfuric Acid Anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li Alloy Under Tropical Marine Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUO Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Optical microscopy(OM, scanning electron microscopy(SEM, EDX and EIS combined with ultramicrotomy were employed to investigate the micro morphology, chemical composition and electrochemical properties of anodized 2A97 Al-Cu-Li alloy before and after atmospheric corrosion. The results show that when electrolytes containing combinations of tartaric-sulfuric or boric-sulfuric acid are used to grow the films at different temperatures, boric acid addition and higher temperature allow for higher current density that speeds up the film growth. The pore geometry and structure is similar for different electrolytes. Dispersive dark rusty spots composed of O, Al, Cl, Cu are present on the boric-sulfuric acid anodized specimen after exposure in tropical marine atmosphere for 1 month. Deposition of white corrosion product is found on the specimen surface as well. Severe pitting occurs and develops deeply into the alloy substrate after elongated outdoor exposure. Corrosion propagation is associated with θ-phase particles.

  11. Sulfur mass loading of the atmosphere from volcanic eruptions: Calibration of the ice core record on basis of sulfate aerosol deposition in polar regions from the 1982 El Chichon eruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, Haraldur; Laj, Paolo

    1990-01-01

    Major volcanic eruptions disperse large quantities of sulfur compound throughout the Earth's atmosphere. The sulfuric acid aerosols resulting from such eruptions are scavenged by snow within the polar regions and appear in polar ice cores as elevated acidity layers. Glacio-chemical studies of ice cores can, thus, provide a record of past volcanism, as well as the means for understanding the fate of volcanic sulfur in the atmosphere. The primary objectives of this project are to study the chemistry and physical properties of volcanic fallout in a Greenland Ice Core in order to evaluate the impact of the volcanic gases on the atmospheric chemistry and the total atmospheric mass of volcanic aerosols emitted by major volcanic eruptions. We propose to compare the ice core record to other atmospheric records performed during the last 10 years to investigate transport and deposition of volcanic materials.

  12. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. II. H{sub 2}S AND SO{sub 2} PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN ANOXIC ATMOSPHERES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2013-05-20

    Sulfur gases are common components in the volcanic and biological emission on Earth, and are expected to be important input gases for atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets. We study the atmospheric composition and the spectra of terrestrial exoplanets with sulfur compounds (i.e., H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2}) emitted from their surfaces. We use a comprehensive one-dimensional photochemistry model and radiative transfer model to investigate the sulfur chemistry in atmospheres ranging from reducing to oxidizing. The most important finding is that both H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} are chemically short-lived in virtually all types of atmospheres on terrestrial exoplanets, based on models of H{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2} atmospheres. This implies that direct detection of surface sulfur emission is unlikely, as their surface emission rates need to be extremely high (>1000 times Earth's volcanic sulfur emission) for these gases to build up to a detectable level. We also find that sulfur compounds emitted from the surface lead to photochemical formation of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid in the atmosphere, which would condense to form aerosols if saturated. For terrestrial exoplanets in the habitable zone of Sun-like stars or M stars, Earth-like sulfur emission rates result in optically thick haze composed of elemental sulfur in reducing H{sub 2}-dominated atmospheres for a wide range of particle diameters (0.1-1 {mu}m), which is assumed as a free parameter in our simulations. In oxidized atmospheres composed of N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2}, optically thick haze, composed of elemental sulfur aerosols (S{sub 8}) or sulfuric acid aerosols (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}), will form if the surface sulfur emission is two orders of magnitude more than the volcanic sulfur emission of Earth. Although direct detection of H{sub 2}S and SO{sub 2} by their spectral features is unlikely, their emission might be inferred by observing aerosol-related features in reflected light with future generation

  13. Sulfur isotope signatures in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cainey, J.

    2001-01-01

    The role of sulfur in cloud formation makes it a crucial ingredient in the global climate change debate. So it is important to be able to measure sulfur in the atmosphere and identify where it came from. (author)

  14. Sulfur X-ray absorption fine structure in porous Li–S cathode films measured under argon atmospheric conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Müller, Matthias; Choudhury, Soumyadip; Gruber, Katharina; Cruz, Valene B.; Fuchsbichler, Bernd; Jacob, Timo; Koller, Stefan; Stamm, Manfred; Ionov, Leonid; Beckhoff, Burkhard

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present the first results for the characterization of highly porous cathode materials with pore sizes below 1 μm for Lithium Sulfur (Li–S) batteries by Near Edge X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy. A novel cathode material of porous carbon films fabricated with colloidal array templates has been investigated. In addition, an electrochemical characterization has been performed aiming on an improved correlation of physical and chemical parameters with the electrochemical performance. The performed NEXAFS measurements of cathode materials allowed for a chemical speciation of the sulfur content inside the cathode material. The aim of the presented investigation was to evaluate the potential of the NEXAFS technique to characterize sulfur in novel battery material. The long term goal for the characterization of the battery materials is the sensitive identification of undesired side reactions, such as the polysulfide shuttle, which takes place during charging and discharging of the battery. The main drawback associated with the investigation of these materials is the fact that NEXAFS measurements can usually only be performed ex situ due to the limited in situ instrumentation being available. For Li–S batteries this problem is more pronounced because of the low photon energies needed to study the sulfur K absorption edge at 2472 eV. We employed 1 μm thick Si 3 N 4 windows to construct sealed argon cells for NEXAFS measurements under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions as a first step towards in situ measurements. The cells keep the sample under argon atmosphere at any time and the X-ray beam passes mainly through vacuum which enables the detection of the low energy X-ray emission of sulfur. Using these argon cells we found indications for the presence of lithium polysulfides in the cathode films whereas the correlations to the offline electrochemical results remain somewhat ambiguous. As a consequence of these findings one may

  15. Some information needs for air quality modeling. [Environmental effects of sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, F B

    1975-09-01

    The following topics were considered at the workshop: perturbation of the natural sulfur cycle by human activity; ecosystem responses to a given environmental dose of sulfur compounds; movement of sulfur compounds within the atmosphere; air quality models; contribution of biogenic sulfur compounds to atmospheric burden of sulfur; production of acid rain from sulfur dioxide; meteorological processes; and rates of oxidation of SO/sub 2/ via direct photo-oxidation, oxidation resulting from photo-induced free radical chemistry, and catalytic oxidation in cloud droplets and on dry particles. (HLW)

  16. Environmental aspects of the combustion of sulfur-bearing fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manowitz, B.; Lipfert, F.W.

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the origins of sulfur in fossil fuels and the consequences of its release into the environment after combustion, with emphasis on the United States. Typical sulfur contents of fuels are given, together with fuel uses and the resulting air concentrations of sulfur air pollutants. Atmospheric transformation and pollutant removal processes are described, as they affect the pathways of sulfur through the environment. The environmental effects discussed include impacts on human health, degradation of materials, acidification of ecosystems, and effects on vegetation and atmospheric visibility. The paper concludes with a recommendation for the use of risk assessment to assess the need for regulations which may require the removal of sulfur from fuels or their combustion products

  17. Steep spatial gradients of volcanic and marine sulfur in Hawaiian rainfall and ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bern, Carleton R., E-mail: cbern@usgs.gov [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060 (United States); Chadwick, Oliver A. [Department of Geography University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106-4060 (United States); Kendall, Carol [U.S. Geological Survey, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Pribil, Michael J. [U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Sulfur, a nutrient required by terrestrial ecosystems, is likely to be regulated by atmospheric processes in well-drained, upland settings because of its low concentration in most bedrock and generally poor retention by inorganic reactions within soils. Environmental controls on sulfur sources in unpolluted ecosystems have seldom been investigated in detail, even though the possibility of sulfur limiting primary production is much greater where atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic sulfur is low. Here we measure sulfur isotopic compositions of soils, vegetation and bulk atmospheric deposition from the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of tracing sources of ecosystem sulfur. Hawaiian lava has a mantle-derived sulfur isotopic composition (δ{sup 34}S VCDT) of − 0.8‰. Bulk deposition on the island of Maui had a δ{sup 34}S VCDT that varied temporally, spanned a range from + 8.2 to + 19.7‰, and reflected isotopic mixing from three sources: sea-salt (+ 21.1‰), marine biogenic emissions (+ 15.6‰), and volcanic emissions from active vents on Kilauea Volcano (+ 0.8‰). A straightforward, weathering-driven transition in ecosystem sulfur sources could be interpreted in the shift from relatively low (0.0 to + 2.7‰) to relatively high (+ 17.8 to + 19.3‰) soil δ{sup 34}S values along a 0.3 to 4100 ka soil age-gradient, and similar patterns in associated vegetation. However, sub-kilometer scale spatial variation in soil sulfur isotopic composition was found along soil transects assumed by age and mass balance to be dominated by atmospheric sulfur inputs. Soil sulfur isotopic compositions ranged from + 8.1 to + 20.3‰ and generally decreased with increasing elevation (0–2000 m), distance from the coast (0–12 km), and annual rainfall (180–5000 mm). Such trends reflect the spatial variation in marine versus volcanic inputs from atmospheric deposition. Broadly, these results illustrate how the sources and magnitude of atmospheric deposition can exert controls

  18. Steep spatial gradients of volcanic and marine sulfur in Hawaiian rainfall and ecosystems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bern, Carleton R.; Chadwick, Oliver A.; Kendall, Carol; Pribil, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Sulfur, a nutrient required by terrestrial ecosystems, is likely to be regulated by atmospheric processes in well-drained, upland settings because of its low concentration in most bedrock and generally poor retention by inorganic reactions within soils. Environmental controls on sulfur sources in unpolluted ecosystems have seldom been investigated in detail, even though the possibility of sulfur limiting primary production is much greater where atmospheric deposition of anthropogenic sulfur is low. Here we measure sulfur isotopic compositions of soils, vegetation and bulk atmospheric deposition from the Hawaiian Islands for the purpose of tracing sources of ecosystem sulfur. Hawaiian lava has a mantle-derived sulfur isotopic composition (δ 34 S VCDT) of − 0.8‰. Bulk deposition on the island of Maui had a δ 34 S VCDT that varied temporally, spanned a range from + 8.2 to + 19.7‰, and reflected isotopic mixing from three sources: sea-salt (+ 21.1‰), marine biogenic emissions (+ 15.6‰), and volcanic emissions from active vents on Kilauea Volcano (+ 0.8‰). A straightforward, weathering-driven transition in ecosystem sulfur sources could be interpreted in the shift from relatively low (0.0 to + 2.7‰) to relatively high (+ 17.8 to + 19.3‰) soil δ 34 S values along a 0.3 to 4100 ka soil age-gradient, and similar patterns in associated vegetation. However, sub-kilometer scale spatial variation in soil sulfur isotopic composition was found along soil transects assumed by age and mass balance to be dominated by atmospheric sulfur inputs. Soil sulfur isotopic compositions ranged from + 8.1 to + 20.3‰ and generally decreased with increasing elevation (0–2000 m), distance from the coast (0–12 km), and annual rainfall (180–5000 mm). Such trends reflect the spatial variation in marine versus volcanic inputs from atmospheric deposition. Broadly, these results illustrate how the sources and magnitude of atmospheric deposition can exert controls over

  19. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on The Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfur and Nitrogen in the Remote Atmosphere

    CERN Document Server

    Charlson, Robert; Andreae, Meinrat; Rodhe, Henning

    1985-01-01

    Viewed from space, the Earth appears as a globe without a beginning or an end. Encompassing the globe is the atmosphere with its three phases-­ gaseous, liquid, and solid--moving in directions influenced by sunlight, gravity, and rotation. The chemical compositions of these phases are determined by biogeochemical cycles. Over the past hundred years, the processes governing the rates and reactions in the atmospheric biogeochemical cycles have typically been studied in regions where scientists lived. Hence, as time has gone by, the advances in our knowledge of atmospheric chemical cycles in remote areas have lagged substantially behind those for more populated areas. Not only are the data less abundant, they are also scattered. Therefore, we felt a workshop would be an excellent mechanism to assess the state­ of-knowledge of the atmospheric cycles of sulfur and nitrogen in remote areas and to make recommendations for future research. Thus, a NATO Advanced Research Workshop '~he Biogeochemical Cycling of Sulfu...

  20. Damage caused to vegetation by sulfurous and sulfuric acids in the atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatlock, R R; Thomson, R T

    1914-05-01

    This report, written in 1914, documents injuries to trees and shrubs in the United Kingdom which are attributed to sulfur compounds in air pollutions. Sampling, analytical and experimental procedures are discussed.

  1. Biogenic sulfur compounds and the global sulfur cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aneja, V.P.; Aneja, A.P.; Adams, D.F.

    1982-01-01

    Field measurements of biogenic sulfur compounds shows a great variation in concentrations and emission rates for H 2 S, DMS, CS 2 and COS. Measurements by the chamber method and estimates from micrometeorological sampling are employed to determine the earth-atmosphere flux of these gases. Much of the variation can be attributed to differences of climate and surface conditions, with marshes being a large source of biogenic sulfur (mean contribution 4 x 10 to the 6th ton/year maximum contribution 142 x 10 to the 6th ton/year). Considering that the estimated biogenic contribution needed to balance the global sulfur cycle ranges from 40- 230 x 10 to the 6th tons/year, the mean values are not sufficient to balance this cycle. Further experimental investigations are suggested in order to characterize the biogenic processes adequately

  2. Study on Self-discharge Behavior of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries are a promising energy storage technology, which draws interest due to their high theoretical limits in terms of specific capacity, specific energy and energy density. However as a drawback, they suffer from a high self-discharge rate, which is mainly caused...... by ongoing polysulfide shuttle. In this paper, the self-discharge behavior of Li-S batteries is experimentally investigated, considering various conditions as depth-of-discharge, temperature and idling time. The self-discharge rate under different conditions is identified and quantified. Moreover...

  3. Quantitative analysis of sulfur forms of coal and the pyrolysis behavior of sulfur compounds; Sekitanchu no io kagobutsu no keitaibetsu gan`yuryo no teiryo to sono netsubunkai kyodo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mae, K.; Miura, K.; Shimada, M. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-28

    As part of the studies on coal utilization basics, considerations were given on quantification of sulfur forms of coal and the pyrolysis behavior of sulfur compounds. With the temperature raising oxidation method, a thermo-balance was connected directly to a mass analyzer, and the coal temperature was raised at a rate of 5{degree}C per minute and gasified. Peak division was performed on SO2 and COS production to derive sulfur forms of coal. Using the slow-speed pyrolysis method, production rates of H2S, COS, SO2 and mercaptans were measured at a temperature raising rate of 20{degree}C per minute. Sulfur content in char was also measured. With the quick pyrolysis method, a Curie point pyrolyzer was connected directly to a gas chromatograph, by which secondary reaction is suppressed, and initial pyrolytic behavior can be tracked. All kinds of coals produce a considerable amount of SO2 in the slow-speed pyrolysis, but very little in the quick pyrolysis. Instead, H2S and mercaptans are produced. Sulfur compound producing mechanisms vary depending on the temperature raising rates. By using a parallel primary reaction model, analysis was made on reactions of H2S production based on different activation energies, such as those generated from pyrite decomposition and organic sulfur decomposition. The analytic result agreed also with that from the temperature raising oxidation method. 4 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Environmental behavior and analysis of agricultural sulfur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Corey M; Woodrow, James E; Seiber, James N

    2015-11-01

    Sulfur has been widely used for centuries as a staple for pest and disease management in agriculture. Presently, it is the largest-volume pesticide in use worldwide. This review describes the sources and recovery methods for sulfur, its allotropic forms and properties and its agricultural uses, including development and potential advantages of nanosulfur as a fungicide. Chemical and microbial reactivity, interactions in soil and water and analytical methods for determination in environmental samples and foodstuffs, including inexpensive analytical methods for sulfur residues in wine, beer and other food/beverage substrates, will be reviewed. The toxicology of sulfur towards humans and agriculturally important fungi is included, with some restrictions on use to promote safety. The review concludes with areas for which more research is warranted. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Experimental Observation of Strongly Bound Dimers of Sulfuric Acid: Application to Nucleation in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petaja, Tuukka; Sipila, Mikko; Paasonen, Pauli

    2011-01-01

    rate was clearly higher than the measured new particle formation rate at similar to 1.5 nmsuggesting that the rate limiting step for the nucleation takes place after the dimerization step. The quantum chemical calculations suggested that even in the ultraclean conditions there exist (a) stabilizing...... compound(s) with (a) concentration(s) high enough to prevent the dimer evaporation. Such a stabilizing compound should be abundant enough in any natural environment and would therefore not limit the formation of sulfuric acid dimers in the atmosphere....

  6. Decoupling of Neoarchean sulfur sources recorded in Algoma-type banded iron formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diekrup, David; Hannington, Mark D.; Strauss, Harald; Ginley, Stephen J.

    2018-05-01

    Neoarchean Algoma-type banded iron formations (BIFs) are widely viewed as direct chemical precipitates from proximal volcanic-hydrothermal vents. However, a systematic multiple sulfur isotope study of oxide-facies BIF from a type locality in the ca. 2.74 Ga Temagami greenstone belt reveals mainly bacterial turnover of atmospheric elemental sulfur in the host basin rather than deposition of hydrothermally cycled seawater sulfate or sulfur from direct volcanic input. Trace amounts of chromium reducible sulfur that were extracted for quadruple sulfur isotope (32S-33S-34S-36S) analysis record the previously known mass-independent fractionation of volcanic SO2 in the Archean atmosphere (S-MIF) and biological sulfur cycling but only minor contributions from juvenile sulfur, despite the proximity of volcanic sources. We show that the dominant bacterial metabolisms were iron reduction and sulfur disproportionation, and not sulfate reduction, consistent with limited availability of organic matter and the abundant ferric iron deposited as Fe(OH)3. That sulfur contained in the BIF was not a direct volcanic-hydrothermal input, as expected, changes the view of an important archive of the Neoarchean sulfur cycle in which the available sulfur pools were strongly decoupled and only species produced photochemically under anoxic atmospheric conditions were deposited in the BIF-forming environment.

  7. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Markopoulos, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy

  8. Dynamic behavior of the bray-liebhafsky oscillatory reaction controlled by sulfuric acid and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pejić, N.; Vujković, M.; Maksimović, J.; Ivanović, A.; Anić, S.; Čupić, Ž.; Kolar-Anić, Lj.

    2011-12-01

    The non-periodic, periodic and chaotic regimes in the Bray-Liebhafsky (BL) oscillatory reaction observed in a continuously fed well stirred tank reactor (CSTR) under isothermal conditions at various inflow concentrations of the sulfuric acid were experimentally studied. In each series (at any fixed temperature), termination of oscillatory behavior via saddle loop infinite period bifurcation (SNIPER) as well as some kind of the Andronov-Hopf bifurcation is presented. In addition, it was found that an increase of temperature, in different series of experiments resulted in the shift of bifurcation point towards higher values of sulfuric acid concentration.

  9. Non-mass-dependent fractionation of sulfur and oxygen isotopes during UV photolysis of sulfur dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pen, Aranh

    Since the discovery of anomalous sulfur isotope abundance in the geological record in sulfate and sulfide minerals (Farquhar et al., 2000), much effort has been put into understanding their origin to provide new insights into the environmental conditions on the early Earth (Farquhar et al., 2001; Pavlov and Kasting, 2002; Ono et al., 2003; Zahnle et al., 2006; Farquhar et al., 2007; Lyons, 2007; Lyons, 2008). This discovery gained immense interest because of its implications for both the lack of oxygen in the atmosphere during the Archean era 2.5-3.8 Gya (billion years ago), and for rise of oxygen, or the "Great Oxidation Event", that occurred 2.2-2.4 Gya (Holland, 2002). These signatures are believed to be produced in an anticorrelation to oxygen abundance in the early atmosphere, which will aid in quantifying the rate of oxygenation during the "Great Oxidation Event". According to Farquhar et al. (2000), the non-mass-dependent (NMD), or anomalous, fractionation signatures were produced by photochemical reactions of volcanic sulfur species in Earth's early atmosphere (> 2.3 Gya) due to the lack of an oxygen and ozone shield, resulting in an atmosphere transparent to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation (Farquhar et al., 2001). Interpretation of the anomalous rock records, though, depends on the identification of (1) chemical reactions that can produce the NMD signature (Farquhar and Wing, 2003); and (2) conditions necessary for conversion of the gas-phase products into solid minerals (Pavlov and Kasting, 2002). The focus of my research addresses the first step, which is to determine whether the chemical reactions that occurred in Earth's early atmosphere, resulting in NMD fractionation of sulfur isotopes, were due to broadband UV photochemistry, and to test isotopic self-shielding as the possible underlying mechanism. In this project, our goals were to test isotopic self-shielding during UV photolysis as a possible underlying mechanism for anomalous sulfur isotopic

  10. The Provenance of Sulfur that Becomes Non-Seasalt Sulfate (NSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huebert, B. J.; Simpson, R. M.; Howell, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    As a part of the Pacific Atmospheric Sulfur Experiment (PASE), we measured sulfur gases and aerosol chemistry (vs size) from the NCAR C-130 near Christmas Island. Monthly (project) average concentrations in the Marine Boundary Layer (MBL, the lowest mixed layer) and Buffer Layer (BuL, a more stable layer atop the MBL, with clouds) are used to evaluate the formation, loss, and exchange rates for DMS, SO2, and NSS in each layer. We evaluate entrainment, divergence, vertical mixing, chemical formation and loss for each to make a self-consistent budget of oxidized sulfur in the remote marine atmosphere. We find that long-range transport of sulfur from continental sources can be larger than the sulfur source from biogenic dimethyl sulfide, DMS. DMS does not appear to control either the number of NSS particles or NSS mass.

  11. Using biogenic sulfur gases as remotely detectable biosignatures on anoxic planets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, Shawn D; Meadows, Victoria S; Claire, Mark W; Kasting, James F

    2011-06-01

    We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS(2), OCS, CH(3)SH, CH(3)SCH(3), and CH(3)S(2)CH(3)) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH(3)SCH(3), or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH(3)S(2)CH(3), or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C(2)H(6)) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH(4)) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases-and therefore the life that produces them-if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere.

  12. Neutral molecular cluster formation of sulfuric acid–dimethylamine observed in real time under atmospheric conditions

    CERN Document Server

    Kürten, Andreas; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Sarnela, Nina; Junninen, Heikki; Adamov, Alexey; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Hutterli, Manuel; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Riccobono, Francesco; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Seinfeld, John H; Steiner, Gerhard; Tomé, António; Tröstl, Jasmin; Winkler, Paul M; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Ye, Penglin; Baltensperger, Urs; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim

    2014-01-01

    For atmospheric sulfuric acid (SA) concentrations the presence of dimethylamine (DMA) at mixing ratios of several parts per trillion by volume can explain observed boundary layer new particle formation rates. However, the concentration and molecular composition of the neutral (uncharged) clusters have not been reported so far due to the lack of suitable instrumentation. Here we report on experiments from the Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets chamber at the European Organization for Nuclear Research revealing the formation of neutral particles containing up to 14 SA and 16 DMA molecules, corresponding to a mobility diameter of about 2 nm, under atmospherically relevant conditions. These measurements bridge the gap between the molecular and particle perspectives of nucleation, revealing the fundamental processes involved in particle formation and growth. The neutral clusters are found to form at or close to the kinetic limit where particle formation is limited only by the collision rate of SA molecules. Even tho...

  13. Sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal under high pressure by using a continuous free fall pyrolyzer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.-C. Xu; M. Kumagai

    2003-02-01

    The behavior of sulfur transformation during rapid hydropyrolysis of coal was investigated using a pressurized, continuous free fall pyrolyzer under the conditions of temperature ranging from 923 to 1123 K and hydrogen pressure up to 5 MPa. The yields of sulfur converted to gas, tar and char were determined, together with the analyses of sulfur form distributions in coals and chars. The results showed that the decomposition of inorganic sulfur species was affected only by the temperature, while the increases in temperature and hydrogen pressure obviously enhanced the removal of organic sulfur from coal. The extent of organic sulfur removal was proportional to the coal conversion, depending on coal type. A significant retention of gaseous sulfur products by the organic matrix of the char was observed during hydropyrolysis of a Chinese coal above 1023 K, even under the pressurized hydrogen atmosphere. The kinetic analysis indicates that the rate of organic sulfur removal from coal was 0.2th-order with respect to the hydrogen pressure, and the activation energy for total sulfur removal and organic sulfur removal is 17 26 and 13 55 kJ/mol, respectively. The low activation energies suggest that the transformation and removal of sulfur from coal might be controlled by the diffusion and/or thermodynamic equilibrium during hydropyrolysis under the pressurized conditions. 29 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. [Associations of occupational safety atmosphere and behaviors with unintentional injuries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ya-ni; Huang, Zhi-xiong; Huang, Shao-bin; Cao, Xiao-ou; Chen, Xia-ming; Liu, Xu-hua; Chen, Wei-qing

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the associations of perception of safety atmosphere at workplace, occupational safety attitude and behaviors with occupational unintentional injury among manufacturing workers. A cross-sectional study was performed and a self-administered questionnaire was used to inquire socio-demographic characteristics, perceived safety atmosphere, occupational safety attitudes, occupational safety behaviors and occupational unintentional injuries among 10585 manufacturing workers selected from 46 enterprises in Guangdong. Structural equation modeling was applied to assess the relationship of the perception of safety atmosphere at workplace, occupational safety attitude, and occupational safety behaviors with occupational unintentional injury. Among 24 pathways supposed in structural equation model, 20 pathways (except for the attitude toward occupational safety, the attitude toward managers' support, the work posture and individual protection) were significantly related to the occupational unintentional injuries. The further analysis indicated that the perceived safety atmosphere might impact the occupational unintentional injuries by the attitude toward occupational safety and occupational safety behaviors. Workers' perception of safety atmosphere indirectly influenced on occupational unintentional injuries through occupational safety attitudes and occupational safety behaviors.

  15. Sulfur isotopes in coal constrain the evolution of the Phanerozoic sulfur cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Canfield, Donald Eugene

    2013-01-01

    Sulfate is the second most abundant anion (behind chloride) in modern seawater, and its cycling is intimately coupled to the cycling of organic matter and oxygen at the Earth’s surface. For example, the reduction of sulfide by microbes oxidizes vast amounts of organic carbon and the subsequent......, these compositions do not deviate substantially from the modern surface-water input to the oceans. When applied to mass balance models, these results support previous interpretations of sulfur cycle operation and counter recent suggestions that sulfate has been a minor player in sulfur cycling through...... reaction of sulfide with iron produces pyrite whose burial in sediments is an important oxygen source to the atmosphere. The concentrations of seawater sulfate and the operation of sulfur cycle have experienced dynamic changes through Earth’s history, and our understanding of this history is based mainly...

  16. Sulfur poisoning of Ni/Gadolinium-doped ceria anodes: A long-term study outlining stable solid oxide fuel cell operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riegraf, Matthias; Zekri, Atef; Knipper, Martin; Costa, Rémi; Schiller, Günter; Friedrich, K. Andreas

    2018-03-01

    This work presents an analysis of the long-term behavior of nickel/gadolinium-doped ceria (CGO) anode-based solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) under sulfur poisoning conditions. A parameter study of sulfur-induced irreversible long-term degradation of commercial, high-performance single cells was carried out at 900 °C for different H2/N2/H2S fuel gas atmospheres, current densities and Ni/CGO anodes. The poisoning periods of the cells varied from 200 to 1500 h. The possibility of stable long-term Ni/CGO anode operation under sulfur exposure is established and the critical operating regime is outlined. Depending on the operating conditions, two degradation phenomena can be observed. Small degradation of the ohmic resistance was witnessed for sulfur exposure times of approximately 1000 h. Moreover, degradation of the anode charge transfer resistance was observed to be triggered by the combination of a small anodic potential step and high sulfur coverage on Ni. The microstructural evolution of altered Ni/CGO anodes was examined post-mortem by means of SEM and FIB/SEM, and is correlated to the anode performance degradation under critical operating conditions, establishing Ni depletion, porosity increase and a tripe phase boundary density decrease in the anode functional layer. It is shown that short-term sulfur poisoning behavior can be used to assess long-term stability.

  17. Decreased atmospheric sulfur deposition across the southeastern U.S.: When will watersheds release stored sulfate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Karen C.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Lynch, Jason A.; Cosby, Bernard J.

    2014-01-01

    Emissions of sulfur dioxide (SO2) to the atmosphere lead to atmospheric deposition of sulfate (SO42-), which is the dominant strong acid anion causing acidification of surface waters and soils in the eastern United States (U.S.). Since passage of the Clean Air Act and its Amendments, atmospheric deposition of SO2 in this region has declined by over 80%, but few corresponding decreases in stream-water SO42- concentrations have been observed in unglaciated watersheds. We calculated SO42- mass balances for 27 forested, unglaciated watersheds from Pennsylvania to Georgia, by using total atmospheric deposition (wet plus dry) as input. Many of these watersheds still retain SO42-, unlike their counterparts in the northeastern U.S. and southern Canada. Our analysis showed that many of these watersheds should convert from retaining to releasing SO42- over the next two decades. The specific years when the watersheds crossover from retaining to releasing SO42- correspond to a general geographical pattern of later net watershed release from north to south. The single most important variable that explained the crossover year was the runoff ratio, defined as the ratio of annual mean stream discharge to precipitation. Percent clay content and mean soil depth were secondary factors in predicting crossover year. The conversion of watersheds from net SO42- retention to release anticipates more widespread reductions in stream-water SO42- concentrations in this region.

  18. Selective adsorption of refractory sulfur species on active carbons and carbon based CoMo catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Hamdy

    2007-03-01

    Adsorption technique could be a reliable alternative in removing to a certain remarkable extent the sulfur species from the feedstock of petroleum oil. The performance of various carbons on adsorption of model sulfur compounds in a simulated feed solution and the sulfur containing compounds in the real gas oil was evaluated. The adsorption experiments have been carried out in a batch scale at ambient temperature and under the atmospheric pressure. In general, the most refractory sulfur compounds in the hydrotreatment reactions were selectively removed and adsorbed. It was found that the adsorbents affinities to dibenzothiophene and 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene were much more favored and pronounced than the aromatic matrices like fluorene, 1-methylnaphthalene and 9-methylanthracene. Among the sulfur species, 4,6-dimethyldibenzothiophene was the highest to be removed in terms of both selectivity and capacity over all the present adsorbents. The studied adsorbents showed significant capacities for the polyaromatic thiophenes. The electronic characteristics seem to play a certain role in such behavior. Regeneration of the used adsorbent was successfully attained either by washing it with toluene or by the release of the adsorbates through heat treatment. A suggested adsorptive removal process of sulfur compounds from petroleum distillate over carbon supported CoMo catalyst was discussed.

  19. Sulfur problems in Swedish agriculture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johansson, O

    1959-01-01

    The present paper deals with some aspects of the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture with special emphasis on the importance of and relationships among various sources of sulfur supply. An inventory of the sulfur content of Swedish soils and hay crops includes 649 soil samples and a corresponding number of hay samples from 59 locations. In a special investigation the samples were found to be representative of normal Swedish farm land. It is concluded that the amount of sulfur compounds in the air is the primary factor which determines the amount of sulfur added to the soil from the atmosphere. Compared with values obtained in other countries, the amount of sulfur added by the precipitation in Sweden is very low. The distribution in air and precipitation of sulfur from an industrial source was studied in a special investigation. An initial reason for the present study was the damage to vegetation caused by smoke from an industrial source. It was concluded that the average conditions in the vicinity of the industrial source with respect to smoke constituents in the air and precipitation were unfavorable only to the plants directly within a very narrow region. Relationships among the sulfur contents of air, of precipitation, of soils and of plants have been subject to special investigations. In the final general discussion and conclusions it is pointed out that the results from these investigations indicate evident differences in the sulfur status of Swedish soils. The present trend toward the use of more highly concentrated fertilizers poor in sulfur may be expected to cause a considerable change in the sulfur situation in Swedish agriculture. 167 references, 40 figures, 44 tables.

  20. Using Biogenic Sulfur Gases as Remotely Detectable Biosignatures on Anoxic Planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meadows, Victoria S.; Claire, Mark W.; Kasting, James F.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We used one-dimensional photochemical and radiative transfer models to study the potential of organic sulfur compounds (CS2, OCS, CH3SH, CH3SCH3, and CH3S2CH3) to act as remotely detectable biosignatures in anoxic exoplanetary atmospheres. Concentrations of organic sulfur gases were predicted for various biogenic sulfur fluxes into anoxic atmospheres and were found to increase with decreasing UV fluxes. Dimethyl sulfide (CH3SCH3, or DMS) and dimethyl disulfide (CH3S2CH3, or DMDS) concentrations could increase to remotely detectable levels, but only in cases of extremely low UV fluxes, which may occur in the habitable zone of an inactive M dwarf. The most detectable feature of organic sulfur gases is an indirect one that results from an increase in ethane (C2H6) over that which would be predicted based on the planet's methane (CH4) concentration. Thus, a characterization mission could detect these organic sulfur gases—and therefore the life that produces them—if it could sufficiently quantify the ethane and methane in the exoplanet's atmosphere. Key Words: Exoplanets—Biosignatures—Anoxic atmospheres—Planetary atmospheres—Remote life detection—Photochemistry. Astrobiology 11, 419–441. PMID:21663401

  1. Sulfur isotope homogeneity of oceanic DMSP and DMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrani, Alon; Said-Ahmad, Ward; Shaked, Yeala; Kiene, Ronald P

    2013-11-12

    Oceanic emissions of volatile dimethyl sulfide (DMS) represent the largest natural source of biogenic sulfur to the global atmosphere, where it mediates aerosol dynamics. To constrain the contribution of oceanic DMS to aerosols we established the sulfur isotope ratios ((34)S/(32)S ratio, δ(34)S) of DMS and its precursor, dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP), in a range of marine environments. In view of the low oceanic concentrations of DMS/P, we applied a unique method for the analysis of δ(34)S at the picomole level in individual compounds. Surface water DMSP collected from six different ocean provinces revealed a remarkable consistency in δ(34)S values ranging between +18.9 and +20.3‰. Sulfur isotope composition of DMS analyzed in freshly collected seawater was similar to δ(34)S of DMSP, showing that the in situ fractionation between these species is small (DMS to the atmosphere results in a relatively small fractionation (-0.5 ± 0.2‰) compared with the seawater DMS pool. Because δ(34)S values of oceanic DMS closely reflect that of DMSP, we conclude that the homogenous δ(34)S of DMSP at the ocean surface represents the δ(34)S of DMS emitted to the atmosphere, within +1‰. The δ(34)S of oceanic DMS flux to the atmosphere is thus relatively constant and distinct from anthropogenic sources of atmospheric sulfate, thereby enabling estimation of the DMS contribution to aerosols.

  2. Oxidation of SO2 by stabilized Criegee intermediate (sCI radicals as a crucial source for atmospheric sulfuric acid concentrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boy

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The effect of increased reaction rates of stabilized Criegee intermediates (sCIs with SO2 to produce sulfuric acid is investigated using data from two different locations, SMEAR II, Hyytiälä, Finland, and Hohenpeissenberg, Germany. Results from MALTE, a zero-dimensional model, show that using previous values for the rate coefficients of sCI + SO2, the model underestimates gas phase H2SO4 by up to a factor of two when compared to measurements. Using the rate coefficients recently calculated by Mauldin et al. (2012 increases sulfuric acid by 30–40%. Increasing the rate coefficient for formaldehyde oxide (CH2OO with SO2 according to the values recommended by Welz et al. (2012 increases the H2SO4 yield by 3–6%. Taken together, these increases lead to the conclusion that, depending on their concentrations, the reaction of stabilized Criegee intermediates with SO2 could contribute as much as 33–46% to atmospheric sulfuric acid gas phase concentrations at ground level. Using the SMEAR II data, results from SOSA, a one-dimensional model, show that the contribution from sCI reactions to sulfuric acid production is most important in the canopy, where the concentrations of organic compounds are the highest, but can have significant effects on sulfuric acid concentrations up to 100 m. The recent findings that the reaction of sCI + SO2 is much faster than previously thought together with these results show that the inclusion of this new oxidation mechanism could be crucial in regional as well as global models.

  3. Normal-phase liquid chromatography retention behavior of polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles and alkyl-substituted polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycle isomers on an aminopropyl stationary phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Walter B; Hayes, Hugh V; Sander, Lane C; Campiglia, Andres D; Wise, Stephen A

    2018-02-01

    Retention indices for 67 polycyclic aromatic sulfur heterocycles (PASHs) and 80 alkyl-substituted PASHs were determined using normal-phase liquid chromatography (NPLC) on an aminopropyl (NH 2 ) stationary phase. The retention behavior of PASH on the NH 2 phase is correlated with the number of aromatic carbon atoms and two structural characteristics have a significant influence on their retention: non-planarity (thickness, T) and the position of the sulfur atom in the bay-region of the structure. Correlations between solute retention on the NH 2 phase and T of PASHs were investigated for three cata-condensed (cata-) PASH isomer groups: (a) 13 four-ring molecular mass (MM) 234 Da cata-PASHs, (b) 20 five-ring MM 284 Da cata-PASHs, and (c) 12 six-ring MM 334 Da cata-PASHs. Correlation coefficients ranged from r = -0.49 (MM 234 Da) to r = -0.65 (MM 334 Da), which were significantly lower than structurally similar PAH isomer groups (r = -0.70 to r = -0.99). The NPLC retention behavior of the PASHs are compared to similar results for PAHs.

  4. Large sulfur isotope fractionations in Martian sediments at Gale crater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; McAdam, A. C.; Ming, D. W.; Freissinet, C.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Eldridge, D. L.; Fischer, W. W.; Grotzinger, J. P.; House, C. H.; Hurowitz, J. A.; McLennan, S. M.; Schwenzer, S. P.; Vaniman, D. T.; Archer, P. D., Jr.; Atreya, S. K.; Conrad, P. G.; Dottin, J. W., III; Eigenbrode, J. L.; Farley, K. A.; Glavin, D. P.; Johnson, S. S.; Knudson, C. A.; Morris, R. V.; Navarro-González, R.; Pavlov, A. A.; Plummer, R.; Rampe, E. B.; Stern, J. C.; Steele, A.; Summons, R. E.; Sutter, B.

    2017-09-01

    Variability in the sulfur isotopic composition in sediments can reflect atmospheric, geologic and biological processes. Evidence for ancient fluvio-lacustrine environments at Gale crater on Mars and a lack of efficient crustal recycling mechanisms on the planet suggests a surface environment that was once warm enough to allow the presence of liquid water, at least for discrete periods of time, and implies a greenhouse effect that may have been influenced by sulfur-bearing volcanic gases. Here we report in situ analyses of the sulfur isotopic compositions of SO2 volatilized from ten sediment samples acquired by NASA’s Curiosity rover along a 13 km traverse of Gale crater. We find large variations in sulfur isotopic composition that exceed those measured for Martian meteorites and show both depletion and enrichment in 34S. Measured values of δ34S range from -47 +/- 14‰ to 28 +/- 7‰, similar to the range typical of terrestrial environments. Although limited geochronological constraints on the stratigraphy traversed by Curiosity are available, we propose that the observed sulfur isotopic signatures at Gale crater can be explained by equilibrium fractionation between sulfate and sulfide in an impact-driven hydrothermal system and atmospheric processing of sulfur-bearing gases during transient warm periods.

  5. Results of determinations of the sulfur-dioxide content of the atmospheric air with a portable measurement kit based on the pararosaniline method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampadius, F

    1963-01-01

    Among the toxides emitted by industry, home heating, and transportation and which are polluting the atmospheric air, sulfur dioxide occupies the forefront of our interest in any examination of smoke damage to agricultural and forest growth. This primary position is based on the high degree of the sensitivity of plants to sulfur dioxide. The SO/sub 2/ toxicity threshold, for example, for spruce trees is between 0.4 and 0.5 mg/m/sup 3/. In contrast, an irritant concentration threshold for the nervous system of man has been set at 0.6 mg SO/sub 2//m/sup 3/. Studies have demonstrated that the SO/sub 2/ damage to plants - aside from the plant's stage of development - can be attributed to the product of the concentration and the duration of the toxide's action. The air-analytical proof of the sulfur dioxide as the cause for plant smoke damage must extend then to the selective recording of the SO/sub 2/ admixture in the atmospheric air, to the determination of the SO/sub 2/ level of the air in mg/m/sup 3/ within a longer period of time, and finally through short-term measurements to the discovery of when and how long peak concentrations of phytoxic SO/sub 2/ occur. In keeping with this goal, an SO/sub 2/ device was developed and used to conduct, on several occasions in the course of 1962, air examinations in individual smoke-damaged areas of the German Democratic Republic. The results of these air measurements are treated in this paper. 7 figures, 2 tables.

  6. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  7. Effects of Sulfurization Temperature on Properties of CZTS Films by Vacuum Evaporation and Sulfurization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper zinc tin sulfur (CZTS thin films have been extensively studied in recent years for their advantages of low cost, high absorption coefficient (≥104 cm−1, appropriate band gap (~1.5 eV, and nontoxicity. CZTS thin films are promising materials of solar cells like copper indium gallium selenide (CIGS. In this work, CZTS thin films were prepared on glass substrates by vacuum evaporation and sulfurization method. Sn/Cu/ZnS (CZT precursors were deposited by thermal evaporation and then sulfurized in N2 + H2S atmosphere at temperatures of 360–560°C to produce polycrystalline CZTS thin films. It is found that there are some impurity phases in the thin films with the sulfurization temperature less than 500°C, and the crystallite size of CZTS is quite small. With the further increase of the sulfurization temperature, the obtained thin films exhibit preferred (112 orientation with larger crystallite size and higher density. When the sulfurization temperature is 500°C, the band gap energy, resistivity, carrier concentration, and mobility of the CZTS thin films are 1.49 eV, 9.37 Ω · cm, 1.714×1017 cm−3, and 3.89 cm2/(V · s, respectively. Therefore, the prepared CZTS thin films are suitable for absorbers of solar cells.

  8. Influence of sulfurous oxide on plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schroeder, J

    1872-01-01

    It has been determined that of the trees living in an atmosphere containing sulfurous oxide, the conifers suffer more injuries than ordinary foliaged trees. Experiments were conducted to find the causes of injuries and their relation in these two kinds of plants. Pine and alder were chosen as test plants. It was found that 1000 square centimeters of pine leaves had absorbed 1.6 c.c. of sulfurous oxide and the same surface area of alder leaves had accumulated 7.9 c.c. of sulfurous oxide. Experiments were also conducted to determine the effects of sulfurous oxide on transpiration in plants. Two similar twigs of a sycamore were arranged so that the water transpired could be weighed. Results indicate that the ratio between the total amount of water transpired by the leaves not acted on by the sulfurous oxide and those under its influence was 3.8:1. The author concludes that the amount of sulfurous oxide absorbed by pine leaves is smaller than that absorbed by trees with ordinary foliage for equal surfaces. Since its effect on transpiration is less in the case of pine, the cause of the greater injury to pine trees in nature must be due to the accumulation of sulfur. In trees annual leaves the damage to one year's foliage would have only an indirect influence on that of the following year.

  9. Atmosphere-Ocean Coupling through Trace Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tegtmeier, S.; Atlas, E. L.; Krüger, K.; Lennartz, S. T.; Marandino, C. A.; Patra, P. K.; Quack, B.; Schlundt, C.

    2017-12-01

    Halogen- and sulfur-containing trace gases, as well as other volatile organic compounds (VOCs, such as isoprene) from biogeochemical marine sources are important constituents of the ocean and the atmosphere. These compounds exert wide-ranging influence on atmospheric chemical processes and climate interactions, as well as on human health in coastal regions. In their reactive form, they can affect the oxidizing capacity of the air and lead to the formation of new particles or the growth of existing ones. In this contribution, marine derived halogen-, sulfur-, and oxygen-containing compounds will be discussed. Their net flux into the atmosphere and their impact on atmospheric processes is analyzed based on observations and model simulations.

  10. Induction of ovoviviparity in Rhabditis by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, J T; Tsui, R K

    1968-01-01

    While investigating the influence of atmospheric pollutants on soil and plant microbiotas, ovoviviparity was observed in the saprophagous nematode, Rhabditis sp., after exposure to various concentrations of sulfur dioxide.

  11. Sulfur Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, B. H.

    2007-12-01

    Variations in surface tension affect the buoyancy of objects floating in a liquid. Thus an object floating in water will sink deeper in the presence of dishwater fluid. This is a very minor but measurable effect. It causes for instance ducks to drown in aqueous solutions with added surfactant. The surface tension of liquid iron is very strongly affected by the presence of sulfur which acts as a surfactant in this system varying between 1.9 and 0.4 N/m at 10 mass percent Sulfur (Lee & Morita (2002), This last value is inferred to be the maximum value for Sulfur inferred to be present in the liquid outer core. Venting of Sulfur from the liquid core manifests itself on the Earth surface by the 105 to 106 ton of sulfur vented into the atmosphere annually (Wedepohl, 1984). Inspection of surface Sulfur emission indicates that venting is non-homogeneously distributed over the Earth's surface. The implication of such large variation in surface tension in the liquid outer core are that at locally low Sulfur concentration, the liquid outer core does not wet the predominantly MgSiO3 matrix with which it is in contact. However at a local high in Sulfur, the liquid outer core wets this matrix which in the fluid state has a surface tension of 0.4 N/m (Bansal & Doremus, 1986), couples with it, and causes it to sink. This differential and diapiric movement is transmitted through the essentially brittle mantle (1024 Pa.s, Lambeck & Johnson, 1998; the maximum value for ice being about 1030 Pa.s at 0 K, in all likely hood representing an upper bound of viscosity for all materials) and manifests itself on the surface by the roughly 20 km differentiation, about 0.1 % of the total mantle thickness, between topographical heights and lows with concomitant lateral movement in the crust and upper mantle resulting in thin skin tectonics. The brittle nature of the medium though which this movement is transmitted suggests that the extremes in topography of the D" layer are similar in range to

  12. Impact of atmospheric H2S, salinity and anoxia on sulfur metabolism in Zea mays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ausma, Ties; Parmar, S.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.; De Kok, L.J.; Hawkesford, M.J.; Haneklaus, S.H.; Schnug, E.

    2017-01-01

    Plants in coastal salt marshes have to deal with salinity, anoxia and excessive reduced sulfur at the same time. Sulfur metabolism is presumed to have significance in plant stress-tolerance. In order to obtain more insight into the physiological significance of sulfur metabolism in plant responses

  13. Photochemical Formation of Aerosol in Planetary Atmospheres: Photon and Water Mediated Chemistry of SO_2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, Jay A.; Donaldson, D. J.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-06-01

    Sulfur compounds have been observed in a number of planetary atmospheres throughout our solar system. Our current understanding of sulfur chemistry explains much of what we observe in Earth's atmosphere. However, several discrepancies between modeling and observations of the Venusian atmosphere show there are still problems in our fundamental understanding of sulfur chemistry. This is of particular concern due to the important role sulfur compounds play in the formation of aerosols, which have a direct impact on planetary climates, including Earth's. We investigate the role of water complexes in the hydration of sulfur oxides and dehydration of sulfur acids and will present spectroscopic studies to document such effects. I will present recent work investigating mixtures of SO_2 and water that generate large quantities of aerosol when irradiated with solar UV light, even in the absence of traditional OH chemistry. I will discuss a proposed mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid (H_2SO_3) and present recent experimental work that supports this proposed mechanism. Additionally, the implications that photon-induced hydration of SO_2 has for aerosol formation in the atmosphere of earth as well as other planetary atmospheres will be discussed.

  14. Efficiency of the sulfur-iodine thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production based on ADS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, D.; Garcia, L.; Garcia, C.; Garcia, L.; Brayner, C.

    2013-01-01

    The current hydrogel production is based on fossil fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere's pollution. thermochemical water splitting cycles don't present this issue because the required process heat is obtained from nuclear energy and therefore, the environmental impact is smaller than using conventional fuels. One of the promising approaches to produce large quantities of hydrogen in an efficient way using nuclear energy is the sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle. The nuclear source proposed in this paper is a pebble bed gas cooled transmutation facility. Pebble bed very high temperature advanced systems have great perspectives to assume the future nuclear energy. Software based on Chemical Process Simulation (CPS) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting sulfur-iodine cycle for hydrogen production. In this paper, a model for analyzing the sulfur-iodine process sensibility is developed. Efficiency is also calculated and the influence of different parameters on this value. The behavior of the proposed model before different values of initial reactant's flow is analyzed. (Author)

  15. In situ tribochemical sulfurization of molybdenum oxide nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Ripoll, Manel; Tomala, Agnieszka; Gabler, Christoph; DraŽić, Goran; Pirker, Luka; Remškar, Maja

    2018-02-15

    MoS 2 nanoparticles are typically obtained by high temperature sulfurization of organic and inorganic precursors under a S rich atmosphere and have excellent friction reduction properties. We present a novel approach for making the sulfurization unnecessary for MoO 3 nanotubes during the synthesis process for friction and wear reduction applications while simultaneously achieving a superb tribological performance. To this end, we report the first in situ sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes during sliding contact in the presence of sulfur-containing lubricant additives. The sulfurization leads to the tribo-chemical formation of a MoS 2 -rich low-friction tribofilm as verified using Raman spectroscopy and can be achieved both during sliding contact and under extreme pressure conditions. Under sliding contact conditions, MoO 3 nanotubes in synergy with sulfurized olefin polysulfide and pre-formed zinc dialkyl dithiophosphate tribofilms achieve an excellent friction performance. Under these conditions, the tribochemical sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes leads to a similar coefficient of friction to the one obtained using a model nanolubricant containing MoS 2 nanotubes. Under extreme pressure conditions, the in situ sulfurization of MoO 3 nanotubes using sulfurized olefin polysulfide results in a superb load carrying capacity capable of outperforming MoS 2 nanotubes. The reason is that while MoO 3 nanotubes are able to continuously sulfurize during sliding contact conditions, MoS 2 nanotubes progressively degrade by oxidation thus losing lubricity.

  16. Implementation of an atmospheric sulfur scheme in the HIRLAM regional weather forecast model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekman, Annica

    2000-02-01

    Sulfur chemistry has been implemented into the regional weather forecast model HIRLAM in order to simulate sulfur fields during specific weather situations. The model calculates concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air (SO 2 (a)), sulfate in air (SO 4 (a)), sulfate in cloud water (SO 4 (aq)) and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ). Modeled concentrations of SO 2 (a), SO 4 (a) and SO 4 (aq) in rain water are compared with observations for two weather situations, one winter case with an extensive stratiform cloud cover and one summer case with mostly convective clouds. A comparison of the weather forecast parameters precipitation, relative humidity, geopotential and temperature with observations is also performed. The results show that the model generally overpredicts the SO 2 (a) concentration and underpredicts the SO 4 (a) concentration. The agreement between modeled and observed SO 4 (aq) in rain water is poor. Calculated turnover times are approximately 1 day for SO 2 (a) and 2-2.5 days for SO 4 (a). For SO 2 (a) this is in accordance with earlier simulated global turnover times, but for SO 4 (a) it is substantially lower. Several sensitivity simulations show that the fractional mean bias and root mean square error decreases, mainly for SO 4 (a) and SO 4 (aq), if an additional oxidant for converting SO 2 (a) to SO 4 (a) is included in the model. All weather forecast parameters, except precipitation, agree better with observations than the sulfur variables do. Wet scavenging is responsible for about half of the deposited sulfur and in addition, a major part of the sulfate production occurs through in-cloud oxidation. Hence, the distribution of clouds and precipitation must be better simulated by the weather forecast model in order to improve the agreement between observed and simulated sulfur concentrations

  17. The role of crystallization-driven exsolution on the sulfur mass balance in volcanic arc magmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yanqing; Huber, Christian; Bachmann, Olivier; Zajacz, Zoltán; Wright, Heather M.; Vazquez, Jorge A.

    2016-01-01

    The release of large amounts of sulfur to the stratosphere during explosive eruptions affects the radiative balance in the atmosphere and consequentially impacts climate for up to several years after the event. Quantitative estimations of the processes that control the mass balance of sulfur between melt, crystals, and vapor bubbles is needed to better understand the potential sulfur yield of individual eruption events and the conditions that favor large sulfur outputs to the atmosphere. The processes that control sulfur partitioning in magmas are (1) exsolution of volatiles (dominantly H2O) during decompression (first boiling) and during isobaric crystallization (second boiling), (2) the crystallization and breakdown of sulfide or sulfate phases in the magma, and (3) the transport of sulfur-rich vapor (gas influx) from deeper unerupted regions of the magma reservoir. Vapor exsolution and the formation/breakdown of sulfur-rich phases can all be considered as closed-system processes where mass balance arguments are generally easier to constrain, whereas the contribution of sulfur by vapor transport (open system process) is more difficult to quantify. The ubiquitous “excess sulfur” problem, which refers to the much higher sulfur mass released during eruptions than what can be accounted for by amount of sulfur originally dissolved in erupted melt, as estimated from melt inclusion sulfur concentrations (the “petrologic estimate”), reflects the challenges in closing the sulfur mass balance between crystals, melt, and vapor before and during a volcanic eruption. In this work, we try to quantify the relative importance of closed- and open-system processes for silicic arc volcanoes using kinetic models of sulfur partitioning during exsolution. Our calculations show that crystallization-induced exsolution (second boiling) can generate a significant fraction of the excess sulfur observed in crystal-rich arc magmas. This result does not negate the important role of

  18. Effect of dimethylamine on the gas phase sulfuric acid concentration measured by Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    CERN Document Server

    Rondo, L.; Kürten, A.; Adamov, A.; Bianchi, F.; Breitenlechner, M.; Duplissy, J.; Franchin, A.; Dommen, J.; Donahue, N. M.; Dunne, E. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Hakala, J.; Hansel, A.; Keskinen, H.; Kim, J.; Jokinen, T.; Lehtipalo, K.; Leiminger, M.; Praplan, A.; Riccobono, F.; Rissanen, M. P.; Sarnela, N.; Schobesberger, S.; Simon, M.; Sipilä, M.; Smith, J. N.; Tomé, A.; Tröstl, J.; Tsagkogeorgas, G.; Vaattovaara, P.; Winkler, P. M.; Williamson, C.; Wimmer, D.; Baltensperger, U.; Kirkby, J.; Kulmala, M.; Petäjä, T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Curtius, J.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is widely recognized as a very important substance driving atmospheric aerosolnucleation. Based on quantum chemical calculations it has been suggested that the quantitative detectionof gas phase sulfuric acid (H2SO4) by use of Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry (CIMS) could be biased inthe presence of gas phase amines such as dimethylamine (DMA). An experiment (CLOUD7 campaign) was setup at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets) chamber to investigate the quantitative detection ofH2SO4in the presence of dimethylamine by CIMS at atmospherically relevant concentrations. For the first time inthe CLOUD experiment, the monomer sulfuric acid concentration was measured by a CIMS and by two CI-APi-TOF(Chemical Ionization-Atmospheric Pressure interface-Time Of Flight) mass spectrometers. In addition, neutralsulfuric acid clusters were measured with the CI-APi-TOFs. The CLOUD7 measurements show that in the presenceof dimethylamine (<5 to 70 pptv) the sulfuric acid monomer measured by the CIMS...

  19. Washability and Distribution Behaviors of Trace Elements of a High-Sulfur Coal, SW Guizhou, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Cheng

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The float-sink test is a commonly used technology for the study of coal washability, which determines optimal separation density for coal washing based on the desired sulfur and ash yield of the cleaned coal. In this study, the float-sink test is adopted for a high-sulfur Late Permian coal from Hongfa coalmine (No.26, southwestern Guizhou, China, to investigate its washability, and to analyze the organic affinities and distribution behaviors of some toxic and valuable trace elements. Results show that the coal is difficult to separate in terms of desulfurization. A cleaned coal could theoretically be obtained with a yield of 75.50%, sulfur 2.50%, and ash yield 11.33% when the separation density is 1.57 g/cm3. Trace elements’ distribution behaviors during the gravity separation were evaluated by correlation analysis and calculation. It was found that Cs, Ga, Ta, Th, Rb, Sb, Nb, Hf, Ba, Pb, In, Cu, and Zr are of significant inorganic affinity; while Sn, Co, Re, U, Mo, V, Cr, Ni, and Be are of relatively strong organic affinity. LREE (Light rare earth elements, however, seem to have weaker organic affinity than HREE (Heavy rare earth elements, which can probably be attributed to lanthanide contraction. When the separation density is 1.60 g/cm3, a large proportion of Sn, Be, Cr, U, V, Mo, Ni, Cd, Pb, and Cu migrate to the cleaned coal, but most of Mn, Sb and Th stay in the gangue. Coal preparation provides alternativity for either toxic elements removal or valuable elements preconcentration in addition to desulfurization and deashing. The enrichment of trace elements in the cleaned coal depends on the predetermined separation density which will influence the yields and ash yields of the cleaned coal.

  20. Sulphur and nitrogen in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Legge, A.H.

    1990-01-01

    The author discusses sulfur and nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Both dry and wet deposition of these compounds are reported on. Characteristics of air pollutant exposure dynamics are described. Environmental responses to the deposition of sulfur and nitrogen compounds, as well as to other pollutants, are detailed

  1. Comparative analysis of the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by dsr operon to maintain environmental sulfur balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Semanti; Bagchi, Angshuman

    2015-12-01

    Sulfur metabolism is one of the oldest known redox geochemical cycles in our atmosphere. These redox processes utilize different sulfur anions and the reactions are performed by the gene products of dsr operon from phylogenetically diverse sets of microorganisms. The operon is involved in the maintenance of environmental sulfur balance. Interestingly, the dsr operon is found to be present in both sulfur anion oxidizing and reducing microorganisms and in both types of organisms DsrAB protein complex plays a vital role. Though there are various reports regarding the genetics of dsr operon there are practically no reports dealing with the structural aspects of sulfur metabolism by dsr operon. In our present study, we tried to compare the mechanisms of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by Allochromatium vinosum and Desulfovibrio vulgaris respectively through DsrAB protein complex. We analyzed the modes of bindings of sulfur anions to the DsrAB protein complex and observed that for sulfur anion oxidizers, sulfide and thiosulfate are the best substrates whereas for reducers sulfate and sulfite have the best binding abilities. We analyzed the binding interaction pattern of the DsrA and DsrB proteins while forming the DsrAB protein complexes in Desulfovibrio vulgaris and Allochromatium vinosum. To our knowledge this is the first report that analyzes the differences in binding patterns of sulfur substrates with DsrAB protein from these two microorganisms. This study would therefore be essential to predict the biochemical mechanism of sulfur anion oxidation and reduction by these two microorganisms i.e., Desulfovibrio vulgaris (sulfur anion reducer) and Allochromatium vinosum (sulfur anion oxidizer). Our observations also highlight the mechanism of sulfur geochemical cycle which has important implications in future study of sulfur metabolism as it has a huge application in waste remediation and production of industrial bio-products viz. vitamins, bio-polyesters and bio

  2. Simultaneous removal of nitrogen oxides and sulfur oxides from combustion gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clay, David T.; Lynn, Scott

    1976-10-19

    A process for the simultaneous removal of sulfur oxides and nitrogen oxides from power plant stack gases comprising contacting the stack gases with a supported iron oxide catalyst/absorbent in the presence of sufficient reducing agent selected from the group consisting of carbon monoxide, hydrogen, and mixtures thereof, to provide a net reducing atmosphere in the SO.sub.x /NO.sub.x removal zone. The sulfur oxides are removed by absorption substantially as iron sulfide, and nitrogen oxides are removed by catalytic reduction to nitrogen and ammonia. The spent iron oxide catalyst/absorbent is regenerated by oxidation and is recycled to the contacting zone. Sulfur dioxide is also produced during regeneration and can be utilized in the production of sulfuric acid and/or sulfur.

  3. Sulfur metabolism in phototrophic sulfur bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Dahl, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Phototrophic sulfur bacteria are characterized by oxidizing various inorganic sulfur compounds for use as electron donors in carbon dioxide fixation during anoxygenic photosynthetic growth. These bacteria are divided into the purple sulfur bacteria (PSB) and the green sulfur bacteria (GSB......). They utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, and thiosulfate and sometimes also ferrous iron and hydrogen as electron donors. This review focuses on the dissimilatory and assimilatory metabolism of inorganic sulfur compounds in these bacteria and also briefly discusses these metabolisms...... in other types of anoxygenic phototrophic bacteria. The biochemistry and genetics of sulfur compound oxidation in PSB and GSB are described in detail. A variety of enzymes catalyzing sulfur oxidation reactions have been isolated from GSB and PSB (especially Allochromatium vinosum, a representative...

  4. Atmospheric H2S and SO2 as sulfur sources for Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa: Regulation of sulfur uptake and assimilation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aghajanzadeh, T.; Hawkesford, M.J.; De Kok, L.J.

    2016-01-01

    Brassica juncea and Brassica rapa were able to utilize foliarly absorbed H2S and SO2 as sulfur source for growth and resulted in a decreased sink capacity of the shoot for sulfur supplied by the root and subsequently in a partial decrease in sulfate uptake capacity of the roots. Sulfate-deprived

  5. Banking behavior under uncertainty: Evidence from the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance trading program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousse, Olivier; Sevi, Benoit

    2006-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine portfolio management of emission allowances in the US Sulfur Dioxide Emissions Allowance Trading Program, to determine whether utilities have a real motive to bank when risk increases. We test a theoretical model linking the motivation of the firm to accumulate permits in order to prepare itself to face a risky situation in the future. Empirical estimation using data for years 2001 to 2004 provides evidence of a relationship between banking behavior and uncertainty the utility is facing with. (authors)

  6. Behavior of self-confined spherical layer of light radiation in the air atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Torchigin, V.P.; Torchigin, A.V.

    2004-01-01

    Behavior of thin spherical layer of intensive light in an inhomogeneous atmosphere is considered. It is shown that the behavior is similar to puzzling and mysterious behavior of ball lightnings. Under assumption that ball lightning moves along the gradient of atmosphere air density process of ball lightning penetration in a salon of a flying airplane is analyzed

  7. Implementation of an atmospheric sulfur scheme in the HIRLAM regional weather forecast model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ekman, Annica [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Dept. of Meteorology

    2000-02-01

    Sulfur chemistry has been implemented into the regional weather forecast model HIRLAM in order to simulate sulfur fields during specific weather situations. The model calculates concentrations of sulfur dioxide in air (SO{sub 2}(a)), sulfate in air (SO{sub 4}(a)), sulfate in cloud water (SO{sub 4}(aq)) and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). Modeled concentrations of SO{sub 2}(a), SO{sub 4}(a) and SO{sub 4}(aq) in rain water are compared with observations for two weather situations, one winter case with an extensive stratiform cloud cover and one summer case with mostly convective clouds. A comparison of the weather forecast parameters precipitation, relative humidity, geopotential and temperature with observations is also performed. The results show that the model generally overpredicts the SO{sub 2}(a) concentration and underpredicts the SO{sub 4}(a) concentration. The agreement between modeled and observed SO{sub 4}(aq) in rain water is poor. Calculated turnover times are approximately 1 day for SO{sub 2}(a) and 2-2.5 days for SO{sub 4}(a). For SO{sub 2}(a) this is in accordance with earlier simulated global turnover times, but for SO{sub 4}(a) it is substantially lower. Several sensitivity simulations show that the fractional mean bias and root mean square error decreases, mainly for SO{sub 4}(a) and SO{sub 4}(aq), if an additional oxidant for converting SO{sub 2}(a) to SO{sub 4}(a) is included in the model. All weather forecast parameters, except precipitation, agree better with observations than the sulfur variables do. Wet scavenging is responsible for about half of the deposited sulfur and in addition, a major part of the sulfate production occurs through in-cloud oxidation. Hence, the distribution of clouds and precipitation must be better simulated by the weather forecast model in order to improve the agreement between observed and simulated sulfur concentrations.

  8. Thermal Behavior and Heat Generation Modeling of Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2017-01-01

    Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence of the tempe......Lithium Sulfur batteries are receiving a lot of research interest because of their intrinsic characteristics, such as very high energy density and increased safety, which make them a suitable solution for zero-emission vehicles and space application. This paper analyses the influence...... of the temperature on the performance parameters of a 3.4 Ah Lithium-Sulfur battery cell. Furthermore, the values of the internal resistance and entropic heat coefficient, which are necessary for the parametrization of a heat generation model, are determined experimentally....

  9. Bidirectional Interaction of Alanine with Sulfuric Acid in the Presence of Water and the Atmospheric Implication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yu; Ma, Yan; Chen, Jiao; Jiang, Shuai; Liu, Yi-Rong; Wen, Hui; Feng, Ya-Juan; Hong, Yu; Huang, Teng; Huang, Wei

    2016-04-21

    Amino acids are recognized as important components of atmospheric aerosols, which impact on the Earth's climate directly and indirectly. However, much remains unknown about the initial events of nucleation. In this work, the interaction of alanine [NH2CH(CH3)COOH or Ala], one of the most abundant amino acids in the atmosphere, with sulfuric acid (SA) and water (W) has been investigated at the M06-2X/6-311++G(3df, 3pd) level of theory. We have studied thermodynamics of the hydrated (Ala)(SA) core system with up to four water molecules. We found that Ala, with one amino group and one carboxyl group, can interact with H2SO4 and H2O in two directions and that it has a high cluster stabilizing effect similar to that of ammonia, which is one of the key nucleation precursor. The corresponding Gibbs free energies of the (Ala)(SA)(W)n (n = 0-4) clusters formation at 298.15 K predicted that Ala can contribute to the stabilization of small binary clusters. Our results showed that the hydrate distribution is temperature-dependent and that a higher humidity and temperature can contribute to the formation of hydrated clusters.

  10. Sulfur dioxide initiates global climate change in four ways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, Peter L.

    2009-01-01

    Global climate change, prior to the 20th century, appears to have been initiated primarily by major changes in volcanic activity. Sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) is the most voluminous chemically active gas emitted by volcanoes and is readily oxidized to sulfuric acid normally within weeks. But trace amounts of SO 2 exert significant influence on climate. All major historic volcanic eruptions have formed sulfuric acid aerosols in the lower stratosphere that cooled the earth's surface ∼ 0.5 o C for typically three years. While such events are currently happening once every 80 years, there are times in geologic history when they occurred every few to a dozen years. These were times when the earth was cooled incrementally into major ice ages. There have also been two dozen times during the past 46,000 years when major volcanic eruptions occurred every year or two or even several times per year for decades. Each of these times was contemporaneous with very rapid global warming. Large volumes of SO 2 erupted frequently appear to overdrive the oxidizing capacity of the atmosphere resulting in very rapid warming. Such warming and associated acid rain becomes extreme when millions of cubic kilometers of basalt are erupted in much less than one million years. These are the times of the greatest mass extinctions. When major volcanic eruptions do not occur for decades to hundreds of years, the atmosphere can oxidize all pollutants, leading to a very thin atmosphere, global cooling and decadal drought. Prior to the 20th century, increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) followed increases in temperature initiated by changes in SO 2 . By 1962, man burning fossil fuels was adding SO 2 to the atmosphere at a rate equivalent to one 'large' volcanic eruption each 1.7 years. Global temperatures increased slowly from 1890 to 1950 as anthropogenic sulfur increased slowly. Global temperatures increased more rapidly after 1950 as the rate of anthropogenic sulfur emissions increased. By

  11. A primer on sulfur for the planetary geologist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theilig, E.

    1982-01-01

    Sulfur has been proposed as the dominant composition for the volcanic material on Io. Sulfur is a complex element which forms many intramolecular and intermolecular allotropes exhibiting a variety of physical properties. Cyclo-S8 sulfur is the most abundant and stable molecular form. The important molecular species within liquid sulfur change in concentration with temperature. Concentrations of the allotropes control the physical properties of the melt. Discontinuities in density, viscosity, and thermal properties reflect the polymerization process within liquid sulfur. Variations in the melting point are related to autodissociation of the liquid. Many solids forms of sulfur have been identified but only orthorhombic alpha and monoclinic beta sulfur, both composed of cyclo-S8 sulfur, are stable under terrestrial conditions. Physical properties of solid sulfur are dependent on the allotrope and, in some cases, the thermal history. Three natural terrestrial sulfur flows are described: (1) Siretoko-Iosan, Japan; (2) Volcan Azufre, Galapagos Islands; and (3) Mauna Loa, Hawaii. All of the flows are associated with fumarolic areas and are considered to have formed by the melting and mobilization of sulfur deposits. Surface textures of the flows indicate a behavior of molten sulfur similar to that of silicate lava. Channels, rivulets, and lobate edges were described for the flows. The solidification of man-made sulfur flows formed as part of the Frasch mining process by which sulfur is removed from the subsurface in a liquid state is described.

  12. submitter Unexpectedly acidic nanoparticles formed in dimethylamine–ammonia–sulfuric-acid nucleation experiments at CLOUD

    CERN Document Server

    Lawler, Michael J; Kim, Jaeseok; Ahlm, Lars; Tröstl, Jasmin; Praplan, Arnaud P; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Kürten, Andreas; Kirkby, Jasper; Bianchi, Federico; Duplissy, Jonathan; Hansel, Armin; Jokinen, Tuija; Keskinen, Helmi; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Leiminger, Markus; Petäjä, Tuukka; Rissanen, Matti; Rondo, Linda; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Williamson, Christina; Wimmer, Daniela; Riipinen, Ilona; Virtanen, Annele; Smith, James N

    2016-01-01

    New particle formation driven by acid–base chemistry was initiated in the CLOUD chamber at CERN by introducing atmospherically relevant levels of gas-phase sulfuric acid and dimethylamine (DMA). Ammonia was also present in the chamber as a gas-phase contaminant from earlier experiments. The composition of particles with volume median diameters (VMDs) as small as 10 nm was measured by the Thermal Desorption Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer (TDCIMS). Particulate ammonium-to-dimethylaminium ratios were higher than the gas-phase ammonia-to-DMA ratios, suggesting preferential uptake of ammonia over DMA for the collected 10–30 nm VMD particles. This behavior is not consistent with present nanoparticle physicochemical models, which predict a higher dimethylaminium fraction when NH3 and DMA are present at similar gas-phase concentrations. Despite the presence in the gas phase of at least 100 times higher base concentrations than sulfuric acid, the recently formed particles always had measured base : ...

  13. SULFUR ABUNDANCES IN THE ORION ASSOCIATION B STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daflon, Simone; Cunha, Katia; De la Reza, Ramiro; Holtzman, Jon; Chiappini, Cristina

    2009-01-01

    Sulfur abundances are derived for a sample of 10 B main-sequence star members of the Orion association. The analysis is based on LTE plane-parallel model atmospheres and non-LTE line formation theory by means of a self-consistent spectrum synthesis analysis of lines from two ionization states of sulfur, S II and S III. The observations are high-resolution spectra obtained with the ARCES spectrograph at the Apache Point Observatory. The abundance distribution obtained for the Orion targets is homogeneous within the expected errors in the analysis: A(S) = 7.15 ± 0.05. This average abundance result is in agreement with the recommended solar value (both from modeling of the photospheres in one-dimensional and three-dimensional, and meteorites) and indicates that little, if any, chemical evolution of sulfur has taken place in the last ∼4.5 billion years. The sulfur abundances of the young stars in Orion are found to agree well with results for the Orion Nebulae, and place strong constraints on the amount of sulfur depletion onto grains as being very modest or nonexistent. The sulfur abundances for Orion are consistent with other measurements at a similar galactocentric radius: combined with previous results for other OB-type stars produce a relatively shallow sulfur abundance gradient with a slope of -0.037 ± 0.012 dex kpc -1 .

  14. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Sulfur Oxides ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This draft document provides EPA’s evaluation and synthesis of the most policy-relevant science related to the health effects of sulfur oxides. When final, it will provide a critical part of the scientific foundation for EPA’s decision regarding the adequacy of the current primary (health-based) National Ambient Air Quality Standard (NAAQS) for sulfur dioxide. The references considered for inclusion in or cited in the external review draft ISA are available at https://hero.epa.gov/hero/sulfur-oxides. The intent of the ISA, according to the CAA, is to “accurately reflect the latest scientific knowledge expected from the presence of [a] pollutant in ambient air” (U.S. Code, 1970a, 1970b). It includes an assessment of scientific research from atmospheric sciences, exposure sciences, dosimetry, mode of action, animal and human toxicology, and epidemiology. Key information and judgments formerly found in the Air Quality Criteria Documents (AQCDs) for sulfur oxides (SOx) are included; Annexes provide additional details supporting the ISA. Together, the ISA and Annexes serve to update and revise the last SOx ISA which was published in 2008.

  15. Watershed-scale changes in terrestrial nitrogen cycling during a period of decreased atmospheric nitrate and sulfur deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabo, Robert D.; Scanga, Sara E.; Lawrence, Gregory B.; Nelson, David M.; Eshleman, Keith N.; Zabala, Gabriel A.; Alinea, Alexandria A.; Schirmer, Charles D.

    2016-01-01

    tree-ring δ15N values at these sites. Other factors, such as decreased sulfur deposition, disturbance, long-term successional trends, and/or increasing atmospheric CO2concentrations, may also influence trends in tree-ring δ15N values. Furthermore, declines in terrestrial N availability inferred from tree-ring δ15N values do not always correspond with decreased stream nitrate export or increased retention of atmospherically deposited N.

  16. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1997-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  17. Effect of aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions on near field plume aerosols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Miake-Lye, R C; Anderson, M R; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics

    1998-12-31

    Based on estimated exit plane sulfur speciation, a two dimensional, axisymmetric flow field model with coupled gas phase oxidation kinetics and aerosol nucleation and growth dynamics is used to evaluate the effect of fuel sulfur oxidation in the engine on the formation and growth of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols in the near field plume. The conversion of fuel sulfur to sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in the engine is predicted to significantly increase the number density and surface area density of volatile H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}/H{sub 2}O aerosols and the chemical activation of exhaust soot particulates. This analysis indicates the need for experimental measurements of exhaust SO{sub x} emissions to fully assess the atmospheric impact of aircraft emissions. (author) 18 refs.; Submitted to Geophysical Research Letters

  18. Oceanic emissions of sulfur: Application of new techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jodwalis, Clara Mary

    Sulfur gases and aerosols are important in the atmosphere because they play major roles in acid rain, arctic haze, air pollution, and climate. Globally, man-made and natural sulfur emissions are comparable in magnitude. The major natural source is dimethyl sulfide (DMS) from the oceans, where it originates from the degradation of dimethysulfonioproprionate (DMSP), a compound produced by marine phytoplankton. Global budgets of natural sulfur emissions are uncertain because of (1) the uncertainty in the traditional method used to estimate DMS sea-to-air flux, and (2) the spatial and temporal variability of DMS sea-to-air flux. We have worked to lessen the uncertainty on both fronts. The commonly used method for estimating DMS sea-to-air flux is certain to a factor of two, at best. We used a novel instrumental technique to measure, for the first time, sulfur gas concentration fluctuations in the marine boundary layer. The measured concentration fluctuations were then used with two established micrometeorological techniques to estimate sea-to-air flux of sulfur. Both methods appear to be more accurate than the commonly used one. The analytical instrument we used in our studies shows potential as a direct flux measurement device. High primary productivity in high-latitude oceans suggests a potentially large DMS source from northern oceans. To begin to investigate this hypothesis, we have measured DMS in the air over northern oceans around Alaska. For integrating and extrapolating field measurements over larger areas and longer time periods, we have developed a model of DMS ocean mixing, biological production, and sea-to-air flux of DMS. The model's main utility is in gaining intuition on which parameters are most important to DMS sea-to-air flux. This information, along with a direct flux measurement capability, are crucial steps toward the long-term goal of remotely sensing DMS flux. A remote sensing approach will mitigate the problems of spatial and temporal

  19. Sulfur removal from fuel using zeolites/polyimide mixed matrix membrane adsorbents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Ligang; Wang, Andong; Dong, Meimei; Zhang, Yuzhong; He, Benqiao; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Membrane adsorption process is proposed for sulfur removal. Three-dimensional network structure is key to fulfill adsorption function of MMMs, which adsorption/desorption behavior is markedly related with binding force with sulfur molecules. Highlights: ► Membrane adsorption process is proposed for sulfur removal. ► Three-dimensional network structure of MMMs is key to fulfill adsorption function. ► Adsorption/desorption behavior is markedly related with binding force. - Abstract: A novel membrane adsorption process was proposed for the sulfur removal from fuels. The mixed matrix membranes (MMMs) adsorbents composed of polyimide (PI) and various Y zeolites were prepared. By the detailed characterization of FT-IR, morphology, thermal and mechanical properties of MMMs adsorbents, combining the adsorption and desorption behavior research, the process–structure–function relationship was discussed. Field-emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) images show that the functional particles are incorporated into the three-dimensional network structure. MMMs adsorbents with 40% of zeolites content possess better physical properties, which was confirmed by mechanical strength and thermo stability analysis. Influence factors including post-treatment, content of incorporated zeolites, adsorption time, temperature, initial sulfur concentration as well as sulfur species on the adsorption performance of MMMs adsorbents have been evaluated. At 4 wt.% zeolites content, adsorption capacity for NaY/PI, AgY/PI and CeY/PI MMMs adsorbents come to 2.0, 7.5 and 7.9 mg S/g, respectively. And the regeneration results suggest that the corresponding spent membranes can recover about 98%, 90% and 70% of the desulfurization capacity, respectively. The distinct adsorption and desorption behavior of MMMs adsorbents with various functional zeolites was markedly related with their various binding force and binding mode with sulfur compounds.

  20. Io's theothermal (sulfur) - Lithosphere cycle inferred from sulfur solubility modeling of Pele's magma supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Steven M.; Stewart, Michael A.; Kieffer, Susan W.

    2014-06-01

    Surface deposits of volatile compounds such as water (Earth) or sulfur (Io) on volcanically active bodies suggest that a magmatic distillation process works to concentrate volatiles in surface reservoirs. On Earth, this is the combined hydrologic and tectonic cycle. On Io, sulfurous compounds are transferred from the interior to the surface reservoirs through a combination of a mantle-sourced magmatic system, vertical cycling of the lithosphere, and a sulfur-dominated crustal thermal system that we here call the "theothermal" system. We present a geochemical analysis of this process using previously inferred temperature and oxygen fugacity constraints of Pele's basaltic magma to determine the behavior of sulfur in the ionian magmas. Sulfate to sulfide ratios of Pele's magma are -4.084 ± 0.6 and -6.442 ± 0.7 log10 units, comparable to or lower than those of mid-ocean ridge basalts. This reflects the similarity of Io's oxidation state with Earth's depleted mantle as previously suggested by Zolotov and Fegley (Zolotov, M.Y., Fegley, B. [2000]. Geophys. Res. Lett. 27, 2789-2792). Our calculated limits of sulfur solubility in melts from Pele's patera (˜1100-1140 ppm) are also comparable to terrestrial mid-ocean ridge basalts, reflecting a compositional similarity of mantle sources. We propose that the excess sulfur obvious on Io's surface comes from two sources: (1) an insoluble sulfide liquid phase in the magma and (2) theothermal near-surface recycling.

  1. Sulfur in zircons: A new window into melt chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, H.; Bell, E. A.; Boehnke, P.; Barboni, M.; Harrison, T. M.

    2017-12-01

    The abundance and isotopic composition of sulfur are important tools for exploring the photochemistry of the atmosphere, the thermal history of mantle and igneous rocks, and ancient metabolic processes on the early Earth. Because the oldest terrestrial samples are zircons, we developed a new in-situ procedure to analyze the sulfur content of zircons using the CAMECA ims 1290 at UCLA. We analyzed zircons from three metaluminous/I-type granites (reduced and oxidized Peninsular range and Elba), which exhibit low sulfur abundance with the average of 0.5ppm, and one peraluminous/S-type zircon (Strathbogie Range), which shows an elevated sulfur level with the average of 1.5ppm. Additionally, we found that sulfur content ranges between 0.4 and 2.3 ppm in young volcanic zircons (St. Lucia). Our analyses of zircons from the Jack Hills, Western Australia, whose ages range between 3.4 and 4.1 Ga, show a variety of sulfur contents. Three out of the ten zircons are consistent with the sulfur contents of S-type zircons; the rest have low sulfur contents, which are similar to those of I-type zircons. The high sulfur content in some of these Jack Hills zircons can be interpreted as indicating their origin in either a S-type granite or a volcanic reservoir. We favor the former interpretation since the Ti-in-zircon temperatures of our Jack Hills zircons is lower than those of volcanic zircons. Future work will be undertaken to develop a systematic understanding of the relationship between melt volatile content, melt chemistry, and zircon sulfur content.

  2. Chemiluminescence behavior based on oxidation reaction of rhodamine B with cerium(IV) in sulfuric acid medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Yongjun; Jin Xiaoyong; Zhou Min; Zhang Ziyu; Teng Xiulan; Chen Hui

    2003-01-01

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of the rhodamine B (RhB)-cerium(IV) system was investigated by flow-injection. Rhodamine B was suggested to be a suitable chemiluminescent reagent in acidic conditions. When the concentration of rhodamine B was 100 mg l -1 and cerium sulfate was 1.6 mmol l -1 in sulfuric acid, the chemiluminescent intensity was found to be highest by using 0.3 mol l -1 sulfuric acid as a carrier solution. The particular chemiluminescent system could tolerate such distinct acidic environments that it was utilized for detecting many compounds that are stable in acidic solutions. Furthermore, by virtue of IR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopic measurements, the chemiluminescent behavior of rhodamine B was studied and a possible mechanism for this chemiluminescent reaction was proposed. The emitter was affirmed to be a radical species due to one of the oxidation products of RhB; the chemiluminescent emissive wavelength was about 425 nm

  3. Chemiluminescence behavior based on oxidation reaction of rhodamine B with cerium(IV) in sulfuric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma Yongjun; Jin Xiaoyong; Zhou Min; Zhang Ziyu; Teng Xiulan; Chen Hui

    2003-08-18

    The chemiluminescence (CL) of the rhodamine B (RhB)-cerium(IV) system was investigated by flow-injection. Rhodamine B was suggested to be a suitable chemiluminescent reagent in acidic conditions. When the concentration of rhodamine B was 100 mg l{sup -1} and cerium sulfate was 1.6 mmol l{sup -1} in sulfuric acid, the chemiluminescent intensity was found to be highest by using 0.3 mol l{sup -1} sulfuric acid as a carrier solution. The particular chemiluminescent system could tolerate such distinct acidic environments that it was utilized for detecting many compounds that are stable in acidic solutions. Furthermore, by virtue of IR, UV-Vis and luminescence spectroscopic measurements, the chemiluminescent behavior of rhodamine B was studied and a possible mechanism for this chemiluminescent reaction was proposed. The emitter was affirmed to be a radical species due to one of the oxidation products of RhB; the chemiluminescent emissive wavelength was about 425 nm.

  4. The corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B in sulfur and sodium polysulfides at 623 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, A.P.

    1987-01-01

    An experimental study was completed to determine the corrosion behavior of molybdenum and Hastelloy B, a nickel-based alloy with high molybdenum content, in sulfur and sodium polysulfides (Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/,Na/sub 2/S/sub 4/, Na/sub 2/S/sub 5/) at 623 K. In sulfur, molybdenum corrodes very slowly, with a parabolic rate constant of 3.6 x 10/sup -9/ cm s/sup -1/2/. Hastelloy B shows no measurable corrosion after 100h of exposure to sulfur. The corrosion reaction of molybdenum in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ is characterized by the formation of a protective film that effectively eliminates further corrosion after the first 100h of exposure. Hastelloy B, however, corrodes rapidly in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/, with corrosion rates approaching those of pure nickel under the same conditions. After the first 4h of exposure, the kinetics for the corrosion of Hastelloy B in Na/sub 2/S/sub 3/ follows a linear rate law. The scale morphology has multiple spalled layers of NiS/sub 2/, with some crystallites of NiS/sub 2/ appearing on the leading face of the scale and between the individual scale layers. This spalling causes smaller coupons of the Hastelloy B to corrode faster than larger coupons

  5. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Dunne, E M; Kurten, A; Almeida, J; Duplissy, J; Williamson, C; Ortega, I K; Pringle, K J; Adamov, A; Baltensperger, U; Barmet, P; Benduhn, F; Bianchi, F; Breitenlechner, M; Clarke, A; Curtius, J; Dommen, J; Donahue, N M; Ehrhart, S; Flagan, R C; Franchin, A; Guida, R; Hakala, J; Hansel, A; Heinritzi, M; Jokinen, T; Kangasluoma, J; Kirkby, J; Kulmala, M; Kupc, A; Lawler, M J; Lehtipalo, K; Makhmutov, V; Mann, G; Mathot, S; Merikanto, J; Miettinen, P; Nenes, A; Onnela, A; Rap, A; Reddington, C L S; Riccobono, F; Richards, N A D; Rissanen, M P; Rondo, L; Sarnela, N; Schobesberger, S; Sengupta, K; Simon, M; Sipila, M; Smith, J N; Stozkhov, Y; Tome, A; Trostl, J; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Winkler, P M; Worsnop, D R; Carslaw, K S

    2016-01-01

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. Here we build a global model of aerosol formation using extensive laboratory-measured nucleation rates involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions and organic compounds. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds in addition to sulfuric acid. A significant fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied variations in cosmic ray intensity do not significantly affect climate via nucleation in the present-day atmosphere.

  6. Emissions of biogenic sulfur gases from Alaskan tundra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hines, Mark E.; Morrison, Michael C.

    1992-01-01

    Results of sulfur emission measurements made in freshwater and marine wetlands in Alaskan tundra during the Arctic Boundary Layer Expedition 2A (ABLE 3A) in July 1988 are presented. The data indicate that this type of tundra emits very small amounts of gaseous sulfur and, when extrapolated globally, accounts for a very small percentage of the global flux of biogenic sulfur to the atmosphere. Sulfur emissions from marine sites are up to 20-fold greater than fluxes from freshwater habitats and are dominated by dimethyl sulfide (DMS). Highest emissions, with a mean of 6.0 nmol/sq m/h, occurred in water-saturated wet meadow areas. In drier upland tundra sites, highest fluxes occurred in areas inhabited by mixed vegetation and labrador tea at 3.0 nmol/sq m/h and lowest fluxes were from lichen-dominated areas at 0.9 nmol/sq m/h. DMS was the dominant gas emitted from all these sites. Emissions of DMS were highest from intertidal soils inhabited by Carex subspathacea.

  7. Atmosphere pollutants-their health and environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Issa, Ali Sasi; Ibsaim, Rajab A.

    2006-01-01

    The conducted studies, continuous monitoring and measuring of the atmosphere pollution surrounding the world cities for a decade in the last century demonstrated increased rates of some pollutants, often exceeded the levels which are considered to be safe for health. Most of the dangerous pollutants in the atmosphere are suspended particles, sulfur oxides, nitrogen oxides, ozone troposphere and lead, these are the main responsible pollutant in contaminating the atmosphere leading to increase of death percentage in the major cities. For a duration of nearly a century, atmosphere pollution accidents in cities like London approved that inhaling contaminated air is dangerous and deadly sometimes. In 1880 2200 person from London inhabitants have died when coal smoke with heating and industrial gases have been accumulated to form a toxic smog of sulfur oxide gas and suspended particles in the atmosphere of the city. In this paper we discuss type of atmosphere pollutants and their health and environmental effects on human being, creatures and earth and ways of eliminating that.(Author)

  8. Seasonal trends of atmospheric nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide over North Santa Clara, Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alejo, Daniellys; Morales, Mayra C; de la Torre, Jorge B; Grau, Ricardo; Bencs, László; Van Grieken, René; Van Espen, Piet; Sosa, Dismey; Nuñez, Vladimir

    2013-07-01

    Atmospheric nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) levels were monitored simultaneously by means of Radiello passive samplers at six sites of Santa Clara city, Cuba, in the cold and the warm seasons in 2010. The dissolved ionic forms of NO2 and SO2 as nitrate and sulfite plus sulfate, respectively, were determined by means of ion chromatography. Analysis of NO2 as nitrite was also performed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry. For NO2, significant t tests show good agreement between the results of IC and UV-Vis methods. The NO2 and SO2 concentrations peaked in the cold season, while their minimum levels were experienced in the warm season. The pollutant levels do not exceed the maximum allowable limit of the Cuban Standard 39:1999, i.e., 40 μg/m(3) and 50 μg/m(3) for NO2 and SO2, respectively. The lowest pollutant concentrations obtained in the warm season can be attributed to an increase in their removal via precipitation (scavenging) while to the decreased traffic density and industrial emission during the summer holidays (e.g., July and August).

  9. Transfer characterization of sulfur from coal-burning emission to plant leaves by PIXE and XANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao, L.M.; Zhang, G.L.; Zhang, Y.X.; Li, Y.; Lin, J.; Liu, W.; Cao, Q.C.; Zhao, Y.D.; Ma, C.Y.; Han, Y. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai (China). Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics

    2009-11-15

    The impact of coal-burning emission on sulfur in camphor leaves was investigated using Proton Induced X-ray Emission (PIXE) and synchrotron radiation technique X-ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The PIXE results show that the sulfur concentrations in the leaves collected at the polluted site are significantly higher than those in controls. The sulfur XANES spectra show the presence of organic (disulfides, thiols, thioethers, sulfonates and sulfoxides) and inorganic sulfur (sulfates) in the leaves. The inorganic sulfur in the leaves of camphor tree polluted by coal combustion is 15% more than that of the control site. The results suggest that the long-term coal-burning pollution resulted in an enhanced content of the total sulfur and sulfate in the leaves, and the uptake of sulfur by leaves had exceeded the metabolic requirement of plants and the excess of sulfur was stored as SO{sub 4}2{sup -}. It can monitor the sulfur pollution in atmosphere.

  10. Biogeochemical conversion of sulfur species in saline lakes of Steppe Altai

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzenko, Svetlana V.; Kolpakova, Marina N.; Shvartsev, Stepan L.; Isupov, Vitaly P.

    2017-08-01

    The aim of the present research is to identify the main mechanisms of sulfur behavior in saline lakes in the course of time and followed transformations in their chemical composition. The influence of water on chemical composition of biochemical processes involved in decomposition of organic matter was determined by the study of behavior of reduced forms of sulfur in lakes. The determination of reduced forms of sulfur was carried out by successive transfer of each form of sulfur to hydrogen sulfide followed by photometric measurements. The other chemical components were determined by standard methods (atomic absorption, potentiometric method, titration method and others). The salt lakes of the Altai steppe were studied in summer season 2013-2015. Analysis of the chemical composition of the saline lakes of Altai Krai has shown that carbonate-, hydrocarbonate- and chloride ions dominate among anions; sodium is main cation; sulfates are found in subordinate amounts. Reduced forms of sulfur occur everywhere: hydrogen and hydrosulfide sulfur S2- prevail in the bottom sediments; its derivative—elemental S0—prevails in the lakes water. The second important species in water of soda lakes is hydrosulfide sulfur S2-, and in chloride lakes is thiosulfate sulfur S2O3 2- . The lag in the accumulation of sulfates in soda lakes in comparison to chloride lakes can be explained by their bacterial reduction, followed by the formation and deposition of iron sulfides in sediments. In chloride lakes gypsum is a predominantly barrier for sulfates.

  11. Study on the utilization of a sodium-sulfuric acid solution for the uranium minerals' leaching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echenique, Patricia; Fruchtenicht, Fernando; Gil, Daniel; Vigo, Daniel; Bouza, Angel; Vert, Gabriela; Becquart, Elena

    1988-01-01

    Argentine uranium minerals have been leached at bench scale with a different agent trying to reduce sulfuric acid consumption. The leaching agent was a sodium sulfate-sulfuric acid solution and the ore was from Sierra Pintada (San Rafael - Mendoza). The work was performed in stirred vessel at atmospheric pressure. The influence of different variables, pH, temperature, oxidant agent, sodium sulfate concentration and time, in the sulfuric acid consumption and the uranium yield was studied. (Author) [es

  12. A study of reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase. Production and evolution of aerosols resulting from these reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulaud, Denis

    1977-01-01

    The reactions of sulfur dioxide in the gaseous phase with atmospheric pollutants (NO x ; hydrocarbons) were studied. Experiments showed that NO 2 contribution was significant and suggested that SO 2 transformation into sulfuric acid and sulfates might occur through oxidising agents mainly hydroxyl (OH) and hydro-peroxyl (HO 2 ) radicals. The production and evolution of the resulting aerosols was also studied. It was demonstrated that the effect of water vapour on particle production was significant and that primary embryos were formed from the hetero-molecular homogeneous nucleation acting on water vapour and very likely on sulfuric acid. There was a semi-quantitative agreement between our experimental results and some theoretical investigations on nucleation rate of the system (H 2 O - H 2 SO 4 ). The subsequent growth of particles was studied in a simulation chamber. Finally a model of sulfuric acid vapour evolution in presence of atmospheric aerosols made it possible to extend the previous results as far as possible to the case of atmosphere and then to compare the importance of homogeneous and heterogeneous nucleation of the vapours according to atmospheric conditions. (author) [fr

  13. Evaluation of Sulfur 'Concrete' for Use as a Construction Material on the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grugel, R. N.

    2008-01-01

    Combining molten sulfur with any number of aggregate materials forms, when solid, a mixture having attributes similar, if not better, to conventional water-based concrete. As a result the use of sulfur "concrete" on Earth is well established, particularly in corrosive environments. Consequently, discovery of troilite (FeS) on the lunar surface prompted numerous scenarios about its reduction to elemental sulfur for use, in combination with lunar regolith, as a potential construction material; not requiring water, a precious resource, for its manufacture is an obvious advantage. However, little is known about the viability of sulfur concrete in an environment typified by extreme temperatures and essentially no atmosphere. The experimental work presented here evaluates the response of pure sulfur and sulfur concrete subjected to laboratory conditions that approach those expected on the lunar surface, the results suggesting a narrow window of application.

  14. Preliminary results of measurements of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds near the Polaniec power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dziewanski, J; Kasina, S; Lewinska, J; Piorek, S

    1976-01-01

    In the past investigations of the negative impact of power stations on the natural environment have been restricted to measuring sulfur dioxide content in the air. A method of determining complex influence of sulfur compounds on the natural environment is proposed. The following indexes are used: content of sulfur dioxide in the air, dust content (determined by means of the West-Gaeke method), content of sulphate ions in precipitation and pH value of precipitation. Methods used to determine each of the indexes are described. Location of measuring stations in the area where the power station is being constructed is evaluated, taking into account prevailing wind direction and atmospheric conditions (15 measuring points out of which 10 stations measure sulfur content in precipitation and pH value of precipitation, and 5 stations measure the mean daily concentration of sulfur dioxide and dust content). Results are presented in 3 maps, 1 table and 2 pictures. Variations in sulfur dioxide content, dust content, and pH value of precipitation depending on direction of wind, atmospheric conditions and season are analyzed. The results of the investigation will be compared with results of investigations carried out when the power station is in operation. (15 refs.)

  15. Graphene-sulfur nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium-sulfur battery electrodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Lemmon, John P; Yang, Zhenguo; Cao, Yuiliang; Li, Xiaolin

    2014-06-17

    Rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries having a cathode that includes a graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can exhibit improved characteristics. The graphene-sulfur nanocomposite can be characterized by graphene sheets with particles of sulfur adsorbed to the graphene sheets. The sulfur particles have an average diameter less than 50 nm..

  16. Electron-induced chemistry in microhydrated sulfuric acid clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lengyel, Jozef; Pysanenko, Andriy; Fárník, Michal

    2017-11-01

    We investigate the mixed sulfuric acid-water clusters in a molecular beam experiment with electron attachment and negative ion mass spectrometry and complement the experiment by density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The microhydration of (H2SO4)m(H2O)n clusters is controlled by the expansion conditions, and the electron attachment yields the main cluster ion series (H2SO4)m(H2O)nHSO4- and (H2O)nH2SO4-. The mass spectra provide an experimental evidence for the onset of the ionic dissociation of sulfuric acid and ion-pair (HSO4- ṡ ṡ ṡ H3O+) formation in the neutral H2SO4(H2O)n clusters with n ≥ 5 water molecules, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules (H2SO4)2(H2O)n this process starts as early as n ≥ 2 water molecules. The (H2SO4)m(H2O)nHSO4- clusters are formed after the dissociative electron attachment to the clusters containing the (HSO4- ṡ ṡ ṡ H3O+) ion-pair structure, which leads to the electron recombination with the H3O+ moiety generating H2O molecule and the H-atom dissociation from the cluster. The (H2O)nH2SO4- cluster ions point to an efficient caging of the H atom by the surrounding water molecules. The electron-energy dependencies exhibit an efficient electron attachment at low electron energies below 3 eV, and no resonances above this energy, for all the measured mass peaks. This shows that in the atmospheric chemistry only the low-energy electrons can be efficiently captured by the sulfuric acid-water clusters and converted into the negative ions. Possible atmospheric consequences of the acidic dissociation in the clusters and the electron attachment to the sulfuric acid-water aerosols are discussed.

  17. Oxidation Products of Biogenic Emissions Contribute to Nucleation of Atmospheric Particles

    CERN Document Server

    Riccobono, Francesco; Baltensperger, Urs; Worsnop, Douglas R; Curtius, Joachim; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Wimmer, Daniela; Wex, Heike; Weingartner, Ernest; Wagner, Paul E; Vrtala, Aron; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vaattovaara, Petri; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Tomé, Antonio; Stratmann, Frank; Stozhkov, Yuri; Spracklen, Dominick V; Sipilä, Mikko; Praplan, Arnaud P; Petäjä, Tuukka; Onnela, Antti; Nieminen, Tuomo; Mathot, Serge; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Laaksonen, Ari; Kvashin, Alexander N.; Kürten, Andreas; Kupc, Agnieszka; Keskinen, Helmi; Kajos, Maija; Junninen, Heikki; Hansel, Armin; Franchin, Alessandro; Flagan, Richard C; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Duplissy, Jonathan; Dunne, Eimear M; Downard, Andrew; David, André; Breitenlechner, Martin; Bianchi, Federico; Amorim, Antonio; Almeida, João; Rondo, Linda; Ortega, Ismael K; Dommen, Josef; Scott, Catherine E; Vrtala, Aron; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Seinfeld, John H; Sipila, Mikko; Donahue, Neil M; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-01-01

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations.

  18. Dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline composites improving the capacity and cycle performance of lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Yanling; Wei, Pan; Fan, Meiqiang, E-mail: fanmeiqiang@126.com; Chen, Da; Chen, Haichao; Ju, QiangJian; Tian, Guanglei; Shu, Kangying

    2016-07-01

    Highlights: • A dual core-shell hPANI/S/PANI composite was prepared in situ synthesis. • Cycle performance of the hPANI/S/PANI composite was enhanced. • The improvement was due to fine sulfur particles wrapped by two PANI films. • Some positive effects were elaborated. - Abstract: In this study, a dual-shell hollow polyaniline/sulfur-core/polyaniline (hPANI/S/PANI) composite was prepared by successively depositing PANI, S, and PANI on the surface of a template silicon sphere. The electrochemical properties of this composite were evaluated using a lithium plate as an anode in lithium/sulfur cells. The hPANI/S/PANI composite showed a discharge capacity of 572.2 mAh g{sup −1} after 214 cycles at 0.1 C, and the Coulombic efficiency was above 87% in the whole charge/discharge cycle. The improved cycle property of the hPANI/S/PANI composite can be ascribed to the fine sulfur particles homogeneously deposited on the PANI surface and sprawled inside the two PANI layers during the charge/discharge cycle. This behavior stabilized the nanostructure of sulfur and enhanced its conductivity.

  19. Method for the treatment of mining gangue containing sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Minnick, L J; Smith, C L; Webster, W C

    1976-07-01

    Mining gangue is often heaped up on large, open-air dumps. By means of extraction and oxidation of the sulfuric elements contained, the environment is being negatively influenced, due to the sulfuric acids occuring. The method described converts the gangue into an ecologically agreeable material which can be used even in road construction. This is achieved by mixing the gangue with lime, a pozzolane active material and water, and by hardening the gangue at atmospheric pressure for several days. This method can be very cost-effective if fly ash is used as pozzolane-active material.

  20. Biogenic sulfur and the acidity of rainfall in remote areas of Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nriagu, J.O.; Holdway, D.A.; Coker, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    Sulfur released from any given natural or anthropogenic source carries an isotopic signature that can be used to trace its flow through the environment. Measurements of the concentration and isotopic composition of sulfur in weekly bulk precipitation samples collected over a 4-year period at a remote location in location in northern Ontario were recorded. The long-term isotopic data and the measurement on the production and release of dimethyl sulfide from boreal wetlands show that biogenic sources can account for up to 30% of the acidifying sulfur burden in the atmosphere in remote areas of Canada. The data suggest that significant biological reemission of anthropogenic sulfur is occurring. The role of this process in the continuing acidification of the environment for years to come must be a matter of concern

  1. Conversion of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in air under exposure to microsecond electron beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, G.V.; Kuznetsov, D.L.; Novoselov, Yu.N.; Tkachenko, R.M.

    2002-01-01

    Flue gases of power plants realizing sulfur and nitrogen oxides into the atmosphere represent one of the environmental pollution sources. Paper presents the results of experimental investigations of conversion of sulfur and nitrogen oxides in the ionized gas mixture simulating composition of off-gases of thermal power stations. Pulse beam of microsecond duration electrons was used as a source of ionization. Mutual influence of both types of oxides on process of their conversion is shown. One studied possible kinetic mechanisms to remove sulfur and nitrogen oxides from gaseous mixture [ru

  2. Global atmospheric particle formation from CERN CLOUD measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Eimear M; Gordon, Hamish; Kürten, Andreas; Almeida, João; Duplissy, Jonathan; Williamson, Christina; Ortega, Ismael K; Pringle, Kirsty J; Adamov, Alexey; Baltensperger, Urs; Barmet, Peter; Benduhn, Francois; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; Clarke, Antony; Curtius, Joachim; Dommen, Josef; Donahue, Neil M; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Guida, Roberto; Hakala, Jani; Hansel, Armin; Heinritzi, Martin; Jokinen, Tuija; Kangasluoma, Juha; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Kupc, Agnieszka; Lawler, Michael J; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mann, Graham; Mathot, Serge; Merikanto, Joonas; Miettinen, Pasi; Nenes, Athanasios; Onnela, Antti; Rap, Alexandru; Reddington, Carly L S; Riccobono, Francesco; Richards, Nigel A D; Rissanen, Matti P; Rondo, Linda; Sarnela, Nina; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Sengupta, Kamalika; Simon, Mario; Sipilä, Mikko; Smith, James N; Stozkhov, Yuri; Tomé, Antonio; Tröstl, Jasmin; Wagner, Paul E; Wimmer, Daniela; Winkler, Paul M; Worsnop, Douglas R; Carslaw, Kenneth S

    2016-12-02

    Fundamental questions remain about the origin of newly formed atmospheric aerosol particles because data from laboratory measurements have been insufficient to build global models. In contrast, gas-phase chemistry models have been based on laboratory kinetics measurements for decades. We built a global model of aerosol formation by using extensive laboratory measurements of rates of nucleation involving sulfuric acid, ammonia, ions, and organic compounds conducted in the CERN CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber. The simulations and a comparison with atmospheric observations show that nearly all nucleation throughout the present-day atmosphere involves ammonia or biogenic organic compounds, in addition to sulfuric acid. A considerable fraction of nucleation involves ions, but the relatively weak dependence on ion concentrations indicates that for the processes studied, variations in cosmic ray intensity do not appreciably affect climate through nucleation in the present-day atmosphere. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  3. The future of airborne sulfur-containing particles in the absence of fossil fuel sulfur dioxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perraud, Véronique; Horne, Jeremy R; Martinez, Andrew S; Kalinowski, Jaroslaw; Meinardi, Simone; Dawson, Matthew L; Wingen, Lisa M; Dabdub, Donald; Blake, Donald R; Gerber, R Benny; Finlayson-Pitts, Barbara J

    2015-11-03

    Sulfuric acid (H2SO4), formed from oxidation of sulfur dioxide (SO2) emitted during fossil fuel combustion, is a major precursor of new airborne particles, which have well-documented detrimental effects on health, air quality, and climate. Another precursor is methanesulfonic acid (MSA), produced simultaneously with SO2 during the atmospheric oxidation of organosulfur compounds (OSCs), such as dimethyl sulfide. In the present work, a multidisciplinary approach is used to examine how contributions of H2SO4 and MSA to particle formation will change in a large coastal urban area as anthropogenic fossil fuel emissions of SO2 decline. The 3-dimensional University of California Irvine-California Institute of Technology airshed model is used to compare atmospheric concentrations of gas phase MSA, H2SO4, and SO2 under current emissions of fossil fuel-associated SO2 and a best-case futuristic scenario with zero fossil fuel sulfur emissions. Model additions include results from (i) quantum chemical calculations that clarify the previously uncertain gas phase mechanism of formation of MSA and (ii) a combination of published and experimental estimates of OSC emissions, such as those from marine, agricultural, and urban processes, which include pet waste and human breath. Results show that in the zero anthropogenic SO2 emissions case, particle formation potential from H2SO4 will drop by about two orders of magnitude compared with the current situation. However, particles will continue to be generated from the oxidation of natural and anthropogenic sources of OSCs, with contributions from MSA and H2SO4 of a similar order of magnitude. This could be particularly important in agricultural areas where there are significant sources of OSCs.

  4. Oxidation products of biogenic emissions contribute to nucleation of atmospheric particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riccobono, Francesco; Schobesberger, Siegfried; Scott, Catherine E; Dommen, Josef; Ortega, Ismael K; Rondo, Linda; Almeida, João; Amorim, Antonio; Bianchi, Federico; Breitenlechner, Martin; David, André; Downard, Andrew; Dunne, Eimear M; Duplissy, Jonathan; Ehrhart, Sebastian; Flagan, Richard C; Franchin, Alessandro; Hansel, Armin; Junninen, Heikki; Kajos, Maija; Keskinen, Helmi; Kupc, Agnieszka; Kürten, Andreas; Kvashin, Alexander N; Laaksonen, Ari; Lehtipalo, Katrianne; Makhmutov, Vladimir; Mathot, Serge; Nieminen, Tuomo; Onnela, Antti; Petäjä, Tuukka; Praplan, Arnaud P; Santos, Filipe D; Schallhart, Simon; Seinfeld, John H; Sipilä, Mikko; Spracklen, Dominick V; Stozhkov, Yuri; Stratmann, Frank; Tomé, Antonio; Tsagkogeorgas, Georgios; Vaattovaara, Petri; Viisanen, Yrjö; Vrtala, Aron; Wagner, Paul E; Weingartner, Ernest; Wex, Heike; Wimmer, Daniela; Carslaw, Kenneth S; Curtius, Joachim; Donahue, Neil M; Kirkby, Jasper; Kulmala, Markku; Worsnop, Douglas R; Baltensperger, Urs

    2014-05-16

    Atmospheric new-particle formation affects climate and is one of the least understood atmospheric aerosol processes. The complexity and variability of the atmosphere has hindered elucidation of the fundamental mechanism of new-particle formation from gaseous precursors. We show, in experiments performed with the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber at CERN, that sulfuric acid and oxidized organic vapors at atmospheric concentrations reproduce particle nucleation rates observed in the lower atmosphere. The experiments reveal a nucleation mechanism involving the formation of clusters containing sulfuric acid and oxidized organic molecules from the very first step. Inclusion of this mechanism in a global aerosol model yields a photochemically and biologically driven seasonal cycle of particle concentrations in the continental boundary layer, in good agreement with observations. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  5. Does nitrogen and sulfur deposition affect forest productivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brittany A. Johnson; Kathryn B. Piatek; Mary Beth Adams; John R. Brooks

    2010-01-01

    We studied the effects of atmospheric nitrogen and sulfur deposition on forest productivity in a 10-year-old, aggrading forest stand at the Fernow Experimental Forest in Tucker County, WV. Forest productivity was expressed as total aboveground wood biomass, which included stem and branch weight of standing live trees. Ten years after stand regeneration and treatment...

  6. Clustering of amines and hydrazines in atmospheric nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Siyang; Qu, Kun; Zhao, Hailiang; Ding, Lei; Du, Lin

    2016-06-01

    It has been proved that the presence of amines in the atmosphere can enhance aerosol formation. Hydrazine (HD) and its substituted derivatives, monomethylhydrazine (MMH) and unsymmetrical dimethylhydrazine (UDMH), which are organic derivatives of amine and ammonia, are common trace atmospheric species that may contribute to the growth of nucleation clusters. The structures of the hydrazine and amine clusters containing one or two common nucleation molecules (ammonia, water, methanol and sulfuric acid) have been optimized using density functional theory (DFT) methods. The clusters growth mechanism has been explored from the thermochemistry by calculating the Gibbs free energies of adding an ammonia, water, methanol or sulfuric acid molecule step by step at room temperature, respectively. The results show that hydrazine and its derivatives could enhance heteromolecular homogeneous nucleation in the earth's atmosphere.

  7. Atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambrozo, J.; Guillossou, G.

    2008-01-01

    The atmosphere is the reservoir of numerous pollutants (nitrogen oxides, sulfur oxides, carbon oxides, particulates, volatile organic compounds, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) from natural origin or anthropogenic origin ( industry, transport, agriculture, district heating). With epidemiologic studies the atmospheric pollution is associated with an increase of respiratory and cardiovascular diseases. At the european level, the technological progress, the legislation have allowed a reduction of pollutant emissions, however these efforts have to be continued because the sanitary impact of atmospheric pollution must not be underestimated, even if the risks appear less important that these ones in relation with tobacco, inside pollution or others factors of cardiovascular risks. Indeed, on these last factors an individual action is possible for the exposure to air pollution people have no control. (N.C.)

  8. Sulfur dioxide emissions and sectorial contributions to sulfur deposition in Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arndt, Richard L.; Carmichael, Gregory R.; Streets, David G.; Bhatti, Neeloo

    Anthropogenic and volcanic emissions of SO 2 in Asia for 1987-1988 are estimated on a 1° × 1° grid. Anthropogenic sources are estimated to be 31.6 Tg of SO 2 with the regions' volcanoes emitting an additional 3.8 Tg. For Southeast Asia and the Indian sub-continent, the emissions are further partitioned into biomass, industrial, utilities, and non-specific sources. In these regions emissions from biomass, utilities and industrial sources account for 16.7, 21.7, and 12.2%, respectively. In Bangladesh, ˜ 90% of the SO 2 emissions result from biomass burning and nearly 20% of India's 5 Tg of SO 2 emissions are due to biomass burning. Malaysia and Singapore's emissions are dominated by the utilities with 42 and 62% of their respective emissions coming from that sector. The spatial distribution of sulfur deposition resulting from these emissions is calculated using an atmospheric transport and deposition model. Sulfur deposition in excess of 2 g m -2 yr -1 is predicted in vast regions of east Asia, India, Thailand, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Indonesia with deposition in excess of 5 g m -2 yr -1 predicted in southern China. For the Indian sub-continent and Southeast Asia the contribution of biomass burning, industrial activities, and utilities to total sulfur emissions and deposition patterns are evaluated. Biomass burning is found to be a major source of sulfur deposition throughout southeast Asia. Deposition in Bangladesh and northern India is dominated by this emissions sector. Deposition in Thailand, the Malay Peninsula and the island of Sumatra is heavily influenced by emissions from utilities. The ecological impact of the deposition, in 1988 and in the year 2020, is also estimated using critical loads data developed in the RAINS-ASIA projects. Much of eastern China, the Korean Peninsula, Japan, Thailand, and large regions of India, Nepal, Bangladesh, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, Indonesia, and sections of Vietnam are at risk due to deposition in excess of their

  9. Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen into the atmosphere of the former Soviet Union in 1985 and 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryaboshapko, A.G.; Brukhanov, P.A.; Gromov, S.A.; Proshina, Yu.V; Afinogenova, O.G. [Institute of Global Climate and Ecology, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1996-09-01

    Anthropogenic emissions of oxidized sulfur and nitrogen over the former Soviet Union for 1985 and 1990 were calculated on the basis of a combination of `bottom-up` and `top-down` approaches. Sulfur dioxide emissions from combustion of hard coal, brown coal, oil products, natural gas, shale oil, peat, wood as well as from metallurgy, sulfuric acid production, and cement production were estimated. Nitrogen oxides emissions were considered separately for large power plants, small power plants, industrial boilers, residential combustion units, and for transport. The sulfur and nitrogen emissions were spatially distributed over the former Soviet Union with 1 x 1 degree resolution. Data on 721 point sources of sulfur dioxide emissions and on the 242 largest power stations as nitrogen oxides sources were used. The area sources of both sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides were distributed according to the population density separately for about 150 administrative units of the former Soviet Union. 63 refs., 19 tabs.

  10. Optimization of low sulfur jerusalem artichoke juice for fossil fuels biodesulfurization process

    OpenAIRE

    Silva, Tiago P.; Paixão, Susana M.; Roseiro, J. Carlos; Alves, Luís Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Most of the world’s energy is generated from the burning of fossil fuels such as oil and its derivatives. When burnt, these fuels release into the atmosphere volatile organic compounds, sulfur as sulfur dioxide (SO2) and the fine particulate matter of metal sulfates. These are pollutants which can be responsible for bronchial irritation, asthma attacks, cardio-pulmonary diseases and lung cancer mortality, and they also contribute for the occurrence of acid rains and the increase of the hole i...

  11. Biologically produced sulfur

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinjan, W.E.; Keizer, de A.; Janssen, A.J.H.

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur compound oxidizing bacteria produce sulfur as an intermediate in the oxidation of hydrogen sulfide to sulfate. Sulfur produced by these microorganisms can be stored in sulfur globules, located either inside or outside the cell. Excreted sulfur globules are colloidal particles which are

  12. New method for reduction of burning sulfur of coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyutskanov, L.; Dushanov, D.

    1998-01-01

    The coal pyrolysis is key phase in the the pyrolysis-combustion cycle as it provides char for combustor. The behaviour of sulfur compounds during coal pyrolysis depends on factors as rank of coal, quantity of sulfur and sulfur forms distribution in the coal, quantity and kind of mineral matter and the process conditions. The mineral content of coal may inhibit or catalyze the formation of volatile sulfur compounds. The pyrolysis itself is a mean of removing inorganic and organic sulfur but anyway a portion of it remains in the char while the other moves into the tar and gas. The aim of this study was to determine an optimal reduction of burning sulfur at the coal pyrolysis by varying parametric conditions. The pyrolysis of different kinds of coal has been studied. The samples with size particles o C at atmospheric pressure and with a heating rate of 6-50 o C min -1 . They were treated with exhaust gas and nitrogen at an addition of steam and air. The char obtained remains up to 10 min at the final temperature. The char samples cool without a contact with air. Two methods of desulfurization-pyrolysis were studied - using 9-vertical tubular reactor and 9-horizontal turning reactor. The results obtained show that at all samples there is a decrease of burning sulfur with maximal removal efficiency 83%. For example at a pyrolysis of Maritsa Iztok lignite coal the burning sulfur is only 16% in comparison with the control sample. The remained is 90% sulfate, 10% organic and pyrite traces when a mixture 'exhaust gas-water stream-air' was used. The method of desulfurization by pyrolysis could be applied at different kinds of coal and different conditions. Char obtained as a clean product can be used for generating electric power. This innovation is in a stage of patenting

  13. Effect of Elemental Sulfur and Sulfide on the Corrosion Behavior of Cr-Mo Low Alloy Steel for Tubing and Tubular Components in Oil and Gas Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaksar, Ladan; Shirokoff, John

    2017-04-20

    The chemical degradation of alloy components in sulfur-containing environments is a major concern in oil and gas production. This paper discusses the effect of elemental sulfur and its simplest anion, sulfide, on the corrosion of Cr-Mo alloy steel at pH 2 and 5 during 10, 20 and 30 h immersion in two different solutions. 4130 Cr-Mo alloy steel is widely used as tubing and tubular components in sour services. According to the previous research in aqueous conditions, contact of solid sulfur with alloy steel can initiate catastrophic corrosion problems. The corrosion behavior was monitored by the potentiodynamic polarization technique during the experiments. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) have been applied to characterize the corrosion product layers after each experiment. The results show that under the same experimental conditions, the corrosion resistance of Cr-Mo alloy in the presence of elemental sulfur is significantly lower than its resistance in the presence of sulfide ions.

  14. Resolving the Strange Behavior of Extraterrestrial Potassium in the Upper Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plane, J. M. C.; Feng, W.; Dawkins, E.; Chipperfield, M. P.; Hoeffner, J.; Janches, D.; Marsh, D. R.

    2014-01-01

    It has been known since the 1960s that the layers of Na and K atoms, which occur between 80 and 105km in the Earth's atmosphere as a result of meteoric ablation, exhibit completely different seasonal behavior. In the extratropics Na varies annually, with a pronounced wintertime maximum and summertime minimum. However, K varies semiannually with a small summertime maximum and minima at the equinoxes. This contrasting behavior has never been satisfactorily explained. Here we use a combination of electronic structure and chemical kinetic rate theory to determine two key differences in the chemistries of K and Na. First, the neutralization of K+ ions is only favored at low temperatures during summer. Second, cycling between K and its major neutral reservoir KHCO3 is essentially temperature independent. A whole atmosphere model incorporating this new chemistry, together with a meteor input function, now correctly predicts the seasonal behavior of the K layer.

  15. Historical balance of nitrogen, phosphorus, and sulfur of the Argentine Pampas

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Roberto; Steinbach, Haydee S; de Paepe, Josefina L

    2016-01-01

    A surface balance for nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and sulfur (S) was performed for the Argentine Pampas during the 1870-2010 time interval, comprising the agricultural expansion period in the region. Nitrogen inputs accounted in the balance were atmospheric deposition, symbiotic fixation, and fertilization. Outputs included were grain harvest and livestock products. P and S balances included atmospheric deposition and fertilization as inputs and the same outputs than in the case of N balanc...

  16. Assessment of the atmospheric impact of volcanic eruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigurdsson, H.

    1988-01-01

    The dominant global impact of volcanic activity is likely to be related to the effects of volcanic gases on the Earth's atmosphere. Volcanic gas emissions from individual volcanic arc eruptions are likely to cause increases in the stratospheric optical depth that result in surface landmass temperature decline of 2 to 3 K for less than a decade. Trachytic and intermediate magmas are much more effective in this regard than high-silica magmas, and may also lead to extensive ozone depletion due to effect of halogens and magmatic water. Given the assumed relationship between arc volcanism and subduction rate, and the relatively small variation in global spreading rates in the geologic record, it is unlikely that the rates of arc volcanism have varied greatly during the Cenozoic. Hotspot related basaltic fissure eruptions in the subaerial environment have a higher mass yield of sulfur, but lofting of the valcanic aerosol to levels above the tropopause is required for a climate impact. High-latitude events, such as the Laki 1783 eruption can easily penetrate the tropopause and enter the stratosphere, but formation of a stratospheric volcanic aerosol form low-latitude effusive basaltic eruptions is problematical, due to the elevated low-latitude tropopause. Due to the high sulfur content of hotspot-derived basaltic magmas, their very high mass eruption rates and the episodic behavior, hotspots must be regarded as potentially major modifiers of Earth's climate through the action of their volcanic volatiles on the chemistry and physics of the atmosphere.

  17. Electron-induced chemistry in microhydrated sulfuric acid clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lengyel

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the mixed sulfuric acid–water clusters in a molecular beam experiment with electron attachment and negative ion mass spectrometry and complement the experiment by density functional theory (DFT calculations. The microhydration of (H2SO4m(H2On clusters is controlled by the expansion conditions, and the electron attachment yields the main cluster ion series (H2SO4m(H2OnHSO4− and (H2OnH2SO4−. The mass spectra provide an experimental evidence for the onset of the ionic dissociation of sulfuric acid and ion-pair (HSO4−  ⋅  ⋅  ⋅  H3O+ formation in the neutral H2SO4(H2On clusters with n ≥ 5 water molecules, in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. In the clusters with two sulfuric acid molecules (H2SO42(H2On this process starts as early as n ≥ 2 water molecules. The (H2SO4m(H2OnHSO4− clusters are formed after the dissociative electron attachment to the clusters containing the (HSO4−  ⋅  ⋅  ⋅  H3O+ ion-pair structure, which leads to the electron recombination with the H3O+ moiety generating H2O molecule and the H-atom dissociation from the cluster. The (H2OnH2SO4− cluster ions point to an efficient caging of the H atom by the surrounding water molecules. The electron-energy dependencies exhibit an efficient electron attachment at low electron energies below 3 eV, and no resonances above this energy, for all the measured mass peaks. This shows that in the atmospheric chemistry only the low-energy electrons can be efficiently captured by the sulfuric acid–water clusters and converted into the negative ions. Possible atmospheric consequences of the acidic dissociation in the clusters and the electron attachment to the sulfuric acid–water aerosols are discussed.

  18. Effects of sulfur oxides on eicosanoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, L.C.; Miller, P.D.; Amdur, M.O.

    1989-01-01

    Ultrafine metal oxides and SO2 react during coal combustion or smelting operations to form primary emissions coated with an acidic SOx layer. Ongoing work in this laboratory has examined the effects of sulfur oxides on pulmonary functions of guinea pigs. We have previously reported that 20 micrograms/m3 acidic sulfur oxide as a surface layer on ultrafine ZnO particles decreases lung volumes, decreases carbon monoxide diffusing capacity, and causes lung inflammation in guinea pigs after 4 daily 3-h exposures. It also produces bronchial hypersensitivity following a single 1-h exposure. The importance of this surface layer is demonstrated by our observation that 200 micrograms/m3 of sulfuric acid droplets of equivalent size are needed to produce the same degree of hypersensitivity. This study characterized the concentration-dependent effects of in vivo exposures to sulfur oxides on arachidonic acid metabolism in the guinea pig lung, and investigated the time course and the relation between eicosanoid composition and pulmonary functions. We focused specifically on four cyclooxygenase metabolites of arachidonic acid, that is, prostaglandins (PG) E1, F2 alpha, 6-keto prostaglandin F1 alpha, and thromboxane (Tx) B2, and two groups of sulfidopeptide leukotrienes (C4, D4, E4, and F4). Guinea pigs were exposed to ultrafine ZnO aerosol (count median diameter = 0.05 microns, sigma g = 1.80) with a layer of acidic sulfur oxide on the surface of the particles. Lung lavage was collected after exposures, and the levels of arachidonic acid metabolites were determined using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Concentration-dependent promotion of PGF2 alpha and concentration-dependent suppression of LtB4 were observed. The increased PGF2 alpha was associated with depressed vital capacity and diffusing capacity of the lungs measured in guinea pigs exposed to the same atmosphere described in a previous study

  19. Effect of sulfur content in a sulfur-activated carbon composite on the electrochemical properties of a lithium/sulfur battery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Changhyeon; Ryu, Ho-Suk; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Kim, Ki-Won [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of); Wang, Guoxiu [School of Chemistry and Forensic Science, University of Technology Sydney, Sydney, NSW 2007 (Australia); Ahn, Jae-Pyeung [Advanced Analysis Center, Research Planning & Coordination Division, KIST, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • The content of sulfur in activated carbon was controlled by solution process. • The sulfur electrode with low sulfur content shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacity of 1360 mAh/g at 1 C and 702 mAh/g at 10 C. - Abstract: The content of sulfur in sulfur/activated carbon composite is controlled from 32.37 wt.% to 55.33 wt.% by a one-step solution-based process. When the sulfur content is limited to 41.21 wt.%, it can be loaded into the pores of an activated carbon matrix in a highly dispersed state. On the contrary, when the sulfur content is 55.33 wt.%, crystalline sulfur can be detected on the surface of the activated carbon matrix. The best electrochemical performance can be obtained for a sulfur electrode with the lowest sulfur content. The sulfur/activated carbon composite with 32.37 wt.% sulfur afforded the highest first discharge capacity of 1360 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C rate and a large reversible capacity of 702 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C (16.75 A/g)

  20. A Sulfur Dioxide Climate Feedback on Early Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halevy, I.; Pierrehumbert, R. T.; Schrag, D. P.

    2007-12-01

    Reconciling evidence for persistent liquid water during the late Noachian with our understanding of the evolution of the Martian atmosphere and of solar luminosity remains a challenge, despite several decades of research. An optically-thicker atmosphere to supply the necessary radiative forcing would result in the existence of a carbon cycle similar to Earth's, where the release of CO2 from volcanoes is balanced by burial of calcium carbonate through silicate weathering reactions that remove protons and release alkalinity to surface waters. Existence of such a carbon cycle on Mars, even for tens of millions of years, would yield carbonate sediments in far greater abundance than has been observed, as well as residual clay minerals. The high concentration of sulfur in Martian soils and rocks indicates that Martian volcanic emissions contained abundant sulfur volatiles in addition to CO2. However, the atmospheric and aquatic chemistry of SO2 under the reducing conditions of early Mars, in contrast with the presently oxidizing and biologically-catalyzed Earth, has not been thoroughly examined. We argue that these conditions may have allowed atmospheric concentrations of SO2 high enough to augment a thick CO2-H2O greenhouse. Furthermore, early Martian climate may have been stabilized by a feedback mechanism involving SO2 and the solubility of sulfite minerals instead of CO2 and the solubility of carbonates. We present the results of a one-dimensional radiative-convective model, demonstrating the radiative importance of SO2 to the planetary energy budget. We also use a simple geochemical model to show that the presence of SO2 in the early Martian atmosphere would have dominated the aquatic chemistry on the planet's surface, and may provide an explanation for how water could have persisted for millions of years without forming massive carbonate sediments, yet allowing the formation of clay minerals.

  1. Conversion of Sulfur-Dioxide in the Atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyger, H.; Fenger, J.

    1976-01-01

    Pertinent, previous studies of the oxidation of SO2 in the atmosphere are briefly reviewed. A project dealing with the conversion in the plume from an oil-fired power station is described in greater detail. Measurements were performed from an aircraft and included continuous registration of NOx, ...

  2. Pyrite sulfur isotopes reveal glacial-interglacial environmental changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasquier, Virgil; Sansjofre, Pierre; Rabineau, Marina; Revillon, Sidonie; Houghton, Jennifer; Fike, David A.

    2017-06-01

    The sulfur biogeochemical cycle plays a key role in regulating Earth’s surface redox through diverse abiotic and biological reactions that have distinctive stable isotopic fractionations. As such, variations in the sulfur isotopic composition (δ34S) of sedimentary sulfate and sulfide phases over Earth history can be used to infer substantive changes to the Earth’s surface environment, including the rise of atmospheric oxygen. Such inferences assume that individual δ34S records reflect temporal changes in the global sulfur cycle; this assumption may be well grounded for sulfate-bearing minerals but is less well established for pyrite-based records. Here, we investigate alternative controls on the sedimentary sulfur isotopic composition of marine pyrite by examining a 300-m drill core of Mediterranean sediments deposited over the past 500,000 y and spanning the last five glacial-interglacial periods. Because this interval is far shorter than the residence time of marine sulfate, any change in the sulfur isotopic record preserved in pyrite (δ34Spyr) necessarily corresponds to local environmental changes. The stratigraphic variations (>76‰) in the isotopic data reported here are among the largest ever observed in pyrite, and are in phase with glacial-interglacial sea level and temperature changes. In this case, the dominant control appears to be glacial-interglacial variations in sedimentation rates. These results suggest that there exist important but previously overlooked depositional controls on sedimentary sulfur isotope records, especially associated with intervals of substantial sea level change. This work provides an important perspective on the origin of variability in such records and suggests meaningful paleoenvironmental information can be derived from pyrite δ34S records.

  3. Sulfur-Kβ /sub emission studies on sulfur-bearing heterocycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, D.R.; Andermann, G.G.; Fujiwara, F.

    1986-01-01

    Sulfur-K/β /sub x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XFS) has been used to study the electronic structure and bonding in sulfur-bearing heterocycles. XFS not only has the capability of experimentally measuring valence electron energies in molecular species, but can also provide intensity data which can help define the nature of the molecular orbitals defined by the electrons. This report discusses the feasibility of using XFS as an analytical tool for the determination of total and specific sulfur heterocycle content in samples. A variety of compounds were studied. These include thiophene, thiophene derivatives, tetranydrothiophene, several more complex saturated and unsaturated sulfur heterocycles, and heterocycles containing both sulfur and nitrogen. The sulfur-K/β /sub spectra were obtained using a double crystal spectrometer which provided an instrumental resolution of about 0.7 eV

  4. A revolution in electrodes: recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xin; Peng, Huisheng

    2015-04-01

    As a promising candidate for future batteries, the lithium-sulfur battery is gaining increasing interest due to its high capacity and energy density. However, over the years, lithium-sulfur batteries have been plagued by fading capacities and the low Coulombic efficiency derived from its unique electrochemical behavior, which involves solid-liquid transition reactions. Moreover, lithium-sulfur batteries employ metallic lithium as the anode, which engenders safety vulnerability of the battery. The electrodes play a pivotal role in the performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. A leap forward in progress of lithium-sulfur batteries is always accompanied by a revolution in the electrode technology. In this review, recent progress in rechargeable lithium-sulfur batteries is summarized in accordance with the evolution of the electrodes, including the diversified cathode design and burgeoning metallic-lithium-free anodes. Although the way toward application has still many challenges associated, recent progress in lithium-sulfur battery technology still paints an encouraging picture of a revolution in rechargeable batteries. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  5. Sulfur isotopic analysis of carbonyl sulfide and its application for biogeochemical cycles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Shohei; Kamezaki, Kazuki; Ogawa, Takahiro; Toyoda, Sakae; Katayama, Yoko; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-04-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS or COS) is the most abundant gas containing sulfur in the atmosphere, with an average mixing ratio of 500 p.p.t.v. in the troposphere. OCS is suggested as a sulfur source of the stratospheric sulfate aerosols (SSA) which plays an important role in Earth's radiation budget and ozone depletion. Therefore, OCS budget should be validated for prediction of climate change, but the global OCS budget is imbalance. Recently we developed a promising new analytical method for measuring the stable sulfur isotopic compositions of OCS using nanomole level samples: the direct isotopic analytical technique of on-line gas chromatography-isotope ratio mass spectrometry (GC-IRMS) using fragmentation ions S+ (Hattori et al., 2015). The first measurement of the δ34S value for atmospheric OCS coupled with isotopic fractionation for OCS sink reactions in the stratosphere (Hattori et al., 2011; Schmidt et al., 2012; Hattori et al., 2012) explains the reported δ34S value for background stratospheric sulfate, suggesting that OCS is a potentially important source for background (nonepisodic or nonvolcanic) stratospheric sulfate aerosols. This new method measuring δ34S values of OCS can be used to investigate OCS sources and sinks in the troposphere to better understand its cycle. It is known that some microorganisms in soil can degrade OCS, but the mechanism and the contribution to the OCS in the air are still uncertain. In order to determine sulfur isotopic enrichment factor of OCS during degradation via microorganisms, incubation experiments were conducted using strains belonging to the genera Mycobacterium, Williamsia and Cupriavidus, isolated from natural soil environments (Kato et al., 2008). As a result, sulfur isotope ratios of OCS were increased during degradation of OCS, indicating that reaction for OC32S is faster than that for OC33S and OC34S. OCS degradation via microorganisms is not mass-independent fractionation (MIF) process, suggesting that this

  6. Online air analysis of reduced sulfur compounds at a swine facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced sulfur compounds are emitted from waste management handling and can be important in odor production and atmospheric chemistry. Data on the emissions of these compounds have been obtained using off-line sampling and analysis methods, but on-line methods providing information on temporal chang...

  7. Sulfur (32S, 33S, 34S, 36S) and oxygen (16O, 17O, 18O) isotopi primary sulfate produced from combustion processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, C.C.W.; Savarino, J.; Thiemens, M.H.; Cachier, H.

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of an anomalous enrichment in 17 O isotope in atmospheric sulfate has opened a new way to investigate the oxidation pathways of sulfur in the atmosphere. From laboratory investigations, it has been suggested that the wet oxidation of sulfur in rain droplets was responsible for the excess 17 O. In order to confirm this theory, sulfur and oxygen isotope ratios of different primary sulfates produced during fossil fuel combustion have been investigated and are reported. None of these samples exhibits any anomalous oxygen or sulfur isotopic content, as compared to urban sulfate aerosols. These results, in agreement with the laboratory investigations, reinforce the idea of an aqueous origin for the oxygen-17 anomaly found in tropospheric sulfates

  8. Effect of sulfur removal on Al2O3 scale adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smialek, James L.

    1991-03-01

    If the role of reactive element dopants in producing A12O3 scale adhesion on NiCrAl alloys is to getter sulfur and prevent interfacial segregation, then eliminating sulfur from undoped alloys should also produce adherence. Four experiments successfully produced scale adhesion by sulfur removal alone. (1) Repeated oxidation and polishing of a pure NiCrAl alloy lowered the sulfur content from 10 to 2 parts per million by weight (ppmw), presumably by removing the segregated interfacial layer after each cycle. Total scale spallation changed to total retention after 13 such cycles, with no changes in the scale or interfacial morphology. (2) Thinner samples became adherent after fewer oxidation polishing cycles because of a more limited supply of sulfur. (3) Spalling in subsequent cyclic oxidation tests of samples from experiment (1) was a direct function of the initial sulfur content. (4) Desulfurization to 0.1 ppmw levels was accomplished by annealing melt-spun foil in 1 arm H2. These foils produced oxidation weight change curves for 500 1-hour cycles at 1100 °C similar to those for Y- or Zr-doped NiCrAl. The transition between adherent and nonadherent behavior was modeled in terms of sulfur flux, sulfur content, and sulfur segregation.

  9. New Parameterizations for Neutral and Ion-Induced Sulfuric Acid-Water Particle Formation in Nucleation and Kinetic Regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Määttänen, Anni; Merikanto, Joonas; Henschel, Henning; Duplissy, Jonathan; Makkonen, Risto; Ortega, Ismael K.; Vehkamäki, Hanna

    2018-01-01

    We have developed new parameterizations of electrically neutral homogeneous and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water particle formation for large ranges of environmental conditions, based on an improved model that has been validated against a particle formation rate data set produced by Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) experiments at European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN). The model uses a thermodynamically consistent version of the Classical Nucleation Theory normalized using quantum chemical data. Unlike the earlier parameterizations for H2SO4-H2O nucleation, the model is applicable to extreme dry conditions where the one-component sulfuric acid limit is approached. Parameterizations are presented for the critical cluster sulfuric acid mole fraction, the critical cluster radius, the total number of molecules in the critical cluster, and the particle formation rate. If the critical cluster contains only one sulfuric acid molecule, a simple formula for kinetic particle formation can be used: this threshold has also been parameterized. The parameterization for electrically neutral particle formation is valid for the following ranges: temperatures 165-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1013 cm-3, and relative humidities 0.001-100%. The ion-induced particle formation parameterization is valid for temperatures 195-400 K, sulfuric acid concentrations 104-1016 cm-3, and relative humidities 10-5-100%. The new parameterizations are thus applicable for the full range of conditions in the Earth's atmosphere relevant for binary sulfuric acid-water particle formation, including both tropospheric and stratospheric conditions. They are also suitable for describing particle formation in the atmosphere of Venus.

  10. Graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres with ultra-high sulfur loading for high energy density lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Ya; Guo, Jinxin; Zhang, Jun, E-mail: zhangjun@zjnu.cn; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui, E-mail: gaohuidu@zjnu.edu.cn

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite with 91 wt% S is prepared. • It shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for Li–S cell. • The PVP coating and conductive graphene minimize polysulfides dissolution. • The flexible coatings with void space accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery with high theoretical energy density is one of the most promising energy storage systems for electric vehicles and intermittent renewable energy. However, due to the poor conductivity of the active material, considerable weight of the electrode is occupied by the conductive additives. Here we report a graphene-wrapped sulfur nanospheres composite (S-nanosphere@G) with sulfur content up to 91 wt% as the high energy density cathode material for Li–S battery. The sulfur nanospheres with diameter of 400–500 nm are synthesized through a solution-based approach with the existence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). Then the sulfur nanospheres are uniformly wrapped by conductive graphene sheets through the electrostatic interaction between graphene oxide and PVP, followed by reducing of graphene oxide with hydrazine. The design of graphene wrapped sulfur nanoarchitecture provides flexible conductive graphene coating with void space to accommodate the volume expansion of sulfur and to minimize polysulfide dissolution. As a result, the S-nanosphere@G nanocomposite with 91 wt% sulfur shows a reversible initial capacity of 970 mA h g{sup −1} and an average columbic efficiency > 96% over 100 cycles at a rate of 0.2 C. Taking the total mass of electrode into account, the S-nanosphere@G composite is a promising cathode material for high energy density Li–S batteries.

  11. Multiple-heteroatom-containing sulfur compounds in a high sulfur coal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winans, R.E.; Neill, P.H.

    1990-01-01

    Flash vacuum pyrolysis of a high sulfur coal has been combined with high resolution mass spectrometry yielding information on aromatic sulfur compounds containing an additional heteroatom. Sulfur emission from coal utilization is a critical problem and in order to devise efficient methods for removing organic sulfur, it is important to know what types of molecules contain sulfur. A high sulfur Illinois No. 6 bituminous coal (Argonne Premium Coal Sample No. 3) was pyrolyzed on a platinum grid using a quartz probe inserted into a modified all glass heated inlet system and the products characterized by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS). A significant number of products were observed which contained both sulfur and an additional heteroatom. In some cases two additional heteroatoms were observed. These results are compared to those found in coal extracts and liquefaction products

  12. Insight into the loading temperature of sulfur on sulfur/carbon cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye, Huan; Yin, Ya-Xia; Guo, Yu-Guo

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A cost-effective chemical activation method to prepare porous carbon nanospheres. • Carbon nanospheres with bimodal microporous structure show high specific area and large micropore volume. • The S/C composite cathodes with in-situformed S−C bond exhibit high sulfur activity with a reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 . • S−C bond enables well confinement on sulfur and polysulfides. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries are highly desired because of their characteristics such as high energy density. However, the applications of Li-S batteries are limited because they exist dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes. This study reports the preparation of sulfur cathodes by using bimodal microporous (0.5 nm and 0.8 nm to 2.0 nm) carbon spheres with high specific area (1992 m 2 g −1 ) and large micropore volume (1.2 g cm −1 ), as well as the encapsulation of polysulfides via formation of carbon–sulfur bonds in a sealed vacuum glass tube at high temperature. Given that sulfur and polysulfides are well confined by the S−C bond, the shuttle effect is effectively suppressed. The prepared S/C cathodes with a sulfur loading of up to 75% demonstrate high sulfur activity with reversible capacity of 1000 mA h g −1 at the current density of 0.1 A g −1 and good cycling stability (667 mA h g −1 after 100 cycles).

  13. Effects of sulfur addition on pitting corrosion and machinability behavior of super duplex stainless steel containing rare earth metals: Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Soon-Hyeok; Kim, Soon-Tae; Lee, In-Sung; Park, Yong-Soo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → The mechanisms on the effects of rare earth metals (REM) and sulfur (S) additions on the initiation and propagation of pitting corrosion and machinabillity of a super duplex stainless steel (SDSS) were elucidated → It was found that, in consideration of the ratio of lifetime (the resistance to pitting corrosion) to cost (machining and raw material), a costly austenitic stainless steel with high Ni , medium Mo and low N can be replaced by the high S and REM added SDSS with 7 wt.% Ni-4 wt% Mo-0.3 wt.% N → The resistance to pitting corrosion of the tested super duplex stainless steel was affected by the type of inclusions, the preferential interface areas between inclusions and the substrate, and the PREN difference between the γ-phase and the α-phase for the initiation and propagation of the pitting corrosion. - Abstract: To elucidate the effects of sulfur addition on pitting corrosion and machinability behavior of alloys containing rare earth metals, a potentiostatic polarization test, a critical pitting temperature test, a SEM-EDS analysis of inclusions, and a tool life test were conducted. As sulfur content increased, the resistance to pitting corrosion decreased due to the formation of numerous manganese sulfides deteriorating the corrosion resistance and an increase in the preferential interface areas for the initiation of the pitting corrosion. With an increase in sulfur content, the tool life increased due to the lubricating films of manganese sulfides adhering to tool surface.

  14. Atmospheric concentrations and deposition of oxidised sulfur and nitrogen species at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, 1993-1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Manins, P.C. [CSIRO Atmospheric Research, Aspendale, VIC (Australia); Peng Leong Chow; Fook Lim Sze [Malaysian Meteorological Service, Petaling Jaya (Malaysia); Kong Cheah Wai [Tenaga Nasional R and D Berhad, Kajang (Malaysia)

    2000-02-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition, acid-precursor gas mixing ratios and aerosol loading were determined from weekly-averaged samples at Petaling Jaya, Malaysia, over the five year period from March 1993 to March 1998. Annual deposition fluxes of acidic sulfur and nitrogen species estimated from these data show this site to be heavily impacted by acidic deposition, with total oxidised sulfur plus nitrogen deposition in the range 277-480 meq m{sup -2} yr{sup -1}. Average contributions were 56% as sulfur species, 44% as nitrogen species, with wet deposition in this region of high rainfall accounting for 67% of total deposition. Thus total acid deposition fluxes were equivalent to levels that provided motivation for emissions reduction programs in both Europe and North America. The possibility of adverse environmental effects in Malaysia caused by acid deposition therefore merits serious consideration and assessment.

  15. Nonlinear behavior in the time domain in argon atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Hong; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen

    2008-01-01

    A vast majority of nonlinear behavior in atmospheric pressure discharges has so far been studied in the space domain, and their time-domain characters are often believed to exact the periodicity of the externally applied voltage. In this paper, based on one-dimensional fluid mode, we study complex nonlinear behavior in the time domain in argon atmospheric dielectric-barrier discharges at very broad frequency range from kilohertz to megahertz. Under certain conditions, the discharge not only can be driven to chaos from time-periodic state through period-doubling bifurcation, but also can return stable periodic motion from chaotic state through an inverse period-doubling bifurcation sequence. Upon changing the parameter the discharge undergoes alternatively chaotic and periodic behavior. Some periodic windows embedded in chaos, as well as the secondary bifurcation occurring in the periodic windows can also be observed. The corresponding discharge characteristics are investigated.

  16. Atmospheric degradation mechanism of organic sulfur compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benter, T; Arsene, C

    2002-02-01

    In the present work a detailed product study has been performed on the OH radical initiated oxidation of dimethyl sulphide and dimethyl sulphoxide, under different conditions of temperature, partial pressure of oxygen and NO{sub x} concentration, in order to better define the degradation mechanism of the above compounds under conditions which prevail in the atmosphere. (orig.)

  17. Sulfur isotope variability of oceanic DMSP generation and its contributions to marine biogenic sulfur emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Harry; Van Alstyne, Kathryn L; Farquhar, James

    2012-06-05

    Oceanic dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) is the precursor to dimethylsulfide (DMS), which plays a role in climate regulation through transformation to methanesulfonic acid (MSA) and non-seasalt sulfate (NSS-SO(4)(2-)) aerosols. Here, we report measurements of the abundance and sulfur isotope compositions of DMSP from one phytoplankton species (Prorocentrum minimum) and five intertidal macroalgal species (Ulva lactuca, Ulva linza, Ulvaria obscura, Ulva prolifera, and Polysiphonia hendryi) in marine waters. We show that the sulfur isotope compositions (δ(34)S) of DMSP are depleted in (34)S relative to the source seawater sulfate by ∼1-3‰ and are correlated with the observed intracellular content of methionine, suggesting a link to metabolic pathways of methionine production. We suggest that this variability of δ(34)S is transferred to atmospheric geochemical products of DMSP degradation (DMS, MSA, and NSS-SO(4)(2-)), carrying implications for the interpretation of variability in δ(34)S of MSA and NSS-SO(4)(2-) that links them to changes in growth conditions and populations of DMSP producers rather than to the contributions of DMS and non-DMS sources.

  18. Electron microscopy of atmospheric particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Po-Fu

    Electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectrometry (EM/EDS) is a powerful tool for single particle analysis. However, the accuracy with which atmospheric particle compositions can be quantitatively determined by EDS is often hampered by substrate-particle interactions, volatilization losses in the low pressure microscope chamber, electron beam irradiation and use of inaccurate quantitation factors. A pseudo-analytical solution was derived to calculate the temperature rise due to the dissipation of the electron energy on a particle-substrate system. Evaporative mass loss for a spherical cap-shaped sulfuric acid particle resting on a thin film supported by a TEM grid during electron beam impingement has been studied. Measured volatilization rates were found to be in very good agreement with theoretical predictions. The method proposed can also be used to estimate the vapor pressure of a species by measuring the decay of X-ray intensities. Several types of substrates were studied. We found that silver-coated silicon monoxide substrates give carbon detection limits comparable to commercially available substrates. An advantage of these substrates is that the high thermal conductivity of the silver reduces heating due to electron beam impingement. In addition, exposure of sulfuric acid samples to ammonia overnight substantially reduces sulfur loss in the electron beam. Use of size-dependent k-factors determined from particles of known compositions shows promise for improving the accuracy of atmospheric particle compositions measured by EM/EDS. Knowledge accumulated during the course of this thesis has been used to analyze atmospheric particles (Minneapolis, MN) selected by the TDMA and collected by an aerodynamic focusing impactor. 'Less' hygroscopic particles, which do not grow to any measurable extent when humidified to ~90% relative humidity, included chain agglomerates, spheres, flakes, and irregular shapes. Carbon was the predominant element detected in

  19. A review of atmospheric polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons: sources, fate and behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, S.O.; Field, R.A.; Goldstone, M.E.; Kirk, P.W.; Lester, J.N.; Perry, R.

    1991-01-01

    A review has been written to assess the sources, fate and behavior of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) in the atmosphere. PAH are formed mainly by anthropogenic processes, especially the combustion of organic fuels. PAH concentration in air will reflect the location of source emitters, with high concentrations corresponding with urban and industrial areas. PAH are however ubiquitous contaminants of the environment having been detected in remote areas of the world. This is thought to be due to long term transport in the atmosphere. PAH can also be subjected to chemical and/or photochemical change whilst resident in the atmosphere prior to their removal by either wet or dry deposition. 146 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Toward Synchronous Evaluation of Source Apportionments for Atmospheric Concentration and Deposition of Sulfate Aerosol Over East Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itahashi, S.

    2018-03-01

    Source apportionments for atmospheric concentration, dry deposition, and wet deposition of sulfate aerosol (SO42-) were synchronously evaluated over East Asia, a main source of anthropogenic sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Estimating dry deposition was difficult owing to the difficulty of measuring deposition velocity directly; therefore, sensitivity simulations using two dry deposition schemes were conducted. Moreover, sensitivity simulations for different emission inventories, the largest uncertainty source in the air quality model, were also conducted. In total, four experimental settings were used. Model performance was verified for atmospheric concentration and wet deposition using a ground-based observation network in China, Korea, and Japan, and all four model settings captured the observations. The underestimation of wet deposition over China was improved by an adjusted approach that linearly scaled the modeled precipitation values to observations. The synchronous evaluation of source apportionments for atmospheric concentration and dry and wet deposition showed the dominant contribution of anthropogenic emissions from China to the atmospheric concentration and deposition in Japan. The contributions of emissions from volcanoes were more important for wet deposition than for atmospheric concentration. Differences in the dry deposition scheme and emission inventory did not substantially influence the relative ratio of source apportionments over Japan. Because the dry deposition was more attributed to local factors, the differences in dry deposition may be an important determinant of the source contributions from China to Japan. Verification of these findings, including the dry deposition velocity, is necessary for better understanding of the behavior of sulfur compound in East Asia.

  1. Sulfur-Containing Agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendar, Ponnam; Yang, Guang-Fu

    2017-10-09

    Modern agricultural chemistry has to support farmers by providing innovative agrochemicals. In this context, the introduction of sulfur atoms into an active ingredient is still an important tool in modulating the properties of new crop-protection compounds. More than 30% of today's agrochemicals contain at least one sulfur atom, mainly in fungicides, herbicides and insecticides. A number of recently developed sulfur-containing agrochemical candidates represent a novel class of chemical compounds with new modes of action, so we intend to highlight the emerging interest in commercially active sulfur-containing compounds. This chapter gives a comprehensive overview of selected leading sulfur-containing pesticidal chemical families namely: sulfonylureas, sulfonamides, sulfur-containing heterocyclics, thioureas, sulfides, sulfones, sulfoxides and sulfoximines. Also, the most suitable large-scale synthetic methods of the recently launched or provisionally approved sulfur-containing agrochemicals from respective chemical families have been highlighted.

  2. Environmental significance of atmospheric emission resulting from in situ burning of oiled salt marsh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devai, I.; DeLaune, R.D.; Henry, C.B. Jr.; Roberts, P.O.; Lindau, C.W.

    1998-01-01

    The environmental significance of atmospheric emissions resulting from in-situ burning used as remediation technique for removal of petroleum hydrocarbons entering Louisiana coastal salt marshes was quantified. Research conducted documented atmospheric pollutants produced and emitted to the atmosphere as the result of burning of oil contaminated wetlands. Samples collected from the smoke plume contained a variety of gaseous sulfur and carbon compounds. Carbonyl sulfide and carbon disulfide were the main volatile sulfur compounds. In contrast, concentrations of sulfur dioxide were almost negligible. Concentrations of methane and carbon dioxide in the smoke plume increased compared to ambient levels. Air samples collected for aromatic hydrocarbons in the smoke plume were dominated by pyrogenic or combustion derived aromatic hydrocarbons. The particulate fraction was dominated by phenanthrene and the C-1 and C-2 alkylated phenanthrene homologues. The vapor fraction was dominated by naphthalene and the C-1 to C-3 naphthalene homologues. (author)

  3. Effects of different annealing atmospheres on the properties of cadmium sulfide thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yücel, E., E-mail: dr.ersinyucel@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Kahraman, S. [Department of Metallurgy and Material Engineering, Faculty of Technology, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey); Güder, H.S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Mustafa Kemal University, 31034 Hatay (Turkey)

    2015-08-15

    Graphical abstract: The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. - Highlights: • Compactness and smoothness of the films were enhanced after sulfur annealing. • Micro-strain values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Dislocation density values of some films were improved after sulfur annealing. • Band gap values of the films were improved after sulfur annealing. - Abstract: Cadmium sulfide (CdS) thin films were prepared on glass substrates by using chemical bath deposition (CBD) technique. The effects of different annealing atmospheres (air and sulfur) on the structural, morphological and optical properties of CdS thin films were studied at three different pH values. Compactness and smoothness of the films (especially for pH 10.5 and 11) enhanced after sulfur annealing. pH value of the precursor solution remarkably affected the roughness, uniformity and particle sizes of the films. Based on the analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the films, micro-strain and dislocation density values of the sulfur-annealed films (pH 10.5 and 11) were found to be lower than those of air-annealed films. Air-annealed films (pH 10.5, 11 and 11.5) exhibited higher transmittance than sulfur-annealed films in the wavelength region of 550–800 nm. Optical band gap values of the films were found between 2.31 eV and 2.36 eV.

  4. Amines in the Earth’s Atmosphere: A Density Functional Theory Study of the Thermochemistry of Pre-Nucleation Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Herb

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The impact of organic species which are present in the Earth’s atmosphere on the burst of new particles is critically important for the understanding of the molecular nature of atmospheric nucleation phenomena. Amines have recently been proposed as possible stabilizers of binary pre-nucleation clusters. In order to advance the understanding of atmospheric nucleation phenomena, a quantum-chemical study of hydrogen-bonded complexes of binary sulfuric acid-water clusters with methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethylamines representing common atmospheric organic species, vegetation products and laboratory impurities has been carried out. The thermochemical stability of the sulfuric acid-amines-water complexes was found to be higher than that of the sulfuric acid-ammonia-water complexes, in qualitative agreement with the previous studies. However, the enhancement in stability due to amines appears to not be large enough to overcome the difference in typical atmospheric concentrations of ammonia and amines. Further research is needed in order to address the existing uncertainties and to reach a final conclusion about the importance of amines for the atmospheric nucleation.

  5. Factors controlling sulfur gas exchange in Sphagnum-dominated wetlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demello, William Zamboni; Hines, Mark E.; Bayley, Suzanne E.

    1992-01-01

    Atmosphere-peatland exchange of reduced sulfur gases was determined seasonally in fen in NH, and in an artificially-acidified fen at the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) in Canada. Dimethyl sulfide (DMS) dominated gas fluxes at rates as high as 400 nmol/m(sup -2)hr(sup -1). DMS fluxes measured using enclosures were much higher than those calculated using a stagnant-film model, suggesting that Sphagnum regulated efflux. Temperature controlled diel and seasonal variability in DMS emissions. Use of differing enclosure techniques indicated that vegetated peatlands consume atmospheric carbonyl sulfide. Sulfate amendments caused DMS and methane thiol concentrations in near-surface pore waters to increase rapidly, but fluxes of these gases to the atmosphere were not affected. However, emission data from sites experiencing large differences in rates of sulfate deposition from the atmosphere suggested that chronic elevated sulfate inputs enhance DMS emissions from northern wetlands.

  6. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation Historical and Projected Changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamarque, J.-F.; Dentener, F.; McConnell, J.; Ro, C.-U.; Shaw, M.; Vet, R.; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; hide

    2013-01-01

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. For this time slice, we find a multi-model mean deposition of 50 Tg(N) yr1 from nitrogen oxide emissions, 60 Tg(N) yr1 from ammonia emissions, and 83 Tg(S) yr1 from sulfur emissions. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching 1300 mg(N) m2 yr1 averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, 3050 larger than the values in any region currently (2000). The new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  7. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  8. The oceanic cycle and global atmospheric budget of carbonyl sulfide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    A significant portion of stratospheric air chemistry is influenced by the existence of carbonyl sulfide (COS). This ubiquitous sulfur gas represents a major source of sulfur to the stratosphere where it is converted to sulfuric acid aerosol particles. Stratospheric aerosols are climatically important because they scatter incoming solar radiation back to space and are able to increase the catalytic destruction of ozone through gas phase reactions on particle surfaces. COS is primarily formed at the surface of the earth, in both marine and terrestrial environments, and is strongly linked to natural biological processes. However, many gaps in the understanding of the global COS cycle still exist, which has led to a global atmospheric budget that is out of balance by a factor of two or more, and a lack of understanding of how human activity has affected the cycling of this gas. The goal of this study was to focus on COS in the marine environment by investigating production/destruction mechanisms and recalculating the ocean-atmosphere flux.

  9. Catalyst for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Y.; Yu, Q.; Chang, S.G.

    1996-02-27

    The inventive catalysts allow for the reduction of sulfur dioxide to elemental sulfur in smokestack scrubber environments. The catalysts have a very high sulfur yield of over 90% and space velocity of 10,000 h{sup {minus}1}. They also have the capacity to convert waste gases generated during the initial conversion into elemental sulfur. The catalysts have inexpensive components, and are inexpensive to produce. The net impact of the invention is to make this technology practically available to industrial applications. 21 figs.

  10. The growing contribution of sulfur emissions from ships in Asian waters, 1988-1995

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streets, David G.; Guttikunda, Sarath K.; Carmichael, Gregory R.

    International shipping is a major source of sulfur emissions in Asia. Because the fuel oil used by ships is high in sulfur, the resulting emissions of SO 2 are large and contribute as much as 20% to the atmospheric loading in the vicinity of ports and heavily traveled waterways. Because of the rapid growth of Asian economies in the 1980s and early 1990s, it is estimated that shipping trade grew by an average of 5.4% per year between 1988 and 1995; in particular, crude oil shipments to Asian countries other than Japan grew by an average of 11.4% per year. The emissions of SO 2 from shipping are estimated to have grown by 5.9% per year between 1988 and 1995, rising from 545 Gg in 1988 to 817 Gg in 1995. This study uses the ATMOS atmospheric transport and deposition model to study the effects of these emissions, both in absolute terms and relative to land-based emissions , on wet and dry deposition of sulfur. Southeast Asia is most heavily affected by emissions from ships, particularly Sumatra, peninsular Malaysia, and Singapore, which routinely receive in excess of 10% of their deposition from ships. A strong seasonal component is also observed, with large areas of Southeast Asia and coastal Japan receiving sulfur deposition that exceeds 10 mg S m -2 season -1. Deposition is at least 25% higher in summer and fall than in winter and spring. Peak values of 25-50 mg S m -2 season -1 are calculated for winter in the Strait of Malacca. This work suggests a need to introduce policies to reduce the sulfur content of marine fuels or otherwise reduce emissions of SO 2 from ships in Asian waters.

  11. Atmospheric Chemistry in a Changing World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, William H.

    The world is changing,and the atmosphere's composition is changing with it. Human activity is responsible for much of this. Global population growth and migration to urban centers, extensive biomass burning, the spread of fertilizer-intensive agribusiness, globalization of business and industry, rising standards of living in the developing world, and increased energy use fuels atmospheric change. If current practices continue, atmospheric increases are likely for the greenhouse gases carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide; and for the chemically active gases nitric oxide, sulfur dioxide,and ammonia. Increases in global tropospheric ozone and aerosols are a distinct possibility.

  12. Amines are likely to enhance neutral and ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere more effectively than ammonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Kurtén

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the structure and formation thermodynamics of dimer clusters containing H2SO4 or HSO4 together with ammonia and seven different amines possibly present in the atmosphere, using the high-level ab initio methods RI-MP2 and RI-CC2. As expected from e.g. proton affinity data, the binding of all studied amine-H2SO4 complexes is significantly stronger than that of NH3•H2SO4, while most amine-HSO4 complexes are only somewhat more strongly bound than NH3•HSO4. Further calculations on larger cluster structures containing dimethylamine or ammonia together with two H2SO4 molecules or one H2SO4 molecule and one HSO4 ion demonstrate that amines, unlike ammonia, significantly assist the growth of not only neutral but also ionic clusters along the H2SO4 co-ordinate. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the difference in complexation free energies for amine- and ammonia-containing clusters is large enough to overcome the mass-balance effect caused by the fact that the concentration of amines in the atmosphere is probably 2 or 3 orders of magnitude lower than that of ammonia. This implies that amines might be more important than ammonia in enhancing neutral and especially ion-induced sulfuric acid-water nucleation in the atmosphere.

  13. Adsorption behavior of sulfur-containing amino acid molecule on transition metal surface studied by S K-edge NEXAFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yagi, S.; Matsumura, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ikenaga, E.; Sardar, S.A.; Syed, J.A.; Soda, K.; Hashimoto, E.; Tanaka, K.; Taniguchi, M.

    2003-01-01

    Adsorption behavior of a sulfur-containing amino acid L-cysteine molecule on transition metal surface have been investigated by S K-edge near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure. The L-cysteine molecule for first adsorption layer was found to dissociate on polycrystalline nickel surface, whereas molecularly adsorbed on copper surface at room temperature. Most of the L-cysteine molecules have been dissociated on nickel surface in annealing condition up to 353 K. On the other hand, the L-cysteine molecule did not dissociate on copper surface and the elongation of the S-C bonding occurred at 353 K

  14. Stabilization of sulfuric acid dimers by ammonia, methylamine, dimethylamine, and trimethylamine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jen, Coty N.; McMurry, Peter H.; Hanson, David R.

    2014-06-01

    This study experimentally explores how ammonia (NH3), methylamine (MA), dimethylamine (DMA), and trimethylamine (TMA) affect the chemical formation mechanisms of electrically neutral clusters that contain two sulfuric acid molecules (dimers). Dimers may also contain undetectable compounds, such as water or bases, that evaporate upon ionization and sampling. Measurements were conducted using a glass flow reactor which contained a steady flow of humidified nitrogen with sulfuric acid concentrations of 107 to 109 cm-3. A known molar flow rate of a basic gas was injected into the flow reactor. The University of Minnesota Cluster Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometer was used to measure the resulting sulfuric acid vapor and cluster concentrations. It was found that, for a given concentration of sulfuric acid vapor, the dimer concentration increases with increasing concentration of the basic gas, eventually reaching a plateau. The base concentrations at which the dimer concentrations saturate suggest NH3 heuristic models for cluster formation by acid-base reactions are developed to interpret the data. The models provide ranges of evaporation rate constants that are consistent with observations and leads to an analytic expression for nucleation rates that is consistent with atmospheric observations.

  15. Thermochemical Study on the Sulfurization of Fission Products in Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Won; Yang, M. S.; Park, G. I.; Kim, W. K.; Lee, J. W.

    2005-11-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of the sulfurization of Nd, and Eu element, which are contained in spent nuclear fuel as fission products was investigated through collection and properties analysis of thermodynamic data in sulfurization of uranium oxides, thermodynamic properties analysis for the oxidation and reduction of fission products, and test and analysis for sulfurization characteristics of Nd and Eu oxide. And also, analysis on thermodynamic data, such as M-O-S phase stability diagram and changes of Gibbs free energy for sulfurization of uranium and Nd 2 O 3 and Eu 2 O 3 were carried out. Nd 2 O 3 and Eu 2 O 3 are sulfurized into Nd 2 O 2 S and Eu 2 O 2 S or NdySx and EuySx at a range of 400 to 450 .deg. C, while uranium oxides, such as UO 2 and U 3 O 8 remain unreacted up to 450 .deg. C Formation of UOS at 500 .deg. C is initiated by sulfurization of uranium oxides. Hence, reaction temperature for the sulfurization of the Nd 2 O 3 and Eu 2 O 3 was selected as a 450 .deg. C

  16. Sulfur-binding in recent environments: II. Speciation of sulfur and iron and implications for the occurrence of organo-sulfur compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartgers, Walter A.; Lòpez, Jordi F.; Sinninghe Damsté, Jaap S.; Reiss, Christine; Maxwell, James R.; Grimalt, Joan O.

    1997-11-01

    Speciation of iron and sulfur species was determined for two recent sediments (La Trinitat and Lake Cisó) which were deposited in environments with a high biological productivity and sulfate-reducing activity. In sediments from calcite ponds of La Trinitat an excess of reactive iron species (iron monosulfides, iron hydroxides) results in a depletion of reactive sulfur which is accompanied by a virtual absence of organo-sulfur compounds, both in low (LMW) and high molecular-weight (HMW) fractions. Small amounts of phytanyl and highly branched isoprenoid (HBI) thiophenes in the extract demonstrate that these molecules exhibit a higher reactivity towards reduced sulfur species as compared to detrital iron. Euxinic sediments from Lake Cisó are characterised by an excess of reduced sulfur species which can rapidly trap reactive iron. High concentrations of H 2S results in the formation of organo-sulfur compounds which were encountered in both LMW and HMW fractions. The major part of the organic sulfur is bound to the carbohydrate portion of woody tissues, whose presence was revealed by a specific alkylthiophene distribution in the flash pyrolysate and by Li/EtNH 2 desulfurisation of the kerogen which resulted in the solubilisation of the sulfur-enriched hemicellulose fraction. Relatively high amounts of sulfurised C 25 HBI compounds in the sediment extract of Lake Cisó reflect the incorporation of sulfur into algal derived organic matter upon early diagenesis. The combined approach of the speciation of iron and sulfur species and the molecular analysis of sedimentary fractions demonstrates that abiotic sulfur binding to organic matter occurs at the earliest stages of diagenesis under specific depositional conditions (anoxic, stratified water column) in which an excess of reduced sulfur species relative to the amount of reactive iron is a controlling factor.

  17. COMPONENT DEVELOPMENT NEEDS FOR THE HYBRID SULFUR ELECTROLYZER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Hector Colon-Mercado, H; Mark Elvington, M

    2008-05-30

    , the kinetic activity decreases. We recommend further testing to determine if these binary alloys will provide the increased reaction kinetic needed to meet the targets. We also plan to test the performance of these catalyst materials for both proton and sulfur dioxide reduction. The latter may provide another parameter by which we can control the reduction of sulfur dioxide upon transport to the cathode catalyst surface. A small scale electrolyzer (2 cm{sup 2}) has been fabricated and successfully installed as an additional tool to evaluate the effect of different operating conditions on electrolyzer and MEA performance. Currently this electrolyzer is limited to testing at temperatures up to 80 C and at atmospheric pressure. Selected electrochemical performance data from the single cell sulfur dioxide depolarized electrolyzer were analyzed with the aid of an empirical equation which takes into account the overpotential of each of the components. By using the empirical equation, the performance data was broken down into its components and a comparison of the potential losses was made. The results indicated that for the testing conditions of 80 C and 30 wt% sulfuric acid, the major overpotential contribution ({approx}70 % of all losses) arise from the slow reaction rate of oxidation of sulfur dioxide. The results indicate that in order to meet the target of hydrogen production at 0.5 A/cm{sup 2} at 0.6 V and 50 wt% sulfuric acid, identification of a better catalyst for sulfur dioxide oxidation will provide the largest gain in electrolyzer performance.

  18. Lithium sulfur batteries and electrolytes and sulfur cathodes thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visco, Steven J.; Goncharenko, Nikolay; Nimon, Vitaliy; Petrov, Alexei; Nimon, Yevgeniy S.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.; Katz, Bruce D.; Loginova, Valentina

    2017-05-23

    Lithium sulfur battery cells that use water as an electrolyte solvent provide significant cost reductions. Electrolytes for the battery cells may include water solvent for maintaining electroactive sulfur species in solution during cell discharge and a sufficient amount of a cycle life-enhancing compound that facilitates charging at the cathode. The combination of these two components enhances one or more of the following cell attributes: energy density, power density and cycle life. For instance, in applications where cost per Watt-Hour (Wh) is paramount, such as grid storage and traction applications, the use of an aqueous electrolyte in combination with inexpensive sulfur as the cathode active material can be a key enabler for the utility and automotive industries, for example, providing a cost effective and compact solution for load leveling, electric vehicles and renewable energy storage. Sulfur cathodes, and methods of fabricating lithium sulfur cells, in particular for loading lithium sulfide into the cathode structures, provide further advantages.

  19. Stress Corrosion Cracking of Ni-base Alloys in Sulfur Containing Solutions at 340 .deg. C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Eun Hee; Hwang, Seong Sik; Kim, Dong Jin; Kim, Sung Woo [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Sulfur has been identified as one of the major impurities introduced into the secondary water of pressurized water-reactors (PWRs). Sulfur can originate from various sources, such as resin sources, feed water, cooling water in-leakage, and condenser leaks. Many authors have investigated effects of reduced sulfur in a wide pH range with or without additives. The presence of reduced sulfur species on the surfaces of pulled tubes having stress corrosion cracking (SCC) was also identified. In present work, SCC tests were conducted to investigate effects of reduced sulfur species on the SCC behavior of Ni-base Alloys. The Alloy 690 TT showed the most SCC resistant, regardless of the sulfur species. The Cr content and heat treatments of alloys appeared the increase in the SCC resistance.

  20. Sulfur X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy of Living Mammalian Cells: An Enabling Tool for Sulfur Metabolomics. in Situ Observation of Uptake of Taurine Into MDCK Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnida, M.; Sneeden, E.Yu; Whitin, J.C.; Prince, R.C.; Pickering, I.J.; Korbas, M.; George, G.N.

    2009-06-01

    Sulfur is essential for life, with important roles in biological structure and function. However, because of a lack of suitable biophysical techniques, in situ information about sulfur biochemistry is generally difficult to obtain. Here, we present an in situ sulfur X-ray absorption spectroscopy (S-XAS) study of living cell cultures of the mammalian renal epithelial MDCK cell line. A great deal of information is retrieved from a characteristic sulfonate feature in the X-ray absorption spectrum of the cell cultures, which can be related to the amino acid taurine. We followed the time and dose dependence of uptake of taurine into MDCK cell monolayers. The corresponding uptake curves showed a typical saturation behavior with considerable levels of taurine accumulation inside the cells (as much as 40% of total cellular sulfur). We also investigated the polarity of uptake of taurine into MDCK cells, and our results confirmed that uptake in situ is predominantly a function of the basolateral cell surface.

  1. Sulfur dioxide concentrations near thermoelectric power plant of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Florio, G.

    1991-01-01

    This article presents the results of a one-year atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentration monitoring campaign conducted with the use of five detection stations situated near the 320 MW thermoelectric power plant serving the coastal town of Rossano Calabro (population 50,000). Apart from the analysis of sulfur dioxide concentrations, a meteorological study was carried out based on anemological data. Comparisons were made with reference to the relevant legal standards. It was thus possible to ascertain that air quality near the power station is quite high. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, due to the particular local meteorological situation strongly turbulent sea breezes, new detection stations should be opened in this area which may undergo significant industrial development

  2. Sulfur dioxide concentrations near thermoelectric power plant of Rossano Calabro (Italy)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florio, G. (Calabria Univ., Arcavacata di Rende (Italy). Dipt. di Meccanica)

    This article presents the results of a one-year atmospheric sulfur dioxide concentration monitoring campaign conducted with the use of five detection stations situated near the 320 MW thermoelectric power plant serving the coastal town of Rossano Calabro (population 50,000). Apart from the analysis of sulfur dioxide concentrations, a meteorological study was carried out based on anemological data. Comparisons were made with reference to the relevant legal standards. It was thus possible to ascertain that air quality near the power station is quite high. Nevertheless, it should be pointed out that, due to the particular local meteorological situation strongly turbulent sea breezes, new detection stations should be opened in this area which may undergo significant industrial development.

  3. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-06-06

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  4. Graphene oxide as a sulfur immobilizer in high performance lithium/sulfur cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yuegang; Cairns, Elton J.; Ji, Liwen; Rao, Mumin

    2017-12-26

    The loss of sulfur cathode material as a result of polysulfide dissolution causes significant capacity fading in rechargeable lithium/sulfur cells. Embodiments of the invention use a chemical approach to immobilize sulfur and lithium polysulfides via the reactive functional groups on graphene oxide. This approach obtains a uniform and thin (.about.tens of nanometers) sulfur coating on graphene oxide sheets by a chemical reaction-deposition strategy and a subsequent low temperature thermal treatment process. Strong interaction between graphene oxide and sulfur or polysulfides demonstrate lithium/sulfur cells with a high reversible capacity of 950-1400 mAh g.sup.-1, and stable cycling for more than 50 deep cycles at 0.1 C.

  5. Method of removing and recovering elemental sulfur from highly reducing gas streams containing sulfur gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangwal, Santosh K.; Nikolopoulos, Apostolos A.; Dorchak, Thomas P.; Dorchak, Mary Anne

    2005-11-08

    A method is provided for removal of sulfur gases and recovery of elemental sulfur from sulfur gas containing supply streams, such as syngas or coal gas, by contacting the supply stream with a catalyst, that is either an activated carbon or an oxide based catalyst, and an oxidant, such as sulfur dioxide, in a reaction medium such as molten sulfur, to convert the sulfur gases in the supply stream to elemental sulfur, and recovering the elemental sulfur by separation from the reaction medium.

  6. Effects on water, soil and vegetation of an increasing atmospheric supply of sulfur: a survey on ecological bases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malmer, N; Nilsson, F M.I.

    1974-01-01

    In this paper a critical survey is given of the research work carried out on the ecological effects of the increasing rate of sulfur deposition, especially with reference to Swedish conditions. It also contains information about soil types and soil conditions of importance for the understanding of the problems. In several lakes and rivers this increased supply of sulfur (mainly as SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/) has brought about a considerable decrease in pH. In most lakes and rivers of the oligotrophic type the concentration of bicarbonate ion (the main buffer of pH changes) was already low, and it has now been reduced to the extent that a further increase in the deposition of sulfate will immediately result in marked and much more widespread acidification. The increase in the supply of sulfur which has already occurred will influence the conditions of the soil in several ways. A distinct decrease in forest productivity is to be expected. Due to the short time that has passed since the supply of sulfur started to increase it is, however, doubtful whether such a decrease is yet measurable with the measurement methods commonly used in forest taxation. 88 references.

  7. Planetary Sources for Reducing Sulfur Compounds for Cyanosulfidic Origins of Life Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranjan, S.; Todd, Z. R.; Sutherland, J.; Sasselov, D. D.

    2017-12-01

    A key challenge in origin-of-life studies is understanding the chemistry that lead to the origin of the key biomolecules of life, such as the components of nucleic acids, sugars, lipids, and proteins. Prebiotic reaction networks based upon reductive homologation of nitriles (e.g., Patel et al. 2015), are building a tantalizing picture of sustained abiotic synthesis of activated ribonucleotides, amino acids and lipid precursors under environmental conditions thought to have been available on early Earth. Sulfidic anions in aqueous solution (e.g., HS-, HSO3-) under near-UV irradiation play important roles in these chemical pathways. However, the sources and availability of these anions on early Earth have not yet been quantitatively constrained. Here, we evaluate the potential for the atmosphere to serve as a source of sulfidic anions, via dissolution of volcanically-outgassed SO2 and H2S into water reservoirs. We combine photochemical modeling from the literature (Hu et al. 2013) with equilibrium chemistry calculations to place constraints on the partial pressures of SO2 and H2S required to reach the elevated concentrations of sulfidic anions (≥1 μM) thought to be necessary for prebiotic chemistry. We find that micromolar levels of SO2-derived anions (HSO3-, SO3(2-)) are possible through simple exposure of aqueous reservoirs like shallow lakes to the atmosphere, assuming total sulfur emission flux comparable to today. Millimolar levels of these compounds are available during the epochs of elevated volcanism, due to elevated sulfur emission flux. Radiative transfer modeling suggests the atmospheric sulfur will not block the near-UV radiation also required for the cyanosulfidic chemistry. However, H2S-derived anions (e.g., HS-) reach only sub-micromolar levels from atmospheric sources, meaning that prebiotic chemistry invoking such molecules must invoke specialized, local sources. Prebiotic chemistry invoking SO2-derived anions may be considered more robust than

  8. Selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds for the production of low sulfur transportation fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Joo-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Young-Kwon [University of Seoul, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    The current technologies for achieving low sulfur in diesel fuel are based on hydrotreating, which requires high temperature, high pressure and excessive supply of hydrogen. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) is considered one of the promising new methods for super deep desulfurization, which could be carried out under very mild conditions (atmospheric pressure, <100 .deg.. C) without consumption of hydrogen. In this paper, development status of ODS process by major licensors are described as well as general concepts of ODS reaction. In addition, the ODS process has been categorized into single phasic and biphasic system according to the oxidants involved. Recent trends in both systems are reviewed in detail and future work is also proposed.

  9. Selective oxidation of refractory sulfur compounds for the production of low sulfur transportation fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Kwang-Eun; Kim, Tae-Wan; Kim, Joo-Wan; Chae, Ho-Jeong; Kim, Chul-Ung; Jeong, Soon-Yong; Park, Young-Kwon

    2013-01-01

    The current technologies for achieving low sulfur in diesel fuel are based on hydrotreating, which requires high temperature, high pressure and excessive supply of hydrogen. Oxidative desulfurization (ODS) is considered one of the promising new methods for super deep desulfurization, which could be carried out under very mild conditions (atmospheric pressure, <100 .deg.. C) without consumption of hydrogen. In this paper, development status of ODS process by major licensors are described as well as general concepts of ODS reaction. In addition, the ODS process has been categorized into single phasic and biphasic system according to the oxidants involved. Recent trends in both systems are reviewed in detail and future work is also proposed

  10. The life sulfuric: microbial ecology of sulfur cycling in marine sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasmund, Kenneth; Mußmann, Marc; Loy, Alexander

    2017-08-01

    Almost the entire seafloor is covered with sediments that can be more than 10 000 m thick and represent a vast microbial ecosystem that is a major component of Earth's element and energy cycles. Notably, a significant proportion of microbial life in marine sediments can exploit energy conserved during transformations of sulfur compounds among different redox states. Sulfur cycling, which is primarily driven by sulfate reduction, is tightly interwoven with other important element cycles (carbon, nitrogen, iron, manganese) and therefore has profound implications for both cellular- and ecosystem-level processes. Sulfur-transforming microorganisms have evolved diverse genetic, metabolic, and in some cases, peculiar phenotypic features to fill an array of ecological niches in marine sediments. Here, we review recent and selected findings on the microbial guilds that are involved in the transformation of different sulfur compounds in marine sediments and emphasise how these are interlinked and have a major influence on ecology and biogeochemistry in the seafloor. Extraordinary discoveries have increased our knowledge on microbial sulfur cycling, mainly in sulfate-rich surface sediments, yet many questions remain regarding how sulfur redox processes may sustain the deep-subsurface biosphere and the impact of organic sulfur compounds on the marine sulfur cycle. © 2017 The Authors. Environmental Microbiology published by Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Sulfur Removal by Adding Iron During the Digestion Process of High-sulfur Bauxite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhanwei, Liu; Hengwei, Yan; Wenhui, Ma; Keqiang, Xie; Dunyong, Li; Licong, Zheng; Pengfei, Li

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel approach to sulfur removal by adding iron during the digestion process. Iron can react with high-valence sulfur (S2O3 2-, SO3 2-, SO4 2-) to generate S2- at digestion temperature, and then S2- enter red mud in the form of Na3FeS3 to be removed. As iron dosage increases, high-valence sulfur concentration decreases, but the concentration of S2- increases; sulfur digestion rate decreases while sulfur content in red mud markedly increases; the alumina digestion rate, conversely, remains fairly stable. So sulfur can be removed completely by adding iron in digestion process, which provide a theoretical basis for the effective removal of sulfur in alumina production process.

  12. Transferring the Incremental Capacity Analysis to Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Kalogiannis, Theodoros; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    In order to investigate the battery degradation and to estimate their health, various techniques can be applied. One of them, which is widely used for Lithium-ion batteries, is the incremental capacity analysis (ICA). In this work, we apply the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries, which differ in many...... aspects from Lithium-ion batteries and possess unique behavior. One of the challenges of applying the ICA to Lithium-Sulfur batteries is the representation of the IC curves, as their voltage profiles are often non-monotonic, resulting in more complex IC curves. The ICA is at first applied to charge...

  13. Nanostructured sulfur cathodes

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    Rechargeable Li/S batteries have attracted significant attention lately due to their high specific energy and low cost. They are promising candidates for applications, including portable electronics, electric vehicles and grid-level energy storage. However, poor cycle life and low power capability are major technical obstacles. Various nanostructured sulfur cathodes have been developed to address these issues, as they provide greater resistance to pulverization, faster reaction kinetics and better trapping of soluble polysulfides. In this review, recent developments on nanostructured sulfur cathodes and mechanisms behind their operation are presented and discussed. Moreover, progress on novel characterization of sulfur cathodes is also summarized, as it has deepened the understanding of sulfur cathodes and will guide further rational design of sulfur electrodes. © 2013 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  14. Regeneration and sulfur poisoning behavior of In/H-BEA catalyst for NO{sub x} reduction by CH{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Hua; Jian, Yanfei; Yu, Yanke, E-mail: yankeyu@xjtu.edu.cn; He, Chi, E-mail: chi_he@xjtu.edu.cn; Shen, Zhenxing; Liu, Hongxia

    2017-04-15

    Highlights: • Sulfur poisoning mechanism of In/H-BEA was investigated for CH{sub 4}-SCR by in situ DRIFT. • H{sub 2} reduction could reduce In{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} to InO{sup +} via In{sub 2}(SO{sub 4}){sub 3} → In{sub 2}O{sub 3} → In(OH){sub 2}{sup +} → InO{sup +}. • The optimal regeneration parameters of H{sub 2} reduction was 400 °C and 60 min. - Abstract: Sulfur poisoning and regeneration behavior of In/H-BEA catalyst were carried out in NO{sub x} reduction by CH{sub 4}. In/H-BEA catalyst exhibited a poor resistance to sulfur dioxide after addition of 200 ppm SO{sub 2} and 10 vol.% H{sub 2}O into NO reduction with CH{sub 4} at 450 °C for 45 h. Sulfur poisoning of In/H-BEA was attributed to the inhibition of NO{sub x} adsorption on Brønsted acid sites, suppression of reaction intermediates generation on the active sites, and the formation of surface sulfate species. The formation of surface sulfate reduced the availability of surface active sites, blocked the pore structure and decreased the surface area of catalyst. These changes in chemical and textural properties resulted in a severe loss in the activity of sulfated In/H-BEA catalyst for NO reduction with CH{sub 4}. H{sub 2} reduction is a promising technology for regeneration of In/H-BEA deactivated by SO{sub 2} for removing NO{sub x} from lean-burn and diesel exhausts. Indium sulfate could be reduced by H{sub 2} to InO{sup +} with In{sub 2}O{sub 3} and In(OH){sub 2}{sup +} as the intermediates. The optimal parameters of H{sub 2} reduction was regeneration temperature of 400 °C and regeneration time of 60 min which completely recovered the catalytic activity of In/H-BEA.

  15. Sulfur removal from low-sulfur gasoline and diesel fuel by metal-organic frameworks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hagen, G.; Haemmerle, M.; Moos, R. [Functional Materials, University of Bayreuth, Bayreuth (Germany); Malkowsky, I.M.; Kiener, C. [BASF SE, Ludwigshafen (Germany); Achmann, S.

    2010-02-15

    Several materials in the class of metal-organic frameworks (MOF) were investigated to determine their sorption characteristics for sulfur compounds from fuels. The materials were tested using different model oils and common fuels such as low-sulfur gasoline or diesel fuel at room temperature and ambient pressure. Thiophene and tetrahydrothiophene (THT) were chosen as model substances. Total-sulfur concentrations in the model oils ranged from 30 mg/kg (S from thiophene) to 9 mg/kg (S from tetrahydrothiophene) as determined by elementary analysis. Initial sulfur contents of 8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg were identified for low-sulfur gasoline and for diesel fuel, respectively, by analysis of the common liquid fuels. Most of the MOF materials examined were not suitable for use as sulfur adsorbers. However, a high efficiency for sulfur removal from fuels and model oils was noticed for a special copper-containing MOF (copper benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylate, Cu-BTC-MOF). By use of this material, 78 wt % of the sulfur content was removed from thiophene containing model oils and an even higher decrease of up to 86 wt % was obtained for THT-based model oils. Moreover, the sulfur content of low-sulfur gasoline was reduced to 6.5 mg/kg, which represented a decrease of more than 22 %. The sulfur level in diesel fuel was reduced by an extent of 13 wt %. Time-resolved measurements demonstrated that the sulfur-sorption mainly occurs in the first 60 min after contact with the adsorbent, so that the total time span of the desulfurization process can be limited to 1 h. Therefore, this material seems to be highly suitable for sulfur reduction in commercial fuels in order to meet regulatory requirements and demands for automotive exhaust catalysis-systems or exhaust gas sensors. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  16. Determining total sulfur content in coal by MSC radiometric sulfur meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czerw, B; Sikora, T; Golebiowski, W

    1976-01-01

    The MSC radiometric sulfur meter is used to determine total sulfur content in brown and black coals. Sulfur content is determined by measuring intensity of radiation beam which has travelled through a coal sample with the optimum constant surface mass. Construction of the MSC, consisting of a measuring head and the electronic measuring system, is shown in a scheme. AM-241 (with activity of 50 mCi) is the source of radiation. Energy of 25.3 keV (tin disc) is selected as the optimum. The SSU-70 probe with NaJ/Tl crystal is the radiation detector. The black coal sample weighs 10 g and the brown coal sample weighs 18 g. Duration of sulfur determination is 10 min. Error of sulfur determination ranges from plus or minus 0.2% to 0.3%. The results of operational tests of MSC radiometric sulfur meters in black and brown coal mines are discussed. Accuracy of measurement is shown in 5 tables. (8 refs.)

  17. Atmospheric sciences annual progress report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, W.D.

    1975-11-01

    Activities in atmospheric sciences in the Department of Applied Science at Brookhaven National Laboratory carried out during 1974 are described. Included are contributions from the Meteorology, Atmospheric Diagnostics, Atmospheric Chemistry Research, and Atmospheric Instrumentation Groups. Programs in Meteorology reported on include diffusion from an off-shore source, plume dynamics studies, modeling of coastal effects on wind and temperature fields and pollutant distributions, effects of indoor shelter on inhalation of airborne radionuclides, chemical-dynamical interactions, techniques for determining acid-rain impact upon the ecology of the eastern U.S., and climatology. Work under Atmospheric Chemistry Research was concentrated on atmospheric aerosol studies, including formation by free radical and neutral association reactions, identification of reactive systems leading to aerosol formation, growth of sodium aerosols under atmospheric conditions and clustering reactions. Atmospheric Diagnostics presents work on field sampling and analytical technology for atmospheric pollutants, airborne sampling systems, atmospheric sulfate particulates methodology, and on a pyroturbidometric method for particulate sulfate discrimination and determination. Methodology for the use of sulfur hexafluoride in field tracer studies is discussed under Atmospheric Instrumentation. A list of publications is included

  18. Effect of sulfur on the SCC and corrosion fatigue performance of stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, E.; Nolan, T.; Lucente, A.; Morton, D.; Lewis, N.; Morris, R.; Mullen, J.; Newsome, G.

    2015-01-01

    Stress corrosion cracking and corrosion fatigue experiments were conducted on model heats of 304/304L stainless steel with systematically controlled sulfur content to isolate the influence of sulfur on crack growth behavior. The results of the SCC experiments conducted in 338 C. degrees deaerated water on 20% cold worked model heats with 0.006 and 0.012 wt% sulfur showed an order of magnitude or more reduction in the crack growth rate relative to a model heat with <0.001 wt% sulfur. Corrosion fatigue crack growth rates revealed a reduction in the crack growth rates of the elevated sulfur heats relative to model predicted steady state crack growth rates with increasing rise time for nominal loading conditions of a stress ratio of 0.7 and a stress intensity factor range of 6.6 MPa√m. At the longest rise time of 5.330 sec, the corrosion fatigue crack growth rate of the 0.006 wt% sulfur model heat was only 13% of model predictions and the crack growth of the 0.012 wt% sulfur heat completely stalled. Experiments conducted in anion faulted aerated water on stainless steel heats with moderate to high sulfur and variable carbon and boron contents showed that any detrimental effect of sulfur in this environment was secondary to the effect of sensitization in promoting SCC growth. (authors)

  19. Comparative Study of Ether-Based Electrolytes for Application in Lithium-Sulfur Battery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbone, Lorenzo; Gobet, Mallory; Peng, Jing; Devany, Matthew; Scrosati, Bruno; Greenbaum, Steve; Hassoun, Jusef

    2015-07-01

    Herein, we report the characteristics of electrolytes using various ether-solvents with molecular composition CH3O[CH2CH2O]nCH3, differing by chain length, and LiCF3SO3 as the lithium salt. The electrolytes, considered as suitable media for lithium-sulfur batteries, are characterized in terms of thermal properties (TGA, DSC), lithium ion conductivity, lithium interface stability, cyclic voltammetry, self-diffusion properties of the various components, and lithium transference number measured by NMR. Furthermore, the electrolytes are characterized in lithium cells using a sulfur-carbon composite cathode by galvanostatic charge-discharge tests. The results clearly evidence the influence of the solvent chain length on the species mobility within the electrolytes that directly affects the behavior in lithium sulfur cell. The results may effectively contribute to the progress of an efficient, high-energy lithium-sulfur battery.

  20. Sulfuric acid nucleation: power dependencies, variation with relative humidity, and effect of bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Zollner

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Nucleation of particles composed of sulfuric acid, water, and nitrogen base molecules was studied using a continuous flow reactor. The particles formed from these vapors were detected with an ultrafine condensation particle counter, while vapors of sulfuric acid and nitrogen bases were detected by chemical ionization mass spectrometry. Variation of particle numbers with sulfuric acid concentration yielded a power dependency on sulfuric acid of 5 ± 1 for relative humidities of 14–68% at 296 K; similar experiments with varying water content yielded power dependencies on H2O of ~7. The critical cluster contains about 5 H2SO4 molecules and a new treatment of the power dependency for H2O suggests about 12 H2O molecules for these conditions. Addition of 2-to-45 pptv of ammonia or methyl amine resulted in up to millions of times more particles than in the absence of these compounds. Particle detection capabilities, sulfuric acid and nitrogen base detection, wall losses, and the extent of particle growth are discussed. Results are compared to previous laboratory nucleation studies and they are also discussed in terms of atmospheric nucleation scenarios.

  1. Emissions of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur from biomass burning in Nigeria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akeredolu, F.; Isichei, A.O.

    1991-01-01

    The atmospheric implications of the effects of burning of vegetation in Nigeria are discussed. The following topics are explored: the extent of biomass burning by geographical area; estimates of emission rates of carbon, nitrogen and sulfur; and the impact on biogeochemical cycling of elements. The results suggest that biomass burning generates a measurable impact on the cycling of carbon and nitrogen

  2. A Li+-conductive microporous carbon–sulfur composite for Li-S batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wenhua; Qiao, Dan; Pan, Jiaxin; Cao, Yuliang; Yang, Hanxi; Ai, Xinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► A carbon–sulfur composite was prepared by vaporizing sulfur into the nanopores of Li + -conductive carbon microspheres. ► The redox reaction of S 8 molecules embedded in the nanopores of carbon microspheres proceeds through a solid–solid mechanism at the S/C interfaces. ► The carbon–sulfur composite exhibits a stable cycling performance and a superior high coulombic efficiency of 100%. - Abstract: In this paper, we propose a new strategy to develop high performance sulfur electrode by impregnating sulfur into the micropores of a Li + -insertable carbon matrix with the simultaneous use of a carbonate electrolyte, which does not dissolve polysulfides, to restrain the solution of the reaction intermediates of sulfur. To proof this concept, we prepared a Li + -insertable microporous carbon–sulfur composite by vaporizing sulfur into the micropores of the nanofiber-wired carbon microspheres. The experimental results demonstrate that, in the carbonate electrolyte of 1 M LiPF 6 /PC-EC-DEC, such S/C composite electrode exhibits not only stable cycling performance with a reversible capacity of 720 mAh g −1 after 100 cycles, but also superior high coulombic efficiency of ∼100% upon extended cycling (except the first three cycles). The structural and electrochemical analysis indicates that the improved electrochemical behaviors of the S/C composite arise from a new reaction mechanism, in which Li + ions and electrons transport through the carbon matrix into the interior of the cathode and then react with the embedded sulfur in the S/C solid–solid interfaces, avoiding the solution of the intermediates into the bulk electrolyte. More significantly, the structural design and working mechanism of such a sulfur cathode could be extended to a variety of poorly conductive and easily soluble redox-active materials for battery applications.

  3. Sulfur determination in concrete samples using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and limestone standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrdlička, Aleš; Hegrová, Jitka; Novotný, Karel; Kanický, Viktor; Prochazka, David; Novotný, Jan; Modlitbová, Pavlína; Sládková, Lucia; Pořízka, Pavel; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-04-01

    A LIBS equipment operating at 532 nm was optimized and used for sulfur determination in concrete samples. The influence of He atmosphere in a gas-tight chamber (1000-200 mbar) on S I 921.29 nm line sensitivity, signal-to-background and signal-to-noise ratio was studied at gate delays 100-2000 ns. Wide range of gate delays from 500 to about 1000 ns and pressures from several hundreds of mbar to the atmospheric pressure can be used for the desired detection of sulfur. The LIBS quantification was done using a simple calibration method. A synthetic limestone enriched by defined amounts of sodium sulfate was newly employed for direct quantification of S in concrete. This powder material was pressed into pellets and ablated with the LIBS system. The average content of sulfur as SO3 in the samples was 0.41-0.70 wt% by LIBS and 0.43-0.61 wt% by a reference standard procedure employing gravimetry and Inductively Coupled Plasma Triple Quad Mass Spectrometry (ICP-QQQMS). The uncertainty of the yielded LIBS results covers also the dispersion of the points in the calibration line and ranges from 16 to 28% at the probability level of 95%. The uncertainty of the ICP-QQQMS results was almost 10%. No correction on different signal response on the limestone and on the concrete was necessary.

  4. Sulfur emission from Victorian brown coal under pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion and gasification conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2013-02-05

    Sulfur emission from a Victorian brown coal was quantitatively determined through controlled experiments in a continuously fed drop-tube furnace under three different atmospheres: pyrolysis, oxy-fuel combustion, and carbon dioxide gasification conditions. The species measured were H(2)S, SO(2), COS, CS(2), and more importantly SO(3). The temperature (873-1273 K) and gas environment effects on the sulfur species emission were investigated. The effect of residence time on the emission of those species was also assessed under oxy-fuel condition. The emission of the sulfur species depended on the reaction environment. H(2)S, SO(2), and CS(2) are the major species during pyrolysis, oxy-fuel, and gasification. Up to 10% of coal sulfur was found to be converted to SO(3) under oxy-fuel combustion, whereas SO(3) was undetectable during pyrolysis and gasification. The trend of the experimental results was qualitatively matched by thermodynamic predictions. The residence time had little effect on the release of those species. The release of sulfur oxides, in particular both SO(2) and SO(3), is considerably high during oxy-fuel combustion even though the sulfur content in Morwell coal is only 0.80%. Therefore, for Morwell coal utilization during oxy-fuel combustion, additional sulfur removal, or polishing systems will be required in order to avoid corrosion in the boiler and in the CO(2) separation units of the CO(2) capture systems.

  5. Genomic Insights into the Sulfur Metabolism of Phototrophic Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) utilize various combinations of sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for anaerobic photoautotrophic growth. Genome sequence data is currently available for 12 strains of GSB. We present here a genome-based survey of the distribution...... and phylogenies of genes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in these strains. Sulfide:quinone reductase, encoded by sqr, is the only known sulfur-oxidizing enzyme found in all strains. All sulfide-utilizing strains contain the dissimilatory sulfite reductase dsrABCEFHLNMKJOPT genes, which appear...... to be involved in elemental sulfur utilization. All thiosulfate-utilizing strains have an identical sox gene cluster (soxJXYZAKBW). The soxCD genes found in certain other thiosulfate-utilizing organisms like Paracoccus pantotrophus are absent from GSB. Genes encoding flavocytochrome c (fccAB), adenosine-5...

  6. Capital cost: high and low sulfur coal plants-1200 MWe. [High sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    This Commercial Electric Power Cost Study for 1200 MWe (Nominal) high and low sulfur coal plants consists of three volumes. The high sulfur coal plant is described in Volumes I and II, while Volume III describes the low sulfur coal plant. The design basis and cost estimate for the 1232 MWe high sulfur coal plant is presented in Volume I, and the drawings, equipment list and site description are contained in Volume II. The reference design includes a lime flue gas desulfurization system. A regenerative sulfur dioxide removal system using magnesium oxide is also presented as an alternate in Section 7 Volume II. The design basis, drawings and summary cost estimate for a 1243 MWe low sulfur coal plant are presented in Volume III. This information was developed by redesigning the high sulfur coal plant for burning low sulfur sub-bituminous coal. These coal plants utilize a mechanical draft (wet) cooling tower system for condenser heat removal. Costs of alternate cooling systems are provided in Report No. 7 in this series of studies of costs of commercial electrical power plants.

  7. Tetrathionate and Elemental Sulfur Shape the Isotope Composition of Sulfate in Acid Mine Drainage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurgul Balci

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Sulfur compounds in intermediate valence states, for example elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and tetrathionate, are important players in the biogeochemical sulfur cycle. However, key understanding about the pathways of oxidation involving mixed-valance state sulfur species is still missing. Here we report the sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation effects during the oxidation of tetrathionate (S4O62− and elemental sulfur (S° to sulfate in bacterial cultures in acidic conditions. Oxidation of tetrathionate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans produced thiosulfate, elemental sulfur and sulfate. Up to 34% of the tetrathionate consumed by the bacteria could not be accounted for in sulfate or other intermediate-valence state sulfur species over the experiments. The oxidation of tetrathionate yielded sulfate that was initially enriched in 34S (ε34SSO4−S4O6 by +7.9‰, followed by a decrease to +1.4‰ over the experiment duration, with an average ε34SSO4−S4O6 of +3.5 ± 0.2‰ after a month of incubation. We attribute this significant sulfur isotope fractionation to enzymatic disproportionation reactions occurring during tetrathionate decomposition, and to the incomplete transformation of tetrathionate into sulfate. The oxygen isotope composition of sulfate (δ18OSO4 from the tetrathionate oxidation experiments indicate that 62% of the oxygen in the formed sulfate was derived from water. The remaining 38% of the oxygen was either inherited from the supplied tetrathionate, or supplied from dissolved atmospheric oxygen (O2. During the oxidation of elemental sulfur, the product sulfate became depleted in 34S between −1.8 and 0‰ relative to the elemental sulfur with an average for ε34SSO4−S0 of −0.9 ± 0.2‰ and all the oxygen atoms in the sulfate derived from water with an average normal oxygen isotope fractionation (ε18OSO4−H2O of −4.4‰. The differences observed in δ18OSO4 and the sulfur isotope composition of sulfate (δ34SSO4

  8. Characterization of desulfurization, denitrogenation and process sulfur transfer during hydropyrolysis of Chinese high sulfur coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun Chenggong; Li Baoqing [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Conversion; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1997-12-31

    The process desulphurization and denitrogenation of Chinese high sulfur coals and the characteristics of sulfur transformation during non-catalytic hydropyrolysis were investigated by a 10 g fixed-bed reactor and a small-scaled reactor with online spectrometry respectively. It was indicated that more than 70% of the total sulfur of the two high sulfur coals and almost all pyritic sulfur are removed as H{sub 2}S, leaving the char and tar products with much less sulfur distribution. The liability of sulfur transformation to tar products is closely related to the thiophenic structure forms rather than sulfidic forms. At the same time, the formation of trace amount of sulfur dioxide indicates the presence of inherent sulfur oxidation reactions inside coal frame structures even under H{sub 2} pressure. (orig.)

  9. Development of techniques of production of sulfur-35 and its inorganic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shikata, Eiji

    1981-12-01

    Techniques to produce routinely Curies of carrier-free sulfur-35 from neutron irradiated potassium chloride were developed. Firstly the ratio of sulfur-35 to phosphorus-32 produced respectively by the reactions 35 Cl(n,p) 35 S and 35 Cl(n,α) 32 P was determined. For the post-irradiation process, two processes of anion exchange and cation exchange were studied. The former process was based on the selective elution of carrier-free sulfate after precipitation of the bulk of potassium chloride by ethanol and the latter process on the selective adsorption of carrier-free phosphate on Fe +3 -cation exchange resin. A gloved box with various appendant equipments was constructed for routine production and a glass apparatus was installed in it. Sulfur-35 from 1 Ci to 5 Ci has been produced by the cation exchange process several times every year during past few years, and products of high quality have been obtained with yields higher than 90% without any troubles. In the studies on the synthesis of sulfur-35 labeled inorganic compounds, sulfate[ 35 S] was reduced with tin(II)-phosphoric acid to hydrogen sulfide[ 35 S], which was oxidized to elementary sulfur[ 35 S]. Sulfate[ 35 S] of sodium or copper(II) was precipitated from an aqueous solution of sodium or copper(II) chloride containing carrier-free sulfate [ 35 S] by adding carrier of either one of the sulfates and ethanol. Copper(II) sulfate[ 35 S] was pyrolyzed to evolve sulfur[ 35 S] dioxide, which was fixed in a sodium hydroxide solution as sodium sulfite[ 35 S]. This was allowed to react with colloidal sulfur in a boiling solution in the presence of 2-octanol to form thiosulfate[ 35 S] efficiently. By treating target potassium chloride before and after irradiation in an oxygen-free atmosphere, approximately 60% of sulfur-35 was recovered as thiosulfate. Reduction with nascent hydrogen and decomposition with acid of the thiosulfate were studied to prepare elementary sulfur [ 35 S]. (author)

  10. Baseline atmospheric program Australia 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francey, R.J.; Dick, A.L.; Derek, N.

    1996-01-01

    This publication reports activities, program summaries and data from the Cape Grim Baseline Air Pollution Station in Tasmania, during the calendar year 1993. These activities represent Australia's main contribution to the Background Air Pollution Monitoring Network (BAPMoN), part of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch (GAW). The report includes 5 research reports covering trace gas sampling, ozone and radon interdependence, analysis of atmospheric dimethylsulfide and carbon-disulfide, sampling of trace gas composition of the troposphere, and sulfur aerosol/CCN relationship in marine air. Summaries of program reports for the calendar year 1993 are also included. Tabs., figs., refs

  11. Study on the total amount control of atmospheric pollutant based on GIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian-Ping; Guo, Xi-Kun

    2005-08-01

    To provide effective environmental management for total amount control of atmospheric pollutants. An atmospheric diffusion model of sulfur dioxide on the surface of the earth was established and tested in Shantou of Guangdong Province on the basis of an overall assessment of regional natural environment, social economic state of development, pollution sources and atmospheric environmental quality. Compared with actual monitoring results in a studied region, simulation values fell within the range of two times of error and were evenly distributed in the two sides of the monitored values. Predicted with the largest emission model method, the largest emission of sulfur dioxide would be 54,279.792 tons per year in 2010. The mathematical model established and revised on the basis of GIS is more rational and suitable for the regional characteristics of total amount control of air pollutants.

  12. The role of Zr and Nb in oxidation/sulfidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natesan, K. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)); Baxter, D.J. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA) INCO Alloy Ltd., Hereford, England (UK))

    1990-11-01

    05Structural Fe-Cr-Ni alloys may undergo rapid degradation at elevated temperatures unless protective surface oxide scales are formed and maintained. The ability of alloys to resist rapid degradation strongly depends on their Cr content and the chemistry of the exposure environment. Normally, 20 wt % Cr is required for service at temperatures up to 1000{degree}C; the presence of sulfur, however, inhibits formation of a protective surface oxide scale. The oxidation and sulfidation behavior of Fe-Cr-Ni alloys is examined over a wide temperature range (650 to 1000{degree}C), with particular emphasis on the effects of alloy Cr content and the radiation of reactive elements such as Nb and Zr. Both Nb and Zr are shown to promote protective oxidation behavior on the 12 wt % Cr alloy in oxidizing environments and to suppress sulfidation in mixed oxygen/sulfur environments. Additions of Nb and Zr at 3 wt % level resulted in stabilization of Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} scale and led to a barrier layer of Nb- or Zr-rich oxide at the scale/metal interface, which acted to minimize the transport of base metal cations across the scale. Oxide scales were preformed in sulfur-free environments and subsequently exposed to oxygen/sulfur mixed-gas atmospheres. Preformed scales were found to delay the onset of breakaway corrosion. Corrosions test results obtained under isothermal and thermal cycling conditions are presented. 58 refs., 55 figs., 8 tabs.

  13. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1982. Atmospheric physics. Part 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-01-01

    The first article in this report, although dealing with simple terrain, summarizes an effort to obtain measures of parameters important in transport and diffusion in the lower atmosphere solely by use of a Doppler acoustic sounding system. The second article describes participation in a multiagency experiment (Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment, SEADEX) to study the fate of materials released over a surface with notable surface nonuniformities, specifically at a coastal nuclear power plant during onshore flow conditions. The third and fourth articles in this report address research on the local behavior of pollutants emitted from diesel engines in urban areas. Most effort was directed toward field studies on circulation patterns in street canyons, exchange rates with the atmosphere above rooftops, and characterization of particles in outdoor urban microclimates. The remainder of the report is quite diverse and contains multiple articles on perhaps only one or two types of research. One is numerical modeling of the behavior of atmospheric pollutants, especially gaseous and particulate substances associated with acid deposition. The modeling and theoretical capabilities have been developed in part to consider potential nonlinear relationships between anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and the distant deposition of resulting acidifying substances. On the experimental side, field phases of research designed to compare methods of analyses of precipitation samples and to study local urban effects on precipitation chemistry were completed. Each report is indexed separately.

  14. Radiological and Environmental Research Division annual report, January-December 1982. Atmospheric physics. Part 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The first article in this report, although dealing with simple terrain, summarizes an effort to obtain measures of parameters important in transport and diffusion in the lower atmosphere solely by use of a Doppler acoustic sounding system. The second article describes participation in a multiagency experiment (Shoreline Environment Atmospheric Dispersion Experiment, SEADEX) to study the fate of materials released over a surface with notable surface nonuniformities, specifically at a coastal nuclear power plant during onshore flow conditions. The third and fourth articles in this report address research on the local behavior of pollutants emitted from diesel engines in urban areas. Most effort was directed toward field studies on circulation patterns in street canyons, exchange rates with the atmosphere above rooftops, and characterization of particles in outdoor urban microclimates. The remainder of the report is quite diverse and contains multiple articles on perhaps only one or two types of research. One is numerical modeling of the behavior of atmospheric pollutants, especially gaseous and particulate substances associated with acid deposition. The modeling and theoretical capabilities have been developed in part to consider potential nonlinear relationships between anthropogenic emissions of sulfur and nitrogen compounds and the distant deposition of resulting acidifying substances. On the experimental side, field phases of research designed to compare methods of analyses of precipitation samples and to study local urban effects on precipitation chemistry were completed. Each report is indexed separately

  15. In-situ sulfuration synthesis of sandwiched spherical tin sulfide/sulfur-doped graphene composite with ultra-low sulfur content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Bing; Yang, Yaqing; Wang, Zhixuan; Huang, Shoushuang; Wang, Yanyan; Wang, Shanshan; Chen, Zhiwen; Jiang, Yong

    2018-02-01

    SnS is widely studied as anode materials since of its superior structural stability and physicochemical property comparing with other Sn-based composites. Nevertheless, the inconvenience of phase morphology control and excessive consumption of sulfur sources during synthesis hinder the scalable application of SnS nanocomposites. Herein, we report a facile in-situ sulfuration strategy to synthesize sandwiched spherical SnS/sulfur-doped graphene (SnS/S-SG) composite. An ultra-low sulfur content with approximately stoichiometric ratio of Sn:S can effectively promote the sulfuration reaction of SnO2 to SnS and simultaneous sulfur-doping of graphene. The as-prepared SnS/S-SG composite shows a three-dimensional interconnected spherical structure as a whole, in which SnS nanoparticles are sandwiched between the multilayers of graphene sheets forming a hollow sphere. The sandwiched sphere structure and high S doping amount can improve the binding force between SnS and graphene, as well as the structural stability and electrical conductivity of the composite. Thus, a high reversibility of conversion reaction, promising specific capacity (772 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.1 C) and excellent rate performance (705 and 411 mAh g-1 at 1 C and 10 C, respectively) are exhibited in the SnS/S-SG electrode, which are much higher than that of the SnS/spherical graphene synthesized by traditional post-sulfuration method.

  16. Vertical distribution of water in the atmosphere of Venus - A simple thermochemical explanation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, John S.; Grinspoon, David H.

    1990-01-01

    Several lines of evidence concerning the vertical abundance profile of water in the atmosphere of Venus lead to strikingly unusual distributions (the water vapor abundance decreases sharply in the immediate vicinity of the surface) or to serious conflicts in the profiles (different IR bands suggest water abundances that are discrepant by a factor of 2.5 to 10). These data sets can be reconciled if (1) water molecules associate with carbon dioxide and sulfur trioxide to make gaseous carbonic acid and sulfuric acid in the lower atmosphere, and (2) the discrepant 0.94-micrometer water measurements are due to gaseous sulfuric acid, requiring it to be a somewhat stronger absorber than water vapor in this wavelength region. A mean total water abundance of 50 + or - 20 parts/million and a near-surface free water vapor abundance of 10 + or - 4 parts/million are derived.

  17. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apostolos A. Nikolopoulos; Santosh K. Gangwal; William J. McMichael; Jeffrey W. Portzer

    2003-01-01

    Conventional sulfur removal in integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plants involves numerous steps: COS (carbonyl sulfide) hydrolysis, amine scrubbing/regeneration, Claus process, and tail-gas treatment. Advanced sulfur removal in IGCC systems involves typically the use of zinc oxide-based sorbents. The sulfides sorbent is regenerated using dilute air to produce a dilute SO{sub 2} (sulfur dioxide) tail gas. Under previous contracts the highly effective first generation Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP) for catalytic reduction of this SO{sub 2} tail gas to elemental sulfur was developed. This process is currently undergoing field-testing. In this project, advanced concepts were evaluated to reduce the number of unit operations in sulfur removal and recovery. Substantial effort was directed towards developing sorbents that could be directly regenerated to elemental sulfur in an Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP). Development of this process has been described in detail in Appendices A-F. RTI began the development of the Single-step Sulfur Recovery Process (SSRP) to eliminate the use of sorbents and multiple reactors in sulfur removal and recovery. This process showed promising preliminary results and thus further process development of AHGP was abandoned in favor of SSRP. The SSRP is a direct Claus process that consists of injecting SO{sub 2} directly into the quenched coal gas from a coal gasifier, and reacting the H{sub 2}S-SO{sub 2} mixture over a selective catalyst to both remove and recover sulfur in a single step. The process is conducted at gasifier pressure and 125 to 160 C. The proposed commercial embodiment of the SSRP involves a liquid phase of molten sulfur with dispersed catalyst in a slurry bubble-column reactor (SBCR).

  18. Observations of foliar injury to plants by sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Chaphekar, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    Morphological and anatomical changes in mature leaves indicated that Raphanus sativus, Commelina benghalensis and Medicago sativa were injured and Pennisetum typhoideum, Alternanthere ficoidea and Mangifera indica (seedlings) were not injured by sulfur dioxide fumigation. The highly susceptible plants like Raphanus, Medicago, and Commelina can be used for monitoring air quality in a polluted atmosphere. Uninjured species like Pennisetum on the other hand, may be grown in polluted areas for maintaining agricultural production. 9 references, 1 table.

  19. The significance of elemental sulfur dissolution in liquid electrolyte lithium sulfur batteries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harks, Peter Paul R.M.L.; Robledo, Carla B.; Verhallen, Tomas W.; Notten, Peter H.L.; Mulder, Fokko M.

    2017-01-01

    It is shown that the dissolution of elemental sulfur into, and its diffusion through, the electrolyte allows cycling of lithium–sulfur batteries in which the sulfur is initially far removed and electrically insulated from the current collector. These findings help to understand why liquid

  20. Status of the INERI sulfur-iodine integrated-loop experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickard, P.; Carles, Ph.; Buckingham, R.; Russ, B.; Besenbruch, G.

    2007-01-01

    The Sulfur-Iodine (S-I) thermochemical water-splitting cycle has been studied as a potential source of hydrogen on a large scale. Coupled to a nuclear reactor, an S-I hydrogen plant could efficiently produce hydrogen without greenhouse gas emissions. In the S-I cycle, iodine and sulfur dioxide are combined with water to create two immiscible acid phases - a light sulfuric acid phase, and a heavy hydriodic acid phase. The sulfuric acid phase is decomposed at temperatures near 850 C degrees, and the resulting sulfur dioxide is recycled back into the process. The hydriodic acid in the lower phase is separated from excess water and iodine, and is then decomposed into the product hydrogen and iodine. The water and iodine from these steps are also recycled. In an International Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (INERI) project supported by the US DOE Office of Nuclear Energy, Sandia National Labs (SNL) has teamed with Cea in France, and industrial partner General Atomics (GA) to construct and operate a closed-loop device for demonstration of hydrogen production by the S-I process. Previous work in Japan has demonstrated continuous closed-loop operation of the S-I cycle for up to one week using glass components at atmospheric pressure. This work will aim for operation under process conditions expected at the pilot plant-level and beyond pressures up to 20 bar using engineering materials of construction. Staff at Cea is responsible for the acid-generation step, known as the Bunsen reaction. SNL is handling the sulfuric acid decomposition step, and GA is providing equipment for decomposing hydriodic acid into the product hydrogen. All parties are assembling equipment at the GA site in San Diego, California. Operation of the closed-loop device is expected to commence in the second half of calendar year 2007. This paper will summarize project goals, work done to date, current status, and scheduled future work on the INERI S-I Integrated-Loop Experiment. (authors)

  1. Self-assembled peptides for coating of active sulfur nanoparticles in lithium–sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jewel, Yead; Yoo, Kisoo; Liu, Jin; Dutta, Prashanta

    2016-01-01

    Development of lithium–sulfur (Li–S) battery is hindered by poor cyclability due to the loss of sulfur, although Li–S battery can provide high energy density. Coating of sulfur nanoparticles can help maintain active sulfur in the cathode of Li–S battery, and hence increase the cyclability. Among myriad of coating materials, synthetic peptides are very attractive because of their spontaneous self-assembly as well as electrical conductive characteristics. In this study, we explored the use of various synthetic peptides as a coating material for sulfur nanoparticles. Atomistic simulations were carried out to identify optimal peptide structure and density for coating sulfur nanoparticles. Three different peptide models, poly-proline, poly(leucine–lysine) and poly-histidine, are selected for this study based on their peptide–peptide and peptide-sulfur interactions. Simulation results show that both poly-proline and poly(leucine–lysine) can form self-assembled coating on sulfur nanoparticles (2–20 nm) in pyrrolidinone, a commonly used solvent for cathode slurry. We also studied the structural integrity of these synthetic peptides in organic [dioxolane (DOL) and dimethoxyethane (DME)] electrolyte used in Li–S battery. Both peptides show stable structures in organic electrolyte (DOL/DME) used in Li–S battery. Furthermore, the dissolution of sulfur molecules in organic electrolyte is investigated in the absence and presence of these peptide coatings. It was found that only poly(leucine–lysine)-based peptide can most effectively suppress the sulfur loss in electrolyte, suggesting its potential applications in Li–S battery as a coating material.Graphical abstract

  2. Sulfur-carbon nanocomposites and their application as cathode materials in lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Chengdu; Dudney, Nancy J.; Howe, Jane Y.

    2017-08-01

    The invention is directed in a first aspect to a sulfur-carbon composite material comprising: (i) a bimodal porous carbon component containing therein a first mode of pores which are mesopores, and a second mode of pores which are micropores; and (ii) elemental sulfur contained in at least a portion of said micropores. The invention is also directed to the aforesaid sulfur-carbon composite as a layer on a current collector material; a lithium ion battery containing the sulfur-carbon composite in a cathode therein; as well as a method for preparing the sulfur-composite material.

  3. Sulfurized carbon: a class of cathode materials for high performance lithium/sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S batteries cannot come into practical applications because of many problems such as low energy efficiency, short cycle life, and fast self-discharge. All these problems are related to the dissolution of lithium polysulfide, a series of sulfur reduction intermediates, in the liquid electrolyte, and resulting parasitic reactions with the Li anode. Covalently binding sulfur onto carbon surface is a solution to completely eliminate the dissolution of lithium polysulfide and make the Li/S battery viable for practical applications. This can be achieved by replacing elemental sulfur with sulfurized carbon as the cathode material. This article reviews the current efforts on this subject and discusses the syntheses, electrochemical properties, and prospects of the sulfurized carbon as a cathode material in the rechargeable Li/S batteries.

  4. Effect of different sulfur levels from various sources on brassica napus growth and soil sulfur fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalid, R.; Khan, K.S.; Islam, M.; Yousaf, M.; Shabbir, G.

    2012-01-01

    A two year field study was conducted at two different locations in northern rain fed Punjab, Pakistan to assess the effect of different rates of sulfur application from various sources on soil sulfur fractions and growth of Brassica napus. The treatments included three sulfur sources i. e., single super phosphate, ammonium sulfate and gypsum each applied at five different rates (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 kg S ha/sup -1/ ). Sulfur application had a significant positive effect on the growth and yield parameters of Brassica napus. Among the sulfur sources ammonium sulfate resulted in maximum increase in plant growth and yield parameters, followed by single super phosphate. Sulfur content and uptake by crop plants was significantly higher with ammonium sulfate application as compared to other two sulfur sources. Sulfur application also exerted a significant positive effect on different S fractions in the soils. On an average, 18.0% of the applied sulfur got incorporated into CaCl/sub 2/ extractable sulfur fraction, while 15.6% and 35.5% entered into adsorbed and organic sulfur fractions in the soils, respectively. The value cost ratio increased significantly by sulfur application up to 30 kg ha/sup -1/. Among sulfur sources, ammonium sulfate performed best giving the highest net return. (author)

  5. Sulfur nanocrystals anchored graphene composite with highly improved electrochemical performance for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Dong, Zimin; Wang, Xiuli; Zhao, Xuyang; Tu, Jiangping; Su, Qingmei; Du, Gaohui

    2014-12-01

    Two kinds of graphene-sulfur composites with 50 wt% of sulfur are prepared using hydrothermal method and thermal mixing, respectively. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectra mapping show that sulfur nanocrystals with size of ∼5 nm dispersed on graphene sheets homogeneously for the sample prepared by hydrothermal method (NanoS@G). While for the thermal mixed graphene-sulfur composite (S-G mixture), sulfur shows larger and uneven size (50-200 nm). X-ray Photoelectron Spectra (XPS) reveals the strong chemical bonding between the sulfur nanocrystals and graphene. Comparing with the S-G mixture, the NanoS@G composite shows highly improved electrochemical performance as cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery. The NanoS@G composite delivers an initial capacity of 1400 mAh g-1 with the sulfur utilization of 83.7% at a current density of 335 mA g-1. The capacity keeps above 720 mAh g-1 over 100 cycles. The strong adherence of the sulfur nanocrystals on graphene immobilizes sulfur and polysulfides species and suppressed the "shuttle effect", resulting higher coulombic efficiency and better capacity retention. Electrochemical impedance also suggests that the strong bonding enabled rapid electronic/ionic transport and improved electrochemical kinetics, therefore good rate capability is obtained. These results demonstrate that the NanoS@G composite is a very promising candidate for high-performance Li-S batteries.

  6. In Situ Measurements of Sulfur Hexafluoride (SF6) and age of air from NH sources during the Atmospheric Tomography (ATom) global airborne survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkins, J. W.; Moore, F. L.; Hintsa, E. J.; Ray, E. A.; Dutton, G. S.; Nance, J. D.; Hall, B. D.; Dlugokencky, E. J.; Sweeney, C.; Montzka, S. A.; Newman, P. A.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric SF6 is an excellent tracer of atmospheric transport in the troposphere, because of its long lifetime (850 years), mostly northern hemispheric (NH) emissions (95%), and high atmospheric growth rate ( 4%/yr.). The gas is used in the distribution of electrical power, because it is an excellent insulator. It is primarily released through its use (leaking and refilling) in high voltage power transformers. Two NOAA/GMD airborne, in situ gas chromatographs (GCs), PAN and other Trace Hydrohalocarbons ExpeRiment (PANTHER) and UAS Chromatograph for Atmospheric Trace Species (UCATS), operated on the first two circuits of the Atmospheric Tomography Mission (ATom-1 & ATom-2). Both instruments measure nitrous oxide (N2O) and sulfur hexafluoride (SF6) once every 70 seconds using a very sensitive electron capture detector (ECD). We combined both measurements into one data set for analysis of twice the amount of data, since both instruments are comparable and used the same gas standards. The main purpose of ATom is to study the influence of air quality on climate during the four seasons, where two seasons are completed so far. The altitude-latitude cross sections of SF6 mixing ratios during the ATom-1 (left) shows sources are mostly located in the NH ( 95%). The upper troposphere shows inter-hemispheric mixing. The polar stratosphere shows older air that is mixed with air from the mesospheric sink. Using the procedure described by Waugh et al., (2013) [JGR-Atmos. 10.1002/jgrd.50189] and a recent growth rate of 0.32 ppt yr-1, we have calculated the mean age of each SF6 measurement from its source at ground level in the NH (lat. range of 30-50°N). The contours of age (right) are in agreement with the mean inter-hemispheric exchange time (τNS) of 1.2 yr and higher ages in the polar stratosphere (2.5-3.0 yr).

  7. The role of ammonia in sulfuric acid ion induced nucleation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Ortega

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a new multi-step strategy for quantum chemical calculations on atmospherically relevant cluster structures that makes calculation for large clusters affordable with a good accuracy-to-computational effort ratio. We have applied this strategy to evaluate the relevance of ternary ion induced nucleation; we have also performed calculations for neutral ternary nucleation for comparison. The results for neutral ternary nucleation agree with previous results, and confirm the important role of ammonia in enhancing the growth of sulfuric acid clusters. On the other hand, we have found that ammonia does not enhance the growth of ionic sulfuric acid clusters. The results also confirm that ion-induced nucleation is a barrierless process at high altitudes, but at ground level there exists a barrier due to the presence of a local minimum on the free energy surface.

  8. Regional sulfur dioxide emissions: shall we achieve the goal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, X.; Shi, L.; Wang, M.; Wang, JY

    2017-01-01

    Although economic growth is slowing down in the new normal period, air pollution is still a very serious problem in China. The 15% binding goal of sulfur dioxide emission reduction from 2016 to 2020, as stipulated in the 13th Five-Year Plan, has been an ambitious target for the Chinese government. This paper studies the synthetic evaluation and forecasting analysis of sulfur dioxide in China by means of a “grey model” approach combined with the grey relational analysis methods, with the panel data of 31 provinces from 2005 to 2015. Grey analysis used to analyse a system with imperfect information, such that a variety of available solutions is reviewed, and the optimal solution is identified. Some encouraging results show that national emissions and a majority of provinces will achieve the target. Over time, the gap of regional differences is rapidly closing. According to the results of grey relational analysis, we find industrial structure and energy consumption have a more significant impact on sulfur dioxide emissions than GDP. Atmospheric treatment investment and environmental protection manpower play a more important role in emissions variation. Based on the findings, we should distinguish different factors and take different measures to protect the environment.

  9. Gas-phase hydrolysis of triplet SO2: A possible direct route to atmospheric acid formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donaldson, D. James; Kroll, Jay A.; Vaida, Veronica

    2016-07-01

    Sulfur chemistry is of great interest to the atmospheric chemistry of several planets. In the presence of water, oxidized sulfur can lead to new particle formation, influencing climate in significant ways. Observations of sulfur compounds in planetary atmospheres when compared with model results suggest that there are missing chemical mechanisms. Here we propose a novel mechanism for the formation of sulfurous acid, which may act as a seed for new particle formation. In this proposed mechanism, the lowest triplet state of SO2 (3B1), which may be accessed by near-UV solar excitation of SO2 to its excited 1B1 state followed by rapid intersystem crossing, reacts directly with water to form H2SO3 in the gas phase. For ground state SO2, this reaction is endothermic and has a very high activation barrier; our quantum chemical calculations point to a facile reaction being possible in the triplet state of SO2. This hygroscopic H2SO3 molecule may act as a condensation nucleus for water, giving rise to facile new particle formation (NPF).

  10. Light extinction in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laulainen, N.

    1992-06-01

    Atmospheric aerosol particles originating from natural sources, such as volcanos and sulfur-bearing gas emissions from the oceans, and from human sources, such as sulfur emissions from fossil fuel combustion and biomass burning, strongly affect visual air quality and are suspected to significantly affect radiative climate forcing of the planet. During the daytime, aerosols obscure scenic vistas, while at night they diminish our ability to observe stellar objects. Scattering of light is the main means by which aerosols attenuate and redistribute light in the atmosphere and by which aerosols can alter and reduce visibility and potentially modify the energy balance of the planet. Trends and seasonal variability of atmospheric aerosol loading, such as column-integrated light extinction or optical depth, and how they may affect potential climate change have been difficult to quantify because there have been few observations made of important aerosol optical parameters, such as optical depth, over the globe and over time and often these are of uneven quality. To address questions related to possible climate change, there is a pressing need to acquire more high-quality aerosol optical depth data. Extensive deployment of improved solar radiometers over the next few years will provide higher-quality extinction data over a wider variety of locations worldwide. An often overlooked source of turbidity data, however, is available from astronomical observations, particularly stellar photoelectric photometry observations. With the exception of the Project ASTRA articles published almost 20 years ago, few of these data ever appear in the published literature. This paper will review the current status of atmospheric extinction observations, as highlighted by the ASTRA work and augmented by more recent solar radiometry measurements

  11. Evidence of recovery of Juniperus virginiana trees from sulfur pollution after the Clean Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Richard B; Spal, Scott E; Smith, Kenneth R; Nippert, Jesse B

    2013-09-17

    Using dendroisotopic techniques, we show the recovery of Juniperus virginiana L. (eastern red cedar) trees in the Central Appalachian Mountains from decades of acidic pollution. Acid deposition over much of the 20th century reduced stomatal conductance of leaves, thereby increasing intrinsic water-use efficiency of the Juniperus trees. These data indicate that the stomata of Juniperus may be more sensitive to acid deposition than to increasing atmospheric CO2. A breakpoint in the 100-y δ(13)C tree ring chronology occurred around 1980, as the legacy of sulfur dioxide emissions declined following the enactment of the Clean Air Act in 1970, indicating a gradual increase in stomatal conductance (despite rising levels of atmospheric CO2) and a concurrent increase in photosynthesis related to decreasing acid deposition and increasing atmospheric CO2. Tree ring δ(34)S shows a synchronous change in the sources of sulfur used at the whole-tree level that indicates a reduced anthropogenic influence. The increase in growth and the δ(13)C and δ(34)S trends in the tree ring chronology of these Juniperus trees provide evidence for a distinct physiological response to changes in atmospheric SO2 emissions since ∼1980 and signify the positive impacts of landmark environmental legislation to facilitate recovery of forest ecosystems from acid deposition.

  12. Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing of high sulfur coals by oxidation with ionic liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saikia, Binoy K.; Khound, Kakoli; Baruah, Bimala P.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Extractive de-sulfurization and de-ashing process for cleaning high sulfur coals. • The process removes inorganic as well as organic sulfur components from high sulfur coals. • The process has less risk to chemists and other surroundings. - Abstract: The environmental consequences of energy production from coals are well known, and are driving the development of desulfurization technologies. In this investigation, ionic liquids were examined for extractive desulfurization and de-ashing in industrially important high sulfur sub-bituminous Indian coals. The ionic liquids, namely, 1-n-butyl-3-methylimidazolium tetrafluoroborate (IL1) and 1-n-butyl 3-methylimidazolium chloride (IL2) were employed for desulfurization of a few Indian coal samples in presence of HCOOH/H 2 O 2 and V 2 O 5 . Results show the maximum removal of 50.20% of the total sulfur, 48.00% of the organic sulfur, and 70.37 wt% of the ash in this process. The ionic liquids were recovered and subsequently used for further desulfurization. FT-IR spectra reveal the transformation of organic sulfur functionalities into the sulfoxides (S=O) and sulfones (-SO 2 ) due to the oxidative reactions. The sulfate, pyrite and sulfides (aryls) signals in the near edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) of the oxidized coal samples showed sulfur transformation during the desulfurization process. The study demonstrates the removal of significant amount of inorganic as well as organic sulfur (aryls) components from the original high sulfur coal samples to make them cleaner

  13. Conductive framework of inverse opal structure for sulfur cathode in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Lu; Huang, Xiaopeng; Zeng, Guobo; Wu, Hua; Morbidelli, Massimo

    2016-09-07

    As a promising cathode inheritor for lithium-ion batteries, the sulfur cathode exhibits very high theoretical volumetric capacity and energy density. In its practical applications, one has to solve the insulating properties of sulfur and the shuttle effect that deteriorates cycling stability. The state-of-the-art approaches are to confine sulfur in a conductive matrix. In this work, we utilize monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticles as sacrificial templates to build polypyrrole (PPy) framework of an inverse opal structure to accommodate (encapsulate) sulfur through a combined in situ polymerization and melting infiltration approach. In the design, the interconnected conductive PPy provides open channels for sulfur infiltration, improves electrical and ionic conductivity of the embedded sulfur, and reduces polysulfide dissolution in the electrolyte through physical and chemical adsorption. The flexibility of PPy and partial filling of the inverse opal structure endure possible expansion and deformation during long-term cycling. It is found that the long cycling stability of the cells using the prepared material as the cathode can be substantially improved. The result demonstrates the possibility of constructing a pure conductive polymer framework to accommodate insulate sulfur in ion battery applications.

  14. Behavior of sulfur mustard in sand, concrete, and asphalt matrices: Evaporation, degradation, and decontamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyunsook; Choi, Seungki

    2017-10-15

    The evaporation, degradation, and decontamination of sulfur mustard on environmental matrices including sand, concrete, and asphalt are described. A specially designed wind tunnel and thermal desorber in combination with gas chromatograph (GC) produced profiles of vapor concentration obtained from samples of the chemical agent deposited as a drop on the surfaces of the matrices. The matrices were exposed to the chemical agent at room temperature, and the degradation reactions were monitored and characterized. A vapor emission test was also performed after a decontamination process. The results showed that on sand, the drop of agent spread laterally while evaporating. On concrete, the drop of the agent was absorbed immediately into the matrix while spreading and evaporating. However, the asphalt surface conserved the agent and slowly released parts of the agent over an extended period of time. The degradation reactions of the agent followed pseudo first order behavior on the matrices. Trace amounts of the residual agent present at the surface were also released as vapor after decontamination, posing a threat to the exposed individual and environment.

  15. Effect of Aging Temperature on Corrosion Behavior of Sintered 17-4 PH Stainless Steel in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk-Nykiel, Aneta; Kazior, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The general corrosion behavior of sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel processed under different processing conditions in dilute sulfuric acid solution at 25 °C was studied by open-circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization technique. The corrosion resistance was evaluated based on electrochemical parameters, such as polarization resistance, corrosion potential, corrosion current density as well as corrosion rate. The results showed that the precipitation-hardening treatment could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel in studied environment. As far as the influence of aging temperature on corrosion behavior of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel is concerned, polarization resistance and corrosion rate are reduced with increasing aging temperature from 480 up to 500 °C regardless of the temperature of solution treatment. It can be concluded that the highest corrosion resistance in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution exhibits 17-4 PH after solution treatment at 1040 °C followed by aging at 480 °C.

  16. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  17. New Particle Formation in an Urban Atmosphere: The Role of Various Ingredients Investigated in the CLOUD Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baltensperger, U.; Xiao, M.; Hoyle, C.; Dada, L.; Garmash, O.; Stolzenburg, D.; Molteni, U.; Lehtipalo, K.; El-Haddad, I.; Dommen, J.

    2017-12-01

    Atmospheric aerosols play an important role on climate via aerosol-radiation interaction and aerosol-cloud interaction. The latter is strongly influenced by new particle formation (NPF). The physical and chemical mechanisms behind the NPF process are still under investigation. Great advancements were made in resolving chemical and physical mechanisms of NPF with a series of experiments conducted at the CLOUD (Cosmics Leaving Outdoor Droplets) chamber facility at CERN (Geneva, Switzerland), including binary nucleation of sulfuric acid - water, ternary nucleation of sulfuric acid - water with ammonia or dimethylamine as well as oxidation products (highly oxygenated molecules, HOMs) from biogenic precursors with and without the presence of sulfuric acid. Here, we investigate possible NPF mechanisms in urban atmospheres, where large populations are exposed to high aerosol concentrations; these mechanisms are still missing and are urgently needed. Urban atmospheres are highly polluted with high concentrations of SO2, ammonia, NOx and volatile organic vapors from anthropogenic activity as well as with high particle concentrations, which provide a high condensation sink for condensable gases. Aromatic hydrocarbons from industrial activities, traffic and residential combustion are present at high concentrations and contribute significantly to photochemical smog in the urban environment.The experiments were conducted at the CLOUD chamber facility during the CLOUD11 campaign in fall 2016. Three aromatic hydrocarbons were selected: toluene, 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene (1,2,4-TMB) and naphthalene (NPT). Experiments were also conducted with mixtures of the three aromatic hydrocarbons to better represent the urban atmosphere. All the experiments were conducted in the presence of sulfuric acid concentrations with or without the addition of ammonia and NOx. New particle formation rates and early growth rates derived for each precursor and their mixture, together with sulfuric acid and

  18. Sulfur and iron accumulation in three marine-archaeological shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea: The Ghost, the Crown and the Sword

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fors, Yvonne; Grudd, Håkan; Rindby, Anders; Jalilehvand, Farideh; Sandström, Magnus; Cato, Ingemar; Bornmalm, Lennart

    2014-02-01

    Sulfur and iron concentrations in wood from three 17th century shipwrecks in the Baltic Sea, the Ghost wreck, the Crown and the Sword, were obtained by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) scanning. In near anaerobic environments symbiotic microorganisms degrade waterlogged wood, reduce sulfate and promote accumulation of low-valent sulfur compounds, as previously found for the famous wrecks of the Vasa and Mary Rose. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analyses of Ghost wreck wood show that organic thiols and disulfides dominate, together with elemental sulfur probably generated by sulfur-oxidizing Beggiatoa bacteria. Iron sulfides were not detected, consistent with the relatively low iron concentration in the wood. In a museum climate with high atmospheric humidity oxidation processes, especially of iron sulfides formed in the presence of corroding iron, may induce post-conservation wood degradation. Subject to more general confirmation by further analyses no severe conservation concerns are expected for the Ghost wreck wood.

  19. Report on the research achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992. Studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification; 1992 nendo sekitan gas ka no kokoritsuka ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1993-03-01

    This paper describes the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1992 in studies on improving the efficiency of coal gasification. Three kinds of coals were gasified under the atmosphere of hydrogen, He or CO2 by using the TPR method. The sulfur removing rate varies depending on coals even under the same reaction atmosphere, and so does the degree of influence of the atmospheric gases depending on coals. Very little effect of the atmospheric gases was found on the sulfur removing rate in Taiheiyo and Wandoan coals. While Tatung coal presents the same removing rate under the atmosphere of He and CO2, it shows 1.8 times greater removing rate under the hydrogen atmosphere. Generation patterns for H{sub 2}S and COS also vary depending on coal types and atmospheric gases. Inorganic sulfur shows the same behavior in the reaction process regardless of coal type and atmosphere, but organic sulfur behaves differently. The sulfur removing rate is determined by how easily the organic sulfur can be removed, which attributes to the difference in kinds and structures of organic sulfur compounds in the coal, together with the gas generation patterns. In order to discuss gasification of char, investigations were performed on effects of coal types and heat treatment temperatures, with regard to the gasification characteristics that can be estimated from the industrial and element analyses. (NEDO)

  20. submitter On the composition of ammonia–sulfuric-acid ion clusters during aerosol particle formation

    CERN Document Server

    Schobesberger, S; Bianchi, F; Rondo, L; Duplissy, J; Kürten, A; Ortega, I K; Metzger, A; Schnitzhofer, R; Almeida, J; Amorim, A; Dommen, J; Dunne, E M; Ehn, M; Gagné, S; Ickes, L; Junninen, H; Hansel, A; Kerminen, V -M; Kirkby, J; Kupc, A; Laaksonen, A; Lehtipalo, K; Mathot, S; Onnela, A; Petäjä, T; Riccobono, F; Santos, F D; Sipilä, M; Tomé, A; Tsagkogeorgas, G; Viisanen, Y; Wagner, P E; Wimmer, D; Curtius, J; Donahue, N M; Baltensperger, U; Kulmala, M; Worsnop, D R

    2015-01-01

    The formation of particles from precursor vapors is an important source of atmospheric aerosol. Research at the Cosmics Leaving OUtdoor Droplets (CLOUD) facility at CERN tries to elucidate which vapors are responsible for this new-particle formation, and how in detail it proceeds. Initial measurement campaigns at the CLOUD stainless-steel aerosol chamber focused on investigating particle formation from ammonia $(NH_3)$ and sulfuric acid $(H-2SO_4)$. Experiments were conducted in the presence of water, ozone and sulfur dioxide. Contaminant trace gases were suppressed at the technological limit. For this study, we mapped out the compositions of small $NH_3–H_2SO_4$ clusters over a wide range of atmospherically relevant environmental conditions. We covered [NH3] in the range from 10. Positively charged clusters grew on average by Δm/Δn = 1.05 and were only observed at sufficiently high $[NH_3]$ / $[H_2SO_4]$. The $H_2SO_4$ molecules of these clusters are partially neutralized by $NH_3$, in close resemblance...

  1. An Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy Study on a Lithium Sulfur Pouch Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel Loan; Knap, Vaclav; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    The impedance behavior of a 3.4 Ah pouch Lithium-Sulfur cell was extensively characterized using the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique. EIS measurements were performed at various temperatures and over the entire state-of-charge (SOC) interval without applying a superimposed DC...

  2. Investigation of the Self-Discharge Behavior of Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel Loan; Swierczynski, Maciej Jozef

    2016-01-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) batteries represent a perspective energy storage technology, which reaches very high theoretical limits in terms of specific capacity, specific energy, and energy density. However, Li-S batteries are governed by the polysulfide shuttle mechanism, which causes fast capacity...... fade, low coulombic efficiency, and high self-discharge rate. The self-discharge is an important characteristic of Li-S batteries for both practical applications and laboratory testing, which is highly dependent on the operating conditions. Thus, to map and to understand the Li-S self...

  3. Correlations Between Surficial Sulfur and a REE Crustal Assimilation Signature in Martian Shergottites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, J. H.; Franz, H. B.

    2015-01-01

    Compared to terrestrial basalts, the Martian shergottite meteorites have an extraordinary range of Sr and Nd isotopic signatures. In addition, the S isotopic compositions of many shergottites show evidence of interaction with the Martian surface/ atmosphere through mass-independent isotopic fractionations (MIF, positive, non-zero delta(exp 33)S) that must have originated in the Martian atmosphere, yet ultimately were incorporated into igneous sulfides (AVS - acid-volatile sulfur). These positive delta(exp 33)S signatures are thought to be governed by solar UV photochemical processes. And to the extent that S is bound to Mars and not lost to space from the upper atmosphere, a positive delta(exp 33)S reservoir must be mass balanced by a complementary negative reservoir.

  4. Coupled Photochemical and Condensation Model for the Venus Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bierson, Carver; Zhang, Xi; Mendonca, Joao; Liang, Mao-Chang

    2017-10-01

    Ground based and Venus Express observations have provided a wealth of information on the vertical and latitudinal distribution of many chemical species in the Venus atmosphere [1,2]. Previous 1D models have focused on the chemistry of either the lower [3] or middle atmosphere [4,5]. Photochemical models focusing on the sulfur gas chemistry have also been independent from models of the sulfuric acid haze and cloud formation [6,7]. In recent years sulfur-bearing particles have become important candidates for the observed SO2 inversion above 80 km [5]. To test this hypothesis it is import to create a self-consistent model that includes photochemistry, transport, and cloud condensation.In this work we extend the domain of the 1D chemistry model of Zhang et al. (2012) [5] to encompass the region between the surface to 110 km. This model includes a simple sulfuric acid condensation scheme with gravitational settling. It simultaneously solves for the chemistry and condensation allowing for self-consistent cloud formation. We compare the resulting chemical distributions to observations at all altitudes. We have also validated our model cloud mass against pioneer Venus observations [8]. This updated full atmosphere chemistry model is also being applied in our 2D solver (altitude and altitude). With this 2D model we can model how the latitudinal distribution of chemical species depends on the meridional circulation. This allows us to use the existing chemical observations to place constraints on Venus GCMs [9-11].References: [1] Arney et al., JGR:Planets, 2014 [2] Vandaele et al., Icarus 2017 (pt. 1 & 2) [3] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2007 [4] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2012 [5] Zhang et al., Icarus 2012 [6] Gao et al., Icarus, 2014 [7] Krasnopolsky, Icarus, 2015 [8] Knollenberg and Hunten, JGR:Space Physics, 1980 [9] Lee et al., JGR:Planets, 2007 [10] Lebonnois et al., Towards Understanding the Climate of Venus, 2013 [11] Mendoncca and Read, Planetary and Space Science, 2016

  5. Sulfur dimers adsorbed on Au(111) as building blocks for sulfur octomers formation: A density functional study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian; Pujals, Daniel Codorniu; Mikosch, Hans; Hernández, Mayra P.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have shown for more than two decades rectangular formations when sulfur atoms are deposited on Au(111) surfaces. The precursors have ranged from simple molecules or ions, such as SO 2 gas or sulfide anions, to more complex organosulfur compounds. We investigated, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory, the structure of these rectangular patterns assuming them entirely composed of sulfur atoms as the experimental evidence suggests. The sulfur coverage at which the simulations were carried out (0.67 ML or higher) provoked that the sulfur-sulfur association had to be taken into account for achieving a good agreement between the sets of simulated and experimental STM images. A combination of four sulfur dimers per rectangular formation properly explained the trends obtained by the experimental STM analysis which were related with the rectangles' size and shape fluctuations together with sulfur-sulfur distances within these rectangles. Finally, a projected density of states analysis showed that the dimers were capable of altering the Au(5d) electronic states at the same level as atomic sulfur adsorbed at low coverage. Besides, sulfur dimers states were perfectly distinguished, whose presence near and above the Fermi level can explain both: sulfur-sulfur bond elongation and dimers stability when they stayed adsorbed on the surface at high coverage

  6. Sulfur dimers adsorbed on Au(111) as building blocks for sulfur octomers formation: A density functional study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Montero-Alejo, Ana Lilian [Laboratory of Computational and Theoretical Chemistry (LQCT), Faculty of Chemistry, Havana University, Havana 10400 (Cuba); Pujals, Daniel Codorniu [Higher Institute of Technologies and Applied Sciences (InSTEC), Havana 10400 (Cuba); Mikosch, Hans [Institute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, Getreidemarkt 9/E164-EC, 1060 Vienna (Austria); Hernández, Mayra P., E-mail: mayrap@imre.oc.uh.cu [Instituto de Ciencias y Tecnologías de Materiales (IMRE), Havana 10400 (Cuba)

    2014-07-28

    Experimental scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) studies have shown for more than two decades rectangular formations when sulfur atoms are deposited on Au(111) surfaces. The precursors have ranged from simple molecules or ions, such as SO{sub 2} gas or sulfide anions, to more complex organosulfur compounds. We investigated, within the framework of the Density Functional Theory, the structure of these rectangular patterns assuming them entirely composed of sulfur atoms as the experimental evidence suggests. The sulfur coverage at which the simulations were carried out (0.67 ML or higher) provoked that the sulfur-sulfur association had to be taken into account for achieving a good agreement between the sets of simulated and experimental STM images. A combination of four sulfur dimers per rectangular formation properly explained the trends obtained by the experimental STM analysis which were related with the rectangles' size and shape fluctuations together with sulfur-sulfur distances within these rectangles. Finally, a projected density of states analysis showed that the dimers were capable of altering the Au(5d) electronic states at the same level as atomic sulfur adsorbed at low coverage. Besides, sulfur dimers states were perfectly distinguished, whose presence near and above the Fermi level can explain both: sulfur-sulfur bond elongation and dimers stability when they stayed adsorbed on the surface at high coverage.

  7. Genomic and Evolutionary Perspectives on Sulfur Metabolism in Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frigaard, Niels-Ulrik; Bryant, Donald A.

    2008-01-01

    Green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are anaerobic photoautotrophs that oxidize sulfide, elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, ferrous iron, and hydrogen for growth. We present here an analysis of the distribution and evolution of enzymes involved in oxidation of sulfur compounds in GSB based on genome sequence......, in combination with phylogenetic analyses, suggests that the Dsr system in GSB could be a recent acquisition, which was obtained by lateral gene transfer in part from sulfideoxidizing bacteria and in part from sulfate-reducing bacteria. All thiosulfate-utilizing GSB strains have an identical sox gene cluster...

  8. Estimation of In-canopy Flux Distributions of Reactive Nitrogen and Sulfur within a Mixed Hardwood Forest in Southern Appalachia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Walker, J. T.; Chen, X.; Oishi, A. C.; Duman, T.

    2017-12-01

    Estimating the source/sink distribution and vertical fluxes of air pollutants within and above forested canopies is critical for understanding biological, physical, and chemical processes influencing the soil-vegetation-atmosphere exchange. The vertical source-sink profiles of reactive nitrogen and sulfur were examined using multiple inverse modeling methods in a mixed hardwood forest in the southern Appalachian Mountains where the ecosystem is highly sensitive to loads of pollutant from atmospheric depositions. Measurements of the vertical concentration profiles of ammonia (NH3), nitric acid (HNO3), sulfur dioxide (SO2), and ammonium (NH4+), nitrate (NO3-), and sulfate (SO42-) in PM2.5 were measured during five study periods between May 2015 and August 2016. The mean concentration of NH3 decreased with height in the upper canopy and increased below the understory toward the forest floor, indicating that the canopy was a sink for NH3 but the forest floor was a source. All other species exhibited patterns of monotonically decreasing concentration from above the canopy to the forest floor. Using the measured concentration profiles, we simulated the within-canopy flow fields and estimated the vertical source-sink flux profiles using three inverse approaches: a Eulerian high-order closure model (EUL), a Lagrangian localized near-field (LNF) model, and a new full Lagrangian stochastic model (LSM). The models were evaluated using the within- and above-canopy eddy covariance flux measurements of heat, CO2 and H2O. Differences between models were analyzed and the flux profiles were used to investigate the origin and fate of reactive nitrogen and sulfur compounds within the canopy. The knowledge gained in this study will benefit the development of soil-vegetation-atmosphere models capable of partitioning canopy-scale deposition of nitrogen and sulfur to specific ecosystem compartments.

  9. Acidithiobacillus caldus sulfur oxidation model based on transcriptome analysis between the wild type and sulfur oxygenase reductase defective mutant.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linxu Chen

    Full Text Available Acidithiobacillus caldus (A. caldus is widely used in bio-leaching. It gains energy and electrons from oxidation of elemental sulfur and reduced inorganic sulfur compounds (RISCs for carbon dioxide fixation and growth. Genomic analyses suggest that its sulfur oxidation system involves a truncated sulfur oxidation (Sox system (omitting SoxCD, non-Sox sulfur oxidation system similar to the sulfur oxidation in A. ferrooxidans, and sulfur oxygenase reductase (SOR. The complexity of the sulfur oxidation system of A. caldus generates a big obstacle on the research of its sulfur oxidation mechanism. However, the development of genetic manipulation method for A. caldus in recent years provides powerful tools for constructing genetic mutants to study the sulfur oxidation system.An A. caldus mutant lacking the sulfur oxygenase reductase gene (sor was created and its growth abilities were measured in media using elemental sulfur (S(0 and tetrathionate (K(2S(4O(6 as the substrates, respectively. Then, comparative transcriptome analysis (microarrays and real-time quantitative PCR of the wild type and the Δsor mutant in S(0 and K(2S(4O(6 media were employed to detect the differentially expressed genes involved in sulfur oxidation. SOR was concluded to oxidize the cytoplasmic elemental sulfur, but could not couple the sulfur oxidation with the electron transfer chain or substrate-level phosphorylation. Other elemental sulfur oxidation pathways including sulfur diooxygenase (SDO and heterodisulfide reductase (HDR, the truncated Sox pathway, and the S(4I pathway for hydrolysis of tetrathionate and oxidation of thiosulfate in A. caldus are proposed according to expression patterns of sulfur oxidation genes and growth abilities of the wild type and the mutant in different substrates media.An integrated sulfur oxidation model with various sulfur oxidation pathways of A. caldus is proposed and the features of this model are summarized.

  10. EnviroAtlas - Atmospheric Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition by 12-digit HUC for the Conterminous United States (2011)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes annual nitrogen and sulfur deposition within each 12-digit HUC subwatershed for the year 2011. Values are provided for total...

  11. Study on Al2O3 extraction from activated coal gangue under different calcination atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Ling; Liang, Xinxing; Song, Qiang; Gao, Gewu; Song, Lihua; Shu, Yuanfeng; Shu, Xinqian

    2017-12-01

    Coal gangue was calcinated under air, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, air-hydrogen, and hydrogen atmospheres. The effects of different calcination temperatures and atmospheres on the mineral composition of activated coal gangue were investigated by X-ray diffraction. Moreover, the acid leaching kinetics of aluminum oxide from coal gangue was investigated with sulfuric acid. It showed that the air atmosphere promoted kaolinite decomposition during coal gangue calcination. The hydrogen atmosphere promoted the activation and decomposition of kaolinite at reaction temperatures exceeding 650°C. The carbon dioxide atmosphere eliminated the influence of residual carbon on coal gangue. When the ratio of acid/coal gangue was 1.5 and reaction temperature was 650°C, the sulfuric acid leaching rate under air, air-hydrogen, carbon dioxide, hydrogen and nitrogen atmospheres were 93.66%, 90.90%, 84.06%, 81.91% and 77.54% respectively. The acid leaching reaction process conformed to unreacted shrinking core model of particle unchanged, and was controlled by the interfacial chemical reaction. The reaction kinetic equation for the leaching process was 1-(1-x)1/3=kt with an apparent activation energy of 48.97 kJ/mol.

  12. Transport-Induced Spatial Patterns of Sulfur Isotopes (δ34S) as Biosignatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansor, Muammar; Harouaka, Khadouja; Gonzales, Matthew S.; Macalady, Jennifer L.; Fantle, Matthew S.

    2018-01-01

    Cave minerals deposited in the presence of microbes may host geochemical biosignatures that can be utilized to detect subsurface life on Earth, Mars, or other habitable worlds. The sulfur isotopic composition of gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O) formed in the presence of sulfur-oxidizing microbes in the Frasassi cave system, Italy, was evaluated as a biosignature. Sulfur isotopic compositions (δ34SV-CDT) of gypsum sampled from cave rooms with sulfidic air varied from -11 to -24‰, with minor deposits of elemental sulfur having δ34S values between -17 and -19‰. Over centimeter-length scales, the δ34S values of gypsum varied by up to 8.5‰. Complementary laboratory experiments showed negligible fractionation during the oxidation of elemental sulfur to sulfate by Acidithiobacillus thiooxidans isolated from the caves. Additionally, gypsum precipitated in the presence and absence of microbes at acidic pH characteristic of the sulfidic cave walls has δ34S values that are on average 1‰ higher than sulfate. We therefore interpret the 8.5‰ variation in cave gypsum δ34S (toward more negative values) to reflect the isotopic effect of microbial sulfide oxidation directly to sulfate or via elemental sulfur intermediate. This range is similar to that expected by abiotic sulfide oxidation with oxygen, thus complicating the use of sulfur isotopes as a biosignature at centimeter-length scales. However, at the cave room (meter-length) scale, reactive transport modeling suggests that the overall ˜13‰ variability in gypsum δ34S reflects isotopic distillation of circulating H2S gas due to microbial sulfide oxidation occurring along the cave wall-atmosphere interface. Systematic variations of gypsum δ34S along gas flow paths can thus be interpreted as biogenic given that slow, abiotic oxidation cannot produce the same spatial patterns over similar length scales. The expression and preservation potential of this biosignature is dependent on gas flow parameters and diagenetic

  13. Sulfur MIF, Organic Haze, and the Gaia Hypothesis in the Archean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagal-Goldman, S.; James, K. F.

    2006-05-01

    The presence of mass-independent fractionation (MIF) of sulfur isotopes in Archean sedimentary rocks provides evidence for a low-O2 atmosphere prior to 2.4 Ga. Recent data suggest that S-MIF vanished transiently between ~3.2 Ga and 2.8 Ga. The absence of S-MIF after 2.4 Ga is commonly attributed to the rise of O2 in the atmosphere, as the presence of free O2 would have oxidized all sulfur species, thereby erasing any MIF created by atmospheric photochemistry. However, if free O2 did not appear in the atmosphere until 2.4 Ga, then why did S-MIF disappear transiently much earlier? Could S-MIF have been eliminated from the rock record without the presence of free atmospheric O2? We used a 1-dimensional photochemical model to demonstrate how this might have happened. Increasing the CH4/CO2 ratio in the model atmosphere results in the formation of organic haze. If the haze was sufficiently thick, it would have blocked out much of the solar UV radiation shortward of 220 nm that dissociates SO2 and SO, and thereby causes MIF. The haze should also have caused anti-greenhouse cooling and may have triggered the (putative) 2.8-Ga glaciations. Speculatively, an increase in CH4 at 3.0 Ga could have been caused by the evolution of methanogens, while a CH4 decrease at 2.7 Ga could correspond to the evolution of cyanobacteria. The presence of an optically thin organic haze between 2.4 and 2.7 Ga may explain the larger S-MIF values seen at this time, as compared to the early Archean. If such an organic haze existed, it could have resulted in a biologically-mediated negative feedback loop that stabilized the Archean climate. This feedback loop would have operated as follows: an increase in the biological CH4 flux would have led to an increase in haze thickness and a stronger anti-greenhouse effect, cooling the surface. The surface cooling would have caused a reduction of methanogen productivity, thus offsetting the original increase in the CH4 flux. Such stabilizing feedbacks

  14. Biomimetic Ant-Nest Electrode Structures for High Sulfur Ratio Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ai, Guo; Dai, Yiling; Mao, Wenfeng; Zhao, Hui; Fu, Yanbao; Song, Xiangyun; En, Yunfei; Battaglia, Vincent S; Srinivasan, Venkat; Liu, Gao

    2016-09-14

    The lithium-sulfur (Li-S) rechargeable battery has the benefit of high gravimetric energy density and low cost. Significant research currently focuses on increasing the sulfur loading and sulfur/inactive-materials ratio, to improve life and capacity. Inspired by nature's ant-nest structure, this research results in a novel Li-S electrode that is designed to meet both goals. With only three simple manufacturing-friendly steps, which include slurry ball-milling, doctor-blade-based laminate casting, and the use of the sacrificial method with water to dissolve away table salt, the ant-nest design has been successfully recreated in an Li-S electrode. The efficient capabilities of the ant-nest structure are adopted to facilitate fast ion transportation, sustain polysulfide dissolution, and assist efficient precipitation. High cycling stability in the Li-S batteries, for practical applications, has been achieved with up to 3 mg·cm(-2) sulfur loading. Li-S electrodes with up to a 85% sulfur ratio have also been achieved for the efficient design of this novel ant-nest structure.

  15. Capacity Fade Analysis of Sulfur Cathodes in Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jianhua; Liu, Xingbo

    2016-01-01

    Rechargeable lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are receiving ever‐increasing attention due to their high theoretical energy density and inexpensive raw sulfur materials. However, their rapid capacity fade has been one of the key barriers for their further improvement. It is well accepted that the major degradation mechanisms of S‐cathodes include low electrical conductivity of S and sulfides, precipitation of nonconductive Li2S2 and Li2S, and poly‐shuttle effects. To determine these degradation factors, a comprehensive study of sulfur cathodes with different amounts of electrolytes is presented here. A survey of the fundamentals of Li–S chemistry with respect to capacity fade is first conducted; then, the parameters obtained through electrochemical performance and characterization are used to determine the key causes of capacity fade in Li–S batteries. It is confirmed that the formation and accumulation of nonconductive Li2S2/Li2S films on sulfur cathode surfaces are the major parameters contributing to the rapid capacity fade of Li–S batteries. PMID:27981001

  16. Sulfur contents and sulfur-isotope compositions of thiotrophic symbioses in bivalve molluscs and vestimentiferan worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vetter, R.D.; Fry, B.

    1998-01-01

    Total sulfur (S(TOT)), elemental sulfur (S??) and sulfur-isotope compositions (??34S) of marine animals were analyzed to determine whether these chemical characteristics could help distinguish animals with a sulfur-based, thiotrophic nutrition from animals whose nutrition is based on methanotrophy or on more normal consumption of phytoplankton-derived organic matter. The presence of S??was almost entirely confined to the symbiont-containing tissues of thiotrophs, but was sometimes undetectable in thiotrophic species where sulfide availability was probably low. When S??contents were subtracted, the remaining tissue-sulfur concentrations were similar for all nutritional groups. ??34S values were typically lower for thiotrophs than for other groups, although there was overlap in methanotroph and thiotroph values at some sites. Field evidence supported the existence of small to moderate (1 to 10???)34S fractionations in the uptake of sulfides and metabolism of thiosulfate. In general, a total sulfur content of >3% dry weight, the presence of elemental sulfur, and ??34S values less than + 5??? can be used to infer a thiotrophic mode of nutrition.

  17. Study on the behavior of sulfur in hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeng, Fanbo; Luo, Dongmei, E-mail: dmluo@scu.edu.cn; Zhang, Zhao; Liang, Bin; Yuan, Xizhi; Fu, Li

    2016-06-15

    The existing forms of sulfur in hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution were studied. Also the effects of sulfur on crystal structure, crystallite size and crystal phase transition of the hydrated titanium dioxide(TiO{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) were conducted. The analysis and methods of thermogravimetric-differential scanning calorimet (TG-DSC), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectra and Raman spectroscopy were employed to characterize. The results indicated that the sulfur was present in the form of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions in the hydrolysate of titanyl sulfate solution, and a portion of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were combined on the surface of hydrated titanium dioxide by chemical adsorption in the forms of inorganic chelating bidentate coordination and covalent sulfate coordination, the residual SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were adsorbed on the surface of hydrated titanium dioxide by physical adsorption. The chemical adsorption of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions were conducive to the formation and stabilization of anatase, which changed the crystal structure, and hindered the transformation of the anatase into rutile. The results of Raman spectroscopy showed that the sulfur was dissociated in the forms of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and HSO{sub 4}{sup −} ions during the hydrolysis of titanyl sulfate solution. The characteristic peak at 1004 cm{sup −1} corresponding to a new complex has been observed, which was composed of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} and hydrated titanium complex ions through the bonding on the surface. In basis of the above experimental results, the hydrolysis process of titanyl sulfate solution was illustrated from the microstructure with 3D atlas. - Highlights: • The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions exist in TiO{sub 2}·H{sub 2}O by chemical and physical adsorption. • The SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions are conducive to the formation and

  18. Layered sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nano composite electrodes for lithium sulfur cell applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anilkumar, K. M.; Jinisha, B.; Manoj, M.; Pradeep, V. S.; Jayalekshmi, S.

    2018-06-01

    Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) cells are emerging as the next generation energy storage devices owing to their impressive electrochemical properties with high theoretical specific capacity of 1675 mAh/g. Lack of electronic conductivity of sulfur, its volume expansion during high lithium intake and the shuttling effect due to the formation of soluble polysulfides are the main limitations, delaying the commercialization of this technology. To address these challenges, in the present work, the conducting polymer PEDOT:PSS is used as the covering matrix over the sulfur particles to improve their Li storage properties. The sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite is synthesised using the hydrothermal process and its formation with the polymer coating over sulfur nanoparticles is established from the XRD, Raman spectroscopy, FE-SEM and TEM studies. The electrochemical studies show that the cells assembled using the sulfur/PEDOT:PSS nanocomposite as the cathode, with the components taken in the weight ratio of 9:1, offer a reversible capacity of 1191 mAh g-1 at 0.1C rate. These cells display stable electrochemical capacities over 200 cycles at gradually increasing current rates. The polymer layer facilitates electronic conduction and suppresses the polysulfide formation and the volume expansion of sulfur. A reversible capacity of 664 mAh g-1 is observed after 200 cycles at 1C rate with the capacity retention of 75 % of the initial stable capacity. The highlight of the present work is the possibility to achieve high discharge capacities at high C rates and the retention of a good percentage of the initial capacity over 200 cycles, for these Li-S cells.

  19. Demand outlook for sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koshkarov, V.Ya.; Danil' yan, P.G.; Feotov, V.E.; Gimaev, R.N.; Koshkarova, M.E.; Sadykova, S.R.; Vodovichenko, N.S.

    1980-01-01

    The feasibility of using sulfur and high-sulfur petroleum coke fines in pyrometallurgical processes and also in the chemical and coal-tar chemical industry is examined. Results of industrial tests on briquetting fines of petroleum coke with a petroleum binder are presented. The feasibility of using the obtained briquets in shaft furnace smelting of oxidized nickel ores, production of anode stock, and also in the chemical industry are demonstrated.

  20. SULFUR POLYMER ENCAPSULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KALB, P.

    2001-01-01

    Sulfur polymer cement (SPC) is a thermoplastic polymer consisting of 95 wt% elemental sulfur and 5 wt% organic modifiers to enhance long-term durability. SPC was originally developed by the U.S. Bureau of Mines as an alternative to hydraulic cement for construction applications. Previous attempts to use elemental sulfur as a construction material in the chemical industry failed due to premature degradation. These failures were caused by the internal stresses that result from changes in crystalline structure upon cooling of the material. By reacting elemental sulfur with organic polymers, the Bureau of Mines developed a product that successfully suppresses the solid phase transition and significantly improves the stability of the product. SPC, originally named modified sulfur cement, is produced from readily available, inexpensive waste sulfur derived from desulfurization of both flue gases and petroleum. The commercial production of SPC is licensed in the United States by Martin Resources (Odessa, Texas) and is marketed under the trade name Chement 2000. It is sold in granular form and is relatively inexpensive ((approx)$0.10 to 0.12/lb). Application of SPC for the treatment of radioactive, hazardous, and mixed wastes was initially developed and patented by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) in the mid-1980s (Kalb and Colombo, 1985; Colombo et al., 1997). The process was subsequently investigated by the Commission of the European Communities (Van Dalen and Rijpkema, 1989), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (Darnell, 1991), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (Mattus and Mattus, 1994). SPC has been used primarily in microencapsulation applications but can also be used for macroencapsulation of waste. SPC microencapsulation has been demonstrated to be an effective treatment for a wide variety of wastes, including incinerator hearth and fly ash; aqueous concentrates such as sulfates, borates, and chlorides; blowdown solutions; soils; and sludges. It is not

  1. Confine sulfur in mesoporous metal–organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide for lithium sulfur battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao, Weizhai; Zhang, Zhian; Qu, Yaohui; Zhou, Chengkun; Wang, Xiwen; Li, Jie

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide was applied for sulfur cathode. • MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composites are synthesized by a facile two-step liquid method. • Cycling stability of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S sulfur cathode was improved. -- Abstract: Mesoporous metal organic framework @ reduced graphene oxide (MIL-101(Cr)@rGO) materials have been used as a host material to prepare the multi-composite sulfur cathode through a facile and effective two-step liquid phase method successfully, which is different from the simple MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed preparation method. The successful reduced graphene oxide coating in the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO improve the electronic conductivity of meso-MOFs effectively. The discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)@rGO/S composite sulfur cathode are as high as 650 mAh g −1 and 66.6% at the 50th cycle at the current density of 335 mA g −1 . While the discharge capacity and capacity retention rate of MIL-101(Cr)/S mixed sulfur cathode is 458 mAh g −1 and 37.3%. Test results indicate that the MIL-101(Cr)@rGO is a promising host material for the sulfur cathode in the lithium–sulfur battery applications

  2. Stability of sulfur slopes on Io

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, G. D.; Carr, M. H.

    1980-01-01

    The mechanical properties of elemental sulfur are such that the upper crust of Io cannot be primarily sulfur. For heat flows in the range 100-1000 ergs/sq cm sec sulfur becomes ductile within several hundred meters of the surface and would prevent the formation of calderas with depths greater than this. However, the one caldera for which precise depth data are available is 2 km deep, and this value may be typical. A study of the mechanical equilibrium of simple slopes shows that the depth to the zone of rapid ductile flow strongly controls the maximum heights for sulfur slopes. Sulfur scarps with heights greater than 1 km will fail for all heat flows greater than 180 ergs/sq cm sec and slope angles greater than 22.5 deg. The observed relief on Io is inconsistent with that anticipated for a predominantly sulfur crust. However, a silicate crust with several percent sulfur included satisfies both the mechanical constraints and the observed presence of sulfur on Io.

  3. The source and longevity of sulfur in an Icelandic flood basalt eruption plume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilyinskaya, Evgenia; Edmonds, Marie; Mather, Tamsin; Schmidt, Anja; Hartley, Margaret; Oppenheimer, Clive; Pope, Francis; Donovan, Amy; Sigmarsson, Olgeir; Maclennan, John; Shorttle, Oliver; Francis, Peter; Bergsson, Baldur; Barsotti, Sara; Thordarson, Thorvaldur; Bali, Eniko; Keller, Nicole; Stefansson, Andri

    2015-04-01

    The Holuhraun fissure eruption (Bárðarbunga volcanic system, central Iceland) has been ongoing since 31 August 2014 and is now the largest in Europe since the 1783-84 Laki event. For the first time in the modern age we have the opportunity to study at first hand the environmental impact of a flood basalt fissure eruption (>1 km3 lava). Flood basalt eruptions are one of the most hazardous volcanic scenarios in Iceland and have had enormous societal and economic consequences across the northern hemisphere in the past. The Laki eruption caused the deaths of >20% of the Icelandic population by environmental pollution and famine and potentially also increased European levels of mortality through air pollution by sulphur-bearing gas and aerosol. A flood basalt eruption was included in the UK National Risk Register in 2012 as one of the highest priority risks. The gas emissions from Holuhraun have been sustained since its beginning, repeatedly causing severe air pollution in populated areas in Iceland. During 18-22 September, SO2 fluxes reached 45 kt/day, a rate of outgassing rarely observed during sustained eruptions, suggesting that the sulfur loading per kg of erupted magma exceeds both that of other recent eruptions in Iceland and perhaps also other historic basaltic eruptions globally. This raises key questions regarding the origin of these prodigious quantities of sulphur. A lack of understanding of the source of this sulfur, the conversion rates of SO2 gas into aerosol, the residence times of aerosol in the plume and the dependence of these on meteorological factors is limiting our confidence in the ability of atmospheric models to forecast gas and aerosol concentrations in the near- and far-field from Icelandic flood basalt eruptions. In 2015 our group is undertaking a project funded by UK NERC urgency scheme to investigate several aspects of the sulfur budget at Holuhraun using a novel and powerful approach involving simultaneous tracking of sulfur and

  4. 40 CFR 52.1881 - Control strategy: Sulfur oxides (sulfur dioxide).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....0 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU actual heat input for the coal-fired boiler and 0.4... BTU actual heat input for coal-fired boiler C exiting through stack 5. (3) 2.24 pounds of sulfur dioxide per million BTU acutal heat input for coal-fired boiler D exiting through stack 6. (E) In lieu of...

  5. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackley, Keith C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W.

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylene, PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (So) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether So extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted So was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The So was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, So and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. ?? 1990.

  6. Process for removing sulfur from sulfur-containing gases: high calcium fly-ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rochelle, Gary T.; Chang, John C. S.

    1991-01-01

    The present disclosure relates to improved processes for treating hot sulfur-containing flue gas to remove sulfur therefrom. Processes in accordance with the present invention include preparing an aqueous slurry composed of a calcium alkali source and a source of reactive silica and/or alumina, heating the slurry to above-ambient temperatures for a period of time in order to facilitate the formation of sulfur-absorbing calcium silicates or aluminates, and treating the gas with the heat-treated slurry components. Examples disclosed herein demonstrate the utility of these processes in achieving improved sulfur-absorbing capabilities. Additionally, disclosure is provided which illustrates preferred configurations for employing the present processes both as a dry sorbent injection and for use in conjunction with a spray dryer and/or bagfilter. Retrofit application to existing systems is also addressed.

  7. Sulfur isotope fractionation during oxidation of sulfur dioxide: gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and iron catalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. N. Crowley

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of SO2 to sulfate is a key reaction in determining the role of sulfate in the environment through its effect on aerosol size distribution and composition. Sulfur isotope analysis has been used to investigate sources and chemical processes of sulfur dioxide and sulfate in the atmosphere, however interpretation of measured sulfur isotope ratios is challenging due to a lack of reliable information on the isotopic fractionation involved in major transformation pathways. This paper presents laboratory measurements of the fractionation factors for the major atmospheric oxidation reactions for SO2: Gas-phase oxidation by OH radicals, and aqueous oxidation by H2O2, O3 and a radical chain reaction initiated by iron. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during the gas-phase reaction is αOH = (1.0089±0.0007−((4±5×10−5 T(°C. The measured fractionation factor for 34S/32S during aqueous oxidation by H2O2 or O3 is αaq = (1.0167±0.0019−((8.7±3.5 ×10−5T(°C. The observed fractionation during oxidation by H2O2 and O3 appeared to be controlled primarily by protonation and acid-base equilibria of S(IV in solution, which is the reason that there is no significant difference between the fractionation produced by the two oxidants within the experimental error. The isotopic fractionation factor from a radical chain reaction in solution catalysed by iron is αFe = (0.9894±0.0043 at 19 °C for 34S/32S. Fractionation was mass-dependent with regards to 33S/32S for all the reactions investigated. The radical chain reaction mechanism was the only measured reaction that had a faster rate for the light isotopes. The results presented in this study will be particularly useful to determine the importance of the transition metal-catalysed oxidation pathway compared to other oxidation pathways, but other main oxidation pathways can not be distinguished based on stable sulfur isotope measurements alone.

  8. Lichens and atmospheric pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tallis, J H

    1964-09-01

    The extreme sensitivity of lichens, particularly the larger ones, to industrialization has been recognized for many years. Most people attribute the absence of lichens from urban areas to the atmospheric pollution prevailing, and a few attribute it to climatic dryness, resulting from efficient drainage systems in towns. The two main components of air pollution are solid matter, or soot, and gaseous sulfur dioxide. The main effects of pollution appear to be: a direct reduction of light intensity by smoke haze, a deposit of soot on the plant surface, an acidification of the soil, and direct damage to plants. A body of evidence indicates that SO/sub 2/ may be the main harmful component for lichens. The distribution of lichens thus might be used to determine the limits within which atmospheric pollution is operating. 5 references.

  9. Atmospheric mercury in northern Wisconsin: sources and species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamborg, C.H.; Fitzgerald, W.F.; Vandal, G.M.; Rolfhus, K.R.

    1995-01-01

    The atmospheric chemistry, deposition and transport of mercury (Hg) in the Upper Great Lakes region is being investigated at a near-remote sampling location in northern Wisconsin. Intensive sampling over two years has been completed. A multi-phase collection strategy was used to gain insight into the processes controlling concentrations and chemical/physical speciation of atmospheric Hg. Additional chemical and physical atmospheric determinations were also made during these periods to aid in the interpretation of the Hg determinations. For example, correlations of Hg with ozone, sulfur dioxide and synopticscale meteorological features suggest a regionally discernible signal in Hg. Comparison to isosigma backward air parcel trajectories confirms this regionality and implicates the areas south, southeast and northwest of the size to be source for Hg. Particle-phase Hg (Hg p ) was found to be approximately 40% in an oxidized form, or operationally defined as reactive but was variable. Hg p and other particle constituents show significant correlation and similarity in behavior. These observations support the hypothesis that precipitation-phase Hg arises from the scavenging of atmospheric particulates bearing Hg. Observed concentrations of rain and particle-Hg fit the theoretical expectations for nucleation and below-cloud scavenging. Increases in the Hg/aerosol mass ratio appear to take place during transport. Enrichment of aerosols is taken as evidence of gas/particle conversion which could represent the step linking gas-phase Hg with rain. The refined budget indicates ca. 24% of total deposition is from summer particle dry deposition, and that this deposition also contributes ca. 24% of all reactive Hg deposition. Most deposition occurs during the summer months. 40 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  10. Solvent extraction of elemental sulfur from coal and a determination of its source using stable sulfur isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackley, K.C.; Buchanan, D.H.; Coombs, K.; Chaven, C.; Kruse, C.W. (Eastern Illinois University, Charleston, IL (USA). Chemistry Dept.)

    1990-01-01

    Hot tetrachloroethene (perchloroethylen PCE) extracts significant amounts of elemental sulfur (S{sup o}) from weathered coals but not from pristine coals. The objective of this study was to determine whether S{sup o} extracted by PCE is an oxidation product of pyrite or whether it originates in some way from unstable, organically-bound sulfur. The isotopic composition of the PCE-extracted S{sup o} was compared to the isotopic compositions of the pyritic and the organic sulfur in a coal. The S{sup o} was shown to have an isotopic signature similar to the pyritic sulfur. Additionally, the isotopic differences observed between the pyritic, S{sup o} and sulfatic sulfur were consistent with bacterial mediated oxidation of sulfide sulfur (pyrite) as the source of both the sulfatic and elemental sulfur. 21 refs., 2 tabs.

  11. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Kang; Wang, Shengping; Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al 2 O 3 can provide surface area for the deposition of Li 2 S and Li 2 S 2 . ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g −1 , and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g −1 after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm −2 . Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process

  12. Bolalipid fiber aggregation can be modulated by the introduction of sulfur atoms into the spacer chains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Gesche; Drescher, Simon; Meister, Annette; Haramus, Vasyl M; Dobner, Bodo; Blume, Alfred

    2013-03-01

    The aggregation behavior in aqueous suspension of two symmetrical single-chain bolaamphiphiles, namely 12,21-dithiadotriacontane-1,32-diyl-bis [2-(tri-methylammonio)ethylphosphate] (PC-C32SS-PC) and 12,21-dithiadotriacontane-1,32-diyl-bis[2-(dimethylammonio)ethylphosphate] (Me(2)PE-C32SS-Me(2)PE), containing sulfur as heteroatoms in the chains, was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), small angle neutron scattering (SANS), and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The rheological properties of hydrogels formed by the aggregation into nanofibers were studied by oscillatory rheology. Based on the well-characterized behavior of bolalipids with long alkyl chains which at room temperature can form a network of nanofibers leading to the formation of a hydrogel, we investigated whether the incorporation of two heteroatoms of sulfur into the spacer chain of the molecules has an influence on the aggregation properties. Compared to the analogues without sulfur, the fibrous aggregates formed by sulfur containing compounds are less stable and build weaker viscoelastic gels. This is due to a perturbation of the packing of the chains as the sulfur atoms change the bond angle in the chain compared to the molecules with pure alkyl chains leading to kinks in the chain. For the bolaamphiphile with the Me(2)PE headgroups this effect is less pronounced due to the possibility of forming stabilizing hydrogen bonds between the headgroups. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abedinzadeh, Z. [Lab. de Chimie Physique, UMR, Univ. Rene Descartes, Paris (France)

    2001-02-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS{sup .}, RSS{sup .}, RS{sup .+}, (RSSR){sup .+}] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  14. Sulfur-centered reactive intermediates derived from the oxidation of sulfur compounds of biological interest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abedinzadeh, Z.

    2001-01-01

    Sulphur compounds play a central role in the structure and activity of many vital systems. In the living cell, sulfur constitutes an essential part of the defense against oxidative damage and is transformed into a variety of sulfur free radical species. Many studies of the chemistry of sulfur-centered radicals using pulse radiolysis and photolysis techniques to detect and measure the kinetics of these radicals have been published and reviewed. This paper discusses the present state of research on the formation and reactivity of certain sulfur-centered radicals [RS . , RSS . , RS .+ , (RSSR) .+ ] and their implications for biological systems. (author)

  15. Two-Dimensional Simulation of Spatial-Temporal Behaviors About Period Doubling Bifurcation in an Atmospheric-Pressure Dielectric Barrier Discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jiao; Wang Yanhui; Wang Dezhen; Zhuang Juan

    2014-01-01

    As a spatially extended dissipated system, atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges (DBDs) could in principle possess complex nonlinear behaviors. In order to improve the stability and uniformity of atmospheric-pressure dielectric barrier discharges, studies on temporal behaviors and radial structure of discharges with strong nonlinear behaviors under different controlling parameters are much desirable. In this paper, a two-dimensional fluid model is developed to simulate the radial discharge structure of period-doubling bifurcation, chaos, and inverse period-doubling bifurcation in an atmospheric-pressure DBD. The results show that the period-2n (n = 1, 2…) and chaotic discharges exhibit nonuniform discharge structure. In period-2n or chaos, not only the shape of current pulses doesn't remains exactly the same from one cycle to another, but also the radial structures, such as discharge spatial evolution process and the strongest breakdown region, are different in each neighboring discharge event. Current-voltage characteristics of the discharge system are studied for further understanding of the radial structure. (low temperature plasma)

  16. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by sulfuric acid. The process of decomposition of danburite concentrate by sulfuric acid was studied. The chemical nature of decomposition process of boron containing ore was determined. The influence of temperature on the rate of extraction of boron and iron oxides was defined. The dependence of decomposition of boron and iron oxides on process duration, dosage of H 2 SO 4 , acid concentration and size of danburite particles was determined. The kinetics of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was studied as well. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid was calculated. The flowsheet of danburite processing by sulfuric acid was elaborated.

  17. Sulfur polymer cement concrete

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, H.H.; McBee, W.C.

    1990-01-01

    Sulfur-based composite materials formulated using sulfur polymer cement (SPC) and mineral aggregates are described and compared with conventional portland cement based materials. Materials characteristics presented include mechanical strength, chemical resistance, impact resistance, moisture permeation, and linear shrinkage during placement and curing. Examples of preparation and placement of sulfur polymer cement concrete (SC) are described using commercial scale equipment. SC applications presented are focused into hostile chemical environments where severe portland cement concrete (PCC) failure has occurred

  18. The role of ions in particle nucleation under atmospheric conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enghoff, Martin B.; Pedersen, J. O. P.; Bondo, T.

    2008-01-01

    Aerosol nucleation has been studied experimentally in purified, atmospheric air, containing trace amounts of water vapor, ozone, and sulfur dioxide. The results are compared with model calculations. It is found that an increase in ionization by a factor of 10 increases the production rate of stable...

  19. Contribution of sulfuric acid and oxidized organic compounds to particle formation and growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Riccobono

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lack of knowledge about the mechanisms underlying new particle formation and their subsequent growth is one of the main causes for the large uncertainty in estimating the radiative forcing of atmospheric aerosols in global models. We performed chamber experiments designed to study the contributions of sulfuric acid and organic vapors to the formation and early growth of nucleated particles. Distinct experiments in the presence of two different organic precursors (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene and α-pinene showed the ability of these compounds to reproduce the formation rates observed in the low troposphere. These results were obtained measuring the sulfuric acid concentrations with two chemical ionization mass spectrometers confirming the results of a previous study which modeled the sulfuric acid concentrations in presence of 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene.

    New analysis methods were applied to the data collected with a condensation particle counter battery and a scanning mobility particle sizer, allowing the assessment of the size resolved growth rates of freshly nucleated particles. The effect of organic vapors on particle growth was investigated by means of the growth rate enhancement factor (Γ, defined as the ratio between the measured growth rate in the presence of α-pinene and the kinetically limited growth rate of the sulfuric acid and water system. The observed Γ values indicate that the growth is already dominated by organic compounds at particle diameters of 2 nm. Both the absolute growth rates and Γ showed a strong dependence on particle size, supporting the nano-Köhler theory. Moreover, the separation of the contributions from sulfuric acid and organic compounds to particle growth reveals that the organic contribution seems to be enhanced by the sulfuric acid concentration. Finally, the size resolved growth analysis indicates that both condensation of oxidized organic compounds and reactive uptake contribute to particle growth.

  20. Hysteresis Phenomena in Sulfur Dioxide Oxidation over Supported Vanadium Catalysts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Masters, Stephen G.; Eriksen, Kim Michael; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    1997-01-01

    Catalyst deactivation and hysteresis behavior in industrial SO2-oxidation catalysts have been studied in the temperature region 350-480 C by combined in situ EPR spectroscopy and catalytic activity measurements. The feed gas composition simulated sulfuric acid synthesis gas and wet/dry de......NOx'ed flue gas. The vanadium (IV) compound K4(VO)3(SO4)5 precipitated during all the investigated conditions hence causing catalyst deactivation. Hysteresis behavior of both the catalytic activity and the V(IV) content was observed during reheating....

  1. Sulfur cathode integrated with multileveled carbon nanoflake-nanosphere networks for high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, S.H.; Wang, X.H.; Xia, X.H.; Wang, Y.D.; Wang, X.L.; Tu, J.P.

    2017-01-01

    Tailored design/construction of high-quality sulfur/carbon composite cathode is critical for development of advanced lithium-sulfur batteries. We report a powerful strategy for integrated fabrication of sulfur impregnated into three-dimensional (3D) multileveled carbon nanoflake-nanosphere networks (CNNNs) by means of sacrificial ZnO template plus glucose carbonization. The multileveled CNNNs are not only utilized as large-area host/backbone for sulfur forming an integrated S/CNNNs composite electrode, but also serve as multiple carbon blocking barriers (nanoflake infrastructure andnanosphere superstructure) to physically confine polysulfides at the cathode. The designedself-supported S/CNNNs composite cathodes exhibit superior electrochemical performances with high capacities (1395 mAh g −1 at 0.1C, and 769 mAh g −1 at 5.0C after 200 cycles) and noticeable cycling performance (81.6% retention after 200 cycles). Our results build a new bridge between sulfur and carbon networks with multiple blocking effects for polysulfides, and provide references for construction of other high-performance sulfur cathodes.

  2. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Bo; Wang, Zhen; Tan, Fang; Guo, Yucong; Tong, Shengrui; Wang, Weigang; Zhang, Yunhong; Ge, Maofa

    2018-04-01

    While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO3)2) and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA). The nitrate salt / organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH), the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  3. Hygroscopic behavior of atmospheric aerosols containing nitrate salts and water-soluble organic acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Jing

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available While nitrate salts have critical impacts on environmental effects of atmospheric aerosols, the effects of coexisting species on hygroscopicity of nitrate salts remain uncertain. The hygroscopic behaviors of nitrate salt aerosols (NH4NO3, NaNO3, Ca(NO32 and their internal mixtures with water-soluble organic acids were determined using a hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA. The nitrate salt ∕ organic acid mixed aerosols exhibit varying phase behavior and hygroscopic growth depending upon the type of components in the particles. Whereas pure nitrate salt particles show continuous water uptake with increasing relative humidity (RH, the deliquescence transition is still observed for ammonium nitrate particles internally mixed with organic acids such as oxalic acid and succinic acid with a high deliquescence point. The hygroscopicity of submicron aerosols containing sodium nitrate and an organic acid is also characterized by continuous growth, indicating that sodium nitrate tends to exist in a liquid-like state under dry conditions. It is observed that in contrast to the pure components, the water uptake is hindered at low and moderate RH for calcium nitrate particles containing malonic acid or phthalic acid, suggesting the potential effects of mass transfer limitation in highly viscous mixed systems. Our findings improve fundamental understanding of the phase behavior and water uptake of nitrate-salt-containing aerosols in the atmospheric environment.

  4. PHOTOCHEMISTRY IN TERRESTRIAL EXOPLANET ATMOSPHERES. I. PHOTOCHEMISTRY MODEL AND BENCHMARK CASES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu Renyu; Seager, Sara; Bains, William, E-mail: hury@mit.edu [Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2012-12-20

    We present a comprehensive photochemistry model for exploration of the chemical composition of terrestrial exoplanet atmospheres. The photochemistry model is designed from the ground up to have the capacity to treat all types of terrestrial planet atmospheres, ranging from oxidizing through reducing, which makes the code suitable for applications for the wide range of anticipated terrestrial exoplanet compositions. The one-dimensional chemical transport model treats up to 800 chemical reactions, photochemical processes, dry and wet deposition, surface emission, and thermal escape of O, H, C, N, and S bearing species, as well as formation and deposition of elemental sulfur and sulfuric acid aerosols. We validate the model by computing the atmospheric composition of current Earth and Mars and find agreement with observations of major trace gases in Earth's and Mars' atmospheres. We simulate several plausible atmospheric scenarios of terrestrial exoplanets and choose three benchmark cases for atmospheres from reducing to oxidizing. The most interesting finding is that atomic hydrogen is always a more abundant reactive radical than the hydroxyl radical in anoxic atmospheres. Whether atomic hydrogen is the most important removal path for a molecule of interest also depends on the relevant reaction rates. We also find that volcanic carbon compounds (i.e., CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2}) are chemically long-lived and tend to be well mixed in both reducing and oxidizing atmospheres, and their dry deposition velocities to the surface control the atmospheric oxidation states. Furthermore, we revisit whether photochemically produced oxygen can cause false positives for detecting oxygenic photosynthesis, and find that in 1 bar CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheres oxygen and ozone may build up to levels that have conventionally been accepted as signatures of life, if there is no surface emission of reducing gases. The atmospheric scenarios presented in this paper can serve as the

  5. Formation of CuxS Layers on Polypropylene Sulfurized by Molten Sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasa ALABURDAITĖ

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The processes of formation of electrically conductive layers of copper sulfides CuxS by the sorption-diffusion method on polypropylene (PP using molten sulfur as sulfurizing agent was investigated. The amount of sorbed sulfur increased with the increase of the duration of treatment. Copper sulfide layers were formed on the surface of polypropylene after the treatment of sulfurized polymer with Cu(II/I salt solution. The amount of copper sulfide in layer increased with the increase of treatment duration in copper salt solution. XRD spectra of PP films treated for 3 min with molten sulfur and then with Cu(II/I salt solution for the different time showed that the copper sulfide phases, mostly digenite, Cu2-xS and a-chalcocite, Cu2S were formed in the layers. Electromotive force measurement results confirmed the composition of formed CuxS layers on PP. The phase composition of layers also changed after the annealing. The value of electrical resistance of copper sulfide layers on PP varied from 20 W/cm2 to 80 W/cm2 and after annealing at 80 °C - in the interval of 10 W/cm2 - 60 W/cm2.http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.17.4.776

  6. Removal of sulfur from process streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brignac, D.G.

    1984-01-01

    A process wherein water is added to a non-reactive gas stream, preferably a hydrogen or hydrogen-containing gas stream, sufficient to raise the water level thereof to from about 0.2 percent to about 50 percent, based on the total volume of the process gas stream, and the said moist gas stream is contacted, at elevated temperature, with a particulate mass of a sulfur-bearing metal alumina spinel characterized by the formula MAl 2 O 4 , wherein M is chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, cadmium, mercury, or zinc to desorb sulfur thereon. In the sulfur sorption cycle, due to the simultaneous adsorption of water and sulfur, the useful life of the metal alumina spinel for sulfur adsorption can be extended, and the sorbent made more easily regenerable after contact with a sulfur-bearing gas stream, notably sulfur-bearing wet hydrogen or wet hydrogen-rich gas streams

  7. Idiosyncrasies of volcanic sulfur viscosity and the triggering of unheralded volcanic eruptions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa eScolamacchia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Unheralded blue-sky eruptions from dormant volcanoes cause serious fatalities, such as at Mt. Ontake (Japan on 27 September 2014. Could these events result from magmatic gas being trapped within hydrothermal system aquifers by elemental sulfur (Se clogging pores, due to sharp increases in its viscosity when heated above 159oC? This mechanism was thought to prime unheralded eruptions at Mt. Ruapehu in New Zealand. Impurities in sulfur (As, Te, Se are known to modify S-viscosity and industry experiments showed that organic compounds, H2S, and halogens dramatically influence Se viscosity under typical hydrothermal heating/cooling rates and temperature thresholds. However, the effects of complex sulfur compositions are currently ignored at volcanoes, despite its near ubiquity in long-lived volcano-hydrothermal systems. Models of impure S behavior must be urgently formulated to detect pre-eruptive warning signs before the next blue-sky eruption

  8. An Analytic Approach to Modeling Land-Atmosphere Interaction: 1. Construct and Equilibrium Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Kaye L.; Entekhabi, Dara

    1995-03-01

    A four-variable land-atmosphere model is developed to investigate the coupled exchanges of water and energy between the land surface and atmosphere and the role of these exchanges in the statistical behavior of continental climates. The land-atmosphere system is substantially simplified and formulated as a set of ordinary differential equations that, with the addition of random noise, are suitable for analysis in the form of the multivariate Îto equation. The model treats the soil layer and the near-surface atmosphere as reservoirs with storage capacities for heat and water. The transfers between these reservoirs are regulated by four states: soil saturation, soil temperature, air specific humidity, and air potential temperature. The atmospheric reservoir is treated as a turbulently mixed boundary layer of fixed depth. Heat and moisture advection, precipitation, and layer-top air entrainment are parameterized. The system is forced externally by solar radiation and the lateral advection of air and water mass. The remaining energy and water mass exchanges are expressed in terms of the state variables. The model development and equilibrium solutions are presented. Although comparisons between observed data and steady state model results re inexact, the model appears to do a reasonable job of partitioning net radiation into sensible and latent heat flux in appropriate proportions for bare-soil midlatitude summer conditions. Subsequent work will introduce randomness into the forcing terms to investigate the effect of water-energy coupling and land-atmosphere interaction on variability and persistence in the climatic system.

  9. Model for estimating air pollutant uptake by forests: calculation of forest absorption of sulfur dioxide from dispersed sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, C.E. Jr.; Sinclair, T.R.; Knoerr, K.R.

    1975-01-01

    The computer model presented in this paper is designed to estimate the uptake of air pollutants by forests. The model utilizes submodels to describe atmospheric diffusion immediately above and within the canopy, and into the sink areas within or on the trees. The program implementing the model is general and can be used with only minor changes for any gaseous pollutant. To illustrate the utility of the model, estimates are made of the sink strength of forests for sulfur dioxide. The results agree with experimentally derived estimates of sulfur dioxide uptake in crops and forest trees. (auth)

  10. Analysis of sulfur-iodine thermochemical cycle for solar hydrogen production. Part 1: decomposition of sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Cunping; T-Raissi, Ali [Central Florida Univ., Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2005-05-01

    The sulfur-iodine (S-I) thermochemical water splitting cycle is one of the most studied cycles for hydrogen (H{sub 2}) production. S-I cycle consists of four sections: (I) acid production and separation and oxygen purification, (II) sulfuric acid concentration and decomposition, (III) hydroiodic acid (HI) concentration, and (IV) HI decomposition and H{sub 2} purification. Section II of the cycle is an endothermic reaction driven by the heat input from a high temperature source. Analysis of the S-I cycle in the past thirty years have been focused mostly on the utilization of nuclear power as the high temperature heat source for the sulfuric acid decomposition step. Thermodynamic as well as kinetic considerations indicate that both the extent and rate of sulfuric acid decomposition can be improved at very high temperatures (in excess of 1000 deg C) available only from solar concentrators. The beneficial effect of high temperature solar heat for decomposition of sulfuric acid in the S-I cycle is described in this paper. We used Aspen Technologies' HYSYS chemical process simulator (CPS) to develop flowsheets for sulfuric acid (H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) decomposition that include all mass and heat balances. Based on the HYSYS analyses, two new process flowsheets were developed. These new sulfuric acid decomposition processes are simpler and more stable than previous processes and yield higher conversion efficiencies for the sulfuric acid decomposition and sulfur dioxide and oxygen formation. (Author)

  11. High Mass-Loading of Sulfur-Based Cathode Composites and Polysulfides Stabilization for Rechargeable Lithium/Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hara, Toru; Konarov, Aishuak; Mentbayeva, Almagul; Kurmanbayeva, Indira; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    Although sulfur has a high theoretical gravimetric capacity, 1672 mAh/g, its insulating nature requires a large amount of conducting additives: this tends to result in a low mass-loading of active material (sulfur), and thereby, a lower capacity than expected. Therefore, an optimal choice of conducting agents and of the method for sulfur/conducting-agent integration is critically important. In this paper, we report that the areal capacity of 4.9 mAh/cm 2 was achieved at sulfur mass loading of 4.1 mg/cm 2 by casting sulfur/polyacrylonitrile/ketjenblack (S/PAN/KB) cathode composite into carbon fiber paper. This is the highest value among published/reported ones even though it does not contain expensive nanosized carbon materials such as carbon nanotubes, graphene, or graphene derivatives, and competitive enough with the conventional LiCoO 2 -based cathodes (e.g., LiCoO 2 , <20 mg/cm 2 corresponding to <2.8 mAh/cm 2 ). Furthermore, the combination of sulfur/PAN-based composite and PAN-based carbon fiber paper enabled the sulfur-based composite to be used even in carbonate-based electrolyte solution that many lithium/sulfur battery researchers avoid the use of it because of severer irreversible active material loss than in electrolyte solutions without carbonate-based solutions, and even at the highest mass-loading ever reported (the more sulfur is loaded, the more decomposed sulfides deposit at an anode surface).

  12. Developing porous carbon with dihydrogen phosphate groups as sulfur host for high performance lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yanhui; Zhang, Qi; Wu, Junwei; Liang, Xiao; Baker, Andrew P.; Qu, Deyang; Zhang, Hui; Zhang, Huayu; Zhang, Xinhe

    2018-02-01

    Carbon matrix (CM) derived from biomass is low cost and easily mass produced, showing great potential as sulfur host for lithium sulfur batteries. In this paper we report on a dihydrogen phosphate modified CM (PCM-650) prepared from luffa sponge (luffa acutangula) by phosphoric acid treatment. The phosphoric acid not only increases the surface area of the PCM-650, but also introduces dihydrogen phosphate onto PCM-650 (2.28 at% P). Sulfur impregnated (63.6 wt%) PCM-650/S, in comparison with samples with less dihydrogen phosphate LPCM-650/S, shows a significant performance improvement. XPS analysis is conducted for sulfur at different stages, including sulfur (undischarged), polysulfides (discharge to 2.1 V) and short chain sulfides (discharge to 1.7 V). The results consistently show chemical shifts for S2p in PCM-650, suggesting an enhanced adsorption effect. Furthermore, density functional theory (DFT) calculations is used to clarify the molecular binding: carbon/sulfur (0.86 eV), carbon/Li2S (0.3 eV), CH3-O-PO3H2/sulfur (1.24 eV), and CH3-O-PO3H2/Li2S (1.81 eV). It shows that dihydrogen phosphate group can significantly enhance the binding with sulfur and sulfide, consistent with XPS results. Consequently a CM functionalised with dihydrogen phosphate shows great potential as the sulfur host in a Li-S battery.

  13. Spatial patterns of atmospheric deposition of nitrogen and sulfur using ion-exchange resin collectors in Rocky Mountain National Park, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clow, David W.; Roop, Heidi; Nanus, Leora; Fenn, Mark; Sexstone, Graham A.

    2015-01-01

    Lakes and streams in Class 1 wilderness areas in the western United States (U.S.) are at risk from atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S), and protection of these resources is mandated under the Federal Clean Air Act and amendments. Assessment of critical loads, which are the maximum exposure to pollution an area can receive without adverse effects on sensitive ecosystems, requires accurate deposition estimates. However, deposition is difficult and expensive to measure in high-elevation wilderness, and spatial patterns in N and S deposition in these areas remain poorly quantified. In this study, ion-exchange resin (IER) collectors were used to measure dissolved inorganic N (DIN) and S deposition during June 2006–September 2007 at approximately 20 alpine/subalpine sites spanning the Continental Divide in Rocky Mountain National Park. Results indicated good agreement between deposition estimated from IER collectors and commonly used wet + dry methods during summer, but poor agreement during winter. Snowpack sampling was found to be a more accurate way of quantifying DIN and S deposition during winter. Summer DIN deposition was significantly greater on the east side of the park than on the west side (25–50%; p ≤ 0.03), consistent with transport of pollutants to the park from urban and agricultural areas to the east. Sources of atmospheric nitrate (NO3−) were examined using N isotopes. The average δ15N of NO3− from IER collectors was 3.5‰ higher during winter than during summer (p model critical loads by filling gaps in geographic coverage of deposition monitoring/modeling programs and thus may enable policy makers to better protect sensitive natural resources in Class 1 Wilderness areas.

  14. Effect of commercial activated carbons in sulfur cathodes on the electrochemical properties of lithium/sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jin-Woo; Kim, Icpyo [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki-Won; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Cho, Kwon-Koo; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon [Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Ho-Suk [Department of Material and Energy Engineering, Gyeongwoon University, 730, Gangdong-ro, Sandong-myeon, Gumi, Gyeongbuk, 39160 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Hyo-Jun, E-mail: ahj@gnu.ac.kr [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Engineering and Convergence Technology, Gyeongsang National University, 501 Jinju-daero, Jinju, Gyeongnam 52828 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Highlights: • The sulfur/activated carbon composite is fabricated using commercial activated carbons. • The sulfur/activated carbon composite with coal shows the best performance. • The Li/S battery has capacities of 1240 mAh g{sup −1} at 1 C and 567 mAh g{sup −1} at 10 C. - Abstract: We prepared sulfur/active carbon composites via a simple solution-based process using the following commercial activated carbon-based materials: coal, coconut shells, and sawdust. Although elemental sulfur was not detected in any of the sulfur/activated carbon composites based on Thermogravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, and Raman spectroscopy, Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy results confirmed its presence in the activated carbon. These results indicate that sulfur was successfully impregnated in the activated carbon and that all of the activated carbons acted as sulfur reservoirs. The sulfur/activated carbon composite cathode using coal exhibited the highest discharge capacity and best rate capability. The first discharge capacity at 1 C (1.672 A g{sup −1}) was 1240 mAh g{sup −1}, and a large reversible capacity of 567 mAh g{sup −1} was observed at 10 C (16.72 A g{sup −1}).

  15. Sulfur isotope in nature. Determination of sulfur isotope ratios in coal and petroleum by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derda, M.

    1999-01-01

    Elementary sulfur or in chemical compounds is one of the elements widespread in the earth's crust and biosphere. Its participation in earth's crust amounts to 0.26 % by weight. Measurement of isotope composition of natural samples can deliver many information about origin, creation and transformation ranges of rocks and minerals. Sulfur isotope ratio contained in minerals is variable and for this reason investigation of isotope sulfur composition can deliver useful information about the geochemistry of each component. Therefore in the investigated sample it is necessary to determine not only the content of sulfur but also the isotope composition of each component. Differentiation of contents of sulfur-34 in natural sulfur compounds can reach up to 110 per mile. So large divergences can be explained by a kinetic effect or by bacterial reduction of sulphates. In this report a wide review of the results of investigations of isotope sulfur compositions in coal and petroleum are presented as well as the methods for the preparation of samples for mass spectrometry analysis are proposed. (author)

  16. Advanced Sulfur Cathode Enabled by Highly Crumpled Nitrogen-Doped Graphene Sheets for High-Energy-Density Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jiangxuan; Yu, Zhaoxin; Gordin, Mikhail L; Wang, Donghai

    2016-02-10

    Herein, we report a synthesis of highly crumpled nitrogen-doped graphene sheets with ultrahigh pore volume (5.4 cm(3)/g) via a simple thermally induced expansion strategy in absence of any templates. The wrinkled graphene sheets are interwoven rather than stacked, enabling rich nitrogen-containing active sites. Benefiting from the unique pore structure and nitrogen-doping induced strong polysulfide adsorption ability, lithium-sulfur battery cells using these wrinkled graphene sheets as both sulfur host and interlayer achieved a high capacity of ∼1000 mAh/g and exceptional cycling stability even at high sulfur content (≥80 wt %) and sulfur loading (5 mg sulfur/cm(2)). The high specific capacity together with the high sulfur loading push the areal capacity of sulfur cathodes to ∼5 mAh/cm(2), which is outstanding compared to other recently developed sulfur cathodes and ideal for practical applications.

  17. Annealing in sulfur of CZTS nanoparticles deposited through doctor blading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Sara Lena Josefin; Crovetto, Andrea

    of the main limitations for this approach, and (2) grain boundaries and defects are believed to be a site for recombination that limit the efficiency. Annealing in vacuum and/or nitrogen atmosphere facilitates grain growth and improves the electronic properties. Conventionally selenization shows the best...... results, however sulfurization has the advantage of being less toxic. In this work, nanocrystals of CZTS with a targeted Cu-poor/Zn-rich composition are synthesized through a hot-injection method with oleylamine as the solvent. The nanocrystal inks are deposited through doctor blading in octanethiol...

  18. Preparation and electrochemical performance of sulfur-alumina cathode material for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Kang [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Wang, Shengping, E-mail: spwang@cug.edu.cn [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China); Zhang, Hanyu; Wu, Jinping [Faculty of Material Science and Chemistry, China University of Geosciences, 388 Lumo Road, 430074 Wuhan (China)

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Micron-sized alumina was synthesized as adsorbent for lithium-sulfur batteries. ► Sulfur-alumina material was synthesized via crystallizing nucleation. ► The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} can provide surface area for the deposition of Li{sub 2}S and Li{sub 2}S{sub 2}. ► The discharge capacity of the battery is improved during the first several cycles. - Abstract: Nano-sized sulfur particles exhibiting good adhesion with conducting acetylene black and alumina composite materials were synthesized by means of an evaporated solvent and a concentrated crystallization method for use as the cathodes of lithium-sulfur batteries. The composites were characterized and examined by X-ray diffraction, environmental scanning electron microscopy and electrochemical methods, such as cyclic voltammetry, electrical impedance spectroscopy and charge–discharge tests. Micron-sized flaky alumina was employed as an adsorbent for the cathode material. The initial discharge capacity of the cathode with the added alumina was 1171 mAh g{sup −1}, and the remaining capacity was 585 mAh g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at 0.25 mA cm{sup −2}. Compared with bare sulfur electrodes, the electrodes containing alumina showed an obviously superior cycle performance, confirming that alumina can contribute to reducing the dissolution of polysulfides into electrolytes during the sulfur charge–discharge process.

  19. Clues to early diagenetic sulfurization processes from mild chemical cleavage of labile sulfur-rich geomacromolecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, P.; Schneckenburger, P.; Schaeffer, P.; Albrecht, P.

    2000-10-01

    Macromolecular fractions, isolated from the solvent extract of sulfur-rich Recent (Siders Pond, USA; Lake Cadagno, Switzerland; Walvis Bay, Namibia) and immature sediments (Gibellina, Messinian of Sicily; Vena del Gesso, Messinian of Italy), were investigated by chemical degradation using sodium ethanethiolate/methyliodide. This mild reagent which cleaves polysulfide bonds to yield methylsulfides has the advantage over other methods of leaving intact other functionalities (like double bonds) and preserving sulfur atoms at their incorporation site. The method is, therefore, well-suited to the molecular level investigation of sulfur-rich macromolecules from Recent sediments containing highly functionalized polysulfide-bound subunits. In Recent anoxic sulfur-rich sediments, the release of various methylthioethers clearly demonstrates that intermolecular sulfurization of organic matter does occur at the earliest stages of diagenesis. Steroids and phytane derivatives are the major sulfurized lipids, a feature also observed in more mature sulfur-rich sediments. Several phytene derivatives, such as cis and trans 1-methylthiophyt-2-enes, as well as methylthiosteroids, including 5α- and 5β-3-(methylthio)-cholest-2-enes, were identified by comparison with synthesized standards. Steroid methylthioenolethers are released from polysulfide-bound steroid enethiols present in the macromolecular fractions. The latter, which correspond to thioketones, can be considered as intermediates in the reductive sulfurization pathway leading from steroid ketones to polysulfide-bound saturated steroid skeletons and are characterized for the first time in the present study. Thus, it could be shown that the major part of the polysulfide-bound lipids occurring in Recent sediments is apparently the result of sulfurization processes affecting carbonyls (aldehydes and ketones). The unsaturated methylthioethers obtained from Recent sediments were not present in more mature evaporitic samples, which

  20. Sulfur equilibrium desulfurization of sulfur containing products of combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woodroffe, J.A.; Abichandani, J.S.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes the method for the combustion of a carbon- and sulfur-containing fuel for substantially reducing emission of gaseous sulfur compounds formed during combustion of the fuel in a combustion zone. The zone having one or more fuel inlets and one or more oxidizer inlets, and having a combustion products outlet spaced therefrom, and having one or more inorganic sorbent inlets downstream of the fuel inlet(s) and oxidizer inlet(s) and upstream of the combustion products outlet

  1. The role of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans in pyrite weathering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, K.; Tsunekawa, M.; Ohtsuka, T.; Konno, H.

    1998-01-01

    The paper investigates the role of the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus thiooxidans in pyrite weathering in order to clarify the effects of the bacteria on the dissolution behavior of pyrite and the formation of secondary minerals using Raman spectroscopy and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) in addition to solution analysis. It was found that T. thiooxidans, when present with the iron-oxidizing bacteria Thiobacillus ferrooxidans, enhanced the dissolution of Fe and S species for pyrite, whereas T. thiooxidans alone did not oxidize pyrite. Enhancement of the consumption of elemental sulfur and regeneration of Fe(II) ions were also observed with T. thiooxidans together with T. ferrooxidans, while this did not occur with T. ferrooxidans alone

  2. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-10-20

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles.

  3. A composite of hollow carbon nanospheres and sulfur-rich polymers for lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Shao-Zhong; Yao, Yuechao; Zeng, Xierong; He, Qianjun; Zheng, Xianfeng; Chen, Shuangshuang; Tu, Wenxuan; Zou, Jizhao

    2017-07-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries are the most promising candidates for future high-energy applications because of the unparalleled capacity of sulfur (1675 mAh g-1). However, lithium-sulfur batteries have limited cycle life and rate capability due to the dissolution of polysulfides and the extremely low electronic conductivity of sulfur. To solve these issues, various porous carbons including hollow carbon nanospheres (HCNs) have been used for improving the conductivity. However, these methods still suffer from polysulfides dissolution/loss owing to their weak physical adsorption to polysulfides. Herein, we introduced a covalent grafting route to composite the HCNs and the vulcanized trithiocyanuric acid (TTCA). The composite exhibits a high loading of the vulcanized TTCA by the HCNs with high surface area and large pore volume, and covalent bonds to sulfur, effectively depressing the dissolution of polysulfides. The first discharge capacity of the composite reaches 1430 mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 1227 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  4. Preparation of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films by sulfurization of co-electroplated Cu-Zn-Sn precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, Hideaki; Kubo, Yuki; Jimbo, Kazuo; Maw, Win Shwe; Katagiri, Hironori; Yamazaki, Makoto; Oishi, Koichiro; Takeuchi, Akiko [Nagaoka National College of Technology, 888 Nishikatakai, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-8532 (Japan)

    2009-05-15

    Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} (CZTS) thin films were prepared by sulfurization of electrodeposited Cu-Zn-Sn precursors. The Cu-Zn-Sn precursors were deposited on Mo-coated glass substrates in a one-step process from an electrolyte containing copper (II) sulfate pentahydrate, zinc sulfate heptahydrate, tin (II) chloride dehydrate and tri-sodium citrate dehydrate. The precursors were sulfurized by annealing with sulfur at temperatures of 580 C and 600 C in an N{sub 2} atmosphere. X-ray diffraction peaks attributable to CZTS were detected in the sulfurized films. Photovoltaic cells with the structure glass/Mo/CZTS/ CdS/ZnO:Al/Al were fabricated using the CZTS films by sulfurizing the electrodeposited precursors. The best photovoltaic cell performance was obtained with Zn-rich samples. An open-circuit voltage of 540 mV, a short-circuit current of 12.6 mA/cm{sup 2} and an efficiency of 3.16% were achieved. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R C; Anderson, M R; Miake-Lye, R C; Kolb, C E [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A A; Buriko, Y I [Scientific Research Center ` Ecolen` , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  6. Aircraft exhaust sulfur emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, R.C.; Anderson, M.R.; Miake-Lye, R.C.; Kolb, C.E. [Aerodyne Research, Inc., Billerica, MA (United States). Center for Chemical and Environmental Physics; Sorokin, A.A.; Buriko, Y.I. [Scientific Research Center `Ecolen`, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1997-12-31

    The extent to which fuel sulfur is converted to SO{sub 3} during combustion and the subsequent turbine flow in supersonic and subsonic aircraft engines is estimated numerically. The analysis is based on: a flamelet model with non-equilibrium sulfur chemistry for the combustor, and a one-dimensional, two-stream model with finite rate chemical kinetics for the turbine. The results indicate that between 2% and 10% of the fuel sulfur is emitted as SO{sub 3}. It is also shown that, for a high fuel sulfur mass loading, conversion in the turbine is limited by the level of atomic oxygen at the combustor exit, leading to higher SO{sub 2} oxidation efficiency at lower fuel sulfur loadings. While SO{sub 2} and SO{sub 3} are the primary oxidation products, the model results further indicate H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} levels on the order of 0.1 ppm for supersonic expansions through a divergent nozzle. This source of fully oxidized S(6) (SO{sub 3} + H{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) exceeds previously calculated S(6) levels due to oxidation of SO{sub 2} by OH in the exhaust plume outside the engine nozzle. (author) 26 refs.

  7. Ice nucleation by surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust and mineral dust/sulfate particles at cirrus temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. M. Archuleta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the potential role of some types of mineral dust and mineral dust with sulfuric acid coatings as heterogeneous ice nuclei at cirrus temperatures. Commercially-available nanoscale powder samples of aluminum oxide, alumina-silicate and iron oxide were used as surrogates for atmospheric mineral dust particles, with and without multilayer coverage of sulfuric acid. A sample of Asian dust aerosol particles was also studied. Measurements of ice nucleation were made using a continuous-flow ice-thermal diffusion chamber (CFDC operated to expose size-selected aerosol particles to temperatures between -45 and -60°C and a range of relative humidity above ice-saturated conditions. Pure metal oxide particles supported heterogeneous ice nucleation at lower relative humidities than those required to homogeneously freeze sulfuric acid solution particles at sizes larger than about 50 nm. The ice nucleation behavior of the same metal oxides coated with sulfuric acid indicate heterogeneous freezing at lower relative humidities than those calculated for homogeneous freezing of the diluted particle coatings. The effect of soluble coatings on the ice activation relative humidity varied with the respective uncoated core particle types, but for all types the heterogeneous freezing rates increased with particle size for the same thermodynamic conditions. For a selected size of 200 nm, the natural mineral dust particles were the most effective ice nuclei tested, supporting heterogeneous ice formation at an ice relative humidity of approximately 135%, irrespective of temperature. Modified homogeneous freezing parameterizations and theoretical formulations are shown to have application to the description of heterogeneous freezing of mineral dust-like particles with soluble coatings.

  8. The partitioning of sulfur between multicomponent aqueous fluids and felsic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binder, Bernd; Wenzel, Thomas; Keppler, Hans

    2018-02-01

    Sulfur partitioning between melt and fluid phase largely controls the environmental impact of volcanic eruptions. Fluid/melt partitioning data also provide the physical basis for interpreting changes in volcanic gas compositions that are used in eruption forecasts. To better constrain some variables that control the behavior of sulfur in felsic systems, in particular the interaction between different volatiles, we studied the partitioning of sulfur between aqueous fluids and haplogranitic melts at 200 MPa and 750-850 °C as a function of oxygen fugacity (Ni-NiO or Re-ReO2 buffer), melt composition (Al/(Na + K) ratio), and fluid composition (NaCl and CO2 content). The data confirm a first-order influence of oxygen fugacity on the partitioning of sulfur. Under "reducing conditions" (Ni-NiO buffer), D fluid/melt is nearly one order of magnitude larger (323 ± 14 for a metaluminous melt) than under "oxidizing conditions" (Re-ReO2 buffer; 74 ± 5 for a metaluminous melt). This effect is likely related to a major change in sulfur speciation in both melt and fluid. Raman spectra of the quenched fluids show the presence of H2S and HS- under reducing conditions and of SO4 2- and HSO4 - under oxidizing conditions, while SO2 is undetectable. The latter observation suggests that already at the Re-ReO2 buffer, sulfur in the fluid is almost completely in the S6+ state and, therefore, more oxidized than expected according to current models. CO2 in the fluid (up to x CO2 = 0.3) has no effect on the fluid/melt partitioning of sulfur, neither under oxidizing nor under reducing conditions. However, the effect of NaCl depends on redox state. While at oxidizing conditions, D fluid/melt is independent of x NaCl, the fluid/melt partition coefficient strongly decreases with NaCl content under reducing conditions, probably due to a change from H2S to NaSH as dominant sulfur species in the fluid. A decrease of D fluid/melt with alkali content in the melt is observed over the entire

  9. Oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds in acidophilic prokaryotes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohwerder, T.; Sand, W. [Universitaet Duisburg-Essen, Biofilm Centre, Aquatic Biotechnology, Duisburg (Germany)

    2007-07-15

    The oxidation of reduced inorganic sulfur compounds to sulfuric acid is of great importance for biohydrometallurgical technologies as well as the formation of acidic (below pH 3) and often heavy metal-contaminated environments. The use of elemental sulfur as an electron donor is the predominant energy-yielding process in acidic natural sulfur-rich biotopes but also at mining sites containing sulfidic ores. Contrary to its significant role in the global sulfur cycle and its biotechnological importance, the microbial fundamentals of acidophilic sulfur oxidation are only incompletely understood. Besides giving an overview of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles, this review describes the so far known enzymatic reactions related to elemental sulfur oxidation in acidophilic bacteria and archaea. Although generally similar reactions are employed in both prokaryotic groups, the stoichiometry of the key enzymes is different. Bacteria oxidize elemental sulfur by a sulfur dioxygenase to sulfite whereas in archaea, a sulfur oxygenase reductase is used forming equal amounts of sulfide and sulfite. In both cases, the activation mechanism of elemental sulfur is not known but highly reactive linear sulfur forms are assumed to be the actual substrate. Inhibition as well as promotion of these biochemical steps is highly relevant in bioleaching operations. An efficient oxidation can prevent the formation of passivating sulfur layers. In other cases, a specific inhibition of sulfur biooxidation may be beneficial for reducing cooling and neutralization costs. In conclusion, the demand for a better knowledge of the biochemistry of sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles is underlined. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Sandwich-like graphene-mesoporous carbon as sulfur host for enhanced lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ting; Li, Bin; Zhu, Mengqi; Liu, Jianhua; Li, Songmei

    2017-10-01

    Graphene-mesoporous carbon/sulfur composites (G-MPC/S) were constructed by melt-infiltration of sulfur into graphene-mesoporous carbon which was synthesized by soft template method. The SEM and BET results of the graphene-mesoporous carbon show that the as-prepared sandwich-like G-MPC composites with a unique microporous-mesoporous structure had a high specific surface area of 554.164 m2 · g-1 and an average pore size of about 13 nm. The XRD analysis presents the existence of orthorhombic sulfur in the G-MPC/S composite, which indicates the complete infiltration of sulfur into the pores of the G-MPC. When the graphene-mesoporous carbon/surfur composites (G-MPC/S) with 53.9 wt.% sulfur loading were used as the cathode for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries, it exhibited an outstanding electrochemical performance including excellent initial discharge specific capacity of 1393 mAh · g-1 at 0.1 °C, high cycle stability (731 mAh · g-1 at 200 cycles) and good rate performance (1038 mAh · g-1, 770 mAh · g-1, 518 mAh · g-1 and 377 mAh · g-1 at 0.1 °C, 0.2 °C, 0.5 °C and 1 °C, respectively), which suggested the important role of the G-MPC composite in providing more electrons and ions channels, in addition, the shuttle effect caused by the dissolved polysulfide was also suppressed.

  11. Oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe support in SOFC anode atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Na; Chen, Ming; Han, Minfang

    2018-01-01

    In this work, we investigated the long-term oxidation behavior of a Ni-Fe (1:1 weight ratio) support for solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications. Ni-Fe supports were obtained through tape casting, high temperature sintering and pre-reducing in 97% H2/N2 (9/91)-3% H2O at 750 and 1000 °C, respect...... annealed in the two atmospheres maintained sufficiently high conductivity. The results from the current work demonstrate that the porous Ni-Fe support can be well employed in SOFCs, especially metal-supported SOFCs....

  12. Evaluation of sulfur dioxide-generating pads and modified atmosphere packaging for control of postharvest diseases in blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postharvest diseases are a limiting factor of storage and shelf life of blueberries. Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea is one of the most important postharvest diseases in blueberries grown in California. In this study, we evaluated the effects of sulfur dioxide (SO2)-generating pads (designated ...

  13. The effect of coal sulfur on the behavior of alkali metals during co-firing biomass and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tianhua Yang; Xingping Kai; Yang Sun; Yeguang He; Rundong Li [Shenyang Aerospace University, Liaoning (China). Liaoning Key Laboratory of Clean Energy and Institute of Clean Energy and Environmental Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Biomass contains high amounts of volatile alkali metals and chlorine, which can cause deposition, corrosion and agglomeration during combustion. Meanwhile coal contains a certain amount of sulfur that produces serious environmental pollution following combustion. To investigate the effects of sulfur on the migration of alkali metals during biomass and coal co-combustion, thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were applied and experiments were performed in a laboratory scale reactor combining with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) and other analytical approaches. The results indicate that inorganic sulfur FeS{sub 2} addition significantly enhanced the formation of potassium sulfate when the S/K molar ratio was less than 2. Meanwhile increasing FeS{sub 2} dosage reduced the formation of KCl(g) and KOH(g) and increased the release of HCl(g). In addition potassium sulfate can react with silica and aluminum to form potassium aluminosilicates and release HCl at the S/K molar ratio above 4. 18 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Parameters Influencing Sulfur Speciation in Environmental Samples Using Sulfur K-Edge X-Ray Absorption Near-Edge Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siwatt Pongpiachan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to enhance the credibility of applying the sulfur K-edge XANES spectroscopy as an innovative “fingerprint” for characterizing environmental samples. The sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra of ten sulfur compound standards detected by two different detectors, namely, Lytle detector (LyD and Germanium detector (GeD, were studied and compared. Further investigation on “self-absorption” effect revealed that the maximum sensitivities of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were achieved when diluting sulfur compound standards with boron nitride (BN at the mixing ratio of 0.1%. The “particle-size” effect on sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum sensitivities was examined by comparing signal-to-noise ratios of total suspended particles (TSP and particulate matter of less than 10 millionths of a meter (PM10 collected at three major cities of Thailand. The analytical results have demonstrated that the signal-to-noise ratios of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra were positively correlated with sulfate content in aerosols and negatively connected with particle sizes. The combination of hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA and principal component analysis (PCA has proved that sulfur K-edge XANES spectrum can be used to characterize German terrestrial soils and Andaman coastal sediments. In addition, this study highlighted the capability of sulfur K-edge XANES spectra as an innovative “fingerprint” to distinguish tsunami backwash deposits (TBD from typical marine sediments (TMS.

  15. Measurement of atmospheric pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-01-01

    Studies of simplified methods of determining various atmospheric pollutants were performed. Measurements with Kitagawa detecting tubes were made in front of Shibuya Station in Tokyo on October 27, 1973. The number of cars that passed the site was counted then the nitrogen dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide content was determined. The number of cars was about 7000-12,000 between 9 AM and 6 PM. The heaviest traffic occurred around 10 am, and the least traffic occurred around 1 pm. A simulation experiment of smoking was also performed. A simplified model of smoking indicated that the concentration of CO in the mouth is as high as 10,000-15,000 ppM. The simplified measurement of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide by the use of a small piece of an alkaline filter was also investigated. A photoelectric colorimeter gave an excellent demonstration of the pollution due to SO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 2/. A simplified determination of NO/sub 2/ by the Saltzman method was also performed.

  16. Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Hayato; Imai, Yoshiyuki; Kasahara, Seiji; Kubo, Shinji; Onuki, Kaoru

    2007-01-01

    Effect of sulfur dioxide partial pressure on the reaction of iodine, sulfur dioxide and water, which is a unit reaction in the IS process for thermochemical hydrogen production, was studied experimentally at 323 K under iodine saturation. Quasi-equilibrium state was observed in the presence of sulfur dioxide gas at constant pressure. The composition of the poly-hydriodic acid solution formed was discussed assuming an ideal desulfurization by the reverse reaction of the Bunsen reaction. The value of HI/(HI+H 2 O) of the desulfurized solution was large at high sulfur dioxide pressure and reached the maximum of 15.7 ± 0.3 mol%. (author)

  17. Atmospheric sulfur and nitrogen in West Java

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayers, G.P.; Gillett, R.W.; Ginting, N.; Hopper, M.; Selleck, P.W.; Tapper, N.

    1995-01-01

    Wet-only rainwater composition on a weekly basis was determined at four sites in West Java, Indonesia, from June 1991 to June 1992. Three sites were near the extreme western end of Java, surrounding a coal-fired power station at Suralaya. The fourth site was ∼ 100 km to the east in the Indonesian capital, Jakarta. Over the 12 months study period wet deposition of sulfate at the three western sites varied between 32-46 meq m -2 while nitrate varied between 10-14 meq m -2 . Wet deposition at the Jakarta site was systematically higher, at 56 meq m -2 for sulfate and 20 meq m -2 for nitrate. Since sulfate and nitrate wet deposition fluxes in the nearby and relatively unpopulated regions of typical Australia are both only ∼ 5 meq m -2 anthropogenic emissions of S and N apparently cause significant atmospheric acidification in Java. It is possible that total acid deposition fluxes (of S and N) in parts of Java are comparable with those responsible for environmental degradation in acid-sensitive parts of Europe and North America. 19 refs., 3 tabs

  18. Flow injection gas chromatography with sulfur chemiluminescence detection for the analysis of total sulfur in complex hydrocarbon matrixes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Yujuan; Hawryluk, Myron; Gras, Ronda; Shearer, Randall; Luong, Jim

    2018-01-01

    A fast and reliable analytical technique for the determination of total sulfur levels in complex hydrocarbon matrices is introduced. The method employed flow injection technique using a gas chromatograph as a sample introduction device and a gas phase dual-plasma sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur quantification. Using the technique described, total sulfur measurement in challenging hydrocarbon matrices can be achieved in less than 10 s with sample-to-sample time ideal for fast analysis or trace sulfur analysis. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Mercury adsorption properties of sulfur-impregnated adsorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsi, N.-C.; Rood, M.J.; Rostam-Abadi, M.; Chen, S.; Chang, R.

    2002-01-01

    Carbonaceous and noncarbonaceous adsorbents were impregnated with elemental sulfur to evaluate the chemical and physical properties of the adsorbents and their equilibrium mercury adsorption capacities. Simulated coal combustion flue gas conditions were used to determine the equilibrium adsorption capacities for Hg0 and HgCl2 gases to better understand how to remove mercury from gas streams generated by coal-fired utility power plants. Sulfur was deposited onto the adsorbents by monolayer surface deposition or volume pore filling. Sulfur impregnation increased the total sulfur content and decreased the total and micropore surface areas and pore volumes for all of the adsorbents tested. Adsorbents with sufficient amounts of active adsorption sites and sufficient microporous structure had mercury adsorption capacities up to 4,509 ??g Hg/g adsorbent. Elemental sulfur, organic sulfur, and sulfate were formed on the adsorbents during sulfur impregnation. Correlations were established with R2>0.92 between the equilibrium Hg0/HgCl2 adsorption capacities and the mass concentrations of elemental and organic sulfur. This result indicates that elemental and organic sulfur are important active adsorption sites for Hg0 and HgCl2.

  20. Possibility of use of Azgir underground nuclear cavities for burial of sulfur and her toxic compounds - products of oil refining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmetov, E.Z.; Adymov, Zh.I.

    1998-01-01

    The intensive growth of production oil and gas in Western Kazakhstan increases ecological vulnerability of an environment and a fauna because of the pressure of negative consequences arising with production, refining and transportation of the oil raw material, and also because of pernicious influence of accompanying products and wastes of oil refining manufacture being chemically dangerous and toxic, requiring special conditions of the handling, warehousing and storage for provision of ecological safety. A problem of the reclamation, safe warehousing, storage and long-term disposal (burial) of such accompanying products and wastes, as for example, sulfur and its compounds till now is not solved. For example, the mass of the accumulated mountains of crystal sulfur makes on cautious calculations from 2 up to 3 million tonnes also creates real danger of the propagation and harmful influence on the environment. The neutralization of sulfur and its compounds means removal them from the active handling with an environment, i.e. creation of such conditions in which sulfur products for a long time cannot cause harm atmosphere, underground medium and waters, vegetative and animal world. For it is offered to use underground cavities in a salt dome raising Large Azgir and the funnel-shaped hollow in persalt rocks formed as a result of underground nuclear explosions, carried out in 1978-1979 years near village Azgir Atyrau province. The sulfur products is possible to place on a long safe storage in funnel-shaped hollow (the A9 platform) volume 1,5 million cubic meters, by keeping, if necessary, an possibility of their extraction for needs of the future generations or to remove in underground nuclear cavities in stone salt (the A8 and A11 platforms) total volume 330000 cubic meters, from which it is not provided in the future to take out the sulfur products. At this the sulfur is removed from an environment on a storage or burial in the inactive form, i.e. the sulfur products

  1. Lucifer's Planet: Photolytic Hazes in the Atmosphere of 51 Eri b

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahnle, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    We use a 1D model to address photochemistry and possible haze formation in the irradiated atmosphere of 51 Eri b (2016arXiv160407388Z). The intended focus was to have been on carbon and organic hazes, but sulfur photochemistry turns out to be interesting and possibly more important. The case for organic photochemical hazes is intriguing but falls short of being compelling. If organic hazes form abundantly, they are likeliest to do so if vertical mixing in 51 Eri b is weaker than in Jupiter, and they would be found below the altitudes where methane and water are photolyzed. The more novel result is that photochemistry turns H2S into elemental sulfur, here treated as S8. In the cooler models, S8 is predicted to condense in optically significant clouds of solid sulfur particles, whilst in the warmer models S8 remains a vapor along with several other sulfur allotropes that are both visually striking and potentially observable. For 51 Eri b, the division between models with and without condensed sulfur is at an effective temperature of 700 K, which is within error its actual effective temperature; the local temperature where sulfur condenses is between 280 and 320 K. The sulfur photochemistry we discuss is quite general and ought to be found in a wide variety of worlds over a broad temperature range, both colder and hotter than the 650-750 K range studied here, and we show that products of sulfur photochemistry will be nearly as abundant on planets where the UV irradiation is orders of magnitude weaker than it is on 51 Eri b.

  2. 46 CFR 151.50-21 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 151.50-21 Section 151.50-21 Shipping... BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-21 Sulfuric acid. (a) How sulfuric acid may be carried. (1) Sulfuric acid of concentration of 77.5 percent (1.7019 specific gravity) (59.8...

  3. Electro-Chemical Behavior of Low Carbon Steel Under H2S Influence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharia, M. G.; Stanciu, S.; Cimpoesu, R.; Nejneru, C.; Savin, C.; Manole, V.; Cimpoeșu, N.

    2017-06-01

    Abstract A commercial low carbon steel material (P265GH) with application at industrial scale for natural gas delivery and transportation systems was analyzed in H2S atmosphere. The article proposed a new experimental cell in order to establish the behavior of the material in sulfur contaminated environment. In most of the industrial processes for gas purification the corrosion rate is speed up by the presence of S (sulfur) especially as ions or species like H2S. The H2S (hydrogen sulfide) is, beside a very toxic compound, a very active element in the acceleration of metallic materials deterioration especially in complex solicitations like pressure and temperature in the same time. For experiments we used a three electrodes cell with Na2SO4 + Na2S solution at pH 3 at room temperature (∼ 25 °C) to realize EIS (electrochemical impedance spectroscopy) and potentio-dynamic polarization experiments. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dispersive energy spectroscopy were used to characterize the metallic material surface exposed to experimental environment.

  4. A comparison of sulfur mustard and heptane penetrating a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine bilayer membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Thomas J., E-mail: t.mueller@theo.chemie.tu-darmstadt.de [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Mueller-Plathe, Florian [Theoretische Physikalische Chemie, Eduard-Zintl-Institut fuer Anorganische und Physikalische Chemie, Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Petersenstrasse 20, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-08-30

    In the present molecular dynamics simulations we study the chemical warfare agent sulfur mustard (bis(2-chloroethyl) sulfide) and the alkane heptane inserted into a dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer, a generic model for a biological membrane. We investigate the diffusion, the orientation, the preferred positioning, and the end-to-end distance of the solutes within the membrane as well as the corresponding coupling times. We compare results of equilibrium simulations and simulation at different external forces, which drag the solutes through the membrane. These properties lead to a general comparison of the rotational and translational behaviors of the two solutes during the penetration of the membrane. We show that sulfur mustard, due to its atomic charge polarization, its bigger flexibility and its smaller molecular volume, is the faster moving molecule within the membrane. In last consequence, we show that this leads to different limits for the transport mechanism as observed in these simulations. For heptane the hindrance to penetrate into the membrane is significantly higher than for sulfur mustard. In contrast to heptane molecules, which spend the most of the time penetrating the tail groups, sulfur mustard needs more time to escape the tail group-head group interface of the membrane.

  5. 46 CFR 153.1046 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Sulfuric acid. 153.1046 Section 153.1046 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) CERTAIN BULK DANGEROUS CARGOES SHIPS CARRYING BULK....1046 Sulfuric acid. No person may liquefy frozen or congealed sulfuric acid other than by external tank...

  6. Sensing sulfur oxides and other sulfur bearing pollutants with solid electrolyte pellets. I. Gas concentration cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chamberland, A M; Gauthier, J M

    1977-01-01

    A new sensing technique using a solid electrolyte has been demonstrated for sulfur-bearing pollutants. Based on potentiometric measurements across a pellet of potassium sulfate, this sensor allows concentrations of sulfur dioxides, sulfur trioxide, hydrogen sulfide, methyl mercaptan and carbonyl sulfide in air to be measured with accuracy. Its operational concentration range at the present time is 0.1 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. The presence of other common pollutants such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitric oxide and nitrogen dioxide does not interfere with the measurement of air samples containing sulfur-bearing pollutants.

  7. Regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, K.S.; Thomson, I.; Egan, B.A.

    1977-01-01

    As part of the Sulfate Regional Experiment (SURE) Design Project, a regional transport model of atmospheric sulfates has been developed. This quasi-Lagrangian three-dimensional grid numerical model uses a detailed SO 2 emission inventory of major anthropogenic sources in the Eastern U.S. region, and observed meteorological data during an episode as inputs. The model accounts for advective transport and turbulent diffusion of the pollutants. The chemical transformation of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ and the deposition of the species at the earth's surface are assumed to be linear processes at specified constant rates. The numerical model can predict the daily average concentrations of SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ at all receptor locations in the grid region during the episode. Because of the spatial resolution of the grid, this model is particularly suited to investigate the effect of tall stacks in reducing the ambient concentration levels of sulfur pollutants. This paper presents the formulations and assumptions of the regional sulfate transport model. The model inputs and results are discussed. Isopleths of predicted SO 2 and SO 4 /sup =/ concentrations are compared with the observed ground level values. The bulk of the information in this paper is directed to air pollution meteorologists and environmental engineers interested in the atmospheric transport modeling studies of sulfur oxide pollutants

  8. Sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. Part I. A model of char particle combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BORISLAV GRUBOR

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A model for the combustion of porous char particles as a basis for modeling the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion is developed in this paper. The model belongs to the microscopic intrinsic models and describes the dynamic behavior of a porous char particle during comustion, taking into account temporal and spatial changes of all important physical properties of the char particle and various combustion parameters. The parametric analysis of the enhanced model shows that the model represents a good basis for the development of a model for the process of sulfur retention by ash during coal combustion. The model enables the prediction of the values of all parameters necessary for the introduction of reactions between sulfur compounds and mineral components in ash, primarily calcium oxide.

  9. Microstructures of the Sulfonic Acid-Functionalized Ionic Liquid/Sulfuric Acid and Their Interactions: A Perspective from the Isobutane Alkylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Weizhong; Huang, Chizhou; Sun, Weizhen; Zhao, Ling

    2018-02-01

    The all-atom force field for concentrated sulfuric acid (98.30 wt %) was developed in this work based on ab initio calculations. The structural and dynamical properties of sulfuric acid and the mixing behaviors of sulfuric acid with ionic liquids (ILs), i.e., SFIL (1-methyl-3-(propyl-3-sulfonate) imidazolium bisulfate ([PSMim][HSO 4 ])) and non-SFIL (1-methyl-3-propyl imidazolium bisulfate ([PMim][HSO 4 ])), were investigated using a molecular dynamics simulation. For sulfuric acid, most H 3 O + ions were found beside HSO 4 - ions, forming a contact ion pair with the HSO 4 - ions, and three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks existed in the sulfuric acid. Analyses indicate that both ILs could be miscible with sulfuric acid with a strong exothermic character. The new strong interaction site between the sulfonic acid group of SFIL and an H 2 SO 4 molecule through a strong hydrogen-bonding interaction was observed, which was beneficial to the catalytic activity and stability of the sulfuric acid. This observation is in good agreement with the experimental results that indicate SFILs could enhance the reusability of sulfuric acid for the isobutane alkylation about 4-fold compared to that of non-SFILs. Hopefully this work will provide insights into the screening and designing of new isobutane alkylation catalysts based on sulfuric acid and SFILs.

  10. Fabrication and Characterization of CZTS Thin Films Prepared by the Sulfurization of RF-Sputtered Stacked Metal Precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abusnina, Mohamed; Moutinho, Helio; Al-Jassim, Mowafak; DeHart, Clay; Matin, Mohammed

    2014-09-01

    In this work, Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) thin films were prepared by the sulfurization of metal precursors deposited sequentially via radio frequency magnetron sputtering on Mo-coated soda-lime glass. The stack order of the precursors was Mo/Zn/Sn/Cu. Sputtered precursors were annealed in sulfur atmosphere with nine different conditions to study the impact of sulfurization time and substrate temperature on the structural, morphological, and optical properties of the final CZTS films. X-ray fluorescence was used to determine the elemental composition ratio of the metal precursors. Final CZTS films were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). XRD and EDS were combined to investigate the films' structure and to identify the presence of secondary phases. XRD analysis indicated an improvement in film crystallinity with an increase of the substrate temperature and annealing times. Also indicated was the minimization and/or elimination of secondary phases when the films experienced longer annealing time. EDS revealed slight Sn loss in films sulfurized at 550°C; however, an increase of the sulfurization temperature to 600°C did not confirm these results. SEM study showed that films treated with higher temperatures exhibited dense morphology, indicating the completion of the sulfurization process. The estimated absorption coefficient was on the order of 104 cm-1 for all CZTS films, and the values obtained for the optical bandgap energy of the films were between 1.33 eV and 1.52 eV.

  11. 21 CFR 582.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfuric acid. 582.1095 Section 582.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS....1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Product. Sulfuric acid. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  12. Permeation tubes. Their use in the preparation of controlled gas atmospheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galianos, J. A.; Palomares, F.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, the state of the art on the nature, construction and properties of the permeation tubes Is reviewed; after describing the main calibration procedures In use, examples of their application in the area of the atmospheric pollution are given, especially in the case of sulfur dioxides. (Author) 38 refs

  13. Quantification of Discrete Oxide and Sulfur Layers on Sulfur-Passivated InAs by XPS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Petrovykh, D. Y; Sullivan, J. M; Whitman, L. J

    2005-01-01

    .... The S-passivated InAs(001) surface can be modeled as a sulfur-indium-arsenic layer-cake structure, such that characterization requires quantification of both arsenic oxide and sulfur layers that are at most a few monolayers thick...

  14. Sulfur and Oxygen Isotope Fractionation During Bacterial Sulfur Disproportionation Under Anaerobic Haloalkaline Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poser, Alexander; Vogt, Carsten; Knöller, Kay; Sorokin, Dimitry Y.; Finster, Kai W.; Richnow, Hans H.

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur and oxygen isotope fractionation of elemental sulfur disproportionation at anaerobic haloalkaline conditions was evaluated for the first time. Isotope enrichment factors of the strains Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus and Dethiobacter alkaliphilus growing at pH 9 or 10 were −0.9‰ to −1‰ for

  15. Model Prebiotic Iron-Sulfur Peptides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonfio, C.; Scintilla, S.; Shah, S.; Evans, D. J.; Jin, L.; Szostak, J. W.; Sasselov, D. D.; Sutherland, J. D.; Mansy, S. S.

    2017-07-01

    Iron-sulfur clusters form easily in aqueous solution in the presence of thiolates and iron ions. Polymerization of short, iron-sulfur binding tripeptide sequences leads to ferredoxin-like ligand spacing and activity.

  16. Cell Concepts of Metal-Sulfur Batteries (Metal = Li, Na, K, Mg): Strategies for Using Sulfur in Energy Storage Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medenbach, Lukas; Adelhelm, Philipp

    2017-09-29

    There is great interest in using sulfur as active component in rechargeable batteries thanks to its low cost and high specific charge (1672 mAh/g). The electrochemistry of sulfur, however, is complex and cell concepts are required, which differ from conventional designs. This review summarizes different strategies for utilizing sulfur in rechargeable batteries among membrane concepts, polysulfide concepts, all-solid-state concepts as well as high-temperature systems. Among the more popular lithium-sulfur and sodium-sulfur batteries, we also comment on recent results on potassium-sulfur and magnesium-sulfur batteries. Moreover, specific properties related to the type of light metal are discussed.

  17. Improved Cyclability of Liquid Electrolyte Lithium/Sulfur Batteries by Optimizing Electrolyte/Sulfur Ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheng S. Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A liquid electrolyte lithium/sulfur (Li/S cell is a liquid electrochemical system. In discharge, sulfur is first reduced to highly soluble Li2S8, which dissolves into the organic electrolyte and serves as the liquid cathode. In solution, lithium polysulfide (PS undergoes a series of complicated disproportionations, whose chemical equilibriums vary with the PS concentration and affect the cell’s performance. Since the PS concentration relates to a certain electrolyte/sulfur (E/S ratio, there is an optimized E/S ratio for the cyclability of each Li/S cell system. In this work, we study the optimized E/S ratio by measuring the cycling performance of Li/S cells, and propose an empirical method for determination of the optimized E/S ratio. By employing an electrolyte of 0.25 m LiSO3CF3-0.25 m LiNO3 dissolved in a 1:1 (wt:wt mixture of dimethyl ether (DME and 1,3-dioxolane (DOL in an optimized E/S ratio, we show that the Li/S cell with a cathode containing 72% sulfur and 2 mg cm−2 sulfur loading is able to retain a specific capacity of 780 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.5 mA cm−2 between 1.7 V and 2.8 V.

  18. Characterization of aromatic organosulfur model compounds relevant to fossil fuels by using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization with CS2 and high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Weijuan; Sheng, Huaming; Jin, Chunfen; Riedeman, James S; Kenttämaa, Hilkka I

    2016-04-15

    The chemistry of desulfurization involved in processing crude oil is greatly dependent on the forms of sulfur in the oil. Sulfur exists in different chemical bonding environments in fossil fuels, including those in thiophenes and benzothiophenes, thiols, sulfides, and disulfides. In this study, the fragmentation behavior of the molecular ions of 17 aromatic organosulfur compounds with various functionalities was systematically investigated by using high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. Multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometric experiments were carried out using a linear quadrupole ion trap (LQIT) equipped with an atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) source. (+)APCI/CS2 was used to generate stable dominant molecular ions for all the compounds studied except for three sulfides that also showed abundant fragment ions. The LQIT coupled with an orbitrap mass spectrometer was used for elemental composition analysis, which facilitated the identification of the neutral molecules lost during fragmentation. The characteristic fragment ions generated in MS(2) and MS(3) experiments provide clues for the chemical bonding environment of sulfur atoms in the examined compounds. Upon collision-induced dissociation (CID), the molecular ions can lose the sulfur atom in a variety of ways, including as S (32 Da), HS(•) (33 Da), H2 S (34 Da), CS (44 Da), (•) CHS (45 Da) and CH2 S (46 Da). These neutral fragments are not only indicative of the presence of sulfur, but also of the type of sulfur present in the compound. Generally, losses of HS(•) and H2 S were found to be associated with compounds containing saturated sulfur functionalities, while losses of S, CS and (•) CHS were more common for heteroaromatic sulfur compounds. High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry with APCI/CS2 ionization is a viable approach to determining the types of organosulfur compounds. It can potentially be applied to analysis of complex mixtures, which is beneficial to improving the

  19. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-05-27

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was deermined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  20. Sulfur-Iodine Integrated Lab Scale Experiment Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russ, Ben

    2011-01-01

    The sulfur-iodine (SI) cycle was determined to be the best cycle for coupling to a high temperature reactor (HTR) because of its high efficiency and potential for further improvement. The Japanese Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) has also selected the SI process for further development and has successfully completed bench-scale demonstrations of the SI process at atmospheric pressure. JEA also plans to proceed with pilot-scale demonstrations of the SI process and eventually plans to couple an SI demonstration plant to its High Temperature Test Reactor (HHTR). As part of an international NERI project, GA, SNL, and the Frech Commissariat L'Energie Atomique performed laboratory-scale demonstrations of the SI process at prototypical temperatures and pressures. This demonstration was performed at GA in San Diego, CA and concluded in April 2009.

  1. Statistical modelling of discharge behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tay, W. H.; Kausik, S. S.; Wong, C. S., E-mail: cswong@um.edu.my; Yap, S. L.; Muniandy, S. V. [Plasma Technology Research Centre, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, 50603 Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia)

    2014-11-15

    In this work, stochastic behavior of atmospheric pressure dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been investigated. The experiment is performed in a DBD reactor consisting of a pair of stainless steel parallel plate electrodes powered by a 50 Hz ac high voltage source. Current pulse amplitude distributions for different space gaps and the time separation between consecutive current pulses are studied. A probability distribution function is proposed to predict the experimental distribution function for the current pulse amplitudes and the occurrence of the transition regime of the pulse distribution. Breakdown voltage at different positions on the dielectric surface is suggested to be stochastic in nature. The simulated results based on the proposed distribution function agreed well with the experimental results and able to predict the regime of transition voltage. This model would be useful for the understanding of stochastic behaviors of DBD and the design of DBD device for effective operation and applications.

  2. Antibotulinal efficacy of sulfur dioxide in meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tompkin, R B; Christiansen, L N; Shaparis, A B

    1980-01-01

    The addition of sodium metabisulfite as a source of sulfur dioxide delayed botulinal outgrowth in perishable canned comminuted pork when it was temperature abused at 27 degree C. The degree of inhibition was directly related to the level of sulfur dioxide. Levels greater than 100 microgram of sulfur dioxide per g were necessary to achieve significant inhibition when a target level of 100 botulinal spores per g was used. Sodium nitrite partially reduced the efficacy of the sulfur dioxide. Sulfur dioxide offers a new option for the control of botulinal outgrowth in cured or noncured meat and poultry products. PMID:6996613

  3. 21 CFR 184.1095 - Sulfuric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Sulfuric acid. 184.1095 Section 184.1095 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1095 Sulfuric acid. (a) Sulfuric acid (H2SO4, CAS Reg. No. 7664-93-9), also...

  4. Dew point of gases with low sulfuric acid content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fieg, J.

    1981-07-01

    Discusses control of air pollution caused by sulfur compounds in solid fuels during combustion. Excessive amount of oxygen during combustion leads to formation of sulfur trioxide. Sulfur trioxide reacts with water vapor and forms sulfuric acid. Chemical reactions which lead to formation of sulfuric acid are described. Conditions for sulfuric acid condensation are analyzed. Several methods for determining dew point of flue gases with low sulfuric acid content are reviewed: methods based on determination of electric conductivity of condensed sulfuric acid (Francis, Cheney, Kiyoure), method based on determination of sulfuric acid concentration in the gaseous phase and in the liquid phase after cooling (Lee, Lisle and Sensenbaugh, Ross and Goksoyr). (26 refs.) (In Polish)

  5. Sulfur activation in Hiroshima

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerr, G.D.; Pace, J.V. III.

    1987-01-01

    In 1979, we attempted to establish the validity of source terms for the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs using experimental data on sulfur activation. Close agreement was observed between measured and calculated values for test firings of Nagasaki-type bombs. The calculated values were based on source terms developed by W.E. Preeg at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A discrepancy was found, however, when we compared calculated values for the two bombs because a 1956 report by R.R. Wilson stated that sulfur acitvation by fast neutrons in Hiroshima was approximately three times greater than in Nagasaki. Our calculations based on Preeg's source-term data predicted about equal sulfur activation in the two cities

  6. The application of an isotopic ratio technique to a study of the atmospheric oxidation of sulfur dioxide in the plume from a coal fired power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, L.; Forrest, J.; Manowitz, B.

    1975-01-01

    The extent of oxidation of sulfur dioxide to sulfate in the plume of a coal fired plant has been studied by using sampling with a single engine aircraft. A technique employing isotopic ratio measurements was utilized in conjunction with simultaneous concentration measurements of sulfur dioxide and sulfate. The use of sulfur hexafluroide as a conservative tracer was explored. The heterogeneous mechanism postulated in an oil fired plume study appears to pertain to the coal fired plume. However, the extent of oxidation seldom exceeded 5% and is limited by the relatively low particulate content of the coal fired plume. Evidence is presented for the apparent dropping out of sulfate from the plume. Implications pertaining to the ambient oxidation of sulfur dioxide are presented. (author)

  7. Determination of sulfur content in fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daucik, P.; Zidek, Z.; Kalab, P.

    1998-01-01

    The sulfur content in fuels, Diesel fuels, and in the solutions of dibutylsulfide in a white oil was determined by various methods. The results obtained by elemental analysis have shown that the method is not advisable for the determination of sulfur in fuels. A good agreement was found by comparing the results in the determination of the sulfur by Grote-Krekeler's and Hermann-Moritz's methods and by the energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis. The last method is the modern, comfortable, and timesaving method enabling the fast and precise determination of sulfur contents in the various types of samples. (authors)

  8. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-06-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium-sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium-sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium-sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g-1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g-1 at 5 C.

  9. Synthesis of three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich polymers for cathode materials of high-rate lithium–sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hoon; Lee, Joungphil; Ahn, Hyungmin; Kim, Onnuri; Park, Moon Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Elemental sulfur is one of the most attractive cathode active materials in lithium batteries because of its high theoretical specific capacity. Despite the positive aspect, lithium–sulfur batteries have suffered from severe capacity fading and limited rate capability. Here we report facile large-scale synthesis of a class of organosulfur compounds that could open a new chapter in designing cathode materials to advance lithium–sulfur battery technologies. Porous trithiocyanuric acid crystals are synthesized for use as a soft template, where the ring-opening polymerization of elemental sulfur takes place along the thiol surfaces to create three-dimensionally interconnected sulfur-rich phases. Our lithium–sulfur cells display discharge capacity of 945 mAh g−1 after 100 cycles at 0.2 C with high-capacity retention of 92%, as well as lifetimes of 450 cycles. Particularly, the organized amine groups in the crystals increase Li+-ion transfer rate, affording a rate performance of 1210, mAh g−1 at 0.1 C and 730 mAh g−1 at 5 C. PMID:26065407

  10. Effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitby, G S

    1939-11-11

    A discussion is presented on the effects of sulfur dioxide on vegetation as observed at Trail, British Columbia. The investigation was carried out over a period of eight years, 1929 to 1937. The concentration of sulfur dioxide at the United States border was carefully determined throughout the crop season at a point 16 miles from the source of sulfur dioxide. Maximum and average concentrations in part per million are given. The sulfur content of vegetation was determined and was found to diminish as the distance from the smelter increased. It was determined that the sulfur content may rise to four times the normal amount without injurious effect. This is particularly so with prolonged low concentration. The effect on the soil was determined by measuring soluble sulfate, pH and exchangeable bases. The soil near the plant was affected, but this fell off rapidly with increase in distance so that eight miles from the smelter the soil was substantially normal. No effect on water supplies was found. An appreciable retardation in growth, as determined by annular rings, was noted for trees exposed to the sulfur dioxide. This effect was lost following installation of sulfur dioxide control at Trail. Conifers were found more susceptible during periods of active growth than when dormant. Also, transplanted conifers were more severly affected than native trees. Seedlings were less resistant that older trees.

  11. A neogene seawater sulfur isotope age curve from calcareous pelagic microfossils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burdett, J.W.; Arthur, M.A.; Richardson, M.

    1989-01-01

    Until now, our knowledge of the sulfur isotopic composition of seawater through geologic time has depended on stable isotopic analysis of sulfate from evaporites. Owing to the sporadic occurrence of evaporites through time, the secular sulfur isotope age curve contains many gaps with little or no data. In order to fill in some of these gaps, particularly the Neogene, we have analyzed the sulfur isotopic composition of carbonate-associated sulfate in carbonate tests of planktonic foraminifera. Other investigators have shown that sulfate may occur in biogenic calcites either lattice-bound, as micro-fluid inclusions, in adsorbed phases, or as protein polysaccharides. Whatever the origin, the sulfur isotopic composition of this sulfate appears to be representative of that of the water in which the organism lived, as shown by results on recent calcareous foraminifera and macrofossils. Using this approach for study of Miocene to Recent pelagic marine sediments supplemented by new data for Miocene marine evaporites from the Gulf of Suez, we have found that the δ 34 S of seawater has decreased about 2.5per mille over the past 25 m.y. and that most of the decrease has occurred over the past 5 m.y., paralleling a decrease in the δ 13 C of dissolved oceanic bicarbonate from the same interval. Sedimentary redox models based on isotope records suggest that organic carbon and sulfide burial have both decreased over the past 5 m.y. Alternatively, an increase in weathering rates over the past 5 m.y. would not require a decrease in organic carbon or sulfide burial as long as the isotopic effect of the increased river input exceeds the isotopic effect of the burial of the reduced species. In either case, the net result would be a decrease in atmospheric p O2 . (orig.)

  12. Sulfur metabolism in the extreme acidophile Acidithiobacillus caldus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie eMangold

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Given the challenges to life at low pH, an analysis of inorganic sulfur compound oxidation was initiated in the chemolithoautotrophic extremophile Acidithiobacillus caldus. A. caldus is able to metabolize elemental sulfur and a broad range of inorganic sulfur compounds. It has been implicated in the production of environmentally damaging acidic solutions as well as participating in industrial bioleaching operations where it forms part of microbial consortia used for the recovery of metal ions. Based upon the recently published A. caldus type strain genome sequence, a bioinformatic reconstruction of elemental sulfur and inorganic sulfur compound metabolism predicted genes included: sulfide quinone reductase (sqr, tetrathionate hydrolase (tth, two sox gene clusters potentially involved in thiosulfate oxidation (soxABXYZ, sulfur oxygenase reductase (sor, and various electron transport components. RNA transcript profiles by semi-quantitative reverse transcription PCR suggested up-regulation of sox genes in the presence of tetrathionate. Extensive gel based proteomic comparisons of total soluble and membrane enriched protein fractions during growth on elemental sulfur and tetrathionate identified differential protein levels from the two Sox clusters as well as several chaperone and stress proteins up-regulated in the presence of elemental sulfur. Proteomics results also suggested the involvement of heterodisulfide reductase (HdrABC in A. caldus inorganic sulfur compound metabolism. A putative new function of Hdr in acidophiles is discussed. Additional proteomic analysis evaluated protein expression differences between cells grown attached to solid, elemental sulfur versus planktonic cells. This study has provided insights into sulfur metabolism of this acidophilic chemolithotroph and gene expression during attachment to solid elemental sulfur.

  13. Sulfur Isotope Exchange between S-35 Labeled Inorganic Sulfur-Compounds in Anoxic Marine-Sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    FOSSING, H.; THODEANDERSEN, S.; JØRGENSEN, BB

    1992-01-01

    of isotope exchange, specific radioactivities of the reduced sulfur pools were poorly defined and could not be used to calculate their rates of formation. Such isotope exchange reactions between the reduced inorganic sulfur compounds will affect the stable isotope distribution and are expected to decrease...

  14. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Renjie, E-mail: kx210@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Zhao, Teng [Beijing Key Laboratory of Environmental Science and Engineering, School of Chemical Engineering and Environment, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081 (China); Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Tian, Tian; Fairen-Jimenez, David [Department of Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, University of Cambridge, Pembroke Street, Cambridge CB2 3RA (United Kingdom); Cao, Shuai; Coxon, Paul R.; Xi, Kai, E-mail: kx210@cam.ac.uk, E-mail: chenrj@bit.edu.cn; Vasant Kumar, R.; Cheetham, Anthony K. [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S) battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8), a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF), which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/C{sub ZIF8-D}) composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/C{sub ZIF8-D} sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/C{sub ZIF8-D} composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  15. Graphene-wrapped sulfur/metal organic framework-derived microporous carbon composite for lithium sulfur batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renjie Chen

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional hierarchical sandwich-type graphene sheet-sulfur/carbon (GS-S/CZIF8-D composite for use in a cathode for a lithium sulfur (Li-S battery has been prepared by an ultrasonic method. The microporous carbon host was prepared by a one-step pyrolysis of Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8, a typical zinc-containing metal organic framework (MOF, which offers a tunable porous structure into which electro-active sulfur can be diffused. The thin graphene sheet, wrapped around the sulfur/zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 derived carbon (S/CZIF8-D composite, has excellent electrical conductivity and mechanical flexibility, thus facilitating rapid electron transport and accommodating the changes in volume of the sulfur electrode. Compared with the S/CZIF8-D sample, Li-S batteries with the GS-S/CZIF8-D composite cathode showed enhanced capacity, improved electrochemical stability, and relatively high columbic efficiency by taking advantage of the synergistic effects of the microporous carbon from ZIF-8 and a highly interconnected graphene network. Our results demonstrate that a porous MOF-derived scaffold with a wrapped graphene conductive network structure is a potentially efficient design for a battery electrode that can meet the challenge arising from low conductivity and volume change.

  16. Two-step rapid sulfur capture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-04-01

    The primary goal of this program was to test the technical and economic feasibility of a novel dry sorbent injection process called the Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process for several advanced coal utilization systems. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process consists of limestone activation in a high temperature auxiliary burner for short times followed by sorbent quenching in a lower temperature sulfur containing coal combustion gas. The Two-Step Rapid Sulfur Capture process is based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture process developed by the Energy Technology Office of Textron Defense Systems (ETO/TDS). Based on the Non-Equilibrium Sulfur Capture studies the range of conditions for optimum sorbent activation were thought to be: activation temperature > 2,200 K for activation times in the range of 10--30 ms. Therefore, the aim of the Two-Step process is to create a very active sorbent (under conditions similar to the bomb reactor) and complete the sulfur reaction under thermodynamically favorable conditions. A flow facility was designed and assembled to simulate the temperature, time, stoichiometry, and sulfur gas concentration prevalent in the advanced coal utilization systems such as gasifiers, fluidized bed combustors, mixed-metal oxide desulfurization systems, diesel engines, and gas turbines.

  17. ADVANCED SULFUR CONTROL CONCEPTS FOR HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION TECHNOLOGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. LOPEZ ORTIZ; D.P. HARRISON; F.R. GROVES; J.D. WHITE; S. ZHANG; W.-N. HUANG; Y. ZENG

    1998-10-31

    a twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600°C and 800°C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs.

  18. Advanced sulfur control concepts for hot-gas desulfurization technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez Ortiz, A.; Harrison, D.P.; Groves, F.R.; White, J.D.; Zhang, S.; Huang, W.N.; Zeng, Y.

    1998-01-01

    twenty-five-cycle test. The sorbent was exposed for 58 consecutive days to temperatures between 600C and 800C and gas atmospheres from highly reducing to highly oxidizing without measurable loss of sulfur capacity or reactivity. In the process analysis phase of this study, a two-stage desulfurization process using cerium sorbent with SO2 regeneration followed by zinc sorbent with dilute O2 regeneration was compared to a single-stage process using zinc sorbent and O2 regeneration with SO2 in the regeneration product gas converted to elemental sulfur using the direct sulfur recovery process (DSRP). Material and energy balances were calculated using the process simulation package PRO/II. Major process equipment was sized and a preliminary economic analysis completed. Sorbent replacement rate, which is determined by the multicycle sorbent durability, was found to be the most significant factor in both processes. For large replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 250 cycles or less, the single-stage zinc sorbent process with DSRP was estimated to be less costly. However, the cost of the two-stage cerium sorbent process was more sensitive to sorbent replacement rate, and, as the required replacement rate decreased, the economics of the two-stage process improved. For small sorbent replacement rates corresponding to average sorbent lifetimes of 1000 cycles or more, the two-stage cerium process was estimated to be less costly. In the relatively wide middle range of sorbent replacement rates, the relative economics of the two processes depends on other factors such as the unit cost of sorbents, oxygen, nitrogen, and the relative capital costs

  19. Space-Based Detection of Missing Sulfur Dioxide Sources of Global Air Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLinden, Chris A.; Fioletov, Vitali; Shephard, Mark W.; Krotkov, Nick; Li, Can; Martin, Randall V.; Moran, Michael D.; Joiner, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    Sulfur dioxide is designated a criteria air contaminant (or equivalent) by virtually all developed nations. When released into the atmosphere, sulfur dioxide forms sulfuric acid and fine particulate matter, secondary pollutants that have significant adverse effects on human health, the environment and the economy. The conventional, bottom-up emissions inventories used to assess impacts, however, are often incomplete or outdated, particularly for developing nations that lack comprehensive emission reporting requirements and infrastructure. Here we present a satellite-based, global emission inventory for SO2 that is derived through a simultaneous detection, mapping and emission-quantifying procedure, and thereby independent of conventional information sources. We find that of the 500 or so large sources in our inventory, nearly 40 are not captured in leading conventional inventories. These missing sources are scattered throughout the developing world-over a third are clustered around the Persian Gulf-and add up to 7 to 14 Tg of SO2 yr(exp -1), or roughly 6-12% of the global anthropogenic source. Our estimates of national total emissions are generally in line with conventional numbers, but for some regions, and for SO2 emissions from volcanoes, discrepancies can be as large as a factor of three or more. We anticipate that our inventory will help eliminate gaps in bottom-up inventories, independent of geopolitical borders and source types.

  20. Response to subcommittee on environment and atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCracken, M.C.

    1975-10-01

    The potential effects of chronic release of pollutants on climatic changes are discussed with regard to dose-response characteristics, ambiguities in prediction of climatic effects, ambiguities in measuring climatic effects, research approaches, and approaches to standard setting. A table is presented to show potential atmospheric effects of the following pollutants: CO 2 from fossil fuels, fluorocarbons, nitrogen oxides, 85 K from nuclear power plants, sulfur compounds, dusts, heat and water releases from energy generation processes, and oceanic oil slicks

  1. Honeycomb-like Nitrogen and Sulfur Dual-Doped Hierarchical Porous Biomass-Derived Carbon for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Manfang; Jiang, Shouxin; Huang, Cheng; Wang, Xianyou; Cai, Siyu; Xiang, Kaixiong; Zhang, Yapeng; Xue, Jiaxi

    2017-04-22

    Honeycomb-like nitrogen and sulfur dual-doped hierarchical porous biomass-derived carbon/sulfur composites (NSHPC/S) are successfully fabricated for high energy density lithium-sulfur batteries. The effects of nitrogen, sulfur dual-doping on the structures and properties of the NSHPC/S composites are investigated in detail by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and charge/discharge tests. The results show that N, S dual-doping not only introduces strong chemical adsorption and provides more active sites but also significantly enhances the electronic conductivity and hydrophilic properties of hierarchical porous biomass-derived carbon, thereby significantly enhancing the utilization of sulfur and immobilizing the notorious polysulfide shuttle effect. Especially, the as-synthesized NSHPC-7/S exhibits high initial discharge capacity of 1204 mA h g -1 at 1.0 C and large reversible capacity of 952 mA h g -1 after 300 cycles at 0.5 C with an ultralow capacity fading rate of 0.08 % per cycle even at high sulfur content (85 wt %) and high active material areal mass loading (2.8 mg cm -2 ) for the application of high energy density Li-S batteries. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Removal of Sulfur from CaF2 Containing Desulfurization Slag Exhausted from Secondary Steelmaking Process by Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraki, Takehito; Kobayashi, Junichi; Urushibata, Satomi; Matsubae, Kazuyo; Nagasaka, Tetsuya

    2012-08-01

    The oxidation behavior of sulfur in desulfurization slag generated from the secondary steelmaking process with air has been investigated in the temperature range of 973 K to 1373 K (700 °C to 1100 °C). Although a high removal rate of sulfur is not achieved at temperatures lower than 1273 K (1000 °C) because of the formation of CaSO4, most of the sulfur is rapidly removed from slag as SO2 gas in the 1273 K to 1373 K (700 °C to 1100 °C) range. This finding indicates that the desulfurization slag generated from the secondary steelmaking process can be reused as a desulfurized flux through air oxidation, making it possible to reduce significantly the amount of desulfurization slag for disposal.

  3. The effective synthesis of Insoluble sulfur using electron beam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Daejin; Yu, Kookhyun [Dongguk Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-07-01

    Vulcanization is process that formed crosslinking by Insoluble sulfur between linear structure of rubber polymer. Recently, Synthesis of Insoluble sulfur is used Thermal polymerization using about 250 {approx} 300 .deg. C and extraction process is used carbon disulfide(CS2) for separation between soluble sulfur and insoluble sulfur. But this process isn't environmental, economical and safety. This research was focus on developing of insoluble sulfur synthesis process using electron beam. This new process is using under the 140 .deg. C. Because of that, explosion risk is decrease, environmental and economical factor is increased. The sulfur can be melt by increase temperature or made solution using carbon disulfide. And electron beam is irradiated melting sulfur or sulfur solution. After irradiation, The high purity insoluble sulfur can be obtained by separation with carbon disulfide.

  4. An assessment of worldwide energy-related atmospheric pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Energy-related emissions of atmospheric pollutants are currently suspected as the source of a number of major environmental problems. Early concerns about local and regional air quality and respiratory health risks, greatly alleviated in the case of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) emissions by the use of tall stacks, have been superseded by ''global problems,'' such as acidification of the biosphere, increase in tropospheric ozone (O 3 ), visibility impairment, long-term exposure to toxic pollutants, and buildup of ''greenhouse gases''. Chapter 1 assesses the sources and physical/chemical atmospheric processes of energy-related atmospheric pollution (ERAP). It is not an exhaustive review but rather a documented statement of the state-of-art knowledge on issues critical to effective environmental decision-making. Chapter 2 looks at the effects on man, the environment and materials, and chapter 3 presents an overview and policy options. (author)

  5. Sulfur Deactivation of NOx Storage Catalysts: A Multiscale Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rankovic N.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Lean NOx Trap (LNT catalysts, a promising solution for reducing the noxious nitrogen oxide emissions from the lean burn and Diesel engines, are technologically limited by the presence of sulfur in the exhaust gas stream. Sulfur stemming from both fuels and lubricating oils is oxidized during the combustion event and mainly exists as SOx (SO2 and SO3 in the exhaust. Sulfur oxides interact strongly with the NOx trapping material of a LNT to form thermodynamically favored sulfate species, consequently leading to the blockage of NOx sorption sites and altering the catalyst operation. Molecular and kinetic modeling represent a valuable tool for predicting system behavior and evaluating catalytic performances. The present paper demonstrates how fundamental ab initio calculations can be used as a valuable source for designing kinetic models developed in the IFP Exhaust library, intended for vehicle simulations. The concrete example we chose to illustrate our approach was SO3 adsorption on the model NOx storage material, BaO. SO3 adsorption was described for various sites (terraces, surface steps and kinks and bulk for a closer description of a real storage material. Additional rate and sensitivity analyses provided a deeper understanding of the poisoning phenomena.

  6. Analysis of organic sulfur compounds in atmospheric aerosols at the HKUST supersite in Hong Kong using HR-ToF-AMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dan Dan; Li, Yong Jie; Lee, Berto P; Chan, Chak K

    2015-03-17

    Organic sulfur compounds have been identified in ambient secondary organic aerosols, but their contribution to organic mass is not well quantified. In this study, using a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS), concentrations of organic sulfur compounds were estimated based on the high-resolution fragmentation patterns of methanesulfonic acid (MSA), and organosulfates (OS), including alkyl, phenyl, and cycloalkyl sulfates, obtained in laboratory experiments. Mass concentrations of MSA and minimum mass concentrations of OS were determined in a field campaign conducted at a coastal site of Hong Kong in September 2011. MSA and OS together accounted for at least 5% of AMS detected organics. MSA is of marine origin with its formation dominated by local photochemical activities and enhanced by aqueous phase processing. OS concentrations are better correlated with particle liquid water content (LWC) than with particle acidity. High-molecular-weight OS were detected in the continental influenced period probably because they had grown into larger molecules during long-range transport or they were formed from large anthropogenic precursors. This study highlights the importance of both aqueous-phase processing and regional influence, i.e., different air mass origins, on organic sulfur compound formation in coastal cities like Hong Kong.

  7. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan; Stephan, Arul Manuel

    2015-01-01

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  8. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium-Sulfur Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natarajan eAngulakshmi

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium-sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium-sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium-sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii ionic liquids, (iii solid polymer and (iv glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li-S cells is discussed.

  9. Efficient Electrolytes for Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angulakshmi, Natarajan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Turin (Italy); Stephan, Arul Manuel, E-mail: arulmanuel@gmail.com [Central Electrochemical Research Institute (CSIR-CECRI), Karaikudi (India)

    2015-05-21

    This review article mainly encompasses on the state-of-the-art electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries. Different strategies have been employed to address the issues of lithium–sulfur batteries across the world. One among them is identification of electrolytes and optimization of their properties for the applications in lithium–sulfur batteries. The electrolytes for lithium–sulfur batteries are broadly classified as (i) non-aqueous liquid electrolytes, (ii) ionic liquids, (iii) solid polymer, and (iv) glass-ceramic electrolytes. This article presents the properties, advantages, and limitations of each type of electrolytes. Also, the importance of electrolyte additives on the electrochemical performance of Li–S cells is discussed.

  10. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of three-dimensional porous graphene aerogels/sulfur nanocrystals for lithium–sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yong; Lu, Mengna; Ling, Xuetao; Jiao, Zheng; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Lu; Hu, Pengfei; Zhao, Bing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • 3D porous GA/S nanocrystals are prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. • The structure is affected by hydrothermal temperature and liquid sulfur’s viscosity. • The hybrid delivers a capacity of 716.2 mA h g −1 after 50 cycles at 100 mA g −1 . • The nanosized S, strong adsorbability and intimate contact of GNS are main factors. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are receiving significant attention as a new energy source because of its high theoretical capacity and specific energy. However, the low sulfur loading and large particles (usually in submicron dimension) in the cathode greatly offset its advantage in high energy density and lead to the instability of the cathode and rapid capacity decay. Herein, we introduce a one-step hydrothermal synthesis of three-dimensional porous graphene aerogels/sulfur nanocrystals to suppress the rapid fading of sulfur electrode. It is found that the hydrothermal temperature and viscosity of liquid sulfur have significant effects on particle size and loading mass of sulfur nanocrystals, graphitization degree of graphene and chemical bonding between sulfur and oxygen-containing groups of graphene. The hybrid could deliver a specific capacity of 716.2 mA h g −1 after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g −1 and reversible capacity of 517.9 mA h g −1 at 1 A g −1 . The performance we demonstrate herein suggests that Li–S battery may provide an opportunity for development of rechargeable battery systems

  11. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2002-10-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. The PFS product was used in pilot-scale tests at a municipal water treatment facility and gave good results in removal of turbidity and superior results in removal of disinfection byproduct precursors (TOC, DOC, UV-254) when compared with equal doses of ferric chloride.

  12. Unravelling atmospheric photolysis and ocean redox chemistry from Paleoarchean pyrite : a multiple sulfur and iron stable isotope study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galić, A.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis brought together four individual studies on the geochemistry of three recently obtained drill cores from the Barberton Greenstone Belt, South Africa. These data were used to provide a synthesis of the iron and sulfur cycles in the Paleoarchean, with a particular focus on the nature and

  13. Micro-Spherical Sulfur/Graphene Oxide Composite via Spray Drying for High Performance Lithium Sulfur Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuan; Sun, Zhenghao; Zhang, Yongguang; Yin, Fuxing

    2018-01-01

    An efficient, industry-accepted spray drying method was used to synthesize micro-spherical sulfur/graphene oxide (S/GO) composites as cathode materials within lithium sulfur batteries. The as-designed wrapping of the sulfur-nanoparticles, with wrinkled GO composites, was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The unique morphological design of this material enabled superior discharge capacity and cycling performance, demonstrating a high initial discharge capacity of 1400 mAh g−1 at 0.1 C. The discharge capacity remained at 828 mAh g−1 after 150 cycles. The superior electrochemical performance indicates that the S/GO composite improves electrical conductivity and alleviates the shuttle effect. This study represents the first time such a facile spray drying method has been adopted for lithium sulfur batteries and used in the fabrication of S/GO composites. PMID:29346303

  14. Measuring Sulfur Isotope Ratios from Solid Samples with the Sample Analysis at Mars Instrument and the Effects of Dead Time Corrections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, H. B.; Mahaffy, P. R.; Kasprzak, W.; Lyness, E.; Raaen, E.

    2011-01-01

    The Sample Analysis at Mars (SAM) instrument suite comprises the largest science payload on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) "Curiosity" rover. SAM will perform chemical and isotopic analysis of volatile compounds from atmospheric and solid samples to address questions pertaining to habitability and geochemical processes on Mars. Sulfur is a key element of interest in this regard, as sulfur compounds have been detected on the Martian surface by both in situ and remote sensing techniques. Their chemical and isotopic composition can belp constrain environmental conditions and mechanisms at the time of formation. A previous study examined the capability of the SAM quadrupole mass spectrometer (QMS) to determine sulfur isotope ratios of SO2 gas from a statistical perspective. Here we discuss the development of a method for determining sulfur isotope ratios with the QMS by sampling SO2 generated from heating of solid sulfate samples in SAM's pyrolysis oven. This analysis, which was performed with the SAM breadboard system, also required development of a novel treatment of the QMS dead time to accommodate the characteristics of an aging detector.

  15. Analysis of hydrogen, carbon, sulfur and volatile compounds in (U3Si2 - Al) nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura, Sergio C.; Redigolo, Marcelo M.; Amaral, Priscila O.; Leao, Claudio; Oliveira, Glaucia A.C. de; Bustillos, Oscar V.

    2015-01-01

    Uranium silicide U 3 Si 2 is used as nuclear fuel in the research nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN/CNEN, Sao Paulo, Brazil. The U 3 Si 2 is dispersed in aluminum reaching high densities of uranium in the nucleus of the fuel, up to 4.8 gU cm -3 . This nuclear fuel must comply with a quality control, which includes analysis of hydrogen, carbon and sulfur for the U 3 Si 2 and volatile compound for the aluminum. Hydrogen, carbon and sulfur are analyzed by the method of Radio Frequency gas extraction combustion coupled with Infrared detector. Volatile compounds are analyzed by the method of heated gas extraction coupled with gravimetric measurement. These methods are recommended by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM) for nuclear materials. The average carbon and sulfur measurements are 30 μg g -1 and 3 μg g -1 , respectively, and 40 μg g -1 for volatile compounds. The hydrogen analyzer is a TCHEN 600 LECO, carbon and sulfur analyzer is a CS 244 LECO and the volatile compounds analyzer is a home-made apparatus that use a resistant furnace, a gas pipe measurement and a glove-box with controlled atmosphere where an analytical balance has been installed, this analyzer was made at IPEN laboratory. (author)

  16. Influence of fluorozirconic acid on sulfuric acid anodizing of aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Elaish, R.; Curioni, M.; Gowers, K.; Kasuga, A.; Habazaki, H.; Hashimoto, T.; Skeldon, P.

    2017-01-01

    The effects of additions of fluorozirconic acid to sulfuric acid on the anodizing behavior of aluminum have been investigated under a constant voltage at temperatures of 0 and 20◦C. The fluoroacid increased the rate of film growth, with a dependence on the fluoroacid concentration, the electrolyte temperature and the anodizing time. Compositional analyses showed that fluorine species were present in the films. However, zirconium species were absent. The fluoroacid generally enhanced film diss...

  17. Acidic gases and nitrate and sulfate particles in the atmosphere in the city of Guadalajara, México.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Waliszewski, Stefan; Murillo-Tovar, Mario; Hernández-Mena, Leonel; de la Garza-Rodríguez, Iliana; Colunga-Urbina, Edith; Cuevas-Ordaz, Rosalva

    2012-05-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of nitrous acid, nitric acid, nitrate and sulfate particles were obtained in this study from April to June 2008 in the center of the city of Guadalajara, while concentrations of ozone, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide and meteorological parameters (temperature and relative humidity), were acquired by the Secretaría del Medio Ambiente para el Desarrollo Sustentable del Estado de Jalisco (SEMADES). The results showed that nitric acid (2.7 μg m(-3)) was 2.7 times higher than nitrous acid (1.0 μg m(-3)). The sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) concentration indicated an opposite trend to sulfate (SO(4) (2-)), with the average concentration of SO(2) (6.9 μg m(-3)) higher in almost the entire period of study. The sulfur conversion ratio (Fs, 24.9%) and nitrogen conversion ratio (Fn, 6.2%), were revealed to be similar to that reported in other urban areas during warm seasons. It is also noted that ozone is not the main oxidizer of nitrogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide. This determination was made by taking into account the slightly positively correlation determined for Fn (r(2) = 0.084) and Fs (r(2) = 0.092) with ozone that perhaps suggests there are other oxidizing species such as the radical OH, which are playing an important role in the processes of atmospheric oxidation in this area.

  18. Porous-Shell Vanadium Nitride Nanobubbles with Ultrahigh Areal Sulfur Loading for High-Capacity and Long-Life Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Lianbo; Yuan, Hao; Zhang, Wenjun; Zhu, Guoyin; Wang, Yanrong; Hu, Yi; Zhao, Peiyang; Chen, Renpeng; Chen, Tao; Liu, Jie; Hu, Zheng; Jin, Zhong

    2017-12-13

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries hold great promise for the applications of high energy density storage. However, the performances of Li-S batteries are restricted by the low electrical conductivity of sulfur and shuttle effect of intermediate polysulfides. Moreover, the areal loading weights of sulfur in previous studies are usually low (around 1-3 mg cm -2 ) and thus cannot fulfill the requirement for practical deployment. Herein, we report that porous-shell vanadium nitride nanobubbles (VN-NBs) can serve as an efficient sulfur host in Li-S batteries, exhibiting remarkable electrochemical performances even with ultrahigh areal sulfur loading weights (5.4-6.8 mg cm -2 ). The large inner space of VN-NBs can afford a high sulfur content and accommodate the volume expansion, and the high electrical conductivity of VN-NBs ensures the effective utilization and fast redox kinetics of polysulfides. Moreover, VN-NBs present strong chemical affinity/adsorption with polysulfides and thus can efficiently suppress the shuttle effect via both capillary confinement and chemical binding, and promote the fast conversion of polysulfides. Benefiting from the above merits, the Li-S batteries based on sulfur-filled VN-NBs cathodes with 5.4 mg cm -2 sulfur exhibit impressively high areal/specific capacity (5.81 mAh cm -2 ), superior rate capability (632 mAh g -1 at 5.0 C), and long cycling stability.

  19. One-step hydrothermal synthesis of three-dimensional porous graphene aerogels/sulfur nanocrystals for lithium–sulfur batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Yong; Lu, Mengna; Ling, Xuetao; Jiao, Zheng; Chen, Lingli; Chen, Lu [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Hu, Pengfei [Instrumental Analysis and Research Center, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China); Zhao, Bing, E-mail: bzhao@shu.edu.cn [School of Environmental and Chemical Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200444 (China)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • 3D porous GA/S nanocrystals are prepared by a one-step hydrothermal method. • The structure is affected by hydrothermal temperature and liquid sulfur’s viscosity. • The hybrid delivers a capacity of 716.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at 100 mA g{sup −1}. • The nanosized S, strong adsorbability and intimate contact of GNS are main factors. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur (Li–S) batteries are receiving significant attention as a new energy source because of its high theoretical capacity and specific energy. However, the low sulfur loading and large particles (usually in submicron dimension) in the cathode greatly offset its advantage in high energy density and lead to the instability of the cathode and rapid capacity decay. Herein, we introduce a one-step hydrothermal synthesis of three-dimensional porous graphene aerogels/sulfur nanocrystals to suppress the rapid fading of sulfur electrode. It is found that the hydrothermal temperature and viscosity of liquid sulfur have significant effects on particle size and loading mass of sulfur nanocrystals, graphitization degree of graphene and chemical bonding between sulfur and oxygen-containing groups of graphene. The hybrid could deliver a specific capacity of 716.2 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA g{sup −1} and reversible capacity of 517.9 mA h g{sup −1} at 1 A g{sup −1}. The performance we demonstrate herein suggests that Li–S battery may provide an opportunity for development of rechargeable battery systems.

  20. Behavior of sulfur species in steam generator conditions of PWRs - towards an update of the secondary side corrosion cracking model based on laboratory tests in sulfate environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansour, C.; Legras, L.; Catalette, H.; Lefevre, G.; Fedoroff, M.; Pavageau, E.-M.

    2007-01-01

    Secondary side corrosion cracking affects Mill Annealed Alloy 600 steam generator (SG) tubes of PWRs in flow restricted areas where pollutants, such as sulfate, can concentrate and form various aggressive local environments. The 'sulfate model', based on laboratory tests in sulfate environments, was developed to predict the degradation of SG tubes. Such prediction is aimed to be done after having evaluated the chemistry in the flow restricted areas where the degradation occurs. For such purpose, a better knowledge of the behavior of sulfur species in SG conditions is needed. After a brief description of the sulfate model, this paper focuses on the latest experimental results that have been obtained : sorption of sulfur species over magnetite in SG temperature conditions, thermodynamical calculations as well as transmission electron microscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy observations of magnetite after sorption and C-Ring specimens tested in sulfate environments. Then, all these results are discussed in order to contribute to a better understanding of the secondary side corrosion cracking of SG tubes. (author)

  1. Mechanism analysis of improved DLC films friction behaviors with liquid sulfidation treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng Qunfeng; Yu Fei; Dong Guangneng; Mao Junhong

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Liquid sulfidation is applied to treat DLC films. ► Sulfur atoms are chemically bonded and the graphitization presented in the treated films. ► The treated films exhibited much lower coefficient of friction than the untreated films under dry friction condition. ► The sulfidation mechanisms are supposed as surface chemical reaction and surface diffusion. ► The presence of sulfur-containing materials and graphitization are beneficial to improve anti-friction behaviors of the treated films. - Abstract: Diamond like carbon (DLC) films were treated by liquid sulfidation to improve their friction behaviors. Friction behaviors of DLC films were experimentally evaluated in ambient air under dry friction using GCr15 steel ball sliding over DLC-coated steel flat in a ball-on-disk tribometer system. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Raman spectroscopy were applied to identify the chemical composition and structure of DLC films. It was found that the content of sp 2 carbon bond increased and G peak shifted to high wave number after sulfidation treatment. The measurement results showed that sulfur atoms were chemically bonded and the graphitization occurred in the treated DLC films. It was indicated that the treated DLC films exhibited much better friction behaviors than the untreated films, especially for DLC films deposited with high nitrogen ratio. In this paper, we proposed the possible sulfidation mechanism of sulfurized DLC films. Sulfidation mechanism is postulated that thiourea reacted with oxygen to form sulfur-containing organic compounds which included CSSC, CSOH and (NH 2 )NH=CSO 2 H and surface diffusion during sulfidation treatment. The anti-friction behaviors of the treated DLC films can be attributed to the production of the compounds containing sulfur on the DLC film surface, the reduce of oxygen content and the presence of graphitization of DLC films.

  2. Sulfur impregnated in tunable porous N-doped carbon as sulfur cathode: effect of pore size distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Sha; Zhao, Zhenxia; Xu, Hui; Deng, Yuanfu; Li, Zhong; Chen, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: •Effects of pore size were investigated on electrochemistry for S cathode. •Activation energy of sulfur desorption from the PDA-C was estimated. •Strong interaction was formed between sulfur and porous N-doped carbon. •PDA-C@S showed good cycling performance of 608 mA h g −1 at 2 C over 300 cycles. •PDA-C@S showed good rate stability and high rate capacity. -- Abstract: A novel porous N-doped carbon microsphere (polymer-dopamine derived carbon, PDA-C) with high specific surface area was synthesized as sulfur host for high performance of lithium-sulfur batteries. We used KOH to adjust the pore size and surface area of the PDA-C materials, and then impregnated sulfur into the PDA-C samples by vapor-melting diffusion method. Effects of pore size of the PDA-C samples on the electrochemical performance of the PDA-C@sulfur cathodes were systematically investigated. Raman spectra indicated an enhanced trend of the degree of graphitization of the PDA-C samples with increasing calcination temperature. The surface area of the PDA-C samples increases with amount of the KOH in the pore-creating process. The graphitized porous N-doped carbon provides the high electronic conductive network. Meanwhile, the PDA-C with high surface area and uniform micropores ensures a high interaction toward sulfur as well as the high dispersion of nanoscale sulfur layer on it. The microporous PDA-C@S cathode material exhibits the excellent high rate discharge capability (636 mA h g −1 at 2.0 C) and good low/high-rate cycling stability (893 mA h g −1 (0.5 C) and 608 mA h g −1 (2.0 C) over 100 and 300 cycles). Cyclic voltammogram curves and electrochemical impedance plots show that both the impedance and polarization of the cells increase with decreasing pore size

  3. Sulfur containing nanoporous materials, nanoparticles, methods and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, Lynden A.; Navaneedhakrishnan, Jayaprakash

    2018-01-30

    Sulfur containing nanoparticles that may be used within cathode electrodes within lithium ion batteries include in a first instance porous carbon shape materials (i.e., either nanoparticle shapes or "bulk" shapes that are subsequently ground to nanoparticle shapes) that are infused with a sulfur material. A synthetic route to these carbon and sulfur containing nanoparticles may use a template nanoparticle to form a hollow carbon shape shell, and subsequent dissolution of the template nanoparticle prior to infusion of the hollow carbon shape shell with a sulfur material. Sulfur infusion into other porous carbon shapes that are not hollow is also contemplated. A second type of sulfur containing nanoparticle includes a metal oxide material core upon which is located a shell layer that includes a vulcanized polymultiene polymer material and ion conducting polymer material. The foregoing sulfur containing nanoparticle materials provide the electrodes and lithium ion batteries with enhanced performance.

  4. Impact of biomass burning on the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dignon, J.

    1993-03-01

    Fire has played an important part in biogeochemical cycling throughout most of the history of our planet. Ice core studies have been very beneficial in paleoclimate studies and constraining the budgets of biogeochemical cycles through the past 160,000 years of the Vostok ice core. Although to date there has been no way of determining cause and effect, concentration of greenhouse gases directly correlates with temperature in ice core analyses. Recent ice core studies on Greenland have shown that significant climate change can be very rapid on the order of a decade. This chapter addresses the coupled evolution of our planet's atmospheric composition and biomass burning. Special attention is paid to the chemical and climatic impacts of biomass burning on the atmosphere throughout the last century, specifically looking at the cycles of carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur. Information from ice core measurements may be useful in understanding the history of fire and its historic affect on the composition of the atmosphere and climate

  5. Peatland Acidobacteria with a dissimilatory sulfur metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Bela; Pelikan, Claus; Herbold, Craig W; Köstlbacher, Stephan; Albertsen, Mads; Eichorst, Stephanie A; Glavina Del Rio, Tijana; Huemer, Martin; Nielsen, Per H; Rattei, Thomas; Stingl, Ulrich; Tringe, Susannah G; Trojan, Daniela; Wentrup, Cecilia; Woebken, Dagmar; Pester, Michael; Loy, Alexander

    2018-02-23

    Sulfur-cycling microorganisms impact organic matter decomposition in wetlands and consequently greenhouse gas emissions from these globally relevant environments. However, their identities and physiological properties are largely unknown. By applying a functional metagenomics approach to an acidic peatland, we recovered draft genomes of seven novel Acidobacteria species with the potential for dissimilatory sulfite (dsrAB, dsrC, dsrD, dsrN, dsrT, dsrMKJOP) or sulfate respiration (sat, aprBA, qmoABC plus dsr genes). Surprisingly, the genomes also encoded DsrL, which so far was only found in sulfur-oxidizing microorganisms. Metatranscriptome analysis demonstrated expression of acidobacterial sulfur-metabolism genes in native peat soil and their upregulation in diverse anoxic microcosms. This indicated an active sulfate respiration pathway, which, however, might also operate in reverse for dissimilatory sulfur oxidation or disproportionation as proposed for the sulfur-oxidizing Desulfurivibrio alkaliphilus. Acidobacteria that only harbored genes for sulfite reduction additionally encoded enzymes that liberate sulfite from organosulfonates, which suggested organic sulfur compounds as complementary energy sources. Further metabolic potentials included polysaccharide hydrolysis and sugar utilization, aerobic respiration, several fermentative capabilities, and hydrogen oxidation. Our findings extend both, the known physiological and genetic properties of Acidobacteria and the known taxonomic diversity of microorganisms with a DsrAB-based sulfur metabolism, and highlight new fundamental niches for facultative anaerobic Acidobacteria in wetlands based on exploitation of inorganic and organic sulfur molecules for energy conservation.

  6. Experimental Behavior of Sulfur Under Primitive Planetary Differentiation Processes, the Sulfide Formations in Enstatite Meteorites and Implications for Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavergne, V.; Brunet, F.; Righter, K.; Zanda, B.; Avril, C.; Borensztajn, S.; Berthet, S.

    2012-01-01

    Enstatite meteorites are the most reduced naturally-occuring materials of the solar system. The cubic monosulfide series with the general formula (Mg,Mn,Ca,Fe)S are common phases in these meteorite groups. The importance of such minerals, their formation, composition and textural relationships for understanding the genesis of enstatite chondrites (EC) and aubrites, has long been recognized (e.g. [1]). However, the mechanisms of formation of these sulfides is still not well constrained certainly because of possible multiple ways to produce them. We propose to simulate different models of formation in order to check their mineralogical, chemical and textural relevancies. The solubility of sulfur in silicate melts is of primary interest for planetary mantles, particularly for the Earth and Mercury. Indeed, these two planets could have formed, at least partly, from EC materials (e.g. [2, 3, 4]). The sulfur content in silicate melts depends on the melt composition but also on pressure (P), temperature (T) and oxygen fugacity fO2. Unfortunately, there is no model of general validity in a wide range of P-T-fO2-composition which describes precisely the evolution of sulfur content in silicate melts, even if the main trends are now known. The second goal of this study is to constrain the sulfur content in silicate melts under reducing conditions and different temperatures.

  7. Sulfurized activated carbon for high energy density supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yunxia; Candelaria, Stephanie L.; Li, Yanwei; Li, Zhimin; Tian, Jianjun; Zhang, Lili; Cao, Guozhong

    2014-04-01

    Sulfurized activated carbon (SAC), made by coating the pore surface with thiophenic sulfur functional groups from the pyrolysis of sulfur flakes, were characterized and tested for supercapacitor applications. From X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), the sulfur content in the SAC was found to be 2.7 at%. Electrochemical properties from potentiostatic and galvanostatic measurements, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) were used to evaluate the effect of sulfur on porous carbon electrodes. The SAC electrode exhibits better conductivity, and an obvious increase in specific capacitance that is almost 40% higher than plain activated carbons (ACs) electrode at a high current density of 1.4 A g-1. The proposed mechanism for improved conductivity and capacitive performance due to the sulfur functional groups on ACs will be discussed.

  8. Atmospheric behavior, deposition, and budget of radioactive materials from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant in March 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morino, Y.; Ohara, T.; Nishizawa, M.

    2011-12-01

    To understand the atmospheric behavior of radioactive materials emitted from the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant after the nuclear accident that accompanied the great Tohoku earthquake and tsunami on 11 March 2011, we simulated the transport and deposition of iodine-131 and cesium-137 using a chemical transport model. The model roughly reproduced the observed temporal and spatial variations of deposition rates over 15 Japanese prefectures (60-400 km from the plant), including Tokyo, although there were some discrepancies between the simulated and observed rates. These discrepancies were likely due to uncertainties in the simulation of emission, transport, and deposition processes in the model. A budget analysis indicated that approximately 13% of iodine-131 and 22% of cesium-137 were deposited over land in Japan, and the rest was deposited over the ocean or transported out of the model domain (700 × 700 km2). Radioactivity budgets are sensitive to temporal emission patterns. Accurate estimation of emissions to the air is important for estimation of the atmospheric behavior of radionuclides and their subsequent behavior in land water, soil, vegetation, and the ocean.

  9. Photochemistry of Planetary Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Y. L.

    2005-12-01

    The Space Age started half a century ago. Today, with the completion of a fairly detailed study of the planets of the Solar System, we have begun studying exoplanets (or extrasolar planets). The overriding question in is to ask whether an exoplanet is habitable and harbors life, and if so, what the biosignatures ought to be. This forces us to confront the fundamental question of what controls the composition of an atmosphere. The composition of a planetary atmosphere reflects a balance between thermodynamic equilibrium chemistry (as in the interior of giant planets) and photochemistry (as in the atmosphere of Mars). The terrestrial atmosphere has additional influence from life (biochemistry). The bulk of photochemistry in planetary atmospheres is driven by UV radiation. Photosynthesis may be considered an extension of photochemistry by inventing a molecule (chlorophyll) that can harvest visible light. Perhaps the most remarkable feature of photochemistry is catalytic chemistry, the ability of trace amounts of gases to profoundly affect the composition of the atmosphere. Notable examples include HOx (H, OH and HO2) chemistry on Mars and chlorine chemistry on Earth and Venus. Another remarkable feature of photochemistry is organic synthesis in the outer solar system. The best example is the atmosphere of Titan. Photolysis of methane results in the synthesis of more complex hydrocarbons. The hydrocarbon chemistry inevitably leads to the formation of high molecular weight products, giving rise to aerosols when the ambient atmosphere is cool enough for them to condense. These results are supported by the findings of the recent Cassini mission. Lastly, photochemistry leaves a distinctive isotopic signature that can be used to trace back the evolutionary history of the atmosphere. Examples include nitrogen isotopes on Mars and sulfur isotopes on Earth. Returning to the question of biosignatures on an exoplanet, our Solar System experience tells us to look for speciation

  10. Towards Stable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries with a Low Self-Discharge Rate: Ion Diffusion Modulation and Anode Protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wen-Tao; Peng, Hong-Jie; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhao, Chen-Zi; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Zhang, Qiang

    2015-09-07

    The self-discharge of a lithium-sulfur cell decreases the shelf-life of the battery and is one of the bottlenecks that hinders its practical applications. New insights into both the internal chemical reactions in a lithium-sulfur system and effective routes to retard self-discharge for highly stable batteries are crucial for the design of lithium-sulfur cells. Herein, a lithium-sulfur cell with a carbon nanotube/sulfur cathode and lithium-metal anode in lithium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide/1,3-dioxolane/dimethyl ether electrolyte was selected as the model system to investigate the self-discharge behavior. Both lithium anode passivation and polysulfide anion diffusion suppression strategies are applied to reduce self-discharge of the lithium-sulfur cell. When the lithium-metal anode is protected by a high density passivation layer induced by LiNO3 , a very low shuttle constant of 0.017 h(-1) is achieved. The diffusion of the polysulfides is retarded by an ion-selective separator, and the shuttle constants decreased. The cell with LiNO3 additive maintained a discharge capacity of 97 % (961 mAh g(-1) ) of the initial capacity after 120 days at open circuit, which was around three times higher than the routine cell (32 % of initial capacity, corresponding to 320 mAh g(-1) ). It is expected that lithium-sulfur batteries with ultralow self-discharge rates may be fabricated through a combination of anode passivation and polysulfide shuttle control, as well as optimization of the lithium-sulfur cell configuration. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Biologically removing sulfur from dilute gas flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruitenberg, R.; Dijkman, H.; Buisman, C. J. N.

    1999-05-01

    A biological process has been developed to clean off-gases containing sulfur dioxide from industrial installations. The sulfur dioxide is converted into hydrogen sulfide, which can then be oxidized to elemental sulfur if not used on-site. The process produces no waste products that require disposal and has a low reagent consumption.

  12. Sulfur-induced structural motifs on copper and gold surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walen, Holly [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The interaction of sulfur with copper and gold surfaces plays a fundamental role in important phenomena that include coarsening of surface nanostructures, and self-assembly of alkanethiols. Here, we identify and analyze unique sulfur-induced structural motifs observed on the low-index surfaces of these two metals. We seek out these structures in an effort to better understand the fundamental interactions between these metals and sulfur that lends to the stability and favorability of metal-sulfur complexes vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur. The experimental observations presented here—made under identical conditions—together with extensive DFT analyses, allow comparisons and insights into factors that favor the existence of metal-sulfur complexes, vs. chemisorbed atomic sulfur, on metal terraces. We believe this data will be instrumental in better understanding the complex phenomena occurring between the surfaces of coinage metals and sulfur.

  13. Reduced graphene oxide encapsulated sulfur spheres for the lithium-sulfur battery cathode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feiyan Liu

    Full Text Available Reduced graphene oxide (rGO encapsulated sulfur spheres for the Li-S batteries were prepared via the redox reaction between sodium polysulfide. XRD spectra showed that the diffraction peak of graphite oxide (GO at 10° disappeared, while the relatively weak diffraction peak at 27° belongs to graphene emerged. FT-IR spectra showed that the vibrations of the functional groups of GO, such as 3603 cm−1, 1723 cm−1and 1619 cm−1 which contributed from OH, COC and CO respectively, disappeared when compared to the spectra of GSC. SEM observations indicated that the optimum experimental condition followed as: mass ratio of GO and S was 1:1, 10% NaOH was used to adjust the pH. EDX analysis showed that the sulfur content reached at 68.8% of the composite material. The resultant electric resistance was nearly less than GO’s resistance in three orders of magnitude under same condition. Further electrochemical performance tests showed a coulombic efficiency was 96% from the first cycle capacity was 827 mAh g−1, to 388 mAh g−1 in the 100 cycles. This study carries substantial significance to the development of Li-S battery cathode materials. Keywords: Lithium-sulfur battery, Graphene, Sulfur spheres, Cathode material

  14. Preparation of Cu2Sn3S7 Thin-Film Using a Three-Step Bake-Sulfurization-Sintering Process and Film Characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hsiang Lui

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cu2Sn3S7 (CTS can be used as the light absorbing layer for thin-film solar cells due to its good optical properties. In this research, the powder, baking, sulfur, and sintering (PBSS process was used instead of vacuum sputtering or electrochemical preparation to form CTS. During sintering, Cu and Sn powders mixed in stoichiometric ratio were coated to form the thin-film precursor. It was sulfurized in a sulfur atmosphere to form CTS. The CTS film metallurgy mechanism was investigated. After sintering at 500°C, the thin film formed the Cu2Sn3S7 phase and no impurity phase, improving its energy band gap. The interface of CTS film is continuous and the formation of intermetallic compound layer can increase the carrier concentration and mobility. Therefore, PBSS process prepared CTS can potentially be used as a solar cell absorption layer.

  15. Microbial Desulfurization of a Crude Oil Middle-Distillate Fraction: Analysis of the Extent of Sulfur Removal and the Effect of Removal on Remaining Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, M. J.; Lee, M. K.; Prince, R. C.; Garrett, K. K.; George, G. N.; Pickering, I. J.

    1999-01-01

    Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 was evaluated for its ability to desulfurize a 232 to 343°C middle-distillate (diesel range) fraction of Oregon basin (OB) crude oil. OB oil was provided as the sole source of sulfur in batch cultures, and the extent of desulfurization and the chemical fate of the residual sulfur in the oil after treatment were determined. Gas chromatography (GC), flame ionization detection, and GC sulfur chemiluminesce detection analysis were used to qualitatively evaluate the effect of Rhodococcus sp. strain ECRD-1 treatment on the hydrocarbon and sulfur content of the oil, respectively. Total sulfur was determined by combustion of samples and measurement of released sulfur dioxide by infrared absorption. Up to 30% of the total sulfur in the middle distillate cut was removed, and compounds across the entire boiling range of the oil were affected. Sulfur K-edge X-ray absorption-edge spectroscopy was used to examine the chemical state of the sulfur remaining in the treated OB oil. Approximately equal amounts of thiophenic and sulfidic sulfur compounds were removed by ECRD-1 treatment, and over 50% of the sulfur remaining after treatment was in an oxidized form. The presence of partially oxidized sulfur compounds indicates that these compounds were en route to desulfurization. Overall, more than two-thirds of the sulfur had been removed or oxidized by the microbial treatment. PMID:9872778

  16. Study on the Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on Chemical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study the influence of different sulfur fumigation time and ... after sulfur fumigation though sulfur fumigation time and dosage were at low levels – 2 h ... Conclusion: Sulfur fumigation is not a desirable method for field processing of ...

  17. Atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pueschel, R.F.

    1996-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from aircraft include oxides of nitrogen (NO x ), water vapor (H 2 O), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC) and particles (soot and sulfates). These emissions are small compared to industrial/urban surface emissions. However, because (1) atmospheric residence times of exhaust constituents are longer at altitude, particularly in the stratosphere, than they are in the boundary layer, (2) their background concentrations at altitude are lower than those near the surface, (3) the radiation balance is the more sensitive to atmospheric trace constituents the colder the temperature aloft and (4) inter-hemispheric mixing of aircraft effluents is inhibited, aircraft emissions near and above the tropopause and polewards of 40 degrees latitude can be environmentally critical. That's why atmospheric/climatic effects of aircraft emissions have again received scientific, economic and political scrutiny in the last few years, motivated by growth of subsonic traffic at about 5% per year over the past two decades and the advent of a technologically feasible operation of a supersonic high speed commercial transport (HSCT) fleet

  18. Nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur composite as lithium–sulfur batteries cathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hao, Yong [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States); Li, Xifei; Sun, Xueliang [Nanomaterials and Energy Lab, Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Western University, London, Ontario N6A 5B9 (Canada); Energy and Materials Engineering Centre, College of Physics and Materials Science, Tianjin Normal University, Tianjin 300387 (China); Wang, Chunlei, E-mail: wangc@fiu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • NGNSs are synthesized with amino-N and pyridine-N-oxide groups. • NGNSs provide a matrix with high surface area and conductivity. • N groups facilitate immobilization of polysulfides for Li–S batteries. - Abstract: Lithium–sulfur batteries have been receiving unprecedented attentions in recent years due to their exceptional high theoretical capacity and energy density, low cost and environmental friendliness. Yet their practical applications are still hindered by short cycle life, low efficiency and poor conductivity which are mainly caused by the insulating nature of sulfur and dissolution of polysulfides. Here, a nitrogen-doped graphene nanosheets/sulfur (NGNSs/S) composite was synthesized via a facile chemical reaction deposition. In this composite, NGNSs was employed as a conductive host to entrap S/polysulfides in the cathode part. The NGNSs/S composite delivered an initial discharge capacity of 856.7 mAh g{sup −1} and a reversible capacity of 319.3 mAh g{sup −1} at 0.1 C with good recoverable rate capability.

  19. Biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in coastal salinized aquifers: Evidence from sulfur isotope study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, Yu-Hsuan; Wang, Sheng-Wei; Liu, Chen-Wuing; Wang, Pei-Ling; Wang, Chung-Ho; Maji, Sanjoy Kumar

    2011-01-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater, accompanied by critical salinization, occurs in the southwestern coastal area of Taiwan. Statistical analyses and geochemical calculations indicate that a possible source of aqueous arsenic is the reductive dissolution of As-bearing iron oxyhydroxides. There are few reports of the influence of sulfate-sulfide redox cycling on arsenic mobility in brackish groundwater. We evaluated the contribution of sulfate reduction and sulfide re-oxidation on As enrichment using δ 34 S [SO 4 ] and δ 18 O [SO 4 ] sulfur isotopic analyses of groundwater. Fifty-three groundwater samples were divided into groups of high-As content and salinized (Type A), low-As and non-salinized (Type B), and high-As and non-salinized (Type C) groundwaters, based on hydro-geochemical analysis. The relatively high enrichment of 34 S [SO 4 ] and 18 O [SO 4 ] present in Type A, caused by microbial-mediated reduction of sulfate, and high 18 O enrichment factor (ε [SO 4 -H 2 O] ), suggests that sulfur disproportionation is an important process during the reductive dissolution of As-containing iron oxyhydroxides. Limited co-precipitation of ion-sulfide increased the rate of As liberation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this, Type B and Type C groundwater samples showed high δ 18 O [SO 4 ] and low δ 34 S [SO 4 ] values under mildly reducing conditions. Base on 18 O mass balance calculations, the oxide sources of sulfate are from infiltrated atmospheric O 2 , caused by additional recharge of dissolved oxygen and sulfide re-oxidation. The anthropogenic influence of extensive pumping also promotes atmospheric oxygen entry into aquifers, altering redox conditions, and increasing the rate of As release into groundwater. - Highlights: → Seawater intrusion and elevated As are the main issues of groundwater in Taiwan. → Sulfur and oxygen isotopes of sulfate were analyzed to evaluate the As mobility. → Reductive dissolution of Fe minerals and

  20. Industrial production and purification of 32P by sulfur irradiation with partially moderated neutron fluxes and target melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis, J.; Navarrete, M.

    2007-01-01

    Target purification of S α is carried out by distillation at 444±2 deg C under N atmosphere and diluting the vapors in CS 2 . The solution is filtered through fiberglass, Teflon and cellulose to obtain S α by CS 2 evaporation. Once 30 g of this target are irradiated with fast neutron fluxes from 4.5 to 7.4 x 10 12 n x cm -2 x s -1 from 6 to 12 hours, the nuclear reaction 32 S(n,p) 32 P takes place. So, the irradiated S α sample is placed in a Pyrex container situated inside a furnace as the most important piece of equipment in one aluminum and Lucite glove box. The distillation of irradiated sulfur takes place at 444±2 deg C under N atmosphere during 1-2 hours. The vapors are connected to a sulfur diluter containing 20% CS 2 aqueous solution, followed by an activated carbon filter and the two similar additional sulfur diluters. Once cooled, the distillation chamber keeps the radioactive, carrier-free 32 P stuck to the wall. Then 25-50 ml of 0.1N HCl acid was injected by suction and heated again at 110±2 deg C during 1 hour. The corresponding chemical reaction takes place and the labeled H 3 32 PO 4 solution is produced. In such a way, industrial production of 32 P labeled molecules has started in Mexico, with an initial production of 3700-5550 MBq per week. (author)

  1. Quadruple sulfur isotope constraints on the origin and cycling of volatile organic sulfur compounds in a stratified sulfidic lake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oduro, Harry; Kamyshny, Alexey; Zerkle, Aubrey L.; Li, Yue; Farquhar, James

    2013-11-01

    We have quantified the major forms of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs) distributed in the water column of stratified freshwater Fayetteville Green Lake (FGL), to evaluate the biogeochemical pathways involved in their production. The lake's anoxic deep waters contain high concentrations of sulfate (12-16 mmol L-1) and sulfide (0.12 μmol L-1 to 1.5 mmol L-1) with relatively low VOSC concentrations, ranging from 0.1 nmol L-1 to 2.8 μmol L-1. Sulfur isotope measurements of combined volatile organic sulfur compounds demonstrate that VOSC species are formed primarily from reduced sulfur (H2S/HS-) and zero-valent sulfur (ZVS), with little input from sulfate. Thedata support a role of a combination of biological and abiotic processes in formation of carbon-sulfur bonds between reactive sulfur species and methyl groups of lignin components. These processes are responsible for very fast turnover of VOSC species, maintaining their low levels in FGL. No dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP) was detected by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry (ESI-MS) in the lake water column or in planktonic extracts. These observations indicate a pathway distinct from oceanic and coastal marine environments, where dimethylsulfide (DMS) and other VOSC species are principally produced via the breakdown of DMSP by plankton species.

  2. Decoupling the Impacts of Heterotrophy and Autotrophy on Sulfuric Acid Speleogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, A. A.; Bennett, P.

    2013-12-01

    Within caves such as Movile Caves (Romania), the Frasassi Caves (Italy), and Lower Kane Cave (LKC, Wyoming, USA) the combination of abiotic autoxidation and microbiological oxidation of H2S produces SO42- and H+ that promotes limestone dissolution through sulfuric-acid speleogenesis (SAS). Microbial sulfide oxidation by sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) has been shown recently to be the dominant process leading to speleogenesis in these caves. However, due to the inherently large diversity of microbial communities within these environments, there are a variety of metabolic pathways that can impact limestone dissolution and carbon cycling to varying degrees. In order to investigate these variations we outfitted a continuous flow bioreactor with a Picarro Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometer (WS-CRDS) that continuously monitored and logged 12CO2 and 13CO2 at ppmv sensitivity and isotope ratios at consumed resulting in lighter CO2 in the headspace. 16S rRNA sequences confirm that heterotrophic sulfur-reducing bacteria dominate the community within this reactor. When both acetate and CO2 were supplied the heterotrophic behavior appeared to dominate the system which resulted in a significant drop (15‰) in δ13C and a correlative drop in limestone dissolution rate. These results suggest that chemoautotrophy increases the rate of SAS and CO2 flux within the cave environment while heterotrophy leads to slower SAS or even calcite precipitation. Furthermore, changes in carbon substrate (CO2 vs. Acetate) or sulfur substrate concentrations caused an immediate microbial response that could be observed in all measured chemical variables.

  3. Guidelines for the use of isotopes of sulfur in soil-plant studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element in plant, human and animal nutrition. This publication provides an overview of the sulfur cycle and how isotopic tracers can be used to obtain unique and precise information on the fluxes and movement of S between and within different compartments of the soil-plant system. It provides information on the theory and measurement of 35S and 34S, safety procedures using 35S, preparation of labelled S fertilizers and plant residues, estimation of the quantity of isotope required for different temporal and spatial scales, preparation digestion /extraction) and analysis of soil and plant samples and guidelines on comparative advantages with non-nuclear techniques and applications, including case studies and references. It is a timely publication in that greater attention is now being focused on S deficiencies in agriculture, which are becoming more common due to reduced atmospheric accretions from industrial sources and to the reduced use of fertilizer materials that contain sulfur as a secondary nutrient. The sub-programme in Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition is committed to the dissemination of information to Member States on the practical applications of nuclear techniques through the IAEA Training Course Series. The present publication is preceded by IAEA-TCS-14 (2001), Use of Isotope and Radiation Methods in Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition, and IAEA-TCS-16 (2002), Neutron and Gamma Probes: Their Use in Agronomy

  4. Guidelines for the use of isotopes of sulfur in soil-plant studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-08-01

    Sulfur (S) is an essential element in plant, human and animal nutrition. This publication provides an overview of the sulfur cycle and how isotopic tracers can be used to obtain unique and precise information on the fluxes and movement of S between and within different compartments of the soil-plant system. It provides information on the theory and measurement of 35S and 34S, safety procedures using 35S, preparation of labelled S fertilizers and plant residues, estimation of the quantity of isotope required for different temporal and spatial scales, preparation digestion /extraction and analysis of soil and plant samples and guidelines on comparative advantages with non-nuclear techniques and applications, including case studies and references. It is a timely publication in that greater attention is now being focused on S deficiencies in agriculture, which are becoming more common due to reduced atmospheric accretions from industrial sources and to the reduced use of fertilizer materials that contain sulfur as a secondary nutrient. The sub-programme in Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition is committed to the dissemination of information to Member States on the practical applications of nuclear techniques through the IAEA Training Course Series. The present publication is preceded by IAEA-TCS-14 (2001), Use of Isotope and Radiation Methods in Soil and Water Management and Crop Nutrition, and IAEA-TCS-16 (2002), Neutron and Gamma Probes: Their Use in Agronomy.

  5. The study of azaarene behavior over atmosphere of subtropical city(Keelung)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chih Yun

    2017-04-01

    In this study, we collected the Total Suspended Particulates (TSP) from July 2014 to February 2016 in the subtropical city (Keelung), and researched azaarene behavior over atmosphere. Polycyclic Aromatic Compounds (PAHs) are ubiquitous pollutants in the environment; they have known carcinogens and/or mutagens, mainly produce from incomplete combustion. Azaarenes are polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon derivative compounds in which a carbon atom in one of the aromatic rings is substituted by a nitrogen atom. Organism exposure to azaarenes occurs through inhalation of polluted air and by ingestion of food and/or water containing combustion products and accumulate in the body. Total azaarene concentration (16 individual compound concentration of the aggregate) is between 0.92 to 3.76 μg/m3, results showed that the concentration of azaarenes have significant seasonal variation, they have higher concentration in the cold month. In molecular weight, the highest proportion is the molecular weight equal to 143(ΣMQ) and then the molecular weight equal to 179(BAP), ΣMQ would rise from 30% 40% to 40% 50% during the cold month and warm months. Compared to ring number, 2-rings are biggest part, the smallest is 4-rings, its ratio has slight variation, but primary species is 2-rings. Emissions from transportation, local housing heating, factories burning fossil fuels and dust from Mainland south air mass are pollutant, their sources and climate conditions can affect concentration and composition of compound. There are highly significant correlation between 3-rings and 4-rings, which suggests that there are similar source strengths and transport mechanisms for these compounds. Correlation between concentration of azaarenes and ambient temperature is negative moderation, with concentration of atmospheric suspended particles is positive moderate correlation. Finally, we establish the relationship between the three parameters to predict concentration of azaarenes over atmosphere of

  6. Estimating the Lower Limit of the Impact of Amines on Nucleation in the Earth’s Atmosphere

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey B. Nadykto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Amines, organic derivatives of NH3, are important common trace atmospheric species that can enhance new particle formation in the Earth’s atmosphere under favorable conditions. While methylamine (MA, dimethylamine (DMA and trimethylamine (TMA all efficiently enhance binary nucleation, MA may represent the lower limit of the enhancing effect of amines on atmospheric nucleation. In the present paper, we report new thermochemical data concerning MA-enhanced nucleation, which were obtained using the DFT PW91PW91/6-311++G (3df, 3pd method, and investigate the enhancement in production of stable pre-nucleation clusters due to the MA. We found that the MA ternary nucleation begins to dominate over ternary nucleation of sulfuric acid, water and ammonia at [MA]/[NH3] > ~10−3. This means that under real atmospheric conditions ([MA] ~ 1 ppt, [NH3] ~ 1 ppb the lower limit of the enhancement due to methylamines is either close to or higher than the typical effect of NH3. A very strong impact of the MA is observed at low RH; however it decreases quickly as the RH grows. Low RH and low ambient temperatures were found to be particularly favorable for the enhancement in production of stable sulfuric acid-water clusters due to the MA.

  7. Sulfur turnover and emissions during storage of cattle slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Jørgen; Andersen, Astrid J; Poulsen, Henrik Vestergaard

    2012-01-01

    Slurry acidification using sulfuric acid reduces ammonia emissions but also affects sulfur (S) cycling. Emission of sulfur is a source of malodor and reduces the sulfur fertilizer value of the slurry. We investigated the effect of sulfate and methionine amendments, alone or in combination...

  8. Transformation of sulfur during pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, H.; Li, B.; Yang, J.; Zhang, B. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Taiyuan (China). Inst. of Coal Chemistry

    1998-05-01

    It is reported that the transformation of sulfur during pyrolysis (Py) under nitrogen and hydropyrolysis (HyPy) of Chinese Yanzhou high sulfur bituminous coal and Hongmiao lignite was studied in a fixed-bed reactor. The volatile sulfur-containing products were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection. The sulfur in initial coal and char (mainly aliphatic and thiophenic sulfur forms) was quantitatively analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The desulfurization yield was calculated by elemental analysis. The main volatile sulfur-containing gas was H{sub 2}S in both Py and HyPy. Both the elemental analysis and XPS results indicated that more sulfur was removed in HyPy than in Py under nitrogen. Thiophenic sulfur can be partially hydrogenated and removed in HyPy. Pyrite can be reduced to a ferrous sulfide completely even as low as 400{degree}C in HyPy while in Py the reduction reaction continues up to 650{degree}C. Mineral matter can not only fix H{sub 2}S produced in Py and HyPy to form higher sulfur content chars but also catalyses the desulfurization reactions to form lower sulfur content tars in HyPy. 24 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  9. Properties of sulfur-extended asphalt concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gladkikh Vitaliy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, increased functional reliability of asphalt concrete coatings associated with various modifying additives that improve the durability of pavements. Promising builder is a technical sulfur. Asphalt concrete, made using a complex binder consisting of petroleum bitumen and technical sulfur, were calledsSulfur-Extended Asphalt Concrete. Such asphalt concrete, due to changes in the chemical composition of particulate and bitumen, changes the intensity of the interaction at the interface have increased rates of physical and mechanical properties. There was a lack of essential knowledge concerning mechanical properties of the sulfur-bituminous concrete with such an admixture; therefore, we had carried out the necessary examination. It is revealed that a new material satisfies local regulations in terms of compressive and tensile strength, shear resistance, and internal friction.

  10. Conceptual design model of the sulfur-iodine S-I thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Daniel; Parra, Lazaro Garcia

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is the most indicated candidate for its implementation as energy carrier in a future sustainable scenario. The current hydrogen production is based on fossils fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere pollution. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles do not have this issue because they use solar or nuclear heat; their environment impact is smaller than conventional fuels. The software based on chemical process simulation (CPS) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting cycle Sulfur-Iodine for hydrogen production. In the paper is developed a model for Sulfur-Iodine process in order to analyze his sensibility and calculate the efficiency and the influence of many parameters on this value. (author)

  11. Conceptual design model of the sulfur-iodine S-I thermochemical water splitting process for hydrogen production using nuclear heat source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Rodriguez, Daniel; Parra, Lazaro Garcia, E-mail: dgr@instec.cu, E-mail: lgarcia@instec.cu [Departamento de Ingenieria Nuclear, Instituto Superior de Ciencias y Tecnologias Aplicadas, La Habana (Cuba)

    2011-07-01

    Hydrogen is the most indicated candidate for its implementation as energy carrier in a future sustainable scenario. The current hydrogen production is based on fossils fuels; they have a huge contribution to the atmosphere pollution. Thermochemical water-splitting cycles do not have this issue because they use solar or nuclear heat; their environment impact is smaller than conventional fuels. The software based on chemical process simulation (CPS) can be used to simulate the thermochemical water splitting cycle Sulfur-Iodine for hydrogen production. In the paper is developed a model for Sulfur-Iodine process in order to analyze his sensibility and calculate the efficiency and the influence of many parameters on this value. (author)

  12. A binder-free sulfur/reduced graphene oxide aerogel as high performance electrode materials for lithium sulfur batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitze, Florian; Agostini, Marco; Lundin, Filippa; Palmqvist, Anders E. C.; Matic, Aleksandar

    2016-12-01

    Societies’ increasing need for energy storage makes it necessary to explore new concepts beyond the traditional lithium ion battery. A promising candidate is the lithium-sulfur technology with the potential to increase the energy density of the battery by a factor of 3-5. However, so far the many problems with the lithium-sulfur system have not been solved satisfactory. Here we report on a new approach utilizing a self-standing reduced graphene oxide based aerogel directly as electrodes, i.e. without further processing and without the addition of binder or conducting agents. We can thereby disrupt the common paradigm of “no battery without binder” and can pave the way to a lithium-sulfur battery with a high practical energy density. The aerogels are synthesized via a one-pot method and consist of more than 2/3 sulfur, contained inside a porous few-layered reduced graphene oxide matrix. By combining the graphene-based aerogel cathode with an electrolyte and a lithium metal anode, we demonstrate a lithium-sulfur cell with high areal capacity (more than 3 mAh/cm2 after 75 cycles), excellent capacity retention over 200 cycles and good sulfur utilization. Based on this performance we estimate that the energy density of this concept-cell can significantly exceed the Department of Energy (DEO) 2020-target set for transport applications.

  13. Role of the oceans in the atmospheric cycle of carbonyl sulfide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Carbonyl sulfide (OCS) is both the dominant sulfur gas in the remote troposphere and, along with volcanoes, a major source of sulfur for the stratospheric sulfate layer. Prior to this work the ocean was regarded as a major sink for atmospheric OCS. The purpose of this study has been to assess the magnitude of the global air-sea flux of OCS. The author designed an analytical system which was centered around a Varian-3700 gas chromatograph with a flame-photometric detector. To increase the sensitivity of the detector, the hydrogen gas for the flame was doped with sulfur hexafluoride. Air samples were concentrated in a liquid nitrogen cooled freeze-out loop, then injected into the gas chromatograph. Water samples purged with sulfur-free zero-air which was analyzed similarly. He also built a permeation tube system for chemical standardization. This equipment was taken on two oceanographic cruises on the Pacific Ocean, one in the spring of 1983 and a second in the spring of 1983. Both of these cruises included measurements of air and seawater concentrations of OCS from the equator to the Aleutian Islands. The Henry's law constant of solubility for OCS was measured in the laboratory for filtered and boiled seawater at three temperatures

  14. Preparation of sulfur/multiple pore size porous carbon composite via gas-phase loading method for lithium-sulfur batteries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Long-Yan; Chen, Yan-Xiao; Guo, Xiao-Dong; Zhong, Ben-He; Zhong, Yan-Jun

    2014-01-01

    A porous carbon with multiple pore size distribution was synthesized, and regarded as a carrier to obtain the sulfur/carbon (S/C) composite via a gas-phase loading method. We proposed this novel gas-phase loading method by using a specially designed fluid-bed reactor to encapsulate and sequester gas-phase sulfur molecules into the porous carbon in current study. The nitrogen Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD) characterizations were investigated on both the porous carbon and the sulfur/carbon composite. The results show that the gas-phase loading method contributes to the combination of sulfur molecules and matrix porous carbon. Furthermore, the sulfur/multiple pore size distribution carbon composite based on the gas-phase loading method demonstrate an excellent electrochemical property. The initial specific discharge capacity is 795.0 mAh g −1 at 800 mA g −1 , with a capacity retention of 86.3% after 100 cycles

  15. Sulfur Mustard

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in of the vapors can cause chronic respiratory disease, repeated respiratory infections, or death. Extensive eye exposure can cause permanent blindness. Exposure to sulfur mustard may increase a person’s risk for lung and respiratory cancer. ...

  16. Method of distillation of sulfurous bituminous shales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hallback, A J.S.; Bergh, S V

    1918-04-22

    A method of distillation of sulfur-containing bituminous shales is characterized by passing the hot sulfur-containing and oil-containing gases and vapors formed during the distillation through burned shale containing iron oxide, so that when these gases and vapors are thereafter cooled they will be, as far as possible, free from sulfur compounds. The patent contains six more claims.

  17. Annotated bibliography of methods for determining sulfur and forms of sulfur in coal and coal-related materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chriswell, C.D.; Norton, G.A.; Akhtar, S.S.; Straszheim, W.E.; Markuszewski, R.

    1993-01-01

    Over 400 published papers, presentations at scientific meetings, and reports relating to the determination of sulfur and sulfur forms in coal-related materials have been accumulated, classified, and an evaluation made of their content.

  18. Relationship between corrosion and the biological sulfur cycle: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Little, B.J.; Ray, R.I.; Pope, R.K.

    2000-04-01

    Sulfur and sulfur compounds can produce pitting, crevice corrosion, dealloying, stress corrosion cracking, and stress-oriented hydrogen-induced cracking of susceptible metals and alloys. Even though the metabolic by-products of the biological sulfur cycle are extremely corrosive, there are no correlations between numbers and types of sulfur-related organisms and the probability or rate of corrosion, Determination of specific mechanisms for corrosion caused by microbiologically mediated oxidation and reduction of sulfur and sulfur compounds is complicated by the variety of potential metabolic-energy sources and by-products; the coexistence of reduced and oxidized sulfur species; competing reactions with inorganic and organic compounds; and the versatility and adaptability of microorganisms in biofilms. The microbial ecology of sulfur-rich environments is poorly understood because of the association of aerobes and anaerobes and the mutualism or succession of heterotrophs to autotrophs. The physical scale over which the sulfur cycle influences corrosion varies with the environment. The complete sulfur cycle of oxidation and reduction reactions can take place in macroenvironments, including sewers and polluted harbors, or within the microenvironment of biofilms. In this review, reactions of sulfur and sulfur compounds resulting in corrosion were discussed in the context of environmental processes important to corrosion.

  19. Advanced Byproduct Recovery: Direct Catalytic Reduction of Sulfur Dioxide to Elemental Sulfur.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    More than 170 wet scrubber systems applied, to 72,000 MW of U.S., coal-fired, utility boilers are in operation or under construction. In these systems, the sulfur dioxide removed from the boiler flue gas is permanently bound to a sorbent material, such as lime or limestone. The sulfated sorbent must be disposed of as a waste product or, in some cases, sold as a byproduct (e.g. gypsum). Due to the abundance and low cost of naturally occurring gypsum, and the costs associated with producing an industrial quality product, less than 7% of these scrubbers are configured to produce usable gypsum (and only 1% of all units actually sell the byproduct). The disposal of solid waste from each of these scrubbers requires a landfill area of approximately 200 to 400 acres. In the U.S., a total of 19 million tons of disposable FGD byproduct are produced, transported and disposed of in landfills annually. The use of regenerable sorbent technologies has the potential to reduce or eliminate solid waste production, transportation and disposal. In a regenerable sorbent system, the sulfur dioxide in the boiler flue gas is removed by the sorbent in an adsorber. The S0{sub 2}s subsequently released, in higher concentration, in a regenerator. All regenerable systems produce an off-gas stream from the regenerator that must be processed further in order to obtain a salable byproduct, such as elemental sulfur, sulfuric acid or liquid S0{sub 2}.

  20. A dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite for high-rate lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Yuan, Lixia; Yi, Ziqi; Liu, Yang; Xin, Ying; Zhang, Zhaoliang; Huang, Yunhui

    2014-01-01

    Lithium-sulfur batteries have great potential for some high energy applications such as in electric vehicles and smart grids due to their high capacity, natural abundance, low cost and environmental friendliness. But they suffer from rapid capacity decay and poor rate capability. The problems are mainly related to the dissolution of the intermediate polysulfides in the electrolyte, and to the poor conductivity of sulfur and the discharge products. In this work, we propose a novel dual coaxial nanocable sulfur composite fabricated with multi-walled nanotubes (MWCNT), nitrogen-doped porous carbon (NPC) and polyethylene glycol (PEG), i.e. MWCNTs@S/NPC@PEG nanocable, as a cathode material for Li-S batteries. In such a coaxial structure, the middle N-doped carbon with hierarchical porous structure provides a nanosized capsule to contain and hold the sulfur particles; the inner MWCNTs and the outer PEG layer can further ensure the fast electronic transport and prevent the dissolution of the polysulfides into the electrolyte, respectively. The as-designed MWCNT@S/NPC@PEG composite shows good cycling stability and excellent rate capability. The capacity is retained at 527 mA h g(-1) at 1 C after 100 cycles, and 791 mA h g(-1) at 0.5 C and 551 mA h g(-1) at 2 C after 50 cycles. Especially, the high-rate capability is outstanding with 400 mA h g(-1) at 5 C.

  1. Reduction Behaviors of Carbon Composite Iron Oxide Briquette Under Oxidation Atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ki-Woo; Kim, Kang-Min; Kwon, Jae-Hong; Han, Jeong-Whan [Inha University, Incheon (Korea, Republic of); Son, Sang-Han [POSCO, Pohang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-01-15

    The carbon composite iron oxide briquette (CCB) is considered a potential solution to the upcoming use of low grade iron resources in the ironmaking process. CCB is able to reduce raw material cost by enabling the use of low grade powdered iron ores and coal. Additionally, the fast reduction of iron oxides by direct contact with coal can be utilized. In this study, the reduction behaviors of CCB were investigated in the temperature range of 200-1200 ℃ under oxidizing atmosphere. Briquettes were prepared by mixing iron ore and coal in a weight ratio of 8:2. Then reduction experiments were carried out in a mixed gas atmosphere of N{sub 2}, O{sub 2}, and CO{sub 2}. Compressive strength tests and quantitative analysis were performed by taking samples at each target temperature. In addition, the reduction degree depending on the reaction time was evaluated by off-gas analysis during the reduction test. It was found that the compressive strength and the metallization degree of the reduced briquettes increased with increases in the reaction temperature and holding time. However, it tended to decrease when the re-oxidation phenomenon was caused by injected oxygen. The degree of reduction reached a maximum value in 26 minutes. Therefore, the re-oxidation phenomenon becomes dominant after 26 minutes.

  2. Effects of sulfur on lead partitioning during sludge incineration based on experiments and thermodynamic calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Jing-yong, E-mail: www053991@126.com [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Huang, Shu-jie; Sun, Shui-yu; Ning, Xun-an; He, Rui-zhe [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Li, Xiao-ming [Guangdong Testing Institute of Product Quality Supervision, Guangzhou 510330 (China); Chen, Tao [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Luo, Guang-qian [State Key Laboratory of Coal Combustion, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Xie, Wu-ming; Wang, Yu-jie; Zhuo, Zhong-xu; Fu, Jie-wen [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A thermodynamic equilibrium calculation was carried out. • Effects of three types of sulfurs on Pb distribution were investigated. • The mechanism for three types of sulfurs acting on Pb partitioning were proposed. • Lead partitioning and species in bottom ash and fly ash were identified. - Abstract: Experiments in a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations were conducted to investigate the impact of sulfur compounds on the migration of lead (Pb) during sludge incineration. Representative samples of typical sludge with and without the addition of sulfur compounds were combusted at 850 °C, and the partitioning of Pb in the solid phase (bottom ash) and gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) was quantified. The results indicate that three types of sulfur compounds (S, Na{sub 2}S and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) added to the sludge could facilitate the volatilization of Pb in the gas phase (fly ash and flue gas) into metal sulfates displacing its sulfides and some of its oxides. The effect of promoting Pb volatilization by adding Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4} and Na{sub 2}S was superior to that of the addition of S. In bottom ash, different metallic sulfides were found in the forms of lead sulfide, aluminosilicate minerals, and polymetallic-sulfides, which were minimally volatilized. The chemical equilibrium calculations indicated that sulfur stabilizes Pb in the form of PbSO{sub 4}(s) at low temperatures (<1000 K). The equilibrium calculation prediction also suggested that SiO{sub 2}, CaO, TiO{sub 2}, and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} containing materials function as condensed phase solids in the temperature range of 800–1100 K as sorbents to stabilize Pb. However, in the presence of sulfur or chlorine or the co-existence of sulfur and chlorine, these sorbents were inactive. The effect of sulfur on Pb partitioning in the sludge incineration process mainly depended on the gas phase reaction, the surface reaction, the volatilization of products, and the

  3. Chemical kinetics and modeling of planetary atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yung, Yuk L.

    1990-01-01

    A unified overview is presented for chemical kinetics and chemical modeling in planetary atmospheres. The recent major advances in the understanding of the chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere make the study of planets more interesting and relevant. A deeper understanding suggests that the important chemical cycles have a universal character that connects the different planets and ultimately link together the origin and evolution of the solar system. The completeness (or incompleteness) of the data base for chemical kinetics in planetary atmospheres will always be judged by comparison with that for the terrestrial atmosphere. In the latter case, the chemistry of H, O, N, and Cl species is well understood. S chemistry is poorly understood. In the atmospheres of Jovian planets and Titan, the C-H chemistry of simple species (containing 2 or less C atoms) is fairly well understood. The chemistry of higher hydrocarbons and the C-N, P-N chemistry is much less understood. In the atmosphere of Venus, the dominant chemistry is that of chlorine and sulfur, and very little is known about C1-S coupled chemistry. A new frontier for chemical kinetics both in the Earth and planetary atmospheres is the study of heterogeneous reactions. The formation of the ozone hole on Earth, the ubiquitous photochemical haze on Venus and in the Jovian planets and Titan all testify to the importance of heterogeneous reactions. It remains a challenge to connect the gas phase chemistry to the production of aerosols.

  4. Carbon/Sulfur Composite Cathodes for Flexible Lithium/Sulfur Batteries: Status and Prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Yan; Zhang, Yongguang; Bakenova, Zagipa; Bakenov, Zhumabay

    2015-01-01

    High specific energy and low cost flexible lithium/sulfur batteries have attracted significant attention as a promising power source to enable future flexible and wearable electronic devices. Here, we review recent progress in the development of free-standing sulfur composite cathodes, with special emphasis on electrode material selectivity and battery structural design. The mini-review is organized based on the dimensionality of different scaffold materials, namely one-dimensional carbon nanotube (CNT), two-dimensional graphene, and three-dimensional CNT/graphene composite, respectively. Finally, the opportunities and perspectives of the future research directions are discussed.

  5. Once-through hybrid sulfur process for nuclear hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Y. H.

    2008-01-01

    Increasing concern about the global climate change spurs the development of low- or zero-carbon energy system. Nuclear hydrogen production by water electrolysis would be the one of the short-term solutions, but low efficiency and high production cost (high energy consumption) is the technical hurdle to be removed. In this paper the once-through sulfur process composed of the desulfurization and the water electrolysis systems is proposed. Electrode potential for the conventional water electrolysis (∼2.0 V) can be reduced significantly by the anode depolarization using sulfur dioxide: down to 0.6 V depending on the current density This depolarized electrolysis is the electrolysis step of the hybrid sulfur process originally proposed by the Westinghouse. However; recycling of sulfur dioxide requires a high temperature heat source and thus put another technical hurdle on the way to nuclear hydrogen production: the development of high temperature nuclear reactors and corresponding sulfuric acid decomposition system. By the once-through use of sulfur dioxide rather than the closed recycle, the hurdle can be removed. For the sulfur feed, the desulfurization system is integrated into the water electrolysis system. Fossil fuels include a few percent of sulfur by weight. During the refinement or energy conversion, most of the sulfur should be separated The separated sulfur can be fed to the water electrolysis system and the final product would be hydrogen and sulfuric acid, which is number one chemical in the world by volume. Lowered electrode potential and additional byproduct, the sulfuric acid, can provide economically affordable hydrogen. In this study, the once-through hybrid sulfur process for hydrogen production was proposed and the process was optimized considering energy consumption in electrolysis and sulfuric acid concentration. Economic feasibility of the proposed process was also discussed. Based on currently available experimental data for the electrode

  6. Partial substitution of asphalt pavement with modified sulfur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.R. Souaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of sulfur in pavement laying was developed in 1980 but it was restricted in the late 19th century due to its environmental problems and its high reactivity toward oxidation processes which give sulfuric acid products that are capable of destroying the asphalt mixture. The study involved the conversion of elemental sulfur to a more stable modified one using a combination of byproducts of olefin hydrocarbons that were obtained from petroleum fractional distillates and cyclic hydrocarbon bituminous residue at 145 °C. The changes in the structural characteristics and morphology of prepared modified sulfur were studied using XRD and SEM respectively. Also DSC curves help us to elucidate the changes in sulfur phases from α-orthorhombic to β-mono clinic structure. The technique of nanoindentation helps us to compare the mechanical properties of modified and pure sulfur including modulus of elasticity and hardness. The hot mixture asphalt designs were prepared according to the Marshall Method in which the asphalt binder content was partially substituted with 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% modified sulfur. The mechanical properties were measured including Marshall Stability, flow, air voids, and Marshall Stiffness. From the overall study, the results indicated that asphalt could partially be substituted with modified sulfur with no significant deleterious effect on performance and durability of hot mixed asphalt.

  7. Sulfur cycle

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    Microbes, especially bacteria, play an important role in oxidative and reductive cycle of sulfur. The oxidative part of the cycle is mediated by photosynthetic bacteria in the presence of light energy and chemosynthetic forms in the absence of light...

  8. Halophilic and haloalkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sorokin, D.Y.; Banciu, H.; Robertson, L.A.; Kuenen, J.G.; Muntyan, M.S.; Muyzer, G.; Rosenberg, E.; DeLong, F.; Delong, E.; Lory, S.; Stackebrandt, E.; Thompson, F.

    2013-01-01

    Chemotrophic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) represent an important functional group of microorganisms responsible for the dark oxidation of reduced sulfur compounds generated by sulfidogens. Until recently, only a single genus of halophilic SOB (Halothiobacillus) has been described, and nothing was

  9. Sulfur K-edge absorption spectroscopy on selected biological systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lichtenberg, Henning

    2008-07-01

    Sulfur is an essential element in organisms. In this thesis investigations of sulfur compounds in selected biological systems by XANES (X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure) spectroscopy are reported. XANES spectroscopy at the sulfur K-edge provides an excellent tool to gain information about the local environments of sulfur atoms in intact biological samples - no extraction processes are required. Spatially resolved measurements using a Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror focusing system were carried out to investigate the infection of wheat leaves by rust fungi. The results give information about changes in the sulfur metabolism of the host induced by the parasite and about the extension of the infection into visibly uninfected plant tissue. Furthermore, XANES spectra of microbial mats from sulfidic caves were measured. These mats are dominated by microbial groups involved in cycling sulfur. Additionally, the influence of sulfate deprivation and H 2 S exposure on sulfur compounds in onion was investigated. To gain an insight into the thermal degradation of organic material the influence of roasting of sulfur compounds in coffee beans was studied. (orig.)

  10. Contribution to the study of sulfur trioxide formation and determination of the sulfuric acid dew point in boiler plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, H.

    1983-11-01

    This paper analyzes chemical reaction kinetics of the formation of sulfur trioxide and sulfuric acid in combustion air and flue gas of steam generators. Formulae for sulfuric acid equilibrium reactions according to Wahnschaffe (W. Grimm, 1972) and R. Hasse, H.W. Borgmann (1962) are presented. Theoretical acid dew point, combustion parameters with influence on the dew point temperature and formation of sulfates are further discussed. Sulfur trioxide formation at temperatures above 1,000 C as a non-equilibrium reaction is outlined as another variant of chemical reactions. A graphic evaluation is made of dew point conditions in brown coal dust fired, and heating oil fired steam generators. (11 refs.)

  11. Erosion behavior of composite Al-Cr cathodes in cathodic arc plasmas in inert and reactive atmospheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franz, Robert, E-mail: robert.franz@unileoben.ac.at; Mendez Martin, Francisca; Hawranek, Gerhard [Montanuniversität Leoben, Franz-Josef-Strasse 18, 8700 Leoben (Austria); Polcik, Peter [Plansee Composite Materials GmbH, Siebenbürgerstrasse 23, 86983 Lechbruck am See (Germany)

    2016-03-15

    Al{sub x}Cr{sub 1−x} composite cathodes with Al contents of x = 0.75, 0.5, and 0.25 were exposed to cathodic arc plasmas in Ar, N{sub 2}, and O{sub 2} atmospheres and their erosion behavior was studied. Cross-sectional analysis of the elemental distribution of the near-surface zone in the cathodes by scanning electron microscopy revealed the formation of a modified layer for all cathodes and atmospheres. Due to intermixing of Al and Cr in the heat-affected zone, intermetallic Al-Cr phases formed as evidenced by x-ray diffraction analysis. Cathode poisoning effects in the reactive N{sub 2} and O{sub 2} atmospheres were nonuniform as a result of the applied magnetic field configuration. With the exception of oxide islands on Al-rich cathodes, reactive layers were absent in the circular erosion zone, while nitrides and oxides formed in the less eroded center region of the cathodes.

  12. Impact of sulfur content regulations of shipping fuel on coastal air quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyler, André; Wittrock, Folkard; Kattner, Lisa; Mathieu-Üffing, Barbara; Weigelt, Andreas; Peters, Enno; Richter, Andreas; Schmolke, Stefan; Burrows, John P.

    2016-04-01

    Shipping traffic is a sector that faces an enormous growth rate and contributes substantially to the emissions from the transportation sector, but lacks regulations and controls. Shipping is not enclosed in the Kyoto Protocol. However, the International Maritime Organization (IMO) introduced sufhur limits for marine heavy fuels, nitrogen oxide limits for newly-built ship engines and established Emission Control Areas (ECA) in the North and Baltic Sea as well as around North America with the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78 Annex VI). Recently, on the 1st of January 2015, the allowed sulfur content of marine fuels inside Sulfur Emission Control Areas has been significantly decreased from 1.0% to 0.1%. However, measurements of reactive trace gases and the chemical composition of the marine troposphere along shipping routes are sparse and up to now there is no regular monitoring system available. The project MeSmarT (measurements of shipping emissions in the marine troposphere) is a cooperation between the University of Bremen, the German Federal Maritime and Hydrographic Agency (Bundesamt für Seeschifffahrt und Hydrographie, BSH) and the Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht. This study aims to analyse the influence of shipping emissions on the coastal air quality by evaluating ground-based remote sensing measurements using the MAX-DOAS (Multi AXis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy) technique. Measurements of the atmospheric trace gases nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) have been carried out in the marine troposphere at the MeSmarT measurement sites in Wedel and on Neuwerk and on-board several ship cruises on the North and Baltic Sea. The capability of two-channel MAX-DOAS systems to do simultaneous measurements in the UV and visible spectral range has been used in the so called "onion-peeling" approach to derive spatial distributions of ship emissions and to analyse the movement of the exhausted

  13. Identifying parameter windows for sulfur removal by direct limestone injection in the rich zone of staged heat engine combustors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colaluca, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Recent experimental evidence suggests the possibility of sulfur cleanup by direct injection at gas temperatures that do not thermodynamically favor the absorption of sulfur by the limestone. The purpose of this paper is to analytically investigate possible mechanistic explanations of this observed sulfur capture with the goal of evaluating the potential for limestone injection sulfur capture in direct coal fired gas turbine and diesel engine (heat engines) combustion applications. The method was to use current available data on the physical properties of limestone, and the rates of the pertinent reactions, and to develop mathematical models of the processes experienced by the sorbent particles. The models were then used to predict extent of capture at the high-pressure, high-temperature, short residence time conditions of interest. The goal was to first investigate capture in a single-pulse reactor (combustion bomb) and then to extrapolate these results to advanced coal-fired heat engine combustion environments. Model predictions were in good agreement with observed sulfur capture in cold wall combustion bomb studies and suggest that efficient sulfur capture (in excess of 80 percent calcium utilization) may b e possible when limestone sorbents are injected into high-temperature combustion products, even when the gas temperatures exceed the thermodynamically favored temperature window by several hundred kelvins. This behavior is possible because particle temperatures are moderated and held at levels that favor sulfur capture due to the strongly endothermic calcination reaction

  14. The Influence of Air-Sea Fluxes on Atmospheric Aerosols During the Summer Monsoon Over the Tropical Indian Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarsky, Alex; Booge, Dennis; Fiehn, Alina; Krüger, Kirstin; Atlas, Elliot; Marandino, Christa

    2018-01-01

    During the summer monsoon, the western tropical Indian Ocean is predicted to be a hot spot for dimethylsulfide emissions, the major marine sulfur source to the atmosphere, and an important aerosol precursor. Other aerosol relevant fluxes, such as isoprene and sea spray, should also be enhanced, due to the steady strong winds during the monsoon. Marine air masses dominate the area during the summer monsoon, excluding the influence of continentally derived pollutants. During the SO234-2/235 cruise in the western tropical Indian Ocean from July to August 2014, directly measured eddy covariance DMS fluxes confirm that the area is a large source of sulfur to the atmosphere (cruise average 9.1 μmol m-2 d-1). The directly measured fluxes, as well as computed isoprene and sea spray fluxes, were combined with FLEXPART backward and forward trajectories to track the emissions in space and time. The fluxes show a significant positive correlation with aerosol data from the Terra and Suomi-NPP satellites, indicating a local influence of marine emissions on atmospheric aerosol numbers.

  15. Use of sulfur concrete for radioecological problems solution in Kazakhstan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takibaev, Zh.; Belyashov, D.; Vagin, S.

    2001-01-01

    At present during intensive development of oil and gas fields in Kazakhstan a lot amount of sulfur is extracting. The problem of sulfur utilization demands its immediate solution. One of the perspective trends of sulfur utilization is use it in production of sulfur polymer concrete. It is well known, that encapsulation of low level radioactive and toxic wastes in sulfur polymer concrete and design from it radiation protection facilities have good perspectives for solution of radioecological problems. Sulfur concrete has high corrosion and radiation stability, improved mechanical and chemical properties. Unique properties of sulfur concrete allow to use it in materials ensuring protection from external irradiation

  16. Sulfur and Its Role In Modern Materials Science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Darryl A

    2016-12-12

    Although well-known and studied for centuries, sulfur continues to be at the center of an extensive array of scientific research topics. As one of the most abundant elements in the Universe, a major by-product of oil refinery processes, and as a common reaction site within biological systems, research involving sulfur is both broad in scope and incredibly important to our daily lives. Indeed, there has been renewed interest in sulfur-based reactions in just the past ten years. Sulfur research spans the spectrum of topics within the physical sciences including research on improving energy efficiency, environmentally friendly uses for oil refinery waste products, development of polymers with unique optical and mechanical properties, and materials produced for biological applications. This Review focuses on some of the latest exciting ways in which sulfur and sulfur-based reactions are being utilized to produce materials for application in energy, environmental, and other practical areas. © 2016 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Microbiological disproportionation of inorganic sulfur compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finster, Kai

    2008-01-01

    The disproportionation of inorganic sulfur intermediates at moderate temperatures (0-80 °C) is a microbiologically catalyzed chemolithotrophic process in which compounds like elemental sulfur, thiosulfate, and sulfite serve as both electron donor and acceptor, and generate hydrogen sulfide and su...

  18. Air exposure of coral is a significant source of dimethylsulfide (DMS) to the atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Frances E; Bell, Thomas G; Yang, Mingxi; Suggett, David J; Steinke, Michael

    2016-10-31

    Corals are prolific producers of dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSP). High atmospheric concentrations of the DMSP breakdown product dimethylsulfide (DMS) have been linked to coral reefs during low tides. DMS is a potentially key sulfur source to the tropical atmosphere, but DMS emission from corals during tidal exposure is not well quantified. Here we show that gas phase DMS concentrations (DMS gas ) increased by an order of magnitude when three Indo-Pacific corals were exposed to air in laboratory experiments. Upon re-submersion, an additional rapid rise in DMS gas was observed, reflecting increased production by the coral and/or dissolution of DMS-rich mucus formed by the coral during air exposure. Depletion in DMS following re-submersion was likely due to biologically-driven conversion of DMS to dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). Fast Repetition Rate fluorometry showed downregulated photosynthesis during air exposure but rapid recovery upon re-submersion, suggesting that DMS enhances coral tolerance to oxidative stress during a process that can induce photoinhibition. We estimate that DMS emission from exposed coral reefs may be comparable in magnitude to emissions from other marine DMS hotspots. Coral DMS emission likely comprises a regular and significant source of sulfur to the tropical marine atmosphere, which is currently unrecognised in global DMS emission estimates and Earth System Models.

  19. Evolution of the terrestrial atmosphere and its relationship to sediments and life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Junge, C

    1981-05-01

    The formation of the atmosphere - together with that of the oceans and sediments - was determined by three important processes: the loss of noble gases and volatiles in the solar nebula, the enrichment of these substances at the Earth's surface by exhalation from the Earth's mantle, and finally the formation of the hydrosphere, enabled by - in contrast to our neighboring planets - a suitable distance from the sun. In this way the development of the atmospheric gases N/sub 2/, H/sub 2/O and CO/sub 2/ was largely fixed. Oxygen, on the other hand, appeared late in the atmosphere. It originated from biological photosynthesis which apparently developed rather early in the Earth's history but lead at first only to oxidation of iron and sulfur. The subsequently occurring accumulation of free oxygen in the atmosphere resulted in interesting interrelations with the development of life.

  20. Acidophilic sulfur disproportionation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardisty, Dalton S.; Olyphant, Greg A.; Bell, Jonathan B.; Johnson, Adam P.; Pratt, Lisa M.

    2013-07-01

    Bacterial disproportionation of elemental sulfur (S0) is a well-studied metabolism and is not previously reported to occur at pH values less than 4.5. In this study, a sediment core from an abandoned-coal-mine-waste deposit in Southwest Indiana revealed sulfur isotope fractionations between S0 and pyrite (Δ34Ses-py) of up to -35‰, inferred to indicate intense recycling of S0 via bacterial disproportionation and sulfide oxidation. Additionally, the chemistry of seasonally collected pore-water profiles were found to vary, with pore-water pH ranging from 2.2 to 3.8 and observed seasonal redox shifts expressed as abrupt transitions from Fe(III) to Fe(II) dominated conditions, often controlled by fluctuating water table depths. S0 is a common product during the oxidation of pyrite, a process known to generate acidic waters during weathering and production of acid mine drainage. The H2S product of S0 disproportionation, fractionated by up to -8.6‰, is rapidly oxidized to S0 near redox gradients via reaction with Fe(III) allowing for the accumulation of isotopically light S0 that can then become subject to further sulfur disproportionation. A mass-balance model for S0 incorporating pyrite oxidation, S0 disproportionation, and S0 oxidation readily explains the range of observed Δ34Ses-py and emphasizes the necessity of seasonally varying pyrite weathering and metabolic rates, as indicated by the pore water chemistry. The findings of this research suggest that S0 disproportionation is potentially a common microbial process at a pH < 4.5 and can create large sulfur isotope fractionations, even in the absence of sulfate reduction.

  1. Experiments of HI decomposition in Iodine-sulfur process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Ho Joon

    2006-02-01

    We performed an experimental study on the HI concentration and decomposition in Iodine-Sulfur process for thermochemical hydrogen production, which is the most expensive and energy consuming stage. For breaking azeotropic restrain, a partial condensing type, perforated plate type, and packed bed distillation column are employed. A Liebig-type condenser was used for a partial condensing distillation test. The perforated plate distillation column has 40 mm diameter and 5 stages with 8 holes per a plate. The packed bed distillation column has 40 mm diameter and was filled with 5 mm glass beads. While no distillation methods are able to change azeotropic conditions at atmospheric pressure, HI decomposition took place in a reboiler at 480 .deg. C. The vapor-liquid equilibrium curve was obtained from the experiment with binary mixtures (HI/H 2 O) at atmospheric pressure. Almost pure H 2 O was evaporated at the lower temperature than 125 .deg. C, and above that temperature binary mixtures (HI/H 2 O) were evaporated until the leftover solution became HI acid of 0.157mol, which was an azeotropic concentration of HI. With a consideration of heat loss, enthalpy of vaporization at azeotropic condition was estimated as 1131 kJ/kg

  2. Experiments of HI decomposition in Iodine-sulfur process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ho Joon

    2006-02-15

    We performed an experimental study on the HI concentration and decomposition in Iodine-Sulfur process for thermochemical hydrogen production, which is the most expensive and energy consuming stage. For breaking azeotropic restrain, a partial condensing type, perforated plate type, and packed bed distillation column are employed. A Liebig-type condenser was used for a partial condensing distillation test. The perforated plate distillation column has 40 mm diameter and 5 stages with 8 holes per a plate. The packed bed distillation column has 40 mm diameter and was filled with 5 mm glass beads. While no distillation methods are able to change azeotropic conditions at atmospheric pressure, HI decomposition took place in a reboiler at 480 .deg. C. The vapor-liquid equilibrium curve was obtained from the experiment with binary mixtures (HI/H{sub 2}O) at atmospheric pressure. Almost pure H{sub 2}O was evaporated at the lower temperature than 125 .deg. C, and above that temperature binary mixtures (HI/H{sub 2}O) were evaporated until the leftover solution became HI acid of 0.157mol, which was an azeotropic concentration of HI. With a consideration of heat loss, enthalpy of vaporization at azeotropic condition was estimated as 1131 kJ/kg.

  3. Corrosion of Selected Materials in Boiling Sulfuric Acid for the Nuclear Power Industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong Jin; Lee, Han Hee; Kwon, Hyuk Chul; Kim, Hong Pyo; Hwang, Seong Sik

    2007-01-01

    Iodine sulfur (IS) process is one of the promising processes for a hydrogen production by using a high temperature heat generated by a very high temperature gas cooled reactor(VHTR) in the nuclear power industries. Even though the IS process is very efficient for a hydrogen production and it is not accompanied by a carbon dioxide evolution, the highly corrosive environment of the process limits its application in the industry. Corrosion tests of selected materials were performed in sulfuric acid to select appropriate materials compatible with the IS process. The materials used in this work were Fe-Cr alloys, Fe-Ni-Cr alloys, Fe-Si alloys, Ni base alloys, Ta, Ti, Zr, SiC, Fe-Si, etc. The test environments were 50 wt% sulfuric acid at 120 .deg. C and 98 wt% at 320 .deg. C. Corrosion rates were measured by using a weight change after an immersion. The surface morphologies and cross sectional areas of the corroded materials were examined by using SEM equipped with EDS. Corrosion behaviors of the materials were discussed in terms of the chemical composition of the materials, a weight loss, the corrosion morphology, the precipitates in the microstructure and the surface layer composition

  4. A case study of the relative effects of power plant nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide emission reductions on atmospheric nitrogen deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayaraghavan, Krish; Seigneur, Christian; Bronson, Rochelle; Chen, Shu-Yun; Karamchandani, Prakash; Walters, Justin T; Jansen, John J; Brandmeyer, Jo Ellen; Knipping, Eladio M

    2010-03-01

    The contrasting effects of point source nitrogen oxides (NOx) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) air emission reductions on regional atmospheric nitrogen deposition are analyzed for the case study of a coal-fired power plant in the southeastern United States. The effect of potential emission reductions at the plant on nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and its watershed on the Florida-Alabama border is simulated using the three-dimensional Eulerian Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model. A method to quantify the relative and individual effects of NOx versus SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition using air quality modeling results obtained from the simultaneous application of NOx and SO2 emission controls is presented and discussed using the results from CMAQ simulations conducted with NOx-only and SO2-only emission reductions; the method applies only to cases in which ambient inorganic nitrate is present mostly in the gas phase; that is, in the form of gaseous nitric acid (HNO3). In such instances, the individual effects of NOx and SO2 controls on nitrogen deposition can be approximated by the effects of combined NOx + SO2 controls on the deposition of NOy, (the sum of oxidized nitrogen species) and reduced nitrogen species (NHx), respectively. The benefit of controls at the plant in terms of the decrease in nitrogen deposition to Escambia Bay and watershed is less than 6% of the overall benefit due to regional Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) controls.

  5. Oxidation behavior of stainless steel 430 and 441 at 800 C in single (air/air) and dual atmosphere (air/hydrogen) exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rufner, J.; Gannon, P.; White, P.; Deibert, M.; Teintze, S. [Chemical and Biological Engineering, Montana State University, 306 Cobleigh Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3920 (United States); Smith, R.; Chen, H. [Physics, Montana State University, 306 Cobleigh Hall, Bozeman, MT 59717-3920 (United States)

    2008-02-15

    Intermediate temperature ({proportional_to}800 {sup o}C) planar solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) allow the use of ferritic stainless steel (FSS) interconnects. SOFC FSS interconnects are used to stack individual cells into series, and are simultaneously exposed to air on the cathode side and fuel on the anode side, creating a 'dual atmosphere' exposure. The thermally grown oxide (TGO) layers on the air side of FSSs 430 and 441 were analyzed as a function of simulated dual atmosphere exposures (moist air/moist hydrogen) for up to 300 h. FSS 430 showed some changes in oxidation behavior, with a slight Fe concentration increase and localized Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nodule formation observed in the dual atmosphere TGO layer relative to its single atmosphere (air/air) counterpart. Significantly accelerated and anomalous oxidation was observed with FSS 441 subjected to dual atmosphere exposures compared with air/air exposures. The TGO layer formed on the 441 exposed to air/air was comprised of Mn-rich, Cr and Fe-containing isomorphic spinel surface crystallites, with a Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (eskolaite)-based bottom layer, having a total TGO layer thickness of <2{mu} m after 300 h. In contrast, the TGO layer formed on 441 during dual atmosphere exposure was much faster-growing (>6{mu} m in 20 h) and exhibited a continuous, porous Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}-rich surface layer with a relatively thin (<2{mu} m) sublayer of similar composition to the TGO layer formed during the air/air exposure. Spontaneous TGO layer spallation was also observed for the air side of 441 exposed to dual atmosphere for >100h. The observed oxidation behavior and TGO layer evolution of 441 in both air/air and dual atmosphere are presented, with possible mechanisms and implications discussed. (author)

  6. Synthesis of l-cysteine derivatives containing stable sulfur isotopes and application of this synthesis to reactive sulfur metabolome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Katsuhiko; Jung, Minkyung; Zhang, Tianli; Tsutsuki, Hiroyasu; Sezaki, Hiroshi; Ihara, Hideshi; Wei, Fan-Yan; Tomizawa, Kazuhito; Akaike, Takaaki; Sawa, Tomohiro

    2017-05-01

    Cysteine persulfide is an L-cysteine derivative having one additional sulfur atom bound to a cysteinyl thiol group, and it serves as a reactive sulfur species that regulates redox homeostasis in cells. Here, we describe a rapid and efficient method of synthesis of L-cysteine derivatives containing isotopic sulfur atoms and application of this method to a reactive sulfur metabolome. We used bacterial cysteine syntheses to incorporate isotopic sulfur atoms into the sulfhydryl moiety of L-cysteine. We cloned three cysteine synthases-CysE, CysK, and CysM-from the Gram-negative bacterium Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium LT2, and we generated their recombinant enzymes. We synthesized 34 S-labeled L-cysteine from O-acetyl-L-serine and 34 S-labeled sodium sulfide as substrates for the CysK or CysM reactions. Isotopic labeling of L-cysteine at both sulfur ( 34 S) and nitrogen ( 15 N) atoms was also achieved by performing enzyme reactions with 15 N-labeled L-serine, acetyl-CoA, and 34 S-labeled sodium sulfide in the presence of CysE and CysK. The present enzyme systems can be applied to syntheses of a series of L-cysteine derivatives including L-cystine, L-cystine persulfide, S-sulfo-L-cysteine, L-cysteine sulfonate, and L-selenocystine. We also prepared 34 S-labeled N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) by incubating 34 S-labeled L-cysteine with acetyl coenzyme A in test tubes. Tandem mass spectrometric identification of low-molecular-weight thiols after monobromobimane derivatization revealed the endogenous occurrence of NAC in the cultured mammalian cells such as HeLa cells and J774.1 cells. Furthermore, we successfully demonstrated, by using 34 S-labeled NAC, metabolic conversion of NAC to glutathione and its persulfide, via intermediate formation of L-cysteine, in the cells. The approach using isotopic sulfur labeling combined with mass spectrometry may thus contribute to greater understanding of reactive sulfur metabolome and redox biology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc

  7. Application of in operando UV/Vis spectroscopy in lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Manu U M; Dominko, Robert

    2014-08-01

    Application of UV/Vis spectroscopy for the qualitative and quantitative determination of differences in the mechanism of lithium-sulfur battery behavior is presented. With the help of catholytes prepared from chemically synthesized stoichiometric mixtures of lithium and sulfur, calibration curves for two different types of electrolyte can be constructed. First-order derivatives of UV/Vis spectra show five typical derivative peak positions in both electrolytes. In operando measurements show a smooth change in the UV/Vis spectra in the wavelength region between λ=650 and 400 nm. Derivatives are in agreement with derivative peak positions observed with catholytes. Recalculation of normalized reflections of UV/Vis spectra obtained in operando mode enable the formation of polysulfides and their concentrations to be followed. In such a way, it is possible to distinguish differences in the mechanism of polysulfide shuttling between two electrolytes and to correlate differences in capacity fading. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Characterization of atmospheric aerosols in the Adirondack Mountains using PIXE, SEM/EDX, and Micro-Raman spectroscopies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vineyard, M.F., E-mail: vineyarm@union.edu; LaBrake, S.M.; Ali, S.F.; Nadareski, B.J.; Safiq, A.D.; Smith, J.W.; Yoskowitz, J.T.

    2015-05-01

    We are making detailed measurements of the composition of atmospheric aerosols collected in the Adirondack Mountains as a function of particle size using proton-induced X-ray emission, scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and Micro-Raman spectroscopy. These measurements provide valuable data to help identify the sources and understand the transport, transformation, and effects of airborne pollutants in upstate New York. Preliminary results indicate significant concentrations of sulfur in small particles that can travel great distances, and that this sulfur may be in the form of oxides that can contribute to acid rain.

  9. Mechanical and Electrical Properties of Sulfur-Containing Polymeric Materials Prepared via Inverse Vulcanization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergej Diez

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Recently, new methods have been developed for the utilization of elemental sulfur as a feedstock for novel polymeric materials. One promising method is the inverse vulcanization, which is used to prepare polymeric structures derived from sulfur and divinyl comonomers. However, the mechanical and electrical properties of the products are virtually unexplored. Hence, in the present study, we synthesized a 200 g scale of amorphous, hydrophobic as well as translucent, hyperbranched polymeric sulfur networks that provide a high thermal resistance (>220 °C. The polymeric material properties of these sulfur copolymers can be controlled significantly by varying the monomers as well as the feed content. The investigated comonomers are divinylbenzene (DVB and 1,3-diisopropenylbenzene (DIB. Plastomers with low elastic content and high shape retention containing 12.5%–30% DVB as well as low viscose waxy plastomers with a high flow behavior containing a high DVB content of 30%–35% were obtained. Copolymers with 15%–30% DIB act, on the one hand, as thermoplastics and, on the other hand, as vitreous thermosets with a DIB of 30%–35%. Results of the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA, the dynamic scanning calorimetry (DSC and mechanical characterization, such as stress–strain experiments and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis, are discussed with the outcome that they support the assumption of a polymeric cross-linked network structure in the form of hyper-branched polymers.

  10. Multi-model Mean Nitrogen and Sulfur Deposition from the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP): Evaluation of Historical and Projected Future Changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lamarque, Jean-Francois; Dentener, Frank; McConnell, J.R.; Ro, C-U; Shaw, Mark; Vet, Robert; Bergmann, D.; Cameron-Smith, Philip; Dalsoren, S.; Doherty, R.; Faluvegi, G.; Ghan, Steven J.; Josse, B.; Lee, Y. H.; MacKenzie, I. A.; Plummer, David; Shindell, Drew; Skeie, R. B.; Stevenson, D. S.; Strode, S.; Zeng, G.; Curran, M.; Dahl-Jensen, D.; Das, S.; Fritzsche, D.; Nolan, M.

    2013-08-20

    We present multi-model global datasets of nitrogen and sulfate deposition covering time periods from 1850 to 2100, calculated within the Atmospheric Chemistry and Climate Model Intercomparison Project (ACCMIP). The computed deposition fluxes are compared to surface wet deposition and ice-core measurements. We use a new dataset of wet deposition for 2000-2002 based on critical assessment of the quality of existing regional network data. We show that for present-day (year 2000 ACCMIP time-slice), the ACCMIP results perform similarly to previously published multi-model assessments. The analysis of changes between 1980 and 2000 indicates significant differences between model and measurements over the United States, but less so over Europe. This difference points towards misrepresentation of 1980 NH3 emissions over North America. Based on ice-core records, the 1850 deposition fluxes agree well with Greenland ice cores but the change between 1850 and 2000 seems to be overestimated in the Northern Hemisphere for both nitrogen and sulfur species. Using the Representative Concentration Pathways to define the projected climate and atmospheric chemistry related emissions and concentrations, we find large regional nitrogen deposition increases in 2100 in Latin America, Africa and parts of Asia under some of the scenarios considered. Increases in South Asia are especially large, and are seen in all scenarios, with 2100 values more than double 2000 in some scenarios and reaching >1300 mgN/m2/yr averaged over regional to continental scale regions in RCP 2.6 and 8.5, ~30-50% larger than the values in any region currently (2000). Despite known issues, the new ACCMIP deposition dataset provides novel, consistent and evaluated global gridded deposition fields for use in a wide range of climate and ecological studies.

  11. The influence of biogenic atmospheric sulfur compounds on climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgii, H -W [University of Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Dept. of Meteorology and Geophysics

    1993-09-01

    The author reviews research so far into sulphur compounds occurring in the atmosphere, namely dimethylsulfide (DMS) and carbonyl sulphide (COS). He explains how the sulphate particles formed by oxidation of DMS with OH radicals act as cloud condensation nuclei which in turn leads to enhanced formation of precipitation. Increase of cloud droplet density leads also to an increase of cloud albedo. The hypothesis of carbonyl sulphide as a precursor for stratospheric sulphate particles is discussed, along with evidence of model calculations showing that the increase of COS flux in the stratosphere leads to an increase in density of stratospheric aerosols and to slight global cooling, particularly compensating for the warming caused by the greenhouse effect. Although the influence of biogenic sulphur gases on climate is still speculative due to lack of information of the source, strength and global trend of these gases, the author advocates they deserve special attention since they may contribute to the stabilization of our climate. 16 refs., 5 figs.

  12. The link between atmospheric radicals and newly formed particles at a spruce forest site in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonn, B.; Bourtsoukidis, E.; Sun, T. S.

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed for more than a century that atmospheric new particle formation is primarily influenced by the presence of sulfuricacid. However, the activation process of sulfuric acid related clusters into detectable particles is still an unresolved topic. In this study we focus onthe PARAD...

  13. Atmospheric Chemistry of (CF3)2CF-C≡N

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Kyte, Mildrid; Thirstrup Andersen, Simone

    2017-01-01

    FTIR/smog chamber experiments and ab initio quantum calculations were performed to investigate the atmospheric chemistry of (CF3)2CFCN, a proposed replacement compound for the industrially important sulfur hexafluoride, SF6. The present study determined k(Cl + (CF3)2CFCN) = (2.33 ± 0.87) × 10–17, k......(OH + (CF3)2CFCN) = (1.45 ± 0.25) × 10–15, and k(O3 + (CF3)2CFCN) ≤ 6 × 10–24 cm3 molecule–1 s–1, respectively, in 700 Torr of N2 or air diluent at 296 ± 2 K. The main atmospheric sink for (CF3)2CFCN was determined to be reaction with OH radicals. Quantum chemistry calculations, supported by experimental...

  14. Behavior of radioactive organic iodide in an atmosphere of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saeki, Masakatsu; Nakashima, Mikio; Sagawa, Chiaki; Masaki, Nobuyuki; Hirabayashi, Takakuni; Aratono, Yasuyuki

    1990-06-01

    Formation and decomposition behavior of radioactive organic iodide have been studied in an atmosphere of High Temperature Gas-cooled Reactor (High Temperature Engineering Test Reactor, HTTR). Na 125 I was chosen for radioactive iodine source instead of CsI diffusing from coated fuel particles. Na 125 I adsorbed on graphite was heated in pure He and He containing O 2 or H 2 O atmosphere. The results obtained are as follows. It was proved that organic iodide was formed with organic radicals released from graphite even in He atmosphere. Thus, the interchange rate of inorganic iodide with organic iodide was remarkably decreased with prolonged preheat-treatment period at 1000degC. Organic iodide formed was easily decomposed by its recirculation into hot reaction tube kept at 900degC. When organic iodide was passed through powdered graphite bed, more than 70% was decomposed at 90degC. Oxygen and water vapour intermixed in He suppressed the interchange rate of inorganic iodide with organic iodide. These results suggest that organic iodide rarely exists in the pressure vessel under normal operating condition of HTTR, and, under hypothetical accident condition of HTTR, organic iodide fraction never exceeds the value used for a safety assessment of light water reactor. (author)

  15. CVD Graphene/Ni Interface Evolution in Sulfuric Electrolyte

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yivlialin, Rossella; Bussetti, Gianlorenzo; Duò, Lamberto

    2018-01-01

    Systems comprising single and multilayer graphene deposited on metals and immersed in acid environments have been investigated, with the aim of elucidating the mechanisms involved, for instance, in hydrogen production or metal protection from corrosion. In this work, a relevant system, namely...... chemical vapor deposited (CVD) multilayer graphene/Ni (MLGr/Ni), is studied when immersed in a diluted sulfuric electrolyte. The MLGr/Ni electrochemical and morphological properties are studied in situ and interpreted in light of the highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) electrode behavior, when...... immersed in the same electrolyte. Following this interpretative framework, the dominant role of the Ni substrate in hydrogen production is clarified....

  16. Selective Sulfidation of Lead Smelter Slag with Sulfur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Junwei; Liu, Wei; Wang, Dawei; Jiao, Fen; Qin, Wenqing

    2016-02-01

    The selective sulfidation of lead smelter slag with sulfur was studied. The effects of temperature, sulfur dosage, carbon, and Na salts additions were investigated based on thermodynamic calculation. The results indicated that more than 96 pct of zinc in the slag could be converted into sulfides. Increasing temperature, sulfur dosage, or Na salts dosage was conducive to the sulfidation of the zinc oxides in the slag. High temperature and excess Na salts would result in the more consumption of carbon and sulfur. Carbon addition not only promoted the selective sulfidation but reduced the sulfur dosage and eliminated the generation of SO2. Iron oxides had a buffering role on the sulfur efficient utilization. The transformation of sphalerite to wurtzite was feasible under reducing condition at high temperature, especially above 1273 K (1000 °C). The growth of ZnS particles largely depended upon the roasting temperature. They were significantly increased when the temperature was above 1273 K (1000 °C), which was attributed to the formation of a liquid phase.

  17. Graphene derived carbon confined sulfur cathodes for lithium-sulfur batteries: Electrochemical impedance studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganesan, Aswathi; Varzi, Alberto; Passerini, Stefano; Shaijumon, Manikoth M.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Graphene-derived carbon (GDC) with distinctive porosity characteristics are prepared. • Effect of micro-/mesoporosity of GDC for improved Li-S battery performance is studied. • Impedance studies reveal insights into Li-S redox reactions and capacity fading phenomena. - Abstract: Sulfur nanocomposites are prepared by using graphene derived carbon (GDC), with controlled porosity characteristics, as confining matrix and are studied as efficient cathodes for lithium-sulfur (Li-S) batteries. To understand the effect of micro-/mesoporosity in porous carbon for the effective encapsulation of sulfur and polysulfides towards improved Li-S battery performance, two different GDC samples with controlled porosity characteristics, one with predominantly micropores (GDC-1) and a surface area of 1970 m 2 g −1 and the other with a surface area of 3239 m 2 g −1 , having more or less equal contribution of micro- and mesopores (GDC-2), are used to synthesize nanocomposite sulfur electrodes following melt diffusion process. Electrochemical studies are carried out by using cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge cycling and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). EIS spectra collected at different depth of discharge (DOD) in the first cycle as well as upon cycling give valuable insights into the Li-S redox reactions and capacity fading phenomena in these electrodes. The impedance response of GDC-S electrodes suggests a detrimental effect of the mesopores, where insoluble reaction products can easily accumulate, resulting in the loss of active material leading to capacity fading of Li-S cells.

  18. Effect of sulfur dioxide on proteins of the vegetable organism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reckendorfer, P; Beran, F

    1931-01-01

    Experiments were performed to determine the effects of sulfur dioxide on red clover in a controlled environment. An increase in the concentration of sulfur dioxide caused a significant decrease in the digestible protein. However, after the sulfur dioxide was discontinued, there was a decrease in the indigestible protein. The leaves showed an increase in spotting with an increase in sulfur dioxide concentration. Chemical analysis of the soil revealed a higher sulfur content in these experiments.

  19. Sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, F.J.

    1987-01-01

    This chapter on the coordination compounds of sulfur, selenium, tellurium and polonium starts with an introduction to the bonding, valence and geometry of the elements. Complexes of the group VIB elements are discussed with particular reference to the halo and pseudohalide complexes, oxo acid complexes, oxygen and nitrogen donor complexes and sulfur and selenium donor complexes. There is a section on the biological properties of the complexes discussed. (UK)

  20. Mercury chemisorption by sulfur adsorbed in porous materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steijns, M.; Peppelenbos, A.; Mars, P.

    1976-01-01

    The sorption of mercury vapor by adsorbed sulfur in the zeolites CaA (= 5A) and NaX (=13X) and two types of active carbon has been measured at a temperature of 50°C. With increasing degree of micropore filling by sulfur the fraction of sulfur accessible to mercury atoms decreased for CaA and NaX.

  1. AICE Survey of USSR Air Pollution Literature, Volume 14: Technical Papers from the Leningrad International Symposium on the Meteorological Aspects of Atmospheric Pollution, Part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuttonson, M. Y.

    Fifteen papers were translated: On the removal of impurities from the atmosphere by clouds and precipitation; Some aspects of the adoption of automatic methods of determining atmospheric pollutants; Recording of sulfur dioxide content at the outskirts of a city. Comparison of measurement results for a valley and an elevation; Theoretical and…

  2. Room-Temperature, Ambient-Pressure Chemical Synthesis of Amine-Functionalized Hierarchical Carbon-Sulfur Composites for Lithium-Sulfur Battery Cathodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Changju; Kim, Jinmin; Kim, Ju Young; Ji, Seulgi; Lee, Sun Sook; Kang, Yongku; Choi, Youngmin; Suk, Jungdon; Jeong, Sunho

    2018-02-07

    Recently, the achievement of newly designed carbon-sulfur composite materials has attracted a tremendous amount of attention as high-performance cathode materials for lithium-sulfur batteries. To date, sulfur materials have been generally synthesized by a sublimation technique in sealed containers. This is a well-developed technique for the synthesizing of well-ordered sulfur materials, but it is limited when used to scale up synthetic procedures for practical applications. In this study, we suggest an easily scalable, room-temperature/ambient-pressure chemical pathway for the synthesis of highly functioning cathode materials using electrostatically assembled, amine-terminated carbon materials. It is demonstrated that stable cycling performance outcomes are achievable with a capacity of 730 mAhg -1 at a current density of 1 C with good cycling stability by a virtue of the characteristic chemical/physical properties (a high conductivity for efficient charge conduction and the presence of a number of amine groups that can interact with sulfur atoms during electrochemical reactions) of composite materials. The critical roles of conductive carbon moieties and amine functional groups inside composite materials are clarified with combinatorial analyses by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, cyclic voltammetry, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  3. Sulfur sources in protein supplements for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cássio José da Silva

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluates the efficiency of different sulfur sources for ruminant nutrition. The fiber digestibility and the amino acid profile were analyzed in the duodenal digesta of crossbred steers fed Brachiaria dictyoneurahay. The sources utilized were elemental sulfur (ES70S, elemental sulfur (ES98S; calcium sulfate in hydrated (HCS, CaSO4.2H2O, and anhydrous (ACS, CaSO4, forms; and ammonium sulfate (AS, (NH42SO4, keeping a nitrogen:sulfur ratio of 11:1. The iso-protein supplements had 50% of protein in the total dry matter (DM. Five Holstein × Zebu steers, which were fistulated in the rumen and abomasum, were distributed in a 5 × 5 Latin square. The different sulfur sources in the supplement did not affect any of the evaluated nutritional factors, such as intake of hay dry matter and protein supplement, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber corrected for ash and protein (NDFap, organic matter (OM, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, ether extract (EE, total digestible nutrients (TDN, NDFap and CP digestibility coefficients, ruminal pH, and ruminal ammonia concentration. The concentrations of amino acids available in the abomasal digesta did not differ significantly in the tested diets. The sulfur sources evaluated in the present study are suitable as supplement for cattle, and their employment may be important to avoid environmental contaminations.

  4. Atmosphere-entry behavior of a modular, disk-shaped, isotope heat source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorreiter, J. W.; Pitts, W. C.; Stine, H. A.; Burns, J. J.

    1973-01-01

    The authors have studied the entry and impact behavior of an isotope heat source for space nuclear power that disassembles into a number of modules which would enter the earth's atmosphere separately if a flight aborted. These modules are disk-shaped units, each with its own reentry heat shield and protective impact container. In normal operation, the disk modules are stacked inside the generator, but during a reentry abort they separate and fly as individual units of low ballistic coefficient. Flight tests at hypersonic speeds have confirmed that a stack of disks will separate and assume a flat-forward mode of flight. Free-fall tests of single disks have demonstrated a nominal impact velocity of 30 m/sec at sea level for a practical range of ballistic coefficients.

  5. Sub-aqueous sulfur volcanos at Waiotapu, New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, S.; Rickard, D. [University of Wales, Cardiff (United Kingdom). Dept. of Earth Sciences; Browne, P.; Simmons, S. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Geothermal Institute and Geology Dept.; Jull, T. [University of Arizona, Tucson (United States). AMS Facility

    1999-12-01

    Exhumed, sub-aqueous sulfur mounds occur in the Waiotapu geothermal area, New Zealand. The extinct mounds are < 2 m high and composed of small (< 0.5 cm) hollow spheres, and occasional teardrop-shaped globules. They are located within a drained valley that until recently was connected to Lake Whangioterangi. They were formed a maximum of 820 {+-} 80 years BP as a result of the rapid sub-aqueous deposition of sulfur globules, formed when fumarolic gases discharged through molten sulfur pools. Similar globules are now being formed by the discharge of fumarolic gases through a sub-aqueous molten sulfur pool in Lake Whangioterangi. (author)

  6. In-line estimation of sulfur and nitrogen contents during hydrotreating of middle distillates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Pacheco

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this work is analyzing whether it is possible to develop an empirical correlation for in-line estimation of the sulfur and nitrogen contents of the middle distillates Hydrotreating (HDT products for control purposes. Correlations are based only on readily available in-line information of specific gravity variation between feedstock and products, without considering any piece of information about the kinetic behavior of the catalyst. Experimental data were obtained in pilot plants under operating conditions that are representative of refinery operations. Results indicate that the removal of nitrogen and sulfur compounds during middle distillates HDT can be monitored in-line in real time, based on the available measurements of specific gravity. This allows for development and implementation of advanced in-line procedures for monitoring and control of the HDT process in real time.

  7. MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF THE INTERACTIONS AMONG CYANOBACTERIA, PURPLE SULFUR BACTERIA AND CHEMOTROPIC SULFUR BACTERIA IN MICROBIAL MAT COMMUNITIES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEWIT, R; VANDENENDE, FP; VANGEMERDEN, H

    A deterministic one-dimensional reaction diffusion model was constructed to simulate benthic stratification patterns and population dynamics of cyanobacteria, purple and colorless sulfur bacteria as found in marine microbial mats. The model involves the major biogeochemical processes of the sulfur

  8. Electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorob' ev, A.S.; Gavrilova, A.A.; Kolosnitsyn, V.S.; Nikitin, Yu.E.

    1985-09-01

    Solutions of sulfur dioxide in aproptic media are promising electrolyte oxidizing agents for chemical current sources with anodes of active metals. This work describes the electrochemical reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte which was investigated by the methods of voltamperometry and chronopotentiometry. The dependence of the current of the cathodic peak on the concentration of the supporting electrolyte salts, sulfur dioxide and water, was studied. On the basis of the data obtained, a hypothesis was advanced on the nature of the limiting step. The investigation showed that at low polarizing current densities, a substantial influence on the reduction of sulfur dioxide in sulfolane in a lithium halide supporting electrolyte is exerted by blockage of the electrode surface by sparingly soluble reaction products.

  9. Physiology of alkaliphilic sulfur-oxidizing bacteria from soda lakes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banciu, H.L.

    2004-01-01

    The inorganic sulfur oxidation by obligate haloalkaliphilic chemolithoautotrophs was only recently discovered and investigated. These autotrophic sulfur oxidizing bacteria (SOB), capable of oxidation of inorganic sulfur compounds at moderate to high salt concentration and at high pH, can be divided

  10. Soilaluminum, iron, and phosphorus dynamics in response to long-term experimental nitrogen and sulfur additions at the Bear Brook Watershed in Maine, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessica Sherman; Ivan J. Fernandez; Stephen A. Norton; Tsutomu Ohno; Lindsey E. Rustad

    2006-01-01

    Atmospheric deposition of nitrogen (N) and sulfur (S) containing compounds affects soil chemistry in forested ecosystems through (1) acidification and the depletion of base cations, (2) metal mobilization, particularly aluminum (Al), and iron (Fe), (3) phosphorus (P) mobilization, and (4) N accumulation. The Bear BrookWatershed in Maine (BBWM) is a long-term paired...

  11. Volcanogenic Sulfur on Earth and Io: Composition and Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargel, J.S.; Delmelle, P.; Nash, D.B.

    1999-01-01

    The causes of Io's variegated surface, especially the roles of sulfur, and the geochemical history of sulfur compounds on Io are not well understood. Suspecting that minor impurities in sulfur might be important, we have investigated the major and trace element chemistry and spectroscopic reflectance of natural sulfur from a variety of terrestrial volcanic-hydrothermal environments. Evidence suggests that Io may be substantially coated with impure sulfur. On Earth, a few tenths of a percent to a few percent of chalcophile trace elements (e.g., As and Se) comonly occur in sulfur and appear to stabilize material of yellow, brown, orange, and red hues, which may persist even at low temperatures. Percentage levels of chalcophile impurities are reasonably expected to occur on Io in vapor sublimate deposits and flows derived from such deposits. Such impurities join a host of other mechanisms that might explain Io's reds and yellows. Two-tenths to two percent opaque crystalline impurities, particularly pyrite (FeS2), commonly produces green, gray, and black volcanic sulfur on Earth and might explain areas of Io having deposits of these colors. Pyrite produces a broad absorption near 1 ??m that gradually diminishes out to 1.6 ??m - similar but not identical to the spectrum of Io seen in Galileo NIMS data. Percentage amounts of carbonaceous impurities and tens of percent SiO2 (as silicates) also strongly affect the spectral properties of Earth's sulfur. Io's broad absorption between 0.52 and 0.64 ??m remains unexplained by these data but could be due to sodium sulfides, as suggested previously by others, or to As, Se, or other impurities. These impurities and others, such as P and Cl (which could exist on Io's surface in amounts over 1% that of sulfur), greatly alter the molecular structure of molten and solid sulfur. Minor impurities could impact Io's geology, such as the morphology of sulfur lava flows and the ability of sulfur to sustain high relief. We have not found

  12. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution.

  13. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  14. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF HIGH LEVELS OF SO2 REMOVAL IN ATMOSPHERIC-PRESSURE FUIDIZED-BED COMBUSTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report describes tests conducted in an atmospheric-pressure-fluidized-bed combustor (FBC) with a cross-section of 1 x 1.6 m) to demonstrate high levels of S02 removal when burning a high-sulfur coal and feeding limestone sorbent for S02 removal. The goal was to achieve 90-plu...

  15. New uses of sulfur - update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almond, K.P.

    1995-07-01

    An update to an extensive bibliography on alternate uses of sulfur was presented. Alberta Sulphur Research Ltd., previously compiled a bibliography in volume 24 of this quarterly bulletin. This update provides an additional 44 new publications. The information regarding current research focusses on topics regarding the use of sulfur in oil and gas applications, mining and metallurgy, concretes and other structural materials, waste management, rubber and textile products, asphalts and other paving and highway applications.

  16. Biogeochemical cycling of arsenic in coastal salinized aquifers: Evidence from sulfur isotope study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kao, Yu-Hsuan [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Sheng-Wei [Agricultural Engineering Research Center, Chungli 320, Taiwan, ROC (China); Liu, Chen-Wuing, E-mail: lcw@gwater.agec.ntu.edu.tw [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Pei-Ling [Institute of Oceanography, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, Chung-Ho [Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, Taipei 115, Taiwan, ROC (China); Maji, Sanjoy Kumar [Department of Bioenvironmental Systems Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2011-10-15

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater, accompanied by critical salinization, occurs in the southwestern coastal area of Taiwan. Statistical analyses and geochemical calculations indicate that a possible source of aqueous arsenic is the reductive dissolution of As-bearing iron oxyhydroxides. There are few reports of the influence of sulfate-sulfide redox cycling on arsenic mobility in brackish groundwater. We evaluated the contribution of sulfate reduction and sulfide re-oxidation on As enrichment using {delta}{sup 34}S{sub [SO{sub 4]}} and {delta}{sup 18}O{sub [SO{sub 4]}} sulfur isotopic analyses of groundwater. Fifty-three groundwater samples were divided into groups of high-As content and salinized (Type A), low-As and non-salinized (Type B), and high-As and non-salinized (Type C) groundwaters, based on hydro-geochemical analysis. The relatively high enrichment of {sup 34}S{sub [SO{sub 4]}} and {sup 18}O{sub [SO{sub 4]}} present in Type A, caused by microbial-mediated reduction of sulfate, and high {sup 18}O enrichment factor ({epsilon}{sub [SO{sub 4-H{sub 2O]}}}), suggests that sulfur disproportionation is an important process during the reductive dissolution of As-containing iron oxyhydroxides. Limited co-precipitation of ion-sulfide increased the rate of As liberation under anaerobic conditions. In contrast to this, Type B and Type C groundwater samples showed high {delta}{sup 18}O{sub [SO{sub 4]}} and low {delta}{sup 34}S{sub [SO{sub 4]}} values under mildly reducing conditions. Base on {sup 18}O mass balance calculations, the oxide sources of sulfate are from infiltrated atmospheric O{sub 2}, caused by additional recharge of dissolved oxygen and sulfide re-oxidation. The anthropogenic influence of extensive pumping also promotes atmospheric oxygen entry into aquifers, altering redox conditions, and increasing the rate of As release into groundwater. - Highlights: {yields} Seawater intrusion and elevated As are the main issues of groundwater in Taiwan

  17. The Quantitation of Sulfur Mustard By-Products, Sulfur-Containing Herbicides, and Organophosphonates in Soil and Concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomkins, B.A., Sega, G.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)], Macnaughton, S.J. [Microbial Insights, Inc., Rockford, TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Over the past fifty years, the facilities at Rocky Mountain Arsenal have been used for the manufacturing, bottling, and shipping sulfur- containing herbicides, sulfur mustard, and Sarin. There is a need for analytical methods capable of determining these constituents quickly to determine exactly how specific waste structural materials should be handled, treated, and landfilled.These species are extracted rapidly from heated samples of soil or crushed concrete using acetonitrile at elevated pressure, then analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame photometric detector. Thiodiglycol, the major hydrolysis product of sulfur mustard, must be converted to a silylated derivative prior to quantitation. Detection limits, calculated using two statistically-unbiased protocols, ranged between 2-13 micrograms analyte/g soil or concrete.

  18. Ultra Low Sulfur Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batey, John E. [Energy Research Center, Inc., Easton, CT (United States); McDonald, Roger [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-09-30

    This Ultra Low Sulfur (ULS) Home Heating Oil Demonstration Project was funded by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and has successfully quantified the environmental and economic benefits of switching to ULS (15 PPM sulfur) heating oil. It advances a prior field study of Low Sulfur (500 ppm sulfur) heating oil funded by NYSERDA and laboratory research conducted by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Canadian researchers. The sulfur oxide and particulate matter (PM) emissions are greatly reduced as are boiler cleaning costs through extending cleaning intervals. Both the sulfur oxide and PM emission rates are directly related to the fuel oil sulfur content. The sulfur oxide and PM emission rates approach near-zero levels by switching heating equipment to ULS fuel oil, and these emissions become comparable to heating equipment fired by natural gas. This demonstration project included an in-depth review and analysis of service records for both the ULS and control groups to determine any difference in the service needs for the two groups. The detailed service records for both groups were collected and analyzed and the results were entered into two spreadsheets that enabled a quantitative side-by-side comparison of equipment service for the entire duration of the ULS test project. The service frequency for the ULS and control group were very similar and did indicate increased service frequency for the ULS group. In fact, the service frequency with the ULS group was slightly less (7.5 percent) than the control group. The only exception was that three burner fuel pump required replacement for the ULS group and none were required for the control group.

  19. Health Endpoint Attributed to Sulfur Dioxide Air Pollutants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geravandi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Sulfur dioxide is a colorless gas, released from burning of coal, high-sulfur coal,s and diesel fuel. Sulfur dioxide harms human health by reacting with the moisture in the nose, nasal cavity and throat and this is the way by which it destroys the nerves in the respiratory system. Objectives The aim of this study was to focus on identifying the effects associated with sulfur dioxide on health in Ahvaz, Iran. Materials and Methods Data collections were performed by Ahvaz meteorological organization and the department of environment. Sampling was performed for 24 hours in four stations. Methods of sampling and analysis were according to US environmental protection agency (EPA guideline. Afterwards, we processed the raw data including instruction set correction of averaging, coding and filtering by Excel software and then, the impact of meteorological parameters were converted as the input file to the AirQ model. Finally, we calculated the health effects of exposure to sulfur dioxide. Results According to the findings, the concentration of sulfur dioxide in Ahvaz had an annual average of 51 μg/m3. Sum of the numbers of hospital admissions for respiratory diseases attributed to sulfur dioxide was 25 cases in 2012. Approximately, 5% of the total hospital admissions for respiratory disease and respiratory mortality happened when sulfur dioxide concentration was more than 10 mg/m3. Conclusions According to the results of this study, this increase could be due to higher fuel consumption, usage of gasoline in vehicles, oil industry, and steel and heavy industries in Ahwaz. The risk of mortality and morbidity were detected at the current concentrations of air pollutants.

  20. Effects of elemental sulfur and sulfur-containing waste on nutrient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-09-15

    Sep 15, 2009 ... grown twice on the same soils to determine initial and residual effects of applied S. Results showed that applications of ... Key words: Calcareous soil, plant growth, plant nutrition, sulfur application. ...... Colombia. Can. J. Soil ...

  1. Tandem sulfur chemiluminescence and flame ionization detection with planar microfluidic devices for the characterization of sulfur compounds in hydrocarbon matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, J; Gras, R; Shellie, R A; Cortes, H J

    2013-07-05

    The detection of sulfur compounds in different hydrocarbon matrices, from light hydrocarbon feedstocks to medium synthetic crude oil feeds provides meaningful information for optimization of refining processes as well as demonstration of compliance with petroleum product specifications. With the incorporation of planar microfluidic devices in a novel chromatographic configuration, sulfur compounds from hydrogen sulfide to alkyl dibenzothiophenes and heavier distributions of sulfur compounds over a wide range of matrices spanning across a boiling point range of more than 650°C can be characterized, using one single analytical configuration in less than 25min. In tandem with a sulfur chemiluminescence detector for sulfur analysis is a flame ionization detector. The flame ionization detector can be used to establish the boiling point range of the sulfur compounds in various hydrocarbon fractions for elemental specific simulated distillation analysis as well as profiling the hydrocarbon matrices for process optimization. Repeatability of less than 3% RSD (n=20) over a range of 0.5-1000 parts per million (v/v) was obtained with a limit of detection of 50 parts per billion and a linear range of 0.5-1000 parts per million with a correlation co-efficient of 0.998. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Behavior of Fatigue Crack Tip Opening in Air and Corrosive Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Morihito; Toeda, Kazunori

    In the study, a formula for predicting fatigue crack tip opening displacement is deduced firstly. And then, due to comparing actual crack growth rate with the deduced formula, the crack tip configuration factor is defined to figure out the crack tip opening configuration that is useful to clarify the behavior of fatigue crack tip formation apparently. Applying the concept, the crack growth of 7/3 brass and 6/4 brass is predicted from the formula, by replacing material properties such as plastic flow resistance, Young modulus, the Poisson ratio, and fatigue toughness, and fatigue test conditions such as the stress intensity factor range, the load ratio, and cycle frequency. Furthermore, the theoretically expected results are verified with the fatigue tests which were carried out on CT specimens under different load conditions of load ratio, cycle frequency, and cyclic peak load, in different environments of air or corrosive ammonia atmosphere, for various brasses. And by comparing and discussing the calculated crack growth rate with attained experimental results, the apparent configuration factor at the crack tip is determined. And through the attained factor which changes along with crack growth, the behaviors of fatigue crack tip formation under different test conditions have been found out.

  3. Transcriptional and Proteomic Profiling of Aspergillus flavipes in Response to Sulfur Starvation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sayed, Ashraf S A; Yassin, Marwa A; Ali, Gul Shad

    2015-01-01

    Aspergillus flavipes has received considerable interest due to its potential to produce therapeutic enzymes involved in sulfur amino acid metabolism. In natural habitats, A. flavipes survives under sulfur limitations by mobilizing endogenous and exogenous sulfur to operate diverse cellular processes. Sulfur limitation affects virulence and pathogenicity, and modulates proteome of sulfur assimilating enzymes of several fungi. However, there are no previous reports aimed at exploring effects of sulfur limitation on the regulation of A. flavipes sulfur metabolism enzymes at the transcriptional, post-transcriptional and proteomic levels. In this report, we show that sulfur limitation affects morphological and physiological responses of A. flavipes. Transcription and enzymatic activities of several key sulfur metabolism genes, ATP-sulfurylase, sulfite reductase, methionine permease, cysteine synthase, cystathionine β- and γ-lyase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase were increased under sulfur starvation conditions. A 50 kDa protein band was strongly induced by sulfur starvation, and the proteomic analyses of this protein band using LC-MS/MS revealed similarity to many proteins involved in the sulfur metabolism pathway.

  4. Thermochemical Sulfate Reduction Simulation Experiments on the Formation and Distribution of Organic Sulfur Compounds in the Tuha Crude Oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yue, Changtao; Li, Shuyuan [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (China); Song, He [Research Institute of Petroleum Engineering of CNPC, Tianjin (China)

    2014-07-15

    Thermochemical sulfate reduction (TSR) was conducted in autoclave on the system of crude oil and MgSO{sub 4} at different temperatures. Gas chromatography pulsed flame photometric detector (GC-PFPD) was used to detected the composition of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products. The results of the analysis indicate that with increased temperature, the contents of organic sulfur compounds with high molecular weight and thermal stability, such as benzothiophenes and dibenzothiophenes, gradually became dominated. In order to gain greater insight into the formation and distribution of organic sulphur compounds from TSR, positive ion electrospray Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) was used in detecting the detailed elemental composition and distribution of them. The mass spectra showed that the mass range of sulfur compounds was 200-550 Da. Four sulfur class species, S{sub 1}, N{sub 1}S{sub 1}, O{sub 1}S{sub 1} and O{sub 2}S{sub 1}, were assigned in the positive-ion spectrum. Among the identified sulfur compounds, the S{sub 1} class species was dominant. The most abundant S{sub 1} class species increase associated with the DBE value and carbon number increasing which also indicates the evolution of organic sulfur compounds in TSR is from the labile series to the stable one. In pure blank pyrolysis experiments with crude oil cracking without TSR, different composition and distribution of organic sulfur compounds in oil phase products were seen from mass spectra in order to evaluate their pyrolysis behaviors without MgSO{sub 4}. FT-IR and XRD were used in analyzing the products of solid phases. Two distinct crystallographic phases MgO and MgSO{sub 4} are found to coexist in the products which demonstrated the transformation of inorganic sulfur compounds into organosulfur compounds exist in TSR.

  5. Digestion of Bangka monazite with sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riesna Prassanti

    2012-01-01

    Technology of Bangka monazite processing with alkaline method has been mastered by PPGN BATAN with the product in the form of RE (Rare Earth) which is contain U < 2 ppm and Th 12 - 16 ppm. Hence, as comparator, the research of Bangka monazite processing with acid method using sulfuric acid has been done. The aim of this research is to obtain the optimal condition of Bangka monazite's digestion using sulfuric acid so that all elements contained in the monazite that are U, Th, RE, PO 4 dissolved as much as possible. The research parameter's arc monazite particle's size, sulfuric acid consumption (weight ratio of monazite ore : sulfuric acid), digestion temperature, digestion time and consumption of wash water. The results showed that the optimal conditions of digestion are 250+ 325 mesh of monazite particle's size, 1 : 2.5 of weight ratio of monazite ore: sulfuric acid, 190°C of digestion temperature, 3 hours of digestion time and 8 times of weight monazite's feed of wash water with the recovery of digested U = 99.90 %, Th = 99.44 %, RE = 98.64 % and PO 4 = 99.88 %. (author)

  6. Aspects of airborne particles and radiation in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hidy, G.M.

    1975-01-01

    There are two major ways that thermal radiation may interact with airborne particles in the Earth's atmosphere. The first is a classical problem in which the radiation balance is influenced by scattering and absorption from haze or aerosol layers in the atmosphere. Absorption is generally believed to have a minor effect on attenuation of radiation compared with scattering. In the visible and infrared, scattering by submicron sized particles can have a substantial influence on the balance of radiation in the atmosphere. Considerable interest in this question has developed recently with the assessment of the global impact of air pollution in the lower atmosphere and of exhaust emissions from aircraft flying in the stratosphere. In the first part of this review, the physics of atmospheric aerosol scattering is summarized, and the current status of observational knowledge is examined to identify areas of greatest uncertainty. The second way the radiation is involved in aerosols lies in the production in the atmosphere. Until recently, evidence for airborne particle production by atmospheric photochemistry was quite ambiguous. However, with the advent of results from several new field experiments the role of photochemistry in the generation of aerosol precursors from traces of such gases as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and olefinic hydrocarbons is much better understood. The remaining part of this paper is devoted to the discussion of several new observations that indicate the complicated nature of photochemical aerosol formation in the polluted and non-polluted atmosphere

  7. Anode Improvement in Rechargeable Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Tao; Lu, Shengguo; Fan, Ye; Lei, Weiwei; Huang, Shaoming; Chen, Ying

    2017-12-01

    Owing to their theoretical energy density of 2600 Wh kg -1 , lithium-sulfur batteries represent a promising future energy storage device to power electric vehicles. However, the practical applications of lithium-sulfur batteries suffer from poor cycle life and low Coulombic efficiency, which is attributed, in part, to the polysulfide shuttle and Li dendrite formation. Suppressing Li dendrite growth, blocking the unfavorable reaction between soluble polysulfides and Li, and improving the safety of Li-S batteries have become very important for the development of high-performance lithium sulfur batteries. A comprehensive review of various strategies is presented for enhancing the stability of the anode of lithium sulfur batteries, including inserting an interlayer, modifying the separator and electrolytes, employing artificial protection layers, and alternative anodes to replace the Li metal anode. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Comparative Genomics of Green Sulfur Bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ussery, David; Davenport, C; Tümmler, B

    2010-01-01

    Eleven completely sequenced Chlorobi genomes were compared in oligonucleotide usage, gene contents, and synteny. The green sulfur bacteria (GSB) are equipped with a core genome that sustains their anoxygenic phototrophic lifestyle by photosynthesis, sulfur oxidation, and CO(2) fixation. Whole...... weight of 10(6), and are probably instrumental for the bacteria to generate their own intimate (micro)environment....

  9. Diesel Emission Control -- Sulfur Effects (DECSE) Program; Phase I Interim Date Report No. 3: Diesel Fuel Sulfur Effects on Particulate Matter Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DOE; ORNL; NREL; EMA; MECA

    1999-11-15

    The Diesel Emission Control-Sulfur Effects (DECSE) is a joint government/industry program to determine the impact of diesel fuel sulfur levels on emission control systems whose use could lower emissions of nitrogen oxides (NO{sub x}) and particulate matter (PM) from on-highway trucks in the 2002--2004 model years. Phase 1 of the program was developed with the following objectives in mind: (1) evaluate the effects of varying the level of sulfur content in the fuel on the emission reduction performance of four emission control technologies; and (2) measure and compare the effects of up to 250 hours of aging on selected devices for multiple levels of fuel sulfur content. This interim report covers the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on particulate matter emissions for four technologies.

  10. Methodology for Assessing the Lithium-Sulfur Battery Degradation for Practical Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knap, Vaclav; Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Purkayastha, Rajlakshmi

    2017-01-01

    -S batteries are driven by different electrochemical processes than commonly used Lithium-ion batteries, which often results in their very different behavior. Therefore, the modelling and testing have to be adjusted to reflect this unique behavior to prevent possible biases. A methodology for a reference......Lithium-Sulfur (Li-S) battery is an emerging battery technology receiving growing amount of attention due to its potential high contributions of gravimetric energy density, safety and low production cost. However, there are still some obstacles preventing their swift commercialization. Li...... performance test for the Li-S batteries is proposed in this study to point out the Li-S battery features and provide guidance to users how to deal with them and possible results into standardization....

  11. Sulfur recirculation for increased electricity production in Waste-to-Energy plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sven; Blomqvist, Evalena W; Bäfver, Linda; Jones, Frida; Davidsson, Kent; Froitzheim, Jan; Karlsson, Martin; Larsson, Erik; Liske, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    Sulfur recirculation is a new technology for reducing boiler corrosion and dioxin formation. It was demonstrated in full-scale tests at a Waste to Energy plant in Göteborg (Sweden) during nearly two months of operation. Sulfur was recirculated as sulfuric acid from the flue gas cleaning back to the boiler, thus creating a sulfur loop. The new technology was evaluated by extensive measurement campaigns during operation under normal conditions (reference case) and operation with sulfur recirculation. The chlorine content of both fly ash and boiler ash decreased and the sulfur content increased during the sulfur recirculation tests. The deposit growth and the particle concentration decreased with sulfur recirculation and the dioxin concentration (I-TEQ) of the flue gas was reduced by approximately 25%. Sulfuric acid dew point measurements showed that the sulfuric acid dosage did not lead to elevated SO3 concentrations, which may otherwise induce low temperature corrosion. In the sulfur recirculation corrosion probe exposures, the corrosion rate decreased for all tested materials (16Mo3, Sanicro 28 and Inconel 625) and material temperatures (450 °C and 525 °C) compared to the reference exposure. The corrosion rates were reduced by 60-90%. Sulfur recirculation prevented the formation of transition metal chlorides at the metal/oxide interface, formation of chromate and reduced the presence of zinc in the corrosion products. Furthermore, measured corrosion rates at 525 °C with sulfur recirculation in operation were similar or lower compared to those measured at 450 °C material temperature in reference conditions, which corresponds to normal operation at normal steam temperatures. This implies that sulfur recirculation allows for higher steam data and electricity production without increasing corrosion. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Design and cost of the sulfuric acid decomposition reactor for the sulfur based hydrogen processes - HTR2008-58009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, T. Y.; Connolly, S. M.; Lahoda, E. J.; Kriel, W.

    2008-01-01

    The key interface component between the reactor and chemical systems for the sulfuric acid based processes to make hydrogen is the sulfuric acid decomposition reactor. The materials issues for the decomposition reactor are severe since sulfuric acid must be heated, vaporized and decomposed. SiC has been identified and proven by others to be an acceptable material. However, SiC has a significant design issue when it must be interfaced with metals for connection to the remainder of the process. Westinghouse has developed a design utilizing SiC for the high temperature portions of the reactor that are in contact with the sulfuric acid and polymeric coated steel for low temperature portions. This design is expected to have a reasonable cost for an operating lifetime of 20 years. It can be readily maintained in the field, and is transportable by truck (maximum OD is 4.5 meters). This paper summarizes the detailed engineering design of the Westinghouse Decomposition Reactor and the decomposition reactor's capital cost. (authors)

  13. 40 CFR 180.444 - Sulfur dioxide; tolerances for residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... § 180.444 Sulfu